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American Magazine of Aeronautics: Jahrgang 1914/1915 als digitaler Volltext

Die Zeitschrift Aeronautics war in den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika (USA) das Gegenstück zur vergleichsweise deutschen Zeitschrift Flugsport. Im American Magazine of Aeronautics wurde allerdings nicht nur über die US-amerikanische Entwicklung der Luftfahrt berichtet, sondern auch über den internationalen Luftverkehr, über Erfindungen, über Patente sowie über Flugwettbewerbe und Veranstaltungen. Als die Zeitschrift erstmals im Jahre 1907 erschien, hieß sie "American Magazine of Aeronautics"; der Name wurde mit der Ausgabe Februar 1908 in "American Magazine of Aerial Navigation" geändert. Abermals wurde der Name mit der Ausgabe September 1909 in "American Magazine of Aerial Locomotion" geändert. In den folgenden Jahren wurde die Zeitschrift nur noch als "Aeronautics" herausgegeben. Nachstehend kann der komplette Jahrgang 1914/1915 als digitaler Volltext eingesehen werden. Alternativ kann der komplette Jahrgang 1914/1915 frei und kostenlos als PDF Dokument (25,1 MB) heruntergeladen werden. Weitere Jahrgänge des American Magazine of Aeronautics stehen in der Übersicht zur Verfügung.


XV. No. 1 JULY 15, 1914 ** *>nts

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No king ever enjoyed such sport as this. Four to five hundred miles without pause, at a speed of more than a mile a minute.

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HOW TO FIND THE WAY ACROSS THE OCEAN

By LEON GOLDMERSTEIN

Associate Editor A. S. M. E. Journal, Chairman Technical Board Aeronautical Society of America

When Lieutenant Porte FtS

across the Atlantic one of the greatest difficulties facing him will he to find his way to Europe. The ship's captain is in a far better position "in this respect. In the first place, he has a vessel which can keep its direction much better than an airship. It is less liable to drift, and the captain has far better facilities for making an estimate of the possible drift, if any, because he knows the currents, and can easily estimate the force and direction of the wind. Also, the steamer, especially the modern passenger vessel, is rather overengined than otherwise, and, barring gales, will cleave its way no matter what the wind or tide may be. Finally, the captain has elaborate instruments for making observations and carefully worked-out tables for taking care of all possible errors, whether those of observation, or due to lack of precision in the indica-^job of his instruments. What is TRilT more important, however, is that the ship's captain has all the time he wants and pretty comfortable surroundings for making his calculations, while, even if he should commit a small error (and this is not likely), he would still have enough fuel and provisions to get to his destination.

The position of the airship pilot is entirely different. He has only a limited knowledge of the drift of his ship, as there may be movements of large bodies of air which can carry his craft miles and miles out of his way without his having the slightest intimation of the deviation. He has only the scantiest instruments at his command, and the dip and zigzag of the flight, together with the jar and whirr of the engine, make correct observation a matter of the greatest difficulty. The use of nautical tables in his case depends on his knowledge of his elevation, which he does not have, as barometer readings at his level would be of value only if he knew what the barometer reads at sea level, which, of course, he does not. It is hardly necessary to add that the present day aeroplane is not the kind of place peculiarly suitable for performing mathematical calculations, and an error would be especially dangerous, owing to the fact that both fuel and provisions have to be taken only in such amounts as

would permit the fliers to reach their goal. In fact, from what is known of the flight of Porte, it appears is rather to risk going without breakfast on the last day, than carrying any American food over to the British market.

The problem rises, therefore, as to whether there is any way of finding the way across the sea without having to carry a certified navigator aboard, and running the risk to lose the way notwithstanding. What is known as the wireless radio-goniometer, a long name tor a comparatively simple thing, may prove to be the solution of this particular difficulty.

The essential part of a radiogoniometer, or wireless directionfinder, is a system of two loops of wires of equal size, suspended vertically and crossing each other at right angles. This forms what is known as the aerial circuit, and includes, in addition to the wire loops, a coil of wire and a condenser in series with each of the loops. The two coils of wire, with their condenser, are contained in a box provided with a handle which permits to vary both condensers simultaneously. Inside the crossed coils there is a third coil, called the exploring coil, mounted on a vertical spindle so that it can he set at various angles with respect to the fixed coils. The detecting system, which is contained in a separate box and connected by wires to the exploring coil, consists of a pair of telephones and a crystal of carborundum, in series with a potentiometer and battery, the latter being required to sensitize the carborundum crystal. The exploring coil picks up the signals from the aerial circuits, and passes them on to the detector, where they are rendered audible in the telephone.

The finding of the direction by means of this apparatus is based essentially on the following considerations: The relative strength of the current induced by an incoming electric oscillation depends on the angle which the direction of the aerial forms with the direction of the propagation of the wave. The currents induced in the aerial pass later on through the coils in the direction-finding instruments and

produce there two magnetic fields, the relative strength of which depends on the relative strength of the currents induced in the two aerials, and, as the fields are at right angles to one another, they produce a resultant field at right angles to the direction from which the signals are coming. The exploring coil will receive its loudest signals when its plane is at right angles to the resultant field, or in the direction from which the signals are coming.

The theory of the apparatus is somewhat complicated, but its actual manipulation is extremely simple, and in less than half a minute one can locate the direction from which tbe signals are coming. There will be no trouble to design the apparatus so that it would weigh not more than a few pounds, and be easily adjustable to a given length of wave. By combining the direction with some kind of amplifier, such as an audion detector or gas amplifier, signals coming from a considerable distance could he easily heard even above the noise of the engine.

The system to he used would be, therefore, to have a number of land stations—such as Newfoundland, Long Island, Massachusetts, Ireland, etc.—send out for one minute every half hour signals on a wave length not used for messages, say 900 meters. The pilot figures them out beforehand, and the angle he has to keep with the beeline from the station to which he refers, and all he has to do is, every time he gets the signals, to correct his direction with respect to them. He has no calculations to make, and if he misses some signal he will get one next time.

This system might be considerably elaborated by providing for vessels at sea to send both signals and their position, and equipping the aviator for each trip with a special chart giving direct readings of his position lor each angle with the signal line from a ship, no matter what the position of the latter may me. That would really mean having a modified and very much simplified Bow ditch for aerial navigation, and we do not see how this could be obviated otherwise.

THE TRANSATLANTIC FLYER "AMERICA"

After three weeks of experimenting it has been decided to apply the "sea-sled" principle to Rodman Wanamaker's flying boat, America. Trials of the machine, hastily equipped with a false hottom in the shape of an inverted V, proved this construction to be the one best bet for raising a heavy load off the surface of the water.

Thus fitted out, the America planed nicely at twenty miles an hour and with only half the available power. Therefore. Glenn II. Curtiss has started work on an entire new hull of the sea-sled type and the work will be finished by July 26. Present indications are that the Wanamaker expedition will start for Newfoundland on August

1 and that Lieutenant John Cyril Porte and George E. A. Ilallett will make their attempt to fly the Atlantic about August 10.

Following is a detailed description of the machine as it now stands: Length over all, 37 V2 feet: length of hull. 33]/2 feet; width of hull, 7 feet: depth of hull, 6 feet; length of cabin. 7 feet; height of cabin, 5 feet: width of cabin, 4 feet; spread upper wing, 74 feet; spread lower wing, 46 feet; chord, both, 7 feet; gap, between wing, 7l/i feet; weight, empty, approximately 3,000 lbs.; weight, fully loaded, approximately 5,000 lbs.; speed, 62-65 miles per hour in still air; to this add or substract speed of wind machine is traveling with or against.

Description of hull: Forward section, for 16 feet 6 inches is of the inverted Yee-bottom cont ruction, or "sea-sled" type. Aft of this a conical tail terminating in a point twenty feet from the main body of the boat. Over the main section a rigid top fitted with celluloid windows, forming an enclosed cabin or pilot house. Here are seats for the two pilots; dual controls throughout, so that either may operate the machine, or both simultaneously.

Construction of hull: Over a framework of closely spaced ash ribs a planking of spruce, covered with heavy canvas set in marine glue. The bottom of the forward section i^ double skinned and inter-

\9iB

THE "AMERICA" WITH TEN ON BOARD

laid with Sea Island cotton set in marine glue. Fastenings are several thousand brass screws and copper rivets.

Description of wings: Wings are composed of seven sections; a center panel of ten by seven feet above the power plant; four main sections (two upper and two lower) approximately 18 x / ft., and two overhangs on the upper surface measuring 15 x 7 ft. each. The shape of the wings is known as the X. P. L. wing section, which after exhaustive experiments made at the National Physical Laboratory, Teddington. Eng., was considered most efficient for this work. The wing frames are built up solidly of ash and spruce, covered with a heavy rihhed silk which is coated with a special water and fireproof dope.

Controls: The aerial rudder for turning from left to right has a depth of five feet and a length of four and one-half feet. The elevators are located on either side of the main rudder, and their dimensions are six feet by four and one-hal f feet. The ailerons or trailing flaps at the extremities of the wings are at present single acting, and measure fourteen feet in length by a maximum of four feet in depth. These are used to correct the lateral balance of the machine. If one side tips up the flap on that side is pulled above the normal level of the plane, with the combined result of slowing the speed of that side and at the same time depressing it through the pressure on the upper side of the flap. These controls are operated as follows: The rudder, by turning the wheel to left or right; the elevators, by pulling the wheel forward or back; the ailerons, by foot pedals.

Power Plant: Consists of two Model O-X Curtiss aviation motors rated at 90-100 h p. each, "Bosch equipped, of course." These are mounted midway between the planes, each four and a half feet fr<>m the center. Two propellers, one to each motor, are bolted direct to the motor shafts. They turn at a maximum speed of 1,250 to 1,300 revolutions per minute, but the machine is expected to fly under perfect control with the motor^ turning at less than 1,000 revolution'- per minute. The machine is expected to fly with either one or both should occasion demand.

Fuel supply: Seven gasoline

tanks have a total capacity of 312 gallons of gasoline; two tanks mounted on the engine beds have a capacity of 30 gallons of lubricating oil. Six main tanks are located just aft of the pilot house; these drain simultaneously, and the fuel is pumped to a gravity feed tank midway between the motors by a rotary gear pump. A special gauge on the side of this gravity tank indicates the action of the pump. In case the gear pump fails the aviators have an auxiliary hand pump. In 30 hours the two engines consume a little over 280 gallons of gas and 9l/i gallons of oil, after a 30-hour run of each engine.

I nstruments: The compass is nearly as large as ship's, especially constructed by the late Lord Kelvin's firm in England, which makes the instruments for the British admiralty. Tachometers show engine speed, aneroids show altitude, special Walt ham watches for time, the standard Pitot tube speed indicator as used on all Curtiss boats, inclinometers, fuel and oil gauges complete the equipment, except for the Sperry drift indilator which shows on a dial directly the drift from a straight course, having been tested out on a U. S. Navy airboat flown by Lieut. Towers. In the cabin are Lieut. Porte's navigation instruments, such as sextant, chart table, etc.

BURGESS INAUGURATES AERIAL JOURNALISM

Under the auspices of the Boston Journal, the Burgess-Dunne seaplane took the first pictures of a news nature ever taken in this country from an aeroplane so far as may be recalled.

Less than 12 hours after the great Salem fire, piloted hy Clifford Webster, the Burgess-Dunne seaplane carried a press photographer over the blazing ruins at an extremely low altitude.

The photographer rose from his =eat, walked forward and snapped the pictures, leaning out over the front of the fuselage to the side of Webster. The flight lasted an hour and five minutes, in which a large numbe>* of pictures were taken. The photographer was on his feet most of the time excepting when changing plates and had no difficulty in

taking views both from the rear and front of the machine.

It will be noticed that the ruins were still smoking and very hot. Webster found the air very turbulent, of whirlwind variety, with a strong ascending column in the center. The successful operation of the machine through these air conditions with a man walking from forward to back of the fuselage, a distance of eight feet, gives one an idea of the stability of the Burgess-Dunne seaplane and widens the area of possible usefulness of aircraft. ._

The air-craft industry of France is mostly confined to the manufacture of aeroplanes, 1,350 of a total motive force of 80,000 horsepower. 7 dirigibles of an aggregate of 1,760 horsepower and 64,500 tons capacity having been manufactured in

1912. The financial condition of the aeronautical industry was fair during 1913. Most of the orders received were for air craft for military and naval purposes for the French and foreign Governments, principally Great Britain and Russia. There were 272 aeroplanes, valued at $5,707,782, exported in

1913, and 13 hvdroaeroplanes, valued at $297,606.'

Your magazine has come to hand, and read with interest, for it is interesting to one who is not especially interested in the work beyond a general understanding of the world's progress, and to those who are directly interested, owners or contemplated owners, it certainly must be indispensable.

Will say that for the uninitiated your journal inspires confidence to believe more readily and to know-how to believe more that is seer, in the "evcrv-day press." W. \V. McC, San Pedro, N. M

This story is being told of George Beany, the w. k. aviator. It seems, according to the relator, Mrs. Realty wanted to buy George a present, but couldn't seem to find anything just suited, so she explained her quandary to another of Mineola's products, saying: ''George doesn't smoke or drink, or go out nights or play cards and I don't know what to buy"

The friend: "Is he fond of fancy work ?"

WIRELESS AS CONNECTED WITH AERONAUTICS

WILLIAM DUBILIER, R.S.A., A.A.LE.E.

[Abstract from Mr. Dubilier's paper read before the Aeronautical Society of America, June 11 th, where he prefaced his remarks with a note on the history of wireless and its adaptation to aeronautics. At the conclusion of his consideration of various systems he showed lantern slides of various experimental sets which have been employed here and abroad in military and civilian trials, and then showed in operation two complete sets as have been adapted and ordered by the English and the American Governments for aeroplane and balloon work.]

For wireless installations on board aeroplanes and balloons the most important consideration has been to install apparatus which will conform to the limitations of the weight and space, and still provide a suitable and efficient means for transmitting messages to the desired points with the small aerial wire system and power limited to the size of air craft. The demand for light and easy removable stations for Army and Navy work is constantly increasing. During the time of war, wireless communication, due to the way in which the stations can be quickly removed, is of great service in connection with aeronautics, for it enables the leaders of the battle to send commands rapidly and to receive the position of the enemy. Tbe operator is usually carried as a passenger and transmits signals at the same time as he makes observations. The apparatus used in all respects is interchangeable with the portable field sets, as this enables any operator of the field signal corps to work the aeroplane outfit when necessary. It is so arranged that the machines are of double key type so that messages can be sent by either the aviator or the passenger.

The current is obtained from a generator friction driven from the fly wheel of the engine or from storage cells. Experiments have also been made with wind motors, where the generator was driven by an aero fan.

The equipment at present used hy the U. S. Government has an output of about 125 watts, weighs about 75 pounds, and it has been claimed that a radius of 30 miles has been obtained. The new equipment designed by the author has a total weight of less than 20 pounds with double the capacity and less than l/2 the space, so that immediately one will be able to see the advantages from every standpoint.

Recently several European governments have been making experiments with apparatus for army work and have arranged conditions .contrary to those which have been planned and adopted by all wireless workers up to date; in fact, have gone hack to old days when the ordinary Hertz oscillator, untuned and of open circuit, \\'as used. Now several officials have suggested the use of apparatus wherein the transmitter is not tuned, and they advance several points in its favor.

First, in transmitting a sharply tuned signal it takes a longer time for the receptor to get into proper adjustment for receiving these signals.

Secondly, the transmitter can be more quickly adjusted, as it is not necessary to carefully adjust the oscillating circuits in order to bring them in resonance.

Thirdly, messages can be sent in secret code, hence it does not matter whether the enemy receives them or not. Then if the signals sent out are not tuned sharply, the greatest hindrance can be done to

used, which is let down from the, aeroplane or balloon or an auxiliary balloon used for elevating wires. This plays a very important part in determining the range of a wireless station, for, roughly, it varies directly with the height of an aerial and cube root of the power.

Many different kinds of apparatus have been designed for aeroplane work. Portable stations supplied

the enemy by interfering with their stations, for it will be difficult for them to tune out these highly damped waves. It has therefore been desirable to send out waves with a flat resonance curve.

In order to get the largest amount of power out of the transmitting station and to arrange the circuits in resonance, the following figures will be of great interest to give one an idea of the size of the aerial and capacities that is necessary in installations The speed of electric waves is about one billion feet per second. If oscillations or waves of a frequency of one million is desired, it will be necessary to have a wave length of about 1,000 feet, for to send messages with wave lengths of very much less, is not practical, due to many difficulties, such as absorption, heat losses, induction losses, etc., therefore, if signals are to be sent longer wave lengths should he obtained by using larger inductances. The size of these are also limited, for the machine again becomes inefficient when too much inductance and too little aerial capacity is used, hence, a compromise must be made, where-hy sufficient aerial length and surface is used, coupled with a fairly large inductance. To get an idea of the length of the aerial, roughly, the wave length transmitted is 5 times the length of the aerial, plus 10 times the length of wire in the coil or helix. To make up the length, usually a trailing wire is

by the Marconi Company, type L, especially adopted for aeroplanes, weigh 50 pounds, have a capacity of 50 watts and a radius of about 10 miles. Type Ll weighs 200 pounds, has a capacity of about 500 watts and a -sending radius of 50 miles, while type M. for dirigible balloon work, has a capacity of 1,500 watts, a sending radius of 200 miles and weighs 500 pounds. One of these installations was tried on board the Flanders, a British machine, and was made up in 2 separate contained units with the idea of distributing the weight. It fitted underneath the pilot and passenger seats, and the only part exposed was the manipulating key with several controller switches, which were placed in the most convenient position for the operator to carry out the simultaneous work of observing and reporting.

Another aeroplane installation used is one constructed by the Lorenz Company, using a quenched discharge gap for the production of nearly continuous oscillations. The outside dimensions of the box are 15 x 15 x 21 inches. The weight of the transmitter without the generator is 100 pounds, the dynamo used is 500 volts with a capacity of 500 watts. This apparatus consists of a discharge gap made of 2 large electrodes, each electrode shaped like a half ball and cooled by a hydro-carbon vapor. Although this

apparatus is not efficient, it has already been installed by several foreign governments.

The Telefunken Company have also made an apparatus for aeroplane work which has a capacity of about 300 watts and occupies 3 cubic feet. A small dynamo is used, belt or friction driven from the main engine, and this apparatus has a sending radius of from 15 to 20 miles.

For balloon installations, where large aerials can be constructed, much greater distances could be obtained. It has been reported that the Zeppelin airships are transmitting signals 200 miles with a 5 kw. installation, and all the Zeppelin airships that are making public trips have on board regular telegraph forms, the same as used on ship stations, and passengers can send tbeir messages at published rates to any part of the world.

Tbe greatest danger attached to balloons from wireless installations is the fact that the gas may become ignited hy sparks produced by induced currents that occur in metal parts. This danger cannot be eliminated with the larger installations where high voltage transformers are used, but there are certain systems, such as the Poulsen, Lorenz and that devised by the author, where the voltage of the transmitting oscillations are greatly reduced, thus eliminating to some extent the danger of induced currents. All metal parts, such as the valves, etc., must be thoroughly covered with a thick coating of some form of insulating varnish. For balloon work the wireless telephone is the most practical method for transmitting communications, for it eliminates the telegraph operator, the danger of explosions by brush discharges and makes possible quick transmission of signals. Fig. I shows Dubilier wireless tel phone installations for balloons and aeroplanes.

The aerial on board the Zeppelin balloon is almost 600 feet long, and a 500 cycle generator is driven by an independent engine at a speed of 3,000 revolutions per minute. The wave length varies from 400 to 1,200 meters.

The illustration (Fig. II, Dubilier wireless telegraph apparatus for aeroplanes) herewith shows a portable Duhilicr apparatus weighing 20 pounds with a maximum rapacity of y2 kw. The system devised by Mr. Dubilier eliminates the use of the difficult high frequency alternator. A small direct current dynamo is used, and then by a simple device alternating currents are produced having any desired frequency from 200 to 800 cycles, thus sending signals with musical notes. The apparatus is much easier and cheaper to construct than any yet provided for portable work, is much smaller and much more compact for a given power, therefore more portable and readily adapted for transport purposes. It is especially designed for aeroplane installations, where power, space and weight are important considerations.

From tests made both by the British and United States Government the apparatus has proven itself 100 per cent, more efficient than any of the machines vet tried. Tn a report issued by Captain LeFroy, at Aldersbot, a 60 watt, 110 volt set was used, and signals were sent from a standard portable aerial and

received on a service peck aerial 30 feet high consisting of 2 wires in parallel, 4 feet apart. A ground net with a peg driven 12 inches into the earth was used as a balanced capacity. The station was erected on grass, and 104 volts direct current were used for t ran sir itt;'ng. The current in the aerial v as \y2 amperes. The condenser capacity was .0015 inf., a loose coupler be-

Roughly, the principal used is] the producing of pulsating currents] of a musical frequency from direct currents by means of a tuned circuit. This circuit contains a condenser charging device, condenser and an inductance. The condenser charging device is set in operation mechanically or electro mechanically, and hy means of springs is given a certain definite working

ing used. The maximum voltage across the spark gap was 7,000, which was of fie quenched type adjusted to give the best readings in the aerial. Tests v\ ere rrade with' three ranges, in connection with a 300 watt Marconi installation > > alongside for co nparisons. From Aldersbot a motor car with a portahle installation went out to three distances, first to Hook Common, 9 miles; second to Overton. 2 i m.us; '.bird, to Whitchurch, 25 miles. In the first two places signals were received clear and good, being 8 times audibility at the latter test. At the third test the receiving end was connected to the wrong side of the aerial, which was directive and which was in a valley so that no signals were obtained. Captain LeFroy reported that this apparatus, which weighed but 15 pounds less the generator had a safe range of 20 miles over land. The same apparatus operated on a 50 volt accumulator weighing 35 pounds had a radius of approximately the same distances.

Fig. 1.

frequency, say 500 cycles. Then the inductance and capacity is so varied that its natural frequency is also 500 or a harmonic of the frequency of the oscillator. Under this condition the primary current is transformed into pulsating currents having a sine wave with over 90 per cent, efficiency. A suitable analogy can be show n by having constant water flowing out of a faucet, which will represent direct current, and then having another faucet with water running out into a cup or into a vessel which operates a lever by means of its weight when it becomes filled. This lever closes a valve, and at the same time drops and turns over the vessel, which releases the water. The release of the water operates the lever in the opposite direction, due to its lighter weight, and the vessel is then brought up again in position. The valve is simultaneously opened and the water again allowed to flow into the vessel until it is filled, and then the operation is repeated. Hence, we have quantities

of water being thrown out instead of a continuous flow; so does this system operate on direct current.

The inductance of the primary oscillating circuit acts as the primary of a high tension transformer, the secondary discharge of which produces oscillations in the well-known manner. A quenched spark is used of a special design and is shown on the cover of the apparatus. This gap consists of long copper bars with smoothly planed ends placed about .003 of an inch apart, the discharge taking place between the planed ends. Any number can he connected by a small short circuiting rod. The inductance is mounted in back of the instrument and is connected to a hot wire ammeter, which indicates the amount of power that is being radiated.

In experiments carried out by

.Mr. E. J. Simon and L. J. Lesh, an aerofan was used to drive the generator. This was equipped on board a Curtiss military hydro-aeroplane and was of about M kw. capacity, with a 500 cycle generator driven by a fan 20 inches in diameter, and aerial wire 600 feet long was wound on a reel and weighted by a 3-pound piece of lead; this was used as the trailer and taken in as it became necessary. The installation weighed 105 pounds, and it was found necessary to attain a fairly good speed to generate enough power to operate the apparatus efficiently.

In connection with aeroplane military work, a motor car installation is being used by the English Government. The capacity is 1V2 kw., and the generator is run by the motor engine. The aerial can be erected in a short time and when

folded up fits on the side of the car. It has been found that these motor car stations are only suitable for well-constructed roads. The range of the apparatus was from 50 to 70 miles.

The question of receiving signals on board aeroplanes and balloons has been a very difficult one, for the noises and vibrations of the engines and air currents make it unpractical to receive signals with a telephone receiver. A receiving apparatus was designed for the Austrian Government in which a visible signal was used. The operator is able to observe dots and dashes by means of a small light. It is advisable to use Prof. Flemming's oscillation valve or Dr. De Forest's audium, for they act as amplifiers to the received signals and are not affected by vibrations.

THE LAW OF SIMILITUDE

As to the means of stepping from the model to the aeroplane; it is known that the force on a surface due to the wind may be written as KSV2, S being the area of the surface, V the speed of the wind, and K a quantity which for two similar surfaces similarly placed is approximately a constant, independent that is of the velocity and the area. If K were really constant the step from model to aeroplane would be simple; to obtain the force on the aeroplane at a given speed it would merely be necessary to measure that on the model at some speed and increase it in the ratio of surface of the aeroplane to that of the model and of the squares of the respective velocities. But experiment proves that the force is not strictly proportional to the square of the speed. If the lift and drift coefficients of an aerofoil, i.e., the ratio of the lift or of the drift to the square of the speed, be determined, they are found to vary with the speed. This is shown in Figs. 2 and 3, which represent the result of such a series of experiments, and in which, as the speed changes from 10 to 50 feet per second, there is a growth in the coefficients.

At an early point in the work of the Advisory Committee for Aero-

nanties, Lord Kayleigh called attention to the fact that if K be not

rent, L some linear dimension of the surface, and v the kinematic

of m m*a,/

constant for similar surfaces it VL

must depend on the quantity -■

v

or in mathematical terms be ex-VL

pressible as a function of -

v

where V is the velocity of the cur-

viscosity of the air. If then we plot the value of K as found for an aerofoil in a given position, but for different values of the velocity against VL, the spots ought to be on a smooth curve and the form of this curve will determine K as a function of VL. This has been done in Fig. 4, where the values of the lift to the drift ratio are plotted against VL (or rather, for convenience, against log VL) for the series of experiments show.11 in the preceding curves.

Again, experiments have been made at the Aerodynamical Laboratory of the University of Paris on full-sized aerofoils. These have been repeated at the Laboratory on models 1-16 of the scale, and when the results are reduced by the above law. the agreement in the lift experiments is practically complete; the measurement of the drift is more difficult and the agreement is less good, but the results for the ratio are given in Fig. 4, and it appears that at the highest value of VL yet reached in the model experiments the value of the ratio lift-drift is somewhat less than for the full scale experiments, but that values for the coefficient found from the 50 ft. per sec. observations in the channel do not differ greatly from those belonging to the

actual machine. This point can be tures. The beams are very deep and craft a speed of sixty miles an hour checked more fully when the large strong, and the ribs are built up in on the water and seventy miles an

channel is complete, and the necessity of checking it afforded a strong reason for the building of that channel.

the most improved monoplane fash- hour in the air. ion, closely spaced and with light, false ribs between every one to preserve the special shape of the

wing and prevent any sagging of AT JOHNSON'S SCHOOL

From ' The Development of the the cloth. The wings are covered ~ . , , . ,

Aeroplane," being the second Wil- with linen treated with four coats Consistent good weather has been

bur Wright Memorial Lecture, de- of aero varnish and two coats of productive of much flying at the

Hvered by Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, spar varnish; trJus giving the planes "'A'* Johnson School of Aviation

F. R. S., F. Ae. S., before the a smooth finish that is proof against at Conesus Lake. The machines

weather and seas. The struts which nave been in the air from daylight

fit into special steel sockets are of dark practically every day for

streamline form wrapped with linen the Past three weeks, and great num-

and treated with the same varnish ?ers of People have watched the

Aeronautical Society of Great

Britain, at the Royal United Serv^

ice Institution, Whitehall, on Wed nesday, May 20. 1914.

flying daily. Not a few people have taken advantage of the opportunity and taken a ride over the lake.

Walter Johnson brought up the new school boat and put it through its paces successfully, and it has been doing good work every day. This boat is equipped with one of the new Kirkham 70 h.p. motors, and seems to have considerable excess power.

The school has purchased two new motors and will have dual control boats for both inside of a couple of weeks, and from all appearances will have use for all of them, as the summer class is pretty well filled.

KANTNER WINS NEW YORK RACE

Harold Kantner, with a Schmidt monoplane, won in 43 m 26 1/3 s. 5o over Albert S. Heinrich in a Heinrich monoplane (46 m. 46 4/5 s.)

C*T i-\ a »rn T^-r tt»xt ^ 4 'm the JU,V "* aif r3Ce from Gov-

bLUANE FLYING BOAT as used on the wings, making them ernor's Island, in New York Uar-

Loa L.V

The first trials of the new Sloane ^V8?^1 ^ eletme.nts a,J*J renf

flying-boat were concluded at Stein! der.'.nS them ..all"ost '"capable of way Eeach, L. I June.

he latter nfrt nf rotting or ^'"ing; an important Club at Seag larter part ot consideration in flying-boat work, starting line

bor, to Spuyten Duyvil, back down the river to the Atlantic Yacht ate and return to the between Governor's

This flvine-boat usinc the Den AI] t!ie guy wires are doubled, as Island and Mistress Liberty. The ...-ii-..?in-?..?oaS u^!ng Dep- are also all the control wires. The Hcinrich machine was flown ♦«

The flying boats of Yerplanck (Curtiss), Niles (lîoland) and

are also all'the control wires. The ^ ---—— -----.""V"i

monoplane style of rib, which was tail planes, elevator and rudder are Governors island trom its shea ai expected to compare favorably both 0f arnpie size and pleasing lines, Hempstead in quick rising and weight carrying wnjch blend in with the rest of the with the best military monoplanes machine, and tractor biplanes. At the first trials, with three people aboard and the throttle only half open, the new craft literally "tore off the water," with Gilpatrick as pilot.

This "sporting type" helmigs to the class of long hulled water-planes. The central hull furnishes the flotation, as well as acting as a fuselage to carry tail planes and rudder.

Just as the main hull is constructed of solid mahogany, so are the two wing tip pontoons. These wing tip pontoons only weigh about six pounds apiece. The motor is placed a little over midway between the planes, affording a space for two passengers in the rear, just in hack of the two front seats, from which the craft is controlled. The hull is of single step tvpe. Y bot-torn, in front, and constructed in The new Sloane three-in-one con- llurnside (Thomas) were to nave the usual manner with spruce and trol has heen designed especially gone in the race, but the heavy ash frames. The front dash is low for flying-boat use and to better water off Coney Island prevented and gracefully shaped, affording an meet naval requirements. The con- getting off. llumside had flown efficient wind and spray shield. The trol is operated entirely through down from Dobbs Ferry. On July hull itself measures 23 feet long the steering wheel. leaving the op- 0 Mr. and Mrs. Uurnside flew back and 36 inches wide, with a beam erator's feet and shoulders free. It to

motor quit.

„ Dobbs Ferry in a sensational ,. is in duplicate and operates in the flight which ended in a forced at the top. The height of the hull following manner—pushing the descent on the water when the 100 is 40 in., which keeps the wings wheel backward and forward steers Daimler well above the water. The top the machine up and down, rocking

wing has a span of 42 ft. and a the whole wheel from side to side, ---

chord of 6 in., and the lower wing works the ailerons, while turning has a span of 30 ft. and a chord of the wheel to the right and left op-

The ailerons are fitted erates the rudder. I consider AERONAUTICS a re-

markably interesting paper. The power plant consisted of a One especially nice feature is the 110 II. P. Boland motor turning illustrations, which I find very in-The interior construction of the an 8 ft. diameter by 6 ft. 6 in. pitch structive. planes is one of the special fea- (Tiara vay propeller, which gave the H. D. S.

of 36 in. at the bottom and 44

5 ft. 6

to the outer extremities of each wing, and each measure 9 ft. x 30

U. S. ARMY AEROPLANE COMPETITION

Brigadier-General George P. Scriven has just issued a circular covering conditions of a contest to be held at the Signal Corps Aviation School at San Diego around October 14, this year.

The contest is open to all builders, and the matter of royalty to The Wright Co. will probably be taken care of by the Government, whose privilege in the matter of patent rights has been fully explained in AERONAUTICS.

If five or more machines qualify, the Signal Corps will purchase the three which make in order the greatest number of points; the first for $12,000, the second for $10,000, and the third for $8,000. If but three or four qualify, the first two will be purchased at $12,000 and $10,000. respect ively. If but two qualify, the one making the highest number of points will be purchased at $12,000.

All inquiries concerning this competition should be addressed to the Chief Signal Officer of the Army, Washington, D. C.

The type desired, a military reconnaissance aeroplane, must possess following characteristics: Biplane, erclosed fusilage, two seater, dual con'rol, maximum speed of i ot less than seventy and a minimum spee * of not more than 40 miles per hour when carrying fuel and oil for four hours' flight at seventy r iles ner hour and a useful load if 450 pounds, and i ndtr these conditions of load, to ch'mb 4,000 feet in ten minutes. First class material and workmanship. Head resistance to be kept down. Power plant is to be located in front of the occupants and suited to the requirements of the aeroplane. The motor must be capable of throttling to 20 per cent, of full speed and running without overheating over the land. The motor must he supplied with a positive means of stopping by a short circuiting device, hy release of compression or by other suitable means. It is desirable that the radiators, if used, should conform to stream-line requirements and act as an effective shelter for the motor. The motor should be provided with positively driven pump for pumping gasoline from the reservoir to the service tank and will also be provided with attachments for hooking on a flexible tachometer, the shaft for this purpose to come off the motor at right angles to the propeller shaft, preferably downward. The propeller or propellers should be of sufficient form and construction and suited for the particular machine and possessing a minimum efficiency of 70 per cent., that is to say, to have a slip of not over 30 per cent. The controls should be of such a type as approved by the Chief Signal Officer of the Army. During the trials the builder may use such controls as are familiar to his demonstrator, but the Signal Corps design shall be substituted at tbe builder's expense prior to delivery and acceptance of any machine acquired as a result of this competition. Wear and friction in the control leads must be eliminated in every possible way, and the leads shall he as direct as possible. Leads to pitching and steering shall be in duplicate. The landing gear to be

as strong and simple as possible to be efficient in absorbing shocks in landing and running at full speed over rough and plowed ground. The maximum gliding angle shall under no condition exceed 1 on 6, that is to say, one foot of drop for each six feet of advance. All parts shall be efficiently protected from the action of the weather by the use of suitable paint or furnished with covers. The power plant shall be so arranged as to be readily removed and replaced bodily without disturbing the alignment or the fastenings of the planes or landing gear. The machine complete shall be capable of being assembled from transportation cases in not to exceed two hours by four mechanicians and of being disassembled and packed in transportation cases in not more than one hour and a half by the same number of mechanicians. No part shall be of such length that when packed in its case the case shall exceed twenty feet in length.

The manufacturers who desire to enter this competition shall inform the Chief Signal Officer of the Army on or before September 1, 1914, of this fact in writing and shall supply the President of the Board of Officers who will conduct the tests, the following data on or before October 1, 1914

blades and blade area of the propeller or propellers used and if geared down, the ratio of gearing.

The machines entering the competition must he delivered on the ground of the Signal Corps Aviation School at San Diego, Cal., on or before October 20, 1914, at the manufacturer's expense. Each manufacturer sball supply a demonstrator. The Signal Corps will provide suitable housing for the machines and tbe fuel and oil for the tests. The competitive test will be conducted by a Board of Officers to be appointed by the Chief Signal Officer of the Army under detailed rules to be promulgated later.

To enter the competition, each machine must qualify by demonstrating by actual trial that it complies with the above requirements by making a non-stop flight of four hours in the air and by making the climb fully loaded, of 4,000 feet in ten minutes. The machines will be graded by points, taking into consideration the following:

Construction and workmanship, speed, maximum and minimum, climbing and manoeuvering ability, ease of handling, gliding angle, inherent stability, suitability of landing gear, distance of run on the ground when starting and landing, iield of vision, etc.

(a) Weight, fully loaded w hen fully equipped.

(b) Normal angle of incidence in horizontal flight.

(c) Gliding angles.

(d) Safe ranges of angle of incidence.

(e) Fuel oil and water consumption with certificate of performance (subsequently described).

(f) Blueprint or diagram to scale of aeroplane and motor complete.

(g) Stress diagram of planes showing tensile and bending stress on beams, struts and brace wires, clearly indicating the material used and the factor of safety in each member, together with moment diagrams.

(Ii) Itemized weight of parts. The certificate of performance shall consist in a certified test of the motor as follows:

1. One hour run at the rated B. II. P. on the test stand.

2. Half hour run at the maximum power on the stand.

3. A run of half hour at 20 per cent, of the rated revolutions per minute. During the test, the following data sball be reported:

Revolutions per minute at the rated D. II. P.

Revolutions per minute at maximum B 11. P.

Minimum revolutions per minute. The oil per P.. II. P. and the fuel per B. II. P.

A statement of the condition of the motor at the end of a half hour run.

In addition to the above data, tbe following information shall be noted on the certified test sheet to accompany each motor:

The maker's number, horsepower, stroke, diameter of shaft, piston displacement, type of magneto, type of tachometer used in test, weight complete, starting arrangement, carbureter (trade name), cooling system, lubricating system, type of spark plugs used, date and place of test, the type, pitch, number of

NAVAL APPROPRIATION PASSED

The President signed the Naval Appropriation Bill on June 30. It is with the greatest regret, however, that we record the fact that the 51,297,700 extra to the appropriation recommended by the Board of Aeronautics (see AERONAUTICS for Jan. 31) was not added by the Naval Affairs Committee so that aeronautics in the Navy will have to drag along about as before, depending on what the various bureaus can spare, which will proh-ablv be in the neighborhood of $200,000.

Thus plans for an enlarged air navy will have to wait another year and give other countries still more of an opportunity to equip themselves in advance of the United States.

Tonv Jannus carried a 340-pound man recently -n one of the many passenger flights he has been mak-ng from SandusEy, where he has established himself. His brother Roeer Jannus, has been flying the r.enoUt "Lark of Duluth, owned by William Jones of that city.

BALLOONISTS FOUND

Roy Donaldson and Wilbur Henderson, who were almost given up for lost in the balloon race from Portland. Ore.. June 11, returned to Portland June 17. They were six days finding a habitation and were emaciated and on the point of collapse when they staggered to a hut and asked for food.

FOR SALE—Our last year's monoplanes and biplanes; very cheap for cash, or trade for anything of value. F. M., 152.2 Norwood ave., Toledo, Ohio.

PANAMA PICTURERS PINCHED

San Francisco, July 10.—Warrants for the arrest of Charles K. Field, editor of "The Sunset Magazine." a photographer, and Kiley E. Scott of bomb-dropping fame, were issued today at the request of John W. Preston, United States District Attorney. They are charged with disclosing military secrets, and the penalty is ten years' imprisonment or a ? 10,000 fine for such disclosure if made abroad, and one year or a $1,000 fine if made in the United States.

In April "Sunset" published an article entitled "Can the Panama Canal Be Destroyed from the Air?" Reproductions of photographs taken from an aeroplane accompanied the text.

"By the act of March 3, 1911, Congress strengthened the regulation, so that it is now a violation of a plain statute for a civilian to take or publish photographs of any fortification, whether complete or in process of construction. The War Department regards the enforcement of this law as absolutely essential, and my instructions are emphatic in this case."

The fact that the pictures complained of in this case were taken from an aeroplane raises for the first time an interesting point of jurisdiction by the national authorities over the upper air and involves a decision as to whether a person sailing over a reservation can be held to have unlawfully entered it. This point is quite as important in a military view as the right to take photographs, because a military expert might by merely passing over a fortress observe enough to enable him afterward to draw an accurate sketch of the defences.

In this instance, however, department officials pointed out, the publication specifically directed attention to alleged shortcomings of the defence system of the Panama Canal.

BUSINESS TROUBLES

Fargo, N. D., June 18.—It is said Bob St. Henry, the birdman, borrowed some money once when here on an aviation exhibition. A local man, who indorsed his note, has been looking for some way to get even. Recently St. Henry's aeroplane, being shipped from Montana to Winnipeg, was taken off the train here to be transferred. The local man heard it was on the depot platform and had it attached. There is some legal red tape to unwind, but he hopes to secure the machine and will start some of his friends in the aviation husiness.

Pittsburgh, Pa., July 7.—Following a meeting of several hundred stockholders of the "Italian Aeroplane Co.," Louis Maida and M. Loretio Manasterio were arrested, charged with failure to show the books of the company. The company is said to have been organized ahout nine months ago and scores of Italians bought $1 shares in the concern. Peter Angelo was made head of the company shortly after its organization. Announcements were made that one of the company's machines would make flights at Brnnots Island July 4, but the flight did not take place. Maida and Manasterio were committed to the county jail charged with embezzlement.

Richmond, Va., July 3.—Simeon Scott paid to see a ball game at Broad Street Park on April 19, 1913. Before the game was over an aeroplane swooped down from the heavens and swiped him on the back. He therefore brought suit against the Park, demanding damages in the sum of $300, claiming the aeroplane was an advertised attraction.

The defendant demurred to the plaintiff's evidence, declaring that it had no connection whatever with the aeroplane, and that it was not one of its duties to guard against dangers it could not foresee such as the falling into the park of an aeroplane which it had not employed or hired.

The jury thought that Mr. Scott should recover $150 for his injuries, and hrought in a verdict for that amount July 2. Judge Crump however, sustained the defendant's demurrer, and setting aside the jury's finding, entered a verdict for the defendant.

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS

Imports for May, 1 and parts valued at $5,776, the aeroplane remaining in warehouse on May 31.

Exports, 1 and parts, $4,558. No exports of foreign made machines. Goods in warehouse May 31, $5,276.

NEW CORPORATIONS

Sanaudres Wireless & Aero Yisi-hle Message Co., develop system of telegraphic optic acoustics on aeroplanes, semaphoric signal system, $100,000; C. B. Mason, A. Matters, A. Sanaudres, 124 Thompson street.

Lansing, Mich., June 22.— International Flying Boat Transit Co., Detroit. $10,000; stockholders are D. B. Hartley, John H. Fietzell, I*. M. Coates, etc.

The Southern Ballooning Company, Cherryville, N. C.; capital, $3,000 authorized and $1,000 subscribed by J. F. Weathers and others for giving public exhibitions of balloon ascensions and aerial flights.

Deselektro Company, Augusta, Me., to manufacture and deal in battleships, aerial craft and all other vessels of war; capital, $1,000,000. President. R. S. Buzzell; treasurer, L. J. Coleman, Augusta.

ARMY BUYS MARTIN TRACTOR

The Signal Corps has accepted a new Glenn Martin tractor (Curtiss 100 h.p. motor), recently completed, upon its meeting the usual requirements of the Army in tests at San Diego. Observers report this latest acquisition one of the finest machines ever seen outside of France. A second machine may also be bought from Martin. On July 7 Martin flew 71 miles over the ocean from Balboa Bay to North Island. Martin carried Lieut. T. S. Bo wen as a passenger and made the trip in 175 minutes, with his Army machine.

Flying done at the S. C. Aviation School, San Diego, Cal.. week ending July 4, 1914: 28 flights; 4 h. 28 m. in air; 14 passengers carried.

Summary, January 1, 1914, to July 4, 1914: 1.151 flights; 314 h. 5Vi m. in air; 559 passengers carried.

ALTITUDE RECORD IS NOW 24,600 FEET

On July 14 Heinrich Oelrich established a new world altitude record, 24,600 feet (7,500 metres), from Leipsic. Otto Linnekogel made the previous record on July 9, 6,600 metres, at Johannisthal.

DIRIGIBLE UP 35 HOURS

The dirigible duration record bas been increased to 35 h. 20 m. by the French airship "Adjutant Wincenot," which carried its pilot and eight passengers this period on June 29, beating the German record held by the Zeppelin L-3, 34 h. 59 m.

'PLANE RECORD NOW 24 HOURS

Reinhold Boehm (Albatross biplane, 75 h.p. 6 cyl. Mercedes motor), using the same machine employed by Landmann in making his non-stop flight of 21 h. 49 m. on June 28, flew on July 11 from Johannisthal non-stop for 24 h. 12 m. Speaking of his wonderful flight, he said:

"My provisions consisted of a vacuum flask filled with cold milk, several packets of chocolate, and a few cakes. Despite the heavy load, I ascended easily, and in order to save petrol flew slowly around the aerodome. First 1 did not go higher than 30 feet. As night wore on I went higher and for an hour or two I left Johannisthal and flew across Berlin and Potsdam.

"I returned to the aerodome at midnight and then took up my weary circuit. How many rounds I made I suppose nobody will ever know. I must have covered roundly 1,350 miles, as my speed averaged 37^ miles an hour. The engine was working perfectly at the finish. If I had had enough petrol I could easily have flown another twelve hours. I finished fresher than I started, although I was on duty for twelve hours without rest before 1 went up. The Atlantic flight is sure to be accomplished soon. It is only a case of a powerful enough machine. No machine, in my opinion, will be practicable which docs not contain three engines, none of which should be worked to its limit. There should also be two separate pilots. I found myself growing stronger after the first ten or twelve hours. I f you can survive the strain of that period the rest is easy."

Toward the end of the flight a fierce thunder storm burst over the aerodome, but Bohm refused to give up. During the daylight hours Bohm put in a good deal of time reading, but usually had to contend with brisk winds, especially at the higher altitudes. When the storm came on he had been alert. His hands were sore and hardened from the steering.

The machine was equipped with Bosch plugs, magneto and starter.

A new world's record of 18 hours 10 minutes was made on June 24 bv Gustav Basser at Johannisthal, aviator alone. He used a Rumpler military biplane, Bosch equipped. The American record is—oh, what's the use?

Published semi-monthly in the best interests of Aeronautics

BV

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GOODYEAR WANTS NATIONAL BALLOON RACE

The balloon "Goodyear," piloted by R. A. D. Preston, M. 1). Tremelin. aide, won the National Balloon Race from St. Louis July 11. They landed near Constance, Ky., July 12, less than 24 hours after the start. Ralph II. Upson, who used the same balloon in winning the international race last fall, and Preston will comprise two of the American team this year, Capt. II. Eugene Honeywell being the third, in the international race from Kansas City in October.

The contestants were as follows, in the order in which they finished. Official distances have not yet been measured:

1.—"Goodyear," R. A. D. Preston and M. I>. Tremelin to Constance, Ky., 320 miles.

5.—"America III." Dr. Jerome Kingsbury and C. P. Wynne, president Pennsylvania Aero Club, landed near Princeton, Ind , 143 miles.

8.—"San Francisco 1915." E. S. Cole and R. E. Emcyir landed near McLeansboro, 111., 98 miles.

2.—"Pennsylvania II," Arthur T. Athcrholt and P. T. Sharpies landed near Rockville, 111., 214 miles.

6.—"Miss Sofia," William Ass mann, no aide, landed near Flat Rock, 111., 132 miles.

4.—"Cncle Sam." Paul J. McCul-lough and Win. II. Trefts, landed near Lewis. Ind., 154 miles.

3.—"Aero Club of St. Louis," John Perry and Albert Yon Hoffmann, landed near Terre Haute, Ind., 161 miles.

7.—-"Kansas City II," John Watts and W. F. Comstock, landed near Enfield, 111.. 105 miles.

Berry was asked for damages to a cornfield when he and a young woman made their landing on a farm near East St Louis on June 18 and the balloon was held by the farmer for payment.

The "America III" is the gift of Rodman Wanamaker to the Aero Club of America. It made its trial ascent the first week of July with Dr. Kingsbury, Clarence P. Wynne, A. R. Ilawley, Henry Woodhouse and C. Jerome Edwards. The balloon was made by Leo Stevens.

it was decided, as was anticipated, not to award the Grand Prix of $77,200. Two prizes were awarded, one of $10,000 to the Sperry Gvroscopic Co. and the other of $6,000 to the Paul Schmitt biplane with variable angle of incidence. It was also decided to award seven consolation prizes as follows: $3,000 to Caudron Brothers for their two-seated biplane, $2,000 to the Doutre stabilizer, $2,000 to the Société Avi-Auto for the Lelarge carburettor, $1,600 for the Etcve stabilizer, $1.000 to the Moreau monoplane, S400 to the Uohert parachute, and $200 to MM. Philippe and Perron for their "démarreur."

SPERRY WINS STABILITY PRIZE

The Sperry gyroscopic stabilizer, fitted to a Curtiss Hying boat, won $10,000 of the safety prizes offered hy LTnion pour la Securite en Aeroplanes, as noted in AERONAUTICS for April, 1913. A note on the Sperry apparatus was published in the issue of Feb. 14, 1914. The V. S. Navy stands ready to purchase one or more of these instruments upon satisfactory demonstration. Various trials were made heretofore, but changes suggested and no perfected instrument has yet been installed for sale-demonstration to the Navy.

The French contest was concluded near Marseilles on July 2. In the demonstration Lawrence Sperry operated his Curtiss machine at all angles, leaving the stahilizer to correct the forced instability. In one instance Sperry rose tn the machine and held bis

hands above his head while a mechanic crawled out to the wing-ends. M. Kene Ouinton, president of the National Aerial League, flew with Sperry, who took his hands from the wheel and allowed the machine to take its own gliding angle under the operation of the automatic stahilizer, and even a glide was made with the stahilizer with one wing up at an angle of 45 degrees during the glide. As explained in the previous article in AERONAUTICS, the machine may be banked and the instrument set to maintain this bank, despite any disturbances, or the stabilizer may be set to keep the machine level.

As finally evolved, the machine consists of a double set of gyroscopes, operated by the aeroplane engine. One pair of these gyroscopes is attached to the lateral ailerons. The other pair controls the tail rudder and keeps the machine on even keel.

The illustration shows the installation of the perfected apparatus, looking from the bow of the flying boat, and the plate anemometer.

Altogether the committee since the opening of the competition on January 1, witnessed trials by 21 competitors out of the 56 who had entered. After a very long sitting

BROCK AGAIN WINS

London, July 12.— Walter L. Brock, our American friend, flying an SO h. p. Morane-Saunier, won the race from London to Paris and back, covering the 502 miles in 7 h 3 m. 6 s., an average speed of 71V2 m.p.h.

The only other competitor to finish was Garros, whose net flying time was S h. 28 m. 47s.. with the same type of machine. This is the third big race Brock has won abroad, the other two being the aerial Derby, as previously mentioned, and the Loudon-Manchester race.

GARAIX SECURES

ANOTHER RECORD

At Chartres on July 2 Garaix on the Schmitt hi plane, in which August Belmont is interested, fitted with 160 h.p. Rhone motor, succeeded in regaining for France the duration record for pilot and three passengers which had been held by Gsell with 3 h. 11 m. 30 s. The new record made by Garaix is 4 h. 3 in. 29 s.

AERONAUTICS, îulv 15, 1914

Pasc 13

VICTOR J.

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WATSON E. COLEMAN, Patent Lawyer 624 F Str.et, N. W. Washington, D. C.

PATFNT^ Frederick W.Barker

* * lull 1 tj Attorney and Expert in

PATENTS. TRADE MARKS AND DESIGNS

Cities prepared and prosecuted I 28 Years in Practice will, the greatest care and Direct Connection, io all thoroughness. Io ensure broail Foreign Conntries

seoiie nnd validitu \ 113 Broadwaj, New York

The

SLOANE SCHOOL OF AVIATION

Superior Training MONOPLANES and FLYING-BOATS

-Address--

Sloane Aeroplane Co.

1733 Broadway New York

The

Wright

Company

(The

Wright

Patents)

THE NEW WRIGHT AEROPLANES

For sport, exhibition or military use, over land or water now embody the improvements that have been suggested by the experiments quietly conducted during the past ten years

The Wright Company

DAYTON. OHIO New York Office: II Pine St.

"AIRHOLE"

The velocity of the air at the surface of the earth is not the same as at some elevation from it, and the air may he perfectly still at the ground level while at a comparatively slight height there may be a wind of some 10 m. (32 ft.) per sec. This is due to the protection afforded the lowest layers of air by the un-evenness of the earth surface.

If a flyer runs against a wind of 10 m. per sec, with an absolute velocity of 25 m. per sec., his relative velucity is 15 m. per sec, and when he suddenly enters a stratum of still air his velocity remains only 15 m. per sec, which is not enough for planing; as a result he hits the ground with a thud, having struck an airhole, in landing, it is always a safe thing to select a fully open place where there is nothing to keep the wind out. The height of fall through an airhole is directly proportional to the velocity of the aircraft. Let G he the weight of the apparatus; v the velocity of the aircraft in still air; vl the wind velocity; h the height of fall. Further, let v1 =10. When the craft is in air having vx = 10, its kinetic energy is Gv2

2g

where g = 9.81. When the craft passes into the air having vl = 0, it loses some of its kinetic energy, which then becomes

G

a3 = — <* — v,y

2g

T LANDING.

The difference between the values of Ax and At indicates the kinetic energy A required to bring the aircraft hack to the speed that would allow it to float in the lower air stratum. In this case vx~ v— 10, which gives after substitution:

What is wanted, however, is to establish the relation between v and h. When a craft of weight G falls through h, a kinetic energy A = Gh is liberated, and therefore Gh may he substituted for A in the preceding equation, which finally gives 10

h — — (v—5), S

But g is approximately equal to 10, and therefore h = v — 5

may be accepted as being approximately correct. This equation shows that the height of fall through an airhole increases with the speed of the aircraft, and that it is independent of the weight of the aircraft (the latter because G does not figure in the equation for h). Table 1 gives the height of fall through an airhole due to the craft coming from air moving against it at 10 m. (say 32 ft.) per sec. into still air, as functions of the speed of the airship.—(Das "Luftloch" bei der Landung, E. Heinkel. Der Motorwagen, Vol. 16, No. 4, p. 91, Feb. 10, 1913. iy3 pp., 1 fig. ptA.)

FOR FLYING BOATS USE

JEFFERY'S MARINE GLUE

Use our Waterproof Liquid Glue, or No. 7 Black, White, or Yellow Soft Quality Glue for waterproofing the cauvas covering of flying boats. It not only waterproofs aud preserves the canvas but attaches it to the wood, and with a coat of paint once a year will last as long as the boat.

For use in combination with calico or canvas between veneer in diagooal planking, ond for waterproofing muslin for wing surfaces. Send for samples, circulars, directions for use, etc.

L. W. FERDINAND & CO. 201 South Street, Boston, Maia. U. S. A.

Boland Flying Boat

ONLY TWO CONTROLS SIMPLEST TO OPERATE

BOLAND MOTORS-60,70,100-125 H.P.

Repair and Construction Work in Best Equipped Factory

AEROMARINE PLANE & MOTOR CO.

Exclusive manufacturers under Boland Patents AVONDALE, N. J.

90-100 H. P. MAXIMOTOR being successfully tested for brake horse-power, developing 110 actual brake horse-power, at 1300 revolutions. Weighing 370 pounds complete with Magneto, Carburetor and Propeller Coupling.

Constructora, as well at Aviators, are MAXIMOTOR'S most ardent supporters.

There will be a new 8-cylinder "V" type* 120 H. P. motor addition to the MAXIMOTOR family.

fiÄftwSüfc. rums

DETROIT

1528 JEFFERSON AVENUE. E.

Watch for the developments

Catalog on requeot

THE COAST LINE TO

IVI AC K I IM

DETROIT, y TOLEDO,

CLEVELAND, BUFFALO, I PT.HURON, ALPENA, NIAGARA FALLS. ^ ST. IGNACE.

"THE LAKES ARE CALLING YOU"

A RR ANGE, your vacation or buaines* trip to include our /-\ palatial lake ateamera. Every detail that counta for your convenience and comfort haa been provided.

Daily service between Detroit and Cleveland, and Detroit and Buffalo. Day trips between Detroit and Cleveland during July and August. Four trips weekly from Toledo and Detroit to Mackinac laland and way porta. Special Steamer Cleveland to Mackinac Island two trips weekly June 25th to September 10th, making no atopa enroute except ot Detroit every trip. Daily service between Toledo and Put-in-Bay June 10th to September 10th.

Railroad tickets accepted for tranaportition on D. & C. Line ateamers in either direction between Detroit and Buffalo or Detroit and Cleveland.

Send two-cent stamp for illustrated pamphlet giving detailed description of various trips. Address L. G. Lewis, General Passenger Agent, Detroit, Mich.

Detroit & Cleveland Navigation Company

Philip H. McMillan, President. A. A. Schantz, Vice Pres. and Genl. Mgr.

AERONAUTICAL RADIATORS

Built in capacities and types for standard and special aviation motors

Write for prices on standard makes. Send your specifications for special designs

EL ARCO RADIATOR COMPANY

64th St. & Weil End Ave., New York City

Aba Manufacturers ai Automobile Radiators ol all type«

WITH MANY ILLUSTRATIONS

AVIATION

Net $4.00; postage 21 et», extra

By ALGERNON E. BERRIMAN, M.I.A.E., A.F.Aè.S.

Technical Editor of "Flight"

A popular technical work of interest to tbe general student as well as to the man who 1b in aviation as a profession. To the amateur builder of aeroplanes in tbe United States It will be of Incalculable benefit.

Chapters include: Wbat an Aeroplane Is: Instrnetlveness of Paper Models; Constructional Features of the Modern Aeroplane; Equilibrium In the Air; Lateral Balance; Steering; Loagltudloal Stsbllity; Principles of Propulsion; Cooeerninfr Resistance: Tbe Cambered Wing: Work of Lilienthal, Wrights, Voisin. Farman, Dunne and Weiss; British Military Trials of 1912; Hydroaeroplaoes; Accidents; Romance and Early History: Founding of tbe Science of Flight; Invention of tbe Glider and Pioneers; History aod Appendices containing numerical examples, application of laws, etc.

Paye 16

AERONAUTICS. July 15, 19l|

THE NAVY BOATS AT PENSACOLA Send for

are equipped with Photographs of

PARAGON PROPELLERS ' 08

The three-Waded PARAGONS used by the Navy Aviators give the highest results ever attained. The two-bladed PARAGONS are unequalled. Efficiency, Security, Satisfaction—are back of the name PARAGON—the mark of first-class equipment. Three-Bladed NAVY PARAGONS kept in stock.

AMERICAN PROPELLER CO., 243-249 East Hamburg Street, Baltimore, Md.

NEW

GYRO DUPLEX

The first and only American revolving cylinder motor.

80 H. P. 7 Cylinder, 200 lbs. 100 H. P. 9 Cylinder, 250 lbs.

No backfiring, no intake valves to grind, perfect cooling, easy starting, will run in any position.

Oil Consumption Cut 50%

$30,000 to be given in prizes to builders of aeroplanes by U. S. Government.

Why install a power plant that is one-third of your total weight when you can get a GYRO DUPLEX at two and one-half lbs. per brake H. P.

THE GYRO MOTOR COMPANY

774 Girard Street, Washington, D. C.

AIRCRAFT COMPANY

St. Louis, Missouri or St. Petersburg, Florida

The Xew Benoist Flui no Buat in Action

XV. No. 2

JULY 31, 1914

15 Cents

IHM 'JJlfMliM

ERONffllTICS

I

m

Properly oj E. VV o- r-',SCHON

Some Competitive Trophies Won in 1913—With

CURTISS 0-X MOTORS

Except by Their Products, the Curtiss Companies were not Directly Represented in Any of These Events

No king ever enjoyed such sport as this. Four to five hundred miles without pause, at a speed of more than a mile a minute.

Five hundred thousand passenger miles without one serious accident. Used by six Governments and by private owners nearly everywhere.

THE MACKAY TROPHY, won by

Lieutenants J. E. Carberry and Fred Seydel, U. S. Army; flying 58 miles in 46 minutes.

TIMES AERIAL DERBY, won by

William S. Luckey, flying around Manhattan; 60 miles in 52 minutes.

TIMES AERIAL DERBY, second, Charles F. Niles.

AERO and HYDRO 1,000-mile Cruise Trophy, won by J. B. R. Verplanck and Beckwith Havens; Chicago to Detroit.

MICHIGAN AERO CLUB 1,000-mile Speed Trophy, won by Verplanck and Havens; Chicago to Detroit.

Ask for Our Catalogs

THE CURTISS MOTOR CO.,

21 Lake St., Htmmondsport, N. Y.

CURTISS O-X M°T°RS

OLD PROPELLERS

z Don't throw them away. Patronize our Propeller Hospital. If you have a substantial \

E propeller of any make that is poor, useless or inefficient, we can make a good one of it, at E

; small cost, no matter what pitch; we can change the pitch to suit. Sounds impossible, =

E but 'tis true. £

E The three-bladed Paragons used on all Navy Machines give the highest results ever E

: attained. Two-bladed Paragons are unequalled. Efficiency, Security, Satisfaction,—are :

E back of the name PARAGON -the mark of first-class equipment. E

IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIMIHI.....

■' Ask for Free Photographs ....................................1......Il"""r

AMERICAN PROPELLER CO., 243-249 East Hamburg Street, BALTIMORE, MD.

NEW

GYRO DUPLEX

The first and only American revolving cylinder motor.

80 H. P. 7 Cylinder, 200 lbs. 100 H. P. 9 Cylinder, 250 lbs.

WESTERN UNION TELEGRAM

Chicago, III.. Aug. 4. 1914.

GYRO MOTOR CO..

774 Girard St.. Washington, D. C. My Gyro eighty a wonder. Climbed twelve thousand feet in nineteen minutes and went over in loop with all kinds of reserve pnwer. Have located sixteen thousand foot ham-graph and will go after American altitude record in Kansas City tomorrow. If 1 succeed it will be official. Will write particulars

li,ter' De LLOYD THOMPSON.

THE GYRO MOTOR COMPANY

774 Girard Street

Washington, D. C.

< BEN0IST «e

AIRCRAFT COMPANY

St. Louis, Missouri or St. Petersburg, Florida

Thf AVti* Henoist Flu ina Boat in Action

A SUGGESTION

By DAVID L. GALLUP, M.E ,

This paper has to deal indirectly with the question of power plant in an aeroplane, and has in reality two objects in view: First, to bring to your attention certain principles and their effect upon the performance of the gasoline engine, and. secondly, to do this in as brief and concise a manner as is possible.

Some of you are aware of the apparatus installed at the Worcester Polytechnic Institute some years ago for the purpose of testing aeroplane propellers, and possibly are acquainted with the results, a few of which were presented in a paper at one of the branch society meetings last fall; but in order that those who are not familiar with them may appreciate the value and significance of the experiments conducted, a brief resume will be given here. (Report and description of plant and tests was given in AERONAUTICS, July, 1911.)

The main testiu*r plant is located at a lake about nve miles from the institute, and consists principally of a steel boom 85 feet in length, and which is free to rotate about a vertical axis at the center of the boom. At the end of this boom is placed the propeller, which is driven, through a system of gears, by an electric motor located at the center of the boom. The axis of the propeller shaft is at right angles to that of the boom, and is therefore tangent to the circle described by the same.

Rotation of the propeller about its own axis produces a thrust which is available for rotating the boom at any desired speed, and which may be controlled in various ways.

Arrangements have been made whereby the speed of the propeller in r.p.m., the speed of the boom tip in m.p.h., the thrust of the propeller in lbs., and the h.p. delivered to the propeller may be readily determined by instruments suitably placed.

An additional scheme for testing was embodied in the use of an iceboat driven by an aeroplane propeller, and which made possible the obtaining of very high speed in a straight line.

' Many tests have been made with these two forms of apparatus, and on many styles of propellers, with the result that there is on hand some very interesting data concerning the performance oi propellers under conditions similar to those in actual service.

Perhaps the most notable feature which was developed from tests of the average propeller was the drop in thrust as speed through the air increases, and the approach to zero thrust as this continues to increase.

In the type of propeller put out a few years ago, with a pitch of 5 to 7 feet, this drop is very noticeable. In such cases the "standing" thrust is the maximum obtained, and this falls off as flight begins, and in almost direct proportion, until at ordinary speeds through the air the thrust exerted by the propeller is approximately not over half of the maximum obtained when stationary.

Later types of propellers having large pitches, such as 9 to 12 ft., give a characteristic somewhat different from that just mentioned, in that the maximum thrust is obtained after the aeroplane has begun to move through the air. The speed

FOR THE POWER AEROPLANE*

Professor of Gas Engineering at

at which this is obtained is approximately 10 to 25 m.p.h., after which the thrust falls off as before.

Still other forms of propellers, notably the "variable pitch" type, may be so constructed as to give a fairly uniform thrust throughout what might be termed the working range of speeds, and wkich is, of course, the ideal condition.

Simultaneously with the experiments for obtaining the thrust characteristics of propellers, was obtained data showing the "effectiveness" of the latter at various r.p.m. "Effectiveness" in this case has reference to the tit rust in pounds per h.p. necessary to drive the propeller, and is, as can be readily seen, the only proper measure of the value of a propeller.

Time will not permit of going into a tabulation of this data, but a study of the same seems to indicate that a relatively low r.p.m. is more desirable than wbat is now common practice, and which runs from 1,000 to 1 ,S0O r.p.m. Tbese high speeds result in a great deal of energy loss due to the needless churning of the air, and also on account of the fact that the time involved in a half revolution" of the propeller is so small each blade of the latter is brought to do its work in a disturbed atmosphere, all of which naturally tends to reduce the "effectiveness" of a propellt r.

The Wright propeller, of large diameter, large pitch and low r.p.m., is an excellent example of a highly effective propeller doing with a small engine practically what some of the larger engines, driving propellers of small diameter, low pitch, at high r.p.m., accomplish.

In the majority of cases, propellers are direct-connected to the crank shaft of the engine, and for the two reasons that transmission through gearing or chains introduces a greater possibility of breakdown, and also since it has always been supposed that high r.p.m. of the propeller was preferable. High r.p.m. naturally goes with the customary type of gasoline engine, and this in turn follows, since it is established that for a given h.p. output a high speed engine weighs less, and hence is an argument for its adoption in aeroplane practice.

The real object of this paper is to endeavor to show that there are manv reasons why these ideas should be abandoned in favor of an engine of the slow-speed type, driving a propeller of large diameter and large pitch.

Taking up the propeller, as before stated, the average high-speed type is working at ordinary flight speeds at greatly reduced "effectiveness," and this can be materially bettered by reducing the r.p.m., or rather hy increasing the pitch to correspond to the reduced r.p.m., in order that the thrust may not be ie«ri-::if d. This w ill give a greater per cent, of efficiency for the whole system, and for the reasons stated in the beginning.

Tui ning now to the engine, an analysis of its performance indicates that, generally speaking, with a given bore the power is proportional to the piston speed. This may be effected by increasing the r.p.m. for a given stroke, or increasing the stroke for a given r.p.m.

PLANT OF AN

Worcester Polytechnic Institute

A concrete illustration of the puini it is desired to bring out may be it cm1 in the following. Two engines of identical bcre, but having in tne case a stroke equal to the bore and in i!:e ether a stroke equal to t\\ ice the bore, with, other things being equal, deliver exactly the same h.p. at a certain r.p.m. for the first, and at half that r.p.m. for the second. Piston speeds and gas speeds are identical in both engines. There are, however, certain differences, and it is on these that the argument depends.

In the short-stroke motor, although the total jacket loss per minute is the same as in the long-stroke motor, the surface exposed to the heat is half as great and the number of times per minute is twice as great, necessitating a much heavier duty per sq. in. of wall surface in the short than in the long-stroke motor. The significance of this is apparent when it is considered that the popular motor for aeroplane purposes is air cooled.

Eo! lowing this, the number of r.p.m. is in the long-stroke motor being reduced for a given power ourput, the shocks due to reciprocation are correspondingly less, and this point may be extended to cover iranv of the parts of the engine. The value incident to this is self-evident. Valve breakages, crystallization, valve-spring trouble, loose bearings, etc., are to a large extent reduced, and in some cases entirely eliminated.

The only real disadvantage which can be traced to the adoption of the long-stroke motor, of the slow-speed type, is represented by the increased total weight making the weight per h.p. output greater. To just what extent this would be is nut absolutely known, since automobile engineering has not progressed sufficiently for conclusions to be drawn regarding relative weights per h.p. for equivalent designs, since few, if any, exist: but the general opinion seems to prevail that the per cent, increase would be relatively small—say 10. This, of course, is negligible when all factors are taken intu consideration, since all of the preceding statements have attempted to show that much more "effectiveness" per lb. of engine and aeroplane would result if these ideas were adopted.

Briefly, then, the arguments are:

1. Increased effectiveness of propeller;

2. Increased life of engine.

As both of these have a direct bearing upon the safety of the aviator or his passenger, there should be no further need .for argument, if the data upon which the statements are based is correct.

In conclusion, then, it is stated that the ideal arrangement consists of the long-stroke motor of such dimensions that "00 to 1,000 r.p.m is the speed at which maximum h.p. is developed, and direct connected to this a propeller of such dimensions as to absorb the maximum h.p. at the speed mentioned, and also to give its maximum thrust after flight has begun if of the constant-pitch type.

•"Taper read before the New Haven R ranch of the American So ciety of Mechanical Engineers, May I.

In 1009 an 1 ntemational Juridic Committee on Aviation was organized at I'aris and with the year igio began publishing the "Revue juridique i rite mat iuiial de la Locomotion aérienne." The committee on Jan nary 10. 1910, decided upon the outline uf a legal code of the air. The committee itself consists of j urists, lawyers and legal students in principal countries. The national membership forms a national committee acting through a representative executive committee in Paris. This executive committee makes general studies upon a point of law and issues its preliminary decisions to national committees, which report back their upinions. The text decided upon in this way is definitively passed at annual congresses.

The importance of such work is shown by the experiences of the Institute of International Law, whose preliminary studies have been the foundation uf every international law codification in existence. Vteyond question the committee's code will be the basis of diplomatic action when time for that is ripe.

The .American committee consists of James lirown Scott, 2 Jackson Place, Washington, national delegate to executive committee; Charles E. Peach, 95 rue des Petits-Champs, Paris, national reporter; 1 )enys P. Myers. 40 Mt. Vernon Street, Puston, national secretary; Arthur K. Kulin, New York City; Gov. Simeon E. Paid win of Connecticut, George Whit clock of Maryland, William W. Sm it hers of Pennsylvania, Joseph Wheless of Missouri and Ambrose Kennedy of Rhode Island.

Through the procedure above described tlie following text has been decided upon :

Book I. Public Aerial Law.

CHAPThR I. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF AERIAL CIRCULATION.

Art. i. Aerial circulation free, except for right of subjacent states to take certain measures with a view to own security and that of persons and property of their inhabitants. Art. 2. It is prohibited to pass above fortified and military works, etc., or neighborhood within a radius determined by the military authorities. Art. 3. Administrative and pulice authorities regulate or prohibit circulation above built-over areas.

CHAPTER 11. NATIONALITY AND REGISTRATION OF AIRCRAFT.

Art. 4. Every aircraft must have one nationality only. Art. 5. Nationality of aircraft that of owner. If aircraft belongs to a company, nationality that of headquarters of company. If owners of aircraft are of different nationalities, its nationality will be that of Joint owners who possess two-thirds value. Art. 6. Every aircraft must bear sign indicative of nationality. Art. 7. Every aircraft must carry descriptive document containing information proper to individualize. Art 8. Every owner before putting craft into circulation outside private aerodromes must have obtained from public authorities inscription upon a register uf mat riculation kept by proper authority. Each state regulates registration within own terri-

tory. Art. 9. Aircraft must bear distinctive mark indicating place ot registration. Art. 10. Registration lists will be published.

CHAPTER 111. LANDING AND ALIGHTING ON WATER.

Art. 11. .Aircraft may land upon unenclosed properties ; also alight upon and navigate all waters. Art. 12. Except in the case of "force majeure," this right is prohibited to them: (a) in the boundaries of closed properties; (h) within the boundaries of areas built over, ports and roadsteads, outside of spaces reserved for this purpose; (c) in navigable channels where the difficulty of passage necessitates this prohibition, which must be expressly formulated by the comptent authorities. Art. 13. Every aircraft which enters above a prohibited zone is to alight at first signal from competent authorities as soon as possible.

CHAPTER IV. JETTISON.

Arl. 14. Jettison consists in any voluntary throwing overboard of objects. Art. 15. Jettison of all nature to injure persons or property prohibited, except in case of imminent danger. Art. 16. In any case, damage done gives cause for reparation.

CHAPTER V. WRECKS.

Art. 17. Whoever finds all or part of disabled and abandoned aircraft must make declaration thereof to proper authority. Art. 18. Competent authority, when duly advised, will immediately take the measures necessary to assure the preservation of wreck and discovery uf owner. Art. io. < hvner of wreck may reclaim it from the authorities in charge within period of one year from discovery by paying expenses of preserving. In addition he must pay finder premium of discovery calculated on the basis of 10 per cent, of value on the day of restitution, minus expenses.

C HAPTLR VI. LEGISLATION APPL1CA-I1LE AND I U RISDICTTON COMPETENT IN RESPECT TO AERIAL LOCOMOTION.

Art. 20. Aircraft which is above the high sea or territory not under the sovereignty of any state is subject to legislation and jurisdiction of country whose nationality it possesses. Art. 21. When an aircraft is above territory of a foreign state, the acts committed and the deeds occurring on hoard, which are of a nature to compromise security or public order of subjacent state, are regulated by the legislation of territorial state and judged by its courts, Art. 22. Reparation for damages caused to the persons and goods above the territory of the subjacent state by an aircraft is regulated by the law of this state. The action for relief may be brought either before the courts of this state or hefore the courts of the state whose nationality the aircraft possesses. Art. 23. Acts committed and deeds occurring in space on hoard an aircraft and which do nut alTect the security or the public order of the subjacent state remain subject to the legislation and the jurisdiction of the country whose nationality the aircraft possesses. Art. 24. 1 n case of a birth or a death on board during an aerial voyage, the pilot will make record

thereof on the log-book. In the first place where the aircraft shall land the pilot will have to deposit a copy of the record which he shall have made. The deposit w il I be made as follows: If the place is part of the territory whose nationality the aircraft possesses, to the proper public authority; if the place is situated in foreign territory, in the hands of the consul whose nationality the aircraft possesses. In case there is no consul in this place, the copy of the record will he sent hy the pilot by registered mail to the consular authority, or to the competent authority whose nationality the aircraft possesses.

Book II. Private Aerial Law.

TITLE I. CIVIL. CHAPTER I. PROPERTY ABOVE.

Art. 25. No one may, on account of a property right, hinder the passage of an aircraft under conditions which do not present for him any appreciable inconvenience. Art. 26. Any abuse of the right of passage gives cause against its responsible author tor action for damages.

CHAPTER II. REPARATION FOR DAMAGE CAUSEO BY AIRCRAFT.

Art. 27. Reparation for damage caused hy an aircraft either to persons or goods that are on the surface of the earth falls on the custodian of the aircraft, the right of the i 11 j 11 red person to look to the one responsible at common law being unimpaired. Art. 28. The custodian, held to reparation for the damage done, has a recourse against the responsible author thereof in accordance with the common law. Art. 29. In case the damage should be due wholly or in part to the act of the person injured, the judge shall have the right to pronounce the total or partial exoneration of the custodian. Art. 30. The custodian may bring the exception of "force majeure" as a defense. Art. 31. The provisions of Art 27 are not applicable if, at the moment of the accident, the person injured or the thing damaged were transported by aircraft, or if the person injured was himself occupied in the management of the machine.

The remainder of the code is yet to be worked out.

THE INTERNATIONAL CODE OF AERIAL LAW

THE SELLERS QUADROPLANE.

Are we now to have the Ford of the air ? An aeroplane which costs little, economical in upkeep and repairs, eliminates the professional driver, cuts shed cost and adapts pleasure flying to the proletariat?

Matthew C. Sellers, whose contributions to AERONAUTICS have been invaluable, has been flying his novel machine at the Aeronautical Society's aerodome at Oak wood Heights. St at en Island, during the last of July. Headers are familiar with flights made from time to time during the past six years. The feature of rising automatically from the ground and the wheels automatically raising to land on skids was used hy Mr. Sellers in his gliders in 190$ and since in the power machine, with which he began (lying in 1909. ( See patent and drawings in October, 1909, issue.)

of spruce. The curve is 1 in 16 and set at 5 degrees, the normal angle of flight, the c. of p. conies about 2/5 from the front edge. The fabric is cotton cloth, coated with Conover varnish. The cambre is 2K> ins.

The planes are spaced 2 ft. 2 in. vertically apart. They are supported on inclined struts attached to the front spar of each plane, the rear of the wing being supported by posts from the inclined struts, these nosts being nearly vertical. The upper wing acts as an elevator, being pivoted on the front spar. The machine is stabilized laterally by depressing either ends of the two upper planes to lift the low sides of the machine, the high side of the planes being left to flatten out by anv increased air pressure.

Control of elevation is effected by

The disposition of the planes in steps is due to wind tunnel experiments made by Mr. Sellers in 1903 and to results obtained with models made at that time and later. The same machine, without an engine, was used as glider in the summer of 1908 and in December, 1908, made its first short flight, using a French Oulheil-Chalmers 2 cyl. opposed engine giving about 5 h.p. This engine was used intermittently till the present engine (Hates 2 cyl. opposed, S b.h.p.) was put on and flights made with it in the fall of 1910. Since then various improvements have been tried out and experiments made to determine the dimensions of the most efficient propeller for the conditions. In comparing this machine with others in regard to horsepower it must be remembered that, for simplicity, this propeller is direct connected, and that if geared, greater efficiency would be obtained this may be done later on.

The machine in its present form does not emhody the final construction and it is certain that when a full set of double surface wings and a-proper fuselage are used the efficiency will be considerably improved. t Experiments have also been made with the propeller behind on an extension shaft, employing, in that case, a warping vertical rudder.

The machine spreads 1$ ft., is 12 ft. total length and about S ft. high. There are four supporting planes, 3 ft. bv 18 ft., arranged in steps, the highest in front. These have, in the past, heen single surfaced, but a trial is now heing made with two of these double surfaced. The ribs, in pockets, are 1.5 ft. apart, made

a handle bar which is rotated about its horizontal axis; left and right steering by movement about its vertical axis in the same manner as a bicycle is steered; while lateral stability is maintained by rocking the handle bar in a vertical plane, the bar being universale mounted.

The operator sits on a spring seat, slightly in front of the c. of g. oil a level v\ it It the skids. The machine runs on 3 wheels, the rear wheel being spring mounted so that as the propeller is started the whole machine is tippeil forward, raising the rear of the machine, so that the planes are at a very small angle. As speed over the ground increases, the spring on the rear wheel is extended and the rear of tlie machine depressed, thereby increasing the angle of the planes and causing the machine to leave the ground without any operation of the elevator plane. When the motor is cut off for landing I he two front wheels automatically spring up and allow the machine to alight on its skids. The machine stops within about 30 feet.

The weight of the machine complete is about 110 Ins., without gas anil oil. The speed is 21 in.p.h. The aviator. Mr. Sellers, who weighs 140 lbs., brings the weight carried up to 250 lbs., which is 31 lbs. per h.h.p. and l'.i lbs. per sq. ft. of surface, the total lifting surface being 200 si], ft.

The vertical rudder is iriangular in shape, with about 7 sq. ft. nf surface. There is also a fixed flat surface set at a negative angle of •4 degrees about ml a level with the second plane frrnii the top. This has about S sq. ft. of surface.

1 n flight, hanking for a turn is done entirely with the rudder. The warping is not used as a rule hut is ccnMimally used to prevent over-banking._______

EMERSON ENGINES AGAIN MARKETED.

Tlie well known two cycle engine, the Emerson, has been placed on the market again by the Her forth Engine Co., Alexandria, Ya. The manufacture of these has been taken n > hy this company and for a limited time, in view of the removal to a larger factory, special prices are quoted $1,200 for the six cvlinder, 100 h.p.. and $900 for the four cylinder. 60 h.p., the former prices of the Emerson Engine Co. being $2.-0(i» and $ 1.400, respectively. Quick deliveries can be made of these.

View of the Sellers Machine with Propeller in the Rear.

The engine is a 2 cyl., 3^ ins. All repair parts can now he fur-by 35£ ins., opposed 4 cycle P-ates nished for those engines now in motor, air cooled, driving a tractor service. It will be remembered (hat screw 5 ft. 6 ins. diam. by 27 ins. the flights of Tony Jannns in Wash-pitch at 1,350 r.p.m.; standing inglon in earlier days made this thrust 90 I lis. The engine is rated engine well known. Jannns is t" at 10 h.p. and tests show it develops this day an exponent of the two S h.p. at 1,350 r.p.m. cycle motor and a user.

THE "AMERICA'S' FLIGHT POSTPONED.

EUROPEANS BATTLE IN THE AIR.

The preliminary trials wit!

the

ko<t man Wanamaker transatlantic flying boat America were concluded with two impressive flights. hirst Glenn II. Curtiss flew the machine with a total useful load of considerable more than a ton. Ile started out with more than 200 gallons of gasoline and one passenger. By degrees this load was increased by two more passengers and some four hundred pounds of sand. The weight carried was considered to equal the weight of enough gasoline and oil to fly the America for twenty-four hours. Three 100 h.p. motors were used, the third being placed on the top plane, driving a tractor screw. Lieutenant Porte estimates that the flight from New Pound-land to the Azores will take from seventeen to twenty hours, according to wind conditions.

Next day Lieutenant Porte made the longest flight so far made with the machine. Leaving the flying camp about 7 o'clock he flew to the 1 'cnii Van end of the lake. There a short stop was made, and the return flight may be said to have heen made after dark. On this flight Porte was accompanied by George llallctt. the assistant pilot selected for the transatlantic project.

WHY THE POSTPONEMENT. Following these tests Mr. Curtiss, 1 .ieu tenant Porte, and Mr. Ciash, persona] representative of Mr. Rodman Wanamaker, held a consultation of war to debate the advisability of trying to get the machine in condition to ship to New Foundland on Wednesday. Mr. Curtiss thought it possible the machine could be patched up and crated in time to raicli the August 1 boat from New York, but advised enough delay to give him an opportunity to properly rebuild the hot torn of the boat and io incorporate in the rebuilding such modifications as had been suggested bv the series of 1 vventy-seven experiments carried out. Lieutenant Porte did not like the delay because he knew if he failed to catch the boat sailing August 1 he could not get another ship before August S; that would mean arriving at New Foundland August 13 or 14 and it would be at least the 17th or 18th before the machine could be assembled ready for the big adventure. As the period of equinoxial storms begins hetween the 10th and 21)tli nf August, and these would prevail until the latter part of September. In other words, if the boat were shipped Friday instead of Wednesday a delav of two months in starting the flight must result. Mr. flash sided with Mr. Curtiss ami stated emphatically that Mr. Wanamaker would not favor making a start until every possible thing in insure its ultimate success had been taken care of. Lieutenant Porte finally was won over to the side of the others and the postponement of the attempt until October 1 was announced to the press correspondents.

PRESENT ACTIVITY. Monday the work of taking apart the machine was begun. The hull, somewhat battered hy five weeVs of exposure and rougli handling by man mid the elements, was taken to the Curtiss boat shop and will be thoroughly overhauled. The original bottom will lie torn out and a new cue fitted in its place. Some changes will be made in the form

AIR FLEETS OF THE POWERS.

Paris, August 4.— German army aeroplane reported to have dropped three bombs on the garrison town of Luneville, killing fifteen persons. Three German dirigibles reported inaneouveriiig over Prtissels. Numerous aeroplanes from French aviation centers said to be flying over Paris in flotillas of twos, threes and fives toward Germany. German dirigible supposed to have dropped explosive on a French town, annihilating a patrol of troops.

Paris, August 3.—The famous aviator, Roland Garros, cable dispatches state, drove his aeroplane headfirst into a German airship, killing himself and the 25 men of the crew of the ship when the latter ignited and burned from the ramming. _

Brussels. August 6.—German aeroplane ami Zeppelin dirigible reported destroyed by Pelgians. A personal conflict is reported between a Belgian and a German aviator who fired revolvers at each other and then planed to the earth.

All cabled stories of operations of aircraft in the present European war must he accepted v ith a grain of salt. Very little reliahle news of any kind is coming from the scene of conflict and wierd stories like that of the Garros incident must be discounted until verified. The possibility of an aeroplane being able tn accomplish this without being hit hv the airship's guns is most remote, not to mention the unlikelihood of Garros's patriotism being carried to the extent of deliberate personal destruction. His value to his country is greater alive than dead, as an economic proposition.

A few aviators, whose names come to mind, might well be spared for such feats, hut as these are not the kind likely to enlist we will probably be spared the misery of hearing of their sacrifice.

There are no less than 105 airships, from the vedette tvpe to the monster Zeppelin, on hand or under construction by France, Germany,

Russia. England, Japan, Italy, Austria, Brazil, P.elgium, Spain, Bulgaria, Chile and Turkey. The powers now at war have 84 of these. Twenty-six powers have more than 2,048 "aeroplanes on hand. Russia alone has 336 more ordered. The powers now fighting in Europe have not less than 1,575 aeroplanes in service, with a minimum of 3,224 officers and enlisted men on aviation duty. This latter number is certainly far below actuality as no figures on men, non-pilots, attached to aviation are available for four out of these six countries. It is safe to estimate that this figure should he increased by at least 2.500, making 5,724 men on aviation duty. These figures do not include, either, men assigned to dirigihles, which would add another thousand to the air forces of the quarreling nations.

France has 22 airships, Germany 20 in service and 20 more to draw on; Russia has. with orders, 22; England 8: Austria 10; Belgium 2.

The colossal sums invested in preparations for war in the air by the powers now involved in the titanic struggle totals the staggering sum of $1 17,645.000 expended in the six vears up to 1914 Of this, in round figures. Germany has already spent S2S.000.000:' France, S22.000.000: Russia. $12.000.000; Italy, $8,000.000: Austria. $5,000,000. 3nd England. $3.000,000.

Public subscriptions. $7.100,000 in all. separate from the above, add $3,500.000 to Germany, $2,50(5.000 to France, $1,000,000 to Italv and $100,000 to Russia. Yet this is not all of the hoard being poured into death machines of the air. The appropriations of the governments for 1913 were: France, $7,400,000; Germany, $5.000,000; Russia. $5,000.000: England, $3,000,000: Italy, $2,100,000; Tapan, $1,000,000, and Mexico, $400.000, as against $125,000 hy the United States, making additional expenditures of $24,025,000 during the current year. Now that war is on it is probable that the overwhelming appropriation made by Germany of $37.000,000 to be expended during 1914-1S may be drawn upon.

of the bottom; it will be wider all over, a little longer, and considerably flatter at the step. Technically, it will have more flotation and a more efficient nlaning surface. The special C. M. O. propellers will have a new sheathing of metal, better fastened than the original metal cover. It was the tearing loose of the original copper cover, which broke its way through the upper plane, that was largely responsible for the postponement of the start. Two to three weeks will he consumed in the work of reconstructing and refurnishing the machine; then a few test flights wil be made to guarantee the rightness of everything and the machine will be shipped to New Foundland.

Whether or not Lieutenant Porte succeeds in piloting the America safelv across the Atlantic Ocean the development of the machine seems to have been well worth the work expended on it. A series of unique experiments were conducted by Mr. Curtiss working in conjunction with Lieutenant Porte. Captain Creagh Osbn-ne, T>r. A. F. Zahm, Lieutenant Towers and other men of high

standing in this field. The results of the different trials were carefully checked and tabulated, and will doubtless prove of great value to the future of hydroaviation.

TRANSATLANTIC FLYER MAY STOP AT FLEMISH CAP.

A transatlantic flight is a mere bagatelle, or ought to be. All the experts have figured it out and it is all verv simple. Take any one of the different advices and the thing is done. Only one little error was made in all the gratuitous offerings and that was the suggestion that stop be made at Flemish Cap, the eastern end of the Newfoundland Banks. Ciifortunately this piece of "land," which is about 50 miles long hy 25 miles wide, is 58 fathoms under water at the least depth, according to the United States II ydrograpbic Office, which department, however, may be entirely wrong in its surmise, or perhaps the expert had in mind carrying a demountable submarine.

MEASURING HORSE-POWER IN THE AIR

To measure horsepower in the air, there is yet to be discovered a direct method other than a special rigging. If the propeller be mounted directly on the engine shaft, and the engine bed so mounted as to turn on an axis parallel to tbe engine shaft, the turning moment can then be measured during flight and the power computed from that and the r.p.m. 1 f the propellers are chain driven, idler spockets can be inserted in the chain and its tension measured during flight; or, this could, even be measured directly by having the propeller shafts especially supported, as in a machine like the Wright.

In most cases it would be sufficient to know the revolutions of the engine during flight and the power when standing just before a flight. Then by means of the power curve of the engine it would be simple to get a close approximation of the power during the flight. There would always be the chance that differences of carburetion and cooling between standing and flying would make an error, but if the power curve of the engine had been determined originally with an artificial wind blowing onto the engine, if air cooled, or on the radiator, if water cooled, the error ought not to be so great.

Taking an example, suppose:

1. R.P.M. before flight = 1.150.

2. Bar. = o, Therm. = b, just be-

for flight.

3. R.P.M. during flight = 1,300.

4. Bar. = o, Therm. = /), during

flight. 90

5. Block test power curve of motor

is as per diagram.

6. Propeller takes 75 II.P. for 1.200

R.P.M. when Bar. — m, and Thermometer — n.

First correcting for barometer difference a — m. and thermometer differences b— n we find, let us say, that there is such a correction that it would take 78 II.P. to turn propeller 1,200 R.P.M. on the day of the flight.

Now engine actually turned propeller only 1,150 on day of flight.

Correcting for revolutions (1,200 -1,150) the power of the motor as indicated bv propeller revolutions on day of flgfit is 6S H.P. at 1.150 R. P.M. Now, block test power curve shows 78 H.P. for 1,150 R. P.M. Therefore, engine is 10 H.P. weak on day of flight or about \2l/2 per cent, weak, as compared u ith its showing on the block. Revolution during flight was 1.300. 11.P. according to block test power curve is 84 at 1.300. Deduct \2)/2 per cent, and we have 73 H.P. during flight.

1 n this way a record of revolutions before the (light and during th<* flight, when taken in conjunction \\ ith the barometer and thermometer will give us the power if we know the characteristics of the motor and propeller made at some previous block test. But we must be sure that propeller has not u arped. This can best be checked hy seeing if standing thrust corresponds to the observed R.P.M. after thermometer and barometer corrections are made.

IOOO 1050

p20o izso

AT SAN DIEGO.

The return of six aviators and forty-two men from Galveston, Tex., on July 17, to North Island brings the United States Government force up to seventeen officers and ninety-four men at the cainr*.

Flying done at S. C. Aviation School, San l)iego. Cab, week ending July 25, 1914: Flights, 58; time in the air, 15 hours 18 minutes; passengers carried, 30.

Summary, January 1 to Tuly 25, 1°14: Flights, 1,296; time in the air, 349 hours 17 minutes; passengers carried, 635.

For the week ending July II, 1914: Flights. 34; time in the air, 8 'hours 22 minutes; passengers carried, 23

Summary, January 1 to July 11, 1914: Flights, 1.1S5; time in the air. 322 hours 27 y2 minutes; passengers carried, 582.

chine whose speed has been reported as 2 '4 miles in two minutes flat. Certainly this is extraordinary speed for motor boats. Of the sea sled type, with surface propellers, Sturte-vant motors have been supplied. Vincent Astor is one purchaser and the United Stales Navy another. The Navy's sea sled will be used in connection with the air fleet at Pensacola.

AERO SCIENCE CLUB OF AMERICA BULLETIN.

At the recent flying boat contest held hy this club, at Dyker Heights, Brooklyn. N. Y., Mr. Charles V. Obst was the winner with a flight of 18 4/5 seconds, winning the bronze medal offered by Mr. Harry Schultz. As this was the first contest of this kind ever held it proved to be very interesting and was attended by a great number of spectators.

On the last Sunday of August a hydroaeroplane duration contest will be held at Union Course Pond, Woodhaven, L. I. Mr. Edward Durant and Mr. George Bauer have kindly consented to act as judges to time the flights. No entry fee \\ ill be charged and all persons interested are cordially invited to attend and enter the contests. The contest will be held between the hours of 2 and 5 p. m.

In order that sufficient time be given to prospective contestants and all other interested persons tbe cluh has decided to name all contests two months ahead. Therefore the contest for the month of September will be for speed. The following are the rules adopted for this contest:

All models are to start at a certain line and the first model crossing a mark 800 feet from said line is the winner.

All models are to rise from the ground with the wind.

Models must be in full flight when crossing the finishing line.

This contest will be held on September 20. 1914, at Van Cortland! Park, New York City.

This contest is expected to he of great help in the development of the model as regards streamlining and reduction of resistance.

This club meets every Saturday it the rooms of the Aeronautical Society, 29 West 3*lth Street, New York City. All persons interested are invited to attend. For further :nformation address the secretary, Mr. Harry Schultz.

AERO MOTORS FOR SPEED BOATS.

Aeronautical motor manufacturers are finding a new field—purchasers of skimmers and sea sleds. A Gyro motor has been installed in a ma-

NEW PUBLICATIONS.

Report on European Aeronautical Laboratories, with 11 plates, by Albert F. Zahm. Ph. D., published by Smithsonian 1 nstitution from the Hodgkins Fund. The pamphlet reports the visit of Dr. Zahm and Assistant Naval Constructor Jerome C. Ilunsaker, U. S. N.. to the principal laboratories near London, Paris and Gottingen for the purpose of studying, in behalf of Smithsonian I nstitution, the latest developments in instalments, methods, resources used, etc., for the prosecution of aeronautical researches. Copies of this pamphlet may be had upon application from Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C

HE SIMPLY DOESN'T BELONG

Picking a balloonist for president of the aero club is a good deal like picking the propelling power of a jinrickshaw as president of the American Automobile Association.— X. Y. American.

FOR SALE, on account of sickness, aeroplane, very cheap for cash, or trade for anything of value. E. M., 1522 Norwood" ave., Toledo, l»hio.

BACK NUMBERS WANTED— December, 1910, and March, 1911, issues of AERONAUTICS (American) wanted. Fifty cents each. Address Secretary, Aeronautical Society of Great Britain, 11 Adam st., Adelphi, London, W. C.

NEW MAXIMOTOR

The advent of the flying boat, with its ever increasing popularity and safety's demand for larger and higher powered motors, has made it imperative that the Maximotor makers accede to this demand with the new improved Model "IV 100 h.p.. 6 cylinder vertical type.

These improvements are the culmination of months of experimental work achieving toward the objective points, Power. Reliability, and Durability.

In a three hour test, the company states, coupled to a hydro-dynamometer, this motor developed in excess of 111 actual brake h.p. at 1.350 r.p.m.. which is phenomenal for a 5 in. by 5!1> in. six cylinder engine. (The A. L. A. M. rating for this size is 60 h.p.) I )uring

100 HORSEPOWER.

head. They are machined both inside and out, so as to allow for uniform expansion, and equal weight.

The connecting rods are drop forgings of chrome-nickel steel, double heat treated, and are very light in weight, as. in fact, are all the reciprocating parts.

Some very fine detailing is to be found in the crankshaft design. This is cut out of a solid billet, or slab, of heat-treated cronie-nickel steel imported from Germany. After the shaft is cut. it goes through a machining process which brings it down to within several thousandths of its finished size. The shaft and crank-pins are then hollow bored and the w hole ground and finished to size to within one one-thousandth of an inch.

PARLA TO TEACH CUBAN OFFICERS.

The well known Cuban aviator, August in Pari a, a Curtiss pupil, is to be given charge of instructing officers in the Cuban army in flying and aeronautics generally. Last year Sr. Parla, who at that time was the first and only Cuban aviator, became the hero of the Republic after his flight from Key West to Cnha in a Curtiss hydroaeroplane, and since then he has flown in most of the larger towns of the Island. 11 e made some remarkable flights above Santiago on M ay 20 last. His recent book, written in Spanish, entitled "Augustin Parla y Aviacion en Cuba," tell in a descriptive manner of some of his numerous exploits.

SCHMITT VARIABLE ANGLE MACHINE MAY COME HERE.

It is not unlikely that in the near future a Paul Schmitt variable angle hi plane may be brought tu this country. This idea is in contemplation by August P.elmont. who is interested in the machine. Readers are acquainted with the general characteristics of this machine as published in the April 15 number and with the scores of new world records made hy Garaix as pilot.

this test the motor consumed 8J£ gallons of fuel and 7 pints of lubricating oil per hour and showed a throttle range, w it bout skipping, of 350 to 1.400 r.p.m. under load. The weight of the motor complete as it was mounted on the stand was 372 pounds.

Among the numerous improvements to he found on the new Model *'TV* 6 is the improved overhead valve system, with parts strengthened and hearing areas increased: a double set of large ball bearings, carrying the propeller end of crank shaft and mounted in a steel disc, housing, instead of aluminum, as heretofore; an arrangement for a double individual magneto ignition system; double force-feed oil pumps; wider wrist-pin hearings: and a strengthened crank case, especially the supporting arms which have been just doubled in size. Also a compression release device »s provided where desired.

The new Maximotors are built of the highest grade of imported English and German materials.

As will be seen from the accompanying cut. the cylinders are of the overhead valve type (all valves mechanically operated by adjustable push rods), cast in pairs. This arrangement tends to produce a very compact construction, gives the cylinders greater strength for equal weight, and reduces the manifold joints and connections just about one half in number. The material from which the cylinders are cast is a high grade vanadium composition, containing 30 per cent, steel. Strength and lasting qualities are claimed for the formula, as well as clean, smooth castings free from defect. Pistons, likewise, are cast from the same material as the cylinders and are heavily ribbed in the

Five imported annular ball bearings are employed to carry the crankshaft. The propeller end of the crankshaft is especially rigidly supported by two extra heavy combined radial and thrust ball sets. These heavy duty ball bearings are mounted in a vanadium steel housing which is in turn recessed and bolted to the crank case proper by six nickel steel stud holts.

Lightness is secured in the cam shaft member by utilizing nickel steel tubing of large diameter arid heavy wall. The cams are of special carbon steel tempered and ground and are held in place by taper pins. All the valves are operated by tubular push rods and nickel steel rocker arms from a single cam shaft.

An equalizing intake manifold of cast aluminum is bolted to the cylinder intake ports and a special manifold muffler (shown in the end view of the six cylinder motor illustration) can be fitted for silencing the exhaust.

Tn addition to the "P." 6 and the other stock models, the Maximotor makers are putting on the market as a standard a 125 h.p., eight cylinder, V-type along general Maximotor lines, the first of which will appear in the very near future.

"SAFE AND SANE" MACHINES FOR ARMY AND NAVY.

The first P.urgess-Dunne machine has been shipped to the United States Navy from the Hurgess works at Marhlchead and the one for the Army will be delivered within a few weeks. This Government will be the first to own one of these inherently stable machines and its undoubted success in the Army and the Navy will be watched with interest by all.

The P.urgess-Dunne seaplane was recently converted into a land machine and a numher of flights made with it on the old Squautum field near Tioston. Flight after flight was made hy Mr. Webster running over the field and leaving the ground without any guidance whatsoever, the controls being locked. It climbs well over 300 feet per minute and its balance in the air is finite as good as with the boat attachments which were transferred back onto the machine in just an hour and forty minutes, when the machine was flown to Marblehead, a distance of 18 miles, in ten minutes—naturally with a strong wind.

JANNUS MAKES GOOD FLIGHT.

Cleveland. July 23.—Tony Jan-iiiis carried Miss Lilly Trvine from Cedar Point to Euclid Beach, a distance of 60 miles, in his flying boat.

NILES LOOPS THE LOOP FOR CONEY.

Beginning July 2S, Charles F. Niles, in his Moisant monoplane, began a week's exhibition at Coney Island, looping the loop, flying upside down, and so forth, under the auspices of the merchants' associa-lion. On one day he dropped a dummy from the air to the horror of thousands who watched his antics.

I enjoy reading your interesting and instructing paper every month from beginning to end, and look forward to its arrival each time with pleasure. I am very glad to see that you do not intend to have any fake rumors in it, but just the facts, so that all its readers can rely upon it implicitly. T shall always he glad to help you in anyway 1 can.

YV. B. S., Worcester, Mass.

WHAT AMERICAN AVIATION NEEDS.

Support by the public.

Support by the Government,

Federal control of flying. (For years urged by AERONAUTICS.)

Endowed aeronautical laboratories.

Aeronautical engineering courses in technical colleges.

Scientific construction methods.

Improved motors.

lief ore the Committee on Military Affairs last fall Colonel Ueber said:

"Congress has not appreciated the importance of or given adequate support to military aviation. On the other hand, the great nations of Europe have realized its importance and France has led the world in its utilization. Aviation has appealed more strongly to the imagination and esprit of the French people than to the rest of the world. This nation, seeing an opportunity of increasing its military strength over that of its neighbors, who have not been so prompt to realize the utility of aviation, raised large sums of money by popular subscription for the purchase of aviation material for the army and public opinion has forced the government to support and develop the fourth arm of the French army. The French and English irnvernments have for the past two years given direct support and encouragement to manufacturers by money awards at military trials, and subsequent orders for the machines winning in the trials.

"Experience, experiment and application of engineering principles have advanced the construction of the aeroplane far beyond* the pioneer machines of our chief inventors. Judging, however, from the large numher of freak machines that are to be seen in the hangars around our aerodromes, there is no general realization that the correct design of an aeroplane calls for a new branch of engineering—aeronautical engineering — which embraces physics, mechanical engineering, meteorology and even marine engineering and naval architecture. It is to be hoped that the day will soon come when the carpenter shop or hackyard will no longer serve as a factory nor the would-be constructor obtain his plans from an octavo volume on 'I low to Build an Aeroplane,' or from the pages of an aeronautical journal. The number of imitators of successful designs is great, but the really competent designer is a 'rara avis' in this country."

HALL-SCOTT OPTIMISTIC.

We are looking forward to the Government trials in San Diego, w hich are scheduled to be run on or ahout the 1st of October. If the Government does contemplate ordering forty machines from the winner, and prizes for the second and third contestants, we believe it will be a great stimulant to the American manufacturers in this line of husi-ness. At the present time we have two of the hest concerns in the United States building special planes for our 100 b.p. motors to enter ihf«e tests, and frankly speaking, believe they will be record breakers. If you could have seen the

pile of junk we installed our 10(1 h.p. in w hich I'd ak ley llew from here to Hakersheld and made such a wonderful record, you would also have great confidence in the wonderful ability and lasting qualities of this large motor.

Most of the aviators have left town to fill dates, hut presume they will return within the month. Wel-don B. Cook is doing nicely in the exhibition business, and believe he will be in a position to purchase one of our large motors to install in his flying boat in which he expects to carry passengers across the Bay.

Glenn L. Martin has just taken delivery of one of our new 100 h.p. motors to install in his military hoat which will be tried out shortly in the South.

MAXIMUM PROPELLER SPEED.

On the question w hether or not there is a known maximum speed or velocity beyond which a propeller blade should not move. Spencer Heath, the manufacturer of Paragon propellers, slates:

"I am convinced that there is such a point and 1 place the maximum velocity of the ends of the blades at something like 40,000 ft. per min. This would make about 2,000 r.p.m. the maximum turning speed for a 6 ft. propeller and it would be pos-sihle to use up advantageously a whole lot of power with a 6 ft. propeller at this speed. There is also a minimum blade lip velocity which I think is around 10,000 or 12,000 ft. per min., which means that a 6 ft. propeller \\ould do poor work at less than 500 or 600 r.p.m."

SELENIUM CELL FOR AUTOMATIC STABILITY.

A recent lecturer on aeronautics, as quoted in your March 31 issue, having declared that "It is essential to the success of any automatic control that the forces called into play to make the corrections of trim should not react on the director of those forces, whether this is a pendulum or gyroscope or any other equivalent device."

I write to suggest a means of accomplishing this without any fric-tional contact whatever with the pendulum or gyroscope or combination of the two—namely, the use of selenium, with its wonderful property of being a very good electrical conductor in the light and a very poor one in the dark. On the pendulum or gyroscope would be arranged two arcs of about 90 degrees, opaque at their centers and also on opposite halves of each arc, and shaded gradually to transparent at the ends of the other halves, with two steady lights and two selenium cells, one of each on opposite sides of these arcs and in fixed position on the machine, so that when the machine is level (or otherwise balanced, as in proper banking) the lights and selenium cells will be in line with the opaque centers of the pendidum's arcs, and so that any variation from tin's balanced position would permit one light or the other to shine through a correspondingly translucent nart of its arc onto its selenium cell, thus regulating the strength of the current flowing throueh the cell and restoring balance by electrical means when that

side of the machine is too high. Instead of selenium, natural or absolutely pure antimonium sulphide fantimonite) could he used, having the advantage of "no troublesome inertia." accordiit*? m evperil" "1s described in a scientific journal of March 2. 1912.

Another method of using a pendulum or gyroscope for balancing a flying machine without disturbing the equilibrium of such a balancer, would be to simply enclose it in a transparent case in front of the aviator, or, rather, together with an upward extension of the pendulum, so that, by the aviator simply moving his lateral-balance lever alw avs in unison with the latter toward the too-high side, balancing might he successfully accomplished even by a novice, as in learning without an accompanying instructor, and this device might also aid aviators not having a well-developed balancing faculty, or "bird sense," or by the upper lever extension being made very long it could possibly be made more sensitive to small or incipient disturbance of equilibrium than the best aviators. This would also have an advantage that everv automatic balancing device should possess— that of being instantly suspendable at the will of the aviator.

The writer has not patented either of these devices, hut secured a caveat on the first-described one some four years ago, and anyone is privileged to use them.

ELMER G. STILL. Li'vermore, Cab, July 13, 1914.

BRITISH LABORATORY REPORT

The technical report for 1912-3, the fourth of the series, of the Brit ish Advisory Committee on Aeronautics has just been published. The report summarizes the work undertaken, and detailed particulars are given. The investigations cover general questions in aerodynamics, experiments on wind channels, including description of the new 4-ft. wind channel at the National Physical Laboratory; experiments on models of wings, bodies, etc.; models of complete aeroplanes; stability, efficiency of propellers, strength of construction; hydroaeroplanes and design of their floats; fabrics, researches on alloys, etc. The volume contains over 400 pp., with many plates, and is published by Wyman & Sons, Fetter Lane, London, E. C.; price, $2.43.

The Chilean Government has established an aviation school near Santiago. Chile, where army and navy officers are being trained with good results. There have been several serious accidents, hut only two deaths. It is proposed to fly over the .Andes to Argentina, which calls for a sustained flight for an hour or more at an altitude of ahout 15,000 feet. The longest flight yet made in Chile was from Concepción to Santiago, a distance of about 300 miles. No aeroplanes are manufactured in Chile, those imported practically all coming from Europe.

"SELF - RISING"

MODEL MONOPLANE A. B. C.

No. 62

The data and drawings of this model have been kindly furnished •«e by its designer and constructor, Mr. A. It. C, of a prominent London model aero club.

The model has been designed especially to withstand hard and continuous wear and is the result of five months* experimenting with various models capable of rising under their own power With a model similar to the on? described Mr. C- won the first "self-ris-

with the best gold size. This proofing is unaffected by weather conditions and is thoroughly air-tight and water-proof.

The elevator is 9 in. by 2l/> in. (max. chord > and is made from 1/30 in. spruce wafer. The tips of the elevator are upturned as shown on sketches 2 and 3. The elevator is mounted on piano wire attachment, which allows a very fine adjustment of the elevation to be made (see sketch).

Self-Rising Model Aeroplane. ABC. 62.

ing" competition with a flight of 762 ft. The actual distance flown by path was over 1,000 ft. On a fairly calm day the model will attain a height of 80 ft. and finish its flight with a splendid volplane and land gracefully on its wheels.

The fuselage is triangular and is constructed of two pieces of H in. sq. by 32 in. long silver spruce, connected at the rear with a stream-line cross bar. The latter, also the cross-stay, situated midway along the fuselage, are firmly bound to the main members with '4 in. silk ribbon soaked in hot glue; this makes a joint that is almost unbreakable.

The bearings at the rear are composed of the usual '"L" pieces of stiff brass, bound with silk to the ends of the main longitudinals and drilled to take the propeller shafts. Rigidity is given to the fuselage by cross bracing with No. 30 (std. wire ga.) piano wire as shown in plan view. No wire strainers are used, hut tension is given to the trussing wires by curling the hooks to which the wires are fastened (see sketches 2 and 3).

The main plane is rectangular in shape, the span being 25 in. and the chord 5 in. The frame is constructed from birch. The spars are ■H in. by 1/16 in. and the ribs '4 hv 1/16 in. The ribs are bound to the spars with strong cotton and glued This frame is then covered with light Jap silk and is proofed

The main plane is attached to the fuselage with fine iron florist's wire, but the elevator is fastened to its attachment with rubber bands.

At the apex of the fuselage a continuous piece of 18 s. w. g, piano wire is used for making the

and is made of bamboo. The main central skid is extended forward and upwards at the nose of the model so as to form a protecting skid. Two pairs of wheels are used: one pair 1 '4 in. diam. and the other 1 ^ in. These wheels are tin and come off a cheap toy motor and will be found quite strong enough and very much better and lighter than those of equal strength sold on the market at the present time.

The supporting struts of the chassis are about 5/16 in. by in. and are streamline. They fit into small tin lugs bound to the fuselage. The central skid is \% in. by 1 /16 in. thick and should extend about 5 in. to the rear of the main axles so as to prevent the propeller from touching the ground.

The propellers are carved from solid mahoganv and are 9 in. diam., pitch 20 in. These propellers somewhat resemble a scythe and revolve outwards from the top as viewed from the rear. This shape has proved a great deal more efficient than ordinary helical screws and considerably better than the bent wood screws.

' The power consists of 6 strands of M in. by 1/32 in. strip rubber to each propeller, and about 900 turns can be given to each when well lubricated.

The total weight complete is Al/i oz. The average distance flown is ¿50 yards, but flights of over J4 mile have been accomplished a number of times.

L. S. L., Jr.

MORANE-SAULNIER — Latest type. Set of detailed working drawings for sale at $200. Sale exclusive. Morane-Saulnier holds best records cross-country and speed flying. Owner of drawings can superintend construction. Address A. F., -ire AERONAUTICS, 250 W. 54th St., New York.

CG

rubber motor hooks. These are covered with cycle valve tubing. The hooks on the propeller shaft are similarly protected. Two collets are used on each propeller shaft to reduce friction at the bearings.

The landing chassis resembles that of the famous "Cody" biplane

JOHN WISE—"History and Practice of Aeronautics," by John Wise. We have just secured another copy of this famous, rare work. Cloth, 8vo, ill., 310 pp. steel engraving frontispiece. For sale at $10. AERONAUTICS, 250 West 54th St., New York.

DENINE GLIDER

M. A. Denine, of Spokane. Wash., kindly sends us details of a novel glider, the publication of which he hopes will stimulate gliding sport among the young men.

We find the tail-less type easier to get off the ground and control than the tail types for the amateur glider-aviator. We have used hotli and find this type the eas;er to learn to control. The very flexible rear edge on the elevator and main planes take up tne shocks of sudden gusts of wind and help the longitudinal balance accordingly. We dc not recommend it as a power machine.

The material consists of two clear spruce planks 20 feet x 12 inches x 1 inch, ash ribs for ailerons, spruce ribs for main planes, one pine board V2 inch x 12 inches x 12 feet, one bicycle frame, wire, 3/j6-inch bolts, shingle nails, galvanized sheet iron, and a few extras will be needed. Cover with unbleached muslin. Use glue for sizing cloth.

Instructions: Rip beams for main planes from spruce planks, crosspieces for planes, outriggers, struts, etc., as per drawing. Make beams streamline except where strut sockets fit. Sockets can be cut from steel tubing as per drawing. Space sockets on beams 4 feet apart; next attach crosspicces. using galvanized iron strips to hold same in place. Ribs go on next; give them a cambre of 414 inches; attach each rib with three nails and a strip of galvanized iron, two nails for strip and one through rib. When both planes are made, insert struts in sockets and cross-wire each section with No. 16 piano wire, except center section, in which use heavier or double wire. Next, make outrigging, then elevator, and next skids. Use extra heavy wire in outrigging

above skids and for skid braces. It is better to have a little extra weight than a collapse when landing. It cost mc three weeks' work to learn to use extra heavy wire on the landing gear.

In attaching outrigging. be sure that when the top beams are level the nviiu planes have an angle of incidence of 4 inches. Attach skids so that the main planes have the same angle on the ground, namely, 4 inches. The glider flies at its ground angle.

Make the extension for the top plane 5 feet x 6 feet 6 inches chord, leaving beams projecting 6 inches on the inside of extensions so that they can be attached to main planes Where ribs overlap rear beam give them a reverse cambre on a steaming board until they reach the position marked " \" in the side elevation drawing. When aitaching warp wires, which must be only attached to the top of the aileron, tighten them until the aileron reaches a point just above the line marked "horizontal line." Your warp wires will now have no slack in them and when one aileron is warped up the spring downward of the opposite one will still keep the warp wires taut. Attach extension with steel clamps. Balance glider with pilot in the seat so that when the glider balances over the center of pressure of the main planes there is a weight of 22 pounds on the point of c. of p. of the elevator.

Gliding: Take glider to a hill, with a gentle slope. Do not use a steep hill, as there is always an air hole at the bottom and the glider will fall to the ground .it that point of its flight. I fell through one of these pockets four times before discovering what caused the glider to suddenly sink. Take the glider up hill a couple of hundred feet, attach ropes at the ends of the lower plane and to the cross-

bar below elevator; have a boy Uke each rope and run down hill. The boy with the elevator rope must leave enough slack in his rope to allow the front end of the glider to rise, but as soon as the glider gets into the air must take up all slack, so as not to allow the head end to rise above the horizontal. Instruct the boys towing the glider to increase their speed as soon as it begins to descend. This is absolutely necessary, as, during the first trials the tendency of the operator is to raise his elevator too far and thus lower his speed, so that the glider begins to settle and unless the boys increase their speed, a heavy landing will result.

Now, as to the operating of the controls. In taking your seat see that all controls work smoothly and be sure to try them and look them over carefully, before each flight. Push the elevator column from you until the elevator is at a negative angle of about two degrees and tell the boys on the ropes to start. If the hill you are experimenting on is sandy or covered with grass the glider will have speed enough to rise with a 30- or 40-foot run. Now pull the control column quickly toward you a couple of inches and return it to its original position again; do this two or three times in as many seconds and then pull the column toward you until the elevator has a slight positive angle, and hold it there. The glider will leave the ground now. As soon as it does decrease the angle of the elevator slightly. This will put the machine at a gliding angle and increase the speed. Try to keep as close to the ground as possible. Under no condition must you hold the elevator in the same position as when leaving the ground vr increase its angle during the first jump forward; if you do the glider will "stall" and cither dive or drop as through an "air hole."

Just before landing bring the elevator control further toward you, and the glider will rise slightly and come down without any shock. After the first few flights von will hardly know when you landed, the shock will be so slight. The lateral control is by the wheel. Turning it to the right raises the left side of the glider, and vice versa. Do not move the ailerons over 2 inches as they are very sensitive and an over-control will tip the glider further over on the opposite side than it was on the side you originally intended to raise. Let the boys on the ropes attend to your lateral balance until you have thoroughly mastered the elevator control. You will find that is about all you will be able to attend to during the first few flights.

Do not use the rudder unless absolutely necessary. After you have mastered all the controls and feel sure you can manage the machine, remove the rope on the elevator. Next try a flight with the ropes attached 10 the central uprights and last of all with a releasing gear on the ropes so that they can be dropped during flight.

In free flight a glider built with care, and according to the plans illustrated, flights of from two to four hundred yards can easily be made.

We have many of three hundred yards and one of four hundred, although the conditions that we experimented under were nowhere near the best. An aeroplane has never been

able to get up over 800 feet in Spokane, Wash., on account of the condition of the air there. W'e have gone u,p in the glider over 70 feet, and if that and our record of four hundred yards cannot be beaten in a lower altitude by some builder of the glider illustrated it will be because it is not built according to the plans.

We will be glad to hear from builders of this glider and will answer any question as to construction and operation of same.—Denine Bros, and Hemingway. 1110 East Indiana Ave., Spokane, Wash.

29 West 39th Street. New York

OFFICIAL BULLETIN. Data Sheets.

The second series uf data sheets has been sent out to members, consisting of nearlv a hundred sheets.

All members in good standing ;tr»■ enntled to these.

These data sheets provide members with information which could be obtained only at great expense by subscribing to every aeronautical publication issued in the world, by buying every book published, by obtaining reports of every laboratory and testing plant, with the attendant expense of translation and time of abslracting.

The data sheets arc issued free to members as fast as they can be prepared.

Membership dues in The Aeronautical Society arc $10 a year, no initiation fee. Members receive data sheets, the magazine, AERONAUTICS, engraved certificate of membership, free monthly lectures. For further information address the Secretary.

Directors' meetings are being held every Thursday evening throughout the summer, as usual. Regular weekly members' meetings are held as* usual. The monthly lectures have been suspended for the summer season.

Plans are in progress for the perpetuation of the race around New York as inaugurated last Fall, making it an annual event on a par with the great classics of the sporting world.

Notice to Delinquents.

Delinquents in payment of dues are earnestly requested to place themselves in good standing at the earliest possible moment in order that they may receive the official bulletin, AERONAUTICS, . semimonthly, the membership certificates and data sheets.

Published semi-monthly in the best interests of Aeronautics

BY

AERONAUTICS PRESS INC. 250 West 54th Street New York Telephone, Columbus 8721 Cable, Aeronautics, New York

ERNEST L. JONES M. B. SELLERS, HARRY SCHULTZ, C. A. BEI ER,

Editor Technical Editor Model Editor Advertising

Entered as Second Class Mail Matter, September 22, 1908, under the Act of March 3, 1879. $3.00 a year, 15 cents a Copy.

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Railroad ticketa accepted for transportation on D. & C. Line steamers in cither direction between, Detroit and Buffalo or Detroit and Cleveland.

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AERONAUTICS-250 W. 54th St.. New York

AN AEROPLANE SPEEDOMETER.

An aeroplane "speedomoter" in wide use in Europe is the Morell "Anemo-Tacliometer," illustrated herewith. This shows, like any automobile speed indicator, the relative speed of the machine through the air in meters per second, or miles per hour, as preferred. This instrument sells for $68 in this country, duty paid, through Schuchardt & Schutte, 90 West street. New York.

This is a safety device which should go far towards preventing the many accidents due to "stalling," as it will immediately show loss of headway due to reduction in speed. For looping the loop and other "stunts" it will safeguard the pilot by showing when he lias attained the desired high speed. Witli it he will determine the lowest speed at which lie can safely fly his machine, which may be necessary in reconnoitering, and thereafter the instrument will serve as a warning when the limit is reached. In gliding, the pilot can mark on the dial his safe l:mit and he guided in future by tliis.

In throwing bombs, the aim depends principally on keeping a certain uniform speed between sighting the object of the aim and the throwing of the bomb, because this space of time has to be ascertained by means of a stop watch. The Anemo-Tachometer will allow to ascertain the necessary speed of the machine for this purpose.

In climbing, the speed of the aeroplane, although the revolutions of the propeller remains the same, is decreased according to the climbing angle. If this angle is too great, the speed of the machine will drop below the minimum limit, the aeroplane will not answer the rudder any more and drops back. The Anemo-Tachometer shows the falling of the speed exactly.

In descending there is added to the speed obtained by the pull of the propeller, the influence of the acceleration of masses. The Anemo-Tachometer shows the increase'of the

speed occasioned thereby exactly and allows the same to be counteracted by necessary steering movements or shutting down of the motor.

The knowledge of this acceleration is extremely important for gliding. The acceleration of the masses increases according to the gliding angle and the length of glide. On the other hand, if the gliding angle is too flat, the speed of the machine becomes so small that the steering organs do not act any longer. As it is necessary to reduce the final speed of the machine by the corresponding position of the elevator so that a gentle landing on earth is possible, and inasmuch as the gliding angle and the gliding speeds are different for every machine, the constant control of the speed by means of the Anemo-Tachometer is of prime importance, because it will remove a certain insecurity wdiich is the more dangerous the less the pilot has learned through experience just how to manage the machine in such flights.

Not only for the purposes above described, but also for economy of flight, the Morell Tachometer is of importance. An increase in speed often is attained only by an unproportional consumption of gasoline, depending on the form of the propeller and the resistance of the entire aeroplane construction. The most economical speed can be ascertained and retained by means of the Anemo-Tachometer controlling at the same time the revolutions of the propeller by the aeroplane Tachometer "Phylax." It is recommended to also note this speed on the scale in a desirable manner.

Differences between the speed and capacity of the motor can also arise in agitated air when the direction of the flight is changed as compared to the direction of the wind (either with the wind or against it). These differences can become very disagreeable. They are also ascertained instantaneously by comparison of the reading of the motor Tachometer "Phylax" and the Aeroplane Anemo-Tachometer, and can be balanced by steering operations or regulation of the motor.

The Anemo-Tachometer is mounted on the aeroplane so that neither propeller wind or other wind set in motion by the aeroplane has any influence on the action of the Anemo-Tachomoter. Special conditions can always be met by special construction of the Anemo-Tachometer, always keeping the dial on the same level as the eyesight of the pilot.

As a means of conveyance the aeroplane is gaining on the automobile: there are more than two thousand certified aviators in Europe and America to-day and a hundred types of aeroplanes; stability of the flying machine is practically assured by recent patents on both sides of the Atlantic; and who shall say that in ten years more the world will not be flying and the automobile will not seem archaic?—N. Y. "Sun."

I cannot see that AERONAUTICS is in need of any improvements while you continue the drawing and technical talks.—H. L. IV., Charlotte, N. C.

We like your magazine and will surely continue reading same as long as it is as high grade as it is.—• F. B., Missouri.

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WALTER E. JOHNSON SCHOOL OF AVIATION

UP-TO-DATE METHODS

Summer Season at Lake Conesus, Livonia, N. Y. Winter Season in Florida

Superior Training' on Dual Hydro and Flying Boat by competent Pilots, under supervision of \V. K. Johnson, endurance record bolder, formerly instructor of The Thomas Brothers School of Aviation. Three years experience as instructor. Thousands of flights without a hitch !

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for model aeroplanes, accessories and supplies Very complete catalog free on request

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Wading River, N. Y.

MODELS

ALL AERO BOOKS FOR SALE BY

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Built in Four Sizes from 50-150 H. P.

UN A. (CLASS BY UTOEILr

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OLMSTED PROPELLERS

OLMSTED PROPELLERS ARE NOW BEING MADE ON SPECIAL ORDERS BY THE C. M. O. PHYSICAL LABORATORY, INC.

The OLMSTED PROPELLERS were selected after competition for the transatlantic flyer "America."

When the "America " flew with ONE POWER PLANT ONLY she was equipped .with OLMSTED PROPELLERS.

When the "America " broke all her previous weight-carrying records and established a WORLD'S RECORD she was equipped with OLMSTED PROPELLERS.

In Miami, Witmer increased his speed and added two passengers to the carrying , capacity of his boat, allowing him to make two American records and a world's flying-boat record when he attached an OLMSTED PROPELLER.

Address: C. M. 0. PHYSICAL LABORATORY, Inc., Buffalo, N. Y.

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Correspondence Invited

OLMSTED PROPELLERS

Officers of the army qualifying as military aviators will receive in addition to a military aviator's certificate a military aviator's badge. This badge will be worn in the manner and on the occasions prescribed in General Orders. The military aviator's badge becomes the property of the person to whom it is issued.

There are in Germany more than a dozen aeroplane factories with an aggregate capital of about $350,000 (as compared with about 20 factories in France, 6 in England and 5 in Austria), as well as several special factories for aeronautical motors and three or four substantial plants for the manufacture of airships.

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724-726 NINTH STREET,N. W. WASHINGTON. D. C.

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SLOANE SCHOOL OF AVIATION

Superior Training MONOPLANES and FLYING-BOATS

-■- Address--"

Sloane Aeroplane Co.

1733 Broadway New York

The Thomas School

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OFFERS SUPERIOR ADVANTAGES

Addre.i. Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co. BATH, N. Y.

WIRE

We make an extra high grade plated finish wire for aviators' use.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ADDRESS

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Send sketch or model for search. Highest References Best Results. Promptness Assured.

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624 F Street. N. W. Washington. D. C.

Wright Company

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TIMES AERIAL DERBY, won by

William S. Luckey, flying around Manhattan; 60 miles in 52 minutes.

TIMES AERIAL DERBY, second, Charles F. Niles.

AERO and HYDRO 1,000-mile Cruise Trophy, won by J. B. R. Verplanck and Beckwith Havens; Chicago to Detroit.

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Correspondence Invited

Bosch Magneto Company

201 West 46th Street : New York

LEONARDO DA VINCI—By Charles Beecher Bunnell

Up to the present moment, no ancient record of the problems of Aeronautics has been found, excepting the manuscripts of Leonardo da Vinci, one of the most honored men of liis time, who died in the arms of the King of France, in 1519. It's not definitely known just how many manuscripts lie produced. Most of these are drawings and specifications on scientific subjects. Among them is "A Treatise Upon the Flight of Birds" and the drawings attached look like the curious things that happen to our aviators when their machines balk. But to us, the most interesting drawings in the collection are the hundred or more pictures specifying his ideas on heavier than air flying machines.

Any one spending one hour with Leonardo's manuscripts is convinced he was the greatest mechanical genius of that time, and a supernatural master of art and poetry as well.

In 1502, Cardinal Borgia, the military leader, made Leonardo his engineer. (Cardinal Caesare Borgia was the brother of Lucretia Borgia, Duchess of Ferrara. the "toxicolo-gist.")

In artillery he constructed a 64-barrel field gun of the revolving type; he fired perforated bombshells; he suggested vertical-fire; he fired sharp pointed, iron stars that prevented cavalry horses from crossing the ground where they were scattered; he invented a turret fire that is ahead of the present method; he fired shrapnel, arrows, etc., etc., from breech loading guns; he also fired shot from a steam gun on the continuous performance principle and he built a catapult with a fifty-foot bow that threw1 a hundred pound arrow over a mile.

In optics he described the camera obscura; in acoustics, he said: "If a ship at sea heaves to, the putting of a tube into the water enables ships a long distance off to he heard"; in astronomy he had calculated the Penumbra; in hydraulics he built the finest kind of self-acting pumps; in canal building he used the most up to date methods of excavation.

The rotary snow plow will have to take a back seat (over a mile back); he invented a moving machine with revolving knives attached to two wheels in front of a span of horses.

and also revolving knives on two more wheels back of the horses, the hind wheels turned a shaft that went to the front of the machine (going between the horses and projecting over the front wheels which were armed with knives just like the rotary snow plow. But this machine was a war engine made to plow men.

Leonardo regarded himself a military engineer, and in the letter he wrote to Sforza (11 Moro) he enumerated 10 points wherein he excelled in war engine construction: in art he had one clause, part of which runs:—■

".....: also in painting

I can do as much as any other, he he who he may."

But it's to the drawings here reproduced, relating to Aeronautics that we will refer.

The idea of the parachute came from Leonardo, (see "P" in »,he illustration) which he describes in his own words:

"If a Man Carry a Domed Roof of Starched Linen, 18 Feet Wide and 18 Feet Long, He Will be Able to Throw Himself From any Great Height Without Fear of Danger."

His first wing drawings resemble, somewhat, the Bleriot wing.

In figure "T" of our illustration, the drawing is very suggestive of a spring powered toy. "B" shows the modern method of construction Leonardo used 400 years ago. "I" shows the inclination of llight. In "A" we have the flexing of the wing tip that is now a subject of litigation between two present day claimants. "S" shows a hand and foot power flying machine. "D" illustrates a double wing. "W" shows that a man has by the use of a fan brought his weight to zero—or is it a hint in aerodynamics which is being worked out by a great western genius who will soon print a little book giving out his new discoveries on engines and propellers? "A" and "a" shows another method of flexing the tips. In the "Condor motion" drawing you will note how the whole machine resembles a bird flying toward the ohserver. In the "foot power flying machine" the hands grasped the bar in the wings.

In the automatic flying machine of our illustration, we show the

power spring actuating cranks that flap the wings. The wings are copies of bird wings that Leonardo had dissected. He made his muscles, how ever, to pull through friction loops. He also made the wings have a third motion that was produced in the "shoulder blades" by a link, just as a bird or man moves his shoulder blades around his own back.

The action of air upon a propeller wheel was well known to Leonardo because he had designed a chimney wheel that turned a spit on which game was roasted.

Leonardo said: "The Man in the Flying Machine to be Free from the Waist Up. That He may be Able to Keep Himself in Equilibrium, as He does in a Boat, so That the Centre of Ilis Gravity and That of His Instrument may set itself in Equilibrium and Change when Necessity Requires it to the Changing of the Centre of its Resistance."

Tt took Lilienthal and Chanute a great many years to find the above fact out, then they found Leonardo observed it 400 years before their time.

According to Cuperus, "Leonardo practiced flying successfully."

Sidney Colvin says: "He seems certainly the man whose genius has the best right to be called universal, of any that have ever lived."

Ilallam. the historian, said: "His knowledge was almost preternatural."

One most remarkable thing ahout Leonardo's writings is. they are written from the right toward the left, they were also written by the left band, so that to read them one must use a mirror. This was a pr< caution against theft of his ideas, against which he wished to guard. Of course, there are a few of his writings that are not reversed.

Leonardo's treatise on the flight of birds is most interesting. Ilis investigations were exhaustive and treat on eddies, up currents and about everything that brings the modern aviator to sudden grief.

A mechanic who takes up Leonardo's drawings, immediately knows the whole problem without any instructions whatever. That comes from his method of drawing, which is superior to the very best practice of the present day.

THE HAGUE AND AIRCRAFT IN WAR

By Arthur K. Kuhn, A.M.

(From a paper read at the International Law Session of the American Political Science Association.)

Along with the subjects submitted for discussion by the First Hague Conference by the circular letter of Count Mouravieff, of January 11, 1899, was a proposal to restrict the use in military warfare of the formidable explosives already existing, and to prohibit the throwing of projectiles or explosives of any kind from balloons or by similar means. The proposal so far as it related to aerial craft was not called forth by any actual experience in modern warfare. Balloons were used by the French as early as the battle of Fleurus in 1794, by the Russians in 1812, by our Federal troops in Virginia, hy the French at the siege of Paris, and by the British in the Boer war. The propo-

sition was apparently an effort to anticipate the future progress of aerial science.

Mouravieff's proposal was referred to the committee which in turn submitted it to its military sub-committee. This sub-committee first voted a perpetual prohibition of the use of aircraft for throwing projectiles or explosives which, on motion of the American delegate. Captain Crozier, was limited, in full committee, to cover a period of five years. In this form, it was passed by the Conference and accepted by the Powers.

The action was for humanitarian reasons alone and was founded on the opinion that in the condition of the art as it then existed, persons

or property injured by this means might be entirely disconnected from the conflict and of no practical advantage to the belligerent. The period of five years was intended to allow complete liberty of action under such changed circumstances as might be produced by the progress of invention.

The prohibition expired by limitation on July 28, 1904, and the subject was therefore again brought up for consideration by the Second Hague Conference under a suggestion made by the Belgian delegation to renew the prohibition in exactly the same terms. In sub-committee two amendments were made, to be applicable in the event of a failure of the main proposal, one by

Russia the other by Italy. Russia proposed to limit forever attacks by thes.e means upon undefended places. Italy proposed to add to the Russian proposition that no projectiles or explosives should be launched from balloons not dirigible and manned by a military force, and furthermore that the same restrictions that rested upon land and naval warfare should apply to aerial warfare "wherever compatible with this new method of combat."

The declaration as finally passed was in the same terms as that of the First Conference except that, at the suggestion of Great Britain, the renewal extends to the close of the Third Peace Conference. The declaration has been ratified among others by Great Britain, Austria and the United States, but though the period for ratification expired June 30. 1908, seventeen nations have failed to give assent, among them Germany, France. Japan, Italy, Mexico and Russia. On the principle that since the period of conventional regulation of the usages of war, e%erytbing may be done which is not expressly forbidden by treaty or customary practice, and as there is no precedent whatever governing the use of aircraft in advancing the cause of a belligerent, it would seem that in the absence of such a prohibition, it would constitute a legitimate operation of war. The launching of projectiles from balloons has been placed in the same class of undertakings as the subjection of coast cities to ransom at the demand of a powerful fleet. Neither has been seriously considered by a responsible belligerent, yet both constitute a sufficiently serious menace to humanity to warrant consideration by international con ference-

An objection which has been raised to the prohibition as framed is the fact that there is no reciprocal prohibition against firing upon aircraft. This would make them open to attack, yet deprived of their proper defense. The real opposition seems to lie in the technical position of the respective powers in regard to their present land and naval forces and the advancement which each has made in aerial war. A great naval power like Great Britain would naturally be interested in the prohibition by reason both of the menace to her military isolation and because the strongest naval vessel might not be proof against destructive agents thrown from above. It may yet be that a supposed advantage by reason of superior naval strength may he much reduced if not entirely eliminated by compensating advantages in aerial strength. That Germany has thus far abstained from ratifying the declaration might seem to be a result of her progress in the use of dirigible balloons and the great expenditures of 'I'Otiev being made for this account. Russia's change of attitude may be accounted for in a similar manner bv the loss of her navy since the First Hague Conference.

The proposal contained in the amendment advanced by the Russian delegation to render unfortified places immune from attack by aircraft was given effect in a much broader form than was then expected. The immunity of undefended places was discussed under the general regulation of land warfare :ind an absolute prohibition against the bombardment of undefended towns, villages and dwellings "whatever be the means employed"

was agreed upon and is now a part of the convention on the laws and customs of war (Art. ¿5). This does not refer to bombardment from the sea, but there can be no doubt of its application to aircraft. As an American authority has said, "When exposed to such an attack, no place can be said to be 'defended.' " It is strange that though the original declaration has failed of endorsement by many states, the amendment has been given broad conventional effect through the action of a different committee.

The treatment to be accorded to the crew of captured aircraft in time of war has also constituted a serious problem in international law. During the war of 1S70, a strong inclination was shown on the part of Germany to treat them as spies. Sixty-four balloons were launched during the siege of Paris, and it will be remembered that Gambetta made his escape to the provinces in this way. Bismarck favored extreme measures, and in fact alt bal-loonists who passed over the German lines were severely dealt with when captured. This attitude has been severely criticized by writers upon international law as "neither secrecy, nor disguise, nor pretence" is possible for those who man air-era ft.

The dispute has now been definitely settled through Art. 20. of the Hague convention which provides that "individuals sent in balloons for the purpose of transmitting dispatches and the general keeping up of communications between the different parts of an army or territory" shall not be treated as spies, and the French official manual for the use of military officers specifically affirms their right to be treated as prisoners of war.

The obligation of a neutral state no doubt extends to the airspace over its territory as well as to its land surface and territorial waters. But the extent of that obligation has never been defined. An absolute duty to exclude the passage of belligerent craft through its airspace would indeed be onerous. Again with the increasing capacity of aircraft to carry articles of greater or less weight a law of contraband applicable to aircraft may in time be developed. I simply mention these questions in passing, however, as they are not yet of sufficient practical importance for useful discussion at this time.

The present period is manifestly an introductory one in the development of a new medium of intercommunication and traffic. It is doubtful that the air will ever be as important commercially as the sea, yet science is the cause of many surprises. But even in its present development, the nations are now-united by a closer bond, for the air is medium in respect of which each nation, no matter bow small in area, or howsoever situated, is equally favored in harbor and coastline: Indeed, it has been denominated "the universal highway.**

On tbe other hand, while the advent of efficient aircraft will extend the plane of warfare to a third element, the ultimate result will tend to make for the maintenance of peace. Small parties may be able to pass over protective armies on expeditions aimed at the seat of government itself, where the body of particular individuals most re'-pponsible for the war reside. This fact will tend for the first time to

subject responsible individuals to immediate and personal danger after the declaration of war, which heretofore has not been usually tbe case, and thus the development of aerial navigation will make for peace. Its advent, therefore, will be beneficial from both points of view. In peace, its development will depend upon sacrifices of the lesser for the greater good. In war, its use should be restricted so as to extend to it a humanitarian control equal to that now exercised over the methods of warfare heretofore employed.

AIRCRAFT IN THE

EUROPEAN WAR

As far as any practical data czn be gleaned from tbe heterogeneous cables from London, Paris and Brussels, the aeroplanes seem to be fulfilling the promises made for them by military experts.

What the Zeppelins will do remains to be seen as they have evidently been kept under cover thus far for some definite purpose. They would, doubtless, be most effective against the English fleet which, wiped nut of existence, would greatly enhance the possibility of bombarding English fortified ports and cutting off supplies and communication to her colonies. A recent naval critic has the view that the airships will be most effective in this direction.

A cabled report of the use of aircraft says:

"The remarkably definite way in which the positions and movements of the German troops have been located by the General Staffs of France and Belgium is due almost entirely to the success of aerial reconnoit-ering. The advent of the aeroplane already has revolutionized strategy and tactics. In this regard the superiority of French airmen and French aeroplanes has given the allies a decided advantage over the Germans. Reconnaissance in force by cavalry has been almost superfluous on the Franco-Belgian side, but the Germans, whose aerial scouting is inferior, have had to resort to it along the line.

"A scouting aeroplane carries two officers, one as pilot, the other as observer. Tbe officer observer carries a photographic apparatus, and in many cases remarkably clear pictures of the enemy's positions have been secured from dangerously low altitudes. French aerial scouts have taken amazing risks in this respect, • flviug well within the range of hostile rifles in order to insure accurate observations. Generally speaking. German officers engaged in similar work have flown at greater altitudes. Successful as the aeroplane has been for reconnoitering, its value as an instrument of destruction has proved practically nil. Judging from tbe experience of this campaign, the use of aeroplanes will be limited to scouting, and not be extended^ to actively offensive operations. This applies, at any rate, to the aeroplane in its present form. In many cases German military aviators have endeavored to disguise themselves as Frenchmen, sometimes by displaying a conspicuous tricolor of France on their machine."

Franco-German miscellaneous cables tell of tbe frontier being patrolled hy rival aeroplanes within easy sight of each other, of a Zep-

pelin having zepped over Liege during the bombardment, pursued by a Belgian aviator who lost his life in destroying it, after which the Germans confining their activity here to aeroplanes for scouting, several being destroyed by shots from the forts; of a French aviator reconnoitering the Germans from Belfort and returning with valuable information, the machine riddled with holes; of a report from St. Petersburg telling of the destruction of a German Parseval non-rigid en-tailingthe loss of four; of a German dirigible sailing over Liege and uropping several bombs in the city, killing 17 civilians and firing several buildings, with two Belgian aviators in fruitless pursuit; of bombs dropped on the railway station at Nanmr, Belgium and on a bridge, without great damage.

A Zeppelin dirigible is reported hit and destroyed by Belgian gunners, using an explosive shell.

Many German aeroplanes sighted along the border and French aviators flying across the line quickly pursued by overwhelming numbers of German 'planes and driven back. < )ne German aviator is reported to have flown over the Yosges mountains and dropped bombs in Vesoul, the capital of a department of France, returning safely. Two Belgian aeroplanes give chase to a German aeroplane scout who was flying above the Belgian fortified position on the Meuse, the result being bidden by the darkness. Two German neroplanes follow a French aviator and shoot at him unsuccessfully.

Servians are said to be using aeroplanes to reconnoiter Austrian operations.

Two German aviators were fatally hit and the third seriously wounded, while their machines were wrecked. The German airmen were reconnoitering the Belgian trenches at Diest.

Small bombs dropped from aeroplanes seem to do little damage.

Many of these reports are printed again days later with changes. No authentic information is available.

France is reported to have acquired a German aeroplane factory by the capture of Mülhausen. French reports say a German aviator was brought down by hitting the motor and made a prisoner of the pilot and observer. Pistol duel in midair between French and German aviators with no results reported. German aviators drop bombs in the department of the Meuse but injure no one. A French family receives a letter telling of the destruction of a Zeppelin by bombs from a French aeroplane flying above it. Russians are reported to have brought down a German aeroplane with four aboard, all being killed. An airship, supposedly German, was seen over the North Sea f rom Amsterdam, 11 ol-land.

Two German aviators killed and one seriously wounded by Belgians is the report on the German reconnaissance of the Belgian lines.

"The guns that were especially designed to destroy aeroplanes have more than fulfilled their mission and the markmanship of the Belgians has been wonderful. On the other hand the Krupp aero guns used by the Germans have all but proved useless. Thev were used against the Belgians at Liege, but in nearly every instance it developed that their range was too limited for them to do any real damage.

"The Belgian aero corps is proving of inestimable value to the field forces. F.very move of the invaders is anticipated and because of the excellent transport arrangements it is possible for the Belgian field commanders to meet the Germans more than half way in every attack."

AEROPLANES ARE

CONTRABAND

Great Britain's contraband of war proclamation places arms, ammunition and all distinctly military supplies on the list of "absolute" contraband.

"Aeroplanes, airships, balloons and aircraft of all kinds and their component parts, together with accessories and articles recognizable for use in connection with balloons and aircraft are among contraband material."

GOODYEAR BALLOON LANDS IN ONTARIO

The Goodyear balloon that left •Akron August 1 at 10 p. m., in charge of Pilot R. A. D. Preston, who won the national balloon race, and carrying Williard Seiberling, son of F. A. Seiberling, president of the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co., and YV. D. Burns, landed east of Chatam, Ontario, early Sunday morning.

When a hydro-aeroplane fell into Swedish waters a submarine boat dived under it and brought it to shore uninjured.

Balloon (sic!) Flight Delayed. Lieutenant Porte Not to Attempt the Ocean Trip Until Fall.—From an Oshkosh (Wis.) newspaper, July, 1913.

TO FLY FROM

BUILDINGS

Edwin Maxwell writes he is installing a powerful motor in a small monoplane of but 6 ft. spread and will make nights from the tops of high buildings, landing in the street below. Biographical sketch and notice of funeral will be printed later.

HOCH DER ZEPPELIN

Who iss it sails der atmosphere As light as foam on stein of beer, Und has Chon Bull knockkneed mit fear ?

Meinself—Count Zep.

Who iss it alvays in a smash, Und in der trees iss going, crash! Und swears der German three em dash?

Meinself—Count Zep.

Who patches up his cloud machine Und buys more Chon D. gasolene, Und sails again, calm und serene? Meinself—Count Zep.

Who beats all sky men in a flight. All but dose Yankee Brothers Wright?

Who does admit dey're ausgesight ? Meinself—Count Zep,

—Denver Republican.

MR. BERLINER

AGAIN AT WORK

Mr. Emile Berliner, inventor of the Victor talking machine, telephone transmitter, the Gyro motor, etc., who has been working for many years on a direct-lift machine, as has been duly recorded in AERONAUTICS, together with the results of his experiments, has renewed activity on this type of machine. The new apparatus will have one screw turning in a horiontal plane, with a small auxiliary vertical screw to oppose the torque of the lifting screw and prevent the turning of the apparatus about its vertical axis. Means will be provided to so adjust the vertical screw as to exactly compensate for this turning movement.

A NEW WORLD'S

HEIGHT RECORD

On July 14 the German pilot Oelerich created a new world's altitude record by attaining a height since estimated at 8,999 metres, or 26.200 ft., though it was previously reported to be only 7,550 metres, or 24,760 ft. In either event the world's record is well heat en, and is likely to stand at the present figure for a considerable time. The machine on which the feat was accomplished was a D.F.W. biplane of a new type —being of smaller span—driven by a British-built 120 h.p. Beardmore Austrian Daimler.

AERO MART

AERIAL SUPPLIES, MOTORS

AND EQUIPMENT. Bargains in the following material: Two Gibson propellers, 7 and 7J^ ft. diameter by 5 ft. pitch, $25, $30. One set of genuine Wright spread-bars, hangers, thrust bearings and propellers, complete, like new, of-ers. Eight-cylinder, Yee type, 50 h.p. motor, with propeller, tank and shipping crate, a sacrifice. $300. Get Complete catalog of high-grade aerial supplies. American Aviation Co., Chester, Pa.

FOR SALE, on account of sickness, aeroplane, very cheap for cash, or trade for anything of value. E. M., 1522 Norwood ave., Toledo, Ohio.

QUICK SALE FOR CASH—Two Curtiss-type double-surface aeroplanes, each with 50-h.p. Roberts motor; both outfits in flying shape; can be seen at any time; everything complete; $600 for the two outfits for quick sale. P., care AERONAUTICS.

FOR SALE — Hatton Tumor's "Astra ( astra," the most famous and rarest of all Aviation works. Published in 1S65 at 10 dollars. Magnificently illustrated, large quarto, 527 pages, in splendid condition. Will be sent post-free for 24 dollars.

Rt mittance to be sent to "Astra," c/o The Editor, "Aeronautics," 170 Fleet St., London (England).

THE CONVERSE AUTOMATIC STABILIZER

In the 324-mile race April 20-22, from San Francisco to Bakersfield, aviator Arthur Rybitzki used an automatic stabilizer invented and patented by H. lï. Converse, of Fresno, Calif.

A short circuit made it impossible for the aviator to cut out the stabilizer by the hand switch while in flight or at all, and the manner in which the short was covered with tape show every indication that same had not been touched since originally put on in San Francisco before the flight.

each outer end, these acting on rollers carried by a vertical bar having bearings in brackets which also support the cam shaft, the two bars have arms supporting Hi in. diameter pins (insulated frotu the arms). These pins depend into the vertical ends of a steel tube set transversely, the lower part of the tube, connecting the two vertical legs of same, is formed in the shape of a cusp (as a means for dampening the oscillation due to momentum).

A horizontal cross tube having a cup in its middle connects the

The aviator was fully dependent on the stabilizer at all time during the remarkable race, in which he finished with honor, a race, including cross flights and hack flights, amounting, it is claimed, to four hundred miles. ,

Within itself, when connected to the ailerons or warpable surfaces, the device is a complete operative unit, depending for operation on the aeroplane's forward motion through the air. The machine, which weighs 10 pounds, consists of a main magnalium frame, having on the forward end, a D. C. generator, 25 watts, 100 to .20 volts. It is driven by a 12 in. dia. 10 in pitch propeller, geared to rear end of generator shaft and operated thereby are a pair of electromagnet friction cone clutches, turning oppositely, the electro-magnets being of the common solenoid type, with stationary coils having a shaft on which is mounted the iron plug armature, within a brass tube, about which is the coil. The friction cones are on the rear end of the two clutch shafts; on the forward ends are the two gear wheels meshing with each other, providing opposite drive. The generator and the two clutch shafts and cones revolve constantly, 4 to 1 .ratio. The driven elements of the two clutches (the cone cups) are geared to a single drum, about which are two turns of each of the two aileron cables having their ends attached to lugs on the drum, the other ends passing through suitably located pulleys and being attached to the rear edge of the ailerons.

"The stabilizer has been used very successfully, when connected up using an equalizer means between the ailerons, thus acquiring equal head aileron resistance, and so avoiding turning, or any tendency to turn, about a vertical axis of the aeroplane."

On the rear shaft end of the drum is a worm meshing with a gear on a transverse shaft having a cam at

upper parts of the two vertical legs of the tube; the lower half of the composite tube contains pure mercury, the upper half and the cross tube and cup contain oil.

The pins are adjusted in a position slightly out of contact with the mercury (when level) requiring a tilting angle of about one-half degree to make electrical connection with the mercury (which remains level). From one pole of the generator connection is made to one end of each clutch coil, from the other end of each coil connection is made to the pin on the same side as the clutch connected to; from the steel mercury tube a wire leads to the other pole of the generator.

The function of the above mentioned cams is to lift the pins, withdraw ing same from the mercury, when the clutch is in operation.

The operation of the stabilizer is as follows: In straight ahead flight the mercury remains level. A gust of wind hits one side of the plane, causing the plane to start tilting. When it has tilted to the extent of one-half to one degree, but yet moving slowly (on account of the inertia of the machine) electrical contact is made with the pin on the low side of the plane, throwing in its clutch, operating the drum and cable which pulls down on the lower aileron and upon the other aileron and at the same time lifts the contact pin which is to avoid overdoing the righting effect and oscillation. But as the pin rises at mean velocity it follows that the plane is either tilting faster or slower (generally slower owing to the earliness of contact) than the pin is rising. If the former a long time of contact will result, hence .greater aileron pull or angle resulting; but if slower, then the pin quickly lifts away from the mercury, releasing the clutch, which now backs up to neutral position by means of the air pressure against the aileron (or contact on the other pin operating the other clutch in the reverse direc-

tion). It is thus seen that the circuit is broken early enough to allow the ailerons to arrive in neutral position by the time, or before, the plane is level, thus avoiding overbalancing.

In circular flight, the mercury column does not remain level, because the direction of force acting thereon which is a resultant of vertical gravity and lateral centrifugal force is dependent on the ratio between the two. It follows that when the aviator moves the rudder, causing circular flight, the mercury rises in the side farthest from the turning center, causing electric contact, and therefore banking the plane, which will be at right angles to the resultant direction of force.

In flying during windy weather, the wind must be considered in banking for a turn, i. e., in flying into a head-on wind", to turn about to fly with same but a slight bank is proper, while having a w ind with him and turning about into the w ind a much greater bank is required, to avoid side slipping.

The stabilizer takes care of all of this. The momentum acting on the mercury in turning (in the form of centrifugal force) increases in proportion to the square of the velocity. Of course whether the v ind is ahead or astern, affects the *peed of the aeroplane.

With this stabilizer in operation on a 'plane there is positively no side slip whatever, it is claimed, or overbalancing or over or under banking.

GERMAN COMMERCIAL AIRSHIP LINES LOSE MONEY

Notwithstanding the fact that the receipts amounted to close upon a million marks (about $200,000), the chairman announced at the recent annual meeting of the German Airship Traffic Co. that there was a loss during 1913 of 250,000 marks. This deficit was sufficiently disquieting, but it was trusted that the company would be able to tide over affairs until the airship industry had developed to the extent anticipated. Passenger trips made by airship during the year had brought in a sum of 540.000 marks, while in the preceding year they had realized 490.000 marks. A sum of over 330,-marks was realized through subventions and profits upon the materials used.

The charge for admissions to the airship sheds, and various other things, brought in a sum of 81,000 marks. This, in itself, was all favorable enough, the chairman said, but the deficit was principally due to the great expenses in connection with maintaining the airships and to other matters. The continual endeavor to improve the ships, in case of war, was another tremendous expense. After prolonged discussion, a premium of 54,000 marks had been arranged with the insurance companies. While the expenses of the upkeep amounted, in 1912. to 416,000 marks, in T913 they were 476.000 marks. The chairman declared that a great improvement in the airship industry was to be expected within the near future, but that things would need to improve considerably before the company would be able to clear expenses.

NAVAL AEROPLANES AT SEA

An invention has been patented plane is launched and embarked in

in England which is designed to such a manner that oscillations ot

supersede present methods for the ship would not be so dangerous,

launching aeroplanes off ships at sea. It may he said by some that it is

There have been many methods desirable to launch hydro-aeroplanes

suggested for this purpose of launch" directly from the snip, when the

ing aeroplanes from ships, and for water is too rough to rise from,

embarking them while at sea. They Even if it is possible to launch them

are as follows: The aeroplane was directly (and this is not at all cer-

intended to alight upon a special tain), it is obvious that some such

platform on the ship, either a per- method as is here suggested will be

manent or temportary structure. It necessary in order to regain the

was also intended to depart there- ship.

from. The objections to this The illustrations show the floating method are many, and quite ob- pontoon with an aeroplane about to vious. (2) the aeroplane was to run be "beached." and then drawn up along a wire rope or be shot off a the bridge to the deck. This bridge rail, and either be picked out of or gangway is hinged both to the the sea by derrick, or to fly under ship and pontoon by detachable a wire rope and catch hold of it by hinges. The sketch shows what means of hooks. This latter is the would happen if the vessel is roll-feat of an acrobat, and is then only ing in a seaway, and provided the possible if the ship were not oscil- period of roll were made fairly long, la ting, while the former is danger- there would be ample time to take ous and not desirable. (3) The advantage of the level phase to haul aeroplane to be lifted bodily on to the aeroplane on to the deck. The the surface of the water by derricks rollers 111 the way of the floats or the like, from which it would would facilitate hauling up and rise in the ordinary way. This launching with speed, method would be slow and clumsy The whole apparatus could be and would not be good for the aero- stowed away on board when not in plane, and in anything of a sea use. and would fold up and be lifted would be positively dangerous owing on board by derricks.

TtH I I li:

to the oscillations of the ship. No In the case where the apparatus other method has been suggested yet. is fitted to the stern of a ship, the In the method here described by amplitude of pitching in a sea from C. \Y. Tidcock, in British "Aero- which it is possible to launch aeronautics," the aeroplane or hydro- planes would be slight.

the old 1 larvard aviation meets, and there, on the bank, trie boat was taken off and the land equipment designed by Mr. Burgess put on. One will notice it is very much simpler than the English construction. The whole thing was a grand success from the very start. Webster made a number of flights on the first afternoon. On the following morning he left the ground repeatedly without touching his hands to the levers.

Contrary to the expectations of many, the machine was found to control perfectly on the ground, both arising and alighting. The exchange of land equipment for water equipment lightened the gross weight of the machine by ahout 175 pounds and cut down head resistance, increasing its climbing ability from 200 to over 300 ft. per minute and its speed from 60 to about 63 miles per hour.

After these flights had been completed, five men put on the old boat, and in a 35-mile wind Webster flew back to Marblehead, 17 miles, in nine minutes, which is "going some."

NEW BOOKS

FLIGHT WITHOUT FORMULAE, by Commandant Dnchene; translated from the French by J. H. Ledeboer, editor of British "Aeronautics." Svo. cloth, 211 pp.; illustrated with diagrams and charts. Published by Longmans, Green & Co. $2.25 net. May be supplied through AERONAUTICS, 250 W. 54th street. New York.

This book treats of the principles of flight and of the problems in the mechanics of the aeroplane in the simplest possible language, and does not contain a single mathematical formula. Here is a book which the great majority should have. There are very few people in this country who have anything like a smattering of technical knowledge, and ihis book will lay the foundation for a better understanding.

NAVY GETS FIRST

BURGESS-DUNNE

Early in August the first Burgess-Dunne seaplane was delivered to the U. S. Navy on board the cruiser North Carolina, at Newport News. Manager F. H. Russell went do« n there to install it. and flights were made by the different aviators there, and all expressed themselves as enthusiastic over its inherent stability. A numher of other Burgess-Dunnes are now being manufactured, among which might be mentioned one for the U. S. Army, to he powered with 120 Ii.p Salra-son motor.

The Burgess-Dunne No. 1 ma* chine is being flown daily in and around Marblehead. Thursday, August 6, Mr. Webster, accompanied by Ensign Edwards*, U. S. N., made a very pretty 20-mile flight to Boston harbor, and after encircling the new Navy aviation cruiser North Carolina. landed alongside and moored their craft while taking lunch with their fellow aviators in the service. After lunch they returned to Marblehead by the air route.

Mr. Webster is almost dailv making flights as far as 42 miles up and down the coast, with passengers, and some interest has been awakened in reconnoitering off shore in connection with movements of the foreign cruisers, which are searching for marine vessels outside the three mile limit.

On July 16 Webster flew the machine to Squantum, to the site of

110-h.p. MOTOR for sale. Specially built, 8 cylinder V, 4^ by 7, water cooled, built by Christie Machine Co. for C. K. Hamilton. Flown by him at Belmont and Sacramento. Cost $5,000. Perfect condition, ready to put in 'plane. Can be seen any day. Run not more than 4 hours total in flight. $1,000 cash only. Address Hamilton, c/o AERONAUTICS.

THE ACCESSIBLE CIRCLE

If a vessel starts from point O, in go from O to in, lie will head in a

calm air, with a speed I'. it will direction parallel to Om'T which is

arrive, in the lapse of one second, the apparent trajectory of the ves-

according to the direction taken, at sel, while O'm is its real path. Since

some point on the dotted circum- in a second vessel, under the above

ference (O center, ]' radius). Eut conditions, can only reach points

if the vessel encounters a regular wind of speed r, the circumference (full line) on which it will find itself after one second will be that of radius V drawn from the center O', such that OO' is equal in length (to scale) and direction to the speed v of the wind. If the pilot wishes to

inside the circle with the center G", it is called the accessible citclc. When the circumference of this circle includes the point O', that is P — *' *> Ot the vessel can move in all directions around O, and also to A, i.e., against the wind, it is actually dirigible.

KOX-PHILLIPS SKIMMER

One of the new So h.p. Gyros has hcen installed, with an air screw, on the Fox-Phillips skimpier. The boat is 20 ft. long by 37 in. wide, and has pontoons on either side to keep it from tipping over on making turns.

The skimmer just produced by F. Fox and D. B. Phillips, of Washington, is designed to produce a watercraft with the speed of an automohile. The Gyro So horsepower motor runs the craft at 60 miles per hour, at which speed it draws but an inch of water and the pontoons are well above the surface. The bow does not rise, as in the usual speed boat, the hottom remaining nearly parallel to the surface of the water. Only brief spurts have been made at this speed as yet as the pressure of the water invariably tears away or crushes some part of the sheathing. This is being remedied.

The weight is about 650 lbs., including motor. There is a main hull 20 ft. by 3 ft., with stabilizing pontoons, 6 ft. by 2 ft., one each side at the stern. These are connected with the main hull by wings of streamline section covered with thip spruce. The Gyro motor is mounted on the main hull between the pontoons and drives direct an S ft. 3 in. diam 5 ft- 2 in. pitch propeller at 1.250 r.p.m. For'ard of the motor is the cockpit containing seats for two persons, steering wheel, etc.

The most novel feature is a patented device for maintaining a cushion of air between the hull and the water, the object being to reduce skin friction. This is accom-

plished by the use of wide funnels facing in the direction the boat travels and connecting with large tubes which pass through the hull from top to bottom. At high speeds the great air pressure, aided by the suction of the water past the mouths of the tubes, causes a large volume of air to be discharged under the hull. This is prevented from escaping sideways by runners on each side, extending 2 in. below the bottom. In spite of these runners some air escapes on each side of the mouth of tbe forward air t"be, which is close to the surface, at full speed. The blast of air and spray gives the appearance of a jet of steam escaping from the side of the hull.

AT LAST! WRIGHT, BURGESS, CURTIS, ETC., TAKE NOTICE.

San Francisco, Cal. 335 Leavenworth St., AERONAUTICS. 122 East 25th St., New York City.

Gentlemen: A flying machine, known as the "Helicopter Hydro-Airship," has been invented and patented by a mechanic of this city, by name H. Van Wie, which is a sucessful combination of parachute and planes, insuring safety, lifting power and speed. It is entirely different from present flying machines, and as far superior to all of them as the modern electric train is superior to the old stage coach. It is destined to revolutionize not only methods of flying, but all methods of transportation, and will have a radically revolutionary effect on everything.

You are most cordially invited to investigate.

1. It leaves tbe ground or water at once. 2. Alights straight down. 3- Has 400 per cent, lifting "and sustaining capacity. 4. Is absolutely non-collapsible. 5. Can remain stationary in the air, with the aid of the helicopter. 6. An average speed of 500 miles per hour is a conservative statement. 7. Passengers, aviators and engines are protected by enclosures. 8. Propeller has twice the efficiency of the old; two revolve in opposite directions on one shaft; three twin screws provide more tban six times the power of the average aeroplane, with much less resistance. 9. Carries duplicate of everything, including engine. 10. Can be repaired while in flight. 11. has highest efficiency with lowest loss of energy. 12. Has no oscillation. 13. No noise from propellers. 14. No top suction. 15. Is in itself an automatic stabilizer. 16. Can be run by a 12-year-old boy with safety. 17. Can be built any size. 18. Is equipped with all modern conveniences. 19. Is made portable, but need not he shipped, as it can be flown anywhere.

Mr. Van Wie intends to build a 12-passenger. 2-aviator machine. It will take less than three months to build, and cost about $15,000. If you are interested financially, I shall be very glad to hear from you.

Yours truly. E. S. Nelson, Secretary.

Frank H. Burnside. the star Thomas flier, flew in Norristown, Pa.. August 12, 13. 14 and 15 with great success. lie made some spectacular flights.

George Newberry, who just grad-

uated from the Thomas School, has been flying at Alexandria Bay. N. Y., a hydro-aeroplane. His flights have been very successful and it looks as if he will become a good pilot.

DE LLOYD THOMPSON MAKES NEW ALTITUDE RECORD

De Lloyd Thompson, who has been looping the loop with his Day tractor for some months (illustrated herewith), has recently fitted one of the new Gyro 8o h.p- duplex valve motors, and on August 6 broke

from that time no other propeller has been used on the machine, except when the Paragon was laid up for repairs. The officers say they get about the same results with both propellers, but it is noticeable that the Paragon is the only one they use.

In 1911 we made for the Roberts Motor Co. two propellers, which were exactly alike in every particular,

the American one-man altitude record by reaching a height of 14.350 feet.

Thompson says he was climbing without loss of speed up to 12.000 feet, and from there be had a struggle, lie ran out of gasoline in 40^4 minutes, and was out of sight for 45 minutes.

A description of the new valve mechanism of the latest 80 h.p. Gyro motor was puhlished in the June 15 issue. The Gyro factory is now running day and night, and has on hand enough orders to last the year out.

THE WIDTH OF BLADES

Speaking of the width of propeller blades, it may be of interest to know how narrow they have been made in some recent foreign designs. An 8 ft. 10 in. propeller, developed in the Royal aircraft factory of Great Britain for use on Renault motors, with heavy biplanes, has the following width: 4ft. diameter, 6 1 -8 in. • fc-tt rlia -eter, 6 3-16 in.; 8-ft. diameter 3 15-16 in. Two of these propellers were furnished with the Renault-driven navy boat D-2, and there was a great deal of favorable talk about them among the officers, as these propellers were supposed to embody the best results of very extensive experiments at the Royal aircraft factory, both in the laboratory and on the field. The two propellers are set at right angles to each other on the same shaft, so the combination approximates a four-bladed propeller. After this propeller was used a short time, we furnished an SJ^-ft. three-bladed Paragon, and

except that one had a blade about 50 per cent wider than the other. Upon test, they reported no practical difference in speed. The thrust was not taken.

The blade of a propeller must not be considered as an oar or paddle pushing hack ward against the air. 11 does not move broadside, but edgewise through the air, and its angle of attack is very fine. We must consider the air as flowing across the blade from leading to trailing edge, just as it flows across an aeroplane wing, except that the angle of incidence of the blade is very much less. The business of the blade is to so affect the air flowing over that the stream of air will leave the blade at a slight angle from the direction in which the air approaches the blade. The blade has to he wide enough to cause this change in the direction of the air flowing over it, without breaking (he air into turbulent eddies, whirlpools, etc., and without drag-ing any dead air along with the blade as it moves. If the blade is

amount of change in the flow of the air, except that there will be a very slight increase of skin friction, due to the added surface, but this is too small a matter to make any practical difference. It is probahle that nearly all propeller blades are wider than they need to be in order to produce the same amount of change in the direction of flow of the air as it leaves the blade. The average propeller could be cut down considerably in width without affecting appreciably the speed at which it turns; hut if the width is so far reduced that the air flowing over it cannot form in smooth, even lines, but surges around both edges of the blade, its efficiency will he enormously reduced and probably as much or even more power will be required to turn it at a given speed. The aim in propeller design is to secure ample width to insure a smooth flow of air over the face and back of the blade, under the expected condition of power, speed and slip. Any greater width than this may do no serious harm within reasonable limits, but encumbers the machine with unnecessary wood and a little more skin friction in the blade.

Spencer Heath.

JEFFERY GLUE IN

WANAMAKER BOAT

IIammondsport. N. V.,

August 12, '14.

I W. Ferdinand & Co., Boston, Mass.

Gentlemen: We are pleased to state that your water-proof liquid glue has been used for securing the canvas to all of the Curtiss flying boats. It is also used on the Rodman Wanamaker trans-Atlantic flying boat, "America."

It is perhaps unnecessary to add that in the construction of these

wide enough to produce this change water-flying machines dependence is

of direction of flow, it can do no placed on nothing less than the very

more than this after it has been best materials the market affords, made wider; neither will it con- Yours very truly,

sunie any more power for a given (Signed) The Curtiss Aeroplane Co.

FOR FLYING BOATS USE

JEFFERY'S MARINE GLUE

Use our Waterproof Liquid Glue, or No. 7 Black, White, or Yellow Soft Quality Glue for waterproofing the canvas coveriog of flying boats. It not only waterproofs and preserves the canvas but attaches it to the wood, and with a coat of paint once a year will laat as long as the boat.

For use in combination with calico or canvas betweeo veneer in diagonal planking, and for waterproofing muslin for wing surfaces. Send for samples, circulars, directions for use, etc

L. W. FERDINAND & CO. 201 South Street, Bo»ton, Mau, U, S. A.

JiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiMMimuiiiiniiiii^

Published lemi-monthly in the best interests of Aero* nautics

■v

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Subscribers will kindly notify this office if discontinuance is desired at the end of their subscription period, otherwise it will be assumed that their subscription is to be continued.

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Railroad tickets accepted for transportation on D. & C. Line Bteamers in either direction between Detroit and Buffalo or Detroit and Cleveland.

Send two-cent stamp for illustrated pamphlet giving detailed description of various trips. Address L. G. Lewis, General f-assenger Agent, Detroit, Mich.

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The MAXIMOTOR is the only American motor running on ball bearings, which reduce the wastage of power, and guarantees dependable bearings at all times. Large overhead valves, efficient cooling and oiling systems, in conjunction with the great strength of all parts and the simplicity of the MAXIMOTOR design,assure perfect and dependable operation.

That is why the Benoist Aircraft Co.,Edson Gallaudet, The Walter E. Johnson School of Aviation, Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co., L. H. DeRemer, A. D. Smith, Bud Cary, and dozens of others use MAXIMOTORS.

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VELOCITY OF RISE AND LIFTING POWER OF BALLOONS

In the case of rubber pilot bal- walls S in microns (first vertical

loons it is important to be able to column: i micron = o.ooi mm),

tell beforehand the velocity of rise TaMe n :vcs; Lifting power, in

and lifting power of a balloon of . t ,, r ■

given dimensions; or, conversely, Sra.ms;°f balloon of given weight

to design a balloon for specified an'- thickness of walls, when filled

velocity of rise and lifting power, with hydrogen or with coal gas

Table I gives the following in- (section IV). Tables III and V formation: Diameter of balloon of give: Velocity of ascent In met-rs weight G in grams (first horizontal per second, when filled with hydro-line) and thickness of material of gen or illuminating gas respectively.

SIGNALING TO AEROPLANES.

In order to communicate signals from a battery to the aeroplanes, the following methods were used by the aitillery at Fort Kiley, observers being carried by Lieuts. Milling and Arnold, in Model B Wrights, as reported by the Artillery Board:

"Two strips of canvas, each about two feet wide and fifteen feet long, were laid on the ground, both in rear of the battery, and with pins in each corner to bold them in place on the ground. If these two strips were laid, one in prolongation of the other, pointing toward the front of the battery, it indicated that the battery desired the observer in the aeroplane to reconnoiter for a target in that general direction, and, having found it. he indicated on a card the direction of these strips on the ground and the direction in which the target lay, or signaled the radio to move the strips to the right or left. He also, when practicable, indicated an approximate estimate of the range. The strips were then laid one across the other in the form of a cross, which indicated to the observer that the battery was about to fire and wished him to observe and report. If it was desired to acknowledge receipt of a signal from the aeroplane, the strips were placed in the form of a letter "T." If it was desired to have a message repeated, the strips were placed in the form of a letter "\Y* If it was desired to recall the aeroplane in order to consult with the observer, the two strips were placed parallel to each other and two or three yards apart. These signals worked perfectly.

"Of the various systems of signals, the radio seems to promise the greatest rapidity. It is believed that this system should he adopted and supplemented by the use of cards in case anything happens which would prevent its operation. The long-hanging antenna seems to he objectionable to the aviator, and it is hoped that some means will be discovered whereby its use will not be necessary. The card system is quite satisfactory, and it is believed that it can always be used where time is not a very important element, as in general it will not be with the character of targets that will be fired at with these methods.

"The Board is of the opinion that the use of observers in aeroplanes in connection with artillery firing at hidden targets is entirely practicable and furnishes means for reaching targets which could not otherwise be touched."

I cwt. (Hundredweight) - 112 lbs.-- 50.89 kg.

According to the Tagliche Rundschan of Berlin, the German Aeroplane Works at Leipzig have received a commission from the British War Office to deliver IS biplanes, which are to be equipped with Mercedes motors. This Leipzig firm recently won the first prize at a competition test of marine aeroplanes. The Albatross Works at Johanuisthal are at present building for the British Admiralty 12 water biplanes, which will also have 100-horsepower Mercedes motors and must attain a speed of 100 kilometers (62 miles) per hour. The Rundschau adds that Turkey regularly obtains its aeroplanes from the German Rumpler Works, to which the Swiss Government also recently gave a large order.

PATENTS

SECURED or FEE RETURNED

Send sketch or model for FREE search of Patent Office record. Write for our Guide Bonks and What to Invent with valuable Lilt of Inventions Wanted sent Free. Send for our special list of prizes ottered for Aeroplanes. $600,000 Offered in Prizes for Airships. We are Experts in Aeronautics and have a special Aeronautical Department.

Copies of Patents in Airships, 10cents each.

VICTOR J. EVANS & COMPANY ««-0«««= tz^n.^street^.w.

PATENTS

Frederick W. Barker

Attorney and Expert in

PATENTS, TRADE MARKS AND DESIGNS

Cases i>rvi>ared and prosecuted 28 Years in Practice with the (jrvntest care and Direct Connections in all thoroughness, to ensure broad Foreign Countries

scoi'C und validity 115 Broadway, New York

The

SLOANE SCHOOL OF AVIATION

Sups rio r Train in g

MONOPLANES and FLYING-BOATS

"■ Address

Sloane Aeroplane Co.

1733 Broadway New York

The

Thomas School

OF AVIATION

OFFERS SUPERIOR ADVANTAGES

AJdr«», Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co. BATH, N. Y.

WIRE

We make an extra high grade plated finish wire for aviators' use.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ADDRESS

John A. Roebling's Sons Co.

TRENTON, N. J.

PATENTS

THAT PROTECT AND PAY rnrr BOOKS, ADVICE AND SEARCHES r KLL Send sketch or model for search. Highest References Best Results, Promptness Assured.

WATSON E. COLEMAN, Patent Lawyer 624 F Street, N. W. Washington, D. C.

DON'T wrile us unless

VyJlv 1 you are inter. ested in a reliable, efficient anc'economical power plant. T rat is the only kind we build. Four sizes. Reasonable Prices

The Wright Company

(The

Wright

Patents)

r I

4 Cyl., 60 11. P.. 225 lbs. 6 Cyl., 100 H.P......300 lbs.

Special feature is patented one piece copper water jacket. Moving to Larger Quarters.

SPECIAL PRICE FOR LIMITED TIME

4 Cyl., $ 900.00-reduced from $1,400.00 Quick 6 Cyl., 1,200.00—reduced from 2.000.00 Delivery

Herfurth Engine Co., Alexandria, Va.

THE NEW WRIGHT AEROPLANES

For sport, exhibition or military use, over land or water now embody the improvements that have been suggested by the experiments quietly conducted during the past ten years.

The Wright Company

DAYTON. OHIO New York Office: 11 Pine St.

EMERSON

.ENGINES

NEW TYPE OF MOTOR.

A new type of gasoline motor claiming 300 h.p. for a weight of 220 lbs. was exhibited at the Paris Salon. This is the Demont rotary motor with six cylinders; its chief peculiarity is that it is double acting, having a large diameter cylinder and a large tubular piston rod extending from both sides of the piston and sliding in tubes *n both ends of the cylinder, the packing being metallic rings. The piston also is hollow, thus permitting a current of air to pass through the

machine from gusts of wind and changing regime. We do not possess any very exact information on the importance of the dynamical efforts imposed on the apparatus in full flight, and what is usually called the co-efficient of security is a coefficient of a purely static order.

On dirigibles, the knowledge of tensions during flight is not less interesting. It is interesting not only for the materials which compose the suspension and the car, but also the resistance of the material (covering) of the balloon to which the cables are directly suspended. Ac-

are provoked by sudden variations due to shocks.

It is composed of a bar provided with three wheels that are placed on the cable, like that indicated in the figure seen from the side. The central wheel presses through the medium of a stirrup, Dd, on a hydraulic capsule. This sliding stirrup slides on another fixed stirrup, Fd', mounted on the bar. The capsule is connected by a metallic tube to a registering manometer. When the tension of the cable varies, the pressure on the capsule varies equally, and these variations are recorded on the drum of the instrument. The initial position of the central wheel depends on the diameter of the cable, and is regulated at the outset by means of the screw, G, which displaces the vernier, V.

This apparatus, constructed by the Richard firm, is 50 cm. long, and it is a powerful model, capable of measuring a tension of 150 kg. to SU0 kg. It gives good results. The needle of the register instantly obeys the variations of the tension, and shows a variation of about 10 kg. It is necessary to fill the capsule well and it must be entirely free from bubbles of air. This is an essential condition.

NEW BOOKS.

FLYING, Some Practical Experiences, by Gustav Hamel and Charles C. Turner. Svo, cloth, 338 pp., handsomely illustrated, published by Longmans, Green & Co., New York, at $3.50 net, postage extra. This is pre eminently a practical book. One finds in it a vast amount of material of invaluable use to experienced fliers, as well as to amateurs and those about to take up flying or purchase machines. Practically a correspondence course is given in the first lessons. Accidents are discussed, their causes and prevention, with illustrations from those of recent history and the probable reasons therefor, and the possibility of tiieir having been avoided. Crosscountry flying is taken up and everything relating to aerial touring considered. Entrants for long-distance contests will find notes for t of

tube and piston for cooling Tr.e cording to the distribution of the tube lS sufficiently large to allow the efforts between these last, the cover-connecting rod, which extends up ing can be subjected to local efforts

rodsV°T^ VCry Varia-blei ,capabl-e n0t onIy of their use which are the P"duc-t -

Sane of Jiti„„ 1 t " same compromising the resistance of the the years of extraordinary experience

aTexct" Silify'. eVCn kS ^ °f-'he aUth°r' Hamel. ywhoP is too

the end; each fork is of different r, ;= ;„ PO„„^;all„ „r ,v,:.

width, so that each wider fork em- ,„? Z7 has

been reconstructed, which will be

braces the narrower ones on the crank of the single throw crank shaft.

The inlet and exhaust valves, mechanically operated, are parallel with the motor's axis, the exhaust valves projecting forward, and inlet valves backward from the cylinders, Thus the effect of centrifugal force is avoided.

It is claimed that this construction permits the use of larger cylinders on account of the greater cooling surface, and the closeness of the heated walls to all parts of the charge.

well known as one of the great fliers to need introduction.

Among other subjects are: Choosing a Machine, Different Kinds of

XI

MEASURING THE experimented with equally on aero- Flying, High Flying, Oversea Fly-

TENSION OF STAYS planes. ing and the Hydroaeroplane, the

m-c-TTT t T7T T/-TJT- (Fig. 1)—The machine is built Future of Flying, the Aeroplane in

fUL.L. on the known principle of the bend. War, Wireless. Night Flying, Tho-

On an aeroplane, knowledge of Its peculiarity lies in the property tography, Medical Aspect, etc.

the tension whicb the stays may that it possesses of automatically To go into detail would take too

sustain in the course of flight is registering the variations of the much space, but every reader is

naturally most interesting. It per- tension of the cable, whether these urged to become a purchaser of tbis

mits one to determine the pressure variations are due to the* progres- practical book, which may be had

sustained by the wings and the sive variations due to the efforts e.x- through AERONAUTICS, postpaid,

rate of fatigue of the parts of the erted by the wind or whether they at the same price.

Boland Flying Boat

ONLY TWO CONTROLS SIMPLEST TO OPERATE

BOLAND MOTORS-60,70,100-125 H.P.

Repair and Construction Work in Best Equipped Factor}-

AEROMARINE PLANE & MOTOR CO.

Exclusive manufacturers under Boland Patents AVONDALE, N. J.

Ash m u s e n Aeronautical Engines

NOW READY FOR THE MARKET

60 b. p. and 90 b. p., other lizet to order

Our 60 h.p. 8 cylinder engines have flown Wright's Twin-screw, Curtiss-type and Tractor Biplanes, and Bleriot-type Monoplane. 6 yrs. experimenting and testing on Aeronautical engines alone. We make nothing else.

Good discounts to first buyers in some localities, and on quantity contracts, and to agents.

Agencies Open

Ashmusen Manufacturing Company

-inc.-

Kings Park, Long Island - New York

We

WALTER E. JOHNSON SCHOOL OF AVIATION

UP-TO-DATE METHODS

Summer Season at Lake Conesus, Livonia, N. Y. Winter Season in Florida

Superior Training on Dual Hydro and Flying Boat by competent Pilots, under supervision of W. K. Johnson, endurance record bolder, formerly instructor of The Thomas Brothers School of Aviation. Three years experience as Instructor. Thousands of flights without a hiteh!

Write guieklv fur reservation in Summer-class to

The Walter E. Johnson School of Aviation

LIVINGSTON INN. LIVONIA, N. Y.

BALLOONS

Airships, Aeroplanes. Gas Generators, Safety Packs, Parachutes. Exhibitions furnished with Balloons, Aeroplanes and Airships. Stevens' balloons used by 957» of American and Canadian clubs.

AERONAUT

Madison Sq. Soi UI.NewYork

LEO STEVENS

f LYING

By HAMEL and TURNER

Large 8vo., cloth, 338 pp.

$3.50 postpaid

The one best practical non-technical book of the year. Recommended to pilots, students, amateurs, prospective purchasers and the casually interested.

^AERONAUTICS - 250 W. 54th St.. New Yorhj

OLMSTED PROPELLERS

OLMSTED PROPELLERS ARE NOW BEING MADE ON SPECIAL ORDERS BY THE C. M. O. PHYSICAL LABORATORY, INC.

The OLMSTED PROPELLERS were selected after competition for the trans, atlantic flyer "America."

When the "America " flew with ONE POWER PLANT ONLY she was equipped .with OLMSTED PROPELLERS.

When the "America " broke all her previous weight-carrying records and estab-Jished a WORLD'S RECORD she was equipped with OLMSTED PROPELLERS.

In Miami, Witmer increased his speed and added two passengers to the carrying , capacity of his boat, allowing him to make two American records and a world's flying-boat record when he attached an OLMSTED PROPELLER.

Aditress: C. M. 0. PHYSICAL LABORATORY, Inc., Buffalo, N. Y.

HI HI Hi Hi

Correspondence Invited

OLMSTED PROPELLERS

NEW

GYRO DUPLEX

The first and only American revolving cylinder motor.

80 H. P. 7 Cylinder, 200 lbs. 100 H. P. 9 Cylinder, 250 lbs.

WESTERN UNION TELEGRAM

Chicago, 111.. Aug. 4, 1914. GYRO MOTOR CO..

7 74 Girard St., Washington, D. C. My Gyro eighty a wonder. Climbed twelve thousand feet in aineteen minutes and went over in loop with all kinds of reserve power. Have located sixteen thousand foot barograph and will go after Americao altitude record in Kansas City tomorrow. If I succeed it will be official. Will write particulars

,aJer- De LLOYD THOMPSON.

THE GYRO MOTOR COMPANY

774 Girard Street

Washington, D. C.

< BEN0IST «c

Aeroplanes Flying Boats

AIRCRAFT CO.

St. Louis, Mo.

Special trades of Bamboo for Aeronautic Work. Reed, Rattan and Split Bamboo for modela. Tonka Rattan for Skids \S\ diameter and under any length.

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AERONAUTICAL RADIATORS

Built in capacities and types for standard and special aviation motors

Write for prices on standard makes. Send your specifications for special designs

EL ARC0 RADIATOR COMPANY

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Abo Manufacturers ol Automobile Radistort ol til types

OLD PROPELLERS

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: Don't throw them away. Patronize our Propeller Hospital. If you have a substantial E

E propeller of any make that is poor, useless or inefficient, we can make a good one of it, at I

= small cost, no matter what pitch; we can change the pitch to suit. Sounds impossible, E

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E The three-bladed Paragons used on all Navy Machines give the highest results ever E

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XV. No. 4 AUGUST 31, 1914 15 Cents

No king ever enjoyed ■ such sport as this. Four U to five hundred miles without pause, at a speed of more than a mile a minute.

Five hundred thousand passenger miles without one serious aeei-dent. Used by six Governments and by private owners nearly everywhere.

The Curti|ss|Training Camp

Opens October 15 at San Diego, California

In addition to its advantages of experienced instructors and superior equipment our North Island flying camp this Fall offers these further inducements.

Opportunity to witness the United States Army aeroplane competition to be held on North Island beginning October 20.

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t

A REVIEW OF AERONAUTICAL PROGRESS*

By JOHN J. LONG

In these days of startling prog pounds and capable of five horse- captif e machine of lai»- -i/e The less in the aeronautical world, we poucr. In 1S52 he built a dirigible machine had a total lutin" suiface aie prone to think that the develop- in which was installed a three- of 6.O0U square feet and'\v"ei"he-d nient of aeronautics is of entirely horsepower engine of this tvpe, S.000 pounds It uas driven' bv recent date. The problem of lui- with a three-hladed propeller mak- two specially des "lied su-am eii man flight, however, has occupied ing 1111 revolutions per minute. The gines, each ' weighing oil) pounds die mind of man for centuries, and airship was spindle shaped, 1-14 feet and capable of developing iso horse-many and divers have been the so- long, 40 feet in diameter at mid- power. A lifthi" effect "of I OIJIJ to lulions offered even before the section, and of 90,000 cubit feet 4.000 lbs. was obtained and'un one davu of the nineteenth century. capacity. This dirigible, on at least trial the machine broke away from

That famous artist and engineer, one occasion, attained an independ- its upper guide rails.

Leonardo da Vinci 1 1452-1519), eut velocity of about five miles per

«as the first to give a technical "Our. 1 rofessor S. I . Langley, cele-

suggestion for artificial flight. His Passing over intervening attempts, m"'"' """', '"V^un ,V? n

design consisted essentially of many of' which brought forth m- StJ the S ,1,«™P T r.'T

wings, which were to be attached provenants of the Ciffard design, ?Vl, nIT, ^ ?°, rJ,?, ' '"

to the body of a man and operated !ve come to the work of Captains èVificà 1 - worked ont 1, 1, T ™]

by his arms and legs. This scheme Renard and Krebs of the French "'"wallj nuked out by him, and

never passed beyond the paper armv. Thev coifstructed adr grnïè 5' 'iïs V^l^V"*,

stage, but Fauste Yeranzio in 1617 i„ ÏSS4, in" shape something like a accon plisl, n, ma,,^ ffi ft;

made a descent from a tower in fish, with the master-section at a dis- ^"5" fa ,,,, mderitî ,l,e ™

Venice in a crude form of para- ,a„Ce from the nose of about a M^cti'„ "f a n An car, vb^ màohin

chute, made of canvas, and he was quarter length. The airship was L°|\ % "a""a""^ f ",atC' ^

prohably the first actual expen- driven by a nine-horsepower electric dV,'a" ^ evolved a maclmie which

menter. -Many other schemes, motor, actuated bv current from a hi ilamieVtn limM, îrnm , 1 n«

some utterly impractical followed specially designed "battery of chrom- boat^ oil tile Potomac Defects iiî

\ eranz.o's attempt, notable among jum chloride cells. This motor drove ,1° i ° lc , annà^t.'is „ „„ ,l

which was that of the .Marquis de a large wooden propeller set for- , la"'^"" K a pa.atus proved d s-

Paequeville, who. in 1742. made a ward: at a rate of 50 r p.m The ^l^it\nt d^artened W the

somewhat successful glide, from the rudder, fixed aft. was a solid body ™u f le 0f ^

window of Ins Pans mansion across made of two four-sided pyramids, I d |! n/™ iw „ L,

the gardens of the Tuileries, final- fixed together at their bases. The a " fur her èx,,I?,me, E

ly landing in the Seine. car was fixed rigidly to the net of 3"y fur",er "peinnent.

The Montgolfier brothers, Joseph ll,e balloon by a diagonal rope sus- Contempiraneons with Langley.

and Jacques, invented the' hot-air pension, and was provided with a Otto Lilientbal (1S4S-1s90) had

balloon in 1/83, and in the fall of sliding counterweight capable of been carrying mi exhaustive experi-

that year Pilat're de Rozier, in a movement fore and aft to balance ments with inaii-carrying gliders in

balloon of this type, made tlie first anv displacement of the center of Germany. After developing his

human ascent in a free balloon gravity. This halloon, the ' La glider until it was capable of glides

(November 21, 1783). It is inter- France," left its hangar in Septem- of over 300 yards from a height of

esting to note that this pioneer ner- 1SS5, performed evolutions over 30 yards or more, be planned a

aeionaut was also the first to give Paris, and returned to the starting doubles-decked aeroplane, equipped

up his life in the effort to conquer point—the first flight on record with a motor. While testing a new

the air Hydrogen gas had been where a balloon started from a steering arrangement, the machine

discovered in 1776 and the cele- definite point and returned under lost its equilibrium and lilientbal

brated physicist Chasles suggested 'Is own power. The maximum ve- was killed by a fall of about sixty

its use in a bal'loon. DeRozîer im- 'ocity was about 15 miles per hour. feet.

mediately constructed a balloon in The modern types of dirigibles Octave Chanute. a bridge engi-which he attempted to combine the have added little in fundamental neeft introduced Lilienthal's ide*as advantages of the hydrogen and the principle to the work of Renard to tnjs countrVi andi in conjunction fire balloons, joining together two and Krebs. The "rigid" type, as xvjt[l Herring, developed a biplane separate envelopes, the upper filled exemplified by the Zeppelin, has g]ider w-hich was capable of several with hydrogen and the lower filled been developed in Germany with ilundred satisfactory flights. The with heated air—an extremely dan- marked success, while in France the Wright brothers, Wilbur and Or-gerous combination. After sailing "semi-rigid" type has been exclu- vi]]ei encouraged' by what they had f ,r half an hour, the balloon sud- sively exploited, dating from the learned of Lilienthal's success,"made denly burst into flames and the first Lebaudy dirigible in 1902. a number of successful gliding ex-aeronaut was dashed 3,000 feet to Turning now to the development periments, which led to the" con-his death. of the "heavier-than-air" machine, struclion of a motor-driven aero-These balloons were, of course. Sir George Cayley, in a paper pub- plane. This resulted in a successful incapable of accurate direction, and lished in Nicholson's Journal for flight of 59 seconds on the 17th of efforts were made to design a bal- 1S09-10, enunciated some of the December, 1903—undoubtedly the loon which would be dirigible. Gen- principles and ideas of mechanical first man flight in a motor-driven eral Meusnier, in 17S4, anticipated flight, and even made a rough cal- aeroplane.

in his design many of the excellent eolation of an engine which might Santos-Jhimont won the Arch-features of our modern dirigible, be used as motive power, incidentally deacon prize on October 23, 1906. Among these may be mentioned the dropping the hint that a mixture of for a n;„i,t nr ?5 metres, the first elongated form, the girth fastening, gas and air, when exploded under a flight in Europe*," and in' Tanuary, the triangular suspension, the air piston, might give very satisfactory jqqs Farman covered a triangular balloonet, the screw propeller, even results. Cayley analyzed the forces collr5e 0f one kilometer, thereby indicating the place where the pro- acting on the wings of a bird, and wjnnjng tne Archdeaco'n-Dcntsch peller should be installed. The showed experiments which he had prjze. Farman established yet an-death of Meusnier at the siege of performed to illustrate the relations other record by making the first Mayence, a few years later, un- between resistance and velocity in cross.conntry flight from Chalons doubtedly prevented the practical a surface moving through a medium. to Rh^^. a distance of 1" miles, development of this design. In a paper on "Aerial Locomo- and Pderiot made the first closeei The great difficulty in the way tinn," read at the first meeting of trip across country from Toury to of the practical dirigible was a suit- the Aeronautical Society of Great Artenay, a distance of 19 miles able power plant, which should com- P.ritain, in 1866. F. II. Wenham One July 25, 1909. Pleriot crossed bine light weight with efficiency, enunciated the important principle the English ^ Channel, and in the Giffard, well known as the inventor that the supporting force on an in- same year Glenn Cnrtiss won the of the steam boiler injector, en- clined surface being driven through first international contest for gaged himself in an attempt to the air is limited to a mrrow portion America at Rheims. solve this difficulty, and ohtained a near the front edge. This fact, of jjle modcrn history of aeronau-working steam engine weighing 100 course, suggested a large "aspect . . encompassed in a remarkably

__ .,. He ral5'" l,0,ined °"< tl,e short span of years. The success-

desualnlitv ot superposing the sup- . , ,. . , , t?.-^,,,.]. -,rmv

Taper presented at the spring p„,.ti„„ smfaces ,„ obtain great , ^ , ^ r £v,'™

meeing of the New Haven Section |,f,mg power. the development of die many types

of the American Society of Me- In 1S90 Sir 11 nam Maxim carried 1 ' "

chanical Engineers. on a series of experiments on a {CtmUnved on Patn'&f)

AERODYNAMICAL LABORATORIES

The specialization of aviation as electric propeller tester, apparatus spects. material for containing same an aid to warfare and its minimi- for measuring distribution of air varnishes, etc. All instruments of zatioti as a sport has led directly pressure over the surface of models, value are at hand, and workshops to the enlargement of or institution instruments for finding center of furnish test wings and parts and rein European countries of great ex- pressure, etc. The work of the pair facilities. The electric railway perimental plants and laboratories laboratory is all indoors, and is con- enables full-sized aeroplanes to he devoted to academic and engineer- fined to wind tunnel measurements tested in a condition of Bight, so ing investigations. Whatever studies principally. Seven skilled men are that lift, drift and moment or center will promote the art of aircraft con- employed. Reports on work are is- of pressure can be determined at struclion and navigation are prose- slierj occasionally in book form by once as it travels across the field, cuted by these laboratories. The ]\[. Eiffel, as is well known to all The institute puhlishes yearly bul-laboratories of London, St. Cyr and readers. letins of its work.

Johannisthal are practically unlimit- T]le British "Advisorv Commit- The laboratory at Gottingen is ed in the scope oí their researches. ,ee.. pr¡marilv ¡s occu|)¡erj „.¡tn gov. near the university, and is not so A note on some of these has been ernmental hut does under- very extensive, heing composed oi

written by Dr. Zalin and published ,ake ,ests and researclies for indi. but one 5maU building, housing a by the Smithsonian Institute vidtials. The work includes whirl- wind tunnel, with numerous instru-

There is the Eiffel Aerodynamic ¡ng ta[>|e an(, w¡|ld tunne) measI1re- ments. The results of experiments Laboratory, near I aris, supported ments> ,est¡ng of engines, propellers, here have been puhlished in various h7 t'i?„l1,r'vil'f I,uurse the famous metalSi fabrics, cables, varnishes. German technical periodicals. Of G. Lifftl. who has contributed a i)ydromechanic studies, meteorolngi- particular interest are the determina-number of volumes to the art, which ca] observations, mathematical in- tions of pressure distribution on are considered basic as to their vestjgatiolls in flnid dynamics, the models of airship hulls and meas-data. t .1-1 theory of gyroscopes, aeroplane and urements of the resultant wind

I-rance aiso has the Aerotcclinical dirigible design, and so forth. The force on oblique hulls and wing Institute of the University of I aris, Committce was formed of twelve forms. The work of this lahoratorv at St. Cyr under M. Maurain, exper( civiIia„s_ umler ,he presi. has chicfly been devoted to wind-founded by Baron Deutsche de la (]encv of Lord Ra lci appointed tunnel experiments. Meurth, who furnished $100,000 for ,)y the rHme Mhlister ,„ work out T|)e p]a,„ a, Johaiinistlial. tile the original plant, ?j.000 a year theoretical and experimental prob- largest except the nritish. adjoins for maintenance during his 1 fetime ]ems for t,,e army a,]d _ 0ne „ grea( fl ¡ fieM and numeJrous

and was presented to the University „„¡Idin ¡s providcd for the 60-foot aircraft factories, aeroplane sheds, of Pans; and the ml itary estab- whjrl¡ |ahIe {or (he tes„- of etc ¡1r Eng. F. Bendemann is lishment at ( halais-Meudon, re- mode]s and moM propellers. an. director, with ten assistants. Both sembling the British Aircraft lac- ot]ier fof a , expanded-tvpe indoor and outdoor researches are

tory; and the Conservatoire Na- w¡nd tunneK w]lic]) ¡g some R0 fee, conducted, and it is Iiberaiiy sup. tionale des Arts et Metiers cor- , by 7 feel 5quarCi wl,;cn. with ported in its work, which has un-responding to our bureau 01 ¿tana- ,he w¡m, hnUnQe makes an outlay ,imited scope. There is one main ards- . . of $16,500 for the building and building, with a 100-foot tower for

Germany has the Gottingen Aero- pquiprnent. A small wind tunnel wind observations in which to test dynamical Laboratory, under the di- hmise with a ,unne| half the above aeroplanes of full size; a building rection of Prof. Prandtl of the Urn- size c05t;ng $20.000; a small water used for construction work, and five versity of Gottingen, begun with channel for testing stream-line flow smaller buildings, each containing money supplied by the Motor Air- about modeIs: lv,.0 w¡nt) towers for an engine-testing outfit. It is in-ship Study Company and supported testing flow and pressure of free air tended to fly full-size aeroplanes by financial aid of the government; on )arge sca]e mode]s: ]arKe marine with measuring instruments mounted and the Deutsche Versudianstalt ,„ode] ,ank wond ani, meta] work. on a car on a railway, in a similar fur Luftfahrt zu Adjershof, at the !ng R|lopSi stores, etc.. are other manner to the method at St. Cyr. Johannisthal flying field, near Ber- f,c¡i¡t¡es. The Royal Aircraft Wings are tested for stress and 'ln- . . Factorv is adjacent tn the militarv strain, a device is being used to

In England, the British govern- Er0l,„ds at Farnborough. and is con- measure the force employed in ment established at Teddington the cerned with the scientific improve- operating controls, motors are tested National Physical Laboratory, under ,nent of aircraft construction, in the usual manner of engineers, the directorship of Dr. R. T. Glaze- though it frequently manufactures and the equipment generally is nat-brook, chairman of the Advisory on a large scale aeroplanes, airships urally such as would likely be seen Committce for Aeronautics, and the and nropellers. Both the above in- in such an institution. Royal Aircraft Factory at Fain- stitutions have a whirline table and Other German laboratories are the borough. Both are under this Ad- engine testing plant. The Lahora- testing department of the Zeppelin visory Committee, which also con- tory investigates models particular- Airship Company, which is not open ducts work at private concerns, such )v and ,he Factorv full-scale craft, to visitors: the aerodynamical lab-as Vickers Sons and Maxim, and narts and appurtenances. The Fac- oratory of Prof. Reissner, of the are supported by the government. torv spends around half a million a Technical High School at Aachen; The Northampton Polytechnic In- vear and emnlovs 700 men. and with Major Parseval's laboratory in the stitute, London, and the East Lon- ¡ts mStmir,n^ plant, covering manv high school at Berlin, and an ex-don College also have aeronautical acres and comprising half a dozen perimental plant of Dr. Fr. Ahl-laboratories. large buildings, it can produce one born at Ilamhurg.

In Russia there is the Aero- aeroplane a day. The equipment of the Aerody-

technical Institute of Koutclnno, at The g, Cvr ¡ns,¡tute conducts namic Laboratory of the Massachu-that city, under the direction of M. ]arge „ca]e exneriments in the field setts Institute of Technology con-Riabouchinsky. Italy has an un- as wel, as ¡ndoor „.nrk and makes sists of a wind tunnel 16 square portant plant. These two will be instigations for the eeneral public »et in section, through which air dealt with in a subsequent article. nr a„0,(.s ivate individuals to use is drawn by a seven-foot four-

1 he Factory has disclosed defects (he laboratory. The director has Waded propeller. The steadiness of in leading types of machines, indi- t]]rp<; nr foMr assistants at work, the current has been carefully studied cated means of betterment, and has and „)e a¡d of a )ar(,e advisorv with the result that the wind improved efficiency, stability, factor c(ninc¡1 of P111¡llent engineers, scien- can be kept uniform in velocity of safety and range of speed in the ,ists amI onVers. A special feature within one per cent. The variation machines studied there. It has pro- ¡s the ^.mj]e tracv.-. with electric of velocity across a section is also duced a stable, efficient and safe bi- cars fnr ,csts on large prnpellers within one per cent. Anv speed P'ane'",th.,a ranp of s.pee.d f.roI5 and full-size aeroplanes. The site from 4 to 40 miles per hour can 41 to 80 miles an hour A standard covers slw lfj acreSi and com ises be maintained.

control is being worked out, and a centra, hall surrounded on three The wind tunnel and the aerody-opmion favors the Deperdussm. s¡d„s by workshopSi stores, labora- namic balance are made from the The Advisory Committee publishes ,or¡es and power \,mse_ Equip- plans of the National Thysical Lab-annual reports, which can be ob- ment ¡ncludes wind tunnel, balance, oratory equipment. Teddington, Eng-ta.ned by any one through the pub- fan_ arrangement for measuring land, by whose director, Dr. R. T. íí15',.^, j , . friction of air on surfaces at all Glazebrook, F.R.S.. the complete

The Eiffel Laboratory consists of v'-^^ti^. ow,.-:,, H.'immometer for plans were generously presented, a single building, housing a wind „r„c„r;,w fixed w«-ll'r torque, The balance is a duplicate of the tunnel designed and patented hy nm,„r„f,.¡ for stodvi"- helicopters. English balance, and shares with the Eiffel, experiment rooms and test- „„„:„,, tester, cheminl laboratory

ing devices, such as wind balances, for studying light gases in all re- (Continued on Page 61)

SOARING FLIGHT

Written for AERONAUTICS by O. Chanute.

[The following article, written by ward against the wind and subse- These observations disclosed sev-

Jlr. Chanute ill 1908, still holds good quelltly rising higher than his start- eral facts:

in a general way, though the figures ing point, must either time his , . T. ...:nj. Kim,;n„ c ,„ ,, might be modified in the light of ascents and descents exactly with mi,e ' peM.ôur frequen, y narising more recent work. However, we the variations in wind velocities, or ,rends' f ]0„ , ,% do not yet know .the coefficients must meeta, wind b.llow rowing '"^of jo^to ¿5 ,„d ttat upon for a buzzard's wing, or for a on a horizontal axis and come o absolutely no wind there was often, whole buzzard, except the experi- a poise on its crest thus availing nevertheless, a local rising of thé ments of Dr. Zah.n here .cited, of an ascending trend. air estimate'd at a rate 'J which show a very small horizontal lïut tile observations failed to miles or more per hour. This was resistance for the whole bird.— demonstrate that the variations of ascertained by watching thistle down Editor.] the wind gusts and the movements and rising fogs alongside of trees or There is a wonderful perform- °,f ,he blrd "ere absolutely syn- hills of known height. Every one ance daily exhibited in Southern chronuus, and it was conjectured will readily realize that when walk-climes and occasionally seen in !hat the peculiar shape of the soar- ,„g at the rate of 4 to 8 miles an Northerly latitudes in Summer, «ing ot certain birds, as dif- hour m a dead calm the "relative whic has never been thoroughly Ure'U.ated irom the. flapping wing, wind" is quite inappreciable to the x, toned the Soaring or m'Sht' when experimented upon, senses and that such a rising air Sailing flight of certain varfeties a«ou'« f°r the "»imm- «ould not be noticed, of large birds who transport them- ' . 2nd. That the buzzard sailing in selves on rigid unflapping wings , 1 hcse computations, however satis- an apparently dead horizontal calm in any desired direction; who, in factory they were for the speed of progressed at speeds of 15 to 18 winds of 6 to 20 miles per hour, """as observed, failed to account miles per hour, as measured by his -irele rise, advance, return and for lhe observed spiral soaring of shadow on the ground. ft was emain aloft for hours without a gizzards in very light winds and thought that the air was then pos-teat of wing, save for getting un- w.r.''cr "as. compe led to con- sib y rising 8.8 feet per second, or 6 1er way or convenience in various f«s:, ,W' this spiral soaring in miles per hour.

naneuvers. They appear to ob. ,^eady breezes of 5 to 10 miles per 3, That when soaring in very

tain from the wind alone all the ™.f «. »«' ^wisx^ £rhss£ Winds the anS,e of »>cidence

necessary energy, even to advanc- d tbrotlgh *h ich th et, ltd— f ,he buzzards was t0 the

ing dead against that wind. This » ™»X mys,ery°t„ Ee j™,rtl5"ththat "",7 s«» ™m-

fea is so much opposed to our gen- , j d , V accounted for, Valine n„ rl, yl l .a£ cr"°0nf

eral ideas of physics that those who quantitativeiy, by any of the theories 0',f °,n 'he, hJ"& !nstead, of

have not seen it sometimes deny its whjcl) have fcenJ adv'anced. and it is Z ri ■ Vh an 1. |d HaVe r"1}

actuality and those who have only „ie nne nerfornia„ce which ,las ied fc."The hnrizL, 8 mcllned

occasionally witnessed it subse- some observers to claim that it was a00'* "^horizon,

quently doubt the evidence of their li0„e through 'aspiration'; i. e., that 4th- That the sailing performance

iwn eyes. Others who have seen a bird acted upon bv a current, on'y incurred after the bird had ac-

the exceptional performances specu- actually drew forward into that cur- quired an initial velocity of at least

late on various explanations, but ,em against its exact direction of j5 or miles per hour, either by

the majority give it up as a sort motion." industrious flapping or by descending

of "negative gravity." A still grealer mystery was pro- from a Perch.

The writer of this paper pub- pounded by the few observers who 5th. That the whole resistance of

lished in the "Aeronautical An- asserted that they had seen buz- a stuffed buzzard, at a negative angle

nual" for 1896 and 1897 an arti- zards soaring ni a dead calm, main- of 3° in a current of air of 15.52

cle upon the sailing flight of birds, taining their elevation and their miles per hour was 0.27 pounds. This

m which he gave a list of the speed. -Among these observers was test was kindly made for the writer

authors who had described such Mr. E. t\ Iluffaker, at one time by Professor A. F. Zahm in the

flight or had advanced theories for assistant experimenter for l'rofessor "wind tunnel" of the Catholic Uni-

its explanation and he passed these Langley. '1 he writer believed and versity at Washington. D. C, who

in review. He also described his said then that he must in some way moreover stated that the resistance

own observations and submitted have been mistaken, yet, to satisfy of a live bird might be less, as the

some computations to account for himself he paid several visits to dried plumage could not be made to

the observed facts. These compu- -Mr. Ifuffaker in eastern Tennessee lie smooth.

tations were correct as far as thev and took along his anemometer. He This particular buzzard weighed went but they were scanty. It was saw quite a number of buzzards sail- j„ Hfe 4.25 pounds, the area of his for instance shown convincingly by ],,g at a height of 75 to 100 feet 111 w-ings and body was 4.57 square feet, analysis that a gull weighing 2.1 SS breezes measuring 5 or 6 miles an the maximum cross section of his pounds, with a total supporting sur- hour at the surface of the ground hodv was 0.110 square feet and face of 2.015 square feet, a maxi- ?>'d once he saw one buzzard soar- that of his wing edges when fully mum body cross-section of 0.126 '"8 apparently in a dead calm. extended was 0.244 square feet, square feet and a maximum cross- The writer was fairly baffled. The w- , , d became sursection of wing edges of 0.098 bird was not simply gliding, utilizing >X™j0a"co" ^ per square feet, patrolling on rigid sravity or acquired momentum, he \mtJJe ""ft, ,hr™s-efficients of vinirs («i.irinoi on the weather was actna y circling horizontally 111 };',,',, ; emc.enis 01 side of a steamer and ma utai ing a.i defiance of physics and mathematics. ^>'cn<hal ,f°r various angles of in-siue 01 a steamer anu maintaining an ,„,'„'. d .„i,ni,. „,,-;„, cidence and to demonstrate how this upward angle or attitude of 5° to.7° It took two >^s and a whoUser.es h„mTa ^M soar ,lorizonta||v in

above the horizon. ,n a wind blowing c^s into accord wi h a dead horizontal calm provided'that

12.,8 miles an hour which was de- those two sciences into accord with ;t ^ n<n a vcrtica, ca|m apd ha,

fleeted upward 10° to 20° by the '''^ facts. thc ajr was rW a( th ^ q{

side of the steamer (these all being Curiously enough the key to the 4 or 6 miles , th , st

carefully observed facts), was per- performance ol circling 111 a light observed, and quite inappreciable

fectly sustained at its own "relative wind or a dead calm was not found wjulllllt actual measuring

speed" of 17.8S miles per hour and through the usual way of gathering ' B'

extracted from the upward trend of human knowledge, i. e., through oh- lhe most difficult case is pur-

the wind sufficient energy to over- servations and experiment. These posely selected. For if we assume

come all the resistances,"this energy had failed because I did not know that the bird has previously ac-

ainountine to 6 44 foot-pound per what to look for. The mystery was, qniied an initial minimum speed

second. It was shown that the same in fact, solved by an eclectic process of 17 miles an hour (24.93 feet per

bird in flapping flight in calm air, "f conjecture and compulation, but second, nearly the lowest measured),

with an attitude or incidence of 3° once these computations indicated and that the air was rising vertically

to 5° above the horizon and a speed what observations should be made 6 miles an hour (8.80 feet per

of 20.4 miles an hour was well sus- the results gave at once the reasons second), then we have as the trend

tained and expended 5.88 foot-pounds for the circling of the birds, for his of the "relative wind" encountered:

per second, this being at the rate then observed attitude and for the 6

of 204 pounds sustained per horse- necessity of an independent initial = 0.353 or the tangent of 19° 26'

power. It was stated also that a sustained speed before soaring he- 17.

gull in its observed maneuvers, ris- gau. P.oth Mr. Iluffaker and my- which brings the case into the cate-

ing up from a pile head on tin- self verified the data many times gory of rising wind effects. But

flapping wings, then plunging for- and I made the computations. the bird was observed to have a

negative angle lo the horizon of about 3° as near as could be guessed, so that his angle of incidence to the "lelalive wind" was reduced to lb1" 26'.

The relative speed of his soaring « ;is there fore :

Velocity - V 17- + 62 ~ 18.03 milts per hour.

At tins speed, using the Langley cut (iicieiit recently, practically con-lirmed by the accurate experiments (it Air. * Liftel, the air pressure would be—

18.03- x 0.00327 = 1.063 pounds per square fool.

If we a]'lily Lilienthal's co-el-hcients fur an angle of lb0 26', we have tor the force in action:

Normal: 4.57 x 1.063 x 0.912 = 4 42 pounds

Tangential: 4.57 x 1.063 x —0.074 - — u,359 pounds which latter, being negative, is a propelling force.

Thus we have a bird weighing 4.25 pounds not only thoroughly supported, but impelled forward by a torce of 0.359 pounds, at 17 miles per hour, w bile the experiments of Professor A. F. Zahm showed that the resistance at 15.52 miles per hour w as only 0.27 pounds, or 17=

0.27 x----- = 0.324 pounds at 17

15.522 miles an hour.

These are astonishing results from the data obtained and they lead to the inquiry whether the energy ot the rising air is sufficient to make up the losses which occur by reason ot the resistance and friction of the bird's body and wings, which being rounded do not encounter air pressures in proportion to their maximum cross-section.

We have no accurate data upon the co-efficients to apply and estimates made by myself proved to be much smaller than the 0.27 pounds resistance measured by Professor Zahm, so that we will figure with the latter as modified. As the speed is 17 miles per hour, or 24.93 feet per second, we have for the work:

Work done: 0.324 x 24.93 - 8.07 foot-pounds per second.

Corresponding energy of rising air is nut sufficient at 4 miles per hour. This amounts to but 2.10 foot-pounds per second, but if we assume that the air was rising at the rate of 7 miles per hour ( 10.26 feet per second), at which the pressure with the Langley cu-efficient would be 0.16 puunds per square foot, we liave on 4.57 square feet, for energy of rising air: 4.57 x 0.16 x 10.26 = 7.511 foot-pounds per second, which is seen to be still a little too small, but well within the limits of error, in view of the hollow shape of the bird's w ings. w Inch receive greater pressure than the ilat planes experimented upon by Langley.

These computations were chiefly made in January, 1899, and were communicated to a few friends, who found no fallacy in them, but thought that few aviators would understand them if published. They were then submitted to Professor C. F. Marvin, of the Weather P.ureau, who is well known as a skilful physicist and mathematician. lie wrote that they were, theoretically, entirely sound and quantitatively probably as accurate as the present state of the magnitude of wind pressures permitted. The writer determined, however, to withhold pub-

lication until the feat of soaring High! had been performed by man, partly because he believed mat, to ensure satety, it would be necessary that the machine should be equipped witn a motor in order to supplement any deficiency in wind force.

'1 lie feat would have been attempted ni 19U2 by Wright brothers if tlie local circumstances had been more tavorable. Ihey were experimenting on "Kill-iJevil Hill," near Kitty Hawk, IS. C This sand lull, about 100 teet high, is bordered by a smooth beach on the side whence come the sea breezes, but has marshy ground at the back. Wright Brothers were apprehensive that it lhey rose on the ascending current of air at the front and began to circle 1 ike the birds, they might be carried by the descending current past the back of the hill and land in the marsh. 1 heir gliding machine ottered no greater head resistance in proportion than the buzzard and their gliding angles of descent are practically as favorable, but the birds performed higher_ up m the air than they.

Professor Langley said in concluding his paper upon "The internal icork of the wind":

"The final application of these principles to the art of aerudromics seems then to be, that while it is not likely that the perfected aerodrome will ever be able to dispense altogether with the ability to rely at intervals on some internal source of power, it will not be indispensable that this aerodrome of the future shall, m order to go any distance— even to circumnavigate the globe without alighting—need to carry a weight of iuel which would enable it to perform this journey under conditions analogous to those of a steamship, but that the fuel and weight need only be such as to enable it to. take care of itself in exceptional moments of calm."

Now that dynamic flying machines have been evolved and are being brought under control it seems to be worth while to make these computa lions and the succeeding explanations known, so that some bold man will attempt the feat of soaring like a bird. The theory underlying the performance in a rising wind is not new, it has been suggested by Penatici and others, but it has atti acted little attention because the exact data and the maneuvers required were not known and the feat had not yet been performed by a man. The puzzle has always been to account for the observed act in very light winds and it is hoped that by the present selection of the most difficult case to explain, i. e., the soaring in a dead horizontal calm, somebody will attempt the exploit.

The following are deemed to be the requisites and man ueu vers to master the secrets of soaring tlight:

1st- Develop a dynamic flying machine weighing about 1 pounds per square foot of area, with stable equilibrium and under perfect control, capable of gliding by gravity at angle of one in ten (S%°) in still air.

2nd. Select locations where soaring birds abound and occasions where rising trends of gentle winds arc frequent and to be relied on.

3rd. Obtain an initial velocity of at least 25 feet per second before attempting to soar.

4th. So locate the centre of gravity that the apparatus shall assume

a negative angle, fore and aft, of about 3°. Calculations show, however, that sufficient propelling force may still exist at 0°, but disappears entirely at + 4°.

5th. Circle like the bird. Simultaneously with the steering incline the apparatus to the side towards which it is desired to turn, so that the centrifugal force shall be balanced by the centripetal force. The amount of the required inclination depends upon the speed and on the radius of the circle swept over.

6th. Rise spirally like the bird. Steer with the horizontal rudder, so as to descend slightly when going with the wind and to ascend when going against the wind. The bird circles over one spot because the rising trends of wind are generally confined to small areas or local chimneys as pointed out by Sir IL. Maxim and others.

7th. Once altitude is gained progress may be made in any direction by gliding downward by gravity.

The bird's flying apparatus and skill arc as yet infinitely superior to those of man, but there are indications that within a few years the latter may evolve more accurately proportioned apparatus and obtain absolute control over it.

It is hoped therefore that, if there be found no radical error in the above computations, they will carry the conviction that soaring flight is not inaccessible to man, as it promises great economics of motive power _ in favorable localities of rising winds.

The writer will be grateful to experts who may point out any mistake committed in data or calculations and will furnish additional information to any aviator who may wish to attempt the feat of soaring.

An American consul in Oceania reports that a person in his district desires to purchase an aeroplane, lie has been deferring purchase awaiting further perfection in the construction of such machines. .Manu facturcrs should lay special stress in the literature upon all improved safety features of their air craft. The inquirer is understood to favor the monoplane type. Prices sh .lid Ik quoted cash f. o. b. San Francisco or c. i. f. a certain port in Oceania.

"1 enjoy AERONAUTICS very much, and when my subscription is up my money will be on deck for a renewal."—W. J. K-, Savannah, Ca.

3Jn fflrmnrtam

377 letters which have been sent to 377 subscribers asking for payment of 377 subscrip-

Aeroplanes, from the scattered and mostly-to-be-doubted reports which percolate through the censors, after being manhandled, pruned, manicured and otherwise treated by the newspaper boards of strategy, seem to be meeting with all tbe success claimed for them as instruments of reconnaissance. In addition they seem to be able to act in offense and defense upon occasion, when opposing aircraft are to be taken care of.

Of course, machines have been brought down by gunfire, some bombs have been dropped therefrom, pilots or observers have been killed in flight or made prisoners upon descent being forced by arms or by troubles peculiar to aeroplanes in war as well as peace.

One wonders to what purpose the Zeppelins and other airships are being put at the present time, or to \< hich they will be put, as no authentic information is available as to their activities. Some half dozen are said to have been captured or destroyed. Tbe same number is said not to have been captured or destroyed hy the enemy. One may believe whichever story most pleases bis imagination.

After it is all over, there will undoubtedly be accurate information made public in so far as its publication will not tend to destroy the value of aircraft in future wars which are still a possibility, judging from past centuries of human nature.

The military aeroplane, according to "Steve" MacGordon, one of tbe best known of American aviators, says the Sun, has proved its worth and the European powers are doing their utmost to keep their stock of machines replenished. MacGordon Ins just arrived from a tour of the Continental countries, after being reported as enlisting in the French air fleet. William Thaw was also said to have joined the French air force.

"Information as to just what the aeroplanes were doing in the war w as bard to get in France," said MacGordon. "but 1 talked with Roland Garros and several military aviators who had been at tbe front with the French and British armies, and learned enough of what was going on to be sure that the "fourth arm" has not proved a failure. All of them agree that for scouting and range rinding the aeroplane is invaluable."

"The Germans are at a disadvantage so far as their aeroplanes are concerned. Most of their machines are of the 'D. F. W.' and 'Taube' types. They are heautiful machines and wonder fulll y well built, but speed has been sacrificed for stability and, from the reports that came to me, this lias been disastrous.

"The French machines are speedy and can cut circles around the clumsy German planes. If a German machine is seen in the air by the French no attention is paid to it until the officers have decided that the enemy has learned too much. Then two or three fast machines nre *ent out to 'get' the unwelcome visitor, and, although little news has leaked out through official channels, T am certain that they have been 'getting' them.

"To my mind tbe best machines of all are those huilt in England. Sopwith and Vickers machines have

been shipped to the Continent and are being used by the allied torces. ifie aopwith tabioid type can make llo miics an hour, and the Vickers gun 'uus, armoreu and carrying a gatiing gun, can fly at US nines. i uu can see what an advantage tins gives them over the German mainlines, which travel at about 5j nines an hour.

" 1 he reason that so many machines have been struck by bullets, according to the French and English army hicrs, is that the pilot has taKcii too many chances."

J ohn Lansing Lallan, w ho went to the Azores last July to await the arrival ot Lieutenant Porte with the '"America," has arrived from England.

Lallan confirmed the rumor that the "America" had been purchased hy the British Admiralty, and from his statements it was apparent that more machines of the same type will be delivered to Great Britain. According to Lallan, it was through the representations of Lieutenant Porte that the purchase was determined upon.

Editorially tbe New York Sun

says:

"Every nation which still believes that something of humanity should be maintained in the usages of warfare should raise its voice against this archdeed of pitiless savagery; against the repetition of such senseless and unforgivable blind massacre" as tbe dropping of bombs from a Zeppelin upon Antwerp.

In reply to this, the Army and Xavy Journal says, "Captain Boy-Ed, Naval Attache of the German Embassy, defends the attack upon Antwerp by a Zeppelin. Antwerp, he says, is a fortress and must be prepared for bombardment, whether from land or sea or air. Tbe second Hague peace convention has in no way prohibited the use of projectiles from tbe air. The effect of a bomb from an airship can hardly be worse than that of a shell from a large siege gun, and we must get used to tbe new idea of carrying war into the air. The non-military population was just as much at liberty to evacuate Antwerp as the population was who left Tsing-tau before Japan bombarded it. While the action of the Zeppelin cruiser in no way was forbidden by the international law. he adds, a French aviator, before uar had been declared, sinned against the Hague peace convention. He threw from his aeroplane bombs into the unfortified and unsuspecting city of Nuernberg. In conclusion he says: 'I believe that the excitement of our enemies over the alleged use of our airship is to be traced to their disappointment for not being able to make war in this most modern way for lack of similarly efficient airship*.'

In a news despatch to the Sun from Amiens, France. Duncan Mc-Diarmid tells of a wounded Scotch private who. in describing the fighting ''somewhere around Mons,'* said: "The German artillery was remarkably precise in its shooting. Zeppelins and aeroplanes were over us all the time, giving the gunners the range, so that the shells werr bursting within two or three feet of where we were in the trenches. Nearly all our wounded were struck by shrapnel."

Other British wounded from the fighting around Mons arrived at

Rouen. There Hamilton Pyfe records one of them as saying: "The German artillery over a range twe or three miles off soon opened on us. Fortunately most of the shells burst behind us and did no barm. Some burst backward and got among us. They kept it up as hard as ever when it was dark. In tbe daytime they had aeroplanes *o tell them where to drop the shells. They were flying about all the time. Ore came a bit too near. Our gunners a long way behind waited and let him come. Two thousand feet up, he was, I dare say. All of a sudden the gunners let fly. We could see the thing stagger and then goodbye, Mr. Flying Man! He dropped like a stone, all crumpled up."

An Englishman who arrived at London from Belgium and who saw a Zeppelin in action, is reported as saying that for the purpose of dropping bombs the airship ascends to a height which protects it from the range of gunfire and then lowers a steel cage by a cable a distance of 2,000 or 3,000 feet below the dirigible. The soldier whose duty it is to drop the bombs is stationed in this cage, which is strong enough to resist rifle fire and is a difficult mark for artillery because of its small size and because by means of tbe cable suspending it, it is kept in constant motion.

On September 15 there came the story that Russian artillery put out of commission a Zeppelin which came low over the ground, causing the white flag to be hoisted; after \\ hich, it is claimed, the crew dropped bombs from the surrendered airship and killed 23 persons and caused tbe wreck of the airship as well before they reached the earth and were captured by the Russians.

On September 14 the press bureau in London issued some new s from Marshal French, commander of the British forces, complimenting British aviators on the precision, exactitude and regularity of the news brought in.

"During a period of twenty days, up to the 10th of September, a daily average of more than nine reconnaissance flights of over 100 miles each has been maintained.

"The constant object of our aviators has been to effect an accurate location of the enemy's forces and. incidentally, since the operations cover so large an area, of our own units.

"The tactics adopted for dealing with hostile air craft are to follow them constantly with one or more British machines. This has been so far successful that in five cases German pilots or observers have been shot while in the air and their machines brought to ground. As a consequence the British flying corps has succeeded in establishing an individual ascendancy which is as serviceable to us as it is damaging to tbe enemy.

"Something in the direction of the mastery of the air already has been gained in pursuance of the principle that the main object of military aviators is the collection of information.

"Bomh dropping has not been indulged in to any great extent. On one occasion a petrol bomb was successfully exploded in a German bivouac at night. whil<* from a diary found on a dead German cavalry

(Continued on Page 6i)

AIRCRAFT IN THE WAR

TRANSMISSION GEAR coupling any kind of motors or en

twines together, and winch assures FOR AEROPLANES means of being able to have reserve power and a cool motor for long A. G. Watkins, of 27 X. Cones- flights, there is another very imtoga street, Philadelphia, has de- portant fact to be considered and vised a plan for using twin motors which should not be overlooked, singly or coupled. The best expert and structural en-

"As I promised, I am sending you blueprints of multiple motor gear. Fig. 1 is a view of same looking down upon it. Fig. 2 shows a side view of double-acting lever that just throws intermediate gear in place and afterward the clutch. Danger of stripping gears in throwing either motor in action while other is running is eliminated, as gears run loose until clutch is put in operation. Gears can also be changed so as to drive the propeller either slowei or faster than the motors run.

"Another thing in favor of such couplings is entire elimination of bevel gears and very little loss of power by friction. In addition to the advantages of this means of

gineers have recognized that a machine built with motors side by side, as in this means, enables the machine to be built with a great deal more stability than as at present, as it distributes the weight that is now placed directly in the center of planes. The right kind of propeller that should be used on machines equipped with this improvement should be one covered with a deposit of copper, and reversible blades for adjusting the different pitches. This improvement for motor boats and hydros, engineers say, is of vast importance, in that by this means they can now use a larger propeller, which does away with slippage and almost doubles speed with practically no vibration."

UNITED STATES BOMB TESTS FINISHED

The bomb aiming and dropping tests which have been going on for many weeks past at the Signal Corps aviation school at San Diego, with the assistance of Riley E. Scott, the winner of tbe Michelin bomh-dropping prize and inventor of the most successful apparatus in use for the aiming of. hombs from aircraft and that measuring''of speed over the eartl^^le^iy^i^itj are" now completed. The results of these trials are'Virfg* fc^&tVet.

HAMMONDSPORT NOTES.

Contrary to precedent the Curtiss Training Camp here was closed September 1, and the equipment, instructors, et al. have moved to winter quarters on North Island, near San Diego, Cal. Activity at San Diego this winter will be unprecedented. The United States Army aeroplane competition will be held on North Island, near the Curtiss camp, beginning October 20. This will afford unusual opportunity to see the latest developments in military aeroplanes and in military flying, and partly on account of it the date of the opening of the fall class at the Curtiss camp has been

advanced from November 15 to October 15. A little later in the winter San Diego expects to witness some of the flying scheduled in connection with the opening ot the ['anama-Paciric International Exposition. Some of the students now enrolled have expressed the intention of visiting San Francisco for the opening of the exposition. Among those now at the San Diego camp are Glenn H. Curtiss, Raymond V. Morris and Francis Wild-man. Mr. Curtiss expects to give personal supervision to the work at the camp this winter.

Ilammondsport is not entirely bereft of fliers. Baxter II. Adams made a very pretty cross-country flight a few days ago under unusual conditions. Mr. Adams has promised to do some flying in the vicinity of Ithaca, the seat of Cornell University. He elected to fly the 50 miles across the hills and "Finger" lakes, rather than ship around by rail, and proposed to make the trip on Monday. Sunday, however, saw the weather fixing for a week of thunder showers, which developed on Monday into good imitations of cloud bursts. A series of violent thunder storms filled Tuesday morning, but Adams telephoned Ithaca that "rain, shine or cyclone" he would leave Hammondsport at 2 o'clock. At that hour no rain was falling, but the sky was piled high with heavy black clouds and thunder rumbled threateningly not far away. Adams was determined to make the trip, and promptly on the hour he set out. The country he had to fly over was akin to mountainous; all hills, ranging about 2,000 feet in altitude, wooded, and split with rocky gorges. To add variety he had four lakes to cross. Not too good an outlook for a man's first cross-country experience. He had it well planned though. Leaving the Curtiss training camp he flew about 3 miles up the valley and in five minutes was back over the camp, having reached an altitude of about 3,000 feet. The last seen of him here was a tiny speck entering a canon between two cloud mountains. Thirty-five minutes later he "checked in" on the fair grounds at Ithaca all safe and sound. lie had been somewhat confused and flown several miles out of his way just after leaving Lake Keuka, but through rifts in the clouds had recognized Lake YVa-neta below him and altered his course accordingly, lie passed over Lakes Waneta, Lamoka, Seneca and Cayuga on his trip. Adams flies a dinky Curtiss Model D with a 24 foot spread and a Model O-X Curtiss motor. It is practically a duplicate of the machine with which Lincoln Beachey made his first loops.

Yestei day's English mail brought some interesting news regarding Lieut. John C. Forte, who was to have piloted the Rodman Wana-maker transatlantic flying boat. It seems that Ilendon's famous flying field is to be taken over by the navy and The Aeroplane reports on "fairly reliable authority" that Lieutenant Porte, now an officer of the Royal Naval Air Service, will be in command there, assisted by Mr. Richard T. Gates and our old friend Mr. Claude CrahameAVhite. It also reports that the big Curtiss flying boat huilt by Saunders for the Circuit of Britain race has passed the official tests very well and has been taken over by the Admiralty.

.-IF.ROX.ÍUTICS, 1914.

Page 57

NEW COMPANIES.

The Omaha Overland Company, Omaha, Neb., is a new corporation filing with the Secretary of State with a capital stock of $10,0U0. Tbe company will do a general business in the manufacture and handling of automobiles, flying machines and similar machines. Tbe incorporators are James Janison and Helen Comp-ton.

THE IDEAL MACHINE AT LAST!

Sept. 1st, 1914. To the Editor, AERONAUTICS, 250 W. 54th St.,

New York, N. Y. Dear Sir:

I have been looking for t a thoroughly practical flying machine ever since I read of the Wright Brothers' first Dayton nights. Cut I have always felt that there was something lacking in the machines offered for sale. I find in your August 15 issue (p. 41) that my machine has indicated its possible arrival.

Tbe claims made for tins machine are so attractive that 1 am impelled to write to you an open letter on the subject and hope you will put me right if I am wrong.

Claim 1 asserts that the machine leaves the ground or water "at once." This appeals to me very strongly. When I leave the ground, I always like to leave at once. It avoids this feeling of doubt.

Claim 2 also appeals strongly. It says that the machine "alights straight down." I have always favored straightforward practice in all things, and a flying machine which alights straight down is distinctly to my liking, provided, of course, that it does not alight "at once," as is the case when leaving the ground.

Another claim which must appeal to everybody is tbe fact that this machine is equipped "with all modern conveniences." It also is claimed that everything is "non-collapsible.'* I take it that this non-collapsible feature also applies to the modern conveniences. There are certain of these modern conveniences which it would be distinctly unpleasant to have collapse at the wrong moment.

Another attractive feature is that the machine can he run by twelve > ear old children, and therefore does not need necessarily to be shipped. This is good economy because frequently it happens that a twelve year old child can escape the conductor's attention and get through on a half fare. Thus we would be able to send one of the children for the machine at a reasonable price and he could bring it home as he would a quart of milk.

Another desirable team re is the *peed. Five hundred miles an hour is claimed. Tins would mean, of course, that it would take an entire hour to go from New York to Buffalo, but on Sunday afternoon this would not be irksome. It would preclude the possibility of running out to Denver for afternoon tea and be back in time for 7 o'clock dinner, unless, of course, we hurried, which is not always pleasant. Still, I think-that considering the other very desirable features, this this speed of 500 miles per hour might be put up with.

very truly, Dowe Ting Thomas, Hartford, Conn.

PARCELS POST AEROPLANE STAMP.

Has any one noticed the 20 cent parcels post stamp? It bears a Wright aeroplane as a design, with tbe inscription, "Aeroplane Carrying M ail."

C. M. O. PROPELLERS AND THE "AMERICA."

C. M. (). PHYSICAL LABORATORY, INC. Buffalo, New York. C. M. Olmsted, Ph. D.

President, and

Director of Laboratory,

August 25, 1914. The Editor of AERONAUTICS:

Dear Sir—In an article explaining the postponement of tbe flight of the "America," in the July 31 AERONAUTICS, the following statement appears: "The special C. M. O. propeller will have a new sheathing of metal better fastened than the original metal cover. It was tbe tearing loose of the original copper cover, which broke its way through tbe upper plane, that was largely responsible for the postponement of the start."

While it is complimentary to the efficiency of tbe Olmsted propellers that they are necessary attachments for the getaway of the "America," it is not entirely fair to the manufacturer to employ the word "original" in describing the copper sheathing which by tearing loose during a trial flight caused a delay. When similar statements appeared ill tbe daily papers at the time of the accident, the writer paid no attention to them, but when appearing in a journal like AERONAUTICS it would seem proper to state that tbe original metallic sheathings which cover tbe concave faces of the blades, are still in Al condition and do not show the slightest evidence of weakness or unfitness for the work. Tbe copper sheathing' which came loose during a flight was one placed on the back of a blade by the Curtiss Company after purchasing tbe propellers, anl tbe work had not been inspected or O. K.'d by anybody connected witli the C. M. O. Physical Laboratory, Inc.

According to agreement, on account of the great rush, the Olmsted propellers were shipped to 11 ammondsport for a trial of the new principle he fore they were finished—that is to say, before they were put into a weather-proof condition by filler, varnish, etc., a process which cannot be rushed. The idea was to utilize for finishing the propellers that time which would he necessary for overhauling and packing tbe "America," and during which the propellers would otherwise be lying idle.

As everybody who has followed the tests of the "America" knows, the hydroplaning bottom was changed a great many times, and many more irials made than had been originally intended. Consequently tbe Olmsted propellers, with only "a lick and a promise" for varnish, were put through the tests during which the tips of the blades were sometimes ripping through sheets of water thrown up by the mal-adi usted hydroplaning board. Naturally, the semi-varnished surfaces of the hlades began to weatber. Rather than lose time by shipping the propellers to Buffalo

for finishing, the Curtiss Company elected to put on copper sheathings themselves. It was one of these extra piece* of sheathing which broke loose and caused a delay, \ ery truly yours,

Chas. M. Olmsted.

UPSON COVERS 180 MILES.

Ralph H. Upson and party had a rather unusual balloon trip the last week in August. They ascended Sunday morning in a practical calm, but the speed steadily increased to over 50 miles per hour, which took them to a point 12 miles east of Olean, N. Y.f a distance of 180 miles in the six hours they were in the air. R. II. Upson, of the Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, was the pilot.

VICTOR VERNON FLIES 150 MILES.

Victor Vernon, owner of a new Curtiss flying boat, and Harvey R. Sidney flew from Bar Harbor, Me., to Kennebunkport Beach, about 150 miles, in 2 hours 2° minutes on Sept. 3, in order to be on hand for the Labor Day celebration. Many passengers w ere carried at both places. Flights were later made at Cornell, Ithaca.

TO BALLOON ACROSS THE CONTINENT.

Albert Carter and J. M. O'Con-nell expect to start October 1 on an attempt to cross the continent, using one large and ten smaller balloons attached together, using the gas from the smaller balloon as needed and cutting them up for ballast.

"By previous experiments," Carter writes, "I am satisfied that at an altitude of 13.000 to 15,000 feet there is practically always a drift to the east or northeast and it is our intention to rise gradually until we reach this current and stay in it as long as possible.

"By using a number of smaller balloons to replenish tbe gas and make additional ballast we hope to remain in the air four or five days.

"The main hnlloon holds 60,000 cubic feet. Five hold 10,000 each, and four hold 2,500 each.

"A silk pilot balloon is arranged so that it can be sent up 1 mile above to search out currents going in tbe right direction and a small rope with occasional streamers can he let down below same distance, iriving us a method of finding out the direction of air currents for a mile above or below without sacrificing gas or ballast, as would be nec-essarv in a single halloon.

"Weather conditions being favor-nble we will start at 2 p. m., and if successful in reaching the eastern current will cross the Sierras somewhere north of Mt. Whitney that afternoon and the Nevada desert tbe first night.

"Our object is to prove that at high altitudes there is practically always a current flowing eastward and that to cross the continent in a single flight it is only necessary to reach the proper altitude and stay there four or five days."

Who should have been the first man in the Bible to be connected with aeronautics?

Aaron ought.

—Walter Levick.

29 West 39th Street, New York

OFFICIAL BULLETIN.

FIRST GENERAL MEETING.

The first general meeting of the society for the winter season will take place on Thursday evening, October 1st. A program in sympathy with the world topic, "The Present War," will introduce a number of specialists who will deliver brief but pointed addresses which have been combined under the general head: "Aerial Offense and Defense in War." In view of the active part aircraft are now taking in actual warfare, these addresses and the general discussion which will be allowed to follow them, should evoke very unusual interest. The enter tain men t committee has set itself to secure the attendance of the most instructive and interesting talkers on this subject. The meeting gives every promise of becoming one of the most notable in the history of the society.

AERIAL DERBY.

The society is actively engaged in an effort to perpetuate the "Aerial Derby" as an annual classic. This is assured if negotiations between the Wright Company and the society come to a successful issue. Aside from this activity, the new special committees on research laboratory, meteorology, aviators' certificates and an important convocation of scientists are busily at work. The present year promises the most successful effort shown since the foundation of the Aeronautical Society of America.

THE 1914 YEARBOOK.

The Year Hook of The Aeronautical Society of America has just been issued and will prove of great interest and value to the growing membership of the leading aeronautical organization in America and will doubtless prove a surprise to the press and to the general public who have, until now. known too little of the many and varied accomplishments uf this hard-working organization, the achievements of which will compare most favorably with the activities of other aeronautical organizations in Europe.

The "year book" is presented in a pocket edition of 43 pages, upon the cover of which appears a reproduction of the Engineering Societies Building at 29 West 39th St., New York, the headquarters of the Society. The first twelve pages are given up to a list of the Society's officers and directors, illustrations showing the membership certificate, flag, badge of the Society, the va-

rious aviation grounds, club houses and hangars of the Society at Morris Park 1908-9, Mineola 1910-12, Oakwood Heights 1912-14. Important flying meets held by the Society on October 12, 1912; November 4, 1912; May 30, 1913, and October 13. 1913, are referred to and particular attention directed to the Times Aerial Derby, October 13, 1913, in commemoration of the first flight by the Wright Brothers at Kitty Hawk, December 17, 1903. on which flight five aviators started and completed the course around Manhattan Island without an accident in a 43-mile wind.

Then follows a terse statement of the aims and objects of the Society, a flashlight photograph showing the Society's first great banquet, held at the Hotel Astor, April 27, 1911, which constituted the largest and most important gathering ever held of eminent men interested in the science of aerial locomotion. Over 800 members and guests were present, including President Taft and many other most distinguished men in America.

Following this is a reference to AERONAUTICS, the official bulletin of the Society, and it is stated that on February 19, 1914, the Society voted that this representative magazine should be made the official bulletin and organ of the Society and sent free to every member in good standing as one of the benefits of membership in the Society.

< Jther pages present the titles of the various lectures, addresses and debates delivered under the Society's auspices from July, I90S, to July. 1914, and this list, while not complete, shows a record of accomplishments of which any society might well be proud.

Reference is made to the special meeting on Deccmher 18, 1913, in commemoration of the 10th anniversary of the first flight by man in a power aeroplane. A copy of the engrossed resolutions presented to Orville Wright, the surviving brother, is shown, as well as a cut of the bronze statue presented to Mr. Wright upon the occasion by the Society. The booklet also includes the constitution and by-laws, reference to the technical board and the data sheets sent to all mem hers in good standing, list of all members, application form and a statement that this pamphlet is issued with a view- to assisting the active campaign for new members and all members are requested to send in at once the names of prospective members that they may be included in a new and enlarged edition. There is at present no initiation fee and the dues are ten dollars a year. Copies will be mailed upon request.

AERO SCIENCE CLUB OF AMERICA BULLETIN.

On the 30th day of July, 1914, a hydro contest was held at the Union Course pond, Woodhaven, L. I. The winners were C. V. Obst with a flight of 28 seconds, and D. Cris-cnoli, 26 seconds. Messrs. Obst and Ness gave exhibitions of their "skimmers." Mr, Obst figures that the speed of his skimmer was approximately 35 miles per hour. The judges were M essrs. Durant and Bauer.

About fifteen entries have heen received for the speed contest to be held at Van Cortlandt Park on Sunday afternoon, September 20th. The course over which the speed of the models will be determined is 600 feet. The first prize will be in cash, the second will be an up-to-date publication. The chief judge will be Mr. Edward Durant, Director of the Club, who will be assisted by a starter. Many new and novel model speed machines are now in the course of construction and the contest promises to be a great success. The entry fee for non-members of this club will be 25 cents.

This club desires to acknowledge with thanks the six copies of the aeronautical books donated by Harper & Brothers to be offered as prizes.

Mr. C. 11. Heitman has kindly offered several prizes and in the next bulletin notice of the contest in which these prizes will be given will be stated.

This club meets every Saturday evening at the rooms of the Aeronautical Society, 20 West 39th St., New York City. All persons interested are invited to attend these meetings.

For further information, address the Secretary, Mr. Harry Schultz.

Lient. Col. F. II. Sykes, commandant of the British Royal Flying Corps, in his annual address at the Royal United Service Institution. London, reviewed the progress made in military aviation during the past year and summarized the information gained through experience. Principally he dealt with the factors of safety under the conditions of present aerial flight, and suggested changes in construction of advantage to military aviators. lie advocated the abandonment of flexible wines and the universal adoption of flaps or ailerons; the use of more substantial landing gear ; increased strength and simplicity in design and construction ; experimental work on better means of

communication between aeroplane and aeroplane, and aeroplane and the ground; the standarization of minor parts; the development of a larger type of machine. On the subject of flexible wings Colonel Sykes said: "One cannot consider airworthiness without touching on the question of wing-warping as opposed to flaps. There is no doubt that the continual flicking about of the control lever dining a long flight, caused by the self-warping of wings in a wind, has a very tiring effect on the pilot, and further, the warping wing requires more keeping in true than one fitted with flaps. The dismantling and general handling of wings fitted with flaps is, besides, easier, quicker, and less liable to mistake,"

THE OBST FLYING BOAT MODEL

By Harry Schultz, Model Editor

Some few weeks ago the Aero Science Club held the first model flying boat contest. A contest of this kind has been recommended for some time, and this contest was held at the suggestion of Charles V. Obst. who won the contest with a flight of IS 4/5 seconds.

The boat is 20 inches long, 1j inches deep, 2'1> inches wide and has two strps. The sides are of I /32 inch poplar and cross braces of birch forming eight com parr ■ ments. It is connected by bamboo strips running up to the main stick and secured thereto by rubber

His model, which is shown in the accompanying drawing, is of the biplane type.

The main stick is balsa wood, 40 inches long and J-' inch square at the center, tapering towards the tnds. The rear brace or propeller bar is SJ^ inches long and is of bamboo. It is braced by two strips of bamboo running diagonally and the space thus formed is filled in with fabric, thus forming a tail plane.

The upper main plane has a span of 29 inches with a cord of 4 inches and a dihedral angle of 165 degrees. The ribs, entering and trailing edges are of bamboo and the main beam is of spruce. The lower plane is constructed in the same manner except that it is rectangular in shape, and the balancing pontoons are formed on the ends of the plane, as shown. The span of this plane, including the pontoons, is IS inches with a chord of 4 inches. The balancing pontoons are 1V4 inches deep. The planes are separated by a box-like structure of bamboo strips, as shown, and are simply held thereon by rubber bands, so that either plane may be removed at will, without disturbing the position of the other.

Situated under the tail plane is a small fin, constructed of bamboo strips and covered with fabric.

bands which take up the shock of landing on the ground or water and prevents damage to the boat.

The boat, planes and fin are covered with silk fibre paper and treated with ambroid, which draws the same taut and makes it waterproof.

Tl.e propellers are S inches in diameter, are fitted with bearings of tubing and are driven by fourteen strands of inch flat rubber.

The model rises from the water after a run of about 10 feel and is a very stable flyer.

istics of the model are the peculiarly shaped main plane and tail, the very delicately constructed fuselage and method of bracing the same. The propellers are very fast and effective, raising the model from the water with a run of only 2 or 3 feet. Mr. llerzog's latest model is equipped with propellers of this type and rises to great heights and loops the loop after rising, an almost unbelievable feat for a model to perform.

No. 2. The Mann Monoplane. Perhaps no other model in the world is as well known as the Mann monoplane. The model is the design of K. ]■". Mann, of London, England, and is credited with having performed many remarkable distance and duration flights. At one time it was supposed to have made a flight of 4.300 feet, but upon the rumor being investigated it appeared to have been more or less of a "fairy tale." While the machine is an excellent flyer, any ot the American models of today are vastly superior to it. The chief characteristics of the model are the main plane, which is constructed of piano wire, has only three ribs and is covered in a peculiar manner, and the elevator which is of birch bent to a peculiar "bird* wing" shape. The propellers are of twisted wood 1 birch) and are rather heavy when ronipared with the propellers in uni-versai use today.

(To be continued.)

EXPORTS AND IMPORTS.

.Tune imports, parts only, totalled, 'planes and parts. $32.260.

Exports for June, 'planes and parts, were $27,590: for 12 months ending June 30. $226.149.

Exports of foreign built aircraft and parts, for June, $5,156.

Aircraft and parts in w a rehouse June 30, $5,069.

THE WORLD'S WELL-KNOWN FLYING MODELS.

Xo. 1. Tb. lltrzog Tractor Hydro. This model was constructed by Harry 11 erzog, of New York City, a well known model flyer and a former member of the New York Model Aero Club. At the- Oak-wood Heights meet, where it litst made its appearance, it pro\ ed i' s superiority over the other tractor models by winning first prize with a flight of 28 4/S seconds, tlus being a world's record for models of this type. The chief character-

Charles Cabanne Crn lie and F. Kay Leimkuehler have established an ex jie ri mental station at 5587 ['age Roulevard, St. Louis. Mo. consisting partly of a wind tunnel through which air speeds of 90 miles per hour are planned. Stream lines about surfaces tested will be accurately photographed with the aid of smoke streams introduced into the current. Models of all recognized and useful shapes will be photographed in the various positions and speeds of common practice. Constructors are requested to send accurate diagrams of standard wing section, standard strut, etc.. for test. Special surfaces will be tested free if they fall within the scope of regular work, otherwise a charge will be made covering costs of special test.

Or can our watery walls keep dangers out that fly aloft?—Jasper Fisher, the True Trojans, 1630.

From this quotation it will be seen that it is scarcely correct to describe the seaplane as a new weapon.

[LYING

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By HAMEL and TURNER

Large 8vo., cloth, 338 pp.

$3.50 postpaid

the one best practical non-technical book of the year. recommended to pilots, students, amateurs, prospective purchasers and the casually interested.

AERONAUTICS - 250 W. S4th St.. New York

WE ARE HEADQUARTERS

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Wading River Mfg. Co.

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superior traioiog on dual hydro and flying boat by competent pilots, under supervision of w. e. johnson, endurance record holder, formerly instructor of the thomas brothers school of aviation. three years experieoce as instructor. thousands of flights without a hitch!

Write guiekty for reservation in Summer-class to

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cylERO MART

john wise—"history and practice of aeronautics," by john wise. we have just secured another copy of this famous, rare work. cloth, svo, ill., 310 pp. steel engraving frontispiece. for sale at $10. aeronautics, 250 west 54th st.,

morane-saulnier .— latest type. set of detailed working drawings for sale at $200. sale exclusive. morane-saulnier holds best records cross-country and speed flying. owner of drawings can superintend construction. address a. F., care aeronautics, 250 w. 54th st., new york.

bargain in cooks—will sell following books: aerial navigation (salverda) $1.50; navigating the air (aero club of america) $.50; aeronautical annual, 1895-6-7 (james means) $5; travels in space (valentine & thompson) $ .50; art of aviation (brewer) $1.50; airships past and present (hildebrand) $3; proceedings int. congress aerial navigation, chicago, 1893, $5; various other books

thrown in to purchaser of the lot. l. e. dare, 216 west 104th St., new york.

for sale—on account of sickness, aeroplane, very cheap for cash, or trade for anything of value. e. m., 1522 norwood ave., toledo, ohio.

quick sale for cash—two curtiss-type double-surface aeroplanes, each with 50-h.p. roberts motor; both outfits in flying shape; can be seen at any time; everything complete; $600 for the two outfits for quick sale. b., care aeronautics.

for sale — ilatton tumor's "astra castra," the most famous and rarest of all aviation works. published in 1865 at 10 dollars. magnificently illustrated, large quarto, 527 pages, in splendid condition. will be sent post-free for 24 dollars.

remittance to be sent to "astra," care the editor, "aeronautics," 170 fleet st., london (england).

j. c. mars—mail held for him can not be delivered on account of removal without leaving forwarding address. kindly advise aeronautics, 250 w. 54th st., new york.

aeronautics would be pleased to hear from a. s. le vino, robert edelstein, henry w. walden, hon. c. o. prowse, wm. h. kulil, american aeroplane supply house, charles XV. foley, walter e. watts, detroit aeroplane co., j. r. haw-ley news co., mose jacobs, fred shneider, a. c. triaca, welles & adams, harrhnan motor works, t. brauner, charles b. kirkliam.

gas balloon for sale; new 35,000 cubic foot balloon; sewed in blocks; varnished; net, valve, appendix, loop, basket, sand bags, $250. e. jorgensen, 1831 belmont ave., chicago, iii.

LONG ISLAND AGAIN SEES FLYING

the first of the fall season ol week-end aerial meets, given under the auspices of local flyers and manufacturers, began with promise. fully $80,000 was represented in the aeroplanes assembled on the hempstead plains aviation field on september 5.

the program opened with a three-circuit flight of the field's course, the total distance being 9.3 miles. the time recorded in this race is to be the handicap rating for the same machine in future events. the schmitt monoplane, winner of the first prize in the 4th of july race from governors island to spuyten duyvil and return, was again piloted by harold kantner, who, flying at the rate of more than a mile a minute, covered the course in 9 minutes exactly. albert iieinrich, who won second prize in the 4th of july race, made the circuit in 11 minutes and 30 seconds. peter millman, the "texan." in a moisant monoplane, in 12 minutes and 50 seconds; sid-nc> f. beckwith, in the beckwith-crahtree military tractor, in 13 minutes. a time allowance will he given this machine, it being a biplane; the other contesting machines all monoplanes.

on labor day, regardless of a thirty-mile gale that blew across the field. j. guy gilpatric, in a sloane

monoplane, gave a wonderful exhibition of flying under unfavorable conditions. carl t. kuhl, in a kuhl-baysdorfer biplane, also made a flight in this wind. harold kant-uer made an altitude flight of 3,500 feet in 9 minutes, and sidney f. beck with carried off the "bomh" dropping honors. the beckwith-crabtree machine met with a slight accident at the close of the meet, but will be in the contests saturday.

the first of the "free admission" sundays (which will continue each sunday during september and octo-her) brought out 3,000 people to the field.

five aviators, in five different types of aeroplanes, displayed good accuracy in dropping bombs from an altitude of from 1,500 feet to 3,500 feet, before a large assemblage of people on the hempstead plains aviation field. garden city, saturday, september 12th.

carl t. kuhl. in the kuhl-baysdorfer biplane, although a novice at bomb dropping, came within 39 feet of the mark. harold kantuer, in the famous schmitt monoplane dropped two bombs, one within 40 feet and the other 42 feet of the mark. this showed a decided improvement over last week, as the hnmhs dropped on monday averaged 50 feet of the mark. at present the

target is a large piece of white canvas 20 feet square spread on the ground, but later on the target will represent a small ship, which will be easier for the aviators to see.

next on the program following the bomb dropping, was the altitude tests. the first aeroplane to make this flight was the kuhl-baysdorfer biplane, piloted by carl t. kuhl. me rose to an altitude of 1.s00 feet. peter c. millman rose to 2,900 feet and harold kantner in the schmitt monoplane, to 3,400 feet. millman's moisant is tlie same type monoplane that the moisant intermtional aviators built for the mexican constitu-tiom|=. chas. f. niles, the loop-the-loop and upside-down flier, is in mexico at present demonstrating these machines he is expected back at the field in two or three weeks.

cecil peoli, in a new type of aeroplane, made the hest landing. from an altitude of 500 feet he shut off his motor and volplaned to within a few feet of the mark. peoli, who is only 20 years old, a graduate of captain baldwin, calls his aeroplane a semi-monoplane, which is really a cross between a biplane and monoplane. it is equipped with a 75-h.p. rassenher-eer motor.

d. b. Wright.

THE AERONAUTICAL BOOKSHELF

Epitome of the Aeronautical

Annual By James means

In one volume is contained the principal articles from the three annuals of 1895, 1896 and 1897, published by Mr. Means. Contains the theories and experiments of Cayley Wenham, Lilienthal, Maxim, Langley and others, written by themselves. Fundamental facts are given. One of the absolutely necessary volumes. III., 224 pp., $1.12

The Problem of Flight

By HERBERT CHATLEY

A strictly technical book for the engineer.

III., 119 pp., $3.50

The Conquest of the Air

By the Late Prof. A. LAWRENCE ROTCH

A popular but authoritative book on the Ocean of Air, History of Aero-itation. Dirigible Billoon, Flying Machine, The Future of Aerial Navigation. 111., $1.10

Aerial Navigation

By DR. ALBERT F. ZAHM

In popular terms Dr. Zahm portrays the progress of aeronautics.leavingout unproductiveexpenments. The pilots of today know little of the history of tbe machine they use daily. The percentage of those who are familiar with progress is small. Dr. Zahm writes an absorbing volume which must take its place on every bookshelf.

111., 486 pp., $3.00

Art of Aviation

By ROBERT W. A. BREWER

One of the b*st handbooks on aviation. Semi-technical. A really valuable book for the amateur, experimentor and pilot. 111., 266 pp., $3.50

Langley Memoir on Mechanical

Bird-flight as the Basis of

Aviation By GUSTAV LILIENTHAL

Covers the gliding work of <).

ind O. Lilienthal.

III., 166 pp.. $2.50

The Aeroplane in War

By C. GRAHAME WHITE and H. HARPER

A hook with prophecies of the future. 111., $3.00

Experiments in Aerodynamics ^ P'of- S- P. LANGLEY

This with the other Langley book forms the keystone of the aeronautical library. Purely technical. Details of the experimental machines of Professor Langl«*y. The

indispensable book.

III. $1.50

Indispensable Books

Langley's Langley's '

'MEMOIR" EXPERIMENTS"

Maxim's "ARTIFICIAL AND NATURAL FLIGHT"

Loening's "MONOPLANES AND BIPLANES"

Means' "EPITOME"

Brewer's "ART OF AVIATION"

Hayward'a "PRACTICAL" AERONAUTICS

Flight

By Prof. S. P. LANGLEY and CHARLES M. MANLY

In this ponderous volume is found additions to Professor Langley's previous work and contains wonderful photo-■ graphs and scale drawings of all of the models and the engines constructed and tested by Langley and his assistant, Mr. Manly. The mathematician will delight in the formulae and the practical man will find a vast amount of data. One of the scant dozen "best books."

Handsomely ill., 4to, 320 pp., $2.50

Curtiss Aviation Book

By GLENN H. CURTISS and AUGUSTUS POST

A popular book. Describes Curtiss' flights, his early life, how he planned and worked out his machine—close view of the man. Other chapters by Lt. Paul Beck. Lt. Ellyson and Hugh Robinson. 111., 307 pp., $1.49

Artificial and Natural Flight

By SIR HIRAM MAXIM

Concise history of development of flying machines and Maxim's own experimental work. There are but few worth-while technical hooks on aviation. This is one. Ills., 172 pp., $1.76

Monoplanes and

By GROVER

anes c. loening

Covers design, construction and operation. The author has taken the work of the best known ex peri men tors and analyzed the results, comparing them and averaging. Another necessary book. 111., 345 pp.. $2.50

How to Build an Aeroplane

By ROBERT PETIT

A handbook for the young man in school, or beginning building for amusement. A semi-technical book, simply written. 111., 131 pp., $1.50

Building and Flying an Aeroplane »y chas. b. hayward

A practical handbook, covering construction of models, gliders and power machines. III., 160 pp., $1.00

Practical Aeronautics

By CHAS. B. HAYWARD

Treatise on Dirigibles, Aeroplanes, Motors, Propellers, Practice, Future, etc. III.. 800 pp.. $3.50

AERONAUTICS, 250 W. 54th St., New York

AIRCRAFT IN THE WAR (Continued from Page 55)

soldit-r it has been discovered that a high explosive bomb, thrown at a cavalry column from one of our aeroplanes, struck an ammunition wagon, resulting in an explosion which killed fifteen of the enemy."

The Sun records a dispatch stating that on September 8 the French, in retreating, left behind 30 aeroplanes for the Germans.

Rifle hullets penetrating the surfaces of reconnoitering aeroplanes seem to produce but a faint quivering of the machine and affect its flying not a whit. I'.ullets have been reported as having disabled motors and the pilots have heen able, when not too far from the home camp, io glide to safety.

Apparently bombs have as much difficulty in achieving results as does AERONAUTICS in collecting accounts. Bombs were dropped on Paris on two occasions, but little damage has Ix en reported. French aviators pursuing were unable to overtake the Herman machine. On one occasion, it is claimed, one machine was brought down and the aviators killed. Another story is that one machine was found on the outskirts, but the aviator was missing.

There are many reports of aviators having been killed by shots from the ground. The consensus of opinion on bombs seems to be that little damage is done.

A scheme for "mining the air" at night with kites and small balloons, with bombs attached, is suggested in daily papers by a "mem-

ber of the General Staff of the V. S. Army."

A third ascent uver Antwerp by a Zeppelin is said to have been frustrated by Belgian marksmen whose bullets "made a picket fence of steel almost a mile high.*' A few days before bombs had been dropped, which damaged several houses and "slightly wounded" ten or twelve person*.

None of the < ierman aeroplanes which has been flying over Paris has heen brought down directly over the city by the French marksmen, it is cabled.

This fact may be due to the fact that aeroplanes are armored, but experts ?ay that it more probably is due to the fault of the marksmen in aiming straight for the object, which is moving from 20 to 30 \ards a second. It is calculated that it takes a missile from three to five seconds to reach an aeroplane at the height of from one to two thousand yards, hv which time the object would have moved a lum-drtd and fifty yards.

The experts advise, therefore, firing salves in advance of the line of flight under orders of men understanding hallistic science.

\ [ nited Press correspondent writes from He id in of an interview he had with a German soldier wounded in the storming of Liege:

" The world has yet to learn of the fightini* power of our Zeppelins. 1 saw one at work at Liege. It was the dropping of explosives on the

forts there that started their downfall."

"If you ask Dame Frochard," says the Sun correspondent at Antwerp, "what she thinks of the success of aeroplanes or dirigibles in warfare, she says:

" 'Well, they are very noisy, but 1 don't tinnk they'll kill many people. I never heard such a noise in my life when our roof blew off, but the bomb seemed to explode upward. I wonder that it didn't blow back and hit the balloon.'

"It happened on the night of August 24. Dame Frochard and the children have rooms on the second floor of a narmw three-story building right in the centre of town. Half a block away is Antwerp's Wall Street and Stock Exchange. IJne block in another direction is the palice of King Albert.

"One bomb was for the palace, w here the King and Queen are sleeping. It hit within a block of the building. Their hotnh hit the roof where 1 lame Frochard slept.

"The explosion aroused the city. Four more followed in different parts of the town in quick succession. Evidently the Zeppelin was circling over the town. The Belgian* told me that ten persons were killed in four different sections of town that night."

On September 2 it was reported a new Zeppelin had been finished to take the place of one said to have heen captured bv the French. The same day a denial was issued from Berlin stating that no dirigibles had heen shot down or otherwise lost.

AERODYNAMICAL LABORATORIES (Continued from Page 52)

original the distinction of being the only apparatus in the world upon which can be measured the three forces and three couples exerted on a model when placed oblique to the wind in any attitude. The investigation of the rolling, pitching and jawing movements for an aeroplane when side slipping is of especial interest in considering stability. The European laboratories, with the single exception of the English and possibly that of the Vienna Hoch Schule, confine their work to experiments with the wind in the axis nf the model.

The laboratory is ;n charge of Assistant Naval Constructor J. C. 1 lunsaker, V. S. Navy, detailed for 'bis dutv bv the Secretary of the Xavv. with D. YY. Douglas, S.B., as assistant.

Research is conducted by students n aeronautical engineering and naval ai chitecture. At present Assistant Naval Constructors II. E. Rossel and C. L. Brand, U. S. Navy, are temporarily attached to the staff of the laboratory for the purpose of conducting a research in aeroplane stability,

The laboratory is supported out of the general funds of the Institute of Technology, and consequently is to be used primarily for teaching the principles of aerodynamics and to afford data for students for use in design problems.

The laboratory is also available for use by private constructors and inventors, who are invited to submit prohlems for investigation. It is hoped by charging a moderate fee to defray in part the expenses

of general research for the benefit of the art.

Aside from wind-tunnel investigations, question of stability will be studied by large models self-propelled in the open air. For this no special equipment is required, beyond the facilities of the very complete wood-working and machine shops of the Institute. One large model is now under construction bv students. No research on gasoline motors is under way at the present time, but facilities for making tests on economy and efficiency of motors will be provided when funds are available.

Lieut. II. C. Richardson is in charge of the LT. S. Government v. ind tunnel at the Washington Navy Yard.

A REVIEW OF AERONAUTICAL PROGRESS

(Continued from Page 51)

of aeroplanes in this country by the Wrights and Curtiss, and abroad by T.leriot, Far man and others almost equally well know n, are all matters of recent journalistic accounts. When the trans-Atlantic flight, which is now being planned, has become an accomplished fact, mankind will have witnessed the conquest of the last of the three elements—land, water and air which has so long defied his utmost endeavor, and the possibilities nf this conquest are almost beyond de-

scription. The rapid development of the past few years has heen but the beginning of a greater progress w Inch the future hulds for aero-nautio.

THE AEROPLANE HAZARD.

The Compensation Inspection Rating Board has computed the aviation hazard of employes of aeroplane manufacturers and fixed the

rate at 48.06 per cent of the payroll, with a minimum of $1 000 per employe. The board's bulletin contains the following :

"New Classification : To be inserted in manual:

"Aeroplane Manufacturers—Operation and demonstration, 4S.60 per cent. Minimum premium $1,000 for ea"ch employe engaged in operation and demonstration."

This is the highest rate in the compensation rate manual.

Published semi-monthly in the best interests of Aeronautics

■ Y

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I'ai/c 66

AERONAUTICS, Sept. 15, 1914.

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.IER0X.IUT1CS, Sept. 15. 1914. Paijc b7

STABILITY OF AEROPLANES*

By ORVILLE WRIGHT, B.S., LL.D., Member of The Franklin Institute

The subject of "Stability of Aero- as soon as the machine begins to acting in the opposite direction tu planes" is too broad to permit of a move forward, the center of pres- that of the center of resistance, a discussion of all of its phases in one sure, instead of remaining at the variation in tlic quantity of any one, evening. I shall, therefore, confine center of the surfaces, as was the or of all, of these forces will not in myself more particularly to a few case when descending vertically, itself have a disturbing effect on the phases of the fore-and-aft or longi- moves toward that edge of the sur- equilibrium about the lateral hori-tudinal equilibrium. In learning to face which is in advance. The cen- zontal axis. But these forces in the fly, the beginner finds most difficulty ter of gravity being located at the ordinary flying machine do not act iii mastering the lateral control; it center of the surface and the center in the same line. Usually the center is his lack of knowledge of certain of pressure in advance of the center of thrust is high in order to give features of the fore-and-aft equilib- of the surface, a turning moment is proper clearance between the pro-riuni that leads to most of the seri- created which tends to lift the front pellers and the ground; the center otis accidents. These accidents are of the machine, thus exposing the of gravity is low to enable the mathe more difficult to avoid because surfaces at a larger angle of inci- chine to land without danger of bethey are due to subtle causes which dence and at the same time to a ing overturned; and the center of the flyer does not at the time per- greater resistance to forward move- resistance is usually between the ceive. ment. The momentum of the ma- centers of thrust and gravity. When . , chine, acting through its center of a flying machine is traveling at uni-

A flying machine must be balanced gravjtv below the center of forward form speed the propelling forces ex-in three directions: about an axis re5i5tancej combines with the for- actly equal the resisting forces. In fore and aft in its line of motion; ward center 0f preSsure in causing case' the thrust of the propellers is about an axis extending in a lateral t]]e surface t0 be rotated about its diminished by throttling the motor, direction from tip to tip of the iaterai axjs_ The machine will take the momentum of the machine act-wings, and about a vertical axis. an „pWar(] course until it finally ing below the center of resistance The balance about the lateral axis is comes to a standstill. The rear edge carries the lower part of the ma-referred to as fore-and-aft or longi- o{ ,he surface will now be below chine along faster than the upper tudinal equilibrium; that about the t,)at of the from edge and t])e ma_ part| and the surfaces thus wjn be fore-and-aft axis as lateral equilib- chine will begin to slide backward, turned upward, producing a greater num, and that about the vertical The cenler 0f pressure immediately angle and a greater resistance. The axis is generally referred to as steer- reverses and travels towards the same effect is produced if the ma-mg, although its most important rear ec]ge ot t|le surface, which now chine be suddenly struck bv a gust function is that of lateral equilib- ;n ,be backward movement has be- of wind of higher velocity from in num. come the front edge. The center of front. The thrust of its propellers

re ,i,» „ i =„„■,„,.» „f a,i gravity again being back of the cen- will be temporarily slightly de-

If the center of support of an * 0f pressure, the advancing edge creased, the resistance due to the

aeroplane surface would remain hxed f , lsurhce „.;„ be ,ifted sas greater wilul pressUrc will be in-

at one point, as is practically he ^ dulunI effect of the creased, and the momentum of the

case in marine, vessels and in bal- ft repeated. A fly- machine (the center of gravity being

loons and airships equilibrium I of low) will in this case also turn the

unuld be a simple matter, hut the | . ^ rud surfaces upward to a larger angle,

location of the center of pressure = ■> maintain its equilibrium, While these variations in the forces

on an aeroplane surface changes oscinate back and forth in this acting in the horizontal line have of

with every change in the angle at um . fina f , themselves a certain amount of dis-

wnch the air s ti ikes the surface. nd turbing effect, yet it is from the

At an angle of 90 deg. it is located * changes of incidence which they in-

approximately at the center of the It will have been observed from troduce that one encounters the

surface. As the angle becomes less, the foregoing that the equilibrium greatest difficulty in maintaining

the center of pressure moves for- in ,he horizontal plane was disturbed equilibrium,

ward. On plane surfaces it con- by two turning moments acting about

tinues to move forward as the angle tbe lateral horizontal axis of the The two principal methods used in

decreases until it finally reaches the machine; one produced by the force preserving fore-and-aft equilibrium

front edge. But on cambered sur- 0f gravity and the lift of the surface have been, first, the shifting of

faces the movement iti iint i-nntin. - , .. . ..

r-,™,. ,i. m„ , . wl giimy aim ine ini 01 ine suriace ""vc uccu, nisi, me smiling or

faces the movement is not contili- acting in different vertical lines, and «eight so as to keep the center of

uous. After a certain critical ang e the other by the center of momen- gravity in line with the changing

A, ™d 's /eached, which angle tum and the center of resistance center of lift; and, second, the utili-

, .- —-°luni dim me ccnier or resistance ,-ciiici ui 1111, ciiu, seconu, tne Ullll-depends upon the particular form of acting in different horizontal lines. zation of auxiliary surfaces, known the surface the center of pressure . , , as elevators, to preserve the position moves backward with further de- It is evident that a low center of 0f tbe center of pressure in line with crease in angle until it arrives very gravity is a disturbing instead of a a f¡xed center of gravity The first close to the rear edge. At angles correcting agent. The ideal form nietiiod has been found impracticable ordinarily used in flying, angles of of flying machine would be one in on account of the impossibility of .1 deg. to 12 deg., the travel of the which the center of gravity lies in shifting large weights quickly enough-center of pressure is in this retro- the line of the center of resistance The second method is that used in grade movement and is located, ac- to forward movement and in the nlost "0f t|)e flying machines of to-cording to the angle of incidence, at line of thrust. In practice this is jay points between 30 per cent, and SO not always feasible. Flying maper cent, back of the front edge of chines must be built to land safely Flying machines of this latter type the surface. The location of the as well as to fly. A high center of should have their auxiliary surfaces center of pressure on any given gravity tends to cause a machine to located as far as possible from the surface is definitely fi.xed by the an- roll over in landing. A compromise main bearing planes, because the gle of incidence at which' the sur- is therefore adopted. The center of greater the distance the greater is face is exposed to the air. gravity is kept high enough to be the leverage, and consequently the

but a slight disturbing factor in smaller the amount of surface reI he placing of the center of grav- flight and at the same ,ime not so qu¡red. The auxiliary surfaces are lty of the machine below its center ]lign as to interfere in making safe usually placed either in front or in of support appears, at first glance, landings. the rear of the main supporting surto he a solution of the problem of faces, since they act with greater ef-equilibrium. This is the method The three forces acting on an ncjeilCy in these positions than when used in maintaining equilibrium in aeroplane in the direction of its line placed* above or below, marine vessels and in balloons and of motion are the thrust of the pro-airships, but in flying machines it pellers. the momentum or inertia of With a view to high efficiency, no has the opposite of the desired ef- its weight, and the resistance of the part of either the main surfaces or feet. If a flving machine consisting machine to forward travel. If trav- the auxiliary surfaces should be e.x-of a supporting surface, without eling in any other than a horizontal posed on their upper sides in a way elevator or other means of balancing, course, a component of gravity in to create downward pressures. One were descending vertically as a the line of motion will have to be pound of air pressure exerted down-parachute, the center of gravity ver- reckoned with. When these forces ward costs as much in propelling ticallv beneath the center of support are exerted in the same line, with power as two pounds of downward would maintain its equilibrium. But the centers of thrust and momentum pressure produced by actual weight

* Presented at the stated meeting of the Franklin Institute held Wednesday, May 20, 1914, when Dr. Wright received the Institute Elliott Cresson Medal in recognition of the epoch-making '.ork accomplished by him in establishing on a practical basis the science and arf of avia'|'(>|{:

carried. This is due to the fact that the total pressure on an aeroplane is not vertical, but approximately normal to the plane of the surface. This pressure may be resolved into two forces, one acting in a line parallel with the direction of travel, and the other at right angles to the line of travel. One is termed "lift*" and the other "drift." With a given aeroplane surface, the drift and lift for any given angle of incidence always bear a definite ratio to one another. This ratio varies from 1 to 12 to 1 to 1, according to the angle of incidence and the shape of the surface. On an average it is about 1 to 6. so that the thrust required of the propeller in the ordinary flying machine is approximately one-sixth of the weight carried. When traveling on a horizontal course the lift is vertical and is exactly equal to the total weight of the machine and load-This load may be real weight, or it may be partly real weight and partly downward pressures exerted on parts of the surfaces. For every pound of weight carried, a thrust of approximately one-sixth pound is required. If, however, instead of real weight a downward air pressure is exerted on some part of the machine, this downward pressure must be overcome by an equal upward pressure on some other part of the machine, to prevent the machine from descending. In this case the horizontal component of the one pound downward pressure will be about one-sixth pound, and the horizontal component of the compensating upward pressure also will be about one-sixth pound, making a total of one-third pound required in thrust from the propellers, as compared with one-sixth pound thrust required by one pound actual weight carried. It is, therefore, evident that the use of downward air pressures in maintaining equilibrium is exceedingly wasteful, and, as far as possible, should be avoided. In other words, when the equilbrium of an aeroplane has been disturbed, instead of using a downward air pressure to depress the elevated side, an upward pressure should be utilized to elevate the low side. The cost in power is twice as great in one case as in the other.

The dynamically less efficient system of downward air pressures is used to some extent, however, on account of its adaptability in producing more or less inherently stable aeroplanes. An inherently stable aeroplane may be described as one in which equilibrium is maintained by an arrangement of surfaces, so that when a current of air strikes one part of the machine, creating a pressure that would tend to disturb the equilibrium, the same current striking another part creates a balancing pressure in the opposite direction. This compensating or correcting pressure is secured without the mechanical movement of any part of the machine.

The first to propose the use of this system for the fore-and-aft control of aeroplanes was Penaud, a young French student, who did much experimenting with model aeroplanes in the 70's of the last century. His system is used only to a slight extent in the motor-driven aeroplanes of to-day, on account of its wastefulness of power and on account of its restriction of the manoeuvring qualities of the machine.

Penaud's system consists of a main bearing surface and a horizontal auxiliary surface in the rear fixed at a negative angle in relation to the main surface. The center of gravity is placed in front

of the center of the main surface. This produces a tendency to incline the machine downward in front, and to cause it to descend. In descending, the aeroplane gains speed. The fixed surface in the rear, set at a negative angle, receives an increased pressure on its upper side as the speed increases. This downward pressure causes the rear of the machine to be depressed till the machine takes an upward course. The speed is lost in the upward course, the downward pressure on the tail is relie\ed, and the forward center of gravity turns the course again downward. While the inherently stable system will control a machine to some extent, it depends so much on variation in course and speed as to render it inadequate to meet fully the demands of a practical flying machine.

In order to secure greater dynamic efficiency and greater manoeuvring ability, auxiliary surfaces mechanically operable are used in present flying machines instead of the practically fixed surfaces of the inherently stable type. These machines possess the means of quickly recovering balance without changing the direction of travel and of manoeuvring with greater dexterity when required. On the other hand, they depend to a greater extent upon the skill of the operator in keeping the equilibrium. It may be taken as a rule that the greater the dynamic efficiency of the machine and the greater its possibilities in manoeuvring, the greater the knowledge and skill required of the operator.

If the operator of a flying machine were able to "feel" exactly the angle at which his aeroplane meets the air, 90 per cent, at least of all aeroplane accidents would be eliminated. It has been the lack of this ability that has resulted in so large a toll of human lives. Instruments have been produced which indicate closely the angle of incidence at which the machine is flying, but they are not in general use. Nor does the average flyer realize how exceedingly dangerous it is to be ignorant of this angle. Most of the flyers are aware that "stalling" is dangerous, but do not know when they really are "stalling."

A flying machine is in great danger when it is flying at its angle of maximum lift. A change either to a smaller or a larger angle results in a lesser lift. There is this important difference, however, whether the angle be increased or decreased. While a smaller angle gives less lift, it also has less drift resistance, so that the machine is permitted to gain speed. On the other hand, the larger angle gives not only less lift but encounters a greater resistance, which causes the speed of the machine to be rapidly checked, so that there is a double loss of lift—that due to angle and that due to a lesser speed.

The maximum lift is obtained in most flying machines at some angle between 15 deg. and 20 deg. If the machine be gliding from a height with the power of the motor throttled or entirely turned off, and the operator attempt to turn it to a level course, the speed of the machine will soon be reduced to the lowest at which it can support its load. If now this level course be held for even only a second or two, the speed and the lift will be so diminished that the machine will begin to fall rapidly.

The center of pressure on a cambered aeroplane surface at angles greater than 12 deg. to 15 deg.

travels backward with increase of angle of incidence, so that wben a machine approaches the "stalled angles, the main hearing surfaces are generally carrying practically all of the weight and the elevator practically none at all. Under these conditions the main surfaces fall more rapidly than does the rear elevator. The machine noses downward and plunges at an exceedingly steep angle toward the earth. This plunge would tend to bring the machine back to normal speed quickly were the machine flying at its usual angle of incidence. But at the large angles of incidence the drift is a large part of the total pressure on the surfaces, so that, although plunging steeply downward, speed is recovered but slowly. Tbe more the operator tries to check the downward plunge by turning the elevator, the greater becomes the angle of incidence, and the greater the forward resistance. At ordinary stalled angles the machine must descend at an angle of about 25 deg. with reference to the horizontal in order to maintain its speed. If the speed be already below that necessary for support, a steeper angle of descent will be required, and considerable time may be consumed before supporting speed can be recovered. During all this time the machine is plunging downward. If the plunge begins at a height of less than 200 or 300 ft., the machine is likely to strike the ground before the speed necessary to recover control is acquired.

The danger from "stalling" comes in the operator attempting to check the machine's downward plunge by turning the main bearing surfaces to still larger angles of incidence, instead of pointing the machine downward, at a smaller angle of incidence, so that the speed can be recovered more quickly. It is safe to say that fully 90 per cent, of the fatal accidents in flying are due to this cause. Most of the serious ones occur when, after long glides from considerable heights, with the power of the motor reduced, an attempt is made to bring the machine to a more level course several hundred feet in the air. The machine quickly loses its speed and becomes "stalled." All of us who have seen the novice make a "pancake" landing have seen the beginning of a case of "stalling" which might have been fatal had it taken place at a height of 100 or 200 ft.

The greatest danger in flying comes from misjudging the angle of incidence. If a uniform angle of incidence were maintained, there would be no difficulty in fore-and-aft equilibrium. As has already been stated, for any given surface and any given angle of incidence, the position of the center of pressure is fixed. Under these conditions, if the center of gravity were located to coincide with the center of pressure and a uniform angle of incidence maintained, the machine would always be in equilibrium.

It is in accordance with this principle that experiments the past year have brought about a considerable advance in the development of automatic stability. A small horizontal wind vane is so mounted on the machine as to ride edge-wise to the wind when the machine is flying at the desired angle of incidence. In case the machine varies from the desired angle, the air will strike the vane on either its upper or lower side. The slightest movement of the vane in either direction brings into {Continued on page 78)

CURTISS MODEL "J" TRACTOR BIPLANE

The Curtiss Model "J" and Model "J-2" tractor biplanes have been developed to meet the 1914 specifications of the United States Army, and several of the Model "J" have already been adopted and are in use by the Signal Corps at San Diego, after demonstrations by Raymund V. Morris.

These models can be furnished as land machines or as hydroaeroplanes.

section is crosswired in three directions. The tbird and fourth vertical struts are placed so as to act as wing struts, and they have extensions running to the upper surface.

The streamline effect is preserved throughout by enclosing the front of the fuselage, with motor and mountings, in a cowl of Duralumin, slotted to admit air to the motor. Streamline cowls protect the cockpits and

sengers, 2; fuel capacity, 4 hours; speed range, loaded, 45-75 m.p.h.; climbing speed, 400 ft. p.m.: price f. o. b. Hammondsport, $7.500; hydroplane equipment, extra. $500.

Model "J-2"—Span—Lower plane, 30 ft.; upper, 24 ft.; chord, 60 in.; ailerons (4), 7x2 ft.; length over all, 24 ft.; rudder area, 16 sq. ft.; flippers, 16 sq. ft.; area fixed tail surfaces. 30 sq. ft.; number passen-

MODKL '-J," RECONNAISSANCE TYPE.

Model **.(" tractor is arranged for pilot and observer, seated in tandem, and is equipped with double controls, so that either man may take charge. With Curtiss Model O-X 90-100 h.p. motor, it has an extreme flying range of from 40 to 90 miles per hour, carrying two men and four hours' fuel. Flying light. Lieut. Goodier climbed 1,000 ft. in 1 minute; fully loaded, its guaranteed climbing speed ie 2,000 ft. in 6 minutes.

MODEL "J-2." FAST SCOUT TYPE.

Model "J-2" Curtiss tractor is a single-seated speed scout, as fast a biplane of its horse power as ever has been produced, hut still substantial enough to stand up well under the stress of hard service. With Model O-X Curtiss motor, the "J-2" tractor has more of a range.

The wings of both these models are of latest approved section, one-piece type. Wing frames are built up carefully of ash and spruce, with beams shaped and grooved by hand, important joints copper strapped, the whole securely stayed with piano wire. Covers are of unbleached linen, thoroughly coated with our own water and oil-proof preparation. Model "J" wings have a spread of 40 ft. 2 in. for the upper surfaces, and 30 ft. for the lower surfaces; the area of lifting surface is approximately 350 sq. ft. Model "J-2" wings have a span of 24 ft., upper and lower alike, and an approximate area of 240 sq. ft.

The fuselage is of rectangular section, 26 in. wide by 35 in. high at the cockpit, tapering to nothing at the rudder. The longerons are ash strips, in. in diameter, tapering to 1 in. The fuselage is corner braced with nine sets of struts, which are joined with corner clamps without piercing the longerons. Each

deflect the wind from the pilots, as well as shield from the weather the dashboards on which the instruments are mounted. IJehind the cockpits the fuselage is covered with waterproofed linen.

The Curtiss Model O-X motor is mounted on engine beds of laminated ash and spruce 2 in. x 3 in. in diameter. It is fastened in front to a plate of 3-32 in. steel, which joins the longerons, and also carries the radiator. The rear ends of the engine beds are mounted on a hardwood cross member framed into the second pair of vertical struts of extra size.

The fuselage is supported by an undercarriage consisting of three supporting struts on each side, borne on two streamlined wire wheels. The tires are 26 in. x 5 in. Wheels are attached with rubber band shock absorbers. Protection from an upset in case of an unusually hard landing is afforded by two white oak skids, 6 ft. long, turned tip in front; they also help shield the propeller. The tail skid is of white oak and sprung on with rubber bands.

Turn-up ailerons 10 ft. in length by 2 ft. wide are attached to the trailing edge of the upper surface on Model "J" tractor. Model "J-2" has turn-up ailerons on both upper and lower surfaces. These are 7 ft. long by 2 ft. wide. The vertical rudder has an area of 30 in. x 36 in., is well secured to the stern post, and is double wired. Horizontal rudders, or flippers, have an area of 16 sq. ft. Either the Curtiss system of control, consisting of shoulder yoke and steering wheel, or the Deperdussin system, with foot bar, can be provided with these models.

General dimensions are:

Model "J"—Span, lower plane, 30 ft.; upper, 40 ft. 2 in.; chord, 60 in.; ailerons (2), 10 x 2 ft.; length over all, 26 ft. 4 in.; rudder area, 16 sq. ft.; flippers, 16 sq. ft.; area fixed tail surfaces, 30 sq. ft.; number pas-

gers, 1; fuel capacity, 3 hours; speed range, loaded, 45-80 m.p.h.; climbing speed, 500 ft. p.m.; price f. o. b. Hammondsport. $7,500; hydroplane equipment, extra. $500.

JACQUITH MAKES GOOD FLIGHT.

On Sept. 21 the Curtiss river Jac-quith. with passenger, K. F." Patterson, flew from Seaside Park to Atlantic City, about 62 miles, in 1 hr. 3 min., in a Curtiss flying boat.

MOISANT MOVES.

The Moisaut International Aviators have moved their office from 1790 Uroadway to the factory at Thompson and Fiske avenues, Win-field, Long Island, N. Y.

It is of interest to note that a wonderful exhibition of looping-the-loop and upside down flying by Niles at the Trenton fair failed to attract, as one-third of the people were watching a vaudeville performance on the ground the same time Niles was performing in the air.

La Liberte, according to a Paris despatch, declares that cage birds, especially canaries, never fail to signal the presence of an airship or aeroplane "by giving a cry of surprise." The paper suggests that they should be used as watch birds.

It is suggested that British sportsmen should make up parties for aircraft fighting and for just one season feave tbe duck and the woodcock alone.—Army and Navy Journal.

Harry Bingham Brown was married on October 7th. No more flying for H. B. B.

Patjc 70

AERONAUTICS, Sept. 15, 1914.

THE "STECO" AEROPLANE

The "Steco" aeroplane, designed hy James S. Stephens, was built in the spring of 1911 from drawings prepared in the latter part of 1910. These drawings were submitted to and approved by the late Octave Ohamtte.

"At the time no biplane had been built without a front elevator or w it li a tractor propeller; that the wing section is practically the same as one of the most efficient forms evolved by the Eiffel experiments during the past few months, and that the machine embodies in its design and construction all of the features that have been developed during the past four years which tend to make the dying machines more efficient and stable."

The supporting surfaces of this machine are arranged so that it is naturally stable, both longitudinally

up, turning it to the right or left for steering horizontally, as with a bicycle.

The attachment of a single controlling surface and its movement in performing the functions of steering are such that it acts to automatically compensate the tilting of the machine when turning, accomplishing the same result as the reverse movement of a vertical rudder, as covered by the Wright patent, claims over which there has been so much controversy, lìy a tilting motion of the handle bar, the steering plane may be rocked in either direction and used as an auxiliary balancing device manually controlled, this tilting motion aiding more or less or counteracting the effect of the steering of the machine upon its normal balance. ' This single surface is supported on a bearing located near its center,

swing freely out toward the outer end of the planes, but not inwardly further than to be in line with the forward motion of the machine when flying straight ahead.

These balancing planes co-operating with the form of the outer ends of the wings, maintain the proper angle of the machine when turning, so that it will not skid outwardly for want of sufficient banking, or slide inwardly and downwardly from over-banking, their operation being somewhat similar to a check valve on each end of the wings of the machine.

If the machine in turning starts to skid outward, the balancing plane on that end of the wings acts as a check to the motion of the machine in that direction and in conjunction with the form of the wings and their relative dihedral angles, creat-

and transversely; this is accomplished by an adaptation of the principal of the Zanonia leaf, a form that has also been taken advantage of in the design of the "Dunne," a liritish development, and the "Et-rich" aeroplane of Germany. Additional features aiding in the natural stability of this machine are the staggering of the wings, the upper plane being located forward of the lower, and also having a slightly increasing angle of incidence, a combination of these features in conjunction with the transverse form of the planes, giving the maximum of natural stability when flying.

All of the supporting surfaces of this machine are fixed, thus permit-ling permanent construction and bracing not affected by warping or twisting while the machine is in action. The single tail surface, which carries a portion of the load, is the only controllable surface used in steering the machine in any desired direction.

The operation of this surface for both elevator and rudder effect is performed by direct connection, without pulleys or levers, to a steering post and handle bar, similar to the handle bar of a bicycle, the motion required being of such a simple nature that a novice will instinctively make the proper movements, viz., shaving the handle bar forward to go down and drawing it back to go

having a universal movement, so that any movement of the handle bar in the hands of the operator will cause a similar directional movement of the tail steering plane.

This tail steering plane is connected to the machine by a simple method which allows of its adjustment, so that normally the machine when in action w ill fly straight ahead, and is so located and adjusted, relative to the main supporting surfaces, as to cause the machine to automatically assume the minimum gliding angle downward when the power is shut off.

The controlling mechanism always automatically assuming its normal relative position for straight ahead flying, should the operator for any reason or intentionally remove bis hands from the controlling lever; this important function is accomplished by a simple method of supporting the steering member without any actuating device other than the pressure of the air upon the tail of the machine, which provides for certain action obtained from the motion ot the machine itself through tbe air.

As an auxiliary to the special form and arrangement of the main supporting planes designed to maintain transverse stability, the machine is fitted with two balancing planes, one on each side, placed vertically between the second set of struts in from the outer end and hinged to

ing an additional lift on that side of the machine, tending to maintain the machine at the proper angle sideways for turning, the balancing plane on the opposite end of the planes being neutral, swinging free in line with the angle of drift of the machine.

Should the machine overbank and tend to slide down and inwardly, the inner balancing plane on that end of the wings will immediately become active, reversing the operation, as previously explained.

The advantages claimed in the construction of this machine are natural inherent stability obtained by tbe form of the planes and simple movable parts operated positively by the pressure of the air upon the machine when in action without any mechanical or electrical contrivances.

Simplification of Parts—This machine having but one movable controllable part, which for steering in either a horizontal or verticle. plane, is connected to the steering lever in the hand of the operator by direct connections without intermediary levers or pulleys.

The design of this machine provides for instinctive control by simple mechanism, tending toward greater safety, strength in construction by the reduction of movable parts, and simplification of control by the elimination of vertical rud ders, ailerons and wing warping.

CAREY STABILITY SYSTEM.

Edwin K. Carey, of Pueblo, Colo., suggests the alleged non-infringing lateral stability system shown in the drawing herewith, after having tried it out. He offers the idea to others. The drawing is after the original sketch made by Mr. Carev in April, 1910.

The inventor states: "That others have, in a measure, considered similar devices, look at the joint elevator of the Cody 1909-11 type. Reverse tbe design of his machine, leave off his tail and use the dimensions herewith and there is quite a similarity. However. I knew nothing of his device at the time. Dunne uses ailerons

sions and universal 'cloche' to assist in rising by positive incidence to help elevator, and by rearward side-wise motion made them function to restore balance, but to my knowledge this is the only one to use the elevators as such to control balance. Dunne uses ailerons as elevators. We use elevators as ailerons, only they function as feathers on an arrow by impingement behind center of thrust, center of pressure, weight and inertia, and can be worked in conjunction, separately, with or without rudders."

The \\ arping elevators are operated in both directions, independent-

TRANS-ATLANTIC MODEL GOES ABROAD.

Contradicting the criticism that the "America" was a freak or specially-built machine for stunt purposes, is the sale abroad of practically a duplicate which was shipped September 30 to England. According to published reports, the machine is said to have been acquired for the British Admiralty on the recommendation of Lieut. John C. Porte, who. as prospective pilot for the transatlantic project, was entirely familiar with the "America" and her possibilities.

The only statement made by the Curtiss Aeroplane Co. was that when war was declared and it became evident the transatlantic flight could not be attempted this year, the *'Ame: -ica" was dismantled, and a sto> Y type uf machine along simile ■ ./ was developed from it and p^r^. the market. A new arrai.g^meiu made with Mr. Rudman Wan|pma_ whereby Mr. Curtiss is to"<i$si?n <. new and larger mach:n^ jf0r next year's transatlantic at*ei,n 1JJHE-

Of the •'Transatlant,c"^fc?,..as it is now catalogued °>' JM^Curtiss Aeroplane Co., it ,s ^"d several have been ordered *°r delivery jn America, though tht ,rnpression prevails that eventual!* these will rind their way to Eurog-** J he new machines differ frou.*ne "*^rner'ca" only in details. X ere 15 .greater planing surface, 5tfin "

lower, the tail is'*" Curtiss OX 90-h. .used.

A detailed descr-. - of the type will be published in an early issue.

for steering and elevating. Richard Hartc did in 1870; so did the 'Diap-son* flown by Schreck at Juvisy; Mouillard also, as well as Du Temple in his models. Small models of my device are filling requirements with rudder as a vane, or left off entirely. Cody and Martin have used ailerons in conjunction with elevators to restore balance. In 1910-11 Goupy used ailerons on wing exten-

ly or simultaneously, to restore lateral balance. Another arrangement would be to have a vertical rudder at each one of these tails instead of one rudder as shown in the original sketch. The main planes are rigid in the design, and the entire control is as shown in the tail. A foot bar operates tbe rudder, and right and left hand levers the twin elevators. A machine of this pattern was built and flown in 1911, Mr. Carey says.

SLOANE CO. CHANGES NAME.

A new organization known as the Aircraft Co., Inc., has been formed to build the well-known Sloane Aeroplanes and to conduct the business carried on by the Sloane Aeroplane Co. The office of the Company will remain at 1737 Broadway and the manufacturing will be carried on at Bound Brook, N. J., and Long Island City, N. V.

This Company is in a position to turn out the various standard types of aeroplanes in large numbers. There is a very well equipped machine plant operating in connection with them under the name of Sloane-Daniel Motor Co. In this - plant a specialty is made of light weight, high speed gas engines suitable for aeroplanes. These aeronautical motors will be sold by the Aircraft Co., Inc.

John E. Sloane, formerly president of the Sloane Aeroplane Co., is president of the new concern; M. R. Hutchinson, E. E., vice-president and Daniel L. Meenan, Jr., secretary and treasurer. Mr. M. R. De Miege is also associated with the company in an executive capaciiy.

Charles II. Day, the well-known builder of "Day Tractors," who built De Lloyd Thompson's record breaking machine and who previously was connected with Glenn L. Martin Co., is now associated with the Aircraft Co., Inc., and will be in direct charge of the construction of the Sloane Aeroplanes which will be built exclusively by this company.

Mr Stevens is making a strenuous effort to revive ballooning, and the race at Pittsfield on October 8 ought to do a lot to help along.

KEMP EIGHT-CYLINDER AIR-COOLED.

The Kemp Machine Works, of Muncie, Ind., has just put on the market a new and enlarged edition in its J-S, 75-h.p.. S-cyl. V., air-cooled motor, equipped with a blower to insure positive circulation of air around all the cylinders evenly, the only air-cooled American motor with stationary cylinders.

A blower mounted on the forward end of motor drives a current of air through its two outlet pipes to manifolds on each group of four cylinders. The manifolds distribute an equal quantity of air to each cylinder, where it is forced around under an aluminum jacket and between the regular cooling flanges to an outlet diametrically opposite its point of entry". Tims each cylinder gets cx-at.-y as much air as any other, and aii jwts of The c\linder are coohd uniformly. Blower Tan, casing, manifolds and jackets are all of aluminum, amply strong for the puijose, and the weight of the entire outfit is but 31 lbs. "Compare this with the weight of a 75-h.p. radiator, empty," says Mr. Kemp!

The maker guarantees absolute freedom from the dangers of overheating and all the resulting consequences, and "for the user the most trying prohlem and the greatest

weakness of all other motors—the cooling problem—simply ceases to exist."

The cylinders, 4J4 nl- x m->

are of the valve-in-head type, ac-

knowledged the best for maximum efficiency, with both valves, of rich tungsten steel, mechanically operated. The cooling flanges, as on all Kemp motors, are turned from the solid semi-steel stock. Pistons are of the same material, very light, with two concentric Wasson rings and three oil grooves.

The connecting rods are of the same aluminum bronze alloy used satisfactorily in the past, with a "strength equal to that of steel and no liability to crystallization and fracture." They are of a new section, with a third rib down the center, much stronger than the usual H set lion.

Crank shaft is cut from a solid billet of special vanadium steel, heat treated, and bored throughout. It is supported on five bearings of hard, high speed, nickel motor babbit, and equipped with ball thrust bearings tor either pushing or pulling. It projects sufficiently at the rear end for attachment of gear to connect with hand or electric starter.

The crank case is of an aluminum alloy of high strength, thoroughly webbed and ribbed.

Oil sump in base has a capacity of 4 gals. A gear pump takes the oil from this compartment and keeps a constant stream flowing over cam shaft and crank shaft bearings, whence it splashes to cylinders. The lubricating system is simple, sufficient and certain.

"We have endeavored to make the motor a lightweight power plant, as all aeronautical motors should be. At the same time, we have not left off an ounce of material where it could do any good. Dependability and freedom from breakage has been otir chief aim, and the motor is remarkably solid and substantial as compared with most lightweight aero motors. To further insure dependability and durability, we have designed it to give its rated power at very moderate speed."

Ignition is by the Mea BHS magneto.

Two Zenith carburetors are used, one serving each group of four cylinders. A Paragon propeller is furnished with each engine, as the Kemp works have concluded, after the tests with these propellers, that they are the most suitable. Each propeller furnished is designed to suit the particular machine on which it is to be used, and the 3-bladed Paragon will be fitted if desired.

While this model is rated at 75 h.p., it is guaranteed to turn an 8ft. diameter by 5-ft. pitch propeller to at least 1,250 r.p.m., stationary, with corresponding increase in the air. It is understood, however, that the normal speed of this motor is 1,200, and should not be run above that.

The A. L. A. M. rating of this motor would be 72.25 h.p. The weight complete is but 375 lbs., and the price is $1,250. The gas consumption is 4 gals, an hour, which is low, and the oil consumption 3 qts.

AUGUST EXPORTS AND IMPORTS.

Imports: Parts only, $2,153. For eight months ending August, one 'plane and parts were imported to value of $13,910, of which $12,054 is the valuation of the parts.

Exports: One 'plane and parts, $1,690, oT which the 'plane represents $1,500. Certainly aeroplanes are not overvalued when shipped. For eight months ending August, 25 aeroplanes have been shipped, representing $153,399, with parts totaling $25,001 additional.

Exports of imported goods: None for August; for eight months the total was but $207.

In Warehouse: On August 31 there was one foreign-built machine, valued at $1,856. At the same time in 1913 there were three and parts, valued at $7,708.

JULY EXPORTS AND IMPORTS.

Imports: Parts only, value $86. For seven months ending July, 'planes and parts to amount of $11,757.

Exports: Two 'planes and parts for July, value $45.66. For seven months ending July, value was $176,710, as against $36,039 and $69,165 for 1913 and 1912, respectively, for the same period.

Exports of foreign manufacture: None. For seven months ending July, value totaled $207.

In Warehouse July 31: One 'plane and parts, $5,069. At the some time in 1913, there were in the warehouse three 'planes and parts, to the value of $7,708.

ALMOST A NEW ENDURANCE RECORD.

A new record for aeroplane endurance in America was nearly established on September 25, when Lieut. Joseph Carherry, U. S. A., accompanied by Oscar Brindley, remained in actual flight for 4 hours and 7 minutes, during which time they flew to Los Angeles and back and then across the Mexican boundary and back to the hangars on North Island. The old record is 4 hours, 22 minutes. The machine used was the new Wright tractor-type "pusher" with the 90-h.p. Austro-Daimler motor, being delivered to the Army.

THOMPSON ALTITUDE RECORD OFFICIAL.

The new American altitude record recently made with a Gyro motored machine hy De Lloyd Thompson has been officially fixed at 15,256 It. (.4,651.22 metres).

AROUND-THE-WORLD RACE.

Well, what has become of it? Also, where is Arnold Kruckman?

NEW BOOKS.

EXPERIMENTS, by Philip E. Edelman. 16mo, cloth, illus., 250 pp., published at $1.50 by Philip E. Edelman, Minneapolis, Minn. A most desirable work to place in the hands of any young man that has shown a tendency toward scientific study. The scope of .the book is well set forth in the frontispiece as "a series of selected, grouped and graded experiments which may be repeated in a simple manner, covering a wide range of applied science" evolved from the wonderful developments of the last decade in physics, chemistry and electricity. It is interesting reading for even those who are thoroughly familiar with the subject matter.

AIRCRAFT IN THE WAR

Until the war is ended and naval "Only twelve persons were injured, ni the hope that at last there may

and army critics report on the value of these only live were killed. The turn up a winning hand."

of aircraft as reconnaissance means, total damage amounted to the shat- A re t which conflicts seriously

in offense and defense, little of real tering of the upper story of a with (hat to ,he effect that Uer.

use will be learned. house and to the excavation of a man airships have been destroyed is

Reports vary from one extreme to saucer-shaped hole in the ground in this;

the other and, of course, such re- ?h,c,',a ma" m,(!,ht1,lie. dow" c0.m' , ,

ports are from untrained men and fortably. One shell from a six- Of the Zeppelin units, one is be-without definite significance It pounder would have wrought nihn- lieved to have been disabled by the would appear, however, that aerial ltdy more ruin, and falling in the fire of the Liege forts on Aug.6 and reconnaissances have been the means ?.ame space, would have cost more in another was demolishel in a shed at of preventing "surprises" and have l,fe; . 1 lle Germans were at the time .Metz hy the trench aviator rink made the great battles long drawn within ten miles of the centre of I wo others have been seen by Bel-ont affairs decided by number of the °* Brussels at one point of gian aviators, apparently wrecked by-troops and marksmanship, strength ,h«r !'ne- Tl\e s,eSe howitzer of wind squalls, in the forest between of armament and position "With- today has an effective range of more Metz and Aix-la-Chapelle. Another out'doubt the aeroplane is the great- t'ian twelve miles. A projectile dis- lias been brought down at Hadon est single factor in this war is charged from such a gun would have viller, near Luneville. Of the re-the opinion of one expert ' absolutely demolished any building mainder, two are supposed to he on

n., ,. , , , upon which it fell. the Russian frontier and the others

lhe Zeppelins have made them- successful attempt at wir at Cologne. Hamburg and Kiel and

selves conspicuous by their absence. - Another successtul attempt at war French frontier \ Orman

A few desultory sorties have been from the air was that exploit of °!1."1<- j rencn frontier. A uerman

j\ tew uesuitory sorties nave been , ■ , M iiel,n„j ,,.,<. <..rn biplane captured at Cernay has been

made, according to reports, but as * M- 1 egotlcl was the hero. ^ , i , y

a real factor thev have vet il ,i^m,m W >th one companion he flew over a duueu to 'j'e Suns ana otner

a real factor tnej nave yet to demon- . , (- jl enramnments near trophies to be placed at the foot of

strate their worth. Ihey are ev - fenes 01 ,jer,na>> encampments near . ' monument

dently being held back for some ^ravenmacher ... ielg.um He flew 'Alsace monument

definite purpose which will appear at at n,'gh,' a"d at on}* 50°, ft- a't'tude. Speaking of the relative merits of

the tigured-upon time. I" lac* °* exact knowledge gossip Zeppelins and the French non-r.g.d

„ , £ has it that his load of bombs weighed tvpe of airships, as demonstrated it.

Keports continue of aeroplane 500 11)S ue discharged every one the present war. M. Sabatier, the

scouts being brought down by rifle before he returned. well-known airship specialist, says:

tire of the miscellaneous dropping "[••rench airships have been doing

of bombs and arrows from aero- , Ine result, o tar as can work and so far escaped

ulai.es of duels in the iir l»i,,,,„ be ascertained, was that the fright- excellent work, arm so iar istapeu

piaues, oi aueis in tne air between , blanketed their fires unscathed, although often under hre.

opposing scouts, and of occas ona ened Germans blanketed their tires • .jarting fr01n via„

flights with bomb rironnino ,,ver 50 that the aeroplanist could not !me OI tnem. startnifc rioni jiau

Paris dropping, over find uh (arget ^ was aJ first s(ated bcugc, flew oyer Treves and beyond,

Herbert Corey in the Dnh, that two convoys of ammunition returning safely to its shed On

states- were J"troyed by his bombs. This the other hand, we have bagged sey-

. ,.* < , , , .. , has not been confirmed. It is eral Zeppelins. The reason tor this

. Aircraft have utterly faded to highly |,kel.., of course, that if an apparent invulnerabi ity of the

justify themselves as instruments of ammunition caisson were struck by French airship is simple. Ly reason

battle in the great war. As instru- an explosive projectile it would be uf lne elasticity of our gas bags we

rnents of reconnaissance they have destroyed. It docs not necessarily c?" maintain a very high

been of great value This formula follow- that the next wagon of am- altitude, beyond ordinary gun range,

was suggested to me by an officer munition would suffer The 'in- ■'his is impossible with the rigid

of the British flying corps: cendiary' bombs he carried would fhrfl oi thc Zeppelin, which cannot

" 'One howitzer is of greater value unquestionably cause a conflagration J.ear. "!c expansion of gas, more parthan twoscore of dirigibles. One if they fell among city houses. They t^ularly in this hot weather; so the aeroplane may conceivably be of are almost harmless—as harm is h.reiich have a distinct advantage in greater value than a squadron of counted in this war—if they fall alrships.

scouts.' among the tents of an encampment. A young Belgian aviator was re-

"M. Bleriot, the first man to fly "It is definitely known that each ported as saying: "It is very difficult

the English channel, and now one of side has been continually engaged in to distinguish anything .Men look

the leading aeroplane makers of experiments upon the other by s0 small from such a height For

France^his factory is at work day means of bombs. The French, at example, unless you are directly

and night turning out aircraft for least, have indicated they will give above you can scarcely see

use in the war—made this state- this up as a bad job. Even the pen artillery upon a road. A rifle

merit- moral effect lias worn off. In the ul,nct. struclJ ,,he, Propellor of his

"•The dirigibles have done nothing ^"roe marching troops have had machine and broke it slightly, hut

ine airgmies nave none notiung. difficulty in avoiding the droDoed d,d ,10t Sta-V llls night. The ex-

The aeroplane has been usefu—but ui"n.uiij awnuiug ine uroppea , - , shells were verv disturh-

ihe list xvnrA remains with the cms ' bombs. Bomb throwing at night is P'osions ot s.iens .were very uisrurn

the last word remains with the guns. h; h] ha].assing ,Q t]le thrown at, mg because they interfered with the

JNI. Pegoud, who bas figured in hut the animated targets have the equilibrium of the machine. As to

several daring exploits, is quoted as consolation that, like lightning, an "°ise? B"t the noise of the engine

'"'lows: aeroplanist never strikes twice in dro»ns every other sound. So far

l( tr. , il,p cnn,P nlace as reconnoitering airman is con-

From an aerop ane one sees- the same place. a , ,efiefd ,s i(e si|cn,_..

but one does not always know what "'Our reiiorts from Belgium are . .

it is one sees. The airman may see that in broken, wooded, hilly country 5ays tlie i aris 1 emps: lhe ex-

that the enemy is in possession of an airman is quite unable to distin- Per.ence of our air people shows

territory, but the work of developing guish with any certainty the numbers .,ha.t an aeroplane is safe froiu

in what strength it is held must still or disposition of the troops beneath """J1.? " , '• J- "'e-,: a,,d

be carried out by cavalry or motor him,1 said the British officer quoted. aj 2'000 yds- av aviator still can

scouts.' -He might make a fairly accurate observe accurately with the naked

"Little has found its way into estimate of what was going on upon e>'e-__

print as to the details of the work a plain beneath him. Even so, in

done by dirigibles or planes in the the present state of development he ITVtv ,.u- tjttv iivi.it war. Gossip from the front, heard would only he able to report that a UAL1 JIA1 ljU1 utM-in London and Paris, is that innum- certain number of small or large Knea Bossi, a well-known Italian erable attempts at aggression have bodies of troops were under way in engineer and designer is in New-been made by the aircraft of both a pven directio^ Such reports have y fc c0]lferri „.ith manufacturers sides. In one case a German "dig" been of great value to us, but they 8 floated over the city of Brussels must be supplemented hy feeling out nerc-

and discharged nine powerful bombs, the country by cavalry scouts.' "The Italian government now has From the airman's viewpoint condi- "Nevertheless, the countries en- 17 dirigibles, two of which are as tions for this savage raid were ideal, gaged in this great war are adding big as Zeppelins; 2S0 biplanes, and There was no wind, and the motor to their aeroplane squadrons as rap- j"Q hydroplanes" Mr liossi said balloon was manceuvered over the idly as possible. It is conceded that Sept. 11.—Aeroplanes with search-city as easily as a catboat in a they - have not justified the high .. . 1 ., , 1 , , , breeze. The bombs fell upon a hopes that were entertained of them ll?';ls t sa'1 l° aVe §U\rdel at densely thronged city, thereby as- before the war began. But they are n|ght the headquarters of the Ger-suring tbe maximum of cost to life one of the great dice of war, and man general staff and the Kaiser and property. they will be thrown again and again, at Luxembourg.

Sept. 19.- -British army officer said to have stated that the aeroplanes of the allies are doing splendid service. In one instance one located a German troop train at night and dropped a torch to indicate the range. "Our artillery blew tile train to atoms in a few minutes."

Sept. 21. Aeroplane reconnois-sance reports German retirement, with trains and stores.

Sep;. 21. Japanese hydro-aeroplanes, throwing bombs, destroyed barracks and set fire to two important forts at Tsingtao.

Sept. 2$. British aviators said to have set lire to hangars near Cologne, while German newspaper says only a few windows were broken.

Sept. 22.—British naval aeroplanes attack Zeppelin shed at Dusseldorf and dropped three bombs. Extent of damage not known.

Sept. 24.—Frenchman arriving in America tells uf steel arrows, six inches long, rounded at one end and brought to a needle point, with grooves along the other end, launched a thousand at a time from aircraft fitted with special boxes, whose bottoms open.

Sept. 25.—German airship drops four bombs, making great cavities in the ground, damaging houses and breaking street lamps and wires.

Sept. 25. Germans said to have lost most of their aeroplanes, but the "Zeppelin fleet is intact."

Sept. 27.—German aeroplane flies

over Paris and dropped a bomb. One man was killed. Three others bombs were dropped, doing "comparatively little damage." A German airship sailed over Belgian cities during the night and dropped bombs, causing considerable damage to gas works and buildings.

Sept. 30.—Japanese aviators say they hit a German vessel with bombs at Kaio-chow, and the guns of warships silenced two harbor forts after obtaining range signaled by Jap hydros.

Oct. 1.—-French pilot and mechanic use aeroplane gun on German scout machine, killing both German occupants and setting fire to the machine.

Oct. 1.—Italian dirigible sent out to locate floating mines in the Adriatic.

Oct. 2.—German aeroplanes drop proclamations over territory in which Russian troops are stationed, urging Russian soldiers to surrender.

Oct. 2.—During night German airships dropped bombs on Antwerp forts without serious damage. German gun fire is very accurate, being directed by officers in captive balloons to the front of German batteries. Captive balloon said to be poor substitute for aeroplane reconnaissance. British aviators direct fire from Antwerp forts.

Oct. 3.—British official press bureau issues statement that the naval air service, including aeroplanes and

dirigibles, patrolled a line between Ostend and the English coast during movement of troops from England.

Oct. 3.—Japanese aeroplanes chase a German one at Tsingtao. A captive balloon is reported in use there.

< let. 5.—Report that airships are being groomed, new stations built on North Sea and material and supplies collected for a raid on England.

Oct. 6.—Kaiser confers Iron Cross on commander and crew of a Sclmtte-Lanz airship, for "the magnificent aerial reconnoitering that led to the destruction of the three British cruisers" torpedoed in the North Sea by German submarines.

Oct. 7.—Six German airships sail over Antwerp during the night, setting fire to oil tanks.

< )tt. 7.—German aeroplane flies over Paris, dropping two bombs, which wounded three persons.

Oct. S.— Aeroplane drops bombs over airship at Cologne, but driven off by fire without doing damage. Bomb from aeroplane said to have damaged airship and shed at Dusseldorf. Airship reported seen over Xorth Sea. Duel in the air between Belgian scout and German flyer, resulting in the loss of the German pilot and craft.

"Fall Fashions Volplane to Broadway." is the expression used in a haberdasher's advertisement in a New York paper.

U.S. ARMY AERONAUTICS—GOVERNMENT COMPETITION

Great activity reigns at the Signal Corps aviation school in North Island, near San Diego, Cal., at the present time. In fact, the school seems to have taken on a new lease of life since the return of the detachment which was hurried away for service in Mexico but which never got farther than Galveston.

Recently, four buildings have been added to the school: two hangars, each accommodating ten machines, a commodious storehouse and a headquarters building. These buildings were constructed under the able supervision of Captain Kirtland and add greatly to the appearance of the aerodrome.

Several new machines have recently been added to the equipment, including one .Martin speed scout and two Martin school machines, alj tractors equipped with Curtiss O-X 100 h.p. motors; two Curtiss tractors and one Curtiss flying boat, with, of course, Curtis motors, O-X model; and one Wright modified tractor, with 90 h.p. Austre-Daimler engine in front and twin chain driven propellers in rear.

Some eleven constructors have entered for the militarv competition (see AEROXAUTICS, July 15), which has been set to commence Oct. 20. Of these only Curtiss, Martin and Christofferson are on the ground and it seems unlikely that all of the entries wil have machines ready. Neither the Thomas, Sloane nor Moisant companies are entering the competition. In fact, a large number of machines can hardly be expected in view of the severity of the specifications, the small number of prizes and the mediocrity of the

prizes themselves. Other expected competitors include: The Wright Co., Maximilian Schmitt, Aeromarine Plane & Motor Co., and Gallaudet Co.

Perhaps in the year one of the next era Congress will wake up and make a respectable attempt to foster the aeroplane and motor industries in America. Let us hope so—but not too strongly!

Mr. Riley Scott has completed bis experiments with his bomb dropping device, covering a period of five months, and reports have been made to the War Department. According to the Army and Navy Journal, a new type of aero bomb developed by the Ordnance Department was tried out with complete success. The range finder invented by Mr. Scott was used in the experiments and it is reported that remarkable accuracy was attained. The bombs, which were of two sizes, fifteen and fifty lbs., were equipped with adjustable fuses. Until the fuse is set the bomb can be handled with perfect safety. In dropping from an aeroplane the bomb is placed in a holder below the machine with a light wire cable attached to the fuse. At the proper time, the aviator pulls the cable attached to the fuse, which arms the bomb. This is done just before the bomb is released. The Scott range finder is telescopic and indicates just when the bomb should be dropped in order to strike the target. This is done by calculating the speed of the machine with respect to the ground and taking the height from an an-

eroid barometer, which is corrected before each flight.

With all the attention that the European armies have given to aeroplanes and Zeppelins, none of them lias developed a reliable range finder. Most of the bombs dropped have been guided only by the judgment of distances and estimates of the speed of aeroplane without the aid of instruments. This, it is stated, accounts for the inahility of any of the Powers in the present war to do effective work with bombs at high altitudes. The maximum height at which the tests were made at San Diego was 2,500 ft., but the accuracy with which the bombs were dropped indicates that the Scott range finder is a success and will enable military aviators, with proper training, to do accurate work at a height of 5,000 or more. Th;s would place aeroplanes out o£ the range of small arms and the present type of field artillery guns. The bombs containing high explosives tore holes in the hard soil. 6 to 10 ft. in diameter and 3 to 5 ft. deep.

A full description of the original apparatus and the thenrv has been printed in AERONAUTICS.

Experiments have recently been conducted with a parachute device, the demonstrations being made by Mr. and Mrs. Broadwick. The Converse stabilizer, described in AERONAUTICS for August 15, will shortly be tried.

The Curtiss aviation school opened October 15, and Curtiss himself is already on the ground. The Curtiss school occupies part of Xorth Island and teaching is done with hoth land and \\ ater machines.

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FLYING ON LONG ISLAND.

Bombs, made of plaster of paris and shaped like the projectiles used on v. ar vessels, were dropped by the aviators on the 1 lempstead Plains field at Garden City, at the weekly meet on Sept. 19. These bombs were about 12 inches long. At one end was a stick 15 inches long, which has cardboard quills at the top to keep the bomb steady when dropped. At the other end was a large wire nail. Inside the plaster of paris bomb was a large quantity of lampblack and a 3-inch cartridge, from which all the shot had been removed. When the aviator dropped the bomb from the aeroplane it whirled around and around in its descent, and as it struck the ground the nail was driven up in the homb against the cartridge, which caused the bomb to explode with a loud report, and the lampblack, scattering in all directions, looked like dense smoke.

The handicap rating of the machines on the field at present is: hour; Heinrich monoplane, 64 m.p. Schmitt monoplane, 69 miles per h.; Kuhl-Baysdorfer biplane, 62 m.p.h.; Moisant Blue Bird monoplane, 62 m.p.h.; Heinrich School monoplane, 56 m.p.h.; Beckwith military tractor, 42 m.p.h.

These week-end affairs are being conducted under the auspices of the Week End Meets Association, of which John E. Sloane is president, A. J. Moisant vice-president, P. S. Houghton secretary and Albert Heinrich treasurer. So far as known no license has been obtained from the Wright company. All aviators are cordially invited to participate. Passengers are carried at $12.50 per flight.

AERO MART

FOR SALE—46 copies Aero and Hydro; 31 copies Aircraft; 4S copies AERONAUTICS. Numbers begin September, 1911, end 1914. Price $5.00 for the lot. Purchaser to pay express charges. R. B. Curnutt, 703 Ninth Ave. So., Great Falls, Mont.

WILL RENT my double covered 26 ft. x 6 ft. monoplane to a reliable party. Address E. M„ 1522 Norwood Ave., Toledo, Ohio.

WRIGHT Model B for sale as it stands; $50 will put it in perfect condition; engine in first-class shape. Met with sliglit accident in landing. Price $1.000 cash. Address S., care AERONAUTICS.

BARGAIN IN BOOKS—Will sell following books: Aerial Navigation (Salverda) $1.50; Navigating the Air (Aero Club of America) $.50; Aeronautical Annual, 1895-6-7 (James Means) $5; Travels in Space (Valentine & Thompson) $ .50; Art of Aviation (Brewer) $1.50; Airships Past and Present (Ilildebrand) $3; Proceedings Int. Congress Aerial Navigation, Chicago, 1893, $5; various other hooks thrown in to purchaser of the lot. L. E. Pare, 216 West 104th st-, New York.

FOR SALE—Biplane tractor. 35 ft. spread, equipped with 60-h.p.. 6-cylinder, air-cooled motor, Bosch magneto, Master carburetor and speed indicator; faiman-type landing gear. Everything in first-class condition. 1 )emonstration by appointment, or photograph sent by mail; $400 cash. worth $2,000. Leonard L. McCarty. 1014 S. Main St., Los Angeles, Calif.

JOHN WISE—"History and Practice of Aeronautics," by John Wise. We have just secured another copy of this famous, rare work. Cloth, 8vo, ill., 310 pp, steel engraving frontispiece. For sale at $10. AERONAUTICS, 250 West 54tb st.,

AERONAUTICS

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NEXT GENERAL MEETING.

The next general meeting will be lield the first Thursday in Novem-her tbe 5th. The subject will be "Aerial Strategy," to be discussed by competent men. Announcement late

The first meeting of the season was such a success that a special effort should be made to improve even upon this.

erly 13th Royal Dragoons, German army. "The Military Phase of Aviation" ; Capt. Washington 1. Chambers, U. S. N., "The Naval Angle."

29 West 3Sth Street, New York

OFFICIAL BULLETIN

NOTICE TO MEMBERS.

Oct. 6. I^M.

Fellow Members: For the first year in the history of the Aeronautical Society there has been no series of meets at our aerodrome, now located at Oakwood Heights, Staten Island; but it must not be assumed that this is due in any way to inactivity on the part of those responsible, because the rea son is due entirely to causes beyond our control.

During last w inter there w as every assurance of most pretentious events taking place at our aerodrome, as we were assured of $10.

000 in prizes to be contested for on Decoration Day, The donor of the prizi-s, in endeavoring to obta,n a license from the Wright Company, failed to receive any reply for some weeks and withdrew the offer.

Notwithstanding this setback, it was decided to endeavor to hold the Aerial Derby on Columbus Day or Election Day. and in order to make this an open contest for all aviators, whether licensed or not, correspondence was initiated with Mr. ((rville Wright with a view to obtaining this privilege under a license, and an acceptance was finally received. Efforts were immediately undertaken to raise prizes for the Aerial 1 >erby and any other contests that could he developed. The owners of the Times, who had been the donors last year, were approached, but they frankly stated it would be impossible, in view of the European war. which consumed all the available news space, to do justicc to any scientific or sporting event and therefore recommended the postponement of the Derby till the spring.

Our efforts are now directed to ward holding the Aerial Derby on

1 lecoralion Day, believing that the time will then be propitious, under the assumption that the European conflict will then be at an end and that many of our aviator members will have returned from the front, among whom may be mentioned R <i. Guerquiu, Albert Fileux, William Thaw, George Dyott and others. The year 1914 will be a memorable one from many standpoints, one of which is regretfully the fact that for reasons beyond our control our aerodrome has not heen taken full advantage of in the matter of meets. Hut instead of this acting as a discouragement, it should stimulate us to greater and more pretentious activity next year, and it is the hope that all members will send any suggestions and offer to help make the year 1915 the most active in the history of the Aeronautical Society.

FIRST GENERAL MEETING.

The first general meeting of the fall anil winter series of tbe Aeronautical Society of America was held < >ct. 1. The speakers were: Mr. Hudson Maxim, "Aerial Warfare"; ('apt. Ewald Decker, form-

Notice to Delinquents.

Delinquents in payment of dues are earnestly requested to place themselves in good standing at the earliest possible moment in order that they may receive the official bulletin, AERONAUTICS, # semimonthly, the membership certificates and data sheets.

Membership dues in The Aeronautical Society are $10 a year, no initiation fee. Members receive data sheets, the magazine, AERONAUTICS, engraved certificate of membership, free monthly lectures. For further information address the Secretary.

The photograph is that r I Augustin Parla, the Cuban aviator, who v as recently appointed instructor of the Cuban Army, The picture is published by courtesy of Fausto Rodriguez.

The Cuban Government, realizing the usefulness of the aeroplane, has

established an aviation corps in the army. Parla is now opening the new military flying school. The Cubans have taken up aviation since the early start of the "game," and among them are the great fliers Parla, Rosillo and Gonzalez. Parla flies a Curtiss and the other two Morane-Saulniers.

Published semi-monthly in tbe best interests of Aeronautics

»Y

AERONAUTICS PRESS INC. 250 West 54th Street New York Telephone, Columbus 8721 Cable, Aeronautics, New York

ERNEST L. JONES M. B. SELLERS, HARRY SCHULTZ, C. A. BE1ER,

Editor Technical Editor Model Editor Advertising

Entered as Second Class Mail Matter, September 22, 1908, under the Act of March 3, 1S79. $3-oo a year, 15 cents a Copy.

Postage free in the United States, Hawaii, the Philippines and Porto Rico. 25 Cents extra for Canada and Mexico. 50 Cents extra for all other countries.

The magazine is issued on the 15th and 30th of each month. All copy must be received 6 days before date of publication. If proof is to be shown, allowance must he made for receipt and return.

Make all checks and monev orders free of exchange and payable to AERONAUTICS PRESS.

Subscribers will kindly notify this office if discontinuance is desired at the end of their subscription period, otherwise it will be assumed that their subscription is to be continued.

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55

DEATH OF WELDON B. COOKE.

Considerable information is available regarding the accidental death of Weldon K. Cooke at Pueblo, Colo., on September 16, through a subscriber of AERONAUTICS, who made a special investigation. He was appointed by a local newspaper to arrange with Cooke for the carrying of a passenger from Colorado Springs, the 45 miles across country to Pueblo, and assisted in setting up the machine at the Springs. It appears the machine was in bad shape. The struts were of pine, the engine bed the same, with a crack connecting the three holes for the engine and radiator in one bed beam. The cable attaching the elevator to the steering pillar was too short and was pieced out with "bale" wire. The front main later spar was pine and the rear one oak.

The trip from Colorado Springs was made all right, Cooke ariving the day before the accident. On the ISth he was coming in after some circles over the grounds and a trip over the surrounding territory, when a vertical strut was seen to break in mid air and fall to the ground, where it was later picked up. Cooke then made a left turn and dive to the ground. In this, witnesses watching through glasses state, a cable or control wire snapped. The machine hit a fence and was smashed to small pieces. Cooke's body was badly broken. The machine was a tractor, with Roberts engine, made by Cooke himself at Sandusky.

PICELLER KILLED.

William Piceller, who learned to fly under George Beatty, was killed on October 2 after a flight of several minutes over the field at Hempstead, L. I. Witnesses are unanimous in stating that his right wing warping control broke in the air. The chain passing over the pulley in the warping lead was found broken and is thought to have been defective. The machine was home-made of the Wright model li type and was in distressingly bad shape.

Two fatalities in one month due purely to negligence.

P. A. R. S. BALLOON MAKES FIRST ASCENT.

The new balloon of the Philadelphia .Aeronautical Recreation Society, the "Greater Philadelphia," made its initial ascent on September 29 from Point Breeze, with Dr. George II. Simmerman, Dr. Thomas E. Eldridge, E. Minor Fen ton and George N. Storch as passengers. Mayor Blankenburg christened the balloon, which carried a supply of women's suffrage literature as ballast and a letter to President Wilson, which, it was hoped, would be possible of dropping over the White House. The air currents decided otherwise, and the landing was made five and a quarter hours after the start at Yineland. N. J., close to the house of Mr. Fenton's mother, who did not know he was of the party until he stepped out of the basket. Dr. ICldridge piloted the balloon. It was built bv A. Leo Stevens for a capacity of 60,000 cu. ft. The distance from Point Breeze to Yineland is 32 miles.

BALLOON RACING REVIVED.

Thousands of people lined the roadway between Pittsfield and the gas works on October 8, in automobiles, side cars, carriages, farm wagons, with shank's mare and many other equipages, when four balloons left the ground in a sort of hare and hounds contest.

Leo Stevens started in a pilot balloon at 12:35, with the condition that he land by 3 o'clock. This he did at a point called Stevens Brook, some 22 miles from the start. His landing was the signal for the other balloons to alight, manceuvering to descend as near as possible to the pilot halloon. Robert "Golden" and aide Sydney Walsh in the "1'Ecur-eil," w on the cup offered by F. Harrison Iliggins when they collapsed their bag only three thousand feet away.

Alan R. Ilawley, with George Yon Utassy, in the "North Adams" was second and Messrs Jerome Kingsbury and William II. Richardson in the "1. C. U-," third. Stevens' aide was Gordon Bruce, of the Tribune, and the balloon he used was the "Dancing Doll."

Cortland F. Bishop offered a cup for the first automobile to arrive at the pilot balloon, which was won by Roy Bridge, of Pittsfield.

There were 32 moving picture men on the field and a revival of ballooning seems imminent.

Frank II. Burnside, the Thomas star flier, flew at Concord, N. C, mi Sept. 29th and 30 th, attaining great success. Chas. Fev, Jr., flew at Cobleskill, N. Y., "Sept. 22d-25th. He gave a very good exhibition of fancy flying during the four days.

STABILITY OF AEROPLANES—Continued from page 68)

action a powerful mechanism for operating the controlling surfaces.

ff the wind strikes the vane on the under side, as would be the case when the machine takes a larger angle of incidence, the elevator is turned to cause the machine to point downward in front till the normal angle is restored. If the air strikes the vane from above, a smaller angle of incidence is indicated, and an opposite action on the elevator is produced. In this system no particular angle of the machine with the horizontal is maintained. It is the angle at which the air strikes the aeroplane surface that is important. If the vane is set at an angle of 5 deg. with the main supporting surfaces, and the machine is traveling on a level course, increasing the po\ver of the motor will cause it to begin taking on more speed. But as the lifting effect of an aeroplane surface is the product of two factors—its speed and its angle of incidence—any increase in speed will produce a greater lift and cause the machine to rise. The machine will now be turned upward, with the surfaces meeting the air at an angle of 5 deg. On the contrary, if the power of the motor be reduced or entirely turned off, the machine will immediately begin to decrease in speed, requiring a larger angle of incidence for support. But as soon as the angle begins to increase, the

air will strike the regulating vane on the underside and the elevator will be turned, pointing the machine downward till the component of gravity in the direction of travel becomes sufficient to maintain the normal speed. In this case the planes will be inclined downward with reference to the horizontal. It is evident that a machine controlled by regulating the angle of the machine with reference to the impinging air is not liable to the dangers of "stalling" already described.

Several other methods of maintaining fore-and-aft equilibrium automatically have been proposed. One utilizes the force of gravity acting on a pendulum or a tube of mercury; the other, the gyroscopic force of a rapidly revolving wheel. In both of these systems the angle of the machine is regulated with reference to the horizontal, or some other determined plane, instead of with the angle of the impinging air.

In the case just referred to, in which the power of the motor was suddenly turned off while traveling on a level course, with these systems, the planes would be maintained at their original angle with the horizontal without any regard to the angle of incidence. The machine would continue forward till, through the loss of momentum, its speed would become so reduced and its angle of incidence so great that it

would be exposed to the dangers of diving.

The pendulum and mercury tube have other serious faults which render them useless for regulating fore-and-aft equilibrium. If the machine suddenly meet with a greater resistance to forward travel, either as a result of change in direction or of meeting a stronger gust of wind from in front, and its speed be ever so slightly checked, the pendulum will swing forward and instead of turning the machine downward, so as to maintain the normal speed, will cause the machine to be inclined upward in front and thus further increase its forward resistance.

The pendulum has proved itself an exceedingly useful device, however, in regulating the lateral stability of aeroplanes. In this case the effects of momentum and centrifugal force act on the pendulum in the proper direction to produce desired results.

I believe the day is near at hand when the flyer will be almost entirely relieved of the work of maintaining the equilibrium of his machine, and that his attention will be required only to keeping it on its proper course and in bringing it safely in contact with the ground when landing,

GYRO HOLDS

Altitude Record!

WESTERN UNION DAY LETTER

Kansas City, Mo., August 6th, 1914.

Gyro Motor Co., Washington, D.C.

Broke altitude record this afternoon, approximately forty-seven hundred meters. Kansas City Aero Club observed flight authorized by Aero Club of America. Record should be official. Motor worked fine, only carried five gallons of gas, made altitude in forty minutes used old spray nozzle. Will write full particulars later.

DE LLOYD THOMPSON.

New Gyro "Duplex"

80 H. P. 7 Cylinder, 200 lbs. 100 H. P. 9 Cylinder, 250 lbs.

THE GYRO MOTOR COMPANY

774 Girard Street

Washington, D. C.

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PATENTS

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Send sketch or model for FREE opinion as to Patentability. Write for our Guide Books and What to Invent with valuable List of Inventions Wanted sent Free. Send for nur speci.il list of prizes ottered for Aeroplanes. $600,000 Offered in Prizes for Airships. We are Experts in Aeronautics and have a special Aeronautical Department. Copies of Patents in Airships, 10 cents each.

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1914 THOMAS FLYING'BOAT

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WIRE

We make an extra high grade plated finish wire for aviators' use.

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THE NEW WRIGHT AEROPLANES

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L. W. FERDINAND & CO. 201 South Street, Boston, Mats. U, S. A.

XV. No. 6 SEPTEMBER 30, 1914 15 Cents

Curtiss model "J", two-passenger Military Tractor Biplane. The last word in all-round efficiency. Speed range 40-90 miles per hour with 90 h.p. Curtiss O-X Motor. Climbs 1,000 feet per minute, flying light; 400 feet per minute with two men and four hours fuel. Adopted by U. S. Army.

AMERICAN ALTITUDE RECORD OF 17,185 FEET MADE BY CAPTAIN H. LEROY MULLER, U.S.A., IN CURTISS MODEL "J"

90 H. P. "O-X" MOTOR Curtiss Model "N", two-passenger Military Tractor Biplane, combines unusual 1 efficiency with highly developed inherent stability. Planes are staggered and have adjustable dihedral angle. Speed range with Curtiss "O-XX" Motor, 40-80 miles ft per hour.

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GYRO HOLDS

Altitude Record!

WESTERN UNION DAY LETTER

Kansas City, Mo., August 6th, 1914.

Gyro Motor Co., Washington, D.C.

Broke altitude record this afternoon, approximately forty-seven hundred meters. Kansas City Aero Club observed flight authorized by Aero Club of America. Record should be official. Motor worked fine, only carried five gallons of gas. made altitude in forty minutes used old spray nozzle. Will write full particulars later.

DE LLOYD THOMPSON.

New Gyro "Duplex"

80 H. P. 7 Cylinder, 200 lbs. 100 H. P. 9 Cylinder, 250 lbs.

THE GYRO MOTOR COMPANY

774 Girard Street

Washington, D. C.

< BEN0I5T

Aeroplanes

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SI. Louis. Mo

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BALLOONS

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A RONAU

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LEO STEVENS

AERONAUTICAL RADIATORS

Built in capacities and types for standard and special aviation motors

Write for prices on standard makes. Send your specifications for special designs

EL ARC0 RADIATOR COMPANY

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SOME EXPERIMENTS WITH A BIPLANE

By Albert Adams Merrill.

The value of the longitudinal dihedral as a means of obtaining fore and aft stability has been known to students of aeronautics for a long time. Its value was shown first by Penaud in 1871. All monoplanes and biplanes, with the exception of the Dunne, introduce this dihedral between the main surface and a horizontal tail, either front or rear. This tail is small, relative to the main surface, and since the righting couple is a function of tbe product of area and horizontal gap a small tail necessitates a large gap. I believe that a large horizontal gap is had because it causes a time lag in the introduction of the righting couiile which will tend to set up oscillations. The first efleet of a

CP. for each surface at 0. 13, 3.4, and 15.4 degrees are plotted. Taking X and V moments about 0 degrees we get A, which is the CP. for 0 and j.4 degrees. Increasing the in-e'dence 1.2 degrees and taking X and V moments about 12 degrees we get 11. which is the CP. at 12 and 15.4 degrees. We need go no higher he-cause above 15 degrees the CP. moves in the right direction on each surface. Plotting the values of Kx and Ry at 1> we get R. the new lesultant which passes back of A and produces a small righting couple.

Manifestly, knowing the characteristics of any given surf,-ice we can combine two uf these surfaces so as to get any righting couple we desire. This method is sound when-

gust on the front main surface is to upset the machine, since all single cambered surfaces are unstable, and only when the gust strikes the rear surface will the righting couple come into action. Manifestly then the shorter the distance between the two surfaces the less time will there be for the upsetting gust to start oscillations. This is proved by the admitted fact that a monoplane is steadier longitudinally at high speed than at low speed and this is simply because the time lag mentioned above is reduced.

Starting with a righting couple of a fixed magnitude, such as exists in a monoplane, to reduce the time lag wc must move the tail forward, but if we do this we must increase its area to keep the magnitude of the couple constant. As we bring the tail forward we must move it away from the slip stream of the main surface if we are not to lose efficiency and we arrive at the form shown in Fig. 1. This type may be called a staggered converging biplane and it is with this type that I have been experimenting.

The difference of incidence between the two surfaces is 3.4 degrees, the larger angle being in front. The surfaces used are Eiffel's No. 3. single covered, and the method of computing the righting couple is as follows: The surfaces are drawn I to scale and the positions of the

ever the amount of stagger is enough to prevent interference between the surfaces. A full stagger seems to do this.

My machine, which is a tractor, was constructed in lioston last March and my first flights were made in

Squantum, where I succeeded in making several good straight flights. On laud there was not the slightest irouhle in rising, in fact to keep the machine from climbing fast we had to throttle the engine. The machine was very sensitive to its elevator, but it would climb, or glide without moving the elevator simply by altering the thrust. This proved that the righting couple resides in the supporting surfaces.

To continue my experiments with the least danger to my pilot I decided to put the machine on pontoons. I spent a lot of time over t he problem of the proper adjustment of the C.G. to the center of lift and center of buoyancy, but finally got what I wanted so that the machine would rise and act over water as it did over land, except that the weight of the pontoons lowered the C.G. and made the moment inertia of the machine greater, and hence the flights steadier. I have made only short straight flights over water and only in winds. In a calm llie engine seems not to have the power to overcome the water resistance. 11 is an old rotary rated at 50.

The photographs slfow the machine with no horizontal tail. These flights demonstrate that safety can be obtained without the use of an auxiliary surface either front or rear, and without the use of negative tips as in the Dunne. Uoth of my surfaces are lifting surfaces throughout their entire area. It may not be wise to fly this type of biplane without giving tbe elevator a longer moment arm. but nevertheless my pilot had no trouble in producing an undulating flight with ailerons placed at the rear of the lower surface. However, L would advise in practice a fuselage have a vertical and horizontal rudder hut no fixed horizontal surface, as the latter is not needed.

In these experiments I have paid no attention to the problem of inherent lateral stability, but have used ailerons working on the reversed Farraan principle, a system which 1 have advocated for years and which now, I think, M r. Glenn Curtiss is using. I have borne, myself, prac-

June. For an elevator I use ailerons tically the whole cost of these ex-

on the trailing edge of the lower periments and cannot carry them any

rear surface. The machine at first further at the present time. I feel

was a land machine and the experi- sure that the idea underlying this ments were made on the field at {Continued on paue 0ft)

IT'S A SAD S

The much-heralded competition of military aeroplanes at San Diego. California, which was scheduled to commence October 20th. proved to lie more or less of a farce—more rather than less. The $30,000 infant, whose coming was hailed with such delight by the hungry Aviation family, passed away shortly after birth, and has been laid to rest with many tears in the graveyard of American aviation, where repose so many Inst hopes. Tombstone there is none to mark its last rest-in;.' place, for the frail mother who gave it brief being, Mrs. Sig. Corps, is ton poor to buy even a wooden headpiece to mark the lonely grave.

In other words, in the parlance of the highbrows, the Competition for Avions was called off--pardon, rescinded—on account of the failure of tke contestants to comply with the technical regulation requiring them to file by October 1st drawings to scale of aeroplanes and motors and certified test sheets of motors. That was the official reason aiven. but the real reason, according to the Chief of our Aerial Detective Bureau (transmitted to us by private leased wire, the shortest in the world), was that the powers that be, armed with long-range telescopes, couldn't find enough competitors to make a competition.

Which is as was to be expected. As our office boy sometimes opines, facetiously we suspect, "What do you want for thirty cents?" In this seventh year of military aviation in America, the government suddenly wakes up to the fact that the aeroplane industry is languishing and decides to hold a big competition. It is not yet fully known just how the authorities came to this important conclusion, unless perhaps some member of the National Board of Air Strategy caught a casual glimpse of the south side of an aeronautical editor going north or observed the abbreviated family wash of one of our noted constructors banging nn the line. However that may be, it was decided to hold a big competition. That decision having been reached, after long and careful consideration, someone suggested

ORY, MATES

that it might lie a good idea to offer prizes. Of course, that was an entirely new idea and had to be carefully threshed out. l-'inally. however, it was decided to offer prizes.

Here is where the excitement begins. Someone suggested that the prizes be made large enough to make it worth the while of every constructor in the country to enter the competition, lie was promptly thrown out of the window. Then the (lour was locked, the blinds were drawn and the authorities went into executive session. An ancient sock was carefully withdrawn from behind a faded likeness of O, Washington, Esq., and with bated breath the available funds were counted. Clink, clank, clink, the tarnished coins dropped upon the table. There was found to be just sixty-seven cents and a pewter nickel. After looking up the aeromuticd appropriation of Montenegro for the current year and reading the digest of an opinion rendered by the Ahkoond of Swat on the value of aeroplanes in warfare, it was finallv decided to rehabilitate the art by offering thirty cents in prize money and, as a fill ther incentive, to decorate the winning aviator with the pewter nickel. The final scene was enacted amid .areat applause.

It is, of course, difficult to understand why, in the face of such munificence, the constructors of the country didn't fall over one another, figuratively speaking, trying to get a piece of the change. It has been suggested to us that maybe they couldn't figure how they were going to make any money out of the competition, but we indignantly spurn such a suggestion. It is impossible that our patriotic constructors take such a sordid view of the matter. We are inclined to believe that the stupendousness of the competition and the size and variety of the prizes so flabbergasted them that they have not yet recovered from the shock. Something like the old lady of Yonkers who saw a dollar bill in the street, and fell dead from heart failure. At least, let's give them the benefit of the doubt.

TO OUR READERS

This magazine endeavors to keep its readers informed on all new developments in the aeronautical world, especially in America, and is always glad to print descriptions and sketches or drawings of new machines and worthy inventions. It is impossible, however, in the present state of aeronautics in America, to have paid correspondents at the various centers of interest throughout the country, and we have to rely largely upon the good will of our friends and those interested in the welfare of the art to keep us in touch

with new developments. Won't you, gentle reader, help out by sending in a description of any worthy new thing that you may know about, whether your own or somebody else's? This especially applies to established constructors and to builders of new machines and appliances. Unfortunately, the editor of this magazine is neither a millionaire or a mind-reader, and unless you send in the material we have no means of getting it. The magazine is published for you. and it's up to you to help out. Giddap !

i Z. i\ -> >x </\\

y f t=r-'» í

Y

Sept'm ,9R " A. F. BONNALIÊ >«« «

"it pays to advertise"

It is general practise for individuals, partnerships, companies and the like to maintain offices for the transaction of business. This is done for the purpose of having a fixed and convenient place where the person engaged in business may be found by those who would fain do business with him. Few there be in business so humble that the}' have not some place that they dignify with the designation, "my office."

Now, the twin-brother of the office is the advertisement. The one is the complement of the other. Unless people know that you are ready and willing to supply certain commodities, they will get them somewhere else. An advertisement in your trade journal is just as much of a necessity as a place in which to do business. If a man doesn't happen to know what you are selling, or where your office is, he is not likely to engage a detective

to find out. If he wants to buy a carload of razors, he naturally consults the Daily Close Shave, and if his mind hankers for power plants or other aeronautical provender, he most likelv buys, borrows or steals a copy of AERONA'UTICS.

While this was being written a man came in and asked for a copy of this magazine in order to look up a place where he could buy certain aeroplane accessories. This not only happens occasionally, but nearly every day, and sometimes several times a day. Still there are those who do not believe in advertising— who hide their light under a bushel, so to speak. It may be remarked, however, that the top-notchers are the ones who do advertise. They are the leaders. Anybody from John Wanamaker to John the llootblack will tell you that.

"There's a reason."

the "comple

Optimistic students of human nature are recommended to the aeronautical business for their postgraduate course.

If optimism still prevails after juggling with delinquent subscribers, debtors and the all-around crooks, its possessors must have the "faith that moves mountains."

Witness the latest example of air-trading! One of America's well-known aviators—one who has long been held up as an exception, universally liked and admired, a man who has held the friendship and confidence of all, who some time ago started in business for himself—has apparently left for parts unknown, as Uncle Sam fails to lind him in the locality in which he has made his home for many years past.

One doesn't mind so much being tricked by those who have the reputation of being niit-and-out bunco men, by those who are known to be in the questionable class, or by strangers who "put it over"—the creditor himself is the one to be blamed fur his trustfulness; but to be defrauded by one's own friend, who has always been held in the highest esteem, is quite annoying.

Adverse criticism does not always attach itself to the man who honestly starts in business with small capital, tries as best he may In arrive somewhere and then fails, when he admits his debt and frankly makes a plain statement of his situation. One has much

lT" swindler

a

sympathy for the men who legitimately try and fall back in honest endeavor.

lint the man who, with his property judgment-proof and his assets hidden away, from the start conducts his affairs by deception, with easy promises and easier forfeitures, with the sole idea of getting as far as possible before the crash, is he who can not be too strongly condemned. He meets his debts by notes and his notes by honor-sworn promises (as if he had honor) and other notes, both of which are as valueless as the man himself is false. And in the end, which comes sooner or comes later, he merely walks out, sans souci, and launches himself in some other budding industry, there to repeat the operation with a new crop of suckers.

We have noted one example of such men— parasites on the struggling shoots of an industry—a man whose history began in the early days of the automobile, with a quick-change to aviation, and latterly attempted to skim some cream from the cyclecar trade. Where he will cling next remains to be seen.

Such men are pirates. They fraudulently trade upon the popular interest in a new thing. They rob the public, they steal the deserved profits of the earnest worker who actually adds to the human store, they cast discredit upon the industry they swindle which only years of continued struggle and investment by the legitimate houses will restore to its proper plane.

An American consular officer in southern Europe advises that a nrni in his district desires to communicate with American manufacturers of aeroplanes, gasoline motors, propellers, magnetos and spark plugs, etc., and with manufacturers of all material for building, equipping, and repairing aeroplanes. Price lists and c-stimates should be f. o. b. any American port having direct connections with destination. Correspond-

ence and catalogues should be in the Spanish language. Address Department of Commerce and Labor, Washington, D. C.

" 'You can't imagine how easy it is to pilot an aeroplane,' said a lecturer at South Orange, N. J., recently. 'It is too easy to fly. I never felt safer than when I was in the air. The air is safer than the street.' The lecturer declared

he would not drive an auto across Fifth Avenue at Forty-second Street, New York, but would fly an aeroplane anywhere

The Jersey apple-jack season is open.

With the European war being decided hy aircraft, one wonders when Congress will see fit to interest itself in appropriating some liule money for aeronautics.

AIR CRAFT IN WAR

By George P. Scriven, Brigadier-General, Chief Signal Officer, U. S. Army.

Existing conditions show that whatever may be the conclusions drawn as to the use of air craft for offensive purposes in warfare, and as to the importance of the dirigible, there can be no doubt of the value of the aeroplane in rapid and long-range reconnaissance work, and of its power to secure, and to transmit by radio, visual signals, or direct flight, information of importance to armies in the field. So true is this that it seems probable the aeroplane and, to some smaller degree, all air craft have altered, not the principles of strategy, which are immutable, but the theory and application of grand tactics, ft now appears that the actual game of war is played openly w ith cards laid on the table, and opportunity no longer is given for inference as to concealed movements or fur surprise, perhaps not even for the exercise of the high military quality of anticipation of the unseen movements of the adversary. It is now recognized that the possibility of brilliant and unexpected blows and surprises by enterprising commanders has been largely eliminated from modern operations of war by the information supplied by aviators. It is proved that the modern air craft lays open to the field of mental view the whole of the immediate theater of war and that the commander's view reaches far beyond the limits of actual vision of troops. The air craft sees and indicates the larger operations of war and points out to the slowly moving troops on the ground not only the points to be attacked or defended, but to reconnaissance troops, especially the cavalry, the objective to be sought, the localities to be searched, and the character of information to be obtained.

By no means does the air craft supersede, nor can it ever supersede, detailed information which can be acquired only by close observation, by contact, and by development of the enemy's forces and positions. This is the work of the troops in the field; but the air craft does indicate to either commander the character, location and general disposition of opposing forces.

Not only is the aeroplane invaluable in locating the position of the enemy, but it has especial value to a commander in finding his own troops, in keeping him informed when movements are taking place, of the position of his flanks and center, his outposts, his cavalry, of the positions attained by any detached body —in short, of keeping him constantly in touch with the locations and movements of all of his troops under the changing conditions of war.

Tins much is proved; but it does not follow that the air craft curtails the work of reconnaissance of other arms of the service, the infantry, the signal corps, and, more especially, the cavalry. On the contrary, it extends the usefulness and power of all, for if the general field of reconnaissance is outlined, it is obvious that the cavalry or infantry can more readilv strike its objective and more quickly and accurately obtain information regarding any particular point than if obliged un-seeingly to search the whole field of operations for locations and forces regarding which an intimate knowledge is desired. In other words, by

aid of air craft, and more especially of the aeroplane, a reconnaissance by troops moves less in the dark, knows better what to look for and learn in detail, and loses less time and effort in accomplishing the object sought. No move of concentration from flank or center, no envelopment of a wing nor reinforcement of a weak position should remain unknown to the adversary in the case where he possesses a thoroughly efficient flying corps. It would seem, therefore, that not only has the power of all reconnaissance troops been increased by the air craft, but the need and importance of the cavalry in reconnaissance work has not been lessened, but, on the contrary, has been greatly increased by the aeroplane.

In addition to the influence now exerted by air craft on grand operations, events now appear to show that its value in more detailed operations is great and may increase in the future to enormous proportions. It is now well established that the accuracy, value, and power in warfare of field and siege artillery have been greatly increased by this agency, and it may almost be said that guns are fought by means of the eyes of the aviator. It should be self-evident that the same is true of guns of the seacoast and land fortifications. So clearly has this been shown that there now appears a noticeable change in artillery tactics. Instead of the old-fashioned system of range finding by experiment, the exact range is now found with the help of aeroplanes. No doubt artillery fire direction has been enormously increased in accuracy by the aeroplane, and infantry fire largely improved in efficiency by the same means.

But besides influence of this character the aeroplane has undoubted use in the finding of concealed positions, in the location of ships at sea or at anchor within defenses, possibly in the detection of submarine mines, and certainly in the enormous increase of efficiency given to fire and in many other details of observation.

But the useful, approved, and most important work of air craft is probably to be found chiefly in reconnaissance and the collection and transmission of in formation in the theater of military operations; for this reason aviation must be reckoned as a vastly important branch of the Signal Corps of the Army, The use of air craft for these purposes cannot be open to the charge of inhumanity and cruelty. But as to the service and value of air craft in offense, much doubt remains, except where an overhead attack upon troops can be made effective—a condition that probably does not often arise, although many isolated instances of its value in attack are cited. When used in general destructive work against non-combatants, dislike to this method of attack must always exist. A fire sown broadcast upon the earth or employed under conditions which make specific aim useless is at least distasteful. But beside this feeling, it now appears that as a weapon capable of injuring an enemy by the dropping of bombs and other missiles, little of importance lias been proved. In real-

ity little is known of this power of air craft, though much is guessed and more feared. It seems probable, however, to judge from existing conditions, that the effect is largely moral, and that physical results heretofore obtained from this method of attack have been far too meager to warrant the cost, effort, and risk called upon to produce them.

* * * Of the attack by aeroplane, however, although I believe its importance is exaggerated, it is admitted that it may prove useful at times, and may be resorted to against proper objectives when needed, if the aeroplanes are available. On the other hand, it may later be show n that aerial offensive flights, especially in conjunction with sea operations, may prove important; but it is useless to prophesy, and 1 believe the only safe conclusion at this time regarding the value of aerial offensive is the verdict, "nut proven."

It may be said, however, that iI the future shows that attack from the sky is effective and terrible, as may prove to be the case, it is evident that, like the rain, it must fall upon the just and upon the unjust, and it may be supposed will therefore become taboo to all civilized people; and forbidden at least by paper agreements. Be that as it may, in view of present conditions it appears that the use of air craft for attack alone does not warrant the expense of production of air craft fur this purpose; and no recommendation for the construction and adoption of dirigibles on a large scale is made at the present time. The aeroplane should continue to be our main reliance for aerial work at present, and the dirigible as a service unit may well he placed on the waiting list.

Bui it should be noted and recalled later when economic conditions are more favorable, that both the aeroplane and the dirigible have proved successful in coast patrol, and will be equally so for frontier guard purposes. In this service the dirigible, especially of the smaller type, will be the more valuable machine, as from its leisurely flight, its power to keep the air at night and to use the searchlight, and especially on account of its ability to hover and to examine carefully the world beneath, it may become useful as a border patrol when freed from the danger of gunfire and from hostile aeroplane attack. But for the present it is believed that the Army should rely upon the aeroplane and the hydroaeroplane for the pati ul of sea coast and frontier, and lor use in its island possessions and exposed positions. One or two dirigible, if of American manufacture and design, might well be purchased when money is available for experimental purposes and to encourage our manufacturers i:i endeavor along this line of work; but I am not yet prepared to recommend that the Army take up the dirigible seriously, as its value is still believed to he indeterminate; it requires the co-ordination of too many favorable conditions to insure success, and its cost is comparatively yreat.1 Should large appropriations be made in the future for the avia-

1 Probably in proportion of about 1 dirigible to 35 aeroplanes of the best type.

tion service the question of the war and for the accumulation of vation from captive balloons, which dirigihle will appear in another light, spare parts. must necessarily he sent up some dis-but the time is not thought opportune Once the type of military machine tance in the rear, is a poor substi-io pass beyond the experimental stage is determined, it will be an easy and tute for the direct overhead recoil-in regard" to other air craft than comparatively inexpensive matter to naissance obtainable from aeroplanes the aeroplane. It is doubtful whether maintain a considerable reserve of or dirigibles.

the dirigible is worth its cost as an parts in storage, with mamifactur- In addition it is asked that con-offensive machine, and for recon- ers or elsewhere, ready to be as- sideration be given by the War De-naissance or defense it seems to be sembled as needed, should the policy partment to the training of men of of far less value than the aeroplane, of supplying a large reserve be the National Guard in the work of The dirigible is seemingly useless in deemed unwise. aviation, and to the establishment of defense against aeroplane or gunfire, The captive balloon, too, has its a reserve corps of flying men and its attack may be safely left to uses, but they are limited. Obser- throughout the country, the care of fire from the ground and to the aeroplane. The value of the dirigible as an observation station is

obvious, and is no doubt very great AVIATION IN THE U. S. SIGNAL CORPS

under circumstances which prevent

its destruction from below or by From June, 1913, to February, been returned to their branch of the aeroplanes, but such conditions will T' 14, an amount of flying quite service and unsuitable enlisted men probably rarely be met. and at pres- unprecedented in the history of avia- have been assigned to other duties, ent it is believed that the use of tion in the United States was carried It is the intention to establish a the dirigible in offense, defense, or on at the Signal Corps Aviation high standard of efficiency for both reconnaissance is so limited that its School, San Diego, Cal. Unfor- officers and enlisted men on aviation adoption now for these purposes is tunately there were three accidents, duty and to see that this standard not worth while. Its power of gen- resulting in the death of four offi- is maintained. Valuable experience eral destruction when no resistance cers. While it could not be estab- has been gained during the year by i> offered is tremendous, but for this lisbed that these accidents were due the officers conducting the aviation work it is not believed that prepara- lo faulty construction or design of work of the Signal Corps. With littion should be made. the machine, the result was a loss tie or no previous experience and

The continued development of the of confidence in the "pusher" type of no precedents to guide them, they

aeroplane in our service, by the en- machine m which all these accidents have had to train themselves and

couragement of Congress in granting bad occurred, and a decision made their subordinates at the same time,

men and money to an extent war- to abandon that type. This, reduced A great deal of this work is of a

ranted by the size of our Army, is the numher of machines considered character entirely different from any-

strongly * urged. To this goal* the suitable for service to four Burgess thing else in the service. To suc-

Signal Corps is bending its best el- tractors and one Curtiss tractor. This cessfully adapt it to the needs of

forts change caused considerable delay the service will require the best

It is believed, however, that aero- S» the on,X 0"e or two thonght and the most careful study

planes, their accessories, and the offi- omcers had, >*» Gained to fly a on the part of those officers charged

cers and men to use them should factor machine; but instruction on with tins duty, be liberallv supplied. these machines was pushed forward

As to the general type of aero- J^ten ^17^!^^ PRESENT CONDITIONS,

plane, a word must be said. In the a detachment. „itll thrcc „£ the he5t At the present time the aviation

United States we have for military mac)nnes at San Diego, was ordered work of the Signal Corps is on a

purposes stood by the biplane, and to Galveston, Tex. This detachment very satisfactory basis. There are

events are now proving the wjsdom returned t0 gan Diego on July 17, 24 officers, 115 enlisted men and 7

of this attitude. It is believed that j9j4 civilians performing aviation duty at

the present practice points strongly Considerable equipment has been the Signal Corps Aviation School at

in favor of the biplane over the added to ,he Signal Corps Aviation San Diego. Cal., and in the Philip-

inonoplane as a war machine. In- sc|100i at San Diego, both in the l"ne Islands. Applications of offi-

deed, there is little doubt that the way of machines and apparatus nec- cers for detail as aviation students

types of machines now used by the essary f0]. trleir maintenance. Five are being regularly received. * * *

aviation section of the Signal Corps of tlle maci,lnes now jn service rep- During the year the policy has

are the best which are known for resent the very highest development been adopted of employing expert

military purposes. I speak of types, of aeroplane construction in the civilian instructors to give the pre-

not details, and refer especially to i_Tiiited States, and will compare very hminary instruction in flying. The

the biplane tractor. This Army ma- £av-orahle with anything that has been "esults obtained have demonstrated

chine has resulted from close study done abroad.l; beyond a question of doubt the wis-

and experiment, and is the product » « . • « dom of this policy. There are now

of long trial, from which the con- a number of expert aviators in the

elusion is reached that the machine -r\te present outlook for securing service, hut expert aviators are not

with propeller action—that is. the satisfactorv aeronautical engines in necessarily competent instructors. In-

puller—is superior and safer than the t]le United States is very encourag- .-tructors must have special qualifica-

pusher. Evidently, in case of acci- ;ng ... 'p^e American manu- tions in addition to being expert

dent with the former machine, the facturers have recently shown a very aviators.

aviator falls ahove rather than under encouraging activity in the matter of ' In addition to the regu-the weights. It is probable that the producing "first-class aeronautical en- lar instruction in flying, in the care s,ize and power of aeroplanes will gjnes, and at least one American- and repair of aeroplanes, and the be enormously increased in the fu- made engine will compare very fa- operation, care, and repair of aeroture. vorably with those manufactured nautical engines, courses of lectures The aeroplane is not in itself an abroad. were delivered on the subject of expensive machine; but the cost as a ..... meteorology and meteorological in-whole will not be small. It has been struments, aeronautical engineering, noted that the wastage in aeroplanes, PROGRESS. propellers, and on mternalcombus-as shown by notes from abroad, is Under the act of July 18, 1914 uon engines by eminent authorities enormous; and with the appropria- [see AERONAUTICS, April 15], tbe on tl,cse subjects, tions for the aviation service of the nork 0f aviation was' given a great ..... Army it is especially desired to em- impetus, the work of the Signal _ , . , phasire the fact that the life of an c/r s \viation School, at San Diego, , Experiments .11 dropping bombs aeroplane is short and decreases Cal.P was reorganized and much from a» aeroplane were begun early rapidly with use. and especially with „roaress made 111 A?nl 1914' at. San Dieg,°- Ah,es<; use in the field. Unlike; the long 1 f,iere l,as been a very marked im- experiments were interrupted and had service of ordinary war machines, nrovement in the personnel of the ,!1 be indefinitely postponed when such as rifles, field and siege guns, elation section during the year. Of- he detachment was sent to Galves-the life of the aeroplane under the ncers unSiiited to this work have t0"- „ . » . 1. vicissitudes of actual operations is Sufficiently satisfactory results

brief, like that of an insect, which - "ere obtained, however, to warrant

it resembles. It follows that a suffi- : Editorial Note.—The aeroplane continuing these experiments at the cient supply of aeroplanes will be competition was expected to bring earliest opportunity, required upon the outbreak of hos- out information sufficient for the There were also conducted at San tilities for both Regular and Volun- school to decide on a standard ma- Diego experiments in observing subteers, and means should be provided chine. All conditions for the contest marine mines from aeroplanes, which for their rapid manufacture during were printed in the July 15 issue. were continued from time to time

with interesting results, and a demonstration was given of a parachute pack designed for use by aviators. This parachute is packed in a compact bundle and carried on the back of the aviator. This device weighs about 8 pounds. At a height of about 1,200 feet the demonstrator jumped from the aeroplane, and the parachute opened promptly and lowered him gently to the ground. It is believed that as a life-saving device this parachute pack has considerable merit and warrants its development for use in our service.

The First Aero Squadron was organized at San Diego, Cal., during September, 1914, in accordance with General Orders, No. 75, War Department, December 4, 1913. This squadron consists of 16 officers, 77 enlisted men, and S aeroplanes, and is ready for field service. It is expected that a second squadron will soon be organized.

During the year [ending June 30] there were a total of 3,340 flights made, with an aggregate time in the air of 747 hours and 50 minutes, 796 passengers being carried. Among the best performances of the year were the following:

From San Diego, Cal., to Venice, Cal.; distance, 115 miles.

From Venice, Cal., to San Diego, Cal., via Cienga, Cal.; distance, 134 miles.

From San Diego, Cal., to Elsinore, Cal., via Pasadena, Cal.; distance. 220 miles; duration, 3 hours and 39 minutes.

From San Diego, Cal., to Bur-bank, Cal., and back to San Diego; distance, 246 miles; duration, 4 hours and 43 minutes. This flight established new American cross-country distance and duration record for machine carrying pilot and one passenger.

A great many flights were made during the vear at high altitudes ranging from 5,000 to over 12,000 feet.

Altitude and cross-country work is the very best training for service in time of war and should be undertaken by only the most experienced aviators.

The Signal Corps Aviation School is now located at North Island, in San Diego Bay. All of the conditions for a suitable training station are more completely fulfilled at San Diego, Cal.. than at any other point in the United States. This locality has been used as a training station at some time during the past four years hy the Army, the Navy, and several civilians. All agree that for training purposes it is unexcelled.

It is requested by the commanding officer of the training school that land be secured at San Diego. It is therefore recommended that steps be taken at once to secure a permanent location for the Signal Corps Aviation School on or near North Island. This island is the best place known for preliminary training, and it is recommended that an effort be made to secure land here for use as an aviation training station and that the Signal Corps Aviation School be permanently located thereat.

AVIATION IN PHILIPPINES.

An aviation school was opened at Fort William McKinley March 10. 1913, with four officers and a small detachment of enlisted men. During the following July three of the offi-

cers fulfilled the requirements of the War Department and were rated as military aviators. In August, 1913, the school was transferred to Pasay, arrangements having been made for a temporary hangar on the beach at the Manila Polo Club. As this was the rainy season, tbe Fort William McKinley flying field was frequently covered with water and deep mud, but at Pasay hydroaeroplane flying over Manila Bay was continued during all favorable opportunities between typhoons. Three accidents occurred, in which three aeroplanes were wrecked and one officer killed. After these accidents the aviation school was discontinued on account of the lack of training machines.

From March 24 to November 14, 1913, the aviation school made 696 flights, the total duration being 7S hours and 57 Yx minutes, not including short runs on the ground during the instruction of students.

An officer and a small detachment of enlisted men were sent to Fort Mills in October, 1913, for hydroaeroplane work. The first flight at this point was made November 6, and from that date to the following June 7S flights were made, the total time in the air being 37 hours and

47',^ minutes. The longest flight was 2 hours and 5 minutes, and the highest altitude reached, 5,500 feet. At this point flights were made to observe the results of mortar fire, for practice in locating targets, and in observing the result of siege-gun fire from Corregidor at targets on the Mar i veles shore. During these flights various means of signaling from the aeroplane were tried, and the work was all of a great practical value.

AVIATION IN HAWAII.

The aviation station was established at Fort Kamehameba on July 14, 1913, with 1 officer in charge, a detachment of 12 enlisted men, and 1 civilian aeronautical engine expert. Two machines were set up and flights made by the officer in charge up to November 23, 1913. The tent hangars first used being unserviceable, were replaced with more substantial hangars of wooden frame with galvanized iron covering. This detachment has been transferred to the school at San Diego, and reached the latter point in the middle of August, 1914.—From the Annual Report of the Chief Signal Officer, Brig.-Gen. George P. Scriven.

LATEST BURGESS-DUNNE FOR ARMY

One will notice the 120 h.p. Salm-son motor and the new type radiator, designed by W. Starling Burgess, in the new Burgess-Dunne aeroplane recently built for the War Department.

This machine with the heavy hydroplane equipment, weighing over 317 pounds, developed a speed in the air with two passengers of 75 miles per hour and climbed at the rate of over 300 feet a minute. The aeroplane has been shipped to San Diego for active service. This is the first Burgess-Dunne to be de-

livered to the War Department. The aeroplane is very heavy and built for real hard service.

On the initial trip on October 10 of the new Dunne biplane built at Marblehead for the United States Government an average speed of 75 miles an hour was reported. A feature of the new machine is a nickel steel armor plate l/% inch thick to he installed in the operator's car. This new type of war machine is the heaviest Dunne machine ever built. It weighs 1,700 pounds and has a carrying capacity of 2,300 pounds.

AERONAUTICS, Sept. 30, «Ij» £ R S Q NAL PROPERTY Page 89

AERO SCIENCE CLUB HOLDS FIRST SPEED CONTEST.

The first model aeroplane speed contest ever held was held with great success under the auspices of the Aero Science Club at Van Cortlandt Park, New York City, on Sundav, September 20th, 1914.

The wind velocity was very small, so that the flights were very slightly, if at all effected by the wind.

The contest was held over a course of 52S ft, or 1/10 of a mile, the models rising from the ground under

By Harry Schultz, Model Editor

THE FUNK SPEED MODEL.

At the speed contest recently held by the Aero Science Club, the results of which appear above, the model constructed by R. Funk, and shown in the accompanying drawing, demonstrated its superiority over the other models entered by winning the contest, flying the distance of 528 feet, or 1/10 of a mile, in 14 2/5 seconds.

The fuselage, or main beam, of this model consists of an I-heam of spruce, measuring \\ by 3g of an

easier* reacted

treated with Ambroid is secured to the front of the model as shown.

The chassis is constructed entirely •f 1 /32 in. steel wire. It consists of a central skid, the front upper end of which is bent into a square to fit the main stick. It extends downwardly, and then rearw ardly where it is bent slightly to form a support, and act as a skid, for the rear portion of the model. Extending upward near the rear of this skid the upper end of which is looped about the main stick is a wire brace. The portion of the chassis to which the wheels are attached is of a triangular form, the upper end of whicli forms a square through which the main stick passes. The entire chassis is removed by simply withdrawing the main stick from the three square portions of the center skid, wheel portion and brace.

The propellers are 7 in. in diameter and of rather low pitch. They are constructed of thin birch steamed to shape, each half of the blade being made separately, and then the two halves constituting the entire propeller being joined at the center, thus forming a thickened portion through which a perforation can be drilled for the reception of the propeller shaft.

Each propeller is driven by 8 strands of V£-in. flat rubber. The entire model weighs slightly over 2 ounces.

their own power. With a very straight and speedy flight R. Funk annexed first prize, doing the course in 14 2/5 seconds, or at the rate of approximately 26 miles per hour.

The writer took second prize, after strenuous attempts to persuade his model to fly straight, doing the course in 16 seconds, or at the rate of 22l/2 miles per hour.

Carl Trube, a youngster from Vqnkers, X. Y., whose models are noted for their fine flying, was third, doing the course in 20 seconds.

Many interesting events took place and the air was continually full of models.

Probably the most overworked persons on the field were Messrs. Edward Durant and George Bauer, the judges. Mr. Durant acted as timer and Mr. Bauer as starter.

The prizes were cash, offered by the club, and aeronautical publications kindly donated by Harper and Brothers.

inch at the center, and tapering towards the front and rear ends. In order to strengthen the same it is covered with fibre paper and treated with Ambroid varnish. Extending upwardly front about the center of tliis stiek is an upright of wire, looped at its upper end, and passing from the front of the stick, through the loop, and to the rear of the stick, is a single strand of very fine steel wire. At the rear and fitted into a slot in the stick, is the propeller har measuring 7 '4 in. in length, and \\ in. wide by ¡4 in. thickness.

The main planes are entirely constructed of 1 /32 in. flat steel wire, the main plane measuring 19 in. in span and 2 in. in chord at the center. The elevator measures 6 in. in span and has a chord of I in. at the center. Cuth planes are covered with China silk and treated with Ambroid. A small fin constructed of steel wire and covered with silk,

THE SCHULTZ SPEED MODEL.

The above model was constructed by the writer and won second prize in the speed contest above mentioned, doing the course in 16 seconds.

The fuselage is constructed of |4 by 3/16 spruce and is 30 in. in length. As shown, it is of the usual triangular form and is braced by two bamboo strips, the front one being 9 in. from the apex of the triangle and the rear one heing 10 in. from the rear of the frame. The propeller bar is of bamboo and is 7Vj in. in length and by Y% in. in thickness. The bearings, which consist of H lengths of tubing, are secured to the propeller bar by binding very tightly with silk thread, then coating with Ambroid glue.

The tail plane, is constructed of Ts in. square bamboo and is of a triangular form, the triangle being formed by strips extending from the propeller bar to the rear brace and being secured thereto as shown. The front plane is constructed of 1/16 in. flat steel wire and has a main hta.ni extending across the same on the under side, of spruce 3/16 by 1 ? in thickness.

Both planes are covered with gold-1-eaters skin, sometimes known as Zephyr skin and treated with Ambroid.

{Continued on page 9U)

GLENN MARTIN MAKES NEW RECORD.

After the "competition" at San Diego was called off, Glenn L. Martin put his machine through the paces on Oct. 29th, with the result that he climbed 4.170 ft. in ten minutes, and 4,500 ft. in 11 minutes,

the American cross-country record by carrying two passengers, besides himself, a distance of about 11U miles.

These two machines are worthy in every way of the best traditions of American workmanship, and their designers and builders deserve great credit for what they have done.

and party, consisting of his family, Robert Nolker, president of the St. Louis Aero Club, and members, were waiting to christen the new balloon. The Mayor's daughter, Edna, broke ;i bottle of Mississippi River water over the anchor and then took her place in the basket for her first ascent. Both river banks were crowded with people, watching the spectacle, which marked the start ot a river pageant.

Leaving the boat's deck, the balloon slowly drifted over the river to the shore, above the crowds and the city to the northwest, where luncheon was enjoyed 7,300 ft. above terra firm a. Landing was later made on the historic farm of General Grant, now owned by Augustus A. Busch, the brewer, who was the first to arrive with his car and assist in the deflation. Hugh Wagner brought Mr. Honeywell and Miss Kiel back to tiie boat for dinner.

NEW BALLOON COMPANY.

With a change in the distribution of stock of the French-American IJalloon Co., of St. Louis, the name becomes the Honeywell Balloon Co., with Capt. II. E. Honeywell as president and general manager, as a reward for the long list of achieve-m nts to which Honeywell points with pride.

Honeywell balloons were entered in 14 big races and 9 first, 6 second, and 4 third places were obtained. In 1908 a trip of 870 miles was made, making a new American record for distance and duration. In the international race from Stuttgart. Germany, 1912. a distance of 1.200 miles was covered, with the balloon landing near Moscow, Russia, winning third prize. In the international race last year Honeywell, in his own balloon, obtained second place for America. In the international race in 1911 at Kansas City, Honeywell's balloon, non-contestant, heat in distance the German winner of the race. In the international contests, of course, the best products of foreign countries were represented.

carrying the full required load consisting of 450 lbs. of sand attached to the fuselage, gasoline and oil for four hours' flight and one passenger. 11c afterwards broke the American passenger record by flying for five hours and fifteen minutes with the full Army load, as above stated. These remarkable flights were made with the new Martin speed scout which was entered for the competition and which is equipped with the new Hall-Scott Type A-4. 100 h. p. motor.

The engine swings a 8 ft. 4 in. by 5 ft. 9 in. propeller at 1,500 r. p. m. in the air. Riving a speed of 90 miles per hour for the machine.

Christofferson's machine was not on hand on the day set for the beginning of the competition on account of continued motor trouble. 1 le had taken it to Los Angeles several days before, and, after trying two motors, shipped it hack to San Francisco. Before leaving San Diego, however, he unofficially fulfilled the requirements by climbing 4.000 ft. in ten minutes with full load. On the trip between San Diego and Los Angeles, he broke

They have really produced machines which compare favorably with the best products of European constructors, and that without one-tenth of the encouragement that European constructors receive. In plain English, it will be a damshame if the government does not recognize and adequately reward their efforts.

HONEYWELL STARTS BALLOONING WEST.

Capt. 11. Eugene Honeywell of the French-American Balloon Co., has finished a new balloon of silverized fabric, which made its initial esccnt on October II. The new bag, the "New St. Louis." of 40,000 cu. ft. capacity, was inflated in St. Louis and towed over thousands of wires, over factories, railroads and other obstacles a half mile to the Mississippi River where a tug boat was waiting to tow the balloon up the river, under the free bridge, to the harbor boat "Rastus Wells," which was anchored in mid-stream about a mile distant, where Mayor Kiel

ENGLAND PAYS FOR USE OF WRIGHT PATENT.

The Aero Club of America has been notified that the British Government has officially recognized the Wright Brothers' patent and has paid to the British Wright Company $75,000 in settlement for the past, present and future use of the Wright patent in Great Britain.

This still leaves the patent in the possession of the British Wright Company, which can collect royalties from other users of the invention in England. This is in settlement of the sued claim for $375,000 which has heen in the British courts for the past year.

Old subscriber writes in to say:

"Stop Miss -'s subscription at

once and send me bill. After talking it over we have come to the conclusion that it is no use paying six dollars a year when by getting married we can both use the same copy and save 50 per cent, on the damhighcostof living."

Never looked at it that way, but the idea is brilliant, just the same.

ÎIIRO.W-IUTICS, Sept. 30, 1914.

Page 91

NEW LONG DISTANCE NON-STOP FLIGHT.

A new American record for nonstop cross country flight was established on (Mober 17tit by \Y. C. Robinson, of Grinnell, Iowa, in bis flight from lies Moines to Kentland, Ind., a distance of 375 miles, in four hours and -44 minutes.

Robinson had intended to fly to ('hicago, following the railroad all of the way. When he reached near Clinton, low a, how ever, he was forced to ascend above the storm tiouds. and lost his way. He left Des Moines at 10.56 in the morning and alighted in Kentland at 3.40 p. m. lie was timed passing over

vision. The dimensions of the machine are: Span, 35 ft.; chord, 7 ft.; length. 25 ft. The motor is a radial type, also designed by Robinson, 6 cylinder, 5-in. bore, 6-in. stroke, developing 100-h.p. and turns an S-ft. propeller, dx/2 ft. pitch at 1,250 r.p.m. Gross weight, 900 lbs. Forty-five gallons of gasoline and 7 gallons of oil were consumed on the long trip. The distance actually flown is said to be 400 miles, which figures ai. average speed of 84 miles per hour. Not a little of the success was flue to the use of Bosch magneto rnrl plug?.

JANNUS REPORTS GOOD BUSINESS.

"Tony" Jannus, writing from Pal ti mo re says. "We have made a killing here. In fact, ever since my machine w ore out on me at Cedar Point 1 have kept my brother busy with bookings, and our first w eek here, although we had expected to do practically nothing, netted $745.00 in passengers alone."

1 lie pioneer flying boat pilot has combined with his brother, Roger Jannus, in business, with offices and factory at Battery Ave. and Hamburg St., Baltimore, Md.. where they are busy filling contracts for exhibition flights and passenger carrying and arc taking orders for the designing and construction of flying boats and land machines.

Construction work is to be begun on a 3-passengcr flying boat, known as the "Exposition Model" and two more of the same type have been ordered. "Tony" will go to Florida for about two weeks to fill some contracts and return to Baltimore, preparing every possible apparatus new orders will justify and have the first contingent of three flying boats and one fast monoplane arrive at San Francisco hy the 2Uth.

Grinnell at 11.37 a. in., having made the 56 miles fron the starting point in 4 1 minutes and at noon he was sighted over Marengo, a distance of 'Hi miles from l>es Moines. Rochester, la., was passed at 12.57 p. m., after which point he began ascending to an altitude of 7,500 ft. and living above the clouds for some three hours the remainder of the distance. His course was due cast, but a strong w ind blew him tow ard the south. "During the last half hour of the flight," says Mr. Robinson, "the clouds below me began breaking up and gave me a sight of the ground. My gasoline ran out and I descended slowly and found myself in Kentland."

Tbe machine used was a two-seater, side by side, monoplane of Mr. Robinson's own design and built hy the Grinnell Aeroplane Company, of Grinnell, la., under his super-

The Jannus brothers—Roger and Tony made spectacular flights over \lie l'atapsco beginning November 1. taking with them in their giant hydro-biplane several Baltimoreans as pas-engers. The first two to make the Mr. Robinson stated that before he flights were Richard Clapp and started be bad some apprehension Spencer Heath, the maker of "Para-abnut being able to get out of the gnu" propellers, while a waiting list small held in which he started with of some half dozen others was on tin large gasoline tank, but that he hand to make up the day's enter-found that the machine rose from tainnient,

the ground as easily with the large —■--—

tank as it did with the small 5-gnl- „ t „ kt ... na t-t>/t- im

Ion tank, and that be as yet does FOREIGN COMMERCE IN not know the lifting power of the SEPTEMBER,

machine. Robinson intends to keep \MPORTS.

increasing the size of his tank and Aeroplanes .............. None

gasoline until he discovers how much Parts ................... $13,548

it uill carry, and it would not be o mos.. ending Sept.,

at all surprising to see him double 'planes and parts........ 13,910

the capacity be used in his trip to EXPORTS,

Kentland and go with the wind for 5 aeroplanes ............. $Ib,600

a world's record. Parts.................. . 89

After several setbacks owing to y . "los- 5"dm8 ^pt.,

,. j planes and parts........ 195,089

poor gasoline and a slight injury to EXPORTS OF FOREIGN MAKE.

the 'plane in landing at Mnmeiice, Aeroplanes .............. None

111., Robinson completed the trip to parts ................... None

Chicago on October 20th. ') mos., parts only........ $207

IN WAREHOUSE SEPT. 30. - 1 aeroplane .............. $1,856

ANOTHER NEW ALTITUDE RECORD.

Captain 11. L. Muller, of tbe U. S. Signal Corps birdnien, on October S made a new American altitude record of 17,185 feet, using the new Curtiss Model I tractor, described in the last issue. The Curtiss 90-100 OX motor was fitted, of course.

It's now up to Thompson and his Gyro-motored machine to again break this new figure.

HONEYWELL MAKES TWO BALLOON RECORDS.

Capt. H. E. Honeywell broke two American records in the balloon. New St. Louis, on Nov. 1st. lie increased the distance record for four passengers in a balloon of 40,000 cu, ft. capacity from 77 to 85

miles, and the altitude record from 7,300 ft. to 8.000 ft.

With Honeywell were Miss Estelle Lilicli. 3515 Tenessee avenue, and her fiance. Edwin C. Koenig, vice-president of the Missouri Press Brick Company, and William II. Threfts, J r., a photographer. Tbe party started from Priester's Park and landed at Kinmundy, 111.

IJ oneywel'i sailed without a drag rope because of the weight of the load. He bad difficulty in landing and part of the basket dragged through a pond, wetting its occupants. Farmers near Kinmundy seized ihe balloon and held it until it could be tethered.

Honeywell male tbe previous record with four in the "Missouri."

The Macv stabilizer will be tried out shortly at the Signal Corps Aviation School at San Diego,

REGARDING COOKE'S DEATH.

In noting the death of Wei don Cooke last issue, an error was made in stating tbe machine was a tractor, lie, it seems, changed from tbe tractor described in full in AERONAUTICS at the time, and built a Curtiss-type pusher, with Roberts 6-cylinder motor, ailerons on upper plane. Double surfaced Irish linen, treated with home-made "dope," which Cooke said cost 20 cents a gallon to make. His seat was on brackets bought for 10 cents at a Wool worth store. Not a turnbuckle or lock nut on the machine, Tbe left aileron bad a broken rib. Cooke sai«l he had flown it that way till "now (Pueblo) and gotten by with it—guess" he could now. The gasoline tank had a leak and Cooke drove in a wooden plug as big as a lead pencil to stop the flow.

JOINT CONFERENCE ON AVIATION

The inventors, after the Confer-^?^riM47^X\ ence, may be given a certificate

^->^-r^^\\ showing that their invention has been

submitted to the Joint Conference. 1 f the Joint Conference so decides, the opinion passed on the invention may be included in the certificate.

There will be no charges for the consideration of the inventions, but the inventors will fully prepay all mail matter addressed to the Society, as well as all express charges for drawings, models, etc. Should a demonstration of apparatus be arranged for, the inventor will bear the cost of it.

All inventors wishing to submit _ their inventions are invited to communicate with the Technical Board The Aeronautical Society of A.ner- of^the^Society,29 West 39th Street

Mr. Daniel L. Braine, 185 Madison Ave., New York City.

Mr. Walter L. Post, 50 Church St., New York City.

Mr. Joseph Barbato. 11 Pine St., New York City.

Mr. George Adams, 113th St. and Riverside Drive, Kiverside Mansions, New York City.

Mr. I.croy M. Whetstone, 3820 North Franklin St., Philadelphia, Pa.

Mr. James Mitchell Beck, St. James Hotel, Philadelphia, Pa. Elected Nov. 5th.

29 Wist 3Sth Street. New York

OFFICIAL BULLETIN

in collaboration with many na-

in

New York City, and to submit to it all data in their possession, such

tional engineering org^'z.^0"s £ as patents, descriptions, data of tests,

this country, will on February 5th i inventor is in a position

mid 6th 1915, consider the inven- ttc- 11 \nc inventor is in a position

ana oui. , etahilitv t0 submit a model, or can show an

turns tending to »ivi?than apparatus of working size, he should

and safety of flight in heaver-than ^ ^ tQ the Tcchsnical Board. It

air machines. nu]St be c]early understood that all

In addition to the Technical boaid inforrnation so submitted may he prc-

and representatives of the Ae

ronauti-

nted in public meeting of the So-

cal Society of America represent*- d and thcrefore# no inventions

tives of several national engineering Qr data of a secret nature shou]d be

organizations will take part. 1 he commuiiicated to the Technical

following have already sent in lists p>oard

of their representatives: The'Technical Board will consider American Mathematical Society, the inventions submitted with a view American Society of Mechanical En- of preparing for the meeting of the gineers. Massachusetts Institute of Joint Conference on Aviation such Technology, American Physical So- "data as will enable the Conference ciety. . to form a clear and correct judg-The complete list of representatives ment of the value of the invention, will he published later. The Joint and will collaborate to this end with Conference will consider the inven- the inventor to the best of its abil-tions submitted solely with the view ities. The Technical Board retains of promoting thereby the progress of the right of withholding from pres-aeronautical engineering in the entation any invention either out-United States. The work of the side of the scope of the Joint Con-conference will he embodied in its ference, or on which sufficient in-proceedings, the publication of formation has not been presented, which, in full or in part, will be or, which appears to be based on er-decided on by the Joint Conference, roneous theory. No invention will It will also express a general opinion be rejected on the latter score if rut e^cli of the inventions submitted, embodied in working size.

GENERAL MEETING,

The general meeting of Nov. 12th (which was erroneously announced in the preceding issue) was devoted to the important subject of AERIAL STRATEGY IX WAR. An address on "THE WIRELESS I'HASE" was delivered by Mr. E. BUTCHER, of the Marconi Wireless Telegraph of America, followed by an open debate, Messrs. Hammer and Kimball acting as exponents of the attacking power of aircraft and Messrs. Goldmerstein and Jones explaining the means of defense against such attacks.

ROUND TABLE DISCUSSIONS.

It is the intention of the Board of Directors to increase, as far as possihle, the benefits derived by members from helonging to the Aeronautical Society of America and to liven up generally interest in matters aeronautical. With this purpose in view it has been decided to resume the round table discussions which were so pleasant a feature of the early days of the Society, and which enjoy a great popularity in several European engineering organizations. The rooms of the Society will be thrown open to members Thursday evenings and a general "conversazione" will take place. No formal lectures or papers are expected to he presented at such discissions, but members are welcome to raise questions in connection with the art of flying which are of more nr less general interest, as well as to tell of their work in the development of the new art. Probably somehodv will always have something to say about new hooks on aviation, nr about a new article in some foreign paper or engineering periodical, and it is generally expected that memhers will greatly enjoy the evening spent in the Society's rooms. Members are entitled to bring with them friends interested in aviation. Xo "conversazione" will take place on evenings of general meetings.

During the second week of February next the first Joint Aeronautical Convention in America will be held in the Engineers Building when there will be exhibited a "new electro-mechanical motion that will show the basic principle of inherent stability in aeroplanes.

"This mechanism, when in operation, expresses an earnest desire to continue in an elliptical orbit-plane tangential to, or parallel with, the earth's surface; while it also pre-cesses, nutates, perturbates and performs all the functions of a satellite. Therefore, it is another moon to the earth. It is also an electron model in accord with the electron theory of the universe which may he expressed as follows:

"If we assume that inside all chemical and other atoms there are minute electrons, or planets, constantly spinning, and flying, in orbital planes, then we may prove one law governing the universe.

"Sir J. J. Thomson, of Cambridge University, England, was awarded the Alfred Nobel $40,000.00 cash prize in the year 1906, for advancing the electron theory which has not been refuted, and it now remains for some one to make a special study of electron models in order to re-\eal the electron formula.

"The discoverer would be entitled to another Alfred Nobel $40,000.00 cash prize with others too numerous to mention, and, the discoverer would also he known throughout the world as the greatest scientist in history."

For further information address Harry Schultz, secretary the Aero Science Club of America, Room 718, 29 W. 39th St., New York, N. Y.

NEW MEMBERS.

Mr. Brandon Hendricks, life membership, 924 West End Ave., N. Y. City. Elected July 30th.

Mr. F. N. Brown, 65 Livingston St., Brooklyn, N. Y. Elected August 27th.

Mr. Or vis A. Roach. 401 Cedar St.. San Antonio, Texas.

Mr. Frank A. Roy, 527 Fifth Ave.. New York City. Elected Sept. 19th.

Captain Ewald liecker, 248 West 52nd St.. New York City.

Mr. Ililding Freudenthal. 250 Manhattan Ave., New York City. Elected Oct. 7th.

Mr. George I. Brown, 17 State St., New York City.

Mr, N. I*. Converse, of San Francisco, inventor of the Converse Automatic Stabilizer, which was recently described in these columns, is now engaged in constructing a new fore-and-aft and lateral stabilizer, which he expects to have ready for trial tests within a fortnight. This stabilizer follows the lines of his lateral stabilizer which was tried out with complete success on the machine of the late Arthur Kybitski a few months ago. The new stabilizer will weigh only 18 lbs., complete.

I have no criticisms for your magazine—nothing but praises. It is the best of the four that 1 take. STEVEN STUART,

Seattle, Wash.

.IIÌROXAUTICS, Sept. 30, 1914.

Page 93

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AERONAUTICS

AVIATORS, NEAR AVIATORS \NP STUDENTS SHOULD INVESTIGATE OUR PROPOSITION FOR PARTIALLY FINANCING AND MANAGING AT FRISCO .FOR 10 MONTHS. $3,500 RE-OUIRED. $20 PER LESSON UNTIL SUCCESS IS ASSURED. ADDRESS TANNUS BROTHERS, BATTERY AVENUE AND HAMBURG STREETS, BALTIMORE, MI).

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The Leading British Monthly Journal Devoted to theTechnique and Industry of Aeronautics

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170 Fleet Street - - London, E. C American Office: 250 West S4th Street, New York

WILL RENT my double covered 26 ft. x 6 ft. monoplane to a reliable party. Address E. M., 1522 Norwood Ave., Toledo, Ohio.

WRIGHT Model B for sale as it stands; $50 will put it in perfect condition; engine in first-class shape. Met with slight accident in landing. Price $1,000 cash. Address S., care AERONAUTICS.

cAERO MART

BARGAIN IN BOOKS—Will sell following books: Aerial Navigation (Salverda) $1.50: Navigating the Air (Aero Club of America) $.50; Aeronautical Annual, 1895-6-7 (James Means) $5; Travels in Space (Valentine & Thompson) $.50; Art of Aviation (Brewer) $1.50; Airship? Past and Present (Ilildebrand) $3; Proceedings Int. Congress Aerial Navigation, Chicago, 1893. $5; various other hooks

thrown in to purchaser of the lot. I.. E._ Dare, 216 West 10-ttli St.. New York.

HAYING found a mechanical movement that would build an aerial apparatus that would be superior to the present aeroplane, and not having the money to build a try-out machine. I will give an interest to reliable parties who will exploit the device. E. G. L., care AERONAUTICS.

FLYING ON LONG ISLAND.

Only through the co-operation of the aeroplane manufacturers located on the aviation field at Garden City, could the meets, such as is programed each week, be made possible. Fully five to eight aeroplanes take part in the Saturday events while two or more passenger carrying machines entertain the multitude of Sunday visitors.

On Saturday afternoon, Sept. 19th. Harold Kantner made a pretty flight in the Schmitt monoplane, rising to an altitude of 5,000 ft. This was followed by a handicap race between the Schmitt monoplane and the Kuhl-Baysdorfer biplane, around the held three times, in which the monoplane won.

Fully 1.000 people visited the field Sunday and were rewarded by seeing some fine flying. An accident occurred at the close of the afternoon, whicli wrecked one machine but in which no one was hurt. Fred Jacobs went out in the Schneider machine for his second flight in a biplane. At the extreme end of

the field, in trying to make the turn, his control wire broke and the machine came down on one wing, crumplin.sc it up under him.

The program for Oct. 3 was postponed on account nf the death of William I'iceller. Late in the afternoon however Albert Ileinrich and Bonney made several flights so as not to disappoint the crow d at the field.

A new feature introduced at the Columbus day meet was a balloon chase. Several rubber, gas-filled toy balloons were released, and as they sailed up in the air, the aviators went after them. Whether the balloons were too small or whether the aviator was unable to manage both his aeroplane and revolver at the same time, >s not known, but the balloons floated away unharmed. Albert Heinrich was the first to compete in the bomb-dropping contest. The first few bombs he dropped missed the target by 300 ft., but after a little practice he was able to drop them with more accuracy. Sidney Beck with, in his military tractor biplane, also made some good scores.

The program for the following Saturday had to be postponed to Sunday, owing to bad weather. On Sunday, however, the 4.500 people who were at the field saw some exceptionally fine flying. A novel feature of the day was the use of human targets for bomb dropping. Arthur Ileinrich and two other avia tors went out on the field and volunteered as targets. This caused a great deal of ercitement, for if the bombs had struck the men, the result would have been disastrous, as the bombs are quite heavy and arc filled with cartridges which explode when they hit the ground. Ileinrich made several flights with passengers and Beck wit h gave a splendid exhibition of landing.

On Saturday, Oct. 24. the program consisted of bomb dropping, races and balloon chasing. An interesting exhibition was given on Election day and owing to the great micccss of these meets the Week End Meet* Association have decided to have them continued, with a special program for Thanksgiving Day. No admission is charged to the field on Sundays.—D. B. Wright.

AERIAL BOMBS AND PROJECTILES

VETERAN BALLOONIST IS DEAD.

Samuel Archer King, a veteran balloonist, died at his home in Philadelphia on November 3. He was 86 years old and made his first ascension in 1851. During his career as an aeronaut he made 480 ascensions, and never met with a serious accident.

Professor King, formerly a photographer, made bis first ascension in Fairmount Park in 1851. and immediately became not only one of the foremost enthusiasts in the sport, but also soon was acknwledged to be one of the best in formed and most efficient pilots of aerostats.

Seconds Elapsed Titoe

SOME EXPERIMENTS WITH A BIPLANE

(Coniiniwii from page R-i) disposition is a valuable one ami u ill come i uto general use some day. It took several years for designers to see the value of the negative aileron which I have advocated for so long a time and I am curious to see how long it takes designers to see the value in the staggered converging biplane.

My experiments over water were c^ried on at Marhlehead, Mass., and all the members of the Burgess Company saw the flights which my machine made. It seems to me that to get a tractor tailless b:plane to fly and land safely is to do something new in aeronautics.

MODEL NOTES

(Crmtlmwit front page S'J) The chassis is of a very simple form, as shown, and is constructed of '$ in. square split bamboo cut to streamline form. The wheels are ■'i of an inch in diameter and are of cork; fitted with small pieces of tubing for hubs. The propellers are carved from wbite pine and are 7 in. in diameter with a pitch of approximately 13 in. Each propeller is driven by 10 strands of } sin. flat rubber.

The accompanying chart has been arranged by Wilbur R. Kimball to represent graphically approximate data on falling bombs and projectiles. Tbese values will be modified by variations in the density of the atmosphere.

The vertical scales of fall in feet may be read for all three curves. The upper horizontal scale may be read for C and the lower one for A and B.

The space traversed for any second of time is twice the time (2t) minus 1 times 16.08. represented by the curve A on the chart.

The total distance fallen in any number of seconds is graphically shown by the curve B. and is the time in seconds squared times 16.OS,

Rt" or -—- -

The velocity at the end of fall is gt, i. c. number of seconds times 32.16.

The velocity in feet per second acquired during fall is 8.02 times the square root of the space traversed.

If the projectile has an initial velocity of, c. g . 640 ft. per second

(on C >. approximately that of Ibe projectile tired by a Zeppelin, the corresponding distance shown by the chart which it would have to fall to attain this velocity is 6,400 ft.; and the time required, 20 seconds.

To calculate the time of fall with this initial velocity, add the distances and subtract the corresponding times. For a projection of 6,000 ft., e. g.. add 6,400. making 12.400, requiring 27-?4 seconds, less 20 = 7-*_j seconds approximately. From curve A the space traversed in the 30th second is 944 ft.

Aviator Tacquith was fined $22.50 for duck hunting with his Curtiss flying boat, despite the plea of his attorneys, "who argued that the magistrate and game warden were giving a wrong interpretation to the law, as the so-called boat had no dimensions and was without specified draught,"

F. C. ITild, formerly the bead and feet of the American Aeroplane Sup-piv 11 nuse, of Hempstead, L. I., is now in the French aviation reserve at Tours and will shortly go to the front.

While we are discussing speed models it recalls to mind the models constructed some few years ago by Stewart R. Easier, a former member of the N. Y. Model Aero Club. These models are noted for their high speed, extremely light weight, excellent flying and high-class construction.

The main plane was extremely small, having a span of only 16 in.I 1 n fact, one of the Easter models bad a main plane with a span of only 14 in.

These planes were double surfaced, being flat on the under side and cambered on the upper side. The front elevator had a very sharp dihedral angle, presumably for the purpose of obtaining straight flights.

The propellers were 7 in. in diameter and were carved so thin that it scarcely seemed possible for them to last for more than one flight, although a; a matter of fact the breakages were very few. The fuselage of this model was also a very delicate piece of construction.

Flights of over 1./00 ft. were very often obtained w ith this model, it being the holder of the world's record for distance for some time.

Published lemi-monthly in the best interests of Aeronautics

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XV. No. 7

OCTOBER 15, 1914

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THE HYDROAEROPLANE IN COAST DEFENCE RECONNAISSANCE

By Captain V. E. Clark, Aviation Section, Signal Corps.

In Europe, under actual war conditions, the aeroplane is daily proving its ability to pierce most effectually "the fog of war"—on land. The purpose of the present article is point out several practical uses of the hydroaeroplane as an adjunct to coast defense- to call to the reader'* attention the possibilities in the use of ibis machine as a factor in the defense of our coast lines.

Iy the general term "hydroaeroplanes." I mean all heavier-than-air Hying craft capable of arising from ami alighting upon water, including so-called "flying boats," "aero boats/1 etc.

1 n discussing the adaptation of the hydroaeroplane to coast reconnaissance, i will assume that the machine v\il| always carry two men, w ho will divide betw een them the duties of pilot, observer, and signalman; and be provided with compass, other instruments, and a signal transmitting equipment. For some purposes the latter should be a wireless outfit; a:id for others, a smoke-pull device, such as a cylinder containing soot with apertures which can be opened and closed by the signalman. Practical tests in France l-ave shown that a compact wire-It s* outfit, weighing only about sixty pounds with antenna*, and not interfering villi the flight of the aeroplane carr/ing it, is capable of sending messages sixty miles, under ordinal' ,■ conditions.

I! KC ON N.USSANCi;.

(a) HiM'oi'criut/ an .-Jpproaching Fleet.

Tn Fig. 1 have been indicated roughly three flight courses illustrating a plan by which, in case of an expected approach by hostile men-of-war or transports, three hydroaeroplanes might effect a more complete reconnaissance of our Xorth Atlantic coast waters by making, back and forth, daily flights of three hours' duration, than would be possible by employing a score of the fastest destroyers.

It is not only possible, but highly probable, that, in the near future, hydroaeroplanes will be designed that will be able to "get off," make extended flights during which implicit confidence mav be placed in the motor, and land without damage in almost any weather in which the navigation of a destroyer is practicable. There should, however, be some sort of break-water sheltering the get-away and landing water areas; and, in the plan suggested, the terminal points have been chosen with this in view.

In this connection, it must be remembered that a strong wind, after having blow u over a large expanse of water, may be. to the occupants of an aeroplane flying in it, no more dangerous or uncomfortable than a dead calm. Strong winds over land become broken up by bills, cliffs, canons, and even trees or houses, until the air becomes very turbulent. On the other hand, there lining none of these irregularities on the surface of the water, strung winds; will usually remain fairly constant in force and direction.

At each terminal point there

should lie hangars, a machine shop, supplies, extra motors, spare parts, and a force of mechanicians and relief pilots.

On a day of average atmospheric transparency, an observer in a machine riving at ;i height of two thousand feer could "make out" a fleei ot vessels at a distance of at least fifty nautical miles.

The shaded portion of Fig. I, then, indicates the area in w liieli the enemy would be visible to at least one of the flying sci-nts. After be had entered this area, the size of his fleet, the character of his vessels, and the direction of his movement would be reported tn the waiting coast defense commanders.

The report would, at the very least, give the ('oast Artillery personnel at New York, Fort M on roe. Huston, and Philadelphia ti ft ecu hours, and at the other fort i tied points within the zone, eight hours, in which tn prepare pow der, fire trial shots, and even, possibly, move troops from the points nut threatened tn those that appear to be in danger. In the mean lime, the enemy would tie utterly unawa e of the presence of the air scout. It is impossible tn -ec or heir an aeroplane at a distance of even ten miles.

I b) "Run Hy" it: a Fog and Movements Behind a Smoke Screen.

In many nf our harbors, low fog banks, broken by many rifts, and extending only a short distance out from the fortified shore, are very common.

Should a coast defense command* cr have reason to expect an attempt to "run by," from hostile vessels behind such a fog bank, the service of a hvdro might prove invaluable. The flagship would be located by circling over the harbor entrance', the observer would make a preparatory signal: and then the pilot should describe a series of regular circles, keeping bis alt it ide constant, and passing, during the course of each circle, vertically over the target ship. The observer should cause- a puff of smoke to be emitted when direct! v over the target. There would be practically no danger tn the aeroplane from the fire of the enemy's ships. It will be found that the only fire effective against an aeroplane is that of a regiment of infantry, in which there is a very large percentage of pour shots, the resultant wide dispersion increasing the probability of the aeroplane's being bit in a vital spot, despite the usual error in estimating range.

While the hydro is maneuvering as described above, the observers at the ends of horizontal bases on shore could, using azimuth i nsi rumen ts capable of swinging through a large vertical angle, track, at least roncblv. the course of the target as indicated bv the path and signals of the aeroplane. While this method should prove particularly useful to mine commands. I believe that a sufficiently accurate track fur the firing of mortar ami mm <*alvn< j,v '"ase III might be ihtaincd.

The movements of a fleet attempting m take advantage of a smoke screen might be follow cd and made

known to sliure nbseners hy an aeroplane using these same tactics.

(cj "Rnn-Bv" ,i: Xiqht,

Should a coast defense commander expect a "run-by" under cover of darkness, he would order one of his hydros to circle over the harbor entrance. Even though the hostile vessels were running with "all lights doused." the observer in the aeroplane would be able to detect their approach by w a tching for the flames down in the smoke funnels and indicate the presence, strength, and direction of movement of a fleet by the use of Very pistol signals. Successive points in the course of a vessel might be indicated to those on shore bv dropping light bombs on the vessel when over it.

dl) [.ocatiiii/ Submarines and .Suhnmvtnc Mines.

It hac been found that, unless the w;iter is \ ery muddy, at an altitude of about seven hundred feet submarine mines are distinctly visible from the air above: and that, from an altitude of two thousand feet, the movements of a submarine torpedo-boat may be easily observed.

IS'- employing the tactics outlined in (M, i. e.. describing regular circles at a constant altitude, and making smoke puffs when directly over I he target, the hvdro might render material aid to the mine command in its operations against submarines.

(el Reconnaissance Ayvinst Land-nit/ Forces.

In (a) was described a method wheieby warning of the approach of transports might be given.

Even after forces bad landed at some point distant from coast fortifications, with ihe intention of operating against the defenses of the seaport from land, the movements of these troops might be followed from a hydroaeroplane as readily as from an aeroplane fitted with landing wheels. The hydro could start or land, for instance, at one of the terminal points in Figure 1. or in the harbor of the city itself. The operations of the hostile force might be reported daily from the time when they were several days' march distant.

Ft HE COXTROT..

< n 1/rr-Mr Fire at a Target Obscured front Fire 'Control Station hy ii /'■ uniciit cry.

Should it be desired to fire on a vessel nhscured from the observation of fire control stations by a high point of land, precisely the same system as has been suggested in (b) might used to direct observation and the firing nf mortars. The- hvdro should maintain an altitude must convenient for tracking b\ the base end azimuth i nst ruin' :ils. A simple system of signals nm-lit be u^ed tn indicate to thr l'ie cnmmandi r the relaltvc location nt the center of impact and the largt t. at all times during the firing.

(g) Indirect ]\Iortar and Hoiviiser Shrapnel Fire Against Land Forces.

Information, sufficiently accurate for indirect shrapnel fire, as to the position of the enemy "on the other side of the hill," might be obtained through use of the hydroaeroplane. Also, during this fire, corrections in elevation and azimuth might be made from information obtained from signals sent from the flying hydro.

(h) Spotting for Extreme Long Range Firing.

Suppose a fleet of the enemy's dreadnoughts should open a bombardment at a range of, say, twelve to fifteen thousand yards, against the protected city or against the fortifications. Should an attempt be made by the shore batteries to silence this bombardment, it would be next to impossible to determine, especially if the observing stations were located only a little above sea level, whether the center of impact were "over" or "short" of the target ships.

A hydroaeroplane, equipped with wireless, circling over a line normal to the line of fire drawn from the target, as close to the target as safety permitted, could, by using a simple code, keep the fire commanders on shore constantly informed as to the proper range corrections.

The observer could use, for determining range errors, a range rake the coss arm of which is capable of movement and adjustment along the beam "observer to target," which should be graduated. The distance from observer to target, to be laid off along this beam, may he obtained by short computation, from a table, or by a simple instrument. The two values required are: (1) the altitude of the observer, which may be read from an aneroid barometer; and (2) the angle, in a vertical plane, at the aeroplane, between the two lines; (a) vertical through aeroplane; and (h) aeroplane to target. The angle (2) may be obtained by an instrument, sheltered from the wind, consisting of a weighted arm which hangs vertically, with a graduated (sextaut-like) arc attached, along which a simple sight (observer to target) may be moved; and the required vertical angle read.

OFFENSE.

(0 Dropping Bombs on Destroyers and Counter-Mining Craft Obscured from Shore Observation.

If, because of fog. darkness, searchlight out of service, or inconvenient location of mine field with relation to rapid fire batteries, these batteries should be unable to fire effectively on countermining craft or destroyers, the hydro might be of great aid to the

mine command by dropping explosive hombs on the hostile vessels from a low altitude.

(j) Attacking Dirigibles.

Should our coast forts ever be threatened hy bomb-dropping dirigible balloons, hydroaeroplanes should form an effective means of defense.

Possessing superior speed and mobility, and presenting a much smaller and more erratic target, they would be a constant menace to these monsters of the air. We have records of at least one, and probably two encounters, during the present Eu-opean war, in which patriotic French pilots have, by plungine their machines headlong into the envelopes of Zeppelins, demonstrated that, by the sacrifice of one man, a hostile dirigible, representing from twenty-five to one hundred and fifty men and hundreds of thousands of dollars in fighting material, may be rendered a complete loss.

Experience may prove that it is possible to destroy a dirigible from an aeroplane by the use of a hand arm firing striail explosive shell, or hv throwing into the top of the hal-loon a harpoon to which is attached a bomb with time fuse, diminishing, to snme extent at least, the danger to the pilot of the attacking aeroplane.—Journal of the U. S. Artillery.

WRIGHT COMPANY STARTS NEW INFRINGEMENT SUIT

On November 18. 1914. Judge Julius M. Mayer, of the U. S. District Court, sitting at Buffalo, signed two orders on motion of II. A. Toulmin and II. A. Toulmin, Jr., attorneys for The "Wright Company.

One order directed The Curtiss Aeroplane Company to show cause on or before November 30 (later extended to December 15) why a preliminary injunction should not be allowed: the injunction motion stands for hearing on December 22.

The second order of the court directed the defendant company, should it deny that its machines have heen "constructed in substantial accordance with the drawings accompanying the injunction motion." to produce drawings of its machines "correctly showing the construction and arrangement of the parts utilized in recovering lateral balance and employed in directing the machines in various directions of flight."

This is a new suit against a new company, with which Mr. Curtiss is connected, organized in 1910. The new bill of complaint sets out that The Curtiss Aeroplane Company, the new defendant, was organized by Mr. Curtiss during the pendency of the former litigation; that of the 200 shares of capital stock of this company 198 shares were subscribed for by Mr. Curtiss, one share by Mrs. Curtiss and one by R. G. Hall. Then the bill sets out that this new company has made and dealt in three types of machines:

"Type 1, in which the ailerons are attached to the standards which connect the supporting planes and which ailerons are operated in the same manner as in the Curtiss machine which tbe courts have held to be an infringement and have enjoined The Herring-Curtiss Company and Mr. Curtiss personally from making, using, selling or exhibiting.

"Type 2, which also has ailerons, but which are attached to the rear margins of the upper supporting planes, yet are operated in the same manner as are the ailerons in Type 1, and with the same result, by recovering lateral balance.

"Type 3. which has the ailerons located and connected to the upper main plane in the same manner as in Type 2, and in which, it is alleged by the defendant, the ailerons are not worked simultaneously, one upward and the other downward, but are operated one at a time, and are merely tipped up each time they are operated as distinguished from being tipped up and tipped down alternately."

The new bill of complaint sets out all that is stated above, and charges the new company with infringing the Wright patent, that was sustained in the other suit, by "making, using and selling the three types of machines, two of which types. Nos. I and 2, are substantially the same as the original machine, while the third type is a mere modification."

In the original suit injunctions were issued against The Herring-Curtiss Company, and Mr. Curtiss personally, and they were enjoined from making, using, selling or exhibiting infringing flying machines permanently.

Every move in this famous patent suit has been completely chronicled in AERONAUTICS, with court decisions in full.

On Type 3 there is, however, a sufficiently new field opened up to bring into the new case one or more claims of the Wright patent not directly litigated in tlie former suit. In this machine the ailerons are claimed not to present any positive angles to the line of flight, and, it is said, only one aileron is operated at a time, and then on the high side—to lower it hy creating a downward pressure, no attempt being made to life the low side by presenting the aileron to a positive angle. In this machine, should any tendency to turning about the vertical axis be noticeable, the vertical rudder would, theoretically, never-the less be turned, it is said, in a manner to prevent such turning.

The final determination of the new case on this point will be awaited with interest as the system so persistentlv urged by A. A. Merrill in AERONAUTICS and other journals is frequently claimed not to infringe the Wright patent.

Secretary of the Navy Daniels asks, in his report recently issued, $5,000,000 for naval air service for the 1916 program.

The General Board in its endorsement of August 30, 1913. and accompanying memorandum, brought to the attention of the Navy Department the dangerous situation of the country in the lack of air craft and air men in both the naval and military services. A resume was given in that endorsement of conditions in the leading countries abroad, showing the preparations being made for air warfare and the use of air craft by both armies and navies and contrasting their activity with our own inactivity. Certain recommendations were made in the same endorsement looking to the beginning of the establishment of a proper air service for our Navy.

The result was the appointment of a Board of Aeronautics in October, 1913 (all dulv recorded in AERONAUTICS). That board made further recommendations, among them the establishment of an aeronautic school and station at Pensa-cola and the purchase of 50 aeroplanes, 1 fleet dirigible and 2 small dirigibles for training.

At the present time all the Navy owns is 12 aeroplanes, "not more than two of which are of the same tvpe and all reported to have too little speed and carrying capacity for service work," according to a statement of the General Board of the Navy in November, 1914, to the Secretary of the Navy.

"In viezi' of the advance that has been made in aeronautics during the Past year, and the demonstration no-n1 being inade of the vital importance of a proper air service to both land and sea warfare, our present situation can be described as nothing less than deplorable. As

now deevloped, air craft are the eyes of both armies ■ and navies, and it is difficut to place any limit to their offensive possibilities.

"In our preset!t condition of utt-preparcdness, in contact with any foe possessing a proper air scrz'ice, our scouting would be blind. IVe would be without the means of detecting the presence of submarines or mine fields or of attempting direct attach on the enemy from the air, zchile our own movements would be an open book to him. The General Board can not too strongly urge that the Department's most serious thought be given this matter, and that immediate steps be taken to remedy it, and recommends that Congress be asked for an appropriation of at least §5,000,000 to be made available immediately for the purpose of establishing an efficient air service."

When the fleet was ordered to Mexican waters in April two aeroplane sections of two aeroplanes each, completely manned, with full outfits each, were sent on the Mississippi and Birmingham to Vera Cruz and Tampico respectively.. There was no occasion for the use of aeroplanes at Tampico, but those at Vera Cruz were used continually and though the machines were not fitted for land work they did, for 43 days, a good deal of scouting over the trenches protecting Vera Cruz. There were daily flights without regard to weather or other conditions. Their scout work assured the Commander-in-Chief that no mines had been planted, enabled him to locate sunken works, and was of inestimable value in the combined operations of the Army and Navy.

The recent wars have demonstrated the inestimable importance of scouting. Air craft on land prevent surprises of the kind which

have determined most military victories. They provide the best means for discovering submarine mines and submarines and have now become an indispensable naval adjunct,

DANIELS HITS LOCAL TALENT.

The orders given early in the year for some foreign-built aeroplanes have not been filled, owing to the war. These were for testing that the Navy might adopt those best fitted. "The best types of American manufacture have been ordered and the department will develop this modern branch of the naval service steadily and rapidly. Indeed, it has been more ready to develop it during the past year than the manufacturers of this country have been to supply the demand for craft of approved design," says Secretary Daniels.

The Navy is conducting a large number of experiments with models of floats and pontoons for aeroplanes at the Washington Navy Yard; also, at the same place, in the wind tunnel with aerofoils and models of aeroplanes. A number of different experiments are being carried out at the present time, mostly of a minor importance, at the U. S. Navy Aeronautic Station, Pensa-cola, Fla, In addition to the experimental work and the flying school the Pensacola Station is carrying on repairs of machines in use. Recently a new picket boat was received at that station. It is of the Yiper type of hydroplane, and has a speed of about 35 miles an hour. It is used for patrolling the course while flying for experiment and instruction is going on.

Captain Mark L. Bristol is in charge of the "Office of Naval Aeronautics" ^ in Washington, with the title, "Director of Aeronautics."

U. S. NAVY ORDERS SECOND BURGESS-DUNNE.

The second Burgess-Dunne has been ordered from the Burgess Company at Marblehead and from this it would be assumed that the previous one has been found of advantage. Full details of this type of machine, the claims made therefor and performances have been chronicled in AERONAUTICS.

This new one will have an American engine, a Curtiss O-X. The general characteristics are: biplane of the inherently stable type, carrying a pilot and passenger side by side. The pilot and passenger, motor and instruments are protected by a stream line hood. There are duplicate controls. The full load will be fuel, oil and cooling water for four hours' flight with 350 pounds additional. Tt is to get away in 2,000 feet at a speed of not over 50 miles an hour with full load and climb at the rate of not less than 100 feet per minute, glide not less than 5 in I, and have a speed range of from 60 to 40 miles an hour, or better. It will be readily handled and maneuvered on the water and be fitted for hoisting on board ship

and so arranged as to be quickly assembled or broken down. It will have one main pontoon and two auxiliary pontoons.

NAVAL REQUIREMENTS.

A naval authority has recently stated to the editor that manufacturers of aircraft have not developed these craft so that they would be used by armies or navies, especially navies, though late products have come nearer satisfying the demands of an army. The use of aeroplanes on water has been mostly confined to rivers, lakes and inland waters and the future naval air and water machine must be suited to the open sea. It is argued by the manufacturers, on the other hand, that the governmental demand, as far as this country is concerned, is so small that it is out of the question for manufacturers to do all the experimenting at their own expense with only a possibility of selling the products to the government. At any rate, our "well known" army and navy is more or less handicapped by the slowness of Congress in realizing the necessity of an aeronautical branch.

The aeronautic officers on board the "North Carolina" in Europe

are returning home and will go to the Navy Aeronautic Station at Pensacola and then a great deal more work will be done. These officers returning are: Lieutenant-Commander H. C. Mustin, Lieutenant P. N. L. Bellinger, Lieutenant R. C, Saufley and Ensign W. Cape-hart. The work at Pensacola at the present lime consists in instruction of the new class of officers that has heen detailed. There will be 10 officers in this class when finally assembled, of which eight have already been detailed.

NAVY MAY BUY DIRIGIBLES SOON.

The Navy has asked for bids on two small dirigibles, but the contract has not yet been let, nor, as far as one knows, has it been definitely decided what type or size will be used.

The newspaper story recently published is quite untrue. No one at the present time is making any dirigibles for the government, nor have any orders been issued.

$5,000,000 RECOMMENDED FOR AIR NAVY

NEW CORPORATIONS.

Ascension Manufacturing Company, Sparta. Wis., by Nathan Steele.

The Circular Monoplane Company, Rochester, N. V., has been incorporated with a capital stock of $50,000 and will begin business with $1,000. The directors are Joseph I*. Claes-gens, George A. Claesgens and Agnes H. Claesgens, all of 246 Avenue C; Walter V. Davis, of 551 Plymouth Avenue South, and Frederic A. Geiger, of 292 Seyle Terrace. Joseph Claesgens is the inventor of a monoplane of a new type.

SPEEDS

Miles per Feet per

We take the following from the San Diego Onion San Diego. California, September 20. 1<J14:

"Interest in the war department competition is growing hourly as the time for the contest approaches. The greatest fliers in America are now at North Island preparing for the competition. Pitted against each other will be Raymond Morris and Francis Wildman of the Curtiss School, probably assisted hy Glenn Curtiss; Oscar lliindley of the \\ right School; Glenn Martin, regarded as the most scieutTic flier in America; Silas Christofferson, and the entry of the Benoist company not yet named.

"With these famous and expert hirdmeu putting their planes through the difficult maneuvers prescribed by the war department, spectators, it is said, will witness some of the most

THE TURNER AVIAPHONE IN USE

thrilling flights ever seen in this countiy."

When, O Lord, will aviation in this country cease to be ridiculous? Contemplating the far-flung publicity given to the Hearst Transcontinental "Flight," the Gould "Prize" and the Panama-Pacific "Around-the-World Race," not to mention a score of other similar fiascos, it is small wonder that that shrewd old gentleman, the American Puhlic, regards us more or less as a bunch of fakers.

THE TURNER AVIAPHONE.

Further experiments have been conducted with the K. M. Turner "a via phone," described in AERONAUTIC S some time ago, and recently a test was made on a Thomas flying boat at Stamford and in the 1 'enli machine on Long Island, by Wilbur K. Kimball, representative of the General Acoustic Co.

The Turner aviaphone has been produced after some years of experiment, and is now offered to aviators and aviation schools as a practical instrument by which communication may be had during flight. It is especially valuable to governments for use in the aviation corps of the armies and navies. Officers living with a pilot can direct scouting movements, leaving both hands free for making notes, taking pictures, etc.

The instrument consists of two helmets or caps, two specially wound receivers for each user, breastplate, connecting cords, battery weighing hut 5 ozs, plugs and jacks, the entire outfit weighing but 5 lbs. 5 ozs. We furnish regularly caps as shown in the illustration; the receivers, however, can be adj usted to any type or size of helmet or headgear. The mouthpiece, extending from the specially constructed breastplate transmitter, is in position only during conversation.

DE KOR LATEST TO prompted the use of wood and cloth

LOOP "]t-h w're -ant* turnDl,ckles to obtain rigidity. The linen was given six

This photo is of Fiea Tie Ivor and coats of Emaillite, which upon ad-

his new tractor biplane equipped vice was not varnished. The prep-

\\ith an 80-h.p. Duplex Gyro and aration not being waterproof this

a Simmons propeller. This ma- oversight caused trouble, the upper

chine was built and flown at Los surface of wings having to be re-

Angcles, Cal.. and gave excellent results. He Knr on his first flight made 2 loops. This is the first time that he has ever looped. lie states that it is the best motor he has ever sat behind.

THOMAS BROTHERS MOVE TO ITHACA FOR ROOM.

The recent great impetus given to aviation by the present European war has, to some extent, been responsible for the move of the Thomas I'rotliers Aeroplane Com-pany to Ithaca, N. Y.. where they have secured a factory, giving approximately three times the former capacity: and, in addition, excellent facilities for w ater flying over the beautiful Cayuga Lake, which is approximately forty miles long, with an average width of two miles. At the head of the lake they have an excellent flying field for land school work, and for demonstrating. In addition to this Cornell University offers considerable opportunities for research w ork.

Ithaca is an exceedingly pleasant and live little city of 15,000 population, offering excellent hotel accommodations, and many diversities, and on the whole is an ideal spot in which to take a course in aerial training.

A new military tractor biplane is at present under construction to be tested before the first of the year.

"The prospects in aviation have never looked brighter, and we believe that within a year aeroplanes will assume a position of immense importance in this country, as they already have ahroad." say the Thomas Itrothers.

R. D. BRUCE BUILDS NOVEL FLYER.

Robert I). Bruce, of Pittsburgh, Pa., has been experimenting the past year with the machine illustrated ht-re, which he calls the *'airbirde."

After experimenting with models in flight, this large machine was built to scale.

"Laminated wood construction is of course preferable but the factors of time and financial consideration

covered. For the wheels special hnhs and spokes were made, taking 20x4 Goodrich tires and rims. The high carbon steel Shelby tube axle suspends from steel spiral springs, the whole being carried by light Shelby tubing bent to appropriate form as shown in illustrations.

"The control rudders operate by means of flexible wire cables carried into body to foot and lever control.

"A 70-h.p. water-cooled motor of four-cylinder overhead valve construction was installed, driving a

form showed general superiority and greater freedom from the evils of discontinuity,

"In larger models observation will be made from windows along either side and under wings, the body being entirely enclosed.

"Patents on the entire design of the Airbirde Flyer (trade mark name), have been issued and mechanical patents on wings, body form, and method of lateral control have been fully allowed."

Lateral stability is designed to be effected by the vertical fins. "In two trial flights of 5 and S minutes each, the hns proved superior to wing warping, though on a rectangular lifting surface they would not do."

THE MERRY

PARACHUTE

She called him her Darius Green, And donned her widow hat,

Then jumped aboard his aeroplane— Now what do you think of that?

She was so charming that the wheels I'egan to buzz around,

And in a jiffy the machine

Was lifted from the ground— Now what do you think of that?

And Bonis kissed her on the cheek, Which made the Chauffeur sigh;

So as a gentle hint, of course, She leaned up to Dari— Now what do you think of that?

Put 'twixt the lips and stealing ships.

They bumped up in a cloud,

**** ^^tri *~

three-hladed flexing type Paragon propeller of beautiful design. For protection on the flying field a circus tent was obtained but a severe storm disagreed emphatically with this procedure. Altho now consigned to the experienced handling of Mr. Allan S. Adams persistent motor trouble caused a postponement of extended trials until spring, when a dependable motor of another make will be installed. The total area of the machine is 300 sq. ft., weight 900 lbs. (which will be reduced ahout 200 lbs. in next models) , spread of wings 40 ft., total length 35 ft., body 5 by 20 ft., wings 10 ft. deep along body, mean aspect ratio 6 to 1. camber ratio 1-20, greatest sectional wing depth 6 in. An interesting coincidence in the wing section form noted is that while constructed to requirements of the mechanical key devised, the outline form is an exact duplicate of that designed by; AL Eiffel (Resistance of the Air & Aviation-Eiffel. P. S4, wing S, plate II). The experiments with this

And knocked the jibboom from the fore.

And tore the mizzen shroud— Now what do you think of that?

And they were falling, when she cried;

"Oh catch my merry hat !" They used it for a parachute— Now what do you think of that? —Walter Scott Haskell.

Mr. J. Madison Thorp, of Alameda, California, is the inventor of an aeroplane launching and landing device for ships which seems to have much merit. The device consists essentially of a launching and landing car mounted upon two cable ways and of means by which these ways are maintained in a horizontal position, no matter how the ship rolls. The apparatus is light, occupies little space and is capable of being readily dismounted and put aside when not required for immediate use.

NEW CURTISS MILITARY TRACTOR.

"Model N" is the latest military tractor from the Curtiss plant in Ilammondsport, with a range of speed, with two people up and five hours' fuel, of from 40 to 75 miles an hour, climbing 4,000 ft. in 10 minutes, using a 100-h.p. O-XX motor, a refinement of the O-X 90-100-h.p. motor which is now standard in Curtiss machines.

AVIATOR IS FINED UNDER RULING THAT HYDROAEROPLANE IS MOTORBOAT.

Under an opinion handed down hv the Solicitor-General of the United States, holding that hydroaeroplanes are subject to all of the regulations governing the oneration of motorboats. Collector of Customs William F. Stone to-day imposed penalties totaling $550 upon Dean R. Vankirk, of Washington, owner of the flying boat Columbia.

So far as is known the imposition of the fines upon Mr. Vankirk is the first time the Government has ever sought to penalize an aviator, lie was fined $100 for navigating after sunset, $100 for running without lights, $100 for having insufficient life-saving devices aboard his flying boat and $250 for not having copies of the pilot rules aboard.

Only a few days ago Collector Stone had the hydro-aeroplane of the Jannus brothers, in this city, inspected, and found that it was fully equipped in accordance with the mo-torboat regulations.

This ruling was agitated by AERONAUTICS some time ago and an opinion similar to this .was rendered by the Solicitor General on a supposititious case. This view is heartily in accord with the opinions of aviators who are strong for Federal control of flying.

"The present government license for motor boat operators is a thing that has proved very sensible, as

well as formidable, and we believe that both the Aeronautical Society and the Aero Club of America should combine in an effort to regulate legislation so that the Department of Commerce will have comprehensive laws governing aircraft on both land and water and in the air."

Jannus Brothers.

ELTON AVIATION COMPANY ORGANIZED.

The Elton Aviation Co., Youngs-town, Ohio, has been organized by Albert Elton, H. P. McQuiston and II. M. Rinehart to give exhibition flights. While making a flight in a Model li Wright at Lynchburg, Virginia, October 9th, Howard Rinehart, the aviator, fell a distance of 1.800 ft. The accident was caused by tbe elevator not being properly wired up, causing same to collapse in mid-air, causing subsequent loss of control of the machine. In his downward descent he turned completely over twice, the motor stop-

ping on the first turn, and after she settled on the second turn up side down she drifted on down to the ground like a large piece of paper, and falling into a cemetery near the flying grounds. Rinehart received an injured sciatic nerve which is about the total amount of his injuries. All things considered, it was a miraculous escape from death. We have had the Model B completely rebuilt by The Wright Company and have purchased the Model E single propeller exhibition machine.

. The Lorain (Ohio) Hydro

S: Aerial Co., composed of Lorain men, has received two car loads of aeroplane parts and at once will engage in the business of manufacturing aeroplanes and accessories and also will book exhibition flights. Several contracts have heen signed.

The company and its officers are J. E. Peppin, president; J. J. Kelly, vice-president ; K. F. Banning, secretary and treasurer; K. F. Walzek, designer and builder.

JANNUS TO JOIN IN OPENING SAN DIEGO EXPOSITION.

Roger Jannus, of Jannus Brothers, Baltimore, arrived in San Diego December 13th. Knox Martin left for tbe same destination December 15th. The two flying boats belonging to these gentlemen left by freight December 15th, and are due in San Diego the 28th inst., and should be flying on the opening day of the Panama-California Exposition.

Tbe construction of the Jannus Brothers' new "Exposition Model" four-passenger flying hoats continues briskly, and one should be ready for a test by January 5th. Tony Jannus leaves for Detroit Tuesday, December 15th, to purchase Maximotors for the season's output. Incident to this trip will be several prospects who have expressed their desire of going to San Diego on the co-operative taxi plane proposition. It is expected by those who are posted on the matter that the height of the season at San Diego will be in February and again in October. The Jannus Brothers will supply flying boats for the passenger carrying trade at this Exposition.

Curtiss Model N

JANNUS BUILDING NEW FLYING BOAT.

After six weeks in Baltimore the J annus Brothers have now three more pilots in their camp, and two flying boats in excellent condition. The most active of the pilots has been Roger Jannus, well-known for iiis good work in Florida, Duluth and the Mississippi Valley. In the last few days the aviator, Knox Martin, who formerly spent a year doing exhibition work in South America with aeroplanes, is now a confirmed flying boat pilot, having joined the Jannus Brothers and bought Tony Jannus' St. Petersburg-Tampa flying boat. The students, J. D. Smith and Fritz Eric-son, are both flying alone, and are practically ready for pilot's license test after 12 lessons apiece. These men both learned under the new system of one-half hour lessons at $20.00 apiece. Alfred \V. Harris, of Peoria, is taking a few lessons in anticipation of the completion of a new machine t which is being huilt to h.is order in St. Louis. Mr. Harris has flown with Tony Jannus on numerous occasions in Peoria and Cedar Point, and is a warm personal friend of De Lloyd Thompson.

The Knox Martin machine is an extra good job, looking better than ever before, having been re-designed

and re-built from stem to stern. This machine carries three people easily, and is a good rough water tighter. Roger Jannus and Knox Martin will open their winter season at San Diego, January 1st, carrying passengers. The factory is working on a new Exposition Model, a three-passenger flying boat, and this machine is expected to be a winner. There is also in work a new monoplane designed for a 6-cyUnder radial motor.

The new Jannus Brothers* factory in Baltimore has been a source of local interest, and it is an astonishingly complete place considering the length of time given to this end of the business. In the course of the next six weeks a complete outfit for machine work should perfect the equipment.

Clarke Thomson, pilot and sportsman, indulged in two hours and seven minutes flying recently with Tony Jannus. They nosed in and out of every cove and river between Baltimore and Havre He Grace. "Millions" of tlucks were encountered in the famous Susquehanna flats. The trip was made purely one of observation and no guns were carried. Mr. Thomson is a sportsman who has frequently patronized aviation, having received his pilot certificate under George Beatty. M r. Thomson has flown in other machines, hut "his last and

longest trip with Tony Jannus was the most delightful and thoroughly satisfying of any; although a strong wind prevailed the entire day." Mrs. Gwendolyn Whistler 1 laugh-ton, wife of Percy D. Haughton, the famous Harvard football coach, was Mr. Thomson's guest. All of the guests at the Grace's Point Ducking Club were very enthusiastic, and expect to fly with the Jannus Brothers later in the season at San Diego and San Francisco.

The Jannus Brothers find their methods of extracting coin very effective. One machine has just been sold and they have taken in $2,000 in passenger money since we have been here. Considering the season and the fact that only one machine has been working, one would not call this poor.

The specifications of the new Jannus hoat are as follows: Total area, 4S0 so., ft.: spread. 45 ft. 10 ins.-, chord. 5 ft. 6 ins.; hull, length over all, 25 ft.; hull. beam. 3 ft. 10 ins.; Paragon propeller, 9 ft. 6 ins.; geared, 3-4; motor, now a Roberts, but a Maximotor is now being nought, of 75 h.p.; carrying capacity, 3; speed range, 30-65 m.p.h. is claimed.

KILLED IN THE LOOP.

\'enice, Cal., Dec. 3.—Thomas J. Hill, an aviator, was killed here today attempting to loop the loop over this city. It is reported a guy wire supporting one wing collapsed. Glenn Martin has stated that the guy wires were standard and that the monoplane Hill used had not been especially strengthened for this feat.

TERRELL DIES TO SAVE CROWD.

Chesterfield, S. C, Nov. 13.— Frank P. Terrell was killed in landing when he swerved his machine to avoid the crowd which had surged on the track after he had ascended. It is claimed his engine stopped and he was endeavoring to land and in had to choose between hitting the $ crowd or endangering his own life in making a landing in a spot safe 5 for the crowd. He paid for his heroic act with his life.

DEFINES "AERONAUTICAL."

The Chairman of the Congressional Committee, before which Captain Mark L. Bristol has recently appeared._ has settled the status of "aeronautical."

"For instance, we have the aeroplane, and we have also the hydroaeroplane, and that connects it with the water. We have in the word 'aeronautical'—'aero,* which relates to the air. and 'nautical,' which relates to the sea, have we not?"

UNCLE SAM USES JEFFERY'S.

Teffery's Waterproof Liquid Glue. C Quality, has been adopted by the United States Aeronautic Stations and the United States Navy Department.

I can hardly wait from one issue till another to get AERONAUTICS, I like it so well.—N. L., Ohio.

Pa?c 106

AERONAUTICS. October IS, 1914.

THOMAS MILITARY, TWO-PLACE, TRACTOR BIPLANE

This new machine has been designed to supply the demand for a well built, speedy, and safe two-passenger machine, having a large speed range, and capable of flying with ample reserve when carrying two people, gasoline, oil, etc., for a flight of from four to six hours.

Over-all dimensions: Length overall, 26 ft.; span. 36 ft.; chord, 5 ft.; gap, 5 ft.

The wings are built up in five sections. The four large sections comprise practically the entire lifting surface of the machine. The small section fits over the fuselage. The wing curve is designed from data obtained from M. Eiffel's experiments in his Paris laboratory, and is especially selected so as to have not only an extremely low lift to drift ratio, but is also especially adapted to fast climbing with load, and also being capable of sustaining the machine in flight, fully loaded, at a comparatively low speed. Most of the wood used in the wing construction is clear, silver spruce, and all the beams, ribs, etc., are of the lightest sections possible consistent \\ith the strength required in each member. All ribs are built up in such a way as to assure their perfect alignment, and are proof against warping, and also weakening, due to exposure and weather conditions.

The fuselage is made up largely of white ash. All longitudinal members are channeled out and tapered for lightness. All clips are of steel, and are so designed that they do not pierce the longitudinal members.

Running gear is of the two skid, two-wheel type, having two 26-in. by 4-in. wheels and specially made <Iood\ear tires, mounted on a transverse axle, which axle is in turn carried uii the skids through the medium of rubber shock absorbers. All running gear members are of streamline section; also the axle is streamlined by a channeled member joining the skids.

The power plant is completely enclosed, and is mounted in the front of the fuselage, having the radiator immediately in front of the engine, and a light weight, aluminum, folding hood effectively shielding the former and preserving the streamline form of the fuselage. A service gasoline tank is mounted in front of the passenger's seat, and a storage tank, holding twenty gal-luiis, is fitted under the pilot's seat, and, through a pressure pump, supplies the storage tank.

Elevator operated by pull and push on steering wheel, which is mounted on a substantial, pivoted post. The movement is conveyed to two sturdy, all steel, flaps, hinged to the stabilizer.

Kudder is operated by a rotation of the wheel, the rudder itself being of all steel construction.

Ailerons are four in number and are hinged to the outer extremities of the rear wing t>pars. They are operated by a leaning shoulder bow, or, as an alternative, by foot pedals, mounted in the front of the pilot's compartment. All the controls are very strongly constructed, and are made largely of steel tubing, with all joints wrapped and brazed; they .in- of ample si7e to take care of their requirements.

All fittings are made specially for their places, and such articles as turnbuckles, eycholts. etc., are of the latest and most accepted design

and quality. All bolts, clips, etc., are made of steels having a high tensile strength.

The fabric used is a high grade, imported. 1 rish linen, sewn on to the machine, and the n treated with from five to nine coats of a special "dope" solution.

The factor of safety on this machine is "seven." Wires are of ample strength and are of Koehling

lution counter. showing engine speed (Tel. Manufacture); inclinometer, showing angle of flight; clock, barograph, showing height; Pitot tube, giving air speed; switch, gasoline shut-off, magneto advance. The seats are of the aluminum bucket type, and are fitted with a 3-in. curled hair cushion, upholstered in a serviceable gray cordu-

manufacture, and doubled for safety. Each part is easily accessible, and such parts as strut connections anil wing fastenings can be very quickly assembled or taken down.

I n front of the pilot's seat is fitted a substantial mahogany dashboard, having the following standard equipment: instruments let in flush, gasoline preserve gauge, revn-

Thomas Military Tractor,

A Thomas propeller is used in conjunction with tin.* '.'0-|>.p. Anstro-I laimler motor.

The gasoline consumption is approximately nine gallons per hour, under full load, ami the oil consumption is less than one-half gallon per hour.

Weight of machine, empty, 1,075 lbs., approximately*.

WARRING COUNTRIES HAVE 6,000 PLANES.

A table has been made up by Captain Mark 1-. Bristol. Director of Aeronautics in the Navy, showing the estimated machines on hand on December I, 1914, among the foreign powers, as follows:

Austria-Hungary ....... 600

Belgium ............... 60

Great Britain .......... 900

France ................ 1.400

Germany ............... 1.400

Italy .'................. 300

Ta^an .................. 20

Russia ................. 1.000

5,6S0

Dirigibles are figured as follows:

Austria-Hungary ........ S

Belgium................

Great Britain .......... 12

France ................. 30

German v ............... 60

Italy .'................. 4

Japan ................. 2

Russia ................. 20

136

At the beginning of the war the United States had 23 aeroplanes in both Army and Navy. A recent despatch says Italy has 10 dirigibles and 11 6 aeroplanes.

the Signl Corps. lie has been for eight months at the flying school at San Diego and has become skilled in the management of aeroplanes.

The new course at Tech, which has been open only this term, is beginning auspiciously, according to Lieutenant 1 lunsaker, who has charge of the instruction. Besides Captain Clark. M. S. Chow, one of the M. 1. T. graduates in naval architecture, is making the study of the subject leading to the degree Master of Science; three other Chinese are taking the work in their regular institute courses and one senior in mechanical engineering is specializing in aerodynamics.

M. I. T. COURSE OPENS.

One of the students recently registered at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is Captain V. E. Clark, of Uniontown. Pa., who has joined the institute for the benefit of the special post-graduate work on aerodynamics. Captain Clark is a graduate of Annapolis who has been transfered to the army and is attached to the Aviation Section of

TEN MONTHS' EXPORTS, $214,057.

IMPORTS.

For October .............. None

For 10 months ending October. 1 aeroplane......... $1,856

For ¡0 months ending, October, parts ............... 12,054

EXPORTS OF DOMESTIC. For October, 3 aeroplanes.. $1 7,000

For October, parts......... l.n6S

For 10 months ending October, 33 aeroplanes .......180.W

F.ir 10 months ending October, parts ............... 27.058

EXPORTS OF FOREIGN.

For October .............. None

For 10 months ending October, parts .............. $207

IX WAREHOUSE.

On < >ct. 31. 1 aeroplane and

parts ................... $1,856

IF1

Combined with "FLY"

Published semi-monthly in the best interests of Aeronautics

■ Y

AERONAUTICS PRESS INC. 250 West 54th Street New York Telephone, Columbus 8721 Cable, Aeronautics, New York

ERNEST L. M. B. SELLERS, HARRY SCHULTZ, C. A. BE1ER,

JONES

Editor Technical Editor Model Editor Advertising

Entered as Second Class Mail Matter, September 22, 1908, under the Act of March 3, 1879. $3.00 a year, 15 cents a Copy.

Postage free in the United States, Hawaii, the Philippines and Porto Rico. 25 Cents extra for Canada and Mexico. 50 Cents extra for all other countries.

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Make all checks and money orders free of exchange and payable to AERONAUTICS PRESS.

Subscribers will kindly notify this office if discontinuance is desired at the end of their subscription period, otherwise it will be assumed that their subscription is to be continued.

The

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THE NEW WRIGHT AEROPLANES

For sport, exhibition or military use, over land or water now embody the improvements that have been suggested by the experiments quietly conducted during the past ten years.

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AVIATORS, NEAR AVIATORS AND STUDENTS SHOULD INVESTIGATE OUR PROPOSITION FOR PARTIALLY FINANCING AND MANAGING AT FRISCO FOR 10 MONTHS. $3.500 REQUIRED. $20 PER LESSi IN UNTIL SUCCESS IS ASSURED. ADDRESS lANNl'S P.ROTHERS. RATTICRY AVENUE AND IIAM-11URG STREETS, BALTIMORE, MD.

WILL RENT my double covered 26 ft. x 6 ft. monoplane to a reliable party. Address E. M., 1522 Norwood Ave., Toledo, Ohio.

rjlERO MART

BARGAIN IN BOOKS—Will sell following hooks: Aerial Navigation (Salverda) $1.50; Navigating the Air (Aero Club of America) $.50; Aeronautical Annual. 1895-6-7 (James Means) $5; Travels in Space (Valentine & Thompson) $.50: Art of Aviation (Brewer) $1.50; Airships Tast and Present I llildcbrand) $3; Proceedings Int. Congress Aerial Navigation, Chicago, 1S93, $5; various other books thrown in to purchaser of the lot. L. E. Dare, 216 West 104th st., New York.

WRIGHT Model B for sale as it stands; $50 will put it in perfect condition; engine in first-class shape. Met with slight accident in landing. Price $1.000 cash. Address S., care AERONAUTICS.

WANTED--Party with $2.500 to take half interest in Airbirde Exhibition Co.: can book machine solid season 1915: will give same interest tu flyer having SO-h.p. Gyro motor, or to manufacturer of financial responsibility who can assume the manufacturing license ; will furnish the machine for affirmative tests. Robert D. Bruce, 33S Hastings St., Pittsburgh, Pa.

ADVERTISEMENTS IN AERONAUTICS

Once and for all time let us announce that we do not publish advertisements free, nor do we print any advertisements on a basis of replies leceived from the same. Our representatives in soliciting for AERONAUTICS have been approached with such propositions, the inference being that aeronautical publications are doing this. Let us say that we value too highly the patronage of those firms and individuals who have persistently used our columns and paid therefor, to entertain any such proposition.

ADVERTISERS IN A E R O-NAUTICS ARE PAYING FOR THEIR SPACE. When we say that AERONAUTICS reaches the heads of the influential governments of the world we are making a statement that is hacked up by the subscription

list and bv the results obtained. Advertising in AERONAUTICS makes an appeal to a larger buying power per paid subscription than that of all other aeronautical journals in the United States combined.

Established in 190", AERO-NA L'TICS has gained and maintained the confidence of all its subscribers and today its results gained for advertisers is testified to bv the amount of PAID advertising that the magazine carries.

It is unfair to accept the advertisement of a big firm FREE for the sake of inducing smaller firms to sign enntracts under the impression that the big firm is paying for its space,

ft is unfair to the subscribers to make them helieve that AERO-

NAUTICS supports a vast and varied number of industries.

A certain number of reliable firms have found it to their advantage to use the advertising columns of AERONAUTICS. Our subscribers have long since found that such advertisers as use AERONAUTICS are reliable. FOR THIS REASON WE DO NOT NEED TO P R I N T ADVERTISEMENTS FREE. AERONAUTICS STANDS ON ITS MERITS. WE CAN CARRY AN ADVERTISER'S MESSAGE TO THE MOST IMPORTANT MEN INTERESTED IN AERONAUTICS THROUGHOUT THE WORLD.

Results prove this.

29 West 39th Street. New York *

THE AERONAUTICAL SOCIETY BULLETIN.

The first three Round Table Talks were held on Nov. 19th, Dec. 3rd and Dec. 10th and proved to be a success, both as to the number of members present and to the interest displayed in the subjects discussed ami there is no douht but that these Talks will be become a permanent and important feature in the Society's work.

The informal manner in which these meetings were conducted brought out a diversity of subjects and spirited debate which furnished intellectual enjoyment perhaps unattainable in a formal public meeting.

Among the subjects discussed were: the Stagel Semi-Kigid Dirigible; a Process of Purifying Hydrogen Gas by Electrified Iodine; the Con ill Rotating Cylinder and Crank Shaft Motor; the Sherwood X on* war ping Biplane; a System of Sky Rockets for Aerial Defense; the Mezzatesta Float less Type of Carburetor; the Pollizzi Tandem Surface Monoplane with Dual Motors; the Demand for a Small Type of Aeroplane Capable of Starting from a Country Road; Friction Losses in Universal Joints; the Proposed Xilson Type of High Powered Gasolene Motor; the Most Useful Power Range for Future Progress in Aeroplane Development; a Process for Building up Cylinders for Aeroplane Motors by Oxy-acetylenc Welding; Prof. Michel son's Work in Producing Exceedingly Tough Steel, and the Ionic Theory of Matter

The subject of Aerial Defense was debated with the result that it was deemed the duty of the Society to offer its services to responsible defense societies and leagues and to assist thin in the preparation of plans involving the use of aircraft.

SPECIAL NOTICE.

The Round Table Talks will be continued on Thursday evenings except those falline on Christmas Eve and New Year's Eve when the meetings will be held on Wednesday evenings. Dec. 23rd and 30th respectively. Members will please take notice of these two special dates. The regular Thursday evening meetings will be resumed in January.

A well-known aviator was not feeling verv well, so he thought he would consult a physician, to whom he was a stranger. He told the doctor his symptoms. The doctor examined him carefully and said:

"My dear sir. von are all right. What vnu want is plenty of fresh air."—Globe.

BULLETIN.

This organization desires to thank the Society of Municipal Engineers of New York City for their hospitality and the courtesies extended to this cluh at the recent visit to Mineóla on Saturday, November 7th, 1914.

The Milwaukee Model Aero Club has hecume affiliated with it, forming the Milwaukee branch ot The Aero Science Club. The officers of this branch are as follows: Lynn

E. Davis, president; Raymond Maas, vice-president; Gilbert Counsel!, secretary and treasurer; Walter Lolin-dorf, director of contests.

George F. McLaughlin has been appointed recording secretary of Tbe Aero Science Club.

The club desires to extend a vote of thanks for the very excellent trophy offered by Mr. Henry S. Willard for open competition. Rules regarding the contests to be held for this trophy will be turnished on application.

Tbe club also extends thanks to the Aero Cluh of America for the kindness accorded to its members on their visit to the Aero Club on November 21st.

At a supplemental gliding contest, in preparation for t he contests as arranged for by M r. Hart of the Aeronautical Society. Mr,

F. M. Bronmlield was a winner, having a percentage of 61. The content was for stability.

Chili pins of sterling silver have been obtained ami all members desiring same will please remit to the secretary.

At Van Cortlandt Park on Saturday. November 21st, the world's record fur R. O. G. models for distance in competition for the Herres-hoff cup, was broken by Fred Wat-kins, with a flight of 1,761 ft.

After January 1st, 1915, the Long Island Model Aero Club will become a section of this organization.

The following are the results ot the contest held for the prizes kindly offered by Mr. Charles 11. lleitman:

R. Funk and A. Barker, 73 */2 seconds; W. Bamberger, 62 seconds; C. Freelan, 49 seconds. This contest was held on the afternoon of October 11th, at Liberty Heights, and was the largest contest of its kind held in some time. Fourteen of America's best model flyers competed for the prizes and a considerable number of flights were made by the many model enthusiasts not entered in the contest. The number of official flights made has been estimated to be over two hundred. With the ideal weather conditions prevailing, excellent flights were made by every model flyer and many times three or more machines were in flight at once.

Promptly at 2 p. m. the contest was opened, and continued until 5 p. m.. being judged by Mr. Edward Durant, director, and M r. C. V. Obst, president of the Aero Science Club. A very large number of

model flyers were on hand to witness the flying. Among the spectators was Archibald Hart, a Director of The Aeronautical Society of America, whose interest and support arc highly appreciated by all the members of this club. The start was made from the L. I. M. A. C. launching platform which was very kinaly offered for this special event. For the first time in any event two flyers won, both R. Funk and A. Barker, making the same duration of 73>2 seconds in their last flights. Directly after the meet closed a flight of 78 seconds was made by Barker, this being but 3 seconds below the American record.

It is interesting to note that this contestant's machine was smashed four times in succession during the competition, and he was handicapped hy a broken finger, which was in splints and greatly interfered with hi in repairing his models.

Attention is called to the gliding contests to be held at Highland Park, Brooklyn, N. Y., as follows: December 6th, Duration; December 13th, Stability, and December 20th, Weight-carrying. All gliders must be thirty inches in span. No entry fee. The prizes for these contests are kindly offered by Mr. A. 11 art of The Aeronautical Society.

Attention is called to the contests for tbe Herreshoff year trophy competed for every Saturday afternoon at Van Cortlandt Park. No entry fees charged.

Each of the Directors of Tbe Aeronautical Society of America paid respectively Ten Dollars into the Treasury of The Aeronautical Society of America, making a total of Thirty Dollars, to be competed for in model contests to be conducted under the auspices of the Aero Science Club of America. Each of the three respective winners ill be entitled to all privileges of The Aeronautical Society for one year.

For further particulars address the Secretary, 1 Iarry Schultz, at the rooms of The Aeronautical Society, 29 West 39th Street, New York City.

AERO CLUB OF PENNSYLVANIA.

Philadelphia, Pa., Dec. 1, 1914.

A stated meeting of the Aero Club of Pennsylvania was held at the Bellevue-Stratford. Friday evening, December 4th, 1914, at 8.30 p. m. Meeting of the Board of Directors at 7.30 p. ni.

Mr. E. C. Malick, a former member of the club, who has been flying in the West during the past summer, gave an informal talk on bis experience.

Clarence P. Wynne,

President.

George S. Gassner,

Secretary.

NEW BOOKS.

GAS. GASOLINE AND OIL ENGINES, by Gardner D. Hiscox, 1915 edition, revised and enlarged by Victor W. Page; 8vo, cloth, 640 pp. 435 ills., published by Norman W. Henlev Publishing Co.. 132 Nassau St.. New York, at $2.50, Copies inav be had through AERONAUTICS.

B A J. I. OO IN S DIRIGIBLES

Records prove we lmild the best Balloons in America. Nine 1st prizes. Three 2nd, and Two 3rd prizes out of fourteen World-wide Contests.

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WHEN in California look for Jannus Brothers' EXPOSITION MODEL, passenger carrying "taxiplane." Two men now ready to go to San Diego for the opening and more training. Special proposition offered to sportsmen or professionals. Ask for booklet.

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AERONAUTICS

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THE BEATING WING MACHINE.

Evety once in a while someone announces the discovery of a wing movement that rivals the bird's in results. We have heard lately from Edison, in the public press, about the speed of the bumble bee's wings.

According to Spencer Heath, there is nothing in it. "The bee's wing seems to move with incredible swiftness because we consider only the number of pulsations per minute, or per second, and wholly forget the fact that the length of movement of the wing tip in each pulsation is only the fraction of an inch. The eye cannot follow tbe blades of an insect's wing hut I think it has still less chance to follow the blades of an aeroplane propeller. I haven't the data at hand to figure it out but f think if we multiply the vibrations of the bee's wings by tiie sweep of its tip in one vibration, we will get prohably a less tip velocity than we have in some aeroplane propellers. If an aeroplane propeller could be as large relatively to the size of die machine as an insect's wings are to its body, there would be no need of any planes. Prof. Petti-grew proved (and he was afterwards corroborated by Prof. Marey) that the action of a wing, whether of bird or insect, is identical with the action of a screw. The wing of a bird does not in any respect resemhle, in its operation, the wing of an aeroplane. It is only the gliding animals' like flying squirrels, lemurs and flying fish, that have any organ resembling the wing of an aeroplane, hut, of course, the soaring birds use their wings in this way part of the time."

DEPOSITION OF

METAL UPON WOOD

ft is now generally acknowledged - and the decision made has been the result of disastrous ex per i-tnces that it is absolutely essential that the tips of propellers on hydroaeroplanes in any hut the smoothest water should in some way be protected by a sheet-metal covering, says B'itisli Aeronautics. Let us examine the only methods by which this lias hitherto been accomplished.

A Mr. P-arber. we understand, was the first to use a metal-sheathed propeller, the covering being ob-ta;ned merely by depositing copper in a bath on a wooden propeller, which had been prepared for this by means of the application of finely powdered plumbago, which converted the wooden surface into the conducting medium necessary. The Chauviere Co. then introduced propellers of which the tips were covered with sheet-copper, this being attached by means of multitudinous rivets. This is the seaplane propeller most largely in use at the present time, but would seem to suffer from (he disadvantages that, in the first place, it is considerably heavier owing to the presence of so many rivets than would be one covered only with the sheeting; secondly, the rivets are liable to increase the size of the boles drilled in the wood through which they pas-*, and thus to wcakeii the blade by the shocks which w uuld be occasioned by occasional on it net with spray or crests

of waves; and thirdly, perfect evenness uf surface after lengthy use is difficult to retain.

An excellent solution to the difficulty was finally arrived at hy M. Lany, who was aware of the tendency of a sheathing hy Mr. Barber's process to fly off through centrifugal force at the slightest opportunity. By his process a thin strip of copper is firmly embedded m the blade at the required distance from the tip, and the wood between these two is prepared in order that copper may he deposited upon it. *1 bis certainly seems In be the most satisfactory method of surmounting the difficulty, inr the "anchoring strip" and sheathing become one and tin* same thing, disintegration being highly improbable.

Another method by which the attachment could he effected has lately come to our notice, and may here be briefly described. A paper was recently read by Dr. Each on the subject of the pulverization and spraying of metals, a process which would seem to be singularly suitable for attaining the end in question. The apparatus, evolved hy Scboop. is so designed that jet-, id oxygen and hydrogen stream out at a high speed and are ignited on emergence, tlitis constituting the ordinary oxy-hydrogen blow pipe The intense rl'ine resulting melts a projecting piece of metal, pulverizes it, and ihrows the pai deles f rward under pressure. The deposition of this onto anyth ng suitably placed will then result, and the thickness of the coating may vary between a few thousandths of an inch Lip lo more than half an inch.

This process, need'ess to say, finds many applications other than that suggested fur propeller blades. Aluminium, tbe one metal that up to the present has not been available for treatment hy the electro-deposition, can he utilized by the spraying process. Its use ha sbecn suggested as a means for rendering dirigible and balloon fabrics more impermeable to gas. and the possibility of protecting all wooden portions and the fabric of aeroplanes against the weather would seem perfectly reasonable.

An American inventor, A. G. Wat kins, of Philadelphia, has patented a system for the deposition of copper upon wood and other materials to any thickness desired, and samples of this work have been shown in the office of AEROXALT-TlCS. A note on this suhject has previously appeared in AERONAUTICS, and it is interesting to note that some definite use has been made of copper-deposited propellers.

PENDULUM STABILIZERS.

To the Editor:—■

Noting in your March 31st issue an article on "The Fallacv of Pendulum Stabilizers." in which quotations are made from a lecture by II. U. A. Mallock. F. R. S.. to the effect that "It is essential to the success of any automatic control that the forces called into play to make the correction of trim should not react on the director of those forces, whether this is a pendulum nr gyroscope or any other equivalent device." and that "any device in which the correcting force tends to niter the position of

tbe corrector is more likely to do harm than good." thewriter ventures the opinion that although the above expressions may put it a little too strongly, there is nevertheless much truth in the lecturer's contention, and several years ago—on May 5th. 1910. to be exact, before cav-eating was abolished—I filed a cay-eat on a device to overcome this reaction of the balancing devices on the pendulum or gyroscope or combination of the two. It is evidently essential for the purpose to avoid all frictional contact—even that necessary for making electrical connections—between the balancer and the corrector, and this I proposed to accomplish hy means of a selenium cell in connection with an electrically controlled balancer, the preferred form being a pendulum steadied by gyroscopes in balanced relation, an arc or semi-circle on the pendulum opaque at the center and gradually shaded to transparency at each end, and a fixed, steady light shining through this translucent arc to the selenium cell. Then, as the pendulum changes its position relative to that of the fixed light and selenium cell, the amount of light shining through this shaded arc varies, and this varying light wave falling 011 the selenium ell varies accordingly the latter's electrical conductivity and hence the strength of the electrical current passing through it to operate the controls. Separate devices would of course be used for lateral and longitudinal balancing. The pendulum might be arranged to sw ing outw ardly by centrifugal force in order to balance while turning, only the variations from normal banking ihen affecting the selenium cell's electrical conductivity and hence the balancing devices. Also, instead of selenium, natural or absolutely pure antimony sulphide (also known as antimonite, stibnite and gray antimony) could be used, as according to a scien tific journal of March 2d, 1912, this substance "has been found to possess a photo-electric sensitiveness similar to that of selenium but for there being no troublesome inertia," both of these minerals possessing the remarkable power of heing very good electrical conductors while in the light and very poor ones in the dark.

The writer has not patented these ideas, and anyone is privileged to make use of them.

ELMER G. STILL.

Livermore, Cal., May 31, 1914.

P. S.—tn my next communication I will reveal my ideas on how vertical, hovering and slow flight may be accomplished, demonstrating the method by means of aerodynamic experiments already made, w hose full significance has evident I v been overlooked, and also showing the several principles that render bird flight so efficient.

To the Editor:—•

There is one thing which you left out in the Tnlv 31 st issue of AERONAUTICS. ' Under the heading, page 25, "What American Aviation Needs." von forgot one most important thing. 1 will acknowledge that American Aviation needs what yon have suggested, but in addition it needs that that pioneer among aviation journals. Afronautks. soon comes into its own! I sincerely hope that day is not far distant.

—Earle L. Ovingtox.

PATENTS

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PATENTS

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For use io combination with calico or canvas betweeo veDeer in diagonal piaokmg, aDd for waterproofiogmuslin for wiDg surfaces. Send for samples, circulars, dii-ections for use, etc.

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GYRO HOLDS

Altitude Record!

WESTERN UNION DAY LETTER

Kansas City, Mo., August 6th, 1914.

Gyro Motor Co., Washington, D.C.

Broke altitude record this afternoon, approximately forty-seven hundred meters. Kansas City Aero Club observed flight authorized by Aero Club of America. Record should be official. Motor worked fine, only carried five gallons of gas, made altitude in forty minutes used old spray nozzle. Will write full particulars later.

DE LLOYD THOMPSON.

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VOL. XV. N >. 8

OCTOBER 30, 1914

Issued February 11. 1915

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ERONffüTICS

     

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Hold the Principal American Records as Follows:

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In answering advertisements please mention this magazine.

Published semi-monthly in the best interests of Aeronautics by AERONAUTICS PRESS INC. 250 West 54th St.. New Ynrk

Telephone. Circle 22S** Cable. Aeronautics. New York

ERNEST L. JONES Editor

M. B. SELLERS Technical Editor

ILARRY SCHULTZ Modul Editor

FRANK CASH Ass't Editor

Entered as Second Class Mail Matter. September 22. IVOS, under the Act of March 3. 187'». $3.00 a year. 15 cents a copy.

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Subscribers will kindly notify this office if discontinuance is desired at the end of their subscription period, otherwise it will be assumed that their subscription is to be continued.

CARBURETORS FROM THE FUNCTIONAL STANDPOINT

The "Perfect Carburetor" is brought out so often, and in so many different forms, that the average person is absolutely at loss as to what to believe, and how to judge what he sees.

There are two ways to approach the carburetor question : first, the functional, and second, the structural. The logical method is to first consider the functions to be performed, and next, having these functions in mind, to consider the mechanism, and see whether all the functions are properly carried out. And this analysis is equallv beneficial to the inventor of a carburetor and to the prospective purchaser.

The function of the carburetor is to deliver to the engine a dry mixture of air and fuel, in "best mixture" proportions. Let us analyze this statement carefully.

(a) A "dry" mixture, because the completeness of combustion is only realized when the liquid fuel is wholly gasified, and not in drops, which give imperfect contact with the air. Also a wet mixture will be sure to condense out in part, in the transmission line, so that even if we start with the proper air-fuel ratio, we would not have it when it reached the cylinder. This especially true in the complicated forked and bent passages used on many of the multi-cylinder engines.

(b) A mixture, meaning an intimate contact, as near a molecular contact of air and fuel as possible, in order that when the time for combustion comes, each particle may have its air to combine with. This alone will give complete and rapid combustion.

(c) Best mixture proportions. For every fuel there is a definite amount of air necessary for complete combustion of any given quantity of fuel, and this ratio is a constant. For gasoline it is, by volume, 52.74 cubic feet of air per cubic foot of gasoline vapor at the same temperature, and by weight, 15.24 pounds of air per pound of gasoline. If more than this amount of gasoline is used, it cannot burn in the cylinder, and simply goes out in the exhaust, where it may burn at the outlet of the exhaust pipe. Here there is plenty of air. But corn-

By Ralph S. Barnaby

bustion here does no good, and the fuel is wasted. If too little gasoline is used, the cylinder charge will be mostly air, and the power will fall off, or the charge may refuse to ignite at all.

This fact cannot be too strongly impressed, as it is not generally practised. If any have tried this constant best mixture plan and failed, the fault is not here but in some other part of the system. I shall speak of this point again later.

The first method of carburetion was to pass air over a pool or reservoir of gasoline, and allow it to pick up the fuel by evaporation, or, by brushes or mixers, to be saturated with it. This plan failed, as it permitted fractional, or selective distillation, i. e., the air picked up the lighter constituents of the fuel and left the heavier. Changes of temperature would cause different amounts to be picked up, and the whole system was without regulation. This brings us to the first requirement.

1. There must be a method of measuring out the proper amount of fuel and air for complete combustion, and then, having the proper amount of each, provide a means of mixing them thoroughly, and a means of gasifying the liquid fuel. It makes no difference in what order these last two operations are done, but the metering must be done first.

Tn order to insure complete gasification of the fuel, the temperature must be high enough to vaporize the heaviest constituent of the fuel, and this temperature depends on the pressure and on how closely the air and liquid are mixed. If there is no mixture of the two, the temperature required is the boiling point of the liquid, at atmospheric pressure. If the liquid exists as spray or small particles having a large surface exposed to the air, or if the pressure is reduced by a Yenturi entrance or a similar device, the tempeature may be much lower. For gasoline, the average air temperature is sufficient, if thorough mixing is given at a slightly reduced pressure.

Kerosene, which will not all vaporize at 000 degrees F., will yield a dry mixture at under 300 degrees, if properly mixed.

Thus our functions to be fulfilled in the carburetor are:

1. Metering of air and fuel in constant proportion.

2. Preventing vaporization until the metering is completed.

3. Making maximum contact at a suitable pressure to produce complete vaporization.

The temperature consideration is a most important one. Xot only in the carburetor itself, but also in the passages connecting it to the cylinder. If there is only one cylinder and the carburetor is closely connected to it, the mixture leaving the carburetor need not be perfectly dry, as the inlet valve itself is a good heater and will dry it readily. If, however, the passage is forked and bent, or made in the various ways necessary to the multi-cylinder engines, a mixture, wet, and full of suspended particles of fuel, will not divide evenly at the forks, will deposit drops of condensate along the pipe, some cylinders will get more fuel than others and an unequal distribution of work will result. Any one who does not believe this, need only try running his engine on one cylinder at a time, or in combinations of pairs by disconnecting the spark-plugs of the other cylinders, and see if they all give the same horsepower on a brake. Of course, valve and spark timing must be the same on all cylinders in these tests or the power will vary regardless of a constant mixture.

Many readers will object to the definite air-fuel ratio which has been mentioned all. if you will notice on the side that more gasoline is needed. In the paragraph before we have one answer for them. They are probably not using all that they measure out. Even barrine the condensate issue, there is still another factor. This is air leakage. One of the greatest of these, or I may say the greatest of these is around the inlet-valve stem, amounting to a considerable percentage, as these stems are seldom, if ever, packed.

We are, therefore, making up in the carburetor for defects in the motor, at the cost of increased fuel consumption, and hence for the aeroplane, a decreased radius of action.

Burgess Latest War 'Plane Supplied U. S. Army

NEW DURATION RECORD.

San Diego, Cal.—Lieut. Byron G. Jones, army aviator, is to-day the holder of a new record for continuous flight. He remained in the air eight hours and fifty-three minutes on January 16.

The machine used was a Martin training tractor with Curtiss model "O" engine of 80 h. p. rating.

ARMY WANTS AN AIR ENGINEER.

The U. S. Civil Service Commission announces an open competitive examination for aeronautical mechanical engineer, i.e., a M.E. who has specialized on aeronautical motors. From the eligi-bles evolved by this exam, a vacancy at $2400 a year will be filled in the Signal Corps Aviation School at San Diego, and other vacancies as they occur in other branches of the service. For the present this man will take up the motor end of Colonel Reker's experimental plant, while G. C. Loening will handle the aero-dynamical part of it.

Technical education will count 30 weights: experience and fitness 70 weights.

Applicants must be graduates in mechanical engineering of some reputable school, familiar with the theory and practice of engineering as applied to internal combustion motors and have practical experience in the design and testing of such machinery. Additional credit given for experience in mechanical engineering as applied to aviation

motors and machinery. Other requirements are discreetness, moral fitness, et cetera.

Persons desiring to meet the requirements and desire this examination should at once apply for Form 1312, stating title of the examination for which the form is desired, to the U. S. Civil Service Commission, Washington, D. C. Application must be filed with the Commission at Washington prior to close of business February 10.

NEW FIRM TO BUILD WAR AERO MOTORS.

Dusenberg Brothers have opened a new motor building plant at 2654 University avenue, St. Paul, Minn. Machinery has been installed the past week and has been removed from Des Moines, Iowa: Jackson, Mich., and Dallas, 111.

"One of the first propositions to be taken up by the new St. Paul firm will be the building of 200 aeroplane motors for Russia and France. Both of these nations have made an urgent request on the Dusenberg Brothers for early shipments," according to the St. Paul Pioneer Press.

JANNUS' BUSINESS GROWING.

The Jannus Brothers factor}- is busy and they are anticipating the delivery of the new 8 cyl. Maximotor about Jan. 15. The new machine should carry five passengers and fuel for four hours. A

useful load of 1200 lbs., they figure, will make them a formidable contender for military business.

Roger Jannus and Knox Martin are doing well at San Diego and although not within the Exposition grounds, they have a central location that should enable them to do a capacity business.

NEW CORPORATIONS.

Polyplane Motor and Metal Mfg. Co., St. Louis, Mo. Capital $100,000. Incorporators : W. P. Morgan, Jesse M. Neff, Charles Klein, F. P. Smith. Gus Stalhopoulis and S. H. Reynolds.

The Laq Aeroplane Company. Gibson, City, 111., capital, $2,500; general aviation business; incorporators, Andrew Miller. C. C. Harry, G. H. Bloom.

Judgment has been rendered in the First District Court of the City of Newark. Xew Jersey, on the twenty-first day of November, 1914, against Charles B. Kirkham in favor of Aeronautics Press. Inc.. for $350.90, with costs amounting to $21.70 additional.

William B. Atwater. the aviator, was recently adjudged in contempt of court by Judge Hough in the United States District Court for refusing to obey a ruling by Referee Anthony at a hearing on a petition by Atwater to be adjudicated a bankrupt.

FRONT ELEVATION

ARMY'S FIRST WAR 'PLANE.

The Burgess-Dunne Xo. 3 was accepted by the Signal Corps Board after successful tests at San Diego, December 30, 1914. It is equipped with a 135 h.p., 9-cylinder Salmson motor. The machine developed a speed of 75 miles per hour with full load, consisting of two passengers, four hours of fuel. In this condition it climbed 350 feet a minute.

This machine was built as an experimental type subject to further development. The wings are of the same dimensions as the original Burgess-Dunne aeroplane. See p. 83, March 31, 1914, Aeronautics. "The machine is inherently stable in the broadest meaning of the term."

Scale Drawing of the Burgest-Dnnne, No. 2

During the tests Mr. Webster allowed the machine to fly by itself for long periods, and demonstrated that it could not be stalled even with the levers pulled back and the motor suddenly shut off. It was not expected that this aeroplane would develop anything like the speed or climbing power shown in the tests and its success demonstrates beytond doubt that high efficiency may also be obtained in the inherently stable type of aeroplane. The machine is shown

equipped with a Turner aviaphone and a Benet-Merciers rapid firing gun. Burgess supplied the Canadian contingent in the big war.

Burgess has so built this type that its upper and lower wings by means of hinged struts are capable of being folded one against the other. The flying wires remain at all times intact and the wing supporting wires alone need be cast off for disassembling. These features together with the entire absence of tail and tail surfaces make this aeroplane compact and easy to handle.

Wing spread, 45 ft.; length over all, 26 ft.; height, 10 ft. 11 ins.; weight, net, 1250 lbs.; fuel, oil and water for 300 miles, 420 lbs.; armor, 100 lbs.; useful load, 420 lbs.; total, 2140 lbs.

NAVY WILL SOON

In the statement of the Hon. Josephus Daniels, Secretary of the Navy, before the House Naval Committee, December 11, 1914, Mr. Buchanan introduced in the record a letter prepared by Captain Mark L. Bristol, Director of Aeronautics, reviewing progress made in naval aeronautics during the year. Plans are under way for a big Navy sea 'plane competition and bids on dirigibles are being received.

Secretary Daniels said that last year there were $1,000,000 which could have been spent for aeronautics but there were no suitable aircraft to buy and this money was turned hack into the Treasury. At the present time, if nothing is appropriated there would be but $200,000 or $300,000 available. (See Aeronautics, p. 9. July IS. 1914.)

This letter of Captain Bristol follows, practically in full :

The plans for development of aeronautics in the Navy are those that were recommended by the Board on Naval Aeronautics (see Aeronautics, p. 19. Jan. 31. 1914). modified as we proceed in accordance with the experience obtained in actual practice.

Thus far the recommendations of that board have been realized to a great extent. An officer of naval aeronautics, with a director of naval aeronautics, has been established in the Navy Department. Each bureau of the Navy Department concerned is giving special attention to aeronautical development. An aeronautic center has been established at Pensacola, and designated the United States Navy Aeronautic Station, where all kinds of experiments are being carried out and classes of officers and men are being trained for aeronautical service in a flying school under a comprehensive course of instruction. A wind tunnel has been constructed at the Washington Navy Yard to be used, together with the water model basin (see Aeronautics, p. 133, May IS, 1914) for experiments with all kinds of models for aeronautical development. An aeronautic ship has been detailed for experimental work and the training of officers and men in handling aircraft for the purposes of war. Designs for a dirigible shed have been prepared and construction will begin when the first dirigible is ordered. Every point covered by the above hoard has been given consideration.

The aeroplanes for the fleet for war purposes will be purchased or constructed as soon as a type suitable for the purpose is developed. Proposals for a number of aeroplanes will be submitted to the manufacturers in this country in the immediate future.

In an endeavor to obtain a proper type of sea^ aeroplane manufacturers have been given a trip at sea on the aeronautic ship and constantly given every information we have. It is to be regretted that only a few of the manufacturers of aeroplanes, aeroplane motors, and propellers have scientific engineers capable of evolving correct designs. Where the designs of aeroplanes have shown material merit orders have

BUY AEROPLANES

been given for machines, and under specifications prepared by the manufacturers themselves.

* * * The "flying boat" type * * * is not satisfactory for a sea aeroplane.

The Navy Department is now going to try to obtain a proper sea machine hy advertising for a comparatively large number. It is hoped we will obtain better results than the Army.

Orders were placed in Europe last June for two machines of the latest types developed there. The breaking out of the war prevented the delivery of these.

The manufacture of dirigibles in this country is in such an undeveloped state that proposals sent out October 2, 1914. have only been responded to by three different concerns, and one of these replies was only received two weeks ago. and one concern that has been very active in advocating Government encouragement is still asking for an extension of time. This proposition is for the simplest kind of a dirigible with only general characteristics. If this war had not occurred, an order for one or two dirigibles would have been placed abroad before this time.

The plans for a captive balloon are being prepared and estimates drawn up.

A list of volunteer aviators has been prepared and is kept in the department ready for use in time of emergency.

A circular letter has been prepared and will he issued to all Naval Militia organizations to organize an aeronautical service.

* * * The development of aeronautics has been impeded by the difficulties that beset the path of any new thing; by the breaking up of the work at Pensacola when the aeronautic ship Mississippi and "aeroplane sections" were sent to Vera Cruz (see Aeronautics, p. 101, Oct. IS, 1914) ; by the sale of the Mississippi, and by the urgent necessity of sending the new aeronautic ship North Carolina to Europe for the relief of American citizens in the warring countries. These difficulties have not, however, prevented satisfactory progress.

In the aeronautic service of the U. S. Navy at the present time there are IS officers and 77 men and 12 machines, covering: 6 hydro-aeroplanes. 5 boat aeroplanes and 1 boat and land aeroplane.

NAVY TO HAVE AEROPLANE COMPETITION.

American manufacturers of aeroplanes will shortly have another chance to spread themselves in a competition—this time under the wing of the Navy. Captain Mark L. Bristol, Director of Aeronautics, will soon announce the terms and conditions. It is to be hoped that this competition will develop more than did that of the Army, in which but one aeroplane was duly entered, although eight different companies signified their intention to enter in the first place.

More aeroplanes and less grape juice!

NAVY'S TEST HYDROPLANE.

Naval Constructor H. C. Richardson, U. S. N., has introduced the hydroplane glider as an apparatus for testing motors and propellers. A glider has been built for the purpose of determining experimentally whether or not it would be feasible to use such a glider for these tests. Preliminary experiments indicate that this can he done, but there are difficulties to overcome and results are being held secret for the time being, at least.

The dirigible specifications have not yet been issued.

Lieutenant Commander H. C. Mustin, Lieutenants P. N. L. Bellinger and R. C. Sanfley. and Ensign W. Capehart have returned from Europe; and Lieutenant Bellinger and Ensign Capehart have gone to Pensacola to the Naval Aeronautic Station. Lieutenant Commander Mustin is on temporary duty in tbe Department for a while before going to Pensacola to take charge of that station. Lieutenant Saufley is going to the works of the Sperry Gyroscope Company for temporary duty in connection with aeroplane stabilizers.

It is expected that a new Burgess-Dunne aeroplane will be delivered at Pensacola early next month. This machine has some improvements over the first one that was obtained.

EXPORTS AND IMPORTS.

IMPORTS.

November, 1914 ............... none

Same period, 1913 ............. none

11 mos. ending Nov.. 1914. 1 aeroplane ($1856) and parts ($12,054), total................... $13,910

Same period, 1913, 1 aeroplane ($900) and parts ($18,725),

total........................ 19,625

Same period, 1912, 16 aeroplanes ($61,100) and parts ($1776), total......................... 62,876

DOMESTIC ENPORTS. November, 1914. 1 aeroplane

($3000) ; parts ($28,935)...... 31,935

Same period, 1913, 2 aeroplanes

($6050) ; parts ($9,329), total. 15,379

11 mos.. ending Nov., 1914, 34 'planes ($189,999) ; parts $55,993), total ................... 245,992

Same period, 1913, 18 'planes ($54,950) ; parts ($24,604), total ........................ 79.554

Same period, 1912, 32 'planes (103.751); parts ($9,390), total ........................ 113,141

EXPORTS OF FOREIGN.

November, 1914 ............... none

11 mos., ending November, parts

only........................ 207

Same period, 1913, 2 'planes

($10,332) ; parts ($900), total. 11,232

IN WAREHOUSE NOVEMBER 30.

1914. 1 aeroplane .............. 1,856

1913. 3 aeroplanes ............. 7,623

DE VILLERS CONVICTED.

Yves de Yillers, who lias become quite notorious through his business relations in the aeronautical field, was convicted on January, 1915, of grand larceny and sentenced to a term of 2l/2 to 5 years, by Judge Swann, Court of General Sessions, New York. The case was prosecuted in behalf of the People by District Attorney Arthur C. Train.

The indictment on which he was convicted alleged that a contract was entered into in March, 1913. between de Yillers, representing the Aeroplanes Motors and Equipment Co., a company formed by de Yillers, subsequent to the dissolution of the Aeroplane Motors & Equipment Co., (with which J. A. D. McCurdy was connected a short while) and the Curtiss Aeroplane Co., by which de Yillers agreed to deliver to the latter company a 160 h. p. 14 cyl. Gnome motor to be used in a Curtiss tractor which the Signal Corps had ordered, the engine of which was to deliver 150 h. p. on test in the Bureau of Standards. The price was $7960 with propeller, and de Yillers undertook to guarantee 150 h. p. on test or refund the purchase price. Some $2672 was paid in advance, and the balance was also paid prior to deliver\- at Annapolis for test, as de Villers demanded full payment in order to release the motor from customs duty and charges said to he due on the motor which de Yillers claimed was imported on part payment by him. On the witness stand, Glenn H. Curtiss testified de Yillers gave him and his representative, H. C. Geming, to understand the motor was to come direct from the Gnome factory.

The motor delivered but 101 h. p. on test and a demand for the return of the money was made by the Curtiss Aeroplane Co. The money was not forthcoming. Shortly thereafter the motor was replevined by Norman Prince, of Boston, and it turned out that de Villers had attempted to palm the Prince engine off on the Curtiss company as the latest type motor and one direct from the factory. Testimony was offered to the effect that markings on the box "Burgess Co. S: Curtis. Marblehead,'' etc., were erased by de Yillers before delivery was made at Annapolis.

The order was placed by Curtiss with de Villers in March, 1913. and the motor which was delivered in May, was one made up of various misfit parts, which motor Norman Prince had imported under an exhibition bond in 1912 and which had been installed in the Burgess racing monoplane which was to have defended America in the Gordon-Bennett race at Chicago in that year, but which never was even flown through a disagreement in the matter of a pilot.

An arrangement appeared to have been made between de Yillers and Prince to sell the Prince motor and it appeared that Prince could not collect from de Yillers for the motor and so replevined it. The motor finally went back to France and Prince saved the payment of 45 per cent. duty. Curtiss, however, paid not only the before-mentioned sum,

which price included 45 per cent, duty and transportation, for the motor which failed to meet the requirements and lost the sale of a tractor to the Signal Corps, but lost the motor as well. Curtiss has neither the motor nor the money.

RECOGNITION FOR GARDNER.

Tony Jannus and Spencer Heath of the American Propeller Co., have inaugurated a movement in which manufacturers and all others interested in aeronautics are urged to write letters to their Senators and Representatives commenting on the alertness and capabilities of our army and navy officers with the appropriations that have been at command, and urging more liberal appropriations which will produce domestic machines entirely suitable to military needs.

These gentlemen also urge the commending of Representative A. P. Gardner for his active work in behalf of aeronautical preparedness.

The watchword is: More Aeroplanes and Less Grape Juice! Readers of Aeroxautics are appealed to in this matter. Get busy.

GERMANY'S PROTEST AGAINST BOMBS AND AERIAL COMBAT.

In view of the interest attached to the air raids being made daily in the great European conflict, is worthy of noting the proposal made by Professor Richard Eickoff, President of the German group, to the 19th Interparliamentary Conference, held at Stockholm, August 1920, 1914, which Conference drafted various resolutions and proposals for inclusion in the programme of the Third Peace Conference with a view to the final establishment of <i permanent international judiciary.

Professor Eickoff's resolutions urged a unanimous renewal of the Declaration of 1899 (See Aeronautics, p. 35, August 15, 1914) prohibiting the throwing down of explosives from apparatus for aerial navigation and the limiting of such apparati to operators of reconnaissance, investigation and sanitary service.

ARMY ACCEPTS AUTO-STABLE.

The P.D-3 Salmson motored Burgess-Dunne was accepted on December 30 by a trial board of the Army, consisting of Lieutenants Fulois, Milling and Car-berry. Webster flew the machine both on land and water with full load and his control of the machine both on the ground and in the air was a great surprise to all who witnessed the flights.

AEROPLANE CLUB IS BUT A MEMORY.

With 51 cents in the hands of Frank Hamburger. West Side hardware dealer, and treasurer of the organization, the International Aeroplane Club, of Dayton, O.. is destined to be but a memory.

Last December, 1914, members of the organization that started out to per-

petuate the memory of Wilbur and Or-ville Wright admitted that there is no probability of re-establishing the club and putting it on a permanent basis. —Dayton Journal.

CURTISS ENLARGES FACILITIES.

The Curtiss Aeroplane Company will occupy about one-fifth of the space of the Thomas Power Buildings, No. 1200 Niagara Street, Buffalo, N. Y. The space to be occupied by the Curtiss Company will not interfere with the business of the E. R. Thomas Motor Car Company, which will occupy the same quarters as formerly. The Curtiss plant in Hammondsport will not be abandoned, but will be employed to its capacity, and the Buffalo branch will be used to assemble the parts made in Hammonds-port, and by other firms on contract, this branching out being the only way open to the Curtiss company to keep abreast of its rush of orders, occasioned by the European war.

FAILURE OF THE ZEPPELINS.

The London Engineer condemns Zeppelins as having done nothing that an aeroplane could not have done better, according to the Army and Navy Journal. A few desperate pilots who were willing to throw their lives away could successfully ram and destroy any airship that has ever sailed. Speed and maneuvering powers of the aeroplane are far greater than those of the Zeppelin, and such guns as the latter carry would find the greatest difficulty in bringing down every one of a covey of aeroplanes before one had got sufficiently close or into such a position as to ram with certainty.

It is becoming more and more abundantly clear that as far, at any rate, as the present war is concerned, the function of bomb dropping has been shown to be wholly insignificant in its power of destruction, as much from a Zeppelin as from an aeroplane, and is no longer the dreaded thing it was. If more serious attacks should be attempted by the remaining Zeppelins that Germany possesses they will be met as those already made have been met, or, as a last resort, by the concerted action of a handful of aeroplanes. The great duty which the aeronaut can perform is to spy out the enemy's position, and in doing this he is no doubt rendering signal service. For this work the aeroplane is better than the airship in every respect save one. It is less visible, it is faster, it is a smaller target, it carries fewer men, it is readily transportable, requires no gas plant to charge it, costs but a fraction of the price of a Zeppelin, and, finally, can fly at a higher altitude. It suffers only from the fact that it cannot remain at rest in the air, but this is a very small disadvantage when set against the many that the airship presents. To sum up, while the aeroplane has done brilliant work during the last three weeks, the Zeppelins have proved a hopeless failure.

U. S. ANTI-AIRCRAFT GUN SECRET.

The Bureau of Ordnance, of which Admiral Strauss is the Chief, does not consider it advisable to make public data relating to the anti-aircraft gun recently developed.

ARMY'S ANNUAL FLIGHT COMPETITION.

Six Army aeroplanes left San Diego, Calif., for Los Angeles, a distance of some 108 miles, on December 21. with the intention of flying back the following day in competition for the Mackay Trophy. This trophy is offered annually for accuracy in locating the main column of the "enemy," accuracy in reporting strength of regiments, squadrons, etc. Six started, two arrived at Los Angeles and one finished. The two, pilots Dodd and Morrow, which arrived at Los Angeles, weathered the severe storm and the one that failed to reach San Diego after leaving Los Angeles was forced to land only through motor trouble. Bad weather intervened and the return flight and competition was held on the 23rd.

Captain Dodd and Lieutenant Fitz Gerald won the trophy, through skill, attention to detail and care displayed in the preparation for and during the entire contest.

The following are the facts with respect to the flight of the machines taken from the report of flights. All the machines left North Island, San Diego, as follows:

Captain T. F. Dodd, pilot, with Lieutenant S. W. Fitz Gerald as observer, left the ground at 8 a. m., December 21, 1914, in a Burgess tractor with 70 h. p. Renault motor, and reached Los Angeles, landing about four miles southeast of designated field at 10:30 a. in. on account of exhaustion of oil supply. Oil obtained, and leaving the ground at 12 m., reached the field at 12:08 p. m. Sufficient oil had been taken to allow for the time necessary to reach the field and a half hour more. The flight was made by map and compass, and at 10:16 [2 h. 16 m.] the machine had arrived close enough to the field for the spectators to read the number painted on lower planes. The pilot and observer could not see the landing signal. The machine was flown westward to the edge of Los Angeles, then circled back, and east to near Whittier, following the Whittier Boulevard to search for the landing signal. The oil was becoming low and at 10 :30 landing was made. December 22 storm conditions prevailed.

December 23. The machine left the field at Los Angeles for Mackay Trophy Contest at 9:44 a. m., and after completing the reconnaissance made landing at North Island at 1 p. m.

Lieut. J. C. Morrow, pilot, with Lieut. R. C. Holliday as observer, left North Island in a Burgess tractor with a 70 h. p. Renault motor at 8.02 a. ni., and landed at designated -point near Los Angeles at 10:22 a. m. [2h. 20m.] Left Los Angeles for the return trip at 9:48 a. m. December 23. The gas lead breaking, was forced to land near Oceanside, about 35

miles from start. In landing, a puff struck the machine, damaging it.

Lieut. T. DeW. Milling, pilot, with Captain \Y. L. Patterson, observer, left North Island at 8:20 a. m., in a Burgess tractor, which had been rebuilt by the Signal Corps, with a 70 h. p. Renault motor. Forced landing due to motor trouble was made in the vicinity of Agra, about 35 miles from start. Owing to soft, bad ground in which the machine landed, it was damaged.

Lieut. W. R. Taliaferro, pilot, with Captain B. D. Foulois as observer, left North Island at 8.24 a. m., in a Martin tractor with Curtiss 90 h. p. engine. Landed near Pacific Beach about 9 miles, at S:40 a. in. Upon landing report was made by telephone to North Island, and another machine (Martin tractor with Curtiss 90 h. p. engine) was flown to Pacific Beach and turned over to the pilot. At 10:20 a. m. another start for Los Angeles was made and at 11:00 o'clock a forced landing was made at the foot of the San Onofre Mountains, about 54 miles from San Diego. Cause of forced landing, a small particle of glass in the eye of the pilot, and as the wind was blowing over sixty miles per hour, it was too dangerous for the pilot to slow down and lessen the noise of the motor sufficiently for him to notify the observer of his trouble. The machine landed under very unfavorable conditions in soft ground, damaging the landing gear and propeller.

Lieut. J. E. Carberi'y, pilot, with Lieut. A. R. Christie as observer, left North Island at 8:29 a. m., in a Curtiss machine with Curtiss 90 h. p. engine. Forced landing. Machine damaged. Impracticable to make repairs to motor in time to continue flight. Machine dismantled and shipped to North Island.

Captain H. LeR. Muller, pilot, with Lieut. F. G. Gerstner as observer, left North Island at 8:32 a. m. When opposite the San Onofre Mountains, caught a terrific gale, and after a most exciting experience made a normal landing a half mile from shore in the Pacific ocean. Lieut. Gerstner was drowned while trying to swim ashore. The machine was a Curtiss tractor, with Curtiss 90 h. p. motor.

On the 21st all of the contestants encountered one of the worst storms off the San Onofre Mountains. Dodd and Morrow were both fortunate and skillful enough to get through to Los Angeles without accident.

DEATH OF LIEUTENANT GERSTNER.

Los Angeles, Dec. 21.—Lieut. Frederick J. Gerstner of the United States Army Aviation Corps was drowned while swimming ashore after a descent into the ocean during the race from San Diego to Los Angeles.

Capt. William L. Patterson, observer on a Burgess tractor, who with his pilot, Lieut. T. D. Milling, had landed near Oceanside, went to the rescue of Lieut. Gerstner and bis pilot, Capt. H. L. Muller, but failed to save the life of Lieut. Gerstner.

The military authorities do not believe

that the fatality can be attributed directly to aviation.

About opposite Oceanside, Pilot Muller, with Lieut. Gerstner as observer, at 6000 feet altitude, encountered very pnffy air, which compelled him to work his controls all the time.

A bad puff struck him under the right wing and the machine side-slipped about 300 feet by the aneroid. He righted the machine, put on full throttle, and pointed slightly down, when a puff struck the plane in the same manner.

As quick as lightning the right wing went over his head, the ship dived vertically from that position downward, then upside down. He pulled the machine up very gently, being cautious not to overcontrol, as in the dive the machine had gained a tremendous speed. The machine responded to his control and shot out of the dive until the nose was vertically upward. She then fell on her left side, giving the impression that she was tailsliding, until the left wing seemed to sink out from under and the machine went into another nose drive.

This second dive appeared to be fully a thousand feet. The machine was wobbling badly, as though the angle of incidence was changing rapidly and uncontrollably. When the machine was pulled out of this dive it made a partial loop, the left wing being lower than the right.

After the imperfect loop he regained partial control, but the machine did not hold any definite angle. The machine being very unstable, it followed an undulating course up and down like a runaway roller-coaster.

In the meantime Capt. Muller had been working to throttle the motor, but could not reach the hand-throttle at first without getting out of his braces, as the throttle had stuck. The machine then made two loops without any control whatever.

It then came down almost vertically, sliding to the left, but about 300 feet from the water Capt. Muller cut his switch and obtained full control of the machine when between 50 and 100 feet above the surface. A normal landing was made on the water.

With the exception of a few wires in the wing section streaming in the wind the machine landed undamaged on the water and came to a stop with the nose down and Lieut Gerstner under the water. Capt. Muller pulled him up on the rear seat, and they both got out, standing on the running gear. Lieut. Gerstner insisted that one of them ought to go ashore. Lieut. Gerstner claimed that he was an experienced swimmer.

After having been in the water for a considerable period, Lieut. Gerstner informed Capt. Muller that he was going ashore. He continued swimming, and when about a half mile away disappeard from Capt. Muller's sight.

Lieut. Gerstner's body was found in a kelp patch a short distance from the shore. It is considered regrettable that Lieut. Gerstner did not stay with the machine, as it is certain that, had he done so, he would have been saved with Capt. Muller.

THIS BIPLANE HAS 125-MILE SPEED, CARRIES 4-INCH GUN.

At the military camp at Vizzola Ticino, Italy, the authorities have been experimenting with a new biplane, whose inventor is not known, though it is supposed that Pilot Pensuti, who has been taking it up during the experiments, is responsible for its construction. It is larger than any other aeroplane in Italy, measuring seventy feet from wing to wing, and has 300 horsepower distributed among three rotary motors so placed that the pilot can repair any two while the plane is in motion. There are armored seats for three men and a 4-inch gun.

The machine went up a mile and a quarter with complete success recently. It is able to stay in the air twenty-five hours and can carry a cargo weighing about a ton. Its average speed is 125 miles an hour.—X. ]'. World.

Riley E. Scott. ex-Lieutenant U. S. Arm)', whose fame introduced bomb-dropping, or vice versa, left some time ago for the seat of war, or thereabouts. Not knowing his future address, he failed to disclose it upon his sudden and surreptitious departure. He left behind him, however, some holes in the aviation field at San Diego caused by the impact of his bombs filled with a secret explosive developed in the Ordnance Department.

Paris. Jan. 4.—William Thaw, J. J. Bach and Weston Hall, three members of the American volunteers, who were attached to the Foreign Legion and who have been definitely accepted for service with the French aviation corps, will be sent to the front after a few weeks service at the military school at St. Cyr.

These men are the first foreigners ever admitted to the French Aviation Corps. —The Sun.

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ANOTHER AVIATOR NOW HAS NATIONAL LICENSE.

The Department of Commerce, Steamboat Inspection Service, at Ealtimore, has issued to A. C. Beech a license to operate and navigate a motor vessel, under Motor Boat Act approved June 9. 1910.

Flying machines that have combined with and in their construction a vessel, if such machine is propelled by machinery, becomes a motor vessel when in the water, and for that reason it was

necessary for Mr. Beech to procure a license.

The same form of license was issued as those to all other motor vessels less than 65 feet in length carrying passengers for hire. The license was issued Nov. 20, 1914, by Charles W. Wright and Edwin F. White, members of the Board of Local Inspectors.

Aeronautics has continuously urged that registration of aircraft and licensing of operators should be under Federal control and it would seem, in view of the obvious advantage of such control, that all aeronautical organizations formed to really advance the interests of flying would devote some energy towards this end, rather than to sit idly by and allow individual states to pass conflicting and onerous statutes. With machines tbat operate from the water, of course, Federal control is already an established fact but land machines are

AIR NAVY MAY GET $1,187,600.

If the pleadings of Naval officers do any good, the House of Representatives may consider the appropriation of $1,187,600 for aeronautical work appropriate for argumentation in Congress and it might even come to pass that the House will suggest to the Senate, etc.

At any rate, Captain Mark L. Bristol put his best aileron forward in the hearing before the House Naval Committee and explained that this $l,i87,000, if re-

still in danger of being restricted by foolish laws.

"Tony" Jannus was the first in this country to secure a Federal license. In the winter of 1913-1914. at the time of the agitation by Aeronautics of this subject, Jannus applied for license at Tampa, Fla. In the course of time, a delay being unavoidable by his movements about the countrv, the boat was inspected and finally Jannus got his

license, dated Aug. 10, 1914, the first ever issued for a hydroplane. On this subject Jannus advises: "For the benefit of your readers let me say that they must do the things the Department requires for boats. No anchors or lights to be carried by day are required and the special style of life preserver will eventually be allowed but in the meantime all pilots are liable to heavy fine for not complying. This applies to hydros and boats both. You must have motor vessel operator's license, one cork steamboat inspected life preserver for every soul aboard on each trip, two copies of the pilot's rules, a whistle, and a fire extinguisher capable of putting out burning gasoline. There is no charge for any of the services of the department for furnishing the license, rules or the information, but the applicant must appear in person at the Steamboat Inspectors' office in any of the towns that are ports.

ceived for the fiscal year of 1916, would

be expended about as follows:

48 aeroplanes .............. $525,000

1 dirigible ................... 174,600

1 hydrogen set .............. 17,000

1 floating shed for 2 dirigibles 90,000

1 mooring mast.............. 1,200

2 dirigibles for school........ 85.000

1 kite balloon ............... 800

Sheds at Pensacola........... 150.000

3 picket boats............... 31,000

Gasoline storage............. 4,000

Maintenance ................ 109.000

$1,187,600

Captain Bristol estimated the cost of a suitable aeroplane at $11,000. "The aeroplane industry in this country," Captain Bristol said, "is looking up, also the manufacture of dirigibles, and if you should appropriate a good sum of money to be expended on air craft our manufacturers would be encouraged then to go into the development of air craft with more serious consideration than they d < at present. The manufacturers in this country lack good engineering knowledge, and you cannot get a good engineer without paying him a good salary, and they do not feel like doing that unless they see some way of paying for that engineer, both as regards his actual salary and making some profit beside on his work. We have been doing everything we could to encourage them with wdiat money we have had thus far, but they knew the amounts available and naturally don't see much money in it."

At present, of course, manufacturers cannot be sure of getting a contract even if they do come up to specifications, due to the lack of funds.

At the hearing, also, Captain Bristol presented the draft of a law to increase the pay of officers of the Navy and Marine Corps who are detailed on aeronautic duty by 35% and to increase the pay of Navy pilots by 50%. The 35% to be allowed only when the men are detailed to actually make flights and the 50% likewise. The proposed law also provides that no more than 48 officers of the Navy and 12 officers of the Marine Corps be detailed for actual flying; that one year's pay be given a beneficiary in the case of a fatal accident not attributable to the aviator's own negligence and that the pension now provided by law for a widow be doubled; that enlisted men receive 35% increase in pay under thj same conditions as above; that no more than 90 men of the Navy and 24 men of the Marine Corps at any one time shall be detailed to aeronautic duty; that a year's pay and pension be given a-> above stated.

At the present time non-commissioned officers and men receive no extra pay for aeronautic duty and enlisted men have been required to take flights without any extra compensation.

In a report to the House on December 29 by the Military Committee and by the action of the sub-committee of the House Naval Committee in recommending that $1,000,000 be appropriated for naval aircraft, aeronautics mav have $1,300,000.

The military bill authorizes $300,000 for aircraft for the Army.

Representative Mann, on Feb. 2, 1915, fought the $1,000,000 appropriation, and on his motion the amount was cut to $500,000.

The term "aeroplane" as used in Consular reports relates to any heavier-than-air flying machine, whether mono-nlane. biplane, etc., as distinguished from dirigible and ordinary balloons. Under the term "parts" are included motors, chassis, wings, etc., not shipped in conjunction with a complete machine.

AERONAUTICS.

Page 123

PATENTS

secured or fee returned VICTOR J. EVANS & COMPANY

Send sketch or model for PRE K opinion as to Patentability. Write for our Goide Bonks aiid What to Invent with valuable Li.t of Invention, Wanted s.-nt Free. Send for cur special list of prizes offered for Aernphmes. $600,000 Offered in Prizes for Airships. We are KxpcrN in Aeronautics and have a special Aernoantical Department. Copies of Patents in Airships. lOcents each.

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CONSTRUCTION DETAILS.

In the winter when the enthusiasm of most model flyers is at a very low ebb, there are, however, a great number of them who still remain true to the sport in spite of the cold and inclement weather. The device shown in figure 1 is the idea of A. K. Barker, and is adapted to be attached to the skids of the model in place of the wheels, or pontoons, if the model happens to be a hydro. These little "skates" enable a model to rise very quickly from the frozen surface of a lake or pond or from any short stretches of ice. These tiny "skates" create less friction than wheels; allow the model to rise with a shorter run. and weigh less. While attachments of this kind have been made before, we

By Harry Schultz, Model Editor.

wire for the shaft with a hook formed at one end as shown, for the reception of the rubber motor. A half-inch piece of brass tubing is bound and glued to the rear member of the fuselage as shown. It will be noticed that the tubing is bound to the under side of the propeller bar, and in order to make a very secure joint it is advisable to cut a small recess in the propeller bar in which the tubing is bound. A small strip of brass or any other like material is cut as shown and slipped over the hub of the propeller. A hole is drilled through the hrass strip as shown. To assemble the bearing, the piece of steel wire is passed through the tubing and through the hole in the brass strip and

TAO LI

In figure 4 is shown a simple method of constructing a bent wood propeller. It will be seen that the entire propeller is made in two parts, one blade being made at a time.

In this manner both blades can be carefully compared and both blades easily made to have the same pitch, by an application of steam and boiling water. When the blades are bent to shape they are joined at the center. Some model builders make this joint by binding and gluing, but the preferable method of making the same is by gluing and drilling four small holes through the thickened portion formed by the overlapping ends, and inserting small brads in these holes as shown. The hole for the propeller shaft is readily drilled through the thickened portion formed by the overlapping ends of the two blades.

In figure S is shown the method of joining the two members of a triangular frame at the front end, and the method of attaching the rubber hooks thereto. It will be seen that the inner sides of the sticks are tapered as shown so that when the two sticks are brought together a point is formed. A double hook is formed of a small piece of piano wire and bound and glued over the end.

have never seen them constructed in substantially the same manner as shown herein, which consists of a small section of safety razor blade shaped to the outline of a sled-runner and inserted and glued in a slot in a small piece of spruce. Two small holes are drilled through the spruce block so that the entire "skate" can be "sewed" to the skid on the model.

Figure 2 shows a simple method of making a propeller bearing. It merely consists of a short piece of steel piano

propeller, and the outer end of the wire is bent around the end of the propeller so that the propeller will turn with its shaft. The drawing shows the assembled bearing.

Figure 3 shows a well known English tractor model in flight, particulars of which have not been obtained at the present time.

Those who have made propellers of twisted wood will realize the difficulty of obtaining the same pitch in each blade.

ASHMUSEN 12-CYL. ENGINE.

Things are brightening up for the Ashmusen Mfg. Co., of Woonsocket, R. I.

They are now specializing on an 8-cylinder, 70 horse power, and a 12-cylinder, 105 horse power, aircooled aeronautical engine. These are both of the geared propeller type. They have now made manufacturing arrangements at Woonsocket, and have facilities in one of the largest machine shops in the country equipped for this class of work.

Page 125

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GERMANY PROTESTS CUR-TISS MACHINES.

A protest has been made by the German Ambassador to this country alleging the exportation of Curtiss machines to France, England and Russia to he an infringement of the obligations binding upon a neutral country, claiming them to be contraband.

When the matter is taken up with the Curtiss Aeroplane Company officially, the contention will be that hydro-aeroplanes are not vessels of war, are not fitted with guns for war purposes and are not sold to belligerents.

WHO INVENTED THE HYDRO-AEROPLANE?

Announcement lias just been made of the result of an interference suit in the Patent Office in which Albert Janin

OF AMERICA

29 West 39th Street. New York

OFFICIAL BULLETIN

The members aie keeping up their interest in the Round Table Talks, now the feature of attraction at the Thursday evening meetings— 8:30 p. m.—every week, the number of members attending being steadily on the increase.

The undertakings of the Technical Board and various committees always claim attention; and general discussions have followed. [Hiring the past few weeks, the presentation of certain novel methods of stabilization have been included among the subjects that have come up for consideration.

On January 7, at the invitation of Mr. A. Leo Stevens, the members of the Society gathered at the Sportsman's Show, held at Madison Square Garden, where Mr. Stevens bad an aeronautic exhibit including two large and one small inflated passenger-carrying balloons with their full equipment; Mr. J. J. Curran also exhibiting his Queen monoplane.

An informal meeting of the members present was held at the close of the evening, when a vote of thanks was given Mr. Stevens for his hospitality.

On January 14th, Mr. A. J. DeVoe, the well known weather prophet, addressed the members at tiie rooms of the Society on his conception of meteorological laws and the governing of weather conditions by the moon. Members, keenly alive to the value of practical forecasting, plied Mr. DeVoe with numerous questions, bringing out useful points from which they might make their own deductions for use in aerial undertakings.

The strong evidenee of awakening interest in the Government for a fairly liberal employment of air craft in the Army and Navy services is giving renewed hope to inventors, designers and manufacturers of promising activity, the consummation whereof will mean an increased scope for the useful functions of the Aeronautical Society of America. Every member of the Society, therefore, is requested to lose no opportunity of bringing, as new members, men who they believe will be of benefit to the organization and who may themselves profit through its operations.

Also, at this important epoch in the art of aviation in America, when it really appears to be about to expand, perhaps in the manner of its extent in Europe—though possibly on different lines—it is incumbent on every member to stand by with full support, keeping in as

claimed priority over Glenn Curtiss in the invention of the hydro-aeroplane.

In response to the published story of the Patent Office's award to Janin in the suit. Air. Curtiss states:

"Air. Janin and his attorney are quite premature in announcing the award of invention of the hydro-aeroplane to Mr. Janin. The interference with Mr. Janin involves one claim. The claim involves the use of the small side floats which are in action when the machine operates on the surface of the water as a hydroplane. It does not involve the features which made the hydro-aeroplane a successful flying machine, or the features of the flying boat. The decision in question is but a preliminary one of one of the three Patent Office tribunals. It is not in the United States courts. This is the second decision to be rendered by the Patent Office. The first of them

close communication as possible, that all may profit.

If behind in dues members should not delay in remitting, for the Society needs its revenue to carry on its important work.

As regards the First Joint Conference on Aviation, to be held in the Engineers Building, February 5 and 6 next, a number of interesting inventions and devices for insuring a higher safety of flight have been presented and everything points to this conference being a real step forward in the understanding of the proper designs of aireraft which is especially important at the present time in view of the strong revival of interest in matters aeronautical.

All city members, also country members on visits to town, should call at the Society's rooms when able, so that they may keep posted in all aeronautical matters. The office of the Society is open daily from 10 to 5; Saturdays, 10 to 1. Members are also entitled to free use of the library, on the 13th floor of the building, open from 9 a. m. to 9 p. m. daily, and comprising the most complete engineering library in America, with all IT. S. and foreign paten ts.

At the fifth annual meeting of the Aero Club of Pennsylvania January 8 in the Bellevue-Strat ford, the following officers were elected: Joseph A. Steinmetz, president; W. D. Harris and YY. J. Shedwick, vice presidents; George S. Gassner, secretary; L. Maresch, treasurer, and A. T. Atherholt. Henry F. Bamberger, \Y. M. Shehan, C. P. Wynne, II. II. Knerr and \Y. S. Wheeler, directors.

Clarence P. Wynne, who has served the club as president so umiringly for the last three 3*ears. declined re-election on account of pressure of business engagements.

The club is negotiating for the use of an armory for an indoor contest. It has been decided that this contest will be for controllabil-

was in my favor, and I might at that time have made the same announcement which Air. janin has now made, and it would have been equally premature. Vet another Patent Office decision is to be made by the Commissioner of Patents himself before the Patent Office concludes the matter. The final decision which determines the award of this particular claim is in the province of the United States Court of Appeals. When this final decision is rendered and not until then will any statements of Air. Janin's concerning the award of invention be entitled to serious consideration."

Wilbur R. Kimball and T. R. Alac-Alechen are at 66 Victoria street, Westminster, London, working on a dirigible, it is assumed.

ity of flight. The date for the contest has not been decided upon, but this matter will be taken up as soon as it can he ascertained for what date the armory can be secured.

Mr. Henry S. Villard has kindly offered a very excellent trophy for competition by the club. The form of contest is being decided upon and the rules and place of competition will be announced later. This trophy is now on exhibition at the Aero Club of America.

The following persons have been admitted to membership:

Edward P. Warner, Concord, Mass.

Walter II. Phipps, New York City, N. Y.

Raymond M. Zimber, New York City, N. Y.

Frank Schober, Brooklyn, N. Y.

A donation of three prizes has been made to the Milwaukee branch of this club for competition as soon as the weather improves.

The Long Island Model Aero Club has formed the Long Island section of the Aero Science Club. Election of officers has taken place.

On December 27, 1914. the final glider eon-test of the recent series was completed, and A. K Barker proved to be a winner witli 70 points. The contest was for weight-carrying.

Club flags have been made, the colors of the same being red and blue. These can be obtained at a reasonable price by applying to the Secretary.

Mr. Edward P. Warner, the representative of this club at Coneord, Mass., desires to announce that a series of model aeroplane contests will be held at Concord, Mass.. during the spring of 1915, the events being held on the following dates:

March 13.—Distance, launched from the hand.

March 27.—Duration, launched from the hand.

April 24.—Distance, rising off the ground.

May S.—Duration, rising off the ground.

May 22.—Duration, rising off the water.

These contests will last from 2:15 to 5 p. m. and each contestant may have as many trials as he desires during that time. The contests are open to any rubher driven model and the models need not be constructed by the entrant himself. At each contest there will be awarded to the winner a silver medal and a bronze medal for the best record by a boy under sixteen years of age. using a model constructed by himself. Several cups will be given to those securing the greatest number of points in the four contests in which he makes the best showing; that is, those who compete in all five contests will have their worst score omitted. Points will be given to every competitor on a percentage basis. A small entry fee is charged and all entries should be made before March 1. Further information can be supplied by Air. Edward P. Warner, Concord, Mass.

At the meeting held on January 9, Messrs. Schober and Funk exhibited the compressed air engine constructed by them. The engine proved to be a great success and it worked excellently.

For further information apply to the Secretary, Harry Schnltz, at the rooms of the Aeronautical Societv. 29 West 39th Street, New York City.

•AERONAUTICS

Page 127

GYRO HOLDS

Altitude Record!

WESTERN UNION DAY LETTER

Kansas City. Mo., August 6th, 1914.

Gyro Motor Co., Washington, D.C.

Broke altitude record this afternoon, approximately forty-seven hundred meters. Kansas City Aero Club observed flight authorized by Aero Club of America. Record should be official. Motor worked fine, only carried five gallons of gas, made altitude in forty minutes used old spray nozzle. Will write full particulars later.

DE LLOYD THOMPSON.

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Altitude, without passenger, Capt. H. LeRoy Muller, U.S.A., 17,185 feet. Altitude, with one passenger, Lieut. J. C. Carberry, U.S.A., 11,690 feet. Duration, Military Tractor, Lieut. Byron 0. Jones, U. S. A., 8 hrs. 53 min. Duration, Hydroaeroplane, Lieut. J. H. Towers, U.S.N., 6 hrs. 10 min.

Motors Ready for Delivery

MODEL "S," 6-CYL., 60 H. P. MODEL "O-X," 8-CYL., 90 H.P. MODEL "O," 8-CYL., 80 H.P. MODEL "OXX," 8-CYL., 160 H.P.

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Practically every aeronautical record

was made possible by the use of the

Bosch Magneto

That fact alone is conclusive proof as to the worth of Bosch.

Where you cannot take a chance there you musi have Bosch.

Be Satisfied Specify Bosch

Correspondence always Invited

Bosch Magneto Company

201 West 46th Street

New York

Published semi-monthly in the best interests of Aeronautics by AERONAUTICS PRESS INC. 250 West 54th St., New York

Telephone, Circle 2289 Cable. Aeronautics. New York

ERNEST L. JONES Editor

11. B. SELLERS Technical Editor HARRY SCHULTZ Model Editor

FRANK CASH Ass't Editor

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With this issue is begun Vol. XVI, With Xo. 1. The issues for each six months have, heretofore, formed one volume. There should have been 12 is-

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AEROPLANES WITH VARIABLE INCIDENCE

By M. B. Sellers

A communication presented to the Russian Society of Engineers of Paris, by L. Kolpakoff-Mirochnitchinko entitled Avions a Incidence variables, is of considerable interest, in view of the success of the well known Paul Schnutt biplane. This machine, piloted by Garaix, made records of height and speed with 4, 5, 6 and up to 10 passengers. I shall give briefly the substance of this communication.

By "variable incidence" is here understood the property of an aeroplane to change the angle of attack of its planes without recourse being had to its auxiliary controlling surfaces. Two conditions must be realized: (1) The axis of thrust and the direction of the head resistance should be confused (i. e., in line) no matter what the incidence. (2) The centre of pressure (i. e., support) of the machine should always be directly over the centre of gravity for any incidence.

As the centres of resistance and support are variable with varying angle of attack; it suffices to bring these back to their normal position by a suitable displacement of the lifting planes (as is done in the Paul Schmitt).

1—These conditions being reallized, the pilot can. at his pleasure, ascend or descend, without increasing the head resistance, and without employing the elevator, which often requires considerable effort; by simply changing the angle of the wings relative to the fuselage. Therefore, ascending, horizontal or descending path ivithout the use of the elevator.

2—In case the aeroplane should, from any cause, loose speed, the elevator would become inoperative; but, by changing the inclination of the wings, the speed could be quickly augmented, and the impending clanger averted; therefore, facility to rapidly regain the normal speed.

3— In leaving the ground the wings can be set at a zero angle during the run, till proper speed is attained; then the angle can be increased to that giving the most rapid ascent; hence: easy and rapid rise in starting.

4—Supposing that the normal (horizontal) attitude of the fuselage is the one of least resistance to penetration; then, in the ordinary aeroplane this resistance is greater when flying "cabre." But with the variable incidence aeroplane the fuselage may maintain its nor-

mal attitude while the incidence of the wings is increased, thus reducing resistance, and favoring slow flying (because the slowness of flight is limited by the increased total resistance due to increase in drift). Besides, the large angle of attack required for very slow flight is dangerous in the ordinary machine, but in the variable incidence machine, the fuselage being nearly horizontal and moving along its axis avoids the risk due to extreme incidence.

In the same way in augmenting the speed by reducing the angle of the wings, the body may he maintained in its normal attitude and the empennage will not act as a brake,—therefore, great variation of speed.

5—With the motor stopped, the descent can he made slowly with wings at maximum allowable angle of attack, the fuselage and chassis remaining horizontal ,and machine landing properly on its wheels; and on the ground it can be quickly stopped by extreme inclination of the wings. Therefore, sloiv descent, landing on even keel, and quick stoppage after landing.

Finally the axis of the propeller is always parallel to the trajectory, which is of some advantage.

ADVERTISEMENTS IN AERONAUTICS

Once and for all time let us announce that we do not publish advertisements free, nor do we print any advertisements on a basis of replies leceived from the same. Our representatives in soliciting for AERONAUTICS Lave been approached with such propositions, the inference being that aeronautical publications are doing this. Let us say that we value too highly the patronage of those firms and individuals who have persistently used our columns and paid therefor, to entertain any such proposition.

ADVERTISERS IN AERONAUTICS ARE PAYING FOR THEIR SPACE. When we sav that AERONAUTICS reaches tbe heads of the influential governments of tbe world we are making a statement

that is backed up by the subscription list and bv the results obtained. Advertising in AERONAUTICS makes an appeal to a larger buying power per paid subscription than that of all other aeronautical journals in the United States combined.

Established in 1907, AERONAUTICS has gained and maintained the confidence of all its subscribers and today its results gained for advertisers is testified to by the amount of PAID advertising that the magazine carries.

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/ AERONAUTICS

_._——-j.-¿1-

NAVY OPENS BIDS FOR NINE HYf)ROS

Fourteen bids were opened February 27, 1915, for the furnishing of the U. S. Xavy Aeronautic Station, Fensacola. Fla.. of two lots of hydroaeroplanes and motors, as below. Delivery of one hydroaeroplane of the first lot to be made not later than April 15. 1915, and the balance by June 15, 1915; delivery of the second lot to be made in pairs by the above respective dates. Alternate bids with greater time for delivery could be submitted, but the Xavy reserved the right to award on the time stated above.

The bids were as follows, with the items bid on mentioned by figures in parentheses which correspond to the schedule given below :

Aircraft Company: (11 $6962, (2) $5142, (3) $716. (4) $2760, (la) $7962 and $6780, (2a) $5000 and $4837, (3a) $725 and $716, (4a) $3000 and $2760. If automatic stabilizer accepted with each 'plane cost of Item 2 power plant in each case will be reduced $190.

Burgess Company: (1) $6400, (2) $4325, (3) $280, (la) $5350. (2a) $4325, (3a) $280. Has inherent stability. Wireless outfit and lighting not included as no definite approved type specified.

Curtiss Aeroplane Company: (1) $10,500, (2) $7000, (3) $425, (41 $3000, (la) $10,500, (2a) $7000. (3a) $425, (4a) $3000. Informal—no guarantee.

Gallaudet Company, Inc.: (1) $1800; for one machine.

Grinnell Aeroplane Company: (1) $6500. (2) $8000, (3) $500.

Wm. C. Hurst: (1) $7500. (2) $3500; informal—no guarantee.

Peoli Aeroplane Corporation: (1) $3100, (2) $3700, (3) $500. (la) $3100, (2a) $3700, (3a) $500.

Shaw Aeroplane Company: (I) $4499,

(2) $3415, (3) $586; informal—no guarantee.

B. F. Sturtevant Company: (2) $4325, (2a) $4325. Price does not include wireless and lighting outfits, but includes fitting such if furnished by Government.

Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Company: (I) $4600 and $5850, (2) $3550 and $6380, (3) $750. These prices for Type H.S. and S. respectively. Prices do not include wireless or lighting outfits.

The Tvgard Engine: (2) $14,000. (2a) $14,000. '

The Wright Company : ( 1) $9740, (2) $5200, (3) $60, (la) $7500. '(2a) $4940, (3a) $60. Price does not include wireless and lighting outfits, compass, chart holder or sextant.

B. Stephens & Son: (1) $3000, (2) $3400, (3) $200; if Sturtevant motor is furnished Item 2 will be $4200.

G. H. Armitage: (1) $3800, (2) $4300,

(3) $250; informal—no guarantee. Prices were itemized as follows:

BID A—3 Hydroaeroplanes and 4 power plants:

I. Aeroplane—Includes the aeroplane proper, with stabilizers, controls, control surfaces and leads, armor, launching truck, engine covers, cockpit covers, etc.. together with the necessary crating.

2. Power Plant—Includes motor, propeller, radiator, gasoline and oil tanks, piping, controls, gasoline and oil gauges, wireless outfit, lighting outfit, power transmission system and the necessary shipping crates.

3. Instruments—Includes instrument board complete, compass and drift indicator, lightweight sextant, chart holder, incidence indicator and necessary packing for shipment.

4. Automatic Stabilizers—If proposed. BID B—6 hydroaeroplanes and 8

power plants :

la. Same as above. 2a. Same as above. 3a. Same as above. 4a. Same as above.

QUICK DELIVERY A FACTOR.

Machines having characteristics differing from above will be considered under certain conditions. Bids will be awarded on merits of design, completeness of specifications and price and time of delivery.

Decision will be made as to design on the basis following, in the order given : Speed, radius of action, climb, glide and reduction of head resistance. The power plant will be considered from the view of propeller efficiency, fuel consumption, weight and compactness.

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS.

Two-seater, w'ith fullest practicable view in all directions for pilot and observer who are to be protected in a stream line body.

To have, with full load, speed range 50-80 miles per hour, and a radius of action of 4 hours at full speed.

Climb 250 ft. per minute for first 10 minutes.

Glide at least 6 to 1, still air, engine dead.

CONSTRUCTION AND DESIGN.

Certain standard Government requirements must be adhered to. Information must be given as to material used in construction, grade, manufacture, breaking strength, clastic limit, per cent elongation; maker of motor, magneto and carburetor, with particulars.

Other requirements are:

Protection from weather and spray for all parts by the use of approved paints, metal plating or non-corrosive material.

Portable covers for cockpit and power plant.

All interior woodwork will be given protection against moisture.

The hull or boat structure should be utilized in reinforcing the main structural girders. The principal hulls shall be subdivided into water-tight compartments so arranged that the flooding of any one of them shall not seriously endanger the machine when adrift. Ready means of draining while afloat, which, if practicable, shall be operated from cockpit.

Suitable provision in fuselage for mounting the outfit.

The control surfaces to give positive

control when flying at slow speed. The controls are to be capable of operation by either person unassisted or in conjunction, and the pilot should be able to take charge from the other by force.

Duplicate leads are required to the ailerons or rolling rudders, to the warps, and to the steering and diving rudders. The duplicate leads should, so far as practicable, follow different lines from those of the principal leads.

The wings shall be capable of being readily and quickly removed, or closed or folded.

Suitable fittings for hoisting aboard ship from the water.

All parts, and particularly the power plant and wings, shall be thoroughly secured to withstand the impulse necessary to launch the machine from a catapult and to withstand the shock of rough landings.

A transportation truck is to be provided with each machine, with wheels to permit use on soft wet sand.

POWER PLANT.

To be provided with starting means from either seat.

The carburetor provided with means for heating, and with means for muffling to prevent fire. Provision to prevent danger of fire in case machine should turn upside down.

Double independent ignition and double magnetos.

The motor protected from moisture and spray.

The ignition and auxiliary circuits must be thoroughly protected from short circuits from spray.

All aluminum parts to be given protection against the effects of salt water.

All oil piping annealed.

A positive system of pumping gasoline from the reserve tanks to the service tank shall be provided unless gravity feed from all tanks is used.

Gas, water and oil service pipes will lie protected against vibration.

A positive means of cutting off the gas at the service tank shall be readily accessible from either seat.

At least one reliable method of stopping the motor shall be provided, to be operated from either seat.

Fuel-tank capacity for at least 4 hours flying at full power, and provision for an additional 200 pounds of gasoline.

The service feed tank shall have a capacity for at least one-half hour's flight, and shall be so fitted as to prevent danger from fire in case the machine should turn upside down.

So far as practicable, the entire power plant should be assembled as a unit on a good rugged foundation, which can be readily removed or replaced with a minimum disturbance of connections.

Provision is desirable, on the engine shaft proper, for driving the wireless and lighting generators and stabilizer generators, but where this is not practicable rigid and substantial connections to the engine bed are required so as to preserve the proper alignment for driving these auxiliaries.

The motor shall, if practicable, be so installed as to permit of dropping the lower crank case without the removal of the motor from its foundations.

PROPELLERS. Efficiency should exceed 70 per cent. Protected from the action of spray and broken water. The hub face plates shall be thoroughly interconnected independently of the propeller bolts. A safety nut shall be provided, so that in case the propeller bolts carry away the propeller cannot come off the hub.

MOTOR TESTS.

Before installation one motor to be selected, shall be put through the complete set of tests in succession as described herein. The remaining motors shall be put through test D. These tests shall take place before a designated Government representative.

Test A.—One-half hour run on the block to determine the maximum brake horsepower and the revolutions necessary to deliver the rated horsepower, to be followed by the calibration run for determining the b. h. p. r. p. m. curve.

Test B.—Motor and propeller to run one-half hour at full power while inclined upward at an angle of 10°.

Test C.—Motor and propeller to run one-half hour at low speed while inclined at an angle of 10° downward. The low speed should not exceed 25 per cent of the speed for full power.

Test D.—Four hours' run of the motor with calibrated moulinet at full power. After the 4-hour run the motor shall be disassembled and the motor and auxiliary parts shall be weighed. It will then be carefully examined and conditions within noted, particular attention being paid to the amount of wear and of carbon deposit. If the above tests and inspections are satisfactory, the motor shall be reassembled and given an additional 4-hour run, without any adjustments or replacements during same, and during which observations shall be made in exactly the same manner as in the previous 4-hour run.

During the above trials records of the revolutions obtained and the corresponding power developed shall be made every 10 minutes, together with notes as to the general action of the motor while running. The engine shall be thoroughly balanced and vibration shall be a minimum. Oil and gasoline consumption will be measured for each of the above trial runs, and notes made as to the temperature of the circulating water at the inlet and outlet. No adjustments or replacements are to be made during the above trials. Special attention will be paid to making certain that during the inclined runs the lower cylinders are at no time being flooded.

TRIALS.

"Full load'' comprises the machine complete in order of flight, including in addition 380 pounds for pilot and observer ; fuel oil and water for at least 4 hours' flight at full power; and the

outfit and equipment; or an equivalent load in place.

Outfit and Equipment.

Pounds.

Machine gun and mount............. 30

Box of ammunition................. 60

Instrument board .................. 20

(The instrument board to include a watch-chronometer, an inclinometer, a tachometer, a barometer, and a speedometer.)

Armor protection for engine and crew 40

One compass and drift indicator..... 6

Sextant ............................ 2

Chart holder....................... 2

Incidence indicator................. 2

Emergency rations, including drinking water ......... ............... 20

Tool kit ........................... 10

Fire extinguisher................... 8

Sea anchor and line................. 6

First-aid kit........................ 8

DEMONSTRATION TRIALS. Before entering the prescribed acceptance test, each machine shall be flown by a representative of the builder. During these trials the machine shall carry the specified full load, and demonstrate to the satisfaction of the inspector that it is capable of meeting the requirements.

ACCEPTANCE TRIALS. Then the machine will be given acceptance trials at United States Xavy Aeronautic Station, Pensacola, Fla. Each additional machine must perform consistently with the original of its type.

SEAWORTHINESS.

The machine must ride at anchor or adrift in a 25-mile wind in open water for 4 hours without danger of capsizing.

When adrift, it should normally head into the wind.

Under way at low speeds, it should steer readily.

It should be provided with a bow chock and cleat for towing and mooring purposes, and with means for steering while being towed.

With "full load":

The machine shall be capable of getting away in a calm in smooth water in a distance of not over 1500 feet (from a start with the engine throttled down to one-quarter of the full speed revolutions at the starting mark).

It should also be capable of_ getting away and of alighting in a 25-mile wind in rough water in the open sea.

It should be capable of landing at high speed before the wind without danger of nosing under.

The hull should, to as great a degree as possible, combine the following qualities :

Begin planing at or below 20 miles an hour in rough water.

Be free from suction effects.

Have in general a skid-form profile.

Have a sufficiently easy bow to allow of plowing through a moderate sea without undue pounding or wetness.

Have a sufficiently strong bottom to sustain punishment at high speed.

The machine should not capsize on a skidding landing or when running at

high speed on the surface with wind and sea abeam.

AIR WORTHINESS.

To have efficient longitudinal, lateral, and directional stability in strong and variable winds up to 35 miles per hour and to be capable of banking steeply without danger.

Longitudinal control shall be such as to enable recovery after a steep glide, and to enable the machine to readily assume the gliding attitude in case power should fail while climbing.

Any machine proposed shall have initial or natural lateral, longitudinal, and directional stability in flight, such that moderate variations from the neutral attitude shall produce positive righting moments. Any special arrangement of the planes as to their plan form, dihedral angle, or the adjustability of the angle of the main planes or of the stabilizers for this purpose shall be clearly described, together with the effects produced.

Inherent or natural stability will be demonstrated by steadying the machine in horizontal flight and then holding the controls in a fixed position. Under such conditions the machine should hold its course and trim for an appreciable period without requiring correction or involving the machine assuming a dangerous attitude.

Automatic stabilizers, if used, must be of demonstrated efficiency and reliability. They must be sensitive, capable of adjustment, as small and light as practicable, and should be applicable to any standard type of control without requiring undue rearrangement. They should be capable of being instantly thrown into or out of action as required. They should not interfere with the directional control of the machine. When the automatic stabilizer is in operation, the control of direction should be attained either through the regular controls or in a manner exactly similar to that ordinarily employed. If such an installation is proposed, it should be made a separate and independent item and he accompanied with complete plans and specifications, with price, and price list of spares.

The lower limit of speed should be attained at an angle which is not in dangerous proximity to the stalling angle, and without the use of the "reverse control" or the jockeying of the engine power.

Climbing, turns, fuel and oil, speed range and gliding tests will be made.

Bidders will submit following data with their proposals: Full particulars of their machines, with power curves, drawings, etc.

WHO GOT THIS ORDER?

The Chinese Government has decided to give rewards to Chinese inventors of airships, says the Peking Daily Nczvs.

A Canton telegram to the Shun Pao reports the Chiangchun Lung Tsi-kwang, of Canton, has arranged to buy two aeroplanes from an American firm at a cost of $32.000. The aeroplanes have arrived, and the trials are being arranged for.—Consular Report.

NEW 140 H.P. STURTEVANT MOTOR

The latest motor especially designed to suit aeronautical requirements by the B. F. Sturtevant Company is of the eight-cylinder V type, four-cycle, water-cooled; bore 4 inches, stroke inches; normal speed 2000 r.p.m. The propeller shaft is driven through a reducing gear which can he furnished in different gear ratios so that the propeller turns at any desired speed between 1000 and 1500 r.p.m.

Cylinders, of the L head design, exhaust and intake valves on same side, are cast in pairs of semi-steel with integral water-jackets. Large openings in the back and top, closed by aluminum cover plates, enable very accurate moulding and thorough cleaning.

Valves, hardened tungsten steel, heads and stems from one piece; large diameter and easily removed for inspection or grinding without disturbing any other part of motor. They are operated direct from one central camshaft which lies between the two groups of cylinders above the crankshaft.

Pistons are of same material as cylinders, ribbed in the head for strength and cooling; three compression rings. The piston pin is chrome nickel steel, bored hollow and hardened.

Connecting rods are of H section, machined all over from forgings of a special air-hardening chrome nickel steel, which after being heat-treated has a tensile strength of 250,000 pounds per square inch. They are, consequently, very strong and yet unusually light and, being machined all over, are of absolutely uniform section, which gives as nearly perfect balance as can be obtained. The big ends are lined with Sturtevant white metal and the small ends are bushed with phosphor bronze. The connecting rods are all alike and take their bearings side by side on the crankshaft.

Crankshaft is machined from a billet of the highest grade chrome nickel steel

weight. It is carried in three large bearings lined with renewable bushings of Parson's white brass.

and is ribbed on the bottom to assist in cooling the oil. The camshaft is contained within the

The base consists of two castings of a special aluminum alloy. The upper half is designed with a view to strength and rigidity rather than extreme lightness. It extends considerably below the cen-

properly heat-treated to obtain the best properties of this material. Large diameter and bored hollow throughout, insuring maximum strength with minimum

tre line of the crankshaft to further increase its strength. The lower half is of light construction, designed for the purpose of containing the lubricating oil

upper half of the base between the two groups of cylinders and is supported in six bronze bearings. It is bored hollow throughout and the cams are formed integral with the shaft and ground to the proper shape and finish. The gears operating the camshaft, magneto, oil and water pumps are contained within an oil-tight casing and operate in a bath of oil.

The propeller shaft is carried on two large annular ball bearings and driven from the crankshaft by hardened chrome nickel steel spur gears. These gears are contained within an oil-tight casing integral with the base on the opposite end from the timing gears. A ball thrust bearing is provided on the propeller shaft to take the thrust of a propeller or tractor as the case may be.

Lubrication is of the complete forced, circulating system, the oil being supplied to every bearing under high pressure by a rotary pump which is operated by gears from the crankshaft. The oil passages from the pump to the main bearings are cast integral with the base, the hollow crankshaft forming a passage to the connecting rod bearings and the hollow camshaft distributing the oil to the camshaft bearings. The entire surface of the lower half of the base is covered with a fine mesh screen through which the oil passes before reaching the pump. About two gallons of oil are

contained within the base and this is replenished as fast as used by a secondary oil pump operated by an eccentric on the camshaft. This draws fresh oil from an external tank which can be made of any capacity desired.

The carburetor is of the Zenith type especially designed for this motor. It is of the double horizontal design with one float chamber and two jets, each supplying one group of four cylinders. It is located between the cylinders and supplied with a liberal amount of hot air from the exhaust so that the mixture is not affected by changes in weather conditions.

Ignition is by two Bosch or Mea water-proof magnetos placed face to face on each side of the carburetor between the two groups of cylinders. The spark plugs are located in water-cooled bosses in the centres of the cylinder heads.

The water circulation is accomplished by a centrifugal pump which delivers a large quantity of water through the cylinder jackets and maintains a uniform temperature around all parts of the cylinders. The screw caps over the valves

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RECORD FOR NEW THOMAS TRACTOR.

The illustration is of the new Thomas pilot, passenger and 15 gals, of gasoline

military two-place tractor, which was de- was 81.1 m.p.h. over a measured course,

scribed in the issue of "October 15, 1914." Climb with pilot, passenger and 15 gals.

The Thomas brothers have been thor- of gasoline for the first 1000 ft. 1 minute

oughly testing on the head of Cayuga Lake, and they believe they have accomplished an American record for a quick rate of time with pilot and two passengers, besides a heavy load of gas. The figures are as follows:

Machine loaded with 40 gals, of gasoline. 3y? gals, of oil, pilot weighing 165 lbs. and two passengers of 170 and 155 lbs. respectively, besides the regular equipment of instruments required by the army, the climb in 10 minutes was exactly 4000 ft. Also the speed with

25 seconds: 4000 ft. 7 minutes 35 seconds. A 90 h.p. Austro-Daimler engine is fitted. The machine lists at $8000.

With a 100 h.p. Sturtevant or Curtiss motor, the price on this would be $6500.

A scout racette type biplane with 60 h.p. Sturtevant or Curtiss engine sells at $5500. An exhibition machine with same motors sells for $4500. The new 1915 flying boat with same engines brings $6500.

The Thomas company is bidding on the Navy specifications.

"Within two years, in my opinion, the postal aviator will be as common a sight in this country as the railway mail clerk is now."—-Assistant Postmaster-General Wood, January 14, 1915.

* * * If the club goes in for aviation, I'm going to resign."—Statement of same man in 190S.

Aero Club President Takes Flying Boat Trip.—Headline in a 1915 newspaper.

"I'm opposed to the club's going in for aviation; this is a balloon club.

Palm Beach, Fla., February 3.—E. K. Jaquith, accompanied by Lionel Armstrong, of Pasadena, Cal.. made a trip in an aeroplane from here to Miami in an hour and five minutes this afternoon. Mr. Armstrong made an altitude flight of 2000 feet with Jaquith this morning.

uncooled. Information concerning the radiator is not given as the requirements are usually different in each installation.

A starting crank is provided by which the motor can be readily started from the machine. The crank handle can be extended to pass through a control board if desired.

Light weight and extremely efficient mufflers can be supplied also, one for each group of four cylinders which effectively silences the exhaust with only a slight loss of power.

Every motor is first coupled to a dynamometer and required to show its rated horsepower. It is later subjected to a rigid test with a propeller under the same conditions which it operates in actual service.

The weight of the motor complete with carburetor, magnetos, starting crank, propeller hub, bolts and front plate, but without radiator and propeller, is 550 lbs.—3.9 lbs. per b.h.p. The price of this motor is $4,000.

Another model, a six-cylinder, 80 h.p., is sold at $2,400.

EXPORTS AND IMPORTS.

IMPORTS.

December, 1914 ......:......... none

Same period 1913, parts........ $1,865

12 mos. ending Dec, 1914, 1 aeroplane ($1,856) and parts

($12,054)—total ............. 13,910

Same period, 1913, 1 aeroplane ($900') and parts ($20.590) —

total........................ 21,490

Same period, 1912, 16 aeroplanes ($61,100) and parts ($1,776)

—total ...................... 62,876

DOMESTIC EXPORTS.

December, 1914, 6 aeroplanes ($63,500) and parts ($90,004) —total ...................... 153,504

Same period, 1913, 1 aeroplane C$6,375) and parts ($1,002) — total ........................ 7,377

12 mos. ending Dec, 1914, 40 'planes ($253.499) and parts ($145,997)—total ............. 399,496

Same period. 1913. 19 'planes ($61.325) and parts ($25,606) —total................... 86,931

Same period, 1912, 35 'planes ($113,251) and parts ($13,176) -total ...................... 126,427

FOREIGN EXPORTS.

December, 1914 ............... none

December. 1913. 1 aeroplane____ 4,049

12 mos. ending December, parts

only ........................ 207

Same period, 1913, 3 'planes r$14.381) and parts ($900) — total ........................ 15.2S1

T.V WAREHOUSE DECEMBER 31.

1914. 1 aeroplane............... 1,856

Forty aeroplanes, with a total valuation as above, figure $6.337.47 each. If the parts were made up, at this rate, the number of additional aeroplanes would amount to over 23, making 63 the total exported for the year.

THE 1915 BENOIST BOAT

The Benoist airboat for 1915 is being made in two standard models, as follows, by the Benoist Aeroplane Company, of Chicago, 111.:

Model "A"' is a two passenger machine requiring 75 h.p. for efficient service. It has a spread of 36 ft., chord of 5 ft., and a gap of 6 ft. The standard machine is constructed with a spruce hull of the following dimensions : Length, fore and aft, 23 ft.: width at passenger seat, 38 in.; step situated 30 in. back of front strut, and is 5 in. deep. The part of the bottom in front of the step is doubled Va in. spruce, while the rear bottom is single S-s* in. spruce. The sides are made

of Y& in. spruce. The complete hull is finished in Valspar varnish, three coats on the inside and six coats outside. This year the standard boats may be equipped with the motor set in the hull of the boat or up between the planes, as preferred by the purchaser. The area is 365 sq. ft. Weight, with 75 h.p. motor, 1180 lbs. Useful load. 650 lbs. Farman-type lateral stabilizers, 16 sq. ft. Fixed tail stabilizer, 10 sq. ft. Elevator flaps, 18 sq. ft. The wings are covered with Irish linen, treated. The upper works of the boat are of mahogany. The controls may he the Benoist modified Far-

man or Deperdussin type, as preferred.

The Model "B" has the following specifications : Spread, 51 ft. 6 in.; chord, 5 ft., and a gap of 6 ft. The hull is 42 in. wide and 24 ft. fore and aft. This model requires 100 h.p. The motor may be placed either in the hull or up between the planes, according to the wishes of the purchaser, the same as in Model "A." Area, 497 sq. ft. Weight, with 100 h.p. motor, 1390 lbs. Useful load, 800 lbs. Stabilizers and elevators, same as in Model "A," 16, 10 and 18 sq. ft. respectively. Other specifications are practically the same as in Model "A."

SLOANE TRACTOR BIPLANE

The Sloane "E-2" Tractor Biplane has been developed to meet the leading military specifications.

This model can also be furnished as a hydroaeroplane.

This model is arranged for pilot and observer seated in tandem and is equipped with either double or single control. It is equipped with 80 H.P. Gyro motor. It has a flying range of from 40 to just over 7S miles an hour. Its guaranteed

climbing speed with full load is 4,000 feet in 10 minutes.

The planes are similar in design and construction to monoplane wings. The frame-work is built up of ash and spruce; the front main beams measuring 2Y% in. deep by l}i in. thick. Ribs close together, joints securely mortised and fastened; internally braced with heavy wire; unbleached linen treated with Naiad aero varnish; spread is 36

ft. 6 in, chord 5 ft. 6 in., the supporting surfaces being 400 sq. ft. Bottom set of planes are attached directly to the fuselage; upper planes are attached to short uprights mounted on top of fuselage.

The fuselage is of rectangular section, 30 in. wide hy 35 in. deep; cockpit tapering longitudinally to a flat horizontal pointed section 15 in. wide at the rear. Ash longitudinals 1J4 in.

square in front, tapering to 1 in. at rear. Braced by 8 sets of uprights, joined and fastened by special clamps without weakening longitudinals. Strongly cross wired and braced with additional wooden diagonals at points of greatest stress. Streamline effect of fuselage is preserved by enclosing the whole nose, with motor, and mounting in a round streamline aluminum cowl. Additional streamline wind shields protect cockpits.

The Gyro motor is mounted in special ball-bearing brackets in extreme nose, partly covered by oil shield, readily detachable for inspection or removal of motor.

Landing chassis consists simply of two pairs of struts arranged V fashion carrying two 26 in. by 3 in. streamline disc wheels mounted on opposite ends of a tubular axle, together with a single wheel located well forward and similar-

ly supported. Wheels attached by rubber band shock absorbers. Tail is supported by an ash skid sprung on with rubber shock absorbers.

Control is the regulation Deperdussin wheel and foot bar type, which operates by a turning of the wheel the ailerons, by a fore and aft movement of the elevator and by foot bar the rudder.

The drawing to scale shows dimensions of various parts.

SLOANE TARCTOR BIPLANE

WRIGHT-CURTISS SUIT.

The new suit of The Wright Company against the Curtiss Aeroplane Company is. not yet set down for hearing on the motion for preliminary injunction. The answering affidavits of The Wright Company are not yet filed, and when they are the date of hearing is to be agreed upon. A month or two may elapse before the case comes to hearing.

The defendant has filed in court a number of affidavits in opposition to the granting of a preliminary injunction by the court. These affidavits cover:

A denial of infringement, somewhat of a repetition of the same defense that was made in the former suit, and a statement about the old Langley machine of 1903. which the defendant claims flew in 1914.

The plaintiff will claim that the Lang-

MOUNTING A GYRO MOTOR

ley machine in 1914 was not the Langley machine of 1903.

The rebuttal affidavits on behalf of The Wright Company will be duly filed in the near future, after which the hearing will be had on the injunction motion.

MOUNTING A GYRO MOTOR

The drawing shown herewith shows the mounting scheme for tractor biplanes, using the 90 H.P. Gyro Duplex Motor, Model "K," 4JA in. by 6 in. bore and stroke, 7 cylinders, 215 lbs. The diameter of this motor is 35^ in.

The next higher power model is the "L," 110 H.P., 9 cylinders, same bore and stroke, weight 270 lbs., in. in

diameter.

TWO NEW ROBERTS MOTORS

The Roberts Motor Manufacturing Company, of Sandusky, Ohio, announces

simply giving it plenty of gasoline.'' As in all Roberts two-cycle motors,

two new models to supplant the 50 h.p. and 75 h.p. models formerly made and meet the present demand for higher power.

A new departure for this company is the use of iron cylinders instead of aerolite. The 100 h.p. is known as the "1915 6-X'' model. The six cylinders are 5x5 in., iron, with aerolite base and manifolds. The weight is 340 lbs. Two 2-in. Kingston carburetors are used and any make of magneto desired. For the motor a speed variation of from 200 to 2600 is claimed. The normal speed is 1400 to 1600. At 2000 r.p.m. the load curve drops to 6 per cent, and the full horsepower is obtained at 1400 to 1600. "In our recent tests the motor showed absolutely no vibration and ran for 10 hours without any attention whatever,

the oil is mixed with the gasoline. The gasoline consumption was found to be .8

of a pint per horsepower hour. The motor is guaranteed to stand more abuse or heavy work with less attention than any other motor on the market. Every motor is given a 10-hour test. It is claimed that the motor can be taken apart and fully reassembled in one hour's time. The timing system is so simple that it can be entirely removed and replaced in one minute. The Roberts plant has a capacity of 50 motors per month for the next 60 days. This model sells at $1250.

The 200 h.p. motor is of the same design, but the bore and stroke are &/2 and 6 in. respectively. This motor weighs 690 lbs. It is known as the "1915 6-XX," and sells at $1850.

These prices include carburetor, magneto, grease cups, spark plugs and necessary wire.

COLT AUTOMATIC GUN.

The Colt automatic seems to be the only gun on the market in the United States suitable for mounting on aeroplanes, land or water. The Benet-Mercier gun, shown in the issue dated October 30, 1914, on the latest Burgess-Dunne, was built by the Colt people to U. S. Government specifications. The Ordnance Department of the Government is known to be working along this line and has been conducting tests recently at Sandy Hook.

"1 do not know of any trials of the Colt automatic gun on aeroplanes, for there is no reason why they should be used for this purpose, that is, unless you want an automatic gun on an aeroplane. Such information as we have received seems to point to the fact that guns mounted on an aeroplane are not considered desirable abroad in this war, and the aviators use rifles and revolvers by preference. Of course, such news at the present time is not to be depended on entirely," advises a high naval aircraft authority.

The Colt consists of a detachable barrel connected with a breech casing in which the mechanism for charging, firing and ejecting is contained.

The cartridges, of any caliber desired, are automatically fed to the gun by means of belts from left to right. The belt containing 250 cartridges lies in a

quick detachable box attached to the breech casing.

The automatic action of the gun is effected by means of the pressure of the powder gases in the barrel. To operate, the feed belt is entered; the lever is thrown downward and rearward once (by hand) as far as it will go; this opens the breech and feeds the first cartridge from the belt to the carrier; the lever is then released, and the spring causes it to swing forward, close the vent and transfer the cartridge from the carrier to the barrel; also cocking the hammer, closing and locking the breech.

On pulling the trigger the cartridge is fired. After the bullet has passed the vent and before its exit from the muzzle, the powder gases expand through the vent upon the piston and gas lever, which in turn act on the breech mechanism, opening the breech, ejecting the shell and feeding to the carrier another cartridge. The gas lever, returning, under the action of the retractor spring, forces the cartridge into the chamber, closing and locking the breech. If, instead of releasing the trigger, it is held back, the same operation will be repeated as long as cartridges are supplied, producing a continuous fixe at the rate of four hundred shots or more per minute.

Changes of elevation are made by means of the worm gear, which engages in the teeth of the arc, and is operated by means of the hand wheel. The gun may be secured at any desired elevation by the arc clamp.

The gun weighs about 35 lbs., the mount weighs about 28 lbs. At 200 yards for accuracy. 100 consecutive hits were made in 16 seconds.

This gun will swing horizontally through a complete circle of 360°. The muzzle may be depressed 39° and elevated 31°, giving a vertical range of 70°. By changing position of mount, the gun can shoot almost perpendicularly downward.

The length of barrel is 2S in.

NEW BOOKS.

AIRCRAFT IN WAR. By Eric Stuart Bruce, M.A. 12mo, cloth, 177 pp., illustrated. Published by George H. Doran Company, New York; or obtainable through Aeronautics. Price, 50 cents.

Here is an absorbing little book covering the development of aircraft, the types of modern airships in various principal countries, the German airship fleet, advantages and disadvantages of airships, types of aeroplanes in the big armies of the world, Germany's aeroplane equipment, the first use of the aeroplane in war, the new arm in Armageddon and the present deficiencies and future possibilities of the military aeroplane.

THE FLYING BOOK; The Aviation World, Who's Who and Industrial Directory. Small Svo, paper, 173 pp., illustrated. Published by Longman's, Green & Co., New York; or obtainable through Aeronautics. Price. 60 cents. This little book, besides two articles of interest, contains drawings and principal details of the best known aeroplanes and motors of every country, a trade directory of principal firms all over the world dealing in aeronautical material, a "who's who" of prominent aviators and some notes on the organization of military aviation in the armies and navies of some of the principal countries.

ization was considered inefficient owing to its speed reducing feature.

Permanently fixed vertical vanes, or vanes normally presenting an actuating surface for the purpose of preventing side slip or overhanging on turns, were considered as introducing such a dangerous element as to call forth unanimous condemnation.

The following resolutions of a general technical nature were adopted:

"That it be recorded as the opinion of the Conference that a free pendulum stabilizing device is not practical.

"That it is the opinion of the Conference that any stabilizing device which would reduce the cpeed of the machine either permanently or when in action is not to be approved of.

"That it is the opinion of the Conference that vertical vane actuated devices introduced to counteract side slip or overhanging on turns is likely to produce exactly the wrong result when acted upon by side gusts.

"That the Conference warn inventors against injudicious deduction from the action of small paper models of the behavior of a full size machine.

"That the Conference expressly abstains from endorsing or condemning any individual invention presented before it.

"That the Conference recommends the calling of a similar conference next year, by the Aeronautical Society of America, the program for such conference to be established during the intervening period.

Resolutions of thanks to the Aeronautical Society of America and especially to Mr. Leon Goldmerstein, Chairman of the Technical Board, for their pains taken in the organization of the Conference; to Mr. Elmer A. Sperry for his courtesy in showing the Conference the extremely interesting work being done at his plant in Brooklyn; to Mr. E. D. Anderson for his kindly placing automobiles at the services of the Conference and for his arranging the special Choralcello Concert, and to Mr. Louis R. Adams for his procuring the services of the moving picture photographer.

After the meeting on the 5th, the Conference inspected Mr. Hammer's noted collection, showing historically the development of the incandescent lamp. Luncheon was served in the Society's rooms and the delegates, on leaving the building, were photographed by a moving picture operator. The Conference then visited the Sperry Gyroscope factory in Brooklyn, where many scientific devices were inspected and their manufacture witnessed. In the evening the Conference attended a dinner tendered by the Aeronautical Society and a concert at the Choralcello Studio.

An exhibition of books on aeronautics and kindred subjects was arranged by Mr. W. C. Cutter, Librarian of the Engineering Societies, and was inspected by the Conference on the 6th.

TROUBLES OF AN EDITOR.

To the Editor:

The writer, who although associated with the aeronautical industry for the past four years as sales manager of the * " aeroplane and

motor company, and later as sales manager of the * 'plane and motor company, while

never having the pleasure of meeting you personally, is undoubtedly known to you through his former connections.

Since severing my connection with the (latter) company, last November, "* * I have heen in touch with a numher of motors companies and at the present time am negotiating with two well known motor manufacturers with the view to interesting them in the aeronautical field, and it is with reference to this matter I am writing you.

Personally the writer helieves that the present time, owing to the European War, and also to the lack of high class American aviation motors, offers exceptional opportunities to the motor manufacturer who can produce a high class motor suitable for aeronautical use which is really fit to he called an aviation motor. We all know that there is a dearth of high class aviation motors on the American market, and what motors we do produce in general do not compare very favorably with the European makes.

It is true that the * * * motor has done some very good work, but it is not exactly satisfactory as it gives considerable trouble, and besides does not deliver the power it should for its size. The writer also understands that the * * * are not satisfied with

THE FIRST JOINT CONFERENCE ON AVIATION.

United States Navy, and William J. Hammer, the Aeronautical Society and the American Society of Electrical Engineers.

The conference was opened by Acting-President F. W. Barker, of the Aeronautical Society, and organization was effected with Prof. Arthur Gordon Webster as permanent Chairman.

The members of the Technical Board presented the following inventions to the conference for consideration, a number of the inventors being present with models for demon-tration:

Henry Morse, pendulum device for stabilizing. Theodore Gibon, indirect pendulum device for stabilizing.

Thomas L. White, air velocity device (Venturi tube) for stabilizing.

J. M. Davis, inherently stable design of aeroplane.

John Roche. -.

George Bold, universally mounted aileron, pendulum controlled.

Theodore Windell, pressure plates to offset banking.

E. Ebbinghaus, general design and pendulum device.

M. E. Clark, collapsible vane stabilizer, compressed air control.

R. R. Grant, utilizing side wind gusts to alter wing curvature for stabilizing.

Prof. Allila Pedery, mercury damped pendulum device.

Walter H. Phipps, hinged aileron. H. L. Coakley, rudder at an angle to offset banking, manually controlled.

Louis R. Adams, trussed framework for aeroplane.

Charles Colhona. device for varying lift of dirigihle balloons by compression of the hydrogen.

David H. Coles, device for utilizing exhaust gas of engine, in dirigihle balloons.

P. A. Peterson, propelling wings with feathering device.

The principles of these inventions were thoroughly and ably discussed by the delegates and it is believed that the several recommendations made by the conference will assist materially in the perfection of practical and commercial stabilizers.

Stabilization by means of devices controlled or actuated by free pendulums was exhaustively discussed and it seemed to he the concensus of opinion that the free or undamped pendulum was a totally unreliable means for the purpose. The conference was fortunate in having present a delegate who had experimented exhaustively with the free pendulum and found it could not be relied upon to do what was desired, but, on the contrary, would invariably do what was not desired.

The Venturi tube principle in combination with servo motors was debated at length and doubt was expressed that as this is a constant speed device it might fail to produce the desired effect, and while no strong objection was made to the principle it seemed to be the opinion of most of the delegates that it would have to be more thoroughly tested to ascertain its true worth.

The principle of presenting normally negative angles of incidence in devices for stabil-

OF AMERICA 29 West 39th Street. New York

OFFICIAL BULLETIN

President T. R. MacMechen, who recently returned from England for a short visit has given some highly interesting talks at the Regular Thursday Evening Round Table Meetings, at which he described the work upon which he is engaged, and also generally reviewed the operations of aeroplanes and dirigibles in Europe, affording the members in this manner an insight concerning actual aeronautical conditions in warfare such as has not been obtainable through published accounts.

At the meeting on February 11th Mr. E. C. Mulligan described and invited discussion on the uniflow steam engine with relation to its possibilities for aeronautical use, and with a view to the co-operation of aeronautical engineers in adapting this type of steam engine for the piopulsion of aircraft.

Among other suhjects that have so far had some preliminary discussion at the Round Table Talks are the Senrab Kerosene Carburetor and the Acme Slide Valve Internal Combustion Engine, to which devices further consideration will be given at future meetings.

The Aeronautical Engineers Society, which is the engineering branch of the A. S. of A., will hold its first business meeting, for the purpose of electing officers, on Thursday evening, the 4th of March, at S o'clock, or just before the opening of the Round Table Talk.

New members who have been duly elected, subject to the Rules of the By-Laws, are A. J. Spain and George A. Black.

The First Joint Conference on Aviation was called to meet on February 5th and 6th in New York at the Aeronautical Society of America's rooms in the Engineering Societies Building. 29 West 39th Street, through the initiative of the Technical Board of the Aeronautical Society of America.

The delegates present were: Leon Goldmerstein. Lewis R. Compton, Earle Atkinson and Charles W. Howell, representing the Technical Board of the Aeronautical Society; Prof. Arthur Gordon Webster (Clark University), American Mathematical Society and American Physical Society: Prof. E. V. Huntington (Harvard University), American Mathematical Society; Dr. Edgar Buckingham (Bureau of Standards), American Physical Society; Elmer A. Sperry (Honorary Vice-President), American Society of Mechanical Engineers; Lieut. Commander P. E. Dongan and Lieut. C A. Blakely, the

the * * * motor and are looking for something better.

The * * * motor is a good motor and, by many, is considered the best American aviation motor; but it also has its troubles. These troubles, however, could be eliminated if there were sufficient capital behind the motor and with proper management undoubtedly would come to the fore. But as long as the motor remains in the present hands it will not become a serious contender in American aeronautics.

As to the * * * , the old * * * did good work and was a satisfactory motor, but the * * * gave a lot of trouble; and as to the new * * * there is not much known as yet. Although the writer understands that it is doing some good work, it is still an uncertainty and must be proven before it can receive serious consideration.

The * * * is a motor which appeals to amateurs because of its low price, but it will hardly receive serious consideration from the better class of aviators or the Government in its present form because of its inability to stand up under service.

The * * * motor, as far as the writer knows, has never been sold to any but * * * and besides it is too small a motor for the average plane.

The * * * motor, while a very good motor, has not become very popular undoubtedly because it is a type which does not permit the

highest efficiency in motor construction and therefor does not appeal to the aeronautical world.

The * * * motor has done some very good work of late but it is still somewhat of an experiment. Its scope also is limited in that air-cooled motors made in sizes over 100 H. P. have not exactly proven satisfactory owing to difficulties in cooling. The general tendency is towards larger, higher powered motors, and when it comes to this type the water-cooled motor seems more desirable. I also understand that the Government is not favorably inclined towards (this type of) motor.

The * * * motor is a newcomer and, therefore, must be proven before it will receive serious consideration. Being an air-cooled motor its scope like the * * * is also limited.

If the market is as I believe and the American aviation motor situation as I stated, it seems to me that there really is a need for another high class aviation motor witb a very good market for a motor that will do the work and stand up under service.

Both of the parties with whom I am negotiating have been very successful in the automobile racing game, the one party producing nothing but racing motors, and either one, I believe, with what assistance I can give them, is capable of producing a high class aviation

motor. Their entering this field, however, depends upon my ability to convince them of the possibilities of this industry and the demand for such a motor, and this is the reason I am writing you.

In order to substantiate my views, and also to assist me in convincing my parties that there really is a demand for a high class aviation motor. I would like to have an expression from you giving your views of the American aviation motor situation. I would also like to have you advise me as to what type, style and size motor you believe to be the most desirable and best suited to meet all the requirements; in fact any suggestions or recommendations you care to make will be gratefully received.

I have appointments with both of my parties during the Chicago Automobile Show, whicb opens in about a week, so would consider it a great favor if you would let me hear from you at an early date as I would like to have what information you see fit to give me to use in trying to win my parties to the cause of a\iation.

Thanking you in advance for your kindness and hoping to he able to reciprocate in the near future in the way 01 advertising, etc., I am. Yours very truly,

Xow. what would yon answer this gentleman; and how?

SLOANE

AEROPLANES

AEROPLANES

FLYING BOATS

HYDROAEROPLANES

MOTORS

INSTRUMENTS

ACCESSORIES

MANUFACTURED SOLELY BY

The Aircraft Company, Inc.

1733 Broadway, New York

The

Wright

Company

(The

Wright

Patents)

THE NEW WRIGHT AEROPLANES

For sport, exhibition or military use, over land or water now embody the improvements that have been suggested by the experiments quietly conducted during the past ten years.

The Wright Company

DAYTON, OHIO New York Office: 11 Piee St.

GET THE WORLD'S largest aeronautical catalogue, 6 red stamps; or our aeronautical motor catalogue just off the press. 4 red stamps. Blue prints, $1.75, all standard aeroplanes and aerial driven cycle car—the latest fad. Heath propellers for air, water and land represent the survival of the fittest. Six years' propeller production proves perfection. Three red stamps for propeller catalogue. Heath Aerial Vehicle Co., Chicago.

_WILL SACRIFICE latest flying boat, $775. Completely equipped. Heath Aerial Vehicle Co., Chicago.

WANTED—50 to 60 H.P. aeronautical motor in good condition; no junk. Arch. Irwin. General Delivery, Topeka, Kans.

- (4x)

A BEGINNER in aeronautics wishes to buy a second hand aero motor for my own made monoplane of approximately 50 H.P. It must he reasonable and in good working order. G. Muller, 1633 N. I5th st., Philadelphia, Pa.

WANT TO BUY an 80 H.P. Gnome or an 80 or 90 H.P. Curtiss. Address John Weaver, c/o Aeronautics. (3x)

FOR SALE—On account of sickness, aeroplane, very cheap for cash, or trade for anything of value. E. M., 1522 Norwood av., Toledo, O.

MUST SELL—Practically new 30 H.P. 4 cyl. water cooled Curtiss motor complete with propeller; Shebler carburetor and Bosch magneto, $275. Demonstration given. Heath Aerial Vehicle Co., Chicago, 111.

Page 13

PATENTS

SECURED or FEE RETURNED VICTOR J. EVANS & COMPANY

Send sketch or model for FREE opinion as to Patentability. Write for our Guide Book, and Whit to liteol with valuable Liil of IotcoIiodi Wanted sent Free. Send for our special list of prizes offered for Aeroplanes. $600,000 offmred in prizes for airships. We are Experts in Aeroo.ntict and have a special Aeroo.ntical Deportment. Copies of Patents in Airships, 10 cents each.

Main Offices: 771 NINTH STREET,N. W WASHINGTON. D. C.

PATENTS

Manufacturers wani me to send them patents on useful inventions. Send me at once drawing1 and description of your invention and 1 will give you an honest report as to securing a patent and whether I can assist you in selling the patent. Highest references. Established 25 years. Personal attention in all cases.

WM. N. MOORE Loan and Trust Building Washington. D. C.

DON'T wn,e us un,ess

V* * you arc interested ia a reliable, efficient andeconomical power plant. That is the only kiod we build. Four sizes. Reasonable Prices

Kemp Machine Works Muncie, Ind.

Special grade* of Bamboo for Aeronautic Work. Reed, Rattan and Split Bamboo for modela. Tonka Rattao for Sklda \v\ diameter and under any length.

J. DELTOUR. Inc. ,M„T;i''nst

< BENOIST «c

AEROPLANES FLYING BOATS

AEROPLANE COMPANY

factory and office

341 S. St. Louis Ave

(incorporated)

Chicago, Ills.

PATENTS

C. L. PARKER

Ex-tneenber Rx«mfnìn£ Corpi, V. 8. Paient Otti*» Attorney-at-Law and Solicitor of Patent« American and foreign patents secured promptly and with special regard to the complete legal protection of the invention. Handbook for inventors sent upon request. 3û McGiU Bid*. WASHINGTON. D. C.

PATENTS

THAT PROTECT AND PAY rnrr BOOKS. ADVICE AND SEARCHES t* KLL

Send sketch or model (or search. Higheil References Best Results, Promptness Assured.

WATSON E. COLEMAN, Patent Lawyer 624 F Street, N. W. Washington, D. C.

BALLOONS--

IAirships. Aeroplanes. Gas Generators, Safety Packs. Parachutes. Exhibitions furnished with Balloons, Aeroplanes and Airships. Stevens' balloons used by 95% of American and Canadian clubs. AERONAUT

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BALLOONS DIRIGIBLES

Records prove we build the best Balloons in AuiHijca. Nine 1st prizes. Three 2nd, and Two 3rd prizes out of fourteen World-wide Contests.

Write for prices and particulars. HONEYWELL BALLOON CO. 4460 Chouteau St. Louis, Mo.

the u. s. navy uses

•1 Because they are the best by a large measure and Proved Best by test and official report. <SOthers use Plaio Paragons because they are not only best but also cheapest. ^For Efficiency— For Ecoaomy, investigate Pt.rt.goos. No charge for information — No pay but for resells. <J\Ye have the only propeller factory in America. Large stock. Quick shipments.

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DROPPING MESSAGES FROM AEROPLANES.

PEOLI HEADS NEW COMPANY

Joseph P. Day, with several New York men of means, has formed the Peoli Aeroplane Corporation, and it has now built an armored war aeroplane in Washington, D. C. Cecil Peoli, the constructor, promises a sensational long distance flight soon. A motor hitherto unknown on the aero market is to be used.

Among the stockholders are Nicholas F. Brady, son of the late Anthony N. Brady, and president of the New York Edison Company; Hugh L. Cooper, a consulting engineer of 101 Park avenue ; J. Clarence Davies, a real estate dealer of 156 Broadway, and Harold Roberts, president of the American Real Estate Company, 527 Fifth avenue.

Peoli is a graduate of "Captain Tom" Baldwin's famous school for fledgeling man-birds—and one who reflects honor on his tutor.

BUSINESS TROUBLES.

Notices are being sent out for a meeting of creditors of the Moisant International Aviators to be held March 9, 1915, at the office of Charles A. Tipling, 1 Bridge Plaza, L. I. City, N. Y. This companv was adjudged bankrupt on February 18, 1915.

AEROPLANE INSURANCE.

It will be welcome news to owners of aeroplanes and aeroplane manufacturers to know that insurance can be written on aeroplanes stored and in course of manufacture.

This fact has come out in connection with the fire sustained November 21, 1914, by Mrs. Eva M. Shneider. at Hempstead, L. 1., when some aeroplanes and tools, comprising all the contents of the Shneider shed, were destroyed. It has developed that these machines, parts and tools were insured for a period of two months by the Century Insurance Company, the face of the two policies being $2500 each. The insurance was to have expired naturally on November 25th. The loss claimed by Mrs. Shneider was $702S.35. Mrs. Shneider is alleged to own the machines with which business is done under the name of "Fred Shneider," with an address at 1020 East 178th Street, New York, after a bill of sale involving $5000 was executed by Fred Shneider to his wife, March 25, 1912. in consideration of the sum of $1 paid Shneider by his wife, according to a sworn statement of Shneider's in supplementary proceedings.

NAVAL AIR APPROPRIATION $1,000,000

The air appropriation for the Navy has again been set back to the $1,000,000 mark and this amount is now assured for Naval Aeronautics.

Proposals will be issued shortly inviting bids for dirigibles.

A considerable number of ways have been suggested for an aviator to signal his side when on reconnaisance flights or in directing fire; wireless telegraphy, and various systems of optical telegraphy, such as the Means Smoke Signal Service, have been experimented with.

Additional difficulties are met in delivering messages with sketch maps

showing the position of the enemy's troops, guns, etc. This can be done by returning to the base and alight for the purpose of delivering the same, but oft-times it may he desirable to save valuable time by dropping messages or maps without alighting.

A weighted pouch is often used, but a more elaborate apparatus is illustrated in the accompanying sketches from Flight. French aviator, Paul Fugairon, has invented and tested the same with good results near Brest. It consists of a hollow cylinder pointed towards the lower end and fitted at the top with a lantern-shaped cap. Into the lower, pointed end of the cylinder has been poured an amount of lead through a passage in which passes the needle, T. The top of the needle is connected_to_a small crank lever, which engages with collar, E., on the firing pin, B. The coil

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The instructions given in this book will enable any person to properly install, care for and operate his own engine. The book contains much valuable information and is sold for 25 cents by The Norman W. Henley Publishing Co, 132 Nassau St.. New York.

spring. R, retains the firing pin, B, in its position, the two brackets, S, serving as guides. Over the top of cylinder is fitted a cap, L, the top of which is formed lantern-shaped with four open windows, C. Held by four clamps inside the cap are materials for a Bengal fire, which is ignited by the explosion of a cap of mercury fulminate placed

in the outer end of the bent tube, U. The needle, T, striking the ground, is forced up against the action of the spring, thus pulling down the firing pin, B, by means of the crank lever resting on the collar, E. The crank lever, having moved down sufficiently, releases the firing pin, B, which driven upwards by spring, R. strikes and ignites the cap of mercury fulminate, from which the fire is transmitted to materials for the Bengal fire through the bent tube, U.

The result is a bright Bengal fire which is visible not only at night but in the day time as well, which burns long enough to enable a soldier on the lookout to locate its position.

There might be attached to the cylinder some form of parachute to retard the fall enough to render the dropping cylinder • harmless to those beneath, yet allow sufficient forcible contact to operate the needle, T.

SPAIN NEW AIR MARKET.

A military aviation camp will shortly be established on municipal property at Tabladilla, about a mile outside the city limits of Seville, Spain.

It is suggested that manufacturers of aeroplanes and motors send copies of their catalogues, terms, prices, etc., to the American consulate at Seville in duplicate: one copy will be kept on file and the other sent to the parties interested.

100 H.P. - 340 lbs. - $1,250 200 H.P. - 690 lbs. - $1,850

A "Q-D" Motor—Simple—No Vibration—10-Hour Test for Every Motor—Guaranteed to Stand More Abuse and Heavy Work with Less Attention than Any Other Motor.

All it Wants is Gasoline and Spark. Send for New Circular

Roberts Motor Manufacturing Company

Sandusky, Ohio, U. S. A

ROBERTS Motors

AERONAUTICAL RADIATORS

Built in capacities and types for standard and special aviation motors

Write for prices on standard makes. Send your specifications for special designs

EL ARCO RADIATOR COMPANY

64th St. & West End Are., New York City Abo Maoufaehirars of Automobile Radiators of all types

WIRE

We make an extra high grade plated finish wire for aviators' use.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ADDRESS

John A. Roebling's Sons Co.

TRENTON, N. J.

s. ■• sa

*-,'iiJitliiiiÉ Ml''

6-cylinder, 100 H. P.

Builders as well as Aviators are

MAXIMOTORS'

most ardent supporters Built in Four Sizes from SO-ISO H. P.

WB-Ë.—Ï

DETROIT

1528 JEFFERSON AVENUE E.

FOR FLYING BOATS USE

JEFFERY'S MARINE GLUE

Use our Waterproof Liquid Glue, or No. 7 Black, White, or Yellow Soft Quality Giue for waterproofing tbe canvas coreriog of flying boats. It not only waterproofs and preserves the canvas hut attaches it to the wood, and with a coat of paint once a year will last as long as the boat.

For use In combination with calico or canvas between veneer in diagonal planking, aod (or waterproofing muslin for wing surfaces. Send for samples, circulars, directions for use, eto.

^ W. FERDINAND & CO. 201 South Street, Boston, Ma... U. S. A.

ORDER NOW

FOR SPRING DELIVERY

90 H.P. Gyro "Duplex

(Cut shows 110 H. P. Motor)

Best Motor For Exhibition, Loop-the-Loop and All Practical Flying

Orders Filled in Rotation as Received

The Gyro Motor Co.

774 GIRARD STREET WASHINGTON, D. C.

NEW YORK OFFICE 331 MADISON AVENUE

5lurlevcini

ilteq. u. s. pat. oft.)

140 H. P. Aeronautical Motor

The latest addition to the Sturtevant line, embodying the most advanced European practice.

Eight cylinder, high speed type with propeller driven at slower speed through a reducing gear.

Extremely compact design. High volumetric efficiency.

Low fuel consumption.

Minimum vibration.

Two magnetos.

Weight 4 lbs. per horsepower.

Constructed entirely of domestic materials.

The largest manufacturers of aeronautical motors in the country. Prompt deliveries in any quantity.

COMPLETE SPECIFICATIONS ON REQUEST

B. F. STURTEVANT COMPANY

Hyde Park, Boston, Mass.

VOL. XVI. No. 2

MARCH 30, 1915

15 Cents

ER0MÜTIC

ilillilHIilll.....IHIIt

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ail

Hold the Principal American Records as Follows:

Altitude, without passenger, Capt. H. LeRoy Muller, U.S.A., 17,185 feet. Altitude, with one passenger, Lieut. J. C. Carberry, U.S.A., 11,690 feet. Duration, Military Tractor, Lieut. Byron 0. Jones,U.S. A., 8 hrs. 53min. Duration, Hydroaeroplane, Lieut. J. H. Towers, U.S.N., 6 hrs. 10min.

Motors Ready for Delivery

MODEL "S," 6-CYL., 60 H. P. MODEL "O-X," 8-CYL., 90 H.P. MODEL "O," 8-CYL.. 80 H.P. MODEL "OXX," 8-CYL., 100 H. P. MODEL "V 8-CYL. 160 H.P.

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The Ball-bearing Motor

MODEL A8V 110-120 H. P.

SIMPLICITY

and PRICE

THE MAXIMOTOR has always been sold at a price that put it within the reach of all.

WE have been enabled to give Sterling Worth at Maximotor Prices because of the simplicity of design, and the ease and rapidity with which these motors can be built.

MANUFACTURING in Detroit, the home of the gas engine, has played no small part in reducing the cost of production.

Let Us Send You Our Catalogue and Prices

DETROIT

1530 Jefferson Ave. Michigan

Published semi-monthly in the best interests of Aeronautics by AERONAUTICS PRESS INC. 250 West 54th St.. New York

Telephone. Circle 2289 Cable. Aeronautics. New York

ERNEST L. JONES Editor

M. B. SELLERS Technical Editor

HARRY SCHULTZ Model Editor

FRANK CASH Ass't Editor

Entered as Second Class Mail Matter. September 22. 1908. under tbe Act of March 3. 1879. $3.00 a year. 15 cents a copy.

Postage free in the United States. Hawaii, the Philippines and Porto Rico. 25 Cents extra for Canada and Mexico. 50 Cents evtra for all other countries.

Make all checks and money orders free of exchange and payable to AERONAUTICS PRESS.

The magazine is issued on the 15th and 30th of each month. All copy must be received o days before dace of publication. If proof is to be shown, allowance must be made for receipt and return.

Subscribers will kindly notify this office if discontinuance is desired at the end of their subscription period, otherwise it will be assumed that their subscription is to he continued.

NOTICE TO SUBSCRIBERS

With the preceding issue was begun Vol. XVI, unth Xo. 1. The issues for each six months have, heretofore, formed one volume. There should have been 12

issues for Vol. XV, instead of the 8 which have been published. Instead of continuing to name future issues consecutively, completing Vol. XV. to avoid an anachronism, a new start "was made

with the issue of March IS, 1915.

All unexpired subscriptions arc set ahead four months so that every subscriber zvill receive the full complement of issues due him.

RESISTANCE OF BODIES IN MOTION IN A FLUID

Different Regimes.—By M. B. Sellers

It may be remembered that M. Ria-bouchinski,* in comparing various "wind tunnels," refers to the fact that M. Rateau. Prof. Prandtl and Prof. Mallock found that between 30 and 40° inclination, the pressure on a plate exposed to a current of air was subject to more or less violent fluctuations, now high, now low; and that these investigators attributed this condition to different types of eddies formed behind the plate.

In his own wind tunnel M. Riabouch-inski found no such pronounced fluctuations, but in a model of the Prandtl tunnel, where the rod supporting the plate was bent and joined to the plate at its middle, so as not to interfere with the flow around the edges, the same fluctuations were observed as reported by Prof. Prandtl; but with the rod attached to the edge of the plate they did not occur. When the return portion of the Prandtl tunnel was removed no fluctuations were observed. XI. Ria-bouchinski's conclusion was that the current in the Prandtl tunnel was steadier and thus the eddies or vortices formed about the plate were longer preserved.

This brings to mind that M. Rateau,t in determining the centre of pressure on a plate found, in the neighborhood of 40°, two positions of equilibrium for the same position of the axis.

Captain Jules Constanzi,** using a cylindrical vertical tube (21.7 mm. diam.) partly submerged, to a depth of 385 mm., in water, finds two sets of resistance values for speeds of translation from 0 to 5 m. p. s.; the plotted values arranging themselves along two divergent curves, having their common origin at zero speed and pressure. These curves represent two regimes of resistance, which we may call the lower and higher regimes.

If we take K — A±_and find and plot

SV:

K for these values of R. then the values of K will be grouped along two approximately horizontal and parallel lines: that is, for each regime the resistance is about proportional to the square of the speed.

With a tube of elongated section 23.5 by 75 mm. the two regimes were not continuous, but instead, there seemed to be a transition from the lower to the higher regime between 3 and 4 m. p. s., the higher regime of this tube blending with the lower regime of the other.

The resistance in water of a tube of lenticular section being determined and the values of K plotted (resistance on speed) K was found to decrease rapidly between 2 and 4 m. p. s., showing presumably a passage from a higher to a lower regime. M. Kiffel found a similar condition for streamline aeroplane struts; and Capt. Constanzi, in his small wind tunnel, finds that a tube of fusiform section shows K decreasing (within the range of the experiment) ; whereas for a round tube, he finds K constant. Capt. Constanzi concludes that the change in value of K corresponds to the passage from one regime to another, which occurs also in air. but at a higher speed ; the relation being that between the viscosities of the fluids.

Capt. Constanzi tested two spheres: one 10 cm., the other 20 cm. diameter. The larger showed a change from a higher to a lower regime at about 1.35 m. p. s.. the smaller at about 2.75 m. p. s.; outside this region of change A* was nearly constant These two speeds are in inverse ratio to the diameter of the spheres. For the same speed, the coefficient of the smaller sphere is higher than that of the larger sphere, as is also the case with wires and dirigible bodies.

M. Eiffel.*** experimenting with spheres in air observed similar phenomena. Lord Rayleigh.tt basing his conclusions on M. Eiffel's experiments, has shown that the change of regime occurs at corresponding speeds following the law of similitude of Osborne and Rayuolds. If we plot the values of A' on VD as abscissas (D = diameter), the curves will almost superpose.

Capt. Constanzi's experiments confirm this deduction, as also those of M. Maurin at the Institute of St. Cyr, with eight spheres ranging from 17 mm. to 9S mm. radius. The roughness of the

surface and the character of the support are not without influence.

Finally, Capt. Constanzi refers to experiments on the resistance of wires, made in the Goettingen laboratory and in the National Physical Laboratory. The points representing the co-efficients of resistance of the different wires, in function of speed, are scattered over the diagram without appearance of order. But it suffices to dispose them in function of "VD" to have them range themselves along a curve, at first descending, later becoming horizontal; the descending portion corresponding to the change of regime.

Capt. Constanzi concludes from what precedes that the descending part of the curve of K corresponds to the passage from one regime to another, which occurs following the law of Osborne and Raynolds at different speeds—that is, the smaller the model the higher the speed.

"There exists, therefore, for several forms, spheres, tubes, wires and 'carenes' a double regime of resistance, and we pass from one regime to the other at different speeds, which depend on the dimensions of the bodies and on the density of the fluid. Probably the two regimes follow the quadratic law as has been shown in certain particular instances.''

"Therefore, in experimenting with models it is important to know whether one is in the first or second regime. In the first regime the phenomena are not comparable to those which occur in full sized apparatus, unless the law of Raynolds is not yet proven. Finally this, double regime which at lower speeds depends on viscosity, is encountered again at high (ballistic) speeds; in which case, compressibility is the preponderant disturbing phenomenon."

•Bulletin de l'lnstitute de Koutchino, Pt. IV. 113.

tAerophile. Aug. 1st. 1909.

**"Rendiconti" of the Italian Military Aeronautic Laboratory. Vol. I: also Technique Aeronautique, Aug. 1st. 1914.

♦«*G. Eiffel. ('. R. Acad. Sc.. Dec. 30. 1912.

t+Lord Ravleigh, C. R. Acad. Sc., Tune 13th, 1913.

NAVY DIRIGIBLE SPECIFICATIONS

With $1,000,000 appropriated by Congress for naval aeronautics, with additional funds which can be drawn on in the same manner as has been done in the past to provide money for the work that already has been acomplished, the navy is now in a. position to carry a good part of the plan framed by the Naval Board of Aeronautics, and first published in full in Aeronautics for October 30, 1914, p. 122, and January 31, 1914. p. 19.

The first proposals Issued ate for two non-rigid dirigibles, "vedette" type, complete with necessary power plant, equipment and outfit, in accordance with specifications, inflated at Pensacola, Fla.

Bids are desired on the following basis:

1. Dirigible—Includes the dirigible proper, with car stabilizers, controls, control surfaces and leads, blowers and fittings, engine covers, cockpit covers, etc., with crates.

2. Power Plant—Includes motor, propeller, radiator, gasoline and oil tanks, piping, controls, gasoline and oil gauges, power transmission system, crates.

j. Instruments—Includes irstrument board complete, chart holder, gauges, etc.

4. Automatic stah'llzers, if proposed.

Dirigibles having characteristics differing from those specified will be considered. Decision as to merit of design will be based on extent to which proposed designs conform to or exceed the requirements and in this respect the following points are considered of import-

ance in the order given : Completeness with which detail information ashed for is furnished, staunchness of design, useful load, speed, altitude attainable, rate of ascent, descent and directional stability. Merits of power plant will be considered from the viewpoint of suitability for purpose, propeller efficiencj', fuel consumption, weight and compactness in the order given.

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS. Dimensions not to exceed 175 ft. by 50 ft. high by 35 ft. wide, useful load 2,000 lbs. or more. Composed as follows: Crew, 1,450 lbs.; tool kit, fire extinguisher, rations, 50 lbs.; fuel, oil and water for 2 hours, 100 lbs.; air and ballast, 400 lbs. With full load—to be capable of ascent to at least 3,000 ft. without casting ballast, descending at a rate of at least 6 ft. per second from above altitude; speed, 25 m. p. h. or more; duration, 2 hours or more, full speed; car capacity. 8; enclosed body; car to be of such form and buoyancy to allow resting on or mov-ng through water; 2 balloonets, with means of "trimming" by their use, to act in conjunction with the pitching controls; twin screws, swivelling; at least 1 ripping panel at bow and at stern; substantial means for mooring by nose to mooring mast in a wind 50 per cent, greater than the speed; gas leakage limited to 1 per cent, in 24 hours in shed, normal conditions.

POWER PLANT. Two motors, light as practicable consistent with reliability, economy and service. To obtain quick delivery stand-

ard aeroplane motors accepted, provide mountings, insure absence of vibration. Transmission to provide for swivelling proppellers to assist in ascending, descending or maneuvering. Propellers to be more than 70 per cent, efficient at full speed.

There are also requirements covering protection from weather and moisture by paints, varnishes, etc., covers, color scheme, make of fabric used, its strength, coating, etc.

Complete plans, specifications and descriptive matter are required covering: General arrangement plans, principal dimensions, performance; envelope (strength of cloth, seams, color, permeability; stabilizers and rudders; gas valves, operating means, capacity) ; balloonets (cloth, strength, seams, etc.) ; ignition, lubrication and all other details of motor and performance; transmission, blowers, propellers (no, pitch, diameter, etc.), fuel supplies, car and suspension, equipment, weight schedule.

In the original plans as formulated by the Navy Aeronautic Board $85,000 was figured as the probable cost of these two airships.

NO ARMY AVIATION PARK.

Congress cut the armv s appropriation down to $300,000 and refused to give the money asked for the purchase of an aviation site in the vicinity of San Diego. No more aircraft will be purchased other than those at present under construction during the balance of the present fiscal year, as there are practically no funds available for this purpose.

MAXIMOTOR MODEL A8V 110-120 H. P.

In building the "Maximotor," Max Dingfelder has followed standard practice in design, but has cut down weight by elimination and combination of parts. Ball-bearings have been adopted for the crank and cam-shafts.

The latest model to be added to the line of 4s and 6s is an 8 cyl. "V" of 110120 h.p. The construction details of this motor follow:

The crank shaft is cut from a solid billet of chrome vanadium, 2'A in. in dia., and hollow bored. Connecting rods are drop forged from 3 1/3 in. nickel steel: 9'A in. centers. The crankcase is of the barrel, or single piece, type, cast from the finest grade aluminum alloy, and well webbed. Cast in pairs, the cylinders are from the very finest, close-grained semi-steel. Water jackets are very long, of welded pressed steel. Nickel steel tubing is used for the camshaft, with cams pinned by 3 nickel steel taper pins. Pistons are of the same material as cylinders, accurately machined with convex head, strong and light. Intake valves are 2'4 in.; exhaust. l"s in. Cast iron head fused to nickel steel stem by patented process. A gear-type pump placed in deepened

front of crankcase runs in oil fed from service tank. Riming at engine speed, oil is forced through the hollow crankshaft under high pressure. A supple-

moved, complete with cams, by removing 5 set screws. All small parts have been reduced to the minimum to facilitate replacement of parts. Finish:

-MAXi^TûR

mentary system sprays the cyinders and pistons with lubricant. Ignition is by Bosch magneto, of course. The water pump is of a centrifugal type of large capacity with double outlet, insuring perfect cooling.

Crank-shaft and cam-shaft run in ball-bearings. This latter can be re-

Nickel plated and highly polished.

The cylinder bore is 4'A in. and the stroke 5 in. The net weight is 400 lbs. Speed, 200-1600 r.p.m. Crank-shaft length, 4S in. Thrust with 8 ft. by 6 ft. Paragon flexing propeller, 700 lbs. Consumption, S gals, gasoline; oil, 3 qts. hourly.

HEINRICH MILITARY TRACTOR BIPLANE

This machine has heen designed especially to meet the 1914 specifications and requirements of the United States Army and the foreign governments. It has been developed to meet the severe requirements of a machine for military purposes where a machine is called upon for very fast flying speed combined with a low landing speed, a speed variation of better than 50 per cent, high climbing speed, good gliding angle, a large degree of natural stability, economy in power. It will arise from the land in a very small and confined space and has a very clear and wide range of vision for pilot and observer. The land-

a climbing speed of 800 feet per minute, and with a passenger and pilot and fuel for four hours it has a guaranteed climbing speed of 4,000 feet in 10 minutes, and a flying speed of 80 m.p.h. Flying light it has an extreme speed of 90" m.p.h.

The motor mentioned in these specifications is a 8 cyl. 110-h.p. Gyro rotary-motor. The gasoline consumption of this motor is 10 gals, per hour, and the oil consumption is 154 gal*, castor oil. Weight of motor 270 lbs. Weight with gasoline and oil for a four hours' run 570 lbs.

The wings of this machine are of the

deep at the rudder. The longerons are of ash \Vz in. square at the front, tapering to 1 in. at the rudder. The fuselage is corner braced with seven sets of ash struts double channelled, and then cross wired, making a box-girder of the whole. The second and third struts are made extra large to take the extensions to the upper plane, the lower ends being slotted to take the lower plane beam ends. The top of the fuselage is streamlined off from the back of the pilot's seat to the tail plane. The stream line effect is preserved by enclosing the motor under an aluminum hood allowing just the hottoms of the cylinders

ing chassis combined with very little resistance is compact and robust. The machine is easily handled and quickly dismantled with simple, efficient and effective controls, and capable of making a 500-mile-cross-country flight with a passenger.

The seats are arranged in tandem for pilot and passenger with ample room allowed in front cockpit for two passengers if necessary. The controls are placed in duplicate for military work. With a 110-h.p. Gyro motor this machine has a guaranteed speed range of from 45 to 80 m.p.h. Flying light it has

one-piece type. The wing sections are I beam with ash center and spruce straps, these are reinforced under the upright stanchions and where the cross-wire come in inside of wing. The front and rear beams are also I beam section with ash centers and spruce straps. The wing tips are laminated ash 4 ply. The covering is Irish linen, unbleached, thoroughly coated with a special coating and gray varnish. The lotal lifting area in main planes is 285 square feet.

The fuselage is rectangular in section, 40^-2 in. wide by 33 in. deep in the front tapering to 13 in. wide by 2 in.

to project for cooling, slots are made in the hood on either side of the propeller allowing air to enter and circulate around the motor. The hood is carried back to the pilot's seat, carrying out the stream-line effect and protecting the pilot and passenger from the wind and shielding the dash board upon which are mounted the instruments. The entire fuselage back of the passenger seat is covered with Irish linen and treated the same as the wings, forward of the seat the machine is covered with aluminum.

The rotary motor is mounted with

both front and rear mountings, the struts taking the rear mounting, being extra large and unchannellcd. 2 in. by 3 in. The front and rear mountings are of 3-32 in. reinforced steel. The motor is direct connected to an 8 ft. by 6 ft. propeller.

The gasoline and oil is fed to the motor from a gravity feed tank in front of the passenger seat, this tank holds 10 gals, castor oil and IS gals, gasoline. The gasoline tank is further supplied by a combination pressure and hand feed pump system. The hand pump only being used in case the pressure feed fails.

This gasoline is supplied from a 25-gal. tank under the passenger seat.

The landing chassis is of the wheel and skid type, two struts of ash 1J4 in. by 3 in. support the fuselage on either side and are fastened to the skid on the bottom by a 1-16 in. steel fastening. The skid is of laminated hickory, S ply, 2l/2 in. deep by 2 in. wide and 4 ft. 6 in. long, turned up in front and projecting far enough out to protect the propeller. The wheels are stream-lined 26 in. by 4 in. attached to the skid with rubber rope shock absorbers. The whole is then cross braced with two steel tubes and

^CHRISTOFFERSON FLYING

cross-wired.

The tail skid is also of hickory and is hung on rubber rope shock absorbers.

Lateral balance is maintained by ailerons attached to the trailing edge of the upper plane. The vertical rudder is of the balanced type with 10 sq. ft. of surface. The elevators have 16 sq. ft. of surface. The fixed tail plane, or stabilizer, has 28 sq. ft. of surface. All control wires are in duplicate. Either the "Three in one" or the "Deperdus-sin" control is provided with these machines. The weight loaded is 1,430 lbs.; empty, 8S0 lbs. The price is $7,500.

BOAT

The Christofferson flying boat, so far as the surfaces, control areas, etc., are concerned, follow identically the construction and workmanship of the tractor biplane.

The hull is especially designed for rough water work, and follows closely the fuselage construction of the military tractor biplane. The hull length over all is 26 ft. 2 in., and the greatest depth 2 ft. 10 in.; breadth amidships 2 ft. 10 in. The bottom is flat and is fitted with runners, which make possible alighting upon a frozen surface. On this account, also, the boat may be driven at a great rate of speed from the water up onto

the beach. The speed range, when fitted with a 100-h.p. motor, is 45 to 75 miles per hour. The boat carries three persons besides the pilot, and has a climbing speed almost equal to that of the tractor.

The top plane proper measures 23 ft. 9 in., for each section, of which there are two (47 ft. 7 in. total). The sections are attached to special steel tubing supports by means of steel pins, which can be quickly removed. The outer ends of the top section curve toward the back beam from the last strut out.

The ailerons are a continuation of the

plane and are attached to the rear beam of the plane by special steel hinges.

The two sections of the bottom plane each measure 17 ft. 2 in. in spread, and are attached to the fuselage by means of quick detachable steel sockets.

The upper and lower planes are separated 5 ft. 9 in. by means of laminated stream-line struts, which fit into special patented sockets that serve as a support for the guy wires. These sockets are so constructed as to allow the top and lower planes to be folded together. This arrangement makes it possible to set up the machine very quickly, as there is

cHRPTorpELRòoK

no "lining up" necessary. This latter feature is accomplished by the use of patented quick detachable turnbuckles constructed of chrome nickel steel and tobin bronze. These turnbuckles are so constructed that by pulling back a metal sleeve a lever is released which in turn releases the guy wire. This lever is so constructed as to automatically tighten the wire as it is pulled back into place upon reassembling.

The beams or spars of the main planes are of the "I-beam" type, built up of laminated spruce. These beams are spaced 3 ft. 6 in. apart.

The ribs are spaced according to their relative location to the fuselage, those up close being nearer together and those away from the fuselage being further separated. The ribs are constructed of selected Oregon spruce and basswood, and are also of the "I-beam" type.

The entering edges of the planes are fitted with strips of walnut so made that a neat, sharp, efficient nose is obtained. The planes are interhraced by means of wooden rods, both laterally and crosswise. This wood bracing is glued to each rib it passes through, and makes practically a solid mass in point of

strength and durability. The cross section of the surfaces is especially shaped to obtain the highest possible speed, greatest lift, and least drift.

The entering edge turns up slightly, as also does the controlling edge. The section is set at an angle of incidence of two degrees, which gives a rise of 4^4 in. from the controlling edge to the entering edge. The planes are set at a positive dihedral angle of I'A degrees.

The wire bracing used is Roebling's steel cable, 2,300 to 4,000 pounds tensile strength. Where the wire passes around turnbuckles and through sockets it is protected by a copper sleeve.

The surfaces are covered with a very high grade of Irish linen, heavy weight, tested as to strength and treated.

The elevator flaps are 9 ft. in spread, 3 ft. 2 in. from front to back, with an area of about 22 sq. ft. It is constructed in the same manner as the main planes, with I-beam ribs, beams and cross trimmings. The corners are rounded.

The rudder is somewhat oval in shape, 3 ft. 8 in. long. 3 ft. 6 in. high, and is constructed in the same manner as the elevating planes. The stabilizer is built in one piece, and attached to the fuselage

by means of special clips. In packing it comes off in one piece with the elevating plane. The vertical fin, attached in the same way as the stabilizer, is taken off in one piece with the rudder.

The ailerons operate together and by means of a special lever device which enables all control wires to pass along the lower beam, thus facilitating inspection. The ailerons are attached to the main planes by special steel hinges. The construction of the ailerons follows generally the main plane construction, except that a steel tube is used as the front beam. The ribs are set into steel sockets brazed to this tube, thus making a very strong structure.

POWER INSTALLATION.

The motor is a Curtiss 100 h.p. The climbing speed with 100-h.p. (with full load, consisting of pilot, observer, fuel for five hours, and 150 pounds additional weight), is four to five hundred feet per minute. The speed range is from approximately 45 miles per hour, minimum speed, to 85 miles per hours maximum speed.

The type of control is left to the selection of the purchaser, and any desired system will be installed.

BEACHEY KILLED.

Lincoln Eeachey, known by sight to hundreds of thousands of people all over the country and by reputation to the whole world, met death in one of his hair-raising "dips to death" at the exposition at San Francisco on March 14th.

He began the steep dive several thousand feet up and when he straightened out his monoplane it gave way under the strain and Beachey, strapped to his machine, fell entangled in the remnants into San Francisco Bay.

Beachey had had built for him a new monoplane and this was the machine he used in the fatal flight.

A diver from the LT. S. S. Oregon located the wrecked machine and it was hauled to the surface of the water. An examination by a surgeon showed that Beachey "was still alive when he struck the water and had sustained no major injury as a result of the fall, except a broken leg." There were evidences of a struggle to free himself from the mesh of twisted wires and parts and the direct cause of death was drowning.

Lincoln Beachey's loss is felt keenly by the vast circle of acquaintances who admired him and his exploits. He was universally acclaimed at least one of the greatest aviators who ever lived. No one will question his right to the palm among American flyers. He began his career with one of Captain Baldwin's airships at Oakland. Cal., in 1905, and, up to the Winter of 1910-1911, followed the airship "game." He then went to Ham-mondsport and, with some difficulty, learned to fly a Curtiss machine and joined the Curtiss exhibition flyers. Later he branched out for himself and formed a team with Barney Oldfield. He had often talked of looping the loop and when Pegoud was said to have done it Beachey started in to out-Pegoud

Pegoud—and he did. Beachey sailed his airship around the Capitol in 1906, and over Manhattan Island: he flew his aeroplane from Bridgeport to New Haven and over Niagara Falls: won the race from New York to Philadelphia and made a new height record in the course of his career.

In May, 1913, he gave up flying hut renewed his activity in the Fall after having a new miniature Curtiss machine built, fitted with a SO h.p. Gnome motor. The trial of tin's machine resulted in the death of a young lady who was observing his capers from the top of the navy's tent at Hammondsport.

DEATH OF FRANK STITES.

Los Angeles, March 16.—Frank Stites, an aviator employed by the Universal Film Company, lost control of his biplane this afternoon and fell to his death.

The accident occurred during the making of a motion picture of a supposed battle in the air between two aeroplanes. According to the most coherent version of the accident a premature explosion of a bomb in an anchored aeroplane just as Stites flew over it caused his machine to somersault earthward.

EXPORTS AND IMPORTS.

The exports for January show the effect of the war on prices. $14,263 is the average price for the machines shipped to the Allies (?) during this month. The mean valuation for 1914 was $6,337.47 each.

IMPORTS.

January. 1915.................. none

Same period 1914, parts only. . . $5,643 7 mos. ending Jan.. 1915, parts

only ..................... 2,239

Same period, 1914. parts only.. 26,233

Same period, 1913, 12 aeroplanes ($50,020) and parts ($1,776),

total ........................ 51,796

DOAIESTIC EXPORTS. Januarv, 1915, 5 aeroplane ($71,315)," parts ($21,87S)......... 93,193

Same period. 1914, 2 aeroplanes

(S12.50O), parts ($2,614), total 15,114 7 mos. ending Tan., 1915, 23 aeroplanes ($176,915), parts ($143,630). total .................. 320,545

Same period, 1914, 14 aeroplanes ($53,525), parts ($15,594), total .................. 69,119

Same period. 1913, 22 aeroplanes

($61,450 (.parts ($17,703), total 79,153 EXPORTS OF FOREIGN.

January, 1915 ................. none

Same period. 1914.............. none

7 mos. ending Jan., 1915....... none

Same period, 1914, 1 aeroplane

($4,049). parts ($900)....... 4,949

IX WAREHOUSE JANUARY 31.

1915, 1 aeroplane............... 1.856

1914 ........................... none

Mr. Fay, of Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Company, has been at the B. F. Sturtevant Company's plant at Hyde Park witnessing tests on the new eight-cylinder 140 h.p. Sturtevant aeronautical motor.

C. A. Coey. of Chicago, is about to receive from Captain Bumbaugh, of Indianapolis, "what 1 believe to be the smallest passenger-carrying balloon in the world : you probably are aware of the fact that 1 own the largest one in the W'.rld-—'The Chicago.'

"The new balloon will hold 9,000 cubic feet and I am having a private aerodrome built on my farm near Chicago and 1 expect to have a great deal of fun this summer taking short trips. I believe it is the only private aerodrome in this country."

FREDRICKSON TWO-CYCLE ROTARY MOTOR

While the two-cycle motor has almost passed out of existence, save for the one or two notable makes which have been very practical, there are still many believers in it through the absence of valves, cams, springs, gears, push rods, etc., and the doubled number of impulses to a revolution of the crankshaft.

C. E. Fredrickson has conceived the idea of placing a valve in the crank-case at the base of the cylinder and utilizing the lower part of the cylinder as a compression chamber, doing away with crank case compression.

The world rights of this motor have been acquired by the Worlds Motor Co.. which proposes to manufacture aviation motors.

This aviation motor is of the rotating cylinder or revolving type and is to be manufactured in three, five and ten-cylinder models.

In the three and five-cylinder models the body of the crank case is in one casting, including the valve and cylinder seats. The cylinder seats rise slightly from the crank case and in these are machined the valve seats and they also have the necessary clearance for the valves to operate, leaving the cylinders free of any attachments except their anchoring bolts. The two ends of the crank case are formed of two steel plates held together by five bolts parsing through the entire case with a nut on each end. These bolts also reinforce the crank rase for the cylinder anchor bolts, which are not threaded in case, but are threaded into a 3'/. per cent, nickel steel lug at an angle, making a four-point anchorage per cylinder with one-half the usual number of parts. These anchor bolts pass through lugs of ample size cast in the head of the cylinder with castellated nuts screwed down against the cylinder head.

The cylinders are of the usual two-cycle type, of cast iron with cooling fins. The pistons are also of the usual type with the regular type of baffle plate or peak.

The valves are of a sliding or oscillating type. The seat is above the valve and all valves and seats are ground to fit. The valves are held in po-ition bv guide plates below them and, as the motor is of the revolving type, centrifugal force ~eals the valves against the scats at 875 r.p.m.

The gases are taken into the crank case through a hollow crank shaft in the usual manner, and at the lowest point of the piston stroke are admitted under the piston through the valve which slides on its seat as the connecting rod changes its angle. This valve remains open until the piston completes its outward travel, when it closes, imprisoning the gases between piston and valve, thus relieving the crank case of any com-

pression wdien the piston starts its down or back stroke. The piston in its backward travel now compresses the gas in the rear of the cylinder and, at the proper time, releases it through the by pass chamber into the combustion chamber, as is customary in two-cycle practice.

The mixture in the crank case is always uniform and as the valves admit an exact amount at each opening, each cylinder receives the same combination in both character and volume. The gas is carried practically

a complete revolution in the warm cylinder.

Ignition is by means of a single distributor, high tension magneto, the high tension current being carried by a single cable to a brush which presses against a circular distributor bolted to the crank case. This distributor is of fibre with one brass segment per cylinder. From these segments are taken the ignition wires which go direct to the spark plugs.

For lubrication the oil is mixed with the gasoline and an auxiliary force feed oiler, gear driven, is mounted on the frame. This oiler forces jets of oil to the connecting rod bearing at the crank shaft, from whence it escapes through the connecting rod collars into the crank case.

The five-cylinder motor with a bore of 41.4 in. and a stroke of 4J4 in. weighs 192 pounds with cast iron cylinders. Including all bolts, nuts and screws, there are only 204 pieces. The entire engine runs on two annular ball-bearings.

Every advantage has been taken of centrifugal force. It is utilized to seat the valves and aid the gases and oil in their passage from crank case

lo cylinders. The crank case is only seven inches wide and the motor revolves in a space of two feet and ten inches.

SOME PRACTICAL HINTS

The manufacturers of aviation motors during the past year have been greatly handicapped, due to the fact that there were very few purchasers for exhibition flyers, and the Government business has not been very clearly defined.

Our motors have been sold to several foreign governments during this year

•O

and in every case a severe and closely watched test has been run pending the purchase. Perhaps the most rigid test was run for the Norwegian navy. They required our Type A-4, 100 h.p. motor to develop not less than 130 brake test horsepower continuously for three hours and a half. This motor had to turn at a speed not less than 1,480 r.p.m. during the entire time. This was done, after which the motor was disassembled and carefully inspected, showing everything to be in perfect shape.

It is our belief that both the United States army and navy (provided they wish a more efficient power plant supply them) should induce manufacturers to participate in tests both on block and in the air. In this way the manufacturer could be brought into personal contact with just what is required.

This could be done as foreign governments have done—offer a cash prize for the motor winning certain tests, either installed in a plane or on the block.

At any rate the United States army and navy must co-operate to a greater degree and offer more inducements to the American manufacturer in order to obtain motors that are more reliable and suitable to their needs than the ones they are now using.—Hall-Scott Motor Car Company

7672

THE HUNTINGTON PASSENGER BIPLANE

The first machine produced by Howard Huntington, of his contemplated series, has. during March, had its first trials on Long Island under the guidance of Harold Kantner, the well-known Moi-sant monoplane pilot.

In this, biplane wings have been combined with a Nieuport type of fuselage, which has been refined considerably. The framework is so put together by the use of special sockets that U-bolts and their protruding nuts and ends are done away with. There is no tendency displayed to swing around when landing. The Nieu-port landing gear has been modified so

that it is more practical. It enables the machine to land straight on rough ground and the wing-tips do not hit. There are very heavy coiled springs in tubular telescoping absorbers running down to the ends of the axles, which prevent side rocking on rough ground.

The machine was designed for 70 miles an hour; and, although climbing and circular timed trials have not been made, the performance seems to fulfill the expectations. The engine is an 80-h.p. Gyro. The weight was figured to be 96S lbs., and the actual weight, empty, came to 925 lbs.

The total supporting surface is 352 sq. ft. and it is expected that S lbs. to the square foot can be carried. The fuel and oil capacity has been arranged for five hours' flying. The machine spreads 36 ft., 5-ft. chord. The gap is unusual for this chord, being 6 ft. To this fact is attributed its claimed increased efficiency. The planes are staggered 14 in. The angle of attack is 4 deg. on the upper wing and 2Vz deg. on the lower. In flight, the lower wing is neutral. The elevator measures 7 ft. by 22 in.; the rudder 2 ft. 4 in. by 3 ft. 9 in. The fuselage measures 22 ft from tip to tip thereof.

The ailerons are placed between the main surfaces and are actuated downward only. They are returned to normal position by fabric-covered strong elastic bands. One single wire runs from each aileron to the modified Dep control. Later on, the lateral stability will be handled by flaps cut out of the main wing for comparison with the present arrangement.

Four different makes of propellers are being tried, all of the same diameter and pitch. S and 6 ft. respectively, among these being Paragon, Curtiss and Simmons.

Another machine is in course of construction, to he fitted with a 110-h.p. Gyro motor.

These machines are soon to be placed on sale. Air. Huntington, who is secretary of the Aero Club of America, is taking, in general, standard designs and incorporating minor changes and ideas with a view to great efficiency, ft may be that later on this construction work will be turned into commercial channels.

Recently an inquiry to Aeronautics as to the facilities of the aeroplane factories of this country for the production of 1.000 aeroplanes caused some little stir among those manufacturers who were in a position to start work on such an estimate. Doubt was expressed as to the ability of the existing manufacturers to fulfil such an order on short notice. An optimist much given to statistics proved that 800 aeroplanes were built in this country in 1912. This was encouraging news until some crapehanger suggested that a foreign order for 1,000 aeroplanes meant 1,000 aeroplanes capable of being flown upon completion.

The Parisano Aerial Navigation Co. of America, Inc., of 220 West 42d Street. Xew York, is about to make trials of its

new machine. This is a unique monoplane, as there are two propellers and two rotary motors, the propellers being at the front and rear end of a large tube approximately the same diameter and driven by chain from the motors, which are set in the open bottom of the tubular structure. The four-wheeled chassis, with riders' seats, is below the motors. A triangular, in cross-section, open fuselage extends rearward and supports a standard type of tail.

STATUS OF CAPTURED AVIATORS IN WAR

ff the aviators belonging to the forces of one belligerent are captured, they have the status of prisoners of war, provided, of course, they belong to the military or naval establishments. Under the interpretation of the agreements at the second conference at the Hague, aviators are to be considered solely as prisoners of war, and whether they have dropped explosives or fired from aircraft is not considered in fixing their status.

The death rate among the English aviators in the front is 2 per cent. Xo data are available on the other belligerents, but the percentage, doubtless, runs about the same.

NEW COMPANIES

Curtiss Aeroplanes & Motors, Ltd., Toronto. Can., $50,000.

Huntington Aircraft Co., 18 E. 41st st., New York.

Parisano Aerial Navigation Co. of America, 220 W. 42d St., New York, $100,000. R. Ebie. John J. Byrne, William Swain.

Fanning Aircraft Destroying Gun Co.. Davenport. la.. $1,000,000. C. E. Fanning.

Aviauto Mfg. Co., $5,000. Bernard A. Law. Martin Baier. Sidney F. Miller, James E. Fingan, 154 Nassau St., New York.

FRENCH AEROPLANES MADE 10,000 FLIGHTS.

Paris, March 7.—The following note is appended to tonight's official communique :

"Statistics covering the aerial operations from the beginning of the mobilization to January 31 of this year show the following:

"During these six months the aerial squadrons made about 10.000 reconnoitring flights, corresponding to more than 18.000 hours of flight. These flights represent a distance covered of 1.080,000 kilometers (1,125,000 miles), or, in other words, twenty-five times around the world.

"These remarkable results were not obtained without sorrowful losses, which were at least equal to and in many cases heavier than those suffered by other branches of the army so far as the dead, wounded and missing are concerned."— The Sun.

THE SCHOBER GLIDER-By Harry Shultz, Model Editor

Some time ago the Aero Science Club held a series of model glider contests. Those who have never witnessed a contest of this kind cannot realize the entertainment to be found there. To see these miniature machines glide onward for a hundred yards or so on level ground seemingly without propulsive power is rather weird to those not understanding the principles of aeronautics. At the recent Aero Science Club contest, generally five or six of these models, all thirty inches in span, were in the air at once, and 'he spec-

wind. Flights of over ninety seconds have been made in this manner.

One of the best known glider enthusiasts of the Aero Science Club is Mr. Frank Schober. The model herein described is one of the first constructed by him, and was one of the finest specimens of model making we have seen.

The writer had the pleasure of witnessing the first trials of this glider at Forest Park, Brooklyn, N. Y„ last Winter. The snow was about a foot deep at that time and only one with a great amount of enthusiasm could be

•"tide. j^ieifCLtioris.

tator had a rather difficult time keeping watch on all at the same time.

The correct method of Hying model gliders is down a slope or hill, the glider being headed into the wind, which should preferably be coming up the hill. The glider is generally weighted at the nose to keep the head down into the

persuaded to flounder about in it. Nevertheless, we mounted to the top of one of the numerous hills there and to our dismay then found that the wind was blowing down the hill instead of up. Mr. Schober tested the glider with the wind behind it and it made some wonderful flights. Sometimes it would land

with a thud on the frozen ground at the foot of the hill, bounce off and sail away for ISO feet more. An end was put to the sport, however, when the glider came into severe contact with a huge tree trunk, the skids and the front portion of the fuselage being damaged.

The fuselage is built up of 54 in-square spruce, the joints being made by tiny pins and then glued. The fuselage is 34 ins. in length and 3 ins. in width and 3 ins. in depth at its widest part, which is 5 ins. from the front of the fuselage. In the front of the fuselage is mounted a piece of lead, the same being shaped to conform to the contour of the body. This weight acts to keep the nose of the glider down into the wind and also strengthens the front of the fuselage. Secured to the rear end of the fuselage is a strip of metal, preferably aluminum, which acts as a bearing for the pivoting rod of the rudder. This rod is a dowel, or the like, and turns stiffly in the bearing so that the rudder remains in any position in which it is placed. The ruder is 4 ins. by 4 ins., and is made of two strips of spruce, the encirclnig strip forming the edge being of flat rattan.

The planes measure as follows: Main plane 34-in. span, chord at center 7 ins., chord at tips 6 ins., tail plane 10-in. span at front edge, 6V2-U1. chord and 13-in. span at rear edge. Both planes have double ribs of spruce TA in. wide by 1/32 in. in thickness, the front or main plane having 21 ribs, the ribs being spaced approximately 154 ins. apart, and the tail plane having 6 ribs, the edges of both planes are of flat rattan. The planes, rudder and fuselage were covered with a strong red silk and treated with varnish, the planes and rudder being double surfaced. The front or main plane is placed approximately 7 ins. from the front of the fuselage.

The skid arrangement at the front end of the fuselage is made from heavy umbrella ribs, the portion of the ribs where secured to the fuselage being flattened, drilled and nailed to the fuselage, underneath the covering.

BRITISH PILOTS WANTED. The secretary of the Governor-General of Canada is making a campaign to ascertain the names of British born aeronautic pilots and mechanics living in the United States who might be willing to serve with the Royal Flying Corps during the term of the present war. Those applying must be British born or have British nationality. They must be medically fit and have normal vision.

Page 27

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OFFICIAL BULLETIN

ANNUAL MEETING HELD The annua] meeting of the Aeronautical Society of America was held on Thursday evening, March 25, when the following officers and directors were elected to serve for the ensuing year: President, T. R. MacMechen; first vice-president, Frederick \V, Barker; second vice-president; William J. Hammer; third vice-president. E. D. Anderson; fourth vice-president, C. W. Howell, Jr.; fifth vice-president, Louis R. Adams; secretary, Edward Durant; treasurer, Lewis R. Compton; counsel, Walter L. Post. Directors: Louis R. Adams, Lee S. Burridge, Capt. T. S. Baldwin, William J. Hammer, Thomas A. Hill, Leon Goldmer-stein. Earle Atkinson, C. W. Wurster, E. L. Jones, Capt. W. I. Chambers, U. S. N., T. R. MacMechen, Rudolph Hanau, Ernest D, Anderson, A. Leo Stevens, Matthew B. Sellers, Lewis R. Compton, Frederick W. Parker, Oscar Her-manson, Rudolph R. Grant. E. P. Hopkins, Walter V. Kamp. Merrill E. Clark, Edward Durant, Charles W. Howell, Tr., Archibald Hart.

At this meeting, also, tbe organization of the Aeronautical Engineers* Society was approved and formally ratified by the members of the parent body, the Aeronautical Society of America.

The creation of branches of the Society in various large cities throughout the country was discussed at length, the purpose being to provide different centers in places distant from New York, where men interested in aeronautics could gather to consider matters connected with air-craft, to be submitted, with tbe findings of the branch, to the headquarters of the Society in New York. Authority was given the directors to formulate and carry out plans for the establishment of branches where desirable.

President Thomas Rutherford MacMechen gave an address on "Air-craft in the War," with a comparison of the present condition of aeronautics in the United States.

Mr. MacMechen said in part:

HOW APPROPRIATIONS FOR AERONAUTICS WASTE THE PUBLIC MONEY.

"Congressional appropriations in the interest of aeronautics—that is to say, for the establishment of aeronautical branches for the army and navy—are entirely thrown away if the authorities who have the matter in their hands are devoted to experimental machines, especially in this day of advanced development.

"Investing money in machines that do not possess practical endurance, for the avowed purpose of learning to handle big machines by handling small machines, is folly.

"It is. in fact, established by aeronautical development that a small machine of whatever type will not act like a big machine; that the operation of two sizes calls, in many cases, for radically different handling. Yet we have the spectacle of aeronautical boards of the army and navy advocating the foregoing plan of 'feeling their way' in a field which they admit by their plan to be unfamiliar to them

"This waste of public money applies especially to the dirigible, which in any size is a much more expensive craft than the aeroplane. Whatever may be the popular notion of the usefulness of dirigibles for military operations, military experience amongst those governments having the greatest actual experience with diri-

gibles have very clearly demonstrated the exact value of certain types of the dirigible for specific work, and this knowledge explains the continued investment of great sums of money in the dirigible. Confirmation of this statement is indeed found in the fact that the naval board of the U. S. had invited bids for the building of two baby dirigibles of a type long since experimented with and practically discarded by the power that has had the most experience with the dirigible. If this is not true, what excuse can tbe U. S. authorities offer for investing in dirigibles at all?

"It is generally said that the proposed investment in baby dirigibles is based on the assumption that they are conserving public money and learning to handle the dirigible in its smallest size, a size now demonstrated to be entirely impractical for any useful purpose, and woefully inefficient as an instrument from which to learn how to operate the large and really useful airship.

"No baby dirigible gives its operator the slightest clue of the involved technique of the large machine. Consequently the investment of the LTnited States in such dirigibles is an absolute waste of public money.

"This type of dirigible is well known. It is so small that it can carry engine power sufficient to manage them only in the slightest winds. They cannot be driven excepting at very slow speed, a speed at which no dirigible can really be a practical machine, as the science has fully demonstrated. If it were possible to carry sufficient engine power a mere gas bag cannot be taken against the air at any practical speed because its body will buckle in the air. Its skin, or balloon cloth, must be kept so light that it cannot protect its gas from constant fluctuations caused by atmospheric changes. This is tbe law on trie subject as demonstrated by the engineering science. Yet an aeronautical board in this country flies in the face of precedent and wastes the public money.

"It is demonstrated practice that the thicker the envelope of a non-rigid dirigible is, a thing only made possible by size and carrying capacity, the better is the gas protected against atmospheric changes. It is only necessary to add tliat the double skin, outer covering and inner balloonetts of the rigid dirigible most adequately protect the gas against atmospheric changes, which consequently explains the rigid airship's greater endurance and incomparably superior radius of action, not to speak of the certainty which these great ships afford in the matter of carrying great loads over immense distances and reach the objective point. Therefore the adoption by the German government of the rigid airship as the only all-around practical weight carrier of the air.

"Now what have the Zeppelins done which justifies the present investment by tbe German government of more than 30 million dollars in a fleet of such machines? Newspaper accounts of what the Zeppelins have been doing and the popular conception of the value of their flights do not give either a reasonable or a true picture of the Zeppelin's work.

"I will now refer to some of the actual lessons gained by the Zeppelins' operations, and I shall ask you to fix your minds upon the points about to be impressed. . . ."

Members are reminded that the Round Table talks held every Thursday evening are always intensely interesting and should not he missed. Matters of technical and general aeronautical interest are brought up and considered each week, and every member should make a point of attending if possible in order to keep abreast of the times, for undoubtedly progress is now being made in the art of aviation, and the Society is taking its full share in the activities.

New members who have been elected are: Hans Nordman and Henry L. Coakley.

Aeronautical Engineer's Society

On Wednesday evening, March 17, at the rooms of the Aeronautical Society of America, 29 West 39th Street, there was held the foundation meeting of a body which is to be known

as the Aeronautical Engineers' Society, A. S. of A., the last letters being the initials of the present society, the Aeronautical Society of America.

Under the rules of the Aeronautical Engi-n;crs* Society, A. S. of A., none but members i'f the Aeronautical Society of America are eligible for membership. Among its charter members are: Lee S. Bur ridge, president of the Sun Typewriter Company; Thomas R. Mac-Mehon and Walter V. Kamp, inventors of the Zeppelin-destroying dirigible now building in England; Leon Goldmerstein, inventor, engineer and editor; Frederick W. Barker, acting president of tbe Aeronautical Society of America; A. Leo Stevens, the balloonist, and Adolph 1). Wittemann of Wittemann Brothers, the well-known builders of aeroplanes.

The principal object of the Aeronautcial Engineers* Society is to create in this country as high a grade of design of aerial machinery as the stress of war has developed in Europe. As stated in its by-laws, the purposes of the society are: *'d) To constitute a body for the promotion of the science and art of aerial navigation and branches of engineering kindred to it; (2) To create and promote an intercourse between persons earnestly interested in the above referred to fields of endeavor; (3) To create a body which, by the constitution of its membership and achievement should be entitled to represent tbe interests of aeronautical engineering before proper bodies in this country and in international intercourse."

The officers of the Aeronautical Engineers' Society, A. S. of A., are: Charles W. Howell, Jr., chairman; Leon Goldmerstein. first vice-chairman; Walter V. Kamp, second vice-chairman : and Lewis R Compton, secretary and treasurer.

There is no entrance fee, and the annual dues arc $25. Only engineers and persons of aeronautical prominence are acceptable for membership.

Aero Science Club of America Bulletin

On Lincoln's Birthday a number of trials were made by the members of both the New York and the Long Island sections of the Aero Science Club at the Liberty Heights Field for Tractor Duration Records. On the 2lst and also on the 22nd of that month these tractor trials were repeated at that field with the result that two new American Tractor Records were established as follows: Single Tractor Monoplane Duration.... 27 sec.

Single Biplane Tractor Duration.......21 sec.

The first being made by Mr. L. Ness: the biplane record by Mr. C. V. Obst, Pres't of the Club.

At Van Cortlandt Park, a demonstration of the practical value of negative and plain wing tips was given by Mr. A. K. Earker and Mr. Frank Lroomfield, both of the Aero Science Club. This demonsration was the result of a debate on that subject held about a month be-fire, in which discussion neither of the aforementioned model flyers was able to gain the advantage over his adversary. Three judges were present to witness the trials, and the general results were declared to be very satisfactory. At this interesting demonstration James Barker, one of New York's most promising young amateur flyers, made some very remarkable flights with his small single-propelled tractor and had the satisfaction of nearly equalling the records held by more expert flyers.

Louis Fenouillet, one of the oldest model flyers in America, and a most active model experimenter and worker in the line of man-carrying gliders, lost his well-made original type biplane glider His brother, who was uy-ing the apparatus at the time, escaped injury. The accident is said to have been due to the inexperience of the young enthusiasts who were towing the glider at the time of the fall. Mr. Fenouillet has had special hydro floats made for the purpose of an over-water flight in this machine from Bath Beach, Brooklyn, to the aeronautical field at Oakwood Heights, Staten Island, and his chances of making a world's record by this feat were regarded as Continued on Page JO

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On February 27, at Ithaca, N. Y., the Thomas Tractor Biplane, with three men and four hours' fuel aboard, climbed 4,000 ft. in 10 min. Average speed—81-1 m.p.h. Slow speed down to 38 m.p.h. Showed high degree of inherent stability.

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NEW WORLD RECORDS.

Lieut. Byron Jones, of the U. S. Signal Corps, on March 12 made a new world endurance record by flying 7 hours 5 minutes with two passengers.

The machine used was a Burgess tractor with a 75-h.p. Renault motor reconstructed by Grover Cleveland Loen-ing, the S. C. aeronautical engineer.

It has recently been necessary for tile Aircraft Co., Inc., New York, to double its forces on account of the increased amount of work. They find the prospects for the coming season very good for a large output. They have a very expert corps of men at work now and will probably make another addition to the force in the very near future.

The Thomas Brothers Aeroplane Co., Ithaca. X". Y., lias just issued a handsome little catalogue of their 1015 machines. Send for one of these—and don't forget to enclose a stamp.

W • A • N • T • S

WANTED, immediately, three expert draftsmen, having experience in the design of aeroplanes or in the detailing of aeroplane parts. Box A. c/o AERONAUTICS.

ATTEXTIOX : Young man. 21 years French, studied aviation several years, five years' experience in auto factory as repairer, motor and road tester and as-

sembler, now with Splitdrof company, seeks position with aviator or areoplane manufacturer for general service to learn that line of business; reference of highest character. J. H. Yelle, Y. M. C. A." Newark. N. J.

FOR SALE—On account of sickness, aeroplane, very cheap for cash, or trade for anything of value. E. M„ 1522 Norwood ave.. Toledo, O.

WANT TO BUY an 80 h.p. Gnome or an 80 or 90 h.p. Curtiss. Address John Weaver, c/o Aeronautics. (lx)

WANTED—50 to 60 h.p. aeronautical motor in good condition: no junk. Arch. Irwin. General Delivery, Topeka, Kans.

INDEX TO VOLUME XV.

Note.—Volume I started with the first issue, that of July, 1907; Volume II started with the issue of January, 1908; Volume III, with the July. 190*S, issue; Volume IV, with the January. 1909. number; Volume V, with the July,

1909. number; Volume VI. with the January.

1910, issue; Volume VII, with tbe July, 1910, issue; Volume VIII, with the January, 1911, number; Volume IX, with the July, 1911, issue; Volume X, with January, 1912; Volume XI, with 1 uly. 1912; Volume XII, with January. 1913; Volume XIII, with July. 1913; Volume XIV, with January 15, 1914. and Volume XV. with July 15. 1914.

There are only eight numbers in Volume XV*. as explained in the issue of March 15, 1915.

Only principal articles are h dexed. News notes in general and smaller mentions are not indexed.

Accidents. Fatal: pAGE-

Cooke, Weldon 1?.................. 78- 91

Gerstner, Lieut. Fred'k T.......... 120

Hill, Thomas 1..................... 105

Piceller. William .................. 7S

Terrell, Frank v.................... 105

Aero Club of Pennsylvania Bulletin ... 108-106 Aeronautical Society Bulletins.

2S-5S-76-92-10S-126

Aeroplane Speedometer (M orell)..... 30

Aeroplanes:

Burgess i>unne .......24-S8-101-116-117-119

Army Competition for Constructors.. 9-74

Contrabrand, Arc ................. 3S

Curtiss Model J..................... 69

Curtis* Model X................... 104

Martin, Glenn ..................... 90

Schmitt, Paul ..................... 24

Sellers Ouadroplane ............... 21

Signalling- to ...................... 45

Sperry Wins Stability Prize........ 13

Stability of ........."............... 67

"Steco" ........................... 70

Thomas Military Tractor ........... 106

Transmission Gear for.............. 5b

Aero Science Club Bulletin .23-58-89-92-108-126 Aircraft in the Early Part of the European War......................36-55-73

Aircraft Industry, the:

In France......................... 5

In Germany and Other Countries... 31

Air Fleets of Foreign Countries...... 22-106

Anemo-Tachometer, M or ell ........... 30

Army Aeronautics, U. S.:

An ti-Aircraft Gun ................. 120

Burgess-Dunne ...............25-88-117-1 19

Bomb-Dropping Tests (Scott)........ 74

Buys Martin Tractor............... 16

Competition for Constructors........ 9-74

Flying Statistics ................... 23

Mackay Trophy Competition........ 120

New Duration Record.............. 91-116

Resume of Progress in Signal Corps. 87

Aviaphone, The Turner............... 102

Articles, Principal:

Accessible Circle. The............... 41

Aerial Bombs and Projectiles........ 94

Aerodynamical Laboratories......... 52

Aircraft in War, the Hague, and,

hy Arthur K. Kuhn.............. 35

Aircraft in War, by Brig.-Gen. Geo.

P. Scriven ...................... So

Airhole at Landing................. 15

A Suggestion for the Power Plant of an Aeroplane, bv Prof. David

L. Gallup .........'.............. 19

Carburetors from a Functional Standpoint, by Ralph S. Barnaby...... 115

Converse Automatic Stabilizer, the. . 39 Hydroaeroplane in Coast Defence Reconnaisance, the, bv Capt. V. E.

Clark ..............'............ 99

How to Find the Way Across the

(lcean, by Leon Goldmerstein..... 3

International Code of Aerial Law.... 21 Law of Similitude, the, by IF. B.

Sellers ........................ 7

Leonardo da Vinci, by Chas. Beecher

Bunnell ........................ 3b

Measuring Horsepower in the Air. . 23 Measuring Tension of Stays in Full

Flight ................."......... 47

Naval Aeroplanes at Sea............ 40

Review of Aeronautical Progress, by

John J. Long.................... 5l

Signalling to Aeroplanes............ 44

Soaring Flight, by O. Chanute...... 53

Some Experiments with Biplanes, by

A. A. Merrill.................... S3

Stability of Aeroplanes, by Orville

Wright......................... 67

Wireless as Connected with Aeronautics, by William Dubilier, R.S.A.,

A.A.I.E.E...................... 5

Velocity of Rise and Lifting Power

of Balloons .................... 44

Authors:

Barnaby, Ralph S.................. 115

Bunnell, Chas. Beecher............ 35

ChanuLe, Octave .................. 53

Clark, Capt. V. E.................. 9*

Dubilier, William ................. 5

Gallup, David L.................. 19

Goldmerstein, Leon................ 3

Kuhn, Arthur K.................... 35

Long, John J...................... 51

Merrill, Albert A.................. S3

Scriven, Brig.-Gen. George P....... 67

Sellers, Matthew B................. 7

Wright, Orville .................. 67

Balloons:

Honeywell's New Company and

Records........................ 91

National Race Won by Goodyear.... 12

Beating Wing Machine, The.......... 110

Denine Glider ....................... 27

Deposition of Metal on Wood......... 110

Flying Boats:

De Villers Convicted............... 119

Jannus .......................... 105

Sloane...........................

Curtiss' Transatlantic "America". .3-22-57-71

Fox-Philiipps Skimmer .............. 41

German Commercial Airship Lines..... 39

Germany Protests Curtiss Machines.... 126

Heinrich in N. Y. Race..............

Hydroaeroplanes:

Burgess-Dunne ..................24-88-101

Ruled as Motor Boats.............. 104

The Hydroaeroplane in Coast Defence 99

0. S. "l licenses Granted............ 122

Who Invented—Curtiss and J ami in

Patents ........................ 126

International Code of Law, The....... 20

Kantner Wins N. Y. Race........... S

King. Samuel A—Death of.......... 94

Leonardo da Vinci, by Charles Beecher

Bunnell ......................: - 35

Measuring the Tension of Stays in

Full Flight ..................... 47

Model Aeroplanes, Harry Schultz, Editor:

A. B. C. Self-Rising................ 26

Construction Details............... 124

Funk Speed Model................. S9

Obst Flying Boat.................. 59

Schultz Speed Model.............. 89

Motors:

Ashmusen 12-cvl. 105-11.T.......... 124

Demont 300-H.P.................... 47

Kemp 75-H.P..................... 72

Maximotor 100-H.P................ 24

Naval Aeroplanes at Sea........... 40

Navy, United States:

Aeronautic Service ................ 118

Aeroplanes. To Buy................ 118

Appropriation Passed ..............

$5,000,000 Recommended for......... 101

Burgess-Dunne .................... 24-101

Dirigibles, To Buy.................. 101

May Get $1,187,600................ 122

Plans for Work, 1915.............. 123

To Have Constructors' Competition.. 118

Tests Hydroplane ................. US

Aeronautic Service ................ 118

Fropellers:

Maximum Speed of................ 25

Width of Blades of................ 42

On the "America".................. 57

Records, American:

Jones. Lt. Byron G. Duration....... 116

Martin's Passenger Duration......... 90

Capt. Muller's (Lt.) Altitude Record 91 W. C. Robinson Makes Distance

Record......................... 91

Thompson, De Lloyd—..Altitude---- 42-72

Schmitt Monoplane in N. Y. Race..... S

Scott (Riley E.) Bomb Dropping...... 74-121

Sperry Wins Stability Prize........... 12

Stability :

Automatic, Converse System......... 39

Automatic, Selenium Cell for...... 25

Carey System .................... 71

Of Aeroplanes, by O. Wright........ 67

Pendulum Systems ................ 110

Tables:

Airhole on Landing................ 15

Aerial Bombs and Projectiles........ 94

Accessible Circle, The.............. 41

Kilograms in Eng. Lbs. and Cwt..... 44

Measuring II.P. in the Air.......... 23

Speed Table ...................... 102

Velocity of Rise and Lifting Power

of IJalloons .................... 44

Transmission Gear for Aeroplanes.. Wright:

England Acquires Patent Rights.. Starts New Infringement Suit

Curtiss .....................

Zeppelin's ''Failure of" in the War. ,

56 90

100 119

Aero Science Club of America Bulletin

Continued from Page ?S being very good indeed. LTnfortunately, unless he is able to construct another machine very shortly this flight will have to be cancelled and the ariangements for towing by a racing motor boat stopped.

Mr. J, J. Curran, an aviator of the Aeronautical Society of America, has very kindly offered to allow the members of the Aero Science Club to have the use of his machine at Oak wood Heights for "grass-cutting" practice flights. The machine is a 30-horsepower Anzani-motored Bleriot monoplane of excellent workmanship and finish.

On the evening of the 6th. Mr. Frank Schoe-ber of this club demonstrated very satisfactorily to his fellow members tbe new three-cylinder rotary compressed air and steam engine, on which he has been working for the past few months, in conjunction with Mr. Rudie Funk.

The machine is a flash boiler type, using gasoline for fuel and having a reciprocating pump of special design and very light construction for keeping the boiler furnished with water Total weight of the engine is 5 l/z ounces, having a bore and stroke of in Crankcase is of machined cast aluminum, cylinders of phosphor-bronze machined from solid castings and fitted with special quick-detachable devices, enabling them to be inserted or removed entirely in a few seconds without any bolts, threads or other standard means. Pistons are of special aluminum alloy, connecting rods of brass, fastened to the hollow crankshaft to move without friction. The total weight of the complete machine ready for installation is but one pound and ten ounces, with water and gas for a two or three-minute run. With a 20-inch propeller of high pitch a speed of over 3,000 R.P.M'. has been obtained, and a very high thrust given by the handmade propeller.

Plans for a canard-type monoplane have been completed and work started on this six-foot model, which will weigh complete with engine installation appromixately 3 y2 pounds These two experimenters have made rapid progress with their motor experiments, and although it is but their second machine, it has been more successful than any other similar mechanism so far produced in this country.

From their past performances in model flying it is safe to judge that when this model is in working order more than a few of the official American model records will go in rapid succession to these enthusiastic young experimenters.

For information and particulars address the Secretary, 29 West 39th St., N. Y. City, care of the Aeronautical Society of America.

MODEL AEROPLANE MEET

A series of model aeroplane contests will be held at Concord, Mass.. during the spring of 1915. the events being held on the following dates:

March 13, distance, launched from the hand; March 27. duration. launched from the hand; April 24, distance, rising off the ground; May S, duration, rising off the ground; May 22, duration, rising off tbe water.

The competitions will last from 2.15 to 5 p. m., and each contestant may have as many trials as he wants during that time.

The contests are open to any model driven by rubber bands, and the models need not be constructed by the entrant himself.

At each meet there will be a silver medal awarded to the winner, and a bronze medal for the best record by a boy under sixteen years of age, using a model constructed entirely hy himself. Several cups also will be given to those securing the greatest total number of points in the four contests in which he makes the best showing; that is, those who compete in all five contests will have their worst score omitted. Points will be given to every competitor on a percentage basis.

The entry fee will be twenty-five cents for a single contest, or fifty cents for the whole series, provided entry is made before March 1. Further information may be secured from, and entries should be sent to

Edward P. Warner, Concord, Mass.

Page 31

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APRIL 15, 1915

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Altitude, without passenger, Capt. H. LeRoy MuIIer, U.S.A., 17,185 feet. Altitude, with one passenger, Lieut. J. C. Carberry, U.S.A., 11,690 feet. Duration, Military Tractor, Lieut. Byron 0. Jones. U. S. A., 8 hrs. 53 min. Duration, Hydroaeroplane, Lieut. J. H. Towers, U.S.N., 6 hrs. lOmin.

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Published semi-monthly in the best interests of Aeronautics by AERONAUTICS PRESS INC. 250 West 54th St., New York

Telephone, Circle 22S9 Cable. Aeronautics. New York

Entered as Second Class Mail Matter. September 22. 190S, under the Act of March 3. 1379. $3.00 a year. 15 cents a copy.

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Make all checks and money orders free of exchange and payable to AERO NAUTICS PRESS.

ERNEST L. JONES Editor

M. B. SELLERS Technical Editor

HARRY SCHULTZ Mod.-l Editor

FRANK. CASH Ass't Editor

The magazine is issued on the 15th and 30th of each month. All copy must be received b days before daie of publication. If proof is to be shown, allowance must be made for receipt and return.

Subscribers will kindly notify this ortice if discontinuance is desired at the end of their subscription period, otherwise it will be assumed that their subscription is to be continued.

THE FUTURE OF THE AEROPLANE INDUSTRY

By Leon Goldmerstein, Associate Editor A. S. M. E. Journal, Chairman Technical Board the Aeronautical Society of America

I have been asked several times, by several financiers on one hand, and by aeronautical engineers on the other, as to the probable demand for flying machines after the war is over, and the type that would find the readiest market. The following briefly gives an answer to these questions.

For quite a time to come yet, governments will continue to be the chief purchasers. In the present war the aeroplane has made good only in one of two possible directions, and still proved to be invaluable.

AT PRESENT PRINCIPALLY SCOUTING MACHINES.

As a scouting machine, the aeroplane has not only entirely displaced cavalry but has changed the entire method of warfare. With the present extensive use of motor cars and tractors for the transport of troops, which permits the shift, in one night, of some 50,000 men from one place to another, 40 miles distant, the aeroplane reconnaissance is the only thing that protects an army against being surprised by superior forces of the enemy, and one without a sufficient supply of air scouts feels the lack of tlrmi most keenly.

THE AEROPLANE THUS FAR A FAILURE IN OFFENSE.

On the other hand, as a method of offense the aeroplane has, thus far, proved to be a failure. Brilliant dashes have been made, especially by British aviators, but in no case has anything been achieved that is of real and decisive importance. A couple of Zeppelins have been destroyed, a submarine base partly wrecked, an ammunition train blown up; not much to show after seven months of war.

Why this is so is due mainly to the flying capacity of the present-day machine. It has really (i. e., barring exceptionally daring exploits) an economical radius of but about 100 miles, which is sufficient for scouting purposes in as far as they cover what is known as tactical reconnaissance.

PRACTICAL BOMB-THROWING.

On the other hand, bomb-throwing is efficient only- when the number of bombs thrown is so large that a few misses do

not materially affect the results, and that is exactly what the present-day machine is unable to do. If it is to be used as a bomb-thrower at all, it must be able to reach the vital spots far in the rear of the enemy's army, say 50 to 100 miles behind the actual battlefront line, and, of course, must have enough fuel to get back to within its own lines. That means 100 to 200 miles of flight which is, in its turn, equivalent to a maximum of 100 lbs. in projectiles. Well, nowadays, 100 pounds in projectiles, even with high explosives, means good newspaper stuff but rather indifferent actual results.

Nevertheless, the armies on both sides have used, as one may estimate from available data, since the beginning of the war, something like 10,000 to 12,000 machines, of which probably three-quarters are already out of business.

THE OFFENSIVE AEROPLANE.

What is required now is a large machine capable of carrying at least two men, fuel for a journey of 500 miles at 70 miles an hour, and in addition to that, about half a ton of useful load. It must be able to fly at a speed ranging from 40 to—at least for a short period—90 miles an hour; the main requirements, however, being an ability to fly for a long time at a moderate speed of, say, 70 miles an hour. Such a machine must be either inherently stable, or have some stabilizing device so as to relieve the pilot of the constant and intense stress on his attention. On the other hand, however, it is not necessary that the machine be absolutely foolproof as it will be always in the hands of an expert.

Of the engine, one thing above all must be required, and that is reliability in flight. No particular lightness is required as the machine must be able to stand some rough usage, but what must be made absolutely certain is that after the engine has started it will go through high and low, mist, snow and cold. The aeroplane engine of today is designed somewhat along the lines of that of a racing automobile. The proper example to follow for the military machine is the heavy duty engine of a fishing boat on Lake Michigan or Superior.

THE FUTURE DEMAND.

It is naturally difficult to say what the future demand for such machines when available may be, but some idea may be formed already. The basis on which the French artillery programme is established today is that of being able to discharge 200,000 shrapnel shells a day. Some data indicate that approximately 5,000 shells have been hurled b3' the Germans at the Russian fortress of Osso-wetz without having reduced it. These two figures show that in order to make aerial bombardment effective it must be done in huge quantities and a capacity of 10,000 shells a day is hardly too much. Now, 10,000 shells at 30 pounds per shell, mean 300,000 pounds, or 300 machines of large size. Considering that a flight of 400 to 500 miles in one trip in all kinds of weather is very hard on a machine, and that after each such trip it will have to go back to the shop to be overhauled and timed up. one may safely assume that an engine will make not more than two such trips a month, which means that the army will have to have about 12 times as many machines, or 3,600 in all. Since, however, the condition of war service are extremely rough, a reserve of at least 50 per cent, will have to he maintained, bringing up the total to about 5.000 machines, apart from the small scouting aeroplanes and dirigibles of special service.

A large machine of the type described would cost about $25,000. Five thousand such machines will represent a market of $125,000,000 for an army of the size of the French; or for the entire Europe, close to a billion dollars.

Is there any need to say more about the financial possibilities of the new industry'

NEW TREBERT ENGINE.

A novelty in rotative motors is to be on the market soon-—the Trebert 8-cyl-inder revolving, connecting-rodless engine, air-cooled, of course.

Smile awhile; while yon smile, Another smile, and soon there's

Miles and miles of smiles; And life's worth while—

If you'll but smile.

NATIONAL NAVAL MILITIA AERO CORPS

Capt. Mark L. Bristol, Director of Aeronautics, Navy Department, is organizing in the Naval Militia an aeronautic service that will reinforce the regular service in time of an emergency. The equipping, training and development of this service will as far as possible be along the same lines as the regular Naval Aeronautic Service.

It is recommended that each Naval Militia organization consider at once the possibility of establishing an "Aeronautic Corps." For the present the "Aeronautic Corps" of the Naval Militia will be confined to the use of aeroplanes, although the establishment of dirigible and balloon divisions in the future should be collaterally considered.

The smallest tactical units for an aerial fleet are considered to be a section of two aeroplanes, with spares and appurtenances, and this fact should be

considered in the formation of an "Aeronautic Corps."

The crew for each aeroplane will consist of two officers and six mechanicians, and an additional officer should be in command of each section.

In establishing such an "Aeronautic Corps" it is believed that the first step should be to interest those officers and men who are already fliers, or who have had previous experience in aeronautics, and to enroll these members of the Naval Militia in the Aeronautic Service; also to enlist officers and men for this service who arc experienced in handling aeroplanes.

The course of instructions and training in aeronautics will be in general accordance with that prescribed for the regular Navy.

The Office of Naval Aeronautics, Navy Deartment, will co-operate in drawing up a course of instruction and

training for any "Aeronautic Corps" that may be established as a part of any Naval Militia organization.

It is requested that this subject receive the earliest possible consideration, and that the Division of Naval Militia Affairs be informed of any steps taken, or that will be taken, toward the establishment of an "Aeronautic Corps."

Captain Bristol is very much pleased at the response from the country at large. Its primary object is, of course, to form a reserve for the Navy, but this service should also stimulate interest in Naval Militia, give a number of men who are interested in aviation a chance thus to gratify their interest and at the same time serve their country, the latter being the desire of every one who has the national spirit.

There are 22 States and the District of Columbia that have Naval Militia organizations.

NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS

The Naval Appropriation Act, approved March 3, 1915, provided for and established a Xational Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, the President to appoint not to exceed twelve members, to consist of two members from the War Department, from the office in charge of military aeronautics; two members from the Navy Department, from the office in eharge of naval aeronautics; a representative each of the Smithsonian Institution, of the United States Weather Bureau, and of the United States Bureau of Standards; together with not more than five additional persons who shall he acquainted with the needs of aeronautical science, either civil or military, or skilled in aeronautical engineering or its allied sciences. The members of the Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, as such, shall serve without compensation. It shall be the duty of the Advisory Committee for Aeronautics to supervise and direct the scientific study of the problems of Might, with a view to their practical solution, and to determine the problems which should he experimentally attacked, and to discuss their solution and their application to practical questions. In the event of a laboratory or laboratories, either in whole or in part, being placed under the direction of the committee, the committee may direct and conduct research and experiment in aeronautics in such laboratory or laboratories. Rules and regulations for the conduct of the work of the committee shall be formulated by the committee and approved by the President.

The sum of $5,000 a year, or so much thereof as may be necessary, for five years is appropriated, out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated to be immediately available, for

experimental work and investigations undertaken by the committee, clerical expenses and supplies, and necessary expenses of members of the committee in going to, returning from, and while attending, meetings of the committee. An annual report to the Congress shall be submitted through the President, including an itemized statement of expenditures.

Mere is the committee:

tien. George P. Scriven, Chief Signal Officer and Lieut-Col. Samuel Reber, aviation section. Signal Corps, representing the Army; Capt. Mark L. Bristol, Director of Aeronautics, Navy Department, and Naval Constructor Hold-en C. Richardson for the Navy ; Dr. Charles D. Walcott. secretary of the Smithsonian Institution; Charles L. Marvin. Chief of the Weather Bureau-, Dr. S. W. Stratum, Chief of the Bureau of Standards. Assistant Secretary of the Treasury Byron R. Newton, Prof. W. F. Durand, Stanford University; Prof. Michael L Pupin, Columbia University: Prof. John F. Hayford, Northwestern University, and Prof. Joseph Ames, Johns Hopkins University, represent the contingent of "additional persons who shall be acquainted with the needs of aeronautical science, or skilled in aeronautical engineering or its allied sciences."

Dr. A. F. Zahm is Recorder of the Advisory Committee.

FLYING AT SAN DIEGO

The summary of the flights at San Diego January 1st to March I3th, is as follows: blights, 027; time in air, 227 hours and 52 minutes: passengers carried, 376.

The fiscal year of the government begins on July 1st and the Army Appropriation Bill carrying the appropriation of $30(1,000 for aviation purposes is not effective until that date. The present fiscal year end? June 30th.

NO AEROPLANES FOR COAST GUARD

It is regrettable to state that there are no plans in contemplation at the present time for the use of land or water aeroplanes in connection with the Coast Guard, because there is no appropriation available for this purpose.

NAVY INTER-AEROPLANE 'PHONE

The Navy is experimenting with some instruments at the present time for communicating between the operators of an aeroplane when in flight. It is not yet decided as to the value of these instruments.

The Hague, March 29.—Herr Hoog-straen, the noted bird trainer of Delft, solemnly assured newspaper correspondents to-day that he is training a great flock of pelicans to attack military aeroplanes.

"The experiments have been proceeding ever since the war broke out," said Herr 1 loogstraen. "The pelicans fear a German Taube no more than a fish. They are exceptionally clever. With their sharp, pointed beaks they will constitute a real menace to air pilots."—The Sun.

The helican!

"I have received an astonishing number of replies from your readers and feel that my ad. is worth the reasonable rates you charge for it."—Aeroplane Advertiser, April, 1915.

CHRISTOFFERSON MILITARY BIPLANE

Silas Christofferson has been making rapid strides on the Pacifie Coast and his machines have made some corking flights.

In the 1915 military tractor the fuselage is divided into two sections, the front section being 10 ft. 6 in. in length and the rear one 9 ft. o in. The rear portion is oval in shape, while the front it square, gradually rounding off at the rear end to correspond with the rear section. The rear section is solidly braced with wooden truss membqrs, while the front is solidly braced with wire trussing. The entire fuselage, with the exception of the motor section, is covered with a thin veneering of wood, which retains the streamline shape and greatly increases the strength.

The motor section is fitted with sheet-metal covering similar to that of an automohile hood. The occupants' cockpits, oval in form, are 20 in. in width. The passenger's cockpit is 27 in. from front to back, while the pilot's is 24 inches. There is a 2 ft. space between the pilot's cockpit and the observer's, which could be utilized for wireless instruments, bomb-dropping apparatus.

photographic apparatus or reserve tanks. From the passenger's cockpit to the engine hood there is an 18 in. space which could be utilized for a reserve oil tank.

The fuselage conforms to the latest ideas in regard to streamline shape. The bottom portion of the fuselage, underneath the engine, is used for the radiator, which conforms in shape with the fuselage, thus doing away with a large amount of head resistance.

The main gasoline tank is located underneath the observer's seat. The gasoline is forced by air pressure to a "gravity" tank, which supplies the carburetor.

Where the two sections of the fuselage join special fittings are used, which facilitate rapid assemblage.

The top plane proper measures 22 ft. 6 in. for each section, of which there are two (47 ft. 10 in. total). The sections are attached to special steel tubing supports by means of steel pins, which can be quickly removed. The outer ends of the top section curve toward the back beam from the last strut out.

The ailerons are a continuation of the

plane and are attached to the rear beam of the plane by special steel hinges.

The two sections of the hottom plane each measure 15 ft. 3 in. in spread, and are attached to the fuselage by means of quick-detachable steel sockets.

The upper and lower planes are separated 5 ft. 9 in. by means of laminated streamline struts, which fit into special patented sockets that serve as a support for the guy wires. These sockets are so constructed as to allow the top and lower planes to be folded together. This arrangement makes it possible to set up the machine very quickly, as there is no "lining up" necessary. This latter feature is accomplished by the use of patented quick detachable turnbuckles constructed of chrome nickel steel and tobin bronze. These turnbuckles are so constructed that by pulling back a metal sleeve a lever is released, which in turn releases the guy wire. This lever is so constructed as to automatically tighten the wire as it is pulled back into place upon reassembling.

The beams or spars of the main planes are of the "I-beam" type, built

up of laminated spruce. These beams are spaced 3 ft. 6 in. apart.

The ribs are spaced according to their relative location to the fuselage, those up close being nearer together and those away from the fuselage being further separated. The ribs are constructed of selected Oregon spruce and basswood, and are also of the "I-beam" type.

The entering edges of the planes are fitted with strips of walnut, so made that a neat, sharp, efficient nose is obtained. The planes are interbraced by means of wooden rods, both laterally and crosswise. This wood bracing is glued to each rib it passes through, and makes practically a solid mass in point of strength and durability. The cross section of the surfaces is especially shaped to obtain the highest possible speed, greatest lift and least drift.

The entering edge turns up slightly, as also does the controlling edge. The section is set at an angle of incidence of two degrees, which gives a rise of 4's in. from the controlling edge to the entering edge. The planes are set at a positive dihedral angle of 1 1/20".

The wire bracing used is Roebling's steel cable, 2,300 to 4,000 pounds tensile strength. Where the wire passes around turnbuckles and through sockets it is protected by a copper sleeve.

The surfaces are covered with a very high grade of Irish linen, heavy weight, tested as to strength and treated.

The elevator flaps are 9 ft. 6 in. spread, 2 ft. 7 in. from front to back,

LONDON RAID SURE.

Paris, April 13.—Count Zeppelin's secretary is said to have stated:

"Our air lleet now comprises 1,366 units, of which 36 are dirigibles. We have had far heavier losses than anticipated, nine dirigibles having been put out of action since the beginning of the war. But the destroyed units have been replaced by new types, armed with long-range cannon and mitrailleuses.

"By July 15th we are to deliver fifteen airships of a greatly perfected type, each being armored aand capable of carrying two tons of explosives. With these we shall be able to undertake safely the London expeditions in the thickest fogs and on the blackest nights.

"We shall employ a new process of causing atmospheric perturbations, which will make it impossible for enemy machines to cross German lines without dropping like flies."

PEOLI IS KILLED IN NEW BIPLANE TRIAL.

Washington, April 12.—Cecil M. Peoli was killed at College Park, Md., to-day when a biplane of which lie was the designer fell a distance of about 100 feet in a trial flight. He bad been expecting to demonstrate his machine by flying from Washington to New York.

Peoli. but 21 years old, was at the head of the Peoli Aeroplane Corporation, which had its main office at 31 Nassau street, New York. The company was formed last January to back Peoli in the building of aeroplanes of

with an area of about 22 sq. ft. It is constructed in the same manner as the main planes, with 1-beam ribs, beams and cross trussings. The corners are rounded.

The rudder is somewhat oval in shape, 3 ft. 8 in. long, 3 ft. 4in. high, and is constructed in the same manner as the elevating planes. The stabilizer is built in one piece, and attached to the fuselage by means of special clips. In packing it comes off in one piece with the elevating plane. The vertical fin, attached in the same way as the stabilizer, is taken off in one piece with the rudder.

The ailerons operate together and by means of a special lever device, which enables all control wires to pass along the lower beam, thus facilitating inspection. The ailerons are attached to the main planes by special steel hinges. The construction of the ailerons follows generally the main plane construction, except that a steel tube is used as the front beam. The ribs are set into steel sockets brazed to this tube, thus making a very strong structure.

The landing gear is of an improved type, consisting of three wheels, one in front under the motor, and two back a short distance behind the center of gravity.

The rear wheels are 26 in. in diameter, and fitted with 4-in. aeroplane tires, and are spaced 5 ft. apart. The spokes of all of the wheels are encased in a metal covering, which tends .to cut

his own design. The company was a bidder under the recent navy specifications.

Among the principal stockholders were Joseph P. Day, real estate dealer; Nicholas F. Brady, son of the late Antony N. Brady and president of the New York Edison Company; Hugh L. Cooper, consulting engineer, of 101 Park avenue; J. Clarence Davies, real estate dealer, of 156 Broadway, and Harold Roberts, president of the American Real Estate Co., 527 Fifth avenue.

Peoli, a former model flyer, induced Captain Baldwin to teach him to fly, and under Baldwin's management made many exhibition flights in this country and Canada with invariable success. His loss is keenly felt by all who knew him.

NEW COMPANIES.

The Cooper Aircraft Company has been formed and is now located at Bridgeport, Conn. The officers are John D. Cooper, president; J. H. Cross-ley, vice-president, and R. N. Blakeslee, secretary-treasurer. John D. Cooper will be remembered as foreign representative for the Curtiss Aeroplane Company and Blakeslee is another pilot of note, hailing from the Pacific slopes. The company sets out to manufacture seaplanes, submarine destroyers and military tractors. The first machine will be completed about the first of May.

Standard Ordinance Corporation, armament, munitions of war, armored cars, boats, aeroplanes, food supplies, corn-

down the head resistance. The back wheels are equipped with spring shock absorbers of special design, and are supported by a "tj" shaped wood structure, very strong and solid. This wood frame is laminated. The front wheel is 20 in. in diameter, fitted with a 4-in. tire. It is braced to the rear "U" frame by means of wooden beams and to the fuselage also by means of wooden beams.

The motor is a Curtiss 100 h.p. The radiation system is very efficient in cooling and reduction of head resistance. The radiator takes the place of the bottom of the fuselage under the engine. There is a reserve tank for a large amount of water.

The climbing speed with 100 h.p. (with full load, consisting of pilot, observer, fuel for five hours, and 150 lbs. additional weight) is 400 to 500 ft. per minute. The speed range is from approximately 45 miles per hour, minimum speed, to 85 miles per hour, maximum speed.

The type of control is left to the selection of the purchaser, and any desired system will be installed.

During the year 1914 H. E. Honeywell made seven ascensions, using two balloons and 400,000 cu. ft. of gas. One ascension was made with oil gas. Twenty-two passengers were carried. On November 1 he made his 204th ascent. Honeywell states "things look pretty good for the new year."

mission, brokerage; $50,000; S. L. Cohen, R. O'Rourke, M. Sundheimer, 31 Nassau street.

AT ITHACA, N. Y.

Practically established in their new factory at Ithaca, N. Y., the Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co. are showing considerable activity.

The new Military Tractor, under the skillful pilotage of Frank H. Burnside, has to its credit some very remarkable performances; climbing with pilot and passenger 700 feet in one minute. Fully loaded with gasoline and oil for four hours' flying (280 pounds), and with three people aboard, the climb was 4,000 feet in ten minutes. Speed range was from 38 to 81.1 miles per hour.

During the week ending March 26th Burnside put the machine through some very rigorous tests, carrying a passenger on each flight; incidentally giving the students their first instruction in the tractor type.

Col. B. M. Brower, of the Cornell University Cadet Corps, was taken up several thousand feet for reconnaissance, the Corps at that time being out on field duty.

Despite the cold weather, training has been carried out on the frozen surface of Cayuga Lake, and considerable progress has been made. Lawrence Lyon, William S. Brock. B. C. Harrington, Stanley S. Boxhall and Frank King all show exceptional ability in handling the Thomas control and should be ready to fly for their pilot's license soon.

"HOLES IN THE AIR"

By W. J. Humphreys, Ph.D.

"The bucking and balking, the rearing, plunging, and other evidences of the mulish nature of the modern Pegasus," rhetorically states W. J. Humphreys, Ph.D., of the U. S. Weather Bureau in the Smithsonian Report, "soon inspired aerial jockeys to invent picturesque terms." "Holes in the air" is one of these. This expression covers real conditions met but an actual hole in the air is impossible for, did this occur, the surrounding air would rush to fill this space at a rate of 750 miles an hour so that an aviator could scarcely be expected to get into the hole. The claim that there are spots where the density is less than the surrounding air, on encountering which the aeroplane drops suddenly, the "half-hole," is likewise held to be a friction. "Along with these two impossibles, the hole and the half-hole, the vacuum and the half vacuum, should be consigned to oblivion that other picturesque fiction, the 'pocket of noxious gas'" which one of our foremost pilots claims overcame him temporarily while flying.

Aerial Fountains. If a mass of air becomes warmer than the surrounding air at the same level, an upward current is at once started, sometimes at a velocity of even 10 feet a second. These vertical current occur principally in warm, clear weather. The long columns of smoke from chimneys is an illustration. Crossing such a column with one wing, with the other in stationary air, lateral stability is affected and shocks felt on entering and leaving. On squarely entering the column, the angle of attack is suddenly increased, the pressure on the wing and the angle of ascent. On suddenly leaving the column there is an instantaneous decrease in supporting power. If the elevator is operated in the column to prevent the machine rising to higher levels, there is a rapid descent on leaving and "the half hole is met. This is not necessarily harmful. Probably the real danger arises from over adjustments" in too hasty attempts to correct for the abrupt changes. "Such an adjustment might well cause a fall so sudden as to strongly suggest an actual hole in the air." An evidence of these columns which attain greater heights is the rolls and billows of the cumulous clouds they produce.

Aerial Cataracts. One kind of cataract is a counterpart of the aerial fountain, likely to occur at the same time, but in the opposite direction from that of the rising column. Another kind is a flow of a heavy surface layer of air up and over a precipice and found among barren mountains in high latitudes where, cooled by the snow, these cataracts "rush down the lee side of steep mountains with the roar and force of a hurricane. Where such conditions prevail the aviator should keep well above the drifting snow and avoid any attempt to land within the cataract itself."

Aerial Cascades. This term is applied to winds which, following the surface contour, sweep down to the lee of a hill but at a considerable elevation, with frequently a counter current at the ground. This might lead a

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pilot to think of another hole but these Professor Humphreys considers harmless if the pilot keeps his machine well above the surface.

Wind Layers. Layers of air differ in intensity and glide one over the other as air flows over water, with the same wave-producing effect. Gliding down, with power shut off, from one layer to another, say into a layer moving in the same direction as the machine and with the same velocity, instantly dynamical support ceases, power of guidance is lost and a drop for some distance is inevitable. The machine "must inevitably fall to ruin unless rare skill in balancing, or, possibly, mere chance should bring about a new glide after additional velocity had been acquired as the result of a considerable fall. Warping of wings, turning of ailerons, dipping and twisting of rudders, would be utterly useless at first, totally without effect so long as wind and machine have same velocity. A skilful pilot may secure a new glide with a properly constructed machine, and, finally, if high enough, make a safe landing." However, this is an extreme case and of rare occurrence but none the less it may be met with. If the new layer is in the opposite direction an increase, instead of a decrease, in the lift is found. Ordinarily these layers flow more or less across each other and the pilot has to contend with abrupt changes and experiences a "choppy aerial sea, in which his equilibrium is by no means secure—in which 'holes* seem to abound everywhere." When fine weather, if changing for a storm, beware of these conditions and always land head-on in the surface wind.

Wind Billows are caused by layers of air of different density and these billows are set up between the layers. Meeting these sudden changes in velocity and direction of wind more "holes in the air" are encountered. There is risk passing from one layer to the other.

At the surface the wind is tumuluous due to friction and obstacles and there are swirls and gusts. If violent it is difficult and dangerous to fly but the turmoil decreases with altitude and the pilot should fly the higher the windier it is. In strong winds the pilot should not land on the lee sides of or close to steep mountains and hills or even large buildings. Land in an open place a distance away or on top of the hill itself. If landing on the hill is necessary, take the windward side. If necessary on the lee side, head into the axis of the eddy. On clear, still nights there are cool currents flowing down valleys and in landing one must head up the valley.

All these sources of danger are less effective as the speed of the aeroplane increases.

The experiences of the Turks in the Balkan War proved the sensibility of wooden aeroplanes to the influences of the weather, making necessary steel machines for military purposes.

RUMPLER MONOPLANE

The world's record for altitude made by Lirmekogel on a Rumpler monoplane attracted wide attention to this new machine, the construction of which shows the recent progress made in aviation in Germany: now these machines are being used in the war.

For a long time the Rumpler establishment has championed the type "pigeon." which offers the great advtantage of a stability almost automatic, due to the special form of the wings (Xanonia-form, so-called) ; on the other hand, the superabundance of bracing (notably the girder under the wings) offered too much resistance to advance to the extent that the speed hardly exceeded 100 kiloms. per hour (62 m. p. h.).

In the monoplone type of 1014 the classic form of the wings lias been re-

tained while reducing the bracing to what was strictly necessary, viz., four cables above and four below for each wing. At the same time, the flexible ends of the wings and tail have been replaced by flaps of the ordinary type. The wing surface of the new monoplane is 29 sq. m.; its weight empty, 650 k. g.

The incidence of the wings diminishes from root to tip. which attacks the air at a decidedly negative angle. The lateral balance is definitely assured by ailerons having 1.40 sq. m. surface each. Their operation is such as to give only a reaction downward and not upward, so that the additional resistance is always on the side of the higher wing. The lower hraces are fastened to bracing post entirely independent of the chassis.

The fuselage of rectangular section has a length of 9 m. at largest part, giving plenty of room for the pilot's seat and that of the observer, as well as for all the instruments needed.

The empennage comprises a fixed triangular surface, terminated by an elevator in two parts, a vertical keel and rudder.

The motor group comprises a 6 cylinder Alercedes motor, water cooled, of 115 h. p. at 1400 r. p. in., driving a Reschke propeller 2.70 m. diam., 1.48 m. pitch. The cylinders are of cast steel with autogenous-welded water jacket. Cooling is by radiator, system Windhoff.

This radiator of aluminum tubes is fastened directly to the motor so that the water in the cylinders is always

under pressure which prevents pockets of vapor; and, further, in case of leakage of water there remains always water in the cylinders.

The landing gear is formed by two lateral triangles of steam-line section steel tubes, to which are attached by means of elastic, an axle carrying two disc wheel (whee'j with spokes covered with cloth). A powerful brake fastened to the anxle, permits landing in 50 metres or so.

The controls are of the military type, the elevator is operated by fore and aft motion of lever, lateral balance by rotation of wheels, and direction by pedals. All the control cables are carefully guided by bronze pullevs in fibre blocks.

The chief materials used in this machine are ash and American white pine for the framework of wings and fuselage steel in form of pressed sheets, formed tubes, and cables, and cast aluminum

LODGE WANTS AIRSHIPS TO BE DIRIGIBLE.

Senator Lodge, complaining of the lack of aeroplanes, says:

"I refer, of course, to what are generally called air craft, or, more specifically, aeroplanes and hydroplanes, (sic.) * * * * In the army we have at this moment thirteen aeroplanes and no Zeppelins or dirigible airships, (sic.)

"The money appropriated for this branch of the service in the navy, I am informed, has not been expended, and it is stated that the delay has been owing to the failure of the American manufacturers to furnish aeroplanes, to the differences of the experts as to the best type, and to the fact that we are waiting to get some aeroplanes from abroad in order to test them."

Naturally, we desire our airships to be dirigible but we have not yet heard of any hydroplanes in full flight. Evidently Senator Lodge got his technical knowledge from the Arm-Chair Aviators' Home Companion.

FREE AERONAUTICAL PAMPHLETS.

Among the publications of Smithsonian Institution are a number devoted to aeronautics. These following may be had free upon application to Smithsonian Institution, Washington. D. C. (for other aeronautical works see the book catalogue published by Aeronautics) : Recent Progress in Aviation-. Bv Octave Chanute (1910). Traveling at High Speeiis on the Surface of the Earth and Above It. By H. S. Hele-Shaw (1911). Aviation in France. By Pierre-Roger

Jourdain (190S). International Air Map and Aeronautical Marks. By Ch. Lallemand (1911).

Langlev Aerodynamical Laboratory.

Advisory Committee on the (1913). Research and Experiments in Aerial

Navigation. By Samuel P. Langley

(1897, 1900, 1901, 1904). What Constitutes Superiority in an

Airship. By Commandant Paul

Renard (1909).

for the support of controls. Autogenous welding was employed for all pieces which are not subiect to tension.

This monoDlane has given the following results : With full military load, comprising fuel for 4 hours' flight besides 200 kg. useful load, it climbs 800 m. in 6 min. The maximum height attained was 6300 m. for the oilot alone and 5500 m. with passenger. The normal speed is 120 kiloms. an hour.

Finally it was endeavored in the mode of construction to facilitate dismounting and erecting.

RUMPLER BIPLANE.

The machine on which Basser established the world's record of duration with 18 h. 12 min., is the first biplane put out by the Rumpler establishment. In construction it shows much similarity to the monoplane type 1914; thus, the fuselage, the tail, the moto-propulser

Hydromechanic Experiments with Flying Boat Hulls. By Naval Constructor H. C. Richardson (1914). Price, 10 cents.

The Flying Apparatus of the Blowfly. By Wolfgang Ritter (1911).

The Exploration of the Free Air by Means of Kites at Blue Hill Observatory. Bv A. Lawrence Rotch (1S98).

The Greatest Flying Creature. By S. P. Langley (1901).

Relation of Wing Surface to Weight. By R. Von Lendenfeld (1904).

The Present Status of Military Aeronautics. By Dr. George O. Squier, Major, Signal Corps, U. S. Armv ( 1908).

Review of Applied Mechanics. Ey L.

Lecornu (1912). Holes in the Air. Bv W. J. Humphreys,

Ph.D. (1912). Report on European Aeronautical

Laboratories. Bv A. F. Zahm, Ph.D.

(1914).

Experiments with the Langley Aerodrome. By S. P. Langley (1904).

Samuel Pierpont Langley. Memorial Meeting (1906).

Count von Zeppelin's Dirigible Airship (1899).

The American airman Wright was the first in the whole world to build an aeroplane which would actually fly, and ever since that time we have been experimenting and inspecting and reporting and contracting and considering; in fact we have been doing everything except building aeroplanes. On July 1 last France owned 1,400 aeroplanes, while Uncle Sam owned 23, all of them out of date. However, we recently ordered from abroad an up to date French aeroplane with two Sahnson motors and an i:p to date German aeroplane with two Mercedes motors. We were in hopes that at last we were in a fair way to establish a little brood of aircraft; but just then the European war broke out. Wicked foreigners commandeered our purchases, so here we are again just where we started.—Representative Augustus P. Gardner.

group and the body are identical with the corresponding parts of the monoplane.

The principal cell presents the characteristics of the "Arrow" biolane: the V horizontal and the vertical dihedral angle are both 3°. The incidence of the wings diminishes progressively toward the tips (extremities). The lateral balance is assured bv ailerons controlled (or operated) in both directions.

The characteristics are as follows: Surface, 38 sq. metres; spread, 13 m.; height. 3 m.; total length, 8.65 m.; 6 cylinder Mercedes motor. 105 h. p.; hourly fuel consumption, 38 litres, oil 2 kg. Chauvier propeller. 2.7 m. diam. by 1.48 m. pitch. Fixed empennage, 2.S sq. m.; elevator, 1.4 sq. m.; vertical keel, 1.3 sq. m.; rudder, 8 sq. m.; ailerons, 2.4 sq. m.; vt. empty. 650 kg.; speed normal, 105 k. p. h.; climbing rate (11 minutes, full load), 800 m. Useful load, 740 kg.

Lieut. Saufley, U. S. Navy, has been on duty at the works of the Sperry Gyroscope Company to study the theory and construction of the Sperry stabilizer and observe any trials of this device the manufacturers desired to make for their own purposes in getting it ready for the tests that will be carried out at Pensacola.

Almost any arms manufacturer in this country could build guns for aeroplanes if they were given the plans. The Navy has not yet decided on the type of gun for this use. In fact, confidential information from abroad points to great difference of opinion amongst the nations of Europe using guns in aeroplanes.

■ There are now at the Aeronautic Station. Pensacola, eight officers of the new class of student air pilots, and during one week 1.133 miles of flight were covered hy the different machines. The longest continuous flight during the week was 3 hours and 5 minutes.

Aeroplanes were detailed to take part in the festivities at Pensacola and Mobile in connection with Mardi Gras. Aeroplane AB3. with Lieutenant Bellinger in charge, and Ensign Bronson as observer, made the flight to Mobile on February 13th and remained there, returning on the ISth. Exhibition flights were made during the stay at Mobile and people taken up. There were over 1.200 miles flown in 24 hours of flying, not counting the Mobile flight.

"Billy" Robinson, the bird-man, has put Grinnell on the map in the aviation line and spread the name of the Grinnell Aviation Company by his flight of 375 miles from Des Moines, la., to Kentland, Ind. At a recent meeting of the stockholders of the company it was decided to increase the capital from $10,000 to $50.000.

o

DATA SHEET

No. 1

GUY WIRE AND CABLE DATA.

Aeronautical cord consists of a number (usually 19) of fine wires of great strength siranded together. It is furnished in five diameters, with a minimum thickness of 1/32" and a maximum of 1/8". The strengths of the different sizes run, approximately from 200 tc 2,300 pounds.

For steering gear a more flexible cord is provided. This is composed of six strands of seven wires each, with a center of either cotton or wire, as ordered. The cord with the cotton center is considered more pliable than that with the center composed of wire.

The standard sizes for the flexible cord are 1/16", 3/32" and 1/8", other sizes being made to order.

Wire differs from cord in that it consists of a single wire instead of a number of wires twisted together. Like the wires in the cord, it is made from the highest grade of steel and given a plated finish that secures best results in soldering. This wire is made in 12 sizes. Care should be taken by users to make good connections, so that the entire strength of the steel can be developed. The following tables (Roebling) give information as to strength and weights:

O

GALVANIZED AVIATOR CORD

Diameter.

No. of Wires.

Approximate

breaking strength in pounds.

Weight in pounds per 100 reet.

w

19

8,300

13.80

S/l6"

19

3,500

7.20

%s"

19

3,000

5.50

V"

19

2,300

3.6»

%i"

19

1,465

2.80

3/32"

19

800

2.00

Me"

19

500

0.96

V32"

7

200

0.35

o

EXTRA FLEXIBLE GALVANIZED AVIATOR CORD

6x7 Cotton Center.

Size.

Approximate breaking strength in pounds.

Weight in pounds per 100 feet.

3/.e"

3,000

5.35

X"

1,015

2.35

 

780

1.50

Me"

420

.84

V_

TO FLY FOR VILLA.

W. Leonard Bonney has left for Mexico to be chief of General Villa's aviation corps. Bonney has recently been flying at Hempstead. Bonney is well known in aviation circles.

Charles S. Niles, a friend of Bonney. is chief of General Carranza's aviation corps and has under him several monoplane fliers, most of whom learned at the old Moisant school at Hempstead. The success of Carranza's fliers in bomb dropping and scouting recently induced General Villa to buy six Wright biplanes.

_J

DENINE CLAIMS AUTOSTABLE MACHINE.

The Denine-Deuthcr Aeroplane Company, of Spokane, Wash., has been experimenting with an inherently stable monoplane which has been patented in the United States in monoplane, biplane and multiplane forms. Construction was commenced on the monoplane in the spring of 1914 by Martin A. Denine and Harold C. Deuther, and tried out during the months of August and September on the Parkwater aviation field, Spokane. Wash., with complete success. H C. Deuther, the aviator, states at no

time was he troubled with either fore-and-aft or lateral stability; in fact, during the last few flights he released the controls altogether, only taking control on leaving and making landing. There is said to be an entire absence of rolling and pitching of this plane during gusty weather.

The Denine-Deuther Aeroplane Company will manufacture both single and passenger carrying machines of both monoplane and biplane types, and do exhibition work during the season of 1915 and thereafter.

The planes cant forward from body for the first part of the spread and then cant back for the balance of the spread, terminating in the flexible portion or aileron. The wings are attached to the body by sockets, which can be shifted to change the angle of incidence.

"Only the most careful diplomatic procedures have kept the United States a neutral nation. With the palpable efforts that grow greater each day it may be but a question of time before this country is compelled to take up arms. It is conceded that the aeroplane has made surprise attacks impossible. It has made necessary a readjustment of military tactics. Where would the United States be if plunged into war? What is the total production of our factories? What is the number of efficient and capable military aviators ? A hundred aeroplanes and aviators would be but a drop in the sea should we become involved in war. Neither aeroplanes nor aviators are made in a day, or a week."

Charles B. Kirkham, who has been identified with the aviation motor industry in this country since 1910, is now connected with the Curtiss Motor Co., at Hammondsport, as chief engineer.

CORRECTION.

In our issue of March 30 the Burgess Company's advertisement reads: "Burgess-Dunne Three Delivered to U. S. Army, San Diego, December 30."

It should be Burgess-Dunne No. 3.

AERO MART COLUMN.

GET world's largest aeronautical catalogue, 6 red stamps, or our aeronautical motor catalogue just off the press, 4 red stamps. Blue prints $1.75, all standard aeroplanes. "Heath" propellers for air. water and land represent the survival of the fittest. Six years' propeller production proves perfection. 3 red stamps for propeller catalogue. Heath Aerial Vehicle Co., Chicago.

WILL sacrifice latest flying boat, $775. Completely equipped. Also 30-h.p. Water-Cooled Curtiss Motor, $250. Heath Aerial Vehicle Co., Chicago.

WANT TO BUY an 80-h.p. Gnome or an 80 or 90-h.p. Curtiss. Address John Weaver, c/o Aeronautics.

FOR SALE—Roberts 50 h.p. motor, almost new. Oscar Solbrig, 707 W. 7th, Davenport. Iowa.

ON THE DEATH OF BEACHEY.

Our representative witnessed the last two flights made by Beachey. and is thereorc well acquainted with the real facts of the great aviator's death. His report did not reach us in time for the previous issue.

I was very interested in Beachey's flights at the Exposition, and upon learning that Warren Eaton had constructed a small monoplane for Beachey, took a great deal of interest in the first flights. Beachey had flown this monoplane four or five mornings at the Beach, some five or six miles from the Expositon Grounds. This was done by Beachey flying from the Exposition Grounds to the Beach after his exhibition was finished. He took out the biplane's Gnome and installed it in the monoplane for each flight.

The monoplane had but 20 feet spread, was an excellent job, and one of the neatest 'planes I have ever seen. It was staunch in every detail, and the whole thing weighed but a little over 400 pounds. The 80 Gnome drove this plane more than 95 miles an hour. Beachey. being confident of his ability to drive this monoplane after his trials at the Beach, decided to fly it instead of the biplane at the Fair Grounds where he was under contract. This was done safely one day previous to the Sunday he met his death. During this first exhibition flight, no special stunts were tried, but simply a beautiful straight away flight.

Sunday. Beachey's first flight was started off poorly. The Gnome did not work very well, and when his start was made, stopped with him in the air just after he had crossed a pile of lumber that was thrown on the turf from where he started. He glided down safely and ordered the machine to be taken back for re-start. This was done some twenty minutes later, and he shot straight up into the air. climbing to about 5,000 feet before leveling off. He made a trip o\er San Francisco, then turned around and crossed the Bay to Sausalito. after which he made three or four excellent loops, and glided down to the Grounds at a slow angle and landed safely. The monoplane was a beautiful sight in the air. having graceful lines, and very fast. His last flight was started half an hour or so later, in which Beachey went up approximately 4,000 feet, made several loops, and then circled up until he had gained approximately 5.000 or 6,000 feet altitude, made another loop and then started for the ground perpendicularly. Lots of people state Beachey's engine stopped on him and prefired. but this is incorrect in every way. The actual cause of Beachey's death is due solely to the aviator's inexperience in flying such a light monoplane. As yon know, this was the first time that Beachey had ever been back of the motor, concealed entirely excepting his head, so that the wind could not blow against him and give him an idea

as to how fast he was dropping. The machine dropped at the rate of fully 250 to 300 miles an hour, and it was a wonder that the wings did not collapse nearer the first of the drop. When Beachey started to level out, approximately 500 feet from the ground, one wing simply folded straight back and exploded like a prefire of the motor. It was not long before the other did the same thing. Luckily, the machine dropped along the side of United States transports in a little harbor not over 100 feet wide. It was fully two hours before the plane was found by a diver from the battleship Oregon, being located by the gasoline that came to the surface. It was hoisted in shreds, Beachey taken out and placed in a naval bearing sack and hoisted to a waiting ambulance.

Beachey appeared to have excellent control over the monoplane, and flew it wonderfully well, but being covered up as he was, and his not being allowed to feel or see how fast he was really dropping, was the direct cause of his death. In my mind no monoplane or biplane built could have withstood the strain of such a tremendous falling force through the air.

INVISIBLE RAYS TO DESTROY ZEPPELINS.

"Since the war began, there have been many important developments in aerial defense and offense. Recently the discovery of a combination of infra red and electric waves shot from a mica tube in the form of a gun have, on actual tests, proved to be such a certain means of causing all forms of balloons to explode," says William Russell, "that the British, French and German Governments have, under the threat of severest punishment, forbidden any news of the experiments to be published.

"Through an accidental observation of a press representative, news of these experiments have reached this country, and several of the papers have published accounts stating that the invention has been confirmed by high military officials.

"For several years many scientists have been conducting experiments in the radiation of infra red and electric waves of various kinds for causing destructive effects on submarines and air-craft and have found that, under the proper conditions, destructive effects of greater power than any other method known could be caused by these rays which have such terrific force that if they are perfected to a degree that will be capable of liberating their full force in a beam of energy that can be controlled with the accuracy and certainty of gun fire we will have a means of destruction far more appalling than the great German siege guns.

"To people unfamiliar with science, the statement that an invisible radiation of electric waves similar to wireless waves could possess more destructive power than gunpowder charges which hurl enormous missives of steel weigh-

ing many hundreds of pounds appears incredible.

"The study of periodic law shows that all of the invisible forces in electric wave form possess great energy and the stud}- of radio activity has proved that all forms of matter, even to the smallest particle conceivable, contains an amount of force which, if it could be liberated in an explosive discharge similar to the explosion of dynamite, etc., would greatly exceed in power many pounds of the most powerful explosive known to us.

"The most salient point in the effective use of this silent, invisible, destructive force is that it can be used without detection no matter how near a person might be to it; for being invisible and absolutely noiseless it cannot be detected by our senses even though we were to stand alongside of it as it is shot forth on its errand of destruction."

William Russell, formerly chief of the Wireless Division. Seventh Regiment, New York National Guard, has been conducting experiments in these destructive electric radiation and expects soon to give a demonstration of the practical reality of this form of energy.

A military authority states: "I know nothing more on the subject than the various newspaper yarns which have appeared from time to time for the last three years about the ultra some kind of ray which is alleged to possess marvelous destructive properties. There has been no record of any such discovery in any of the scientific journals, and I am inclined to believe the existence of these rays is a myth of the same character as the alleged wonderful gas many times lighter than hydrogen said to have been discovered and used by the Germans in filling Zeppelins, when we know that the}' are using hydrogen for this purpose." _

COULDN'T EVEN FLY STRAIGHT.

After doing the dip, the spiral glide and all the stunts that were Beachey's delight, and landing he heard a sneering voice at his side.

"Say, are you Beachey?" a tough looking guy asked.

"Yes," was the reply. "Why?"

"Gee!" laughed the fellow. "I t'ought youse was some crack flyer. Say, dese odder guys has got it all over yous-; when it comes to flyin'. Why. youse can't even fly straight."

LANDED AT THE INSANE ASYLUM.

One day Beachey was compelled to land quickly and he decided on a nice flat field, surrounded with a fine wall and enclosing some imposing looking buildings. He miscalculated and came to earth just outside the wall and in front of a large iron gate. A lot of nondescript looking people came running down to the gate and as Beachey dusted himself off one old fellow, grinning broadly, exclaimed mockingly:

"Say. you feller! Ye lit on the wrong side o' the fence, didn' ye?"

AIRCRAFT AND PEACE TREATIES

Neutrality and Trade in Contraband

Referring to tile recent German protest to our Government regarding the exportation of hydroaeroplanes on the ground that such are construed, by Germany, to be vessels, and the reply by the Secretary of State that "both the hydroaeroplane and the aeroplane are essentially aircraft; as an aid in military operations they can only be used in the air: the fact that one starts its flight from the surface of the sea and the other from the land is a mere incident which in no way affects their aerial character," and that, consequently, this Government does not regard the obligations imposed by treaties or the accepted rules of international law as applicable to aircraft of any kind, it may be of interest to call attention to the article published in the August 15, 1914, issue of Aeronautics relative to the discontinuance of the prohibition accepted by the Powers after the first Peace Conference against the throwing of explosives from aircraft.

The first Peace Conference passed the above resolution and it was accepted. The five-year period expired July 28, 19(14. At the second Hague Conference, concluded October 18. 1907, the declaration was passed in the same terms as that of the first conference. Great Britain, Austria and the United States, among others, ratified this. The period for ratification expired June 30, 1908, and seventeen other nations failed to give assent, among whom were Germany. France, Japan. Italy. Mexico and Russia. In the absence of no prohibition, aerial warfare would seem a legitimate operation of war.

Aircraft appears on the German. French and English lists of contraband material.

Germany sought to construe hydro-

aeroplanes as vessels so as to bring them under the provisions of Article S of the Thirteenth Convention Concerning the Rights and Duties of Neutral Powers in Naval War. which provides as follows:

"A neutral Government is bound to employ the means at its disposal to prevent the fitting out or arming of any vessel within its jurisdiction which it has reason to believe is intended to cruise, or engage in hostile operations against a Power with which that Government is at peace. It is also bound to display the same vigilance to prevent the departure from its jurisdiction of any vessel intended to cruise, or engage in hostile operations, which has been adapted entirely or partly within the said jurisdiction for use in war."

Aeroplanes, land and water, arms, etc.. however, may be sold to belligerents without hindrance.

In the first place it should be understood that, generally speaking, a citizen of the United States can sell to a belligerent Government or its agent any article of commerce which he pleases. He is not prohibited from doing this by any rule of international law. by any treaty provisions, or by any statute of the United States. It makes no difference whether the articles sold are exclusively for war purposes, such as firearms, explosives, etc.. or are foodstuffs, clothing, horses, etc., for the use of the army or navy of the belligerent.

Furthermore, a neutral Government is not compelled by international law, by treaty, or by statute to prevent these sales to a belligerent. Such sales, therefore, by American citizens do not in the least affect the neutrality of the United States.

It is true that such articles as those mentioned are considered contraband and are, outside the territorial jurisdiction of a neutral nation, subject to seizure by an enemy of the purchasing Government, but it is the enemy's duty to prevent the articles reaching their destination, not the duty of the nation whose citizens have sold them. If the enemy of the purchasing nation happens for the time to be unable to do this that is for him one of the misfortunes of war; the inability, however, imposes on the neutral Government no obligation to prevent the sale.

Neither the President nor any executive department of the Government possesses the legal authority to interfere in any way with trade between the people of this country and the territory of a belligerent. There is no act of Congress conferring such authority or prohibiting traffic of this sort with European nations, although in the case of neighboring American Republics Congress has given the President power to proclaim an embargo on arms and ammunition when in his judgment it would tend to prevent civil strife.

For the Government of the United States itself to sell to a belligerent nation would be an unneutral act, but for a private individual to sell to a belligerent any product of the United States is neither unlawful nor unneutral, nor within the power of the Executive to prevent or control.

The foregoing remarks, however, do not apply to the outfitting or furnishing of vessels in American ports or of military expeditions on American soil in aid of a belligerent. These acts are prohibited by the neutrality laws of the United States.

WIRE

We make an extra high grade plated finish wire for aviators' use.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ADDRESS

John A. Roebling's Sons Co.

TRENTON, N. J.

The Thomas

Continues to Make Records

On February 27, at Ithaca. N. Y., the Thomas Tractor Biplane. with three men and four hours' fuel aboard, climbed 4,000 ft. in 10 min. Average speed—81-1 m.p.h. Slow speed down to 38 m.p.h. Showed high degree of inherent stability.

Thomas School

Offers exceptional facilities — land and water. Best of instructors and equipment.

Write for "Opportunity" Booklet Xo. li

THOMAS BROS. AEROPLANE CO.f Inc..

Ithaca,N.Y.

6-cylinder, 100 H. P.

Builders as well as Aviators are

MAXIMOTORS'

most ardent supporters Built in Four Sizes from 50-150 H. P.

OF TROT

1528 JEFFERSON AVENUE E.

THE AERONAUTICAL BOOKSHELF

Epitome of the Aeronautical

Annual By James means

In one volume is contained the principal articles from the three annuals of 1895, 1896 and 1897, published hy Mr. Means. Contains the theories and experiments of Cayley. Wen ham, Li lien thai, Maxim, Langley and others, written by themselves. Fundamental facts are given. One of the absolutely necessary volumes, HL, 224 pp., $1.12

The Problem of Flight

By HERBERT CHATLEY

A strictly technical book for the engineer.

III., 119 pp., $3.50

The Conquest of the Air

By the Late Prof. a. lawrence rotch

A popular but authoritative book on the Ocean of Air, History of Aerostation, Dirigible Balloon, Flying Machi ne, The Future of Aerial Navigation. 111., $1.10

Aerial Navigation

By dr. albert F. zahm

In popular terms Dr. Zahm portrays the progress of aeronautics.leaving ou t unproductive experiments. The pilots of today know little of the history of the machine they use daily. The percent;! ee of those who are familiar with progress is small. Dr. Zahm writes an absorbing volume which must take its place on every bookshelf.

III., 486 pp., $3.00

Art of Aviation

Bird-flight as the Basis of

Aviation fiy GUSTAV L1L1ENTHAL

Covers the gliding work of O. and G. Lilienthal.

111., 166 pp., $2.50

The Aeroplane in War

By C. GRAHAME WHITE and H. HARPER

A book with prophecies of the future. 111.. $3.00

Experiments in Aerodynamics By Prof. S. P. LANGLEY

This with the other Langley hook forms the keystone of the aeronautical library. Pnrvly technical. Details of the experimental machines of Professor Langley. The

indispensable book.

III. $1.50

Indispensable Books

memoir" experiments"

By ROBERT W. a. BREWER

One of the best handbooks on aviation. Semi-technical. A really valuable book for the amateur, experimentor and pilot. III., 266 pp., $3.50

Langley Memoir on Mechan-

By Prof. S. P. LANGLEY lCai r llgnt and CHARLES M. MANLY

In this ponderous volume is found additions to Professor Langley's previous work and contains wonderful photographs and scale drawings of all of the models and the engine*, constructed and tested by Langley and his assistant, Mr. Manly. The mathematician will delight in the formulae and the practical man will find a vast amount of data. One of the scant dozen "best books."

Handsomely ill., 4to, 320 pp., $2.50

Curtiss Aviation Book

By GLENN H. CURTISS and AUGUSTUS POST

A popular hook. Describes Curtiss' nights, his early life, how he plaoned and worked out his machine—close view of the man. Other chapters by Lt. Paul Beck, Lt. Ellyson and Hugh Robinson. III., 307 pp., $1.49

Langley's Langley's

Maxim's "ARTIFICIAL AND NATURAL FLIGHT"

Loening's "MONOPLANES AND BIPLANES"

Means' "EPITOME"

Brewer's "ART OF AVIATION"

Hay ward's "PRACTICAL" AERONAUTICS

Artificial and Natural Flight

By sir hiram maxim

Concise history of development of flying machines and Maxim's own ex perimental work. There are but few worth-while technical books on aviation. This is one. Ills., 172 pp., $ 1.7S

Monoplanes and Biplanes

By GROVER c. LOENING

Covers design, construction and operation. The author has taken the work of the best knr>wn ex peri men tors and analyzed the results, comparing them and averaging. Another necessary book. III., 345 pp., $2.50

How to Build an Aeroplane

By ROBERT PETIT

A handbook for the young man in school, or beginning building for amusement. A semi-technical book, simply written. III., 131 pp., $1.50

Building and Flying an Aeroplane By chas. b. hayward

A practical handbook, covering construction of models, gliders and power machines. III., 160 pp., $1.00

Practical Aeronautics

By chas. B. hayward

Treatise on Dirigibles, Aeroplanes, Motors Propellers, Practice, Future, etc. 111., 800 pp., $3.50

AERONAUTICS, 250 W. 54th St., New York

o

DATA SHEET

No. 2

EXTRA FLEXIBLE GALVANIZED AVIATOR CORD

6x7 Wire Center.

3/l6"

3,200

6.15

v"

1,235

2.65

?8s"

930

1.70

W

530

1.03

o

special high strengh plated aviation wire

No.B. CB.S. Gauge.

Diameter.

Approximate breaking strength in pounds.

Weight In pounds per 100 feet.

10

.102

2,000

2.91

11

.091

1,620

2.27

12

.081

1,300

1.82

13

.072

1,040

1.45

14

.064

830

1.13

15

.057

685

.891

16

051

540

.718

17

045

425

.555

18

.040

340

.436

19

.036

280

.355

20

.032

225

.264

21

.028

175

.227

o

I_

AERO CLUB OF PENNSYLVANIA.

a stated meeting of the aero club of pennsylvania was held at the bellevue-stratford friday evening. april 16, 1915. tickets for the sperry lecture, on april 23rd, will be mailed in a few days.

messrs. j. c. pepin, w. T. banning, and j. j. kelley, of the lorain hydro and aero company, visited the roberts plant a few days since and left their order for two of the new 100 h.p. six-

cylinder roberts aviation motors, described in Aeronautics of march 15th.

the engines are to be shipped to the benoist aeroplane company for installation in two outfits which the lorain company will put into service early this season. •---

IN AIRSHIP DAYS.

The wooden-legged cap'n of the airship Wilbur Third

Comes a-steppin' down the ladder like a limpin' lulu bird.

And reporters from the papers crowded round him thick as bees

OF AMERICA 29 West 39th Street. NtW York

OFFICIAL BULLETIN

It is noted with respectful and deep regret that Mr. Lee S. Burridge, Founder and Past President of the Society, has through sickness been absent from the meetings the last few weeks. Mr. Burridge had not previously missed a single meeting of the Society since the time of its organization in 1909, and all members join in the sincere hope that he may soon be restored to good health and again appear in their midst.

ROUXD TABLE TALKS Mr. A. M. Herring gave an interesting talk on the peculiar manifestation in aero-dynamics known as the Two-Foot Constant "K" or Vortex effect, which dominates when peripheral speed of a propeller is approximately 1.100 feet per second. lie also indicated a method for readily determining the efficiency of a propeller.

Mr. Charles B. Brewer exhibited an electrically treated cloth, under a process invented by Mr. A. \V. Carroll, which is impervious to water while being permeable hy air. This, it is thought, may prove of value in the manufacture of dirigibles, because less than one per cent, of weight is added to the material in the process of treatment.

Mr. P. A. Peterson exhibited a large variety of insects, having weights attached which they had carried in night, proving that, as a general rule, insects are capable of carrying loads greater than their own weights.

IIr. H. L. Coakley explained a stabilizing device of his own invention, showing a model thereof patterned after a dove. With this device a vertical keel is provided at the rear.

The new Technical Board has been appointed and held its organization meeting on Monday, April 11. It is composd of: Rudolph R. Grant, Chairman; Earle Atkinson, William J. Hammer, Rudolph Hanau, C. W. Wurster, Capt. Thomas S. Baldwin, Henry L. Coakley, M, B. Sellers, Chas. R. Wittemann, A. Leo Stevens, Capt. W. I. Chambers. U. S. N.

The Society deeply deplores the death by accident in flight on April 11 of its member, Cecil Peoli, who fell at College Park, Md., while making a trial of his new machine. Suitable action will be taken at the meeting on April 16 to express the sense of bereavement felt by the members and their sympathy with his relatives.

But he waves 'm off, impatient, and

he says in tones that freeze: "There is simply nothin' doin' in the

intervie** in' line. Though I'll own up I'm loaded with

some dope that's right down fine; I'll admit that we've been cruisin'

jest above the Polar Sea, But nary hint, reporters, will you

git of it from me. "I will merely pause to mention

that we found a brand new race. That never seen an airship nor a

bloomin' white man's face— That we found the Borealis, and

it's nowt but striped cheese. But not a word I'll give you, so

just ask no questions, please. "And furder, I could tell you, if I

only up and chose, That we anchored to the North

Pole till our wings was nearly

froze;

But you'll waste your breath with

questions all I've got to say. So trot along, reporters—jest be

movin' on your way." And when the city papers had ten

columns each next morn This most secretive captain's hair

in wrath was sadly torn; "Some one has been a-peachin' on

this airship Wilhur Third; They didn't git it out of me—1

never said a word!!'.

—Deti vet- Rep it blica n.

7/ ■ //

CURTISS FACILITIES

This shows one section of the new steel factory. It is 300 ft. long and 100 ft. wide. Another section of equal size is now under construction. Curtiss Aeroplanes of tractor and pusher type for land and water are built here under ideal conditions.

The

Wright

Company

(The

Wright

Patents)

THE NEW WRIGHT AEROPLANES

For sport, exhibition or military use, over land or water now embody the improvements that have been suggested by the experiments quietly conducted during the past ten years.

The Wright Company

DAYTON. OHIO New York Office: 11 Pica St.

The 8-Cylinder 140 Horse Power

Slurlevanl

(reg. u. s. pat. off.)

Aeronautical Motor

is the most powerful motor in the country that is thoroughly perfected and tried out. Sturtevant motors are used by the U. S. Army and Navy and all the leading aeroplane builders.

rwi. • f 4-cylinder, 50 H. P. Other "sea {6_cylinder( 80 H. P.

Specifications upon request B. F. STURTEVANT COMPANY Hyde Park, Boslon, Mass.

U ami all principal cities of the world

nikruzrusrLe

BALDWIN

Balloons !&§ Dirigibles 83 Fabrics

Motors

Box 78, Madiaon Sq. P.O., New York

PATENTS

Manufacturers want me to send them patents on useful inventions. Send me at once drawing and description of your invention and I will give you an honest report as to securing a patent and whether 1 can assist you in selling the patent. Highest references. Established 25 years. Personal attention in all cases.

WM. N. MOORE Loan and Trust Building Washington, D. C.

DON'T w"te us u"'ra

a-*"*" * you are interested in a reliable, efficient ape1 economical power plant. That is the enly kind we build. Four sizes. Reasonable Prices

Kemp Machine Works Muncie, Ind.

• < BENOIST

AEROPLANES FLYING BOATS

Factory and Office

341 S. St. Louis Avenue

Chicago, 111.

AEROPLANE COMPANY

INCORPORATED

SLOANE AEROPLANES

Military and Naval Types

Our New Military Tractor also was demonstrated successfully the very first time it was taken out for trial.

THE AIRCRAFT CO., Inc. 1733 Broadway, New York

Sole Manufacturers of Sloane Aeroplanes

Special grades of Bamboo for Aeronautic Work. Reed, Rattan and Split Bamboo for models. Tonka Ratlan for Skids l!i diameter and under any length.

J. DELTOUR, Inc. 804flgffj™*

PATENTS

THAT PROTECT AND PAY

Books and Advice Free

Send sketch or nioilel for search. Hipliest references. Rest Results. Promptness Assii ml

WATSON E. COLEMAN, Patent Lawyer

624 F Street, N. W. Washington, D. C.

BALLOONS

Airships, Aeroplanes, Gas Generators, Safety Packs, Parachutes. Exhibitions furnished with Balloons, Aeroplanes and Airships. Stevens' balloons used by 95% of American and Canadian clubs.

AERONAUT

Madison Sq. 8oxl81,NewYork

LEO STEVENS

r

BALLOONS DIRIGIBLES

Records prove we build the best Bal-Ioodb in America. Nine 1st prizes, Tbree 2nd, and Two 3rd prizes out of fourteen World-wide Contests.

Write for prices and particulars. HONEYWELL BALLOON CO. 4460 Chouteau St. Louis Mo.

the u. s. navy uses

<JBecause they are the best by a large measure and Proved Best by test and official report. <|0tbers use Plain Paragons because they are not only best but also cheapest. *]] For Efficiency— For Economy, investigate Paragons. No charge for information — No pay but for resnlti. <J\Ve have the only propeller factory in America. Large stock. Quick shipments.

AMERICAN PROPELLER CO., 243-249 East Hamburg Si., Ballimore, Md.

PARAGON PROPELLERS EXCLUSIVELY

AERONAUTICS

New and Enlarged Edition, Commencing January, 1914

The Leading British Monthly Journal Devoted to theTechnique and Industry of Aeronautics

(FOUNDED 1907) Yearly Subscription One Dollar Eighty-five Cents : Post Free (Money Orders Only)

-^t — •_A specimen copy will be mailed

ilUlC free on receipt of IS cents -Head Office: -

170 Fleet Street - - London, E. C American Office: 250 Weal 54th Street. New York

Safest and Most Practical

THE PARAPLANE

A few of its patented (U. S. and foreign) features: — Inherent Stability, Dual Motors. Controls and Propellers which can be worked independent of each other. Propellers and Control so arranged that machine will fly just as readily with a single Propeller. Greater Lifting Power. Cli.inyeable Ancle of Incidence.

Especially Designed for Governmental and Private Use Literature on request PARISANO AERIAL NAVIGATION CO. OF AMERICA, INC.

220 West 42nd Street New York City

ALL AERO BOOKS FOR SALE BY

AERONAUTICS

250 W. 54 St., New York

APRIL 30, 1915

15 Cents

illllilllM

ERONflöTIC

II

WFimÊÊÊÊÊÊmÊiiHiÊm.....mu

m mini

Hold the Principal American Records as Follows:

/ ' ^ >\

Altitude, without passenger, Capt. H. LeRoj£ Miiller^ U.S.^s, 17,185 feet. Altitude, wiuYone passenger, Lieut. J. CJQarf^rry; ifsljfc) 11,690 feet. Duration, Military Tractor, Lieut. Byron O.^Ones, UrS 8 hrs. 53 min. Duration, Hydroaeroplane, Lieut. J. H. To^ers^U.S.vN., 6 hrs. 10 min.

Motors Ready for Delivery

MODEL "S," 6-CYL., 60 H. P. MODEL "0-X," 8-CYL., 90 H.P. MODEL "O," 8-CYL.. 80 H.P. MODEL "OXX," 8-CYL., 100 H. P. MODEL "V" 8-CYL. 160 H. P.

THE CURTISS MOTOR CO

21 LAKE STREET HAMMONDSPORT. N. Y.

�84552

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U. S. Government Uses Goodyear Balloons

Every balloon purchased by the Government in the last three years has been Goodyear-made. A Goodyear balloon won the American

National Elimination Race out of Kansas City in 1913, the International Race out of Paris in 1913, and the American National Elimination Race out of St. Louis in 1914. Such successes have given to Goodyear an International reputation for the quality and dependability of Goodyear balloons.

Balloon Bags—Any Size

Goodyear makes dirigible balloon bags in sizes from 75,000 cubic feet capacity up to 500,000 cubic feet. Also complete spherical balloons, any size, for captive or free (lights. Goodyear balloon fabric is thoroughly impregnated with rubber, not merely coated. That keeps dampness away from the fibre and adds to its strength and gas tightness.

Aeroplane Tires

Aeroplanes have been built larger and heavier the past few years to carry increased loads. Goodyear has met the need for stronger tires with two new sizes, 26x4 inch and 26x5 inch.

Good^pyear

€»r AKRON. OHIO ' Rubberized Balloon Fabric and Accessories

Let Us Help You Solve Your Balloon Problems

The Goodyear organization includes men thoroughly experienced in the manufacture and handling of balloons. We build balloons to your specifications or design them ourselves. We design fabric for unusual conditions.

If you have balloon problems write us. We gladly answer all your questions, without obligation to you.

Address Balloon Desk, 136.

The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company

AKRON, OHIO

Mokers of Goodyear Automobile Tires New York Branch, 1972 Broadway

The Ball-bearing Motor

MODEL A8V 110-120 H. P.

SIMPLICITY

and PRICE

THE MAXIMOTOR has always been sold at a price that put it within the reach of all.

WE have been enabled to give Sterling Worth at Maximotor Prices because of the simplicity of design, and the ease and rapidity with which these motors can be built.

MANUFACTURING in Detroit, the home of the gas engine, has played no small part in reducing the cost of production.

Let Us Send You Our Catalogue and Prices

detroit

is

1530 Jefferson Ave.

Michigan

THE ELEMENTS OF A GYROCOPTER—By Emile Berliner

the gyrocopter is a variation of the helicopter operated by a rotary motor. its special feature is a small anti-torque propeller, taking the place of the usual second lifting propeller, which in the past it was found necessary to provide in order to counteract the torque movement of the machine.

the following are the elements of the gyrocopter: 1, lifting propeller, l; 2,

able joints until the torque of l is counterbalanced. any slight difference is neutralized by an ordinary rudder, not shown in the drawing.

another method of regulating the anti-torque pressure of t would consist in a movable shield directly in front or behind it, which would reduce the latter's efficiency by making the access of the air to this propeller. this device could

motor, m; 3, anti-torque propeller, t; 4, frame work with platform, p.

the propeller t is located 10 feet or more from the mainshaft s, and its efficiency is approximately calculated to be equal to a pressure obtained by dividing the torque of propeller l with the distance a. b. the wings of propeller t can be shortened or lengthened by mov-

be used as a rudder to the apparatus.

the gyrocopter is propelled forward by tilting it. to do this the operator steps forward on the platform p and the apparatus will then move in the direction of the tilt. a tilt of 10 degrees will reduce the lifting power of l about 1 Vz per cent, and impart to the whole machine a forward pressure equal to

INDEX TO ADVERT

aeroplane manufacturers.

the aircraft co.—1737 broadway, new york city.

benoist aeroplane co.—341 s. st. louis avenue, chicago, 111.

the burgess company—marblehead, mass. sole builders under the dunne patents in america.

the curtiss aeroplane company— buffalo, new york.

jannus brothers—battery avenue and hamburg street, baltimore, md.

parisano aerial navigation co. of america. inc.—220 west 42d street, new york city.

thomas brothers aeroplane company—ithaca, new york.

the wright company—dayton, ohio.

motor manufacturers.

the curtiss motor co.—hammonds-port, new york.

the gyro motor company—774 girard street, washington, d. c. new york office, 331 madison avenue.

kemp machine works—muncie. ind.

maximotor makers—detroit. mich.

roberts motor manufacturing company—sandusky, ohio, u. s. a.

b. f. sturtevant company—hyde park. boston, mass.

the wright company—dayton, ohio.

the iferfurth engine co.—alexandria. va., makers of "emerson" motors. bamboo.

j. deltour—804 jefferson street, ho-boken, n. t.

glue.

l. w. ferdinand & co.—201 south street, boston. mass.

magnetos.

bosch magneto company—201 west 46th street, new york. makers of bosch magnetos

aeronautical cloth and varnish

the goodyear tire & rubber co.— akron, ohio.

the c. e. conover co.—101 franklin street, new york city.

balloons and dirigibles.

t. s. baldwin—box 78. madison sonare p. o., new york

the goodyear tire & rubber co.— akron, ohio.

honeywell balloon co.—4460 chouteau, st. louis, mo.

about 17/100 of the total lifting power. supposing the latter be 1.000 pounds, then with a tilt of 10 degrees the loss in lift will be 15 pounds and the forward pressure will be 172 pounds. with a tilt of 25 degrees the loss in lifting is about 10 per cent, and the forward pressure 44 per cent, of the total lift, and with a tilt of 45 degrees the loss in lifting will be about 30 per cent, and the forward pressure 70 per cent, of the lifting pressure.

from this it can be seen that by stepping forward or backward, the operator can keep such a machine moving comfortably at any level, provided that the surplus lifting power (meaning total lifting power, less weight of machine and operator) does not exceed about one-fifth of the weight of the apparatus. within this limit the operator will have a tilting between, say, 10 to 40 degrees for navigating the machine. it also becomes clear that the propeller l is to be designed for lift and not for speed, as the latter develops from the tilting of an apparatus having small head resistance, which can be reduced still more by a streamline enclosure.

the gyrocopter is intended in its primary stages to fly close to the water and to float on it when at rest. two hollow aluminum cylinders f k act as floats. collapsible planes or parachutes might be added for modifying a fall from greater heights.

preliminary experiments with a full-sized apparatus anchored to the ground by ropes were begun over two years ago, but were interrupted by work on the gyro motor. it is the intention of the writer to resume experiments at an early date.

I S E R S

a. leo stevens—madison square box 181, new york.

propellers.

american propeller co.—243-249 east hamburg street, baltimore, md.

the aircraft company—1737 broadway. new york city.

patent lawyers.

watson e. coleman—624 f street, n. \\\. washington, d. c.

frederick w. barker—p. o. box 139, times square station, n. y.

c. c. parker—30 mcgill bldg., washington, d. c.

victor j. evans & company—771 ninth street. n. w., washington, d. c.

wm. n. moore—loan and trust bldg.. washington, d. c.

wire and cable. john a. roebling's sons co.—trenton, n. t.

models.

wading river mfg. co.—\yading ri\er. n. y.

radiators. el arco radiator company—64th street and west end avenue, new york.

THE STORY OF FLIGHT

By Wilbur Wright

The "inside story" of the experiments of Wilbur and Onnllc Wright lias never before been published to the world. Just Zioii' they came to fly is as interesting as the fact that they did.

Bicycle makers of Dayton, Ohio, they took up the subject of dynamic flight in 1899 as a pastime.

They wanted something to occupy their minds, and they turned to the flying machine as something worthy of their seal.

By common consent men had adopted human flight as the standard of impossibility. When a man said: "It can't be done; a man might as well try to fly" he "was understood as expressing the finol

limit of impossibility. The science of flight was a paper science. Flying proposals were legion; flying dogma, contradictory, impossible, plausible, was rife; but of ART, there was nothing—only a long, unbroken, barren field, with not a surviving usable thing to mark the way. nothing save here and there a broken wreck of failure.

My brother and I became seriously interested in the problem of flight in 1899. Some three years before this the death of Lilienthal, which was mentioned in the newspapers of that time, had brought the subject to our attention and led us to make some inquiry for books relating to flight. But the only serious books we found were by Professor Marey, and these related to the mechanism of bird flight rather than human flight. As our interest at that time was mere curiosity as to what had been done, we did not pursue the subject further when we failed to find books relating to human flight

Several years later, while reading a book on ornithology, we became interested in studying the appearances and habits of birds, and it occurred to us that the really interesting thing about birds was their power of flight. This was a power which seemed almost in contradiction to laws of nature. The birds performed such wonderful feats, feats apparently many times more difficult than ordinary flight, and we could not help wondering why it was that men could not imitate at least the more simple maneuvers.

Our own growing belief that men might nevertheless learn to fly was based on the idea that while thousands of creatures of the most dissimilar bodily structures, such as insects, fishes, reptiles, birds and mammals, were every day flying through the air at pleasure, it was reasonable to suppose that men also might fly. Of course, there might be, and doubtless would be, many serious difficulties to be overcome, but we thought that by learning what these difficulties were and finding methods of overcoming them, the problem of human flight might be solved, and we thought that probably the cheapest and best way to take up the subject would be to acquaint ourselves with the troubles which others had met in attempting to solve the problem. We accordingly decided to write to the Smithsonian Institution and inquire for the best books relating to the subject. We had heard that the Smithsonian was interested in matters relating to human flight. In response to our inquiry we received a reply recommending Langley's "Experiments in Aerodynamics," Chanute's "Progress in Flying Machines," and the "Aeronautical Annual" of 1895, 1896 and 1897. These last were yearly publications, edited by James Means, giving

from year to year reports of efforts being made to solve the flying problem. The Smithsonian also sent a few pamphlets extracted from their annual reports, containing a reprint of Mouillard's "Empire of the Air," Langley's "Story of Experiments in Mechanical Flight," and a couple of papers by Lilienthal, relating to experiments in soaring.

When we came to examine these books we were astonished to learn what an immense amount of time and money had been expended in futile attempts to solve the problem of human flight. Contrary to our previous impression we found that men of the very highest standing in professions of science and invention had attempted the problem. Among them were such men as Leonardo Da Vinci, the greatest universal genius the world has ever known; Sir George Cayley, one of the first men to suggest the idea of the explosion motor; Professor Langley, Secretary and head of Smithsonian Institution; Dr. A. Graham Bell, inventor of the telephone; Sir Hiram Maxim, inventor of the automatic gun; O. Chanute, the past president of the American Society of Civil Engineers ; Dr. Charles Parsons, inventor of the steam turbine; Thomas A. Edison; Herr Lilienthal, M. Ader, Phillips, and a host of others.

The period from 1889 to 1897 we found had been one of exceptional activity, during which Langley, Lilienthal, Chanute, Maxim and Phillips had been feverishly at work, each hoping to win the honor of having solved the problem; but one by one they had been compelled to confess themselves beaten and had discontinued their efforts. In studying their failures we found many points of interest to us. At that time there was no flying art in the proper sense of the word, but only a flying problem. Thousands of men had thought about flying machines and a few even built machines which they called flying machines, but these machines were guilty of almost everything except flying. Thousands of pages have been written on the so-called science of flying, but for most part the ideas set forth, like designs for machines, were mere speculation and probably 90 per cent was false.

Consequently, those who tried to study the science of aerodynamics knew not what to believe, and what not to believe. Things which seemed reasonable were very often found to be untrue, and things which seemed unreasonable were some-

times true. Under this condition of affairs students were accustomed to pay little attention to things that they had not personally tested.

The condition which Professor Langley found in respect to aeronautical science was even more true as regards what had been written regarding proposals for the conversion of speculation into actual machines.

Only a slight examination of Mr. Chanute's book, which contained hundreds of these speculative proposals, spread over several thousand years of time, was necessary to convince us that the only things in the literature of the subject which would be of any value to us were the accounts of actual experiments by men of recognized ability, like Langley, Lilienthal, .Maxim, Chanute, etc. biom the writings of these men we obtained the best knowledge we could of the laws of aerodynamics, but as we went on we found that many things which we at first supposed to be true were really untrue; that other things were partly true and partly untrue, and that a few things were really true.

As to the state of experimental knowledge at the time we began our experiments, we reached the conclusion that the problem of constructing wings sufficiently strong to carry the weight of the machine itself along with that ol the motor and of the aviator and also that of constructing sufficiently light motors were sufficiently worked out to present no serious difficulty; but that the problem of equilibrium had been the real stumbling block in all serious attempts to solve the problem of human flight; and that this problem of equilibrium, in reality, constituted the problem of flight itself.

We, therefore, decided to give our special attention to inventing means of retaining equilibrium, and as this was a field where mere speculation was of no value at all, we made a careful study of the state of experimental knowledge. We found that prior to Lilienthal no one had made any serious attempt to leave the ground in a flying machine. All experiments in the air had resulted in such immediate disaster that the first trial was not usually followed up. But Lilienthal constructed several motorless apparati and with them began a study of the problem by actual experiments in the air. By this means he studied the carrying capacity of wings, and investigated the various disturbances of equilibrium to which machines in the air are subjected, both as regard to disturbances due to

the direction and speed of the motion of the machine through the air and also the disturbances produced by variations in the direction and speed of the wind itself.

The studies were continued for several years, but he met with a fatal accident and was killed before having found the solution. * * * His example. in adopting this (his) method of experimentation, was followed by Mr. Chanute and his assistants, and by Mr. Pitcher. After the death of Lilienthal, in 1896, Mr. Chanute discontinued his experiments, and, after a time, Mr. Pilcher fell and was killed. The efforts of Mr. Maxim. Mr. Phillips and Mr. Ader, the latter with the financial assistance of the French government, to construct motor-driven aeroplanes had resulted in the abandonment of the experiment swithout flight having been attained. So that the period of unexampled activity, which extended from 18S9 to 1897, was followed by one of complete collapse and despair, during which the attention of the world was turned entirely to dirigible balloons, which at this time were being brought into prominence by Santos Dumont.

During the "boom" period fully a half-million dollars had been expended urder the direction of some of the ablest men in the world and two lives had been lost. When one studied the story of loss of life, financial disaster and final failure which had accompanied all attempts to solve this problem of human flight, we understood more clearly than before the immensity and the difficulties of the problem which we had taken up.

But as we studied the story of these troubles and considered how and why they failed, we could not help thinking that many of the troubles might have been avoided and that others might have been overcome by the adoption of more adequate methods. We began to study the flight of birds to see whether they really used the methods of maintaining equilibrium which Chanute and Mouil-lard had represented the birds as using. They had represented that the birds maintained fore and aft balance by moving the wings forward and backward so as to bring the centre of pressure of the wings to the front or to the rear of the center of gravity, and thus tilt the bird upward in front or upward at the rear, as occasion required. They represented that lateral balance was maintained by drawing inward one wing so as to reduce its area as compared with the wing on the other side, so as to reduce the lift on the side which tended to rise. They also said that the bird sometimes rocked its body over toward the high side in order that the increase of weieht on that side might help bring the high wing down. But, in watching the flight of some pigeons one day, we noticed one of the birds oscillate rapidly from side to side: that is, it tilted so thar one wing was elevated above its normal position and the other depressed below its normal position, and then tilted in the opposite direction. These lat-

eral tiltings, first one way and then the other, were repeated four or five times very rapidly; so rapidly, in fact, as to indicate that some other force than gravity was at work. The method of drawing in one wing or the other as described by Chanute and Mouillard, was, of course, dependent in principle on the action of gravity, but it seemed certain that these alternate tiltings of the pigeon were more rapid than gravity could cause, especially in view of the fact that we could not detect any drawing-in first of one wing and then of the other.

In considering possible explanation of the method used by the bird in this instance, the thought came that possibly it had adjusted the tips of its wings about a lateral transverse axis so as to present one tip at a positive angle and the other at a negative angle, thus, for the moment, turning itself into an animated windmill, and that when its body had revolved on a longitudinal axis as far as it wished, it reversed the process and started to turning the other way. Thus, the balance was controlled by utilizing dynamic reactions of the air instead of shifting weight. So far as fore and aft balance is concerned, this seemed to be accounted for by fore and aft movements of the wings, as claimed by Chanute.

In speculating on possible methods of constructing a flying machine to carry a man, we hit on the idea of providing a structure consisting of superposed surfaces rigidly trussed along their front and rear margins, somewhat after the general style of the Chanute "double-decker," but not trussed from front to rear. The connections of the uprights joining the two surfaces were to be hinged so that the upper surface could be moved forward or backward, with reference to the lower surface. This would have an effect on fore and aft balance similar to that produced hy the fore and aft movement of the wings of birds. I refer, of course, to the slight fore and aft movement of the wings of a soaring bird, like the buzzards and hawks, made for the purpose of balancing. It is an entirely distinct thing from up and down flapping. It was designed to move either end of the upper surface forward or backward by a separate lever, one controlling one tip and the other, the other. If both levers were Dressed forward the upper surface would be moved bodily forward and the machine would turn upward, hut if one lever were thrown forward and the other backward, one tip of the upper surface would move forward and the other backward. Thus there would he no change in the general position of the upper surface to the front or rear of its normal position, but the entire structure, consisting of both the upper and lower surface would be given a warp. We reasoned that by imparting such warp we could control lateral balance of the machine, either for the purpose of balancing or steering, as we had noticed that when the birds were tilted they circled around

the depressed wing. In this design it was not intended to use either vertical or horizontal vanes or rudders of any kind. We reasoned that all the evolutions of flight could be obtained by the various combinations of movement of the two levers controlling the two ends of the upper surface.

This speculation was very interesting from a theoretical standpoint, but when we came to consider it from the standpoint of practical invention we were convinced that without any supplementary horizontal surface the machine would be too erratic to be controlled by an aviator and, besides that, it would call for an exertion of strength much beyond that possessed by a human being, both during flight and in landing.

Before attempting to construct a glider on this general principle, we worked out the construction of the supporting planes and a mode of flexing a forward horizontal rudder. The horizontal rudder was placed at the front. There was no tail of any kind either vertical or horizontal.

With machines of this description we made experiments in the years 1900 and 1901 on the seashore near Kitty Hawk. It was our idea that the method of experimentation by gliding had heen so die-credited by the deaths of Lilienthal and Pilcher that we intended to practice with this apparatus by attaching it to a short horizontal rope and letting it float in a strong wind a few feet from the ground while we practiced the manipulation of the horizontal front rudder and the warping of the wings to maintain the apparatus in balance. But we found that a stronger wind than the scientific calculations of other experimentors indicated was necessary in order to sustain this machine. It was. therefore, necessary to resort to gliding in order to at tain a relative wind strong enough to sustain this apparatus. We experimented first with the warping wires fastened tight and used the front rudder only. We feared that if we attempted to control both, we would not properly control either, as we were without any training. We, therefore, glided down a slope, controlling our up and down movement and balance by adjustments of the horizontal front rudder. If the machine attempted to turn over sidewise, we brought it to the ground. The flights were made at first at a height only of one or two feet.

We found that a flexible front rudder was very efficient in controlling the fore and aft balance. We also found that frequently we could make glides of IS to 20 seconds without being tilted laterally sufficiently to necessitate landing. If the tilting were bad, we immediately brought the machine down. After we had acquired some skill in handling the horizontal front rudder, we loosened the warping wires and attempted to control the lateral balance also, but when we did this we found ourselves completely nonplussed.

The apparatus did not act at all as we expected. At first we were not able tg

t continued on page 6?)

1915 J ANNUS FLYING BOAT

The accompanying photo of the Jan-tius flying boat will serve to tell the story of the new and efficient design. For rough water, ready assembly and disassembly, inherent stability, wide range of flying speed, waterproof construction of wings, enormous margin of safety, comfort for pilot and three passengers, and a dry, clean place for them to sit, this new model is ideal.

The rough water ability is obtained in two principal ways: first, by the

factor made it impossible to assemble all at once. All the wing attachments arc independent of the motor and propeller shaft, so that any punishment of one is not transmitted to the other. No matter what rough seas may strain the wings the motor and propeller shaft do not change their alignment. No matter how severe the missing of the motor or other trouble that might occur the flying equipment cannot be wrecked thereby. The strut construction and other con-

great freeboard and other points in the design of the hull; and. second, the low center of gravity. Of special interest are the Japernig end floats that are nicely designed and never pound or jerk the wings. These taper from three inches wide across the bottom to a foot across the top. The taper has the advantage of reducing the planing surface, which at high speed would be sufficient to ponnd the wings badly, but when called upon as floats are quickly displacing water at an increased rate, easily combating the heaviest side lurching or listing or yawing tendency.

The removability of the tail for shipment has many advantages in construction and in simplicity of shipment for compactness. The motor remains in the front half of the hull with all controls intact. The control cables going to the tail and rudder all pass through indi-\idual leads in a conduit that is made of heavy steel as a protection against the propeller breaking or throwing anything with sufficient force to sever them. Between the conduit and the controls the cables are supplied with the J annus type sister hook, which locks the cables together in a permanent fashion quickly, and without additional safety wire or other auxiliary being necessary.

The wings arc assembled in their entirety before being attached to the hull and, when on, cannot fail to align properly if reasonable care is taken. Where desirable they can be put on half at a time, but this would only be of advantage if hangar space or other limiting

sidcrations for clean lines and reduced head resistance have resulted in a llyin boat operable on very low power. To date the best record shows a total load of 2.200 lbs. carried in flight at 22-55 m.h.p. with an indicated 50 h.p. With full power it will be easy to exceed the useful load specifications for this model.

Tests in the lee of large vessels, along windward shores and in other extreme conditions of gusty wind and treacherous obstacles prove that the new struts and the staggered planes are serious contenders for the inherent stability honors. The pilots reported that in no case was there any rapid inequality developed nor did the machine make any appreciable variation from its course due to these unfavorable conditions.

The tests have been very thoroughly conducted by Mr. Fritz G. Ericson and Mr. Antony Jannus. To Mr. Ericson the Jannus Brothers' Company are very deeply indebted both for the encouraging way in which he learned to fly last fall, while a pupil of Roger Jannus, and for the way in which he has been able to apply his highly developed training as a designer and inventor to this particular science. Mr. Ericson is a friend of the late Max Lilly, having attended school with him in Stockholm. At home he is noted for his early connection with motor boats and later automobiles and ice boats. As the inventor of the Ericson four-cycle reversible motor, the first heavy duty marine gasoline engine to spring into use in the world, he rates back rather far in the evolution of the

applications of internal combustion. During the entire winter, with both the Jannus Brothers rather active in other parts of the country than Baltimore. Mr. Ericson has produced the desired result.

The designers did not stagger the planes in this model for other than structural advantage, although this practice is credited with considerable improving effect. The design is intended to produce inherent stability through the proper construction and distribution of weights and surface and the results am-ph testify to the effectiveness of this effort. Such is the result that in gusty winds and when flying in any evolution there is practically no use of the ailerons

The internal construction of the wing is free from ordinary glue and is amply strong without any adhesives, although liquid marine glue is used in all joints to maintain rigidity under severe stress and to prevent rotting. All bolts go on each side of the beams, through end grain blocks that are brass covered outside of the fabric. The upper and lower wings sections of the opposite sides are alike reducing the number of extras to a minimum.

The pilot is seated in front, leaving a seat behind for three large passengers as in the stern sheets of a cat hoat. The ample foot space is well above the ribs of the bottom and made in the form of a grating that is removable for cleaning the hilge scuppers or any other purpose. The motor compartment is segregated from all other parts of the boat, so that no oil or grease can be distributed. As a result the passenger compartment is a= clean as a new pin and is easy to maintain so.

The ample sheer of the sides of the hull, the great width, the bow shape, and all other considerations make a dry. clean hull. The public demands this for commercial passenger carrying, and it is good business to follow the motto, "The public be served."

THE GOUPY THREE-PASSENGER BIPLANE

The Goupy biplane, type 1914-B, resembles in general construction other machines of this firm. The cell is composed of two staggered planes of unequal length: chord 1.6 m.. top plane 1975 m. long, lower one 10.35 m. long. The cell is rigid and lateral balance is obtained by powerful conjoined ailerons. The fuselage is of quadrangular section. The monoplane tail is slightly lifting and approximately rectangular, terminated by a flap 3.1 by .7 m.. serving as an elevator. The quadrangular rudder, above the tail, is partly balanced and in front of it is a small vertical fin. The 100 H. P. Gnome supported between two bearings turns a 2.8 m. propeller, the axis being 1.8 m. above the ground. The chassis is of the usual type, skids and wheels: the wheels are far enough forward to prevent "capotage." The skids, however, do not seem sufficient to protect the propeller in a bad landing on rough ground.

This is a tractor biplane having its upper and lower planes equal, directly superposed, and connected by 6 struts. The front struts are rigidly braced by cables; the rear ones free for warping. The fuselage is of quadrangular section. The chassis, which has four wheels, is

of the Gabriel Voisin design. The two rear wheels are nearly under the center of gravity and the others are placed well out in front to prevent "capolage." When the tail is down it is supported by a small skid, which also acts as a brake.

The bomb-dropping device has a rotating barrel holding 12 bombs, which can be fired in succession. A strong spring gives each bomb a forward impulse when fired, so that its speed is greater than that of the aeroplane. By an ingenious device a hard steel blade, operated by the marksman, cuts the metal fastening which holds the bomb to the revolving barrel.

The Coanda bomb is fusiform, having a cross-shaped guide vein at its rear, and a small propeller which is rotated by its motion through the air when falling. At the start the firing device is locked and the bomb can not

explode. But when the bomb is released the rotation of propeller unlocks the firing device after the bomb has travelled 200 in.

This machine spreads 11.3 m., its length is 9.05 m. and supporting area 40 sq. m. Motor is Gnome 80 H. P.; speed about 100 K. P. H.

THE ABC AEROPLANE COMING

A machine of true design and excellent construction, to be known as the A B C Military Biplane (pusher"), will make its debut shortly. The rationale of the name, A B C, is. firstly, that it

contains the initials of those associated in the development of the machine; and, secondly, that it expresses the constructional simplicity, which is a prominent feature of the machine.

Mr. Robert S. Anient, a well-known newspaper artist, will direct the exploitation, and Messrs. John Carisi and Vincent J. Buranelli are responsible for the design and construction of the machine. Same is designed to especially facilitate quick assembling, and many original details are embodied to effect that end. The machine, being a pusher, has a splendid range of vision, and for military work gives the gunner a sweep of 180 deg.

The machine is a two-seater, seats arranged side by side, and double controls are provided. The fuselage is very roomy and is covered entirely with duralumin. The color of entire machine is gray, and fuselage has motor car finish. Landing chasis has four wheels, two in front, to facilitate running over rough ground.

The machine is of the deck and a half type, the top wing warps from the end uprights out, similar to a monoplane. The removal of extension considerably reduces spread, permitting the apparatus to be towed along a road much more easily, a valuable military asset.

The power plant will consist of a 100-h.p. specially built A B C aviation motor, which during tests flew a large Ii3'-droaeroplane. Messrs. Carisi and Buranelli expect to do some coursing during the summer.

Aside from the machine under construction, designs are complete for a tractor biplane to be equipped with a special variable speed device and a monoplane flying boat, which, in so far as the boat is concerned, seems to be in a class by itself.

THE BRISTOL MILITARY BIPLANE

OF AMERICA 2» West 39th Street, New York

official bulletin

At the weekly Round Table Talks in the latter part of April a variety of interesting subjects have received attention, notably among these being an address by Mr. Rudolph R. Grant on a novel, economical form of cylinder construction, of which an account will be printed in a subsequent issue. Also Mr. Millard L. Dunham explained to the members at the meeting on April 29th, the construction and operation of his new twin piston ring, showing it to possess the characteristic of exerting truly concentric outward tension, wbich he described as of a spiral nature, whereby these rings are said to form gas tight packings, thus increasing the cylinder power.

It has been decided to change the regular meeting night for the Round Table Talks to Tuesday in each week, instead of Thursday, as heretofore. The change will begin the second week in May, so that the meeting will be on Thursday. May 4, the first week in May, and following that, the next meeting will be on Tuesday, May 11th, the succeeding meetings to be nil on Tuesdays.

The change was made by resolution, unanimously adopted, for the reason that Thursday evenings are used for meetings by other kindred societies, and it is desired that the dates of meetings do not conflict, that all members may be able to attend.

THE PENDULUM STABILIZER

March 23. 1915. With the meeting of the "First Joint Conference on Aviation" a decided advance was made tov\ard the systematic solution of aeronautical problems. It is to be hoped that a full account of the discussion of the various types of stabilizer will be published, as without it the deductions and resolutions are rather vague.

I am glad to see the pendulum device's fallacy as a stabilizer brought to light in forcible, if not strjclly accurate, manner. Not accurate, because, if a device were controlled by a pendulum which, as the delegate was quoted, "would invariably do what was not desired," all that would be necessary would be to reverse

the connections to the pendulum to have the device invariably right. Of course, what was meant was that one could not tell whether it would do the right or the wrong thing. This element of uncertainty bars it from stabilizing devices.

Whether or not a device which reduces the speed—i. e., increases the resistance cither permanently or while in action—is or is not permissible is a matter of question. No matter what the type of stabilizer, the balancing of a machine can only be accomplished by the exertion of a force. If no automatic device is used, the aviator must exert this force; if some device which presents a retarding element to the speed is used, the motor must do it. Does it not seem advisable, in the long run, to give the motor enough power to make up for any small loss in speed incurred and ease up a bit on the man at the wheel?

At the present time I cannot think of any device, automatic or otherwise, which does not actuate with a corresponding change in resistance and consequently speed, except a sliding weight, which is not practical for many reasons. In fact any stabilizer employing the air as a medium from which to obtain the force necessary to tip the machine one way or another must be accompanied by a change in resistance. I say "change in resistance" rather than "increase in resistance" because in some cases, such as normally negative flaps, there is a resistance when not in action which is reduced on one side or the other to produce the desired effect. As the air and gravity are the only two sources of forces that we can resort to, with the possible exception of a hnilt-in gyroscope, and as the use of gravity by means of a shifting center of gravity (which is the only possible way) is mechanically unequal to the work, it seems to me that the statement of the conference should be modified.

1 f the aeroplane must be balanced by the reaction from the air, the best device will be that one which will accomplish the desired result with the least added resistance, either as a constant value or as a momentary value while in operation.

The warning against the placing of undue confidence in the action of small models is especially important. Much waste of time and money would be prevented if many of the would-be inventors would pay more heed to it. It is not. however, to be assumed that models are useless for experimental work, for they have a field, and if judiciously used may be of great aid.

In closing let me say that the importance of a completely automatically stabilized or so-called fool-proof machine has been greatly overestimated. In the aeroplane we have three axes of rotation: the vertical, controlled by the rudder; the axis coincident with the line of flight, controlled by what is called the lateral

STURTEVANT NEWS

The present activities at the works of the B. F. Sturtevant Company of Boston, Mass., indicates the most prosperous season according to Mr. Noble Foss. manager of the Aeronautical Department. He states that the present volume of orders for the eight-cylinder 140-H. P. aronau-t'cal motors is the largest in the history of the department.

In order to insure early deliveries it has been necessary to greatly enlarge the Aeronautical Department ; many new machines and tools are being installed, and additional men have been employed for the manufacture of the engines. The production will be at the rate of one motor per day in a short time.

NEW COMPANIES

The Texas School of Aviation, Dallas ; capital stock, $8,000. Incorporators : Lester E. Miller. Paul Van de Velde, Currie McCutcheon. Purpose, to support the education and training of men and women in the science of flying in the air.

ASTOR'S FLYING BOAT

Vincent Astor witnessed the first two flights of bis new Burgess flying boat at Marblehead on April 27.

Tt is said that Mr. Astor will pay $14,000 for the machine and he intends to remain until he can rim it himself.

Clifford L. Webster demonstrated the flying boat.

stahilizer; and the transverse, controlled by the elevator. In some cases the first two are combined and controlled by one device, as these two are more closely related to one another, a rotation about either of them being accompanied by a rotation about the other. If an automatic device will look after any two of these three axes, leaving only one for the aviator, preferably that controlled by the rudder, the operation will be brought to the level of the automobile or boat, as far as ease of control is concerned. In the case mentioned, where the lateral balancing and rudder actions were combined, only one of the two functions need to be automatically performed to reach this level, he climbed 6,200 feet.

Nothing is fool-proof—even the innocent hammer may become dangerous if not used properly—so let us not try to design an aeroplane for the fool, but for people of average intelligence, so that they may, with a reasonable degree of safety, enjoy the pleasures of air travel. Ralph S. Barnaby,

A.S.M.E., Columbia Section.

_ro Club

Ik.

OFFICIAL BULLETIN

The following was adopted at the stated meeting of the Aero Club af Pennsylvania on April 16th, 1915:

It is with profound sorrow, and with the most heartfelt regret, that the Aero Club of Pennsylvania has learned of the unexpected death on April 15th of its first President, MY. Arthur L. Atherholt.

As one of the founders of the club, and its President for two successive terms, he was most active in its organization, and worked indefatigably for its interests and progress. After his voluntary retirement from the presidency he continued as a member of the Roard of Directors, and was at all times active and enthusiastic in its work. At the meeting of the club in March he outlined the plans for a balloon race to be held by the club early in May, and which was planned to be the greatest ballooning event ever held in Philadelphia.

The navigation of the upper air in the free balloon was his specialty and his greatest delight. He was the first Pennsylvania to obtain from the Aero Club of America a balloon pilot's license, and took part in many national and international contests, either as pilot or as aide. He was skillful in the handling of balloons, and always held that ballooning is one of the best and most exhilarating of sports.

I lis open, genial and wholesouled manner won for him a large circle of devoted friends to whom the news of his sudden death at the early age of forty-eight comes as a most sorrowful surprise. Alas that we shall see his face on earth no more.

NEW RECORD FLIGHT

PENSACOLA, Fla., April 24.—A new world's record altitude flight of 10,000 feet in a hydroaeroplane was made at the Navy Station at Pensacola on April 24th, by Lieutenant v. N. L. Bellinger.

In one hour and twenty minutes Lieutenant Rellinger made his ascent, which so far as official data shows, never has been equaled, and he took sixteen minutes gliding back to earth. On June 13, 1913, Lieutenant Bellinger made the best previous record for an altitude flight in a hydroaeroplane at Annapolis, when

cA ' E • R • O • cTW-A-R-T

young man desires to dispose of the patent rigiits to the following inventions :

(1) a device whereby the camber of the supporting plane can he readily changed from deep to flat during flight, tin's device being at all times under the control of the pilot; enabling landing at comparatively low speed. (2) an automatically adjusting tail device for maintaining longitudinal stability by automatically decreasing the angle of incidence on a sudden increase of wind velocity; means being provided to prevent this device causing the aeroplane to stall in climbing. (3) a connection between an automatic device for maintaining stability and the usual mannal control means so that banking or other manouvrcs can be effected without interfering with the action of such automatic device. (4) a means for obtaining lateral balance without any change in the angle of incidence of the sup-

porting planes. (5) a compact form of mounting for the supporting planes of an aeroplane whereby such planes are given resiliency while at the same time securing the utmost strength. (6) a means for getting an aeroplane into the air with a very short initial run without external assistance. (7) a device for giving a differential movement to the ailerons, or wing extremities, on opposite sides of an aeroplane. ey this means the ailerons can be adjusted in unison to equal degrees or either aileron can be given any desired adjustment greater than the other one. (s) a means for rendering the operation of ailerons or warping wings easier so that large machines can be more easily controlled.

want to buy an so-h.p. gnome or an so or 90-h.p. curtiss. address john weaver, c/o aeronautics.

for sale—roberts 50-h.p. motor, almost new. oscar solbrig, 707 w. 7th, davenport, iowa.

6-cylinder so-h.p. maximotor in line condition. complete with mea magneto and propeller hub, $525.00, taken in trade on a new roberts. address r, c/o aeronautics. 2t

4-cylinder 50-h.p. roberts with propeller hub and bosch magneto, $-150.00, thoroughly overhauled and guaranteed. address r, c/o aeronautics. 2t

yeggs get $1000 from chicago newspaper office.—headline.

upon investigation, find the sufferer was not Aero and Hydro.

"all things come to him who waits!" "yes; especially if he's waiting in a trench !"—Puck.

SäüeS DON'T

write us unless you are interested in a reliable, efficient andeconomical power plant. puv^That is the only kind we build. Four sizes. m Reasonable Prices

kemp machine works Muncie, Ind.

WIRE

We make an extra high grade plated finish wire for aviators' use.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ADDRESS

John A. Roebling's Sons Co.

trenton, n. j.

The Thomas

continues to make records

On February 27, at Ithaca, N.Y., the Thomas Tractor Biplane, with three men and four hours' fuel aboard, climbed 4,000 ft. in 10 min. Average speed—81-1 m.p.h. Slow sreed down to 38 m.p.h. Showed high degree of inherent stability.

thomas school

Offers exceptional facilities — land and water. Best of instructors and equipment. Write for "Opportunity" Booklet .Yd. 12.

thomas bros. aeroplane co.,inc.. ithaca, n.y.

safest and most practical

THE PARAPLANE

A few ol its patented (U. S. and foreign) features: — Inherent Stability, Dual Motors, Controls and Propellers which can be worked independent of each other. Propellers and Control so arranged that machine will fly just as readily wilh a single Propeller, Greater Lifting Power, Changeable Angle of Incidence.

Especially Designed for Governmental and Private Use Literature on request PAR1SANO AERIAL NAVIGATION CO. OF AMERICA, INC.

220 West 42nd Street New York City

......ïlmil?::!»!!!!):-'''!»!!!'''''!»!!!' l'itti:""'*'!:.......liretl....."ihl"'"!

The

Wright

Company

(The

Wright

Patents)

the new wright aeroplanes

For sport, exhibition or military use, over land or water now embody the improvements that have been suggested by the experiments quietly conducted during the past ten years.

the wright flying school

Located at Dayton opena May 1st, for the season of 1915. Tuition $250. No other charges of any kind Enroll now. Booklet on request.

the wright company

DAYTON, OHIO New York OHics: 11 Pima St.

mitted. a tractor aeroplane is not as well suited for naval purposes as a pusher type. it was hoped that the requirements of the specifications for these hydroaeroplanes would be exceeded by the bidders. they represent a type in advance, but are not equal to what is considered desirable in the light of developments due to the war in europe. a machine is required having a speed of eighty miles an hour or better, with a radius of action of at least seven hours, and ability to climb with full load sixty-five hundred (6s00) feet in twenty minutes. thus it was considered inadvisable to buy more than three hydroaeroplanes in this lot. it is recognized that the development of the aeroplane in this country is retarded by the backward development of aeroplane motors. it is hoped that this advertisement and purchase of hydroaeroplanes will tend to encourage the designers and manufacturers of aeroplanes and aeroplane motors to further development to meet the immediate needs of the navy. proposals will be issued in the near future for more hydroaeroplanes."

the unit price bid by the burgess company for the hydroaeroplane, motor and instruments was $11,005.

EXPORTS AND IMPORTS

imports.

february, 1915: parts............ $52

same period 1914................ none

8 mos. ending feb., 1915; parts

only.........................$ 2.291

same period. 1914; parts only... 26,233 same period, 1913; 12 aeroplanes (50,020) and parts (1,776) ; total................. 51,796

domestic exports.

february. 1915; 2 aeroplanes

(6,000"), parts (24,093); total.. 30,093

same period, 1914: 4 aeroplanes

(20,000), parts (1,466); total.. 21,466

8 mos. ending feb., 1915; 25 "planes (182.915), parts (167,723) ; total....................350.638

same period, 1914; 18 'planes (73,525), parts (17,060) ; total.. 90.585

same period, 1913; 23 'planes

(66,950), parts (22.147); total. 89,097

exports of foreign.

february. 1915 ................. none

8 mos. ending feb.. 1915......... none

same period, 1914; 1 aeroplane

(4,049), parts (900); total.... 4,949

ix warehouse february 28.

1915, 1 aeroplane ............... 1,856

1914 ........................... none

NAVY AWARDS

"the first contract for hydroaeroplanes since the appropriation by congress, upon the recommendation of secretary daniels of a million dollars for aviation, and provision for the organization of a navy aeronautic advisory committee, will be awarded to the burgess company. bids for these hydroaeroplanes were received february 27 of this year. (see aeronautics, march 15. for full specifications and bids.) it has been decided to place a contract for three

THREE ORDERS

machines. the proposals were invited upon supplying three or six machines. the specifications stated that the award of contract would be based upon the completeness of the proposals received as regards the data furnished and the extent to which the designs conform to or exceeded the requirements.

"the data furnished by the burgess company is complete, and the design conforms nearer to the requirements than in any other of the proposals sub-

defexceless america, by hudson maxim. here is a new and absorbing book which appeals to every red blooded citizen. it is written to arouse american people to the imminent danger in unpreparedness. if only the people will read it the work will be accomplished, except where the book may fall into the hands of some "dub of peace" whose pacifism has gotten to the last and hopeless stage. sold for $2 by hearst's international library company, 119 west 40th street, new york.

CURTISS

: // A FACILITIES

This shows one section of the new steel factory. It is 300 ft. long and 100 ft. wide. Another section of equal size is now under construction. Curtiss Aeroplanes of tractor and pusher type for land and water are built here under ideal conditions

information on request

he Curtiss Aeroplane Co?

\ Buffalo, New York^^

■J£> THE COAST LINE TO 4a

mMACKlNACj^

DETROIT, L TOLEDO, CLEVELAND, BUFFALO, [PT. HURON, ALPENA, -NIAGARA FALLS. I ST. IGNACE.

A LAKE TRIP FOR REST AND RECREATION ^ Have a real vacation on the Great Lakes, the most enjoyable and economical outing in America. The cool like breezes, the ever-changing acenes along the shore, and the luxurious steamers of the D. 6c C. Line are positive guarantees that you will enjoy every minute of your trip, and return home refreshed and glad you went. Daily service between Detroit and Cleveland and Detroit and Buffalo. Four trips weekly from Toledo and Detroit to Mackinac Island and way ports. Two trips weekly, special steamer, Cleveland to Mackinac Island, no stops enroute except Detroit and Alpena. Special day trips between Detroit and Cleveland during July and August. Daily service between Toledo and Put-in-Bay. RAILROAD TICKETS AVAILABLE FOR TRANS PORT ATI ON on D. 6t C. Steamers between Detroit and Buffalo or Detroit and Cleveland either direction. Send two-cent stamp for illustrated pamphlet and Great Lakes map. Addresa L. G. Lewis, G.P.A..Detroit,Mich.

Detroit & Cleveland Navigation Company Philip H. McMillan. Prea.. A. A. Schantz. V. P. & G. M. All Steamers arrive and depart, Third Ave. wharf. Det.

NAIAD

T

Aeronautical Cloth

THE NAVY'S NEW AIRCRAFT

Bids for the dirigibles for the Navy were opened at the Navy Department on April 20th. This marks another step in the development of our Air Navy. The Office of Naval Aeronautics considers that the dirigible is to be the kingfisher of the submarine. The aeroplane rapidly scouting the seas off our harbors and around our fleet discovers the enemy's submarines lying in wait for innocent merchant ships or attempting to creep up on our fighting ships. The

dirigibles from the shore stations or from the dirigible ships of the fleet thus warned by the aeroplane scouts proceed to the attack of the submarines, dropping on them heavy bombs fitted with fuses to explode on hitting or after sinking to a certain depth. A fifty pound bomb successfully hitting a submarine or exploding under water near one will destroy these underwater craft. The dirigibles will also in a similar manner countermine the mine fields of an

enemy. Our destroyers and scouts must protect the dirigible from the anti-aircraft guns of the enemy's ships; also our aeroplanes must fight off the enemy's aircraft that wants to attack our dirigible. These two first dirigibles are of the smallest size that will be serviceable for training and experiment to develop officers and men for this service and obtain the necessary experience to produce a large fleet dirigible. These small dirigibles will also develop the manufacture of modern dirigibles in this country, which is a new departure for our aircraft designers and manufacturers.

The bids for dirigibles opened were requested on the basis of furnishing one or two dirigibles, the right being reserved by the Government to accept bids on either basis. The general specifications required that the dirigibles should be of the non-rigid type and should be about 175 feet long by 50 feet high and 35 feet wide, with a useful load of about 2,000 pounds. It is specified that the dirigibles must have a speed of 25 miles per hour or more, and to be capable of rising 3,000 feet without disposing of ballast.

The following bids were received:

Stanley Yale Beach, 125 East 23rd St., New York, N. Y.—One machine, $29,876; two machines, $58,552. (This bid was submitted without a guarantee.)

American Dirigible Balloon Syndicate, Inc., 299 Madison Ave., New York, N. Y.—One machine. $41,000; one machine (larger), $45,000.

The Connecticut Aircraft Company, 42 Church St., New Haven, Conn.—One machine, $45,636.25; two machines, $82,215.12.

The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Akron, Ohio.—One machine, $200,000. (This hid is subject to a reduction which will make the total cost to the Government equal to the cost of the machine to the Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company plus 50 per cent. The amount entered as the bid is the maximum to be charged under any condition.)

See issue of March 30th for full specifications.

After a great many experiments, it has been found that cedar is the one wood which conforms most nearly to the requirements of flying boat work, owing to its extreme lightness, its pliability and toughness, as well as its ability to hold its shape both in and out of the water, and the fact that it absorbs practically no moisture, makes it an ideal wood for this work.

The large demand for flying machines, that are adapted for both land and water service, wdiich has been created by the present war, demonstrates very plainly that cedar is more desirable than any other wood for this work.

This can be supplied by Jordan Bros. Lumber Company, Norfolk, Va.

Robert N. Wilson, Port Jefferson, _N. Y., has renewed activity in the building line and has on hand one flying boat ready for the power plant.

PATENTS

THAT PROTECT AND PAY

Books and Advice Free

Send sketch or model for search. Highest relerences. Beet Results. Promptcess Assured.

WATSON E. COLEMAN, Patent Lawyer

624 F Street. N. W._Washington, D. C._

Manufacturers want me to send them patents on useful inventions. Send me at once drawing and description of your invention and I will give you an honest report as to securing a patent and whether I can assist you in selling the patent. Highest references. Established 25 years. Personal attention in all cases.

WM. N. MOORE Loan and Trust Building Washington, D. C.

PATENTS

BALDWIN

ryx Balloons

Kfit Dirigibles

§3 Fabrics

"* Motors

Box 78. Madiaon Sq. P.O., New York

Antony Jannus Roger Jannus

JANNUS BROTHERS

NEW 120 H. P. FIVE PASSENGER FLYING BOAT now being tested. Design based on nearly 200,000 miles of pioneer flying. Roger Jannus and Knox Martin at New Southern Hotel, San Diego, Calif. Continuous Passenger Carrying and School Work with two Flying Boats. Florida course announced later.

NEW FACTORY

Battery Avenue and Hamburg Street, Baltimore, Md. Booklet on Request

New sad EoUrtcd Edition, Caromeacinr. Jaoaary. 1914

The Leading British Monthly Journal Devoted to the Technique and Industry of Aeronautics

(FOUNDED 1907) Yearly Subscription One Dollar Eighty-fire Cent* : Post Free (Mono/ Orders Only)

Nrtf _A apacimen copr v. ulc • freo oa receipt of

-Head Offict: -

170 Fleet Street - - London, E. C. American Olfice: 2S0 Weal 54th Straet, New York

II be mailed

IS ceots

I

AERONAUTICS

PATFNTS Frederick W.Barker

* •** * .Lfll 1 %J Attorney and Expert in PATENTS, TRADE MARKS AND DESIGNS

Cases prepared and prosecuted I 28 Years in Practice

with the greatest care and I

thoroughness, to ensure broad Direct CoaaectianE ia all

scope and validity \ Foreign Countries

P. O. Box 139, Times Square Station, New York City

PATENTS

C. l. PARKER

Ex.member Examining Corpt, U. S. Patent Ofllee

Attorney-at-Law and Solicitor of Pateota

American and foreign patents secured promptly and with special regard to the complete legat protection ot the invention. Handbook for inventors sent upon request. 30 McGitl Bide. WASHINGTON. D. C.

SLOANE AEROPLANES

Military and Naval Types

Our New Military Tractor also was demonstrated successfully the very first time it was taken out for trial.

THE AIRCRAFT CO., Inc. 1733 Broadway, New York

Sole Manufacturers of Sloane Aeroplanes

BALLOONS

Airships, Aeroplanes, Gas Generators, Safety Packs. Parachutes. Exhibitions furnished with Balloons, Aeroplanes and Airships. Steven*' balloons used by Q5fo of American and Canadian clubs.

AERONAUT

Madison Sq, Boï IBl.NewYork

LEO STEVENS

BALLOONS DIRIGIBLES

Records prove we build the best Balloons ia. America. Nine 1st prizes. Three 2nd, and Two 3rd prizes out of fourteen "World-wide Contests.

Write for prices and particulars.

HONEYWELL BALLOON CO. 4460 Chouteau St. Louis, Mo.

- < BEN0IST

AEROPLANES FLYING BOATS

Factory and Office

341 S. St. Louis Avenue

Chicago, III.

AEROPLANE COMPANY

__——— INCORPORATED ■

the u. s. navy uses

Because they are the best by a law measure and Proved B«t by test and of^M^tt <1 Other, use Plain P.r.8oa. because they are not only best but also ? f'"^,,

For Economy, mvestigate Parages. No charge for informa ,on - No pa> bu_for raaulta. «J\Ve have the only propeller factory in America. Large stock. Quick shipments. AMERICAN PROPELLER CO., 243-249 East Hamburg St., Baltimore, Md.

PARAGON PROPELLERS EXCLUSIVELY

Page 62

o

o

o

AERONAUTICS' DATA SHEET No. 5

TRADE DIRECTORY

AEROPLANES

Aeromarine Plane & Motor Co., Avondale, N. J. Aircraft Co., 1737 Broadway, New York. (Sloane.) Baldwin. Thomas S., P. O. Box 7S, Madison Sq. P. O., New York.

Benoist Aeroplane Co., 311 S. St. Louis Ave., Chicago, 111. Burgess Co., The, Marhleliead, Mass.

Christofferson Aviation Co., 1417 Van Ness Ave., San Francisco, Cal.

Connecticut Aircraft Co., New Haven, Conn.

Cooper Aircraft Co., Bridgeport, Conn.

Curtiss Aeroplane Co., 1200 Niagara St., Buffalo, N. V.

Gallaudet Co., The, Norwich, Conn.

Grinnell Aeroplane Co., Grinnell, Iowa.

Heath, E. B., Aerial Vehicle Co., 1227 School St., Chicago, 111. Heinrich Aeroplane Co., 331 Madison Ave., New York. Huntington Aircraft Co., IS E. 41st St., New York. Jannus Brothers, Battery Ave. and Hamburg St., Baltimore,

am.

Martin, Glenn L., Co., 913 S. Los Angeles St., Los Angeles, Cal.

Parisnno Aerial Navigation Co., Inc., 220 W. 42d St., New York.

Peoli Aeroplane Corporation, 31 Nassau St., New York. Schmitt, M., Aeroplane Co., 96 Dale Ave., Paterson, N. J. Thomas Brothers Aeroplane Co., Ithaca, N. Y\ Washington Aeroplane Co., SOS) Water St. S.W., Washington, D. C.

Wilson. Robert N., Port Jefferson, N. Y. (Flying Boats.) Wright Co., The, Dayton. O. ATTORNEYS (PATENT)

Barker. K. W.. Box 139, Times Sq. P. O., New York. Coleman, Watson E., 024 F St. .WW., Washington, I'. C. Dieterich. F. G., & Co., S03 Otirav Bldg., Washington, D. C. Evans, Victor J., 771 Ninth St. X.W., Washington, D. C. Hill, Thomas A.. Woolworth Bhlg., New Y'ork. Moore, William N., Loan & Trust Bldg., Washington, D. C. Parker, C. L., 30 McGill Bldg., Washington. D. C. Robb & Robb, Southern Bldg., Washington, D. C. Seifert, Jno. O., 50 Church St., New York. Shoemaker, George C, 91S F St., Washington, D. C. Woodward, Horace L., .Y.W. cor. Ninth and G Sts., Washington, D. C. AXLES

Aircraft Co., The, 1737 Broadway, New York. Curtiss Aeroplane Co., 1200 Niagara St., Buffalo, N. Y. Martin, Glenn L., Co., 943 S. Los Angeles St., Los Angeles, Cal.

BALLOONS AND DIRIGIBLES

Baldwin, Capt. Thomas S., P. O. Box 7S, Madison Sq. P. u.. New York.

Connecticut Aircraft Co., New Haven, Conn. Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., Akron, O.

Honeywell Balloon Co., 44UO Chouteau Ave., St. Louis, Mo. Stevens, A. Leo, 2S2 Ninth Ave., New Y'ork. BALL BEARINGS (BALL AND ROLLER)

Bretz, J. S., Co., 250 W. 54th St., New York. (F. & S.) Maiburg Bros., 1 790 Broadway, New York. (S. R. O.) New Departure Mfg. Co., Bristol, Conn. (New Departure.) R. I. V. Co., 251 W. 57th St.. .New York

Hess-Bright Mfg. Co., Front St. and Erie Ave., Philadelphia.

Pa.

S. K. F. Ball Bearing Co., 50 Church St, New Y'ork. Standard Roller Bearing Co., 50th and Lancester, Philadelphia. Pa.

Timken Holler Bearing Co., Canton, O.

THE STORY OF FLIGHT

(Continued from page OS)

determine exactly what it did do. but it was clear enough that it was not what we wanted in all respects. We repeated the trials for the purpose of determining, if possible, exactly what happened, but found this no easy task. To the person who has never attempted to control an uncontrollable flying machine in the air, this may seem somewhat strange, but the operator on the machine is so busy manipulating rudder and looking for a soft place to alight that his ideas of what ac-

tually happens are very hazy. It is much nicer to sit before a pleasant fire and speculate than to work out, at the risk of life and limb the constructions necessary to reduce speculation to practical invention.

We repeated this experiment time and again and several times barely escaped disaster. We found that if we jerked the warping cradle back and forth rapidly, the machine would make its way down the hill, but if we persisted in the

movement long enough to determine its real effect, the machine quickly acquired such a peculiar feeling of instability that we were compelled to instantly seek the ground. After repeated experiments we began to perceive that in landing the machine was skidding somewhat toward the wing having the smaller angle and was facing somewhat toward the wing having the greater angle, and the wing having the greater angle seems to touch lirst.

As our season was at a close, we were compelled to leave the problem in this condition.

These experiments constituted the first instance in the history of the world that wings adjustable to different angles of incidence on the right and left sides had been used in attempting to control the balance of an aeroplane. We had functionally used them both when flying at the end of a rope and also in free flight.

When we left Kitty Hawk at the end of 1901 we doubted that we would ever resume our experiments. Although we had broken the record for distance in gliding, so far as any actual figures had been published, and although Air. Chanute, who was present part of the time, assured us that our results were better than had ever before been attained, yet when we looked at the time and money which we had expended and considered the progress made and the distance yet to go, we considered our experiments a failure. At this time I made the prediction that men would sometimes fly, but that it would not be within our lifetime.

In view of our own experience, and in view of the experience of men like Langley, Lilienthal, Maxim, Chanute and Ader, men almost ideally fitted in mental equipment and training for such work, and having at their command hundreds of thousands of dollars, all of whom, like ourselves had found the results attained too small for the effort and money expended, and who had, one by one, abandoned the task before we had taken it up, we felt that similar conditions would probably prevail for a long time, as the problem of stability, which had cansed all these men to drop the problem, was vet seemingly untouched so far as the practical solution was concerned.

After our return home we could not keep our minds off the puzzling things we had observed, nor keep from studying possible solutions of our difficulties, and before long" we were as deeply interested as before. In studying our troubles relating to lateral balance, we reasoned that possibly the trouble might be due to the fact that the wing to which an increased angle of incidence had been imparted would receive not only an increased lift, but also an increased backward pressure,or resistance and that this might sodecrease the speed of that wing that its lift would be reduced sufficiently from this cause to wipe out the increase in lift, due to its greater angle of incidence. It is a well known law of aerodynamics that the lifting pressure varies as the square of the speed at which the aeroplane and wind strike each other so that if the wing of the greater angle lagged behind while the other wing gradually forged

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AERONAUTICS' DATA SHEET No. 6

TRADE DIRECTORY

BAMBOO

Deltour, J., SIM Jefferson St., iloboken, N. .1. BATTERIES

Apple Electric Co., Dayton. O. (Storage.) H. \V. Johns-Man ville Co., 41st St. ami .Madison Ave., New York.

Vesta Accumulator Co., 2100 Indiana Ave., Chicago, 111. (Storage.)

Willard Storage Battery Co., 5716 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, O. (Storage.)

BEARINGS (PLAIN) AND BUSHINGS

American Bronze Co., Berwvn, Pa. ("Non-Gran" bronze.)

Atkinson Co., The, 575 Lyell Ave., Rochester, X. V. ("Superior" babbitt.)

Cramp, William, & Sons Ship & Engine Building Co., The, Beech and Ball Sts., Philadelphia, Pa.

Fahrig .Metal Co., 34 Commerce St., Xew York.

Levett, Walker Al., Co., 10th Ave. and 3Cth St., New York. ("Polar" metal.)

Magnolia Metal Co., 113 Bank St., New York.

Martin, Glenn L., Co., 943 S. Los Angeles St., Los Angeles, Cal.

Merchant & Evans Co., 517 Arch St., Philadelphia, Pa. BRAKES

Aircraft Co., The, 1737 Broadway, New York. Curtiss Aero