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American Magazine of Aeronautics: Jahrgang 1913/1914 als digitaler Volltext

Die Zeitschrift Aeronautics war in den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika (USA) das Gegenstück zur vergleichsweise deutschen Zeitschrift Flugsport. Im American Magazine of Aeronautics wurde allerdings nicht nur über die US-amerikanische Entwicklung der Luftfahrt berichtet, sondern auch über den internationalen Luftverkehr, über Erfindungen, über Patente sowie über Flugwettbewerbe und Veranstaltungen. Als die Zeitschrift erstmals im Jahre 1907 erschien, hieß sie "American Magazine of Aeronautics"; der Name wurde mit der Ausgabe Februar 1908 in "American Magazine of Aerial Navigation" geändert. Abermals wurde der Name mit der Ausgabe September 1909 in "American Magazine of Aerial Locomotion" geändert. In den folgenden Jahren wurde die Zeitschrift nur noch als "Aeronautics" herausgegeben. Nachstehend kann der komplette Jahrgang 1913/1914 als digitaler Volltext eingesehen werden. Alternativ kann der komplette Jahrgang 1913/1914 frei und kostenlos als PDF Dokument (42,1 MB) heruntergeladen werden. Weitere Jahrgänge des American Magazine of Aeronautics stehen in der Übersicht zur Verfügung.


XIII. NO. I THE BENOIST FLYING BOAT 25 CdltS

Do You Trust Your Motor?

DIDIER MASSON Writes:

"Moreno's Camp, Sonora, Mexico.

"Dear Mr. Curtiss :

"I am very glad to congratulate you in the present letter of the wonderful work I am getting out of one of your motors

"I have already been flying about twenty-four hours and I have never been disappointed through lack of power. I have not a single spare part for the motor, and absolutely no trouble.

"Many of the flights I have to do daily are of about 60 to SO miles, of which half is entirely within the lines occupied by the federal army. A forced landing would certainly mean a disagreeable ending for me, so you can imagine how greatly I appreciate its efficiency and reliability.

"Respectfully yours,

"D. MASSON."

AUGCJSTIN PARLA Flew From Key West to Cuba Without Any Naval Escort! He Wired:

"Gi.en.n H. Curtiss:

"She flew like a bird. Motor never missed a shot.

_ "PARLA."

i

"JACK VILAS" Made the First Flight Across One of America's Inland Seas. Wires:

" GLENN H. CURTISS:

"Made flight across Lake Michigan today in one hour ten minutes. Reached height of over three thousand feet with passenger. Motor never made a miss in the whole trip,

_ "L. A. VILAS."

CURTISS MOTORS Are Used by Government Fliers of The United States, Russia, Japan, Italy, Austria, Germany, et al.

«1 If you think you can't afford a CURTISS MOTOR, give us a chance to prove you can't afford to fly without one.

C| If you do not realize the advantages of using CURTISS MOTORS, let us describe to you in detail why they lead the world.

OUR CATALOG IS WORTH HAVING. IT'S FREE

CURTISS MOTOR COMPANY

21 LAKE STREET, :: :: HAMMONDSPORT, N. Y.

4E RON A UTICS

'Page 3

July, 1913

PARAGON PROPELLERS

PAR AC ONS have the distinction of being the only propellers ever officially * VtJ indorsed by any government. Let us send you a copy of the Re-

port on Paragon Propellers from the Senior Aviation Officer to the Secretary of the Navy.

Sfanrlarrl Twr»-R1ar1** Tvnp* This is the standard propeller, par exStandard IWO-Diaae lype. ce,ience> unapproached for strength, safety, service and durability. Let us send you Report of Curtiss Aeroplane Co., showing four per cent, gain in speed and twelve per cent, in climbing—in comparative tests.

TVi*v»<» Rlarln TvnA • These Sive greater flying thrust and more speed with 1 HI CC UiaUC 1 >pc. less diameter. Lieut. J. H. Towers, Senior Aviation Officer, U. S. N., reports, "The three-bladed Paragon gives more thrust and more speed than any other propeller we have had." This type of propeller has come into very great demand among our customers.

Twi^tf*rl Tvnf* • ^or macnmes with chain or gear-driven propellers. These 1 W1MCU 1 y pc . are not caryed jnt0 shape but twisted and pressed under great pressure, heat and moisture. No cross grain. Higher pitch, less slip, faster flying. Used and fully endorsed by U. S. Government Aviators.

Special Flexing Type for Flying Boats: ment. The blades

are curved and designed in a manner that causes the pitch to change in proportion to varying loads on the propeller and to conform to irregularities in the air. With these propellers the engine is kept at its best running speed, very nearly constant, both on the ground and under all conditions in the air. They take the machine off quicker and climb better than any type of propeller we have ever produced. They run with practically no vibration and are almost silent on a muffled engine.

For Hydro Machines get the new STEEL EDGE

Paragon

Paragons are not only best but also cheapest. Consult with us freely and get full information. We solicit correspondence, but do not urge anyone to purchase.

AMERICAN PROPELLER CO., 243-249 E. Hamburg St., BALTIMORE, MD.

Burgess Flying Boat Built for U. S. Navy

HE BURGESS FLYING BOAT

is another record breaker. Built to comply with the strenuous requirements of the U. S. Navy, it fulfilled its test flights and was immediately accepted. Already a number of orders have been placed by sportsmen for similar machines.

Burgess Aeroplanes and Hydro-aeroplanes are still unexcelled. Motor equipment depends entirely upon the purchaser. We recommend the Sturtevant motor as the most reliable American type.

We have a number of used motors and hydro-planes which we are offering at greatly reduced prices.

Training school patronized by both the Army and Navy, under the direction of Frank Coffyn, is located at Marblehead adjoining the works. Early application is necessary to secure enrollment.

BURGESS COMPANY AND CURTIS, Marblehead, Mass.

JERON A UTICS

You Can Have Perfect Ignition

vou can insure your* self satisfaction and obtain the utmost efficiency from your motor by refusing "some magneto and plugs" and insisting upon the standard, Bosch Magneto and Bosch Plugs. ::

Literature sent on request

Bosch Magneto Company

201 W. 46th STREET

NEW YORK

Ueronautics

Page 5 /u/p, 1913

Technical Talks

By the Technical Editor

The Fluid Deflector of M. Constantin and its Application to the

Aeroplane

I have before me American patent No. 1,065,506 to Louis Constantin, on means for reducing the resistance to the passage of ehicles in fluids. This invention is based on the fact that the streams of fluid deflected laterally by a body in motion preserve their new direction for a certain distance after they are out of contact with the body, and also cause the streams of fluid which they encounter to participate in the deflection.

If a blunt-ended vehicle be provided with a screen of appropriate dimensions (but smaller than the major section of the vehicle), supported at an appropriate distance in front of it, then, the streams of air will be deflected outward so that they will not encounter the vehicle, and the resistance will be that of the screen.

This screen may be a disc, a cone, or two plates, preferably curved, and forming a dihedral angle. Kest results are, however, obtained by employing a number of curved

plates, arranged as shown in figure 1 deflecting the fluid to both sides, or above and below; or, concentric truncated conical surfaces, as shown in figure 2, deflecting the fluid all

around the vehicle. In these figures a is the vehicle, b the plates, and c the support. Where it is desired to deflect the fluid to one side only, a single set of parallel plates can be used.

It is reported that the use of this device on an automobile effected a saving in power of 20% at a speed of 42 kilometres per hour.

Of course we are reminded that a large part of the resistance of a body is stern resistance, which this device probably does not diminish. It is possible that by initiating an inward deflection at the stern, the resistance of that porton could be diminished.

A single curved plate, or several parallel plates, can be employed to shield an observer from the wind. Thus, a deflector placed in front of an aeroplane pilot, will shield his head from the wind, while permitting him to see over the deflection.

M. Constantin has applied the principle of the wind deflector to the aeroplane wing, the object being to increase the rarifaction above the wing by a more energetic upward deviation of the air streams, thus increasing the lift. An account of the results obtained is given in "Aerophile" of June 1st, by M. Henri Mirguet, of which I shall give a short abstract.

Figure 3 shows a section of the "Ponnicr" wing which was modified by having its entering edge made concave as shown in figure 4. To show the character of the rarifaction above the wing, streamers were fastened a foot apart along the rib (this was a full sized wing) ; in figure 3 these streamers show that the air follows the contour of the wing, while in figure 4 they show a rarifaction over the portion a, the first two standing erect with their ends turned toward each other.

It is inferred that the intensity (and area) of the rarifaction can be increased by employing a series or set of deflecting plates (similar to those referred to above) and the lift still more increased. This, no doubt, can be clone, but what effect it will have on the lift-ratio remains to be seen.

As before stated, the wind pressure on this deflecting portion is detrimental, and one (Continued on page 7)

AERONA UTICS Page 6 Ju& 19 Ii

The Championship Race

Gradually the storm drew away from us, and it was not long before it was light enough to see the ground pretty clearly. We had crossed the Mississippi during the storm, but where we do not know. Just after the storm an upward air current carried us up into low lying clouds, and for a few minutes we were completely surrounded by the wet mist. As soon as we could we descended to an altitude of five or six hundred feet. As it was nearly dawn, we decided to drag rope, that is,—let the balloon go along at low altitude with the drag-rope trailing along the ground until the sun should expand the gas and carry us up.

We drag-roped for about an hour over the sharply rolling country. The wind would carry us up the slopes without throwing any ballast,

By R. A. D. PRESTON

R. A. D. Preston of The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Akron, O., aide in the fliglm of the balloon "Goodyear," which won tlm National Championship Race at Kansas Citt July 4th, tells the following fascinating stom of his experience on the memorable flight: I

HE start: We struck a fair equilibrium at about 1,500 feet above ground, and sailecr rapidly away to the northeast. A few mirl utes later we saw the "Kansas City Post,l Honeywell's balloon, and the "Kansas Citl II," John Watts, coming after us. Thl "Goodyear" continued at approximately oriJ inal height until after midnight, the othS two balloons appearing to be working we| of us.

Almost as soon as we were well in the air. over in the north appeared what seemed to ■ the inevitable thunder shower for this racl and as the night grew on another came up in the east, and .we could see more lightnirl flashes away to the south. At 2:10 A. M. til sharp patter of rain above told us that vl were in the storm. In a minute or two tfl rain was pouring down on the balloon, and in a few seconds more we started downward. 1

Upson watched the instruments, while til aide hustled inboard the sand bags and othl accoutrements we had hung outside the baskel This was to prevent them being torn off if we should drag along the ground. About 213! while I was making things fast inside til basket, Upson called to me that our dral rope had touched ground, and to watch oil It poured rain for half an hour or so, and \l raced along with the storm, the drag row hitting the tops of the hills, and once or twil the basket struck the ground, but quickl bounced up again. The lightning helpl rather than worried us, as it assisted us I making out the country ahead. We flasheJ by a windmill and several trees at close rang! but were not in much danger of striking thel as we could see them some distance ahead. I

sometimes driving us along only a few feel from the ground. In passing over some telel graph wires, the drag-rope tied itself neatli around one of them, and the "Goodyear! hung for a moment securely moored in thl air. A strong gust of wind, however, was tol much for the wire, and off we started again] the knot on the end of the drag-rope cuttinl quite a swath through the brush and wirl fences, till we finally cut off the offendinl knot. The sun was just breaking through trl clouds to the far east, and we knew that \\l would shortly be well up in the air. We la the balloon come down a little as we wenl along in a northeasterly course, and after I repeated hallooing to the farmers below, vm finally found at 6 125 A. M. that we were fi\l miles north of Mineral Point, Wis.

There were clouds all about us, but the sky. just above was clear. The balloon ascended as the gas beated up—to take readings of speed kept me busy for tbe next hour, when Upson called my attention to a large city below us, which we knew from the capitol to be Madison Wis. We were then at 7:40 going due east in fine shape at 42 miles an hour, fast approaching the upper cloud layer, and at 8.20 passed over its edge. The cloud sea was so dazzling white that we were glad to put on the heavily smoked glasses we had obtained for this condition. This cloud sea was wonderfully beautiful, extending almost level for miles around with good sized cloud peaks to the north and south. In a few minutes we could hear the steamer whistles at Milwaukee, and a little later, down through rifts in the clouds were the waters of Lake Michigan. At 10 o'clock we could see the land again, though we did not see either shore of the lake we had crossed. Just before noon we reached our highest elevation of nearly 13,000 feet. Here the balloon shaded us from the sun, and we quickly realized that it was "winter"' at this altitude. Before this, while above the clouds, I had been watching the instruments from an improvised paper tent in one end of the basket, as I had lost my sun hat during the storm and the heat while tbe sun was shining on us, was intense.

Mountainous clouds were piling up above the lever cloud layer to the south, and as this probably meant a thunder shower Upson let the balloon come down slowly to take advantage of the more northerly currents at lower altitudes. At 600 feet, we stopped a little while just above the lower cloud layer which was beginning to break up. The upper cloud layer had disappeared just before we came down. We did not stay long above the lower layer as we could see behind us a big funnel shaped cloud, and the air at this elevation seemed very unstable. Once we ran into a little whirlwind which turned the balloon around rapidly three or four times. It was interesting at this height to look down and

TECHNICAL TALKS

(continuedfrom page j)

would suppose that the loss entailed in deflecting the air upward, would equal the gain due to increased rarifaction. However, an ounce of experiment (properly conducted and rightly interpreted) is worth a pound of argument, and I shall give a brief account of the results obtained, taken from the article above mentioned.

The first test was made in the Eiffel Laboratory by M. Drzewiecki on a wing section which he had previously studied and which was primarily designed to be used as a propeller blade section. "By making the upper entering edge concave the characteristics of the profile were changed as if by magic." The lift was augmented, the drift diminished; and the efficiency (lift ratio) was increased nearly 60% for large angles of attack and 40% for 30; so that this section most inappropriate for an aeroplane wing,

see the shadow of the balloon on the clouds below, surrounded by a bright rainbow-like ring.

Descending through the lower cloud layer was very interesting. We did not go into the cloud at all, but seemed to slide down the side of this huge ball of mist with the ground in plain sight just over its edge. We were uncertain as to our whereabouts before descending through this cloud layer, but figured that we were somewhere in the vicinity of Saginaw Bay. Once below the cloud, however, land was visible to the horizon.

The unstable atmospheric conditions were fast using up the gas and ballast, and we realized then that it was only a question of pushing the "Goodyear" as far as we could toward the lake.

The country below was not particularly inviting as with few exceptions it was covered with tall stumps and strewn with dead, broken trees, the cut timber district of Northern Michigan.

By three o'clock our ballast was all gone, and soon our empty sand bags, camp stools, water, milk cans, and most of our provisions were also gone. Reserving a little for landing, we looked ahead for a smooth spot and finally discerned a little spot of fairly smooth ground which we endeavored to reach. We hit a little short of it, narrowly missing a tall dead tree, but bounced up again and succeeded in dropping the balloon directly on a little plot which proved to be a buckwheat patch. Considering the strong wind blowing, Upson made an exceptionally fine landing.

We soon realized now that we had had no sleep and hardly a bite to eat during the race. After a vigorous attack on tbe remaining provisions, we left the balloon practically as it was and tumbled into bed at the nearest farm house for a good fifteen hours sleep.

After packing up the next day, it developed there was not train south till 2 A. M. Not until we boarded this train, and I picked up a paper in the smoking compartment did we learn that we had won the Balloon Championship of America.

was thereby rendered better than the majority in present use.

A similar test was made by Commandant Dorand on a very thin and good wing section and an improvement (in efficiency?) obtained of 15% for 3°, 26% for 0°, and 55% for 15°, angles of attack. A second test was made by him on a propeller, which showed a marked improvement, though tbe propeller was already very good, and therefore hard to ameliorate.

Dr. Amans tested wing models of small span and reported an improvement of 95%.

Finally M. Constantin. in collaboration with Commandant Dorand, had ten models tested at the Eiffel Laboratory. One of these was especially good, giving greater lift than the Blcriot XI bis. wing viz. 140% at o°, 54% at 3°, and 40% at 6°.

A full sized Ponnier aeroplane was tested at Mourmelon. The modification of the wing (Continued on page36)

The Savary Tractor Biplane

By LEICESTER B. HOLLAND

NE of the most interesting of the French aeroplanes at the present day is the Savary biplane. Practically unknown in this country; and. until recently, little heard of even in France, it is at present coming into considerable prominence as a weight carrier. Robert Savary, the builder, became enthused by the first flights of Wilbur Wright at Le Mans and immediately set to work to build for himself. First at Le Mans and then at Chartres he worked steadily away, wasting little energy on advertising or sensational flights, but devoting all his attention to building a machine in which the qualities of efficiency and safety should be pre-eminent. When in 1911, at the military competition at Rheims the Savary biplane swept everything before it, not only carrying by far the greatest useful weight per horsepower, though by its sturdiness of construction the heaviest machine entered, but also showing the best speed of the biplanes, 100 kiloms. an hour on a closed circuit of 5 kilometers, the aviation world began to take notice, and the recent considerable orders for Savary biplanes by the French and Italian governments together with the decoration of M. Savary with the Legion of Honor are evidence that his machines are living up to the promise they then gave.

The latest achievement of note of the Savary machine is the carrying of six passengers by the pilot Frangeois, for an hour and a quarter. The passengers represent a weight of 472 kilos and the useful load carried, including oil and gasolene, totalled 580 kilos. The pilot carried his passengers to a height of 85o' metres, thus easily breaking the records for height and duration with such a load.

The main factor sought in the design of the Savary machine is safety. To this end all parts have been made unusually strong; the horizontal members of the tail and the whole framework of the wheels and skid (the skid itself being a heavy T bar of ash) being of steel tubing, while the longitudinal members of the planes and the struts between planes are of ash.

The engine, radiator and tanks are placed in front of the pilot so as to avoid the danger of his being crushed by the motor in a bad landing. This has necessitated putting the propellers in front of the main planes to avoid complications of transmission. Two propellers of 2.5 m. diameter by 1.75 m. pitch, turning in opposite directions at 900 R. P. M. are used. M. Savary is altogether convinced of the superior efficiency of the two chain-driven propellers of large diameter at slow speed over the single propeller connected directly to the motor. To test the matter he built a machine exactly like his regular machines except that it was driven by a single

propeller coupled direct to a Gnome engine He found that the twin screw machine, weight ing with its power transmission and passenger] 125 kilos more than the single screw machine, flew, nevertheless, at a speed of 26 kilometers an hour greater than the other. Moreover, it is claimed that a twin-screw machine is easier to manipulate than the one single screw type, there being no gyroscopic action; and certainly even the beginners find that it isl ah easy to turn the Savary to the right as tol the left. A third claim for the twin screw isl that it provides greater lateral stability which! would seem to be true for the Savary, asl while responding readily to the action of itsl ailerons it is very little affected by "choppy"! air. Incidentally, the arrangement is a very! comfortable one for the pilot, for the two! propellers form a pocket of still air just all the "nacelle" so that there is no greater! rush of air than that caused by the speed ofI the machine, and even this is somewhat brokenl and very pleasantly warmed by passing throughl the radiator and across the exhausts of thel motor before reaching the pilot.

The chief danger connected with the use! of two chain-driven propellers, that of thel possible rupture of one chain while the otherl continues to hold, has been cleverly overcomel by the use of a single long chain passing over

Arrangement of transmission. A, motor sprocket; B and B1, propeller sprocket; C and C, idle sprockets.

both the propeller sprockets and the two sprockets on the shaft of the motor and kept in position by two small idler sprockets (see diagram). In this way the crossing of the chain, which is necessary to cause the propellers to turn in opposite directions is made very much more gradual, taking place in the whole length of the chain, instead of in half that distance as in the Wright transmission.

The motor chiefly used is a four cylinder Labor-Aviation, water cooled, developing 70 II. P. at 1300 R. P. M., though in many of the machines a 75 H. P. air cooled Renault motor, turning at 1700 R. P. M. is used instead.

The running gear is also unusual and is perhaps the strongest and most effective in use on any aeroplane to-day. It consists of a single long and very heavy ash skid centrally placed and reaching far in advance of the centre of gravity to prevent "somer-

saulting" in bad landings. This skid is braced by a triangular system of steel tubing forming a truss capable of withstanding the most violent shocks.

The two wheels are suspended by a sort of universal joint from the front longitudinal member of the lower plane. While strongly braced by steel tubing to prevent their tipping sideways, they are free to swing forward and back and also to turn like castors about a vertical axis. Wire guys connect each wheel with the front end of the skid by means of rubber tension springs. These springs hold the wheels normally in a position below the skid but allow them under pressure to swing back and up until the skid rests upon the

ground. Another similar rubber spring limits the castor action of the wheels causing them to stand normally straight fore and aft. The wheels are mounted unusually far apart (4 meters), and. being quite independent of each other in their action, make operations on the roughest ground and landing in an inclined position comparatively simple matters.

When stationary the machine rests on the two wheels and the rear end of the skid with the front pointed slightly up, but as soon as it begins to roll on the ground, it assumes a horizontal position being balanced eiitirely on the wheels with the skid lifted clear. In landing the wheels swing up and the skid,

99999999999998

sliding along almost its full length, brings the machine rapidly to a stop.

Longitudinal stability is assured by a biplane tail joined to the main cell by a quadrangular frame of steel and ash, trussed lengthwise and also crosswise. Each tail plane, of about 4 sq. m., has a fixed non-carrying triangular part in front to insure stability and behind these are hinged the flat, square elevator planes with about 8 sq. m. surface. These planes work both up and down; their large area and their position far in the rear of the main cell make it impossible to "engage" the machine in a rapid descent.

There is no rudder in the tail, M. Savary, thinking that any vertical surface far to the rear of the centre of gravity would give the machine a constant tendency to head up into the wind. Steering is done by four vertical planes or shutters mounted in pairs on the outside rear struts of the cell. To turn to the left, the two left shutters are closed, thus presenting an enormous resistance at this point and causing the right end, where the shutters are left in the stream line, to swing around. The tail being without a rudder swings easily and very short turns can be made at a moderate inclination, while in straight flight the shutters being close to the centre of gravity do not cause the machine to veer from its course.

The upper and lower main planes are built of longitudinal members of ash channelled to shape, and connected at the intersection with the struts by solid ribs of ash of I-beam section. Between these are solid ribs of poplar. The frame work is covered with a heavy linen and varnished with "Xovavia." The two planes are 1 m. 80 apart. The upper one has a spread of 14 m. 40 and the lower one of 10 m. 80; both are 2 m. 20 deep. The total carrying surface is 52 square meters. The overhanging portions at the ends of the upper planes are hinged to fold down so that the spread can easily be reduced to 10 m. 80 for storage in the hangars.

Lateral stability is obtained by ailerons hinged to the rear of the upper plane only. These are arranged to work positively both up and down.

The "nacelle" is built of wood covered with varnished linen. The pilot sits in the rear

where he can see behind the lower plane. In front of him is the seat for the passenger and in front of this again, the motor and thej radiator. The lower wing is cut away froml front to rear for a space of about a foot onl either side of the "nacelle" to allow a freel view of the ground while the motor groupl being no wider than the "nacelle" and notl descending below the bottom of it cuts offl no view at all except when the machine is onl the ground.

All three controls are united in a single! wheel on a steering post mounted on al universal joint. Steering to right and left] is done by turning the wheel as in an automobile. Tipping the post right or left controls the balance, and forward and back, the descent and ascent. All these movements are quite instinctive, and the machine can be easily controlled by either hand alone. The throttle is placed on the wheel and the lever for advancing the spark and the sight feed for the oil on the edge of the "nacelle." The main gasoline tank is situated between the pilot and passenger forming a back for the latter. A glass gauge indicates at a glance the amount of gasoline in the tank.

The average speed with two on board is 100 km. an hour, the net weight is 625 kilos, and the carrying capacity is 300 kilos.

The machine with which Frangeois flew on May 8 with six passengers is a specially large one built for weight carrying. In this type, the upper plane has a spread of 19 m. 50; the lower one 14 m. 50. The motor is a no H. P. water-cooled Salmson (Canton-Unne) and the nacelle is arranged with two little benches facing each other in front of the pilots seat. The weight unloaded is 700 kilos. Two pairs of twin wheels instead of the ordinary single wheels are used; the two tires of each pair being bound to each other with tape, thus forming a tread about eight inches wide and enabling the machine to land and fly from the heaviest sort of ground.

So easy is it to handle the Savary machine and so efficiently does the landing gear work that two-thirds of the pupils at the school at Chartres obtain their license without having had a single item of breakage.

New Model "CH" Wright

The planes, rudder, motor and drive follow |he standard model "C" lines. The span is '¡8 feet, chord 6 feet and the surface area is |djout 440 square feet. The weight empty is »20 pounds, exclusive of the weight of the rentre hydroplane float, which is 240 pounds. 3ne of the new Wright six cylinder, 60 H. P. notors is installed, driving two propellers. 8 eet 6 inches diameter. The machine is fitted vith special instruments recording the angle )f incidence with regard to the air currents. :tc.

The hydroplane unit consists of a single bontoon, 10 feet long, 6 feet wide and 10 nchcs deep, and a small pontoon supporting he tail. The form of the pontoon and its position has been determined with great care md a type arrived at that makes the water planing features of this machine unusually efficient.

Mr. Wright has carried passengers on numerous occasions and the best weight lifting performance was when he flew with two bf his assistants, Jacobs and Taylor, and [Taylor's boy, in addition to considerable amount of fuel, which made a total load on the machine of almost 800 pounds.

The model "CII" rises almost instantly to the top of the water, since it starts and leaves the surface under the expert handling of Mr. Wright, in less than 10 seconds, which is by far the best performance to date in hydro-aeroplaning. Mr. Wright has made over one

hundred flights with this machine, and on one occasion flew over Dayton, landing on the Miami River at a point between two bridges not over one thousand feet apart, and rose again from this place and flew off over the town to the starting point with perfect ease. During June and the early part of July at his station on the Miami River, Mr. Wright frequently did a large business in carrying passengers, taking up one after another, often despite winds of as high as 10 to 15 miles an hour.

The locality on the Miami River where the tests were held would generally have been considered an almost impossible place for hydro-aeroplaning. The river is very narrow and on both sides are steep banks covered with trees, making flying in any kind of wind an extremely difficult -matter. Mr. Wright, however, considers this to represent the average conditions that would have to be met by a machine of this type if it is to have any extended use at all as a means of travel between inland towns, or in opening up inaccessible country over shallow streams. It is particularly for these purposes as distinct from the rough water work that would be met with in larger bodies of water, that Mr. Wright worked out this machine. Its flying qualities have been studied carefully to render it every bit as good as the best land machines, which is distinctly not the case with most other hydroaeroplanes to-day.

Page 12

I think AERONAUTICS is the best magazine published on the subject of flying and I wish it came ever}' week. I especially like the drawings and descriptions of foreign machines.—C. L. M., Tenn.

I notice, by the way, that men of discrimination and education read AERONAUTICS in preference to the other journals in this field.—C. W. S., Cal.

SAN DT DIES FROM INJURIES

Erie, Pa., June 21.—Earl Sandt, aviator, died here from poisoning after the amputation of his leg, necessitated by a fall in his aeroplane at Grove City, Pa., on June 12.

Yes, I still read AERONAUTICS regularly but A.......... and F.......... I find

I rarely need to get.—Subscriber.

STANDARD CONTROL FOR NAVY AEROPLANES

All aeroplanes of the U. S. Navy will be fitted with a "universal control" so that any aviator may operate any type or make of machine without learning new controls or endangering life by flying without proper training. It has been found impossible to get any body of men to agree on the merits or demerits of any one of the present systems so Captain \Y. Irving Chambers is going to arrive at the point by scientific analysis and experiment.

The Martin "Aeroyacht"

Unique among the new types of aircraft which have been perfected during the last year is the "aeroyacht," designed and built by Cilenn L. Martin, the noted California manufacturer of aeroplanes and hydroaeroplanes. The new machine is a four passenger convertible tractor, which combines a maximum of power and efficiency with comfort and safety. The body of the aero yacht is twenty-five feet in length, and being oval in shape, presents a minimum of head resistance while it is in flight. The machine is fitted with two seats of the "surrey"' type, each being forty-eight inches wide. The pilot occupies the rear seat with one passenger, the other two passengers occupying the front seat.

The body is mounted on a pontoon seventeen feet in length, which is built up of Spanish cedar planking eight inches wide. Forty sets of rib bracing form the carcass of the pontoon, which is divided into eight watertight compartments. This method of construction insures the safety of the machine.

should the pontoon be damaged while in the water. The outer surface of the pontoon is covered with cloth and glue, and is finished with three coats of varnish. It has a displacement of three thousand pounds.

The main pontoon may be detached from the body of the machine, and replaced with a landing gear in thirty minutes. The landing gear adopted by Air. Martin is of the two wheel, rubber spring type, and is equipped with a central skid. It is similar in design to the landing gear of the Day tractor, which has proven remarkably strong and efficient during the last year.

The supporting planes of the aero yacht have a spread of thirty-five feet, with a span of seven feet between the struts. The planes are set five and one-half feet apart, and the wings have a camber of three and one-half inches, with a chord of five feet two inches. The wing section is built up, with solid ribs nine inches apart, and short ribs, three inches apart, over the nose. By this construction the

Glenn Martin's "Aeroyacht'

Glenn Martin Hydro

Page 15

Conover-varnished cloth is held firmly to the designed curve of the plane, and forms a very efficient wing. The front beam is an "I" section two and one-quarter by one and one-half inches, the rear beam being two by one and three-eighth inches.

The wing tip pontoons, which are of a unique design original with Mr. Martin, are of the same mechanical construction as the main pontoon. They are so shaped that at a speed of sixty miles an hour they support their own weight in the air, at the same time presenting practically no head resistance. They engage the water at a planing angle, rendering it impossible to bury a wing under anj condition. The smaller pontoons have a displacement of two hundred and twenty-five pounds each.

An 8-cylinder 80 H. P. Curtiss motor furnishes the power, mounted in the forward

part of the body, ahead of the pilot and passengers. The motor is enclosed under a detachable aluminum hood, making it easily accessible for adjustment, and is cooled by two specially designed Hall-Scott radiators which have proven extremely efficient. The motor is also equipped with a muffler designed by Mr. Martin, which effectively silences the exhaust but creates no back pressure in the motor.

The fuselage is put together in a simple and efficient manner which makes it unnecessary to drill any holes through the longitudinal members of the body. This is made possible by the metal fittings, which were designed by Charles H. Day, superintendent of the Los Angeles factory of the Glenn L. Martin Co., and fittings of the same type are used connecting the struts and wire to the wing sections. Patents have been applied for on this feature of the machine.

Christofferson Flying Boat

By E. W. HAMMER

Silas Christofferson, the man who flew from the roof of a hotel in Portland, Ore., is now operating a flying boat, equipped with the first of the new Hall-Scott hundreds. The machine carries three passengers at sixty miles an hour and four could be put in without any trouble. It will be interesting to note the flights that are to be made at Lake Tahoe, which is six thousand feet above sea level. Two of these flying boats, with similar motors, are to be supplied to explorer Amundsen.

The upper plane spreads 49 feet; the lower 33 feet 6 inches. Chord 5 feet 6 inches, camber 3.5 inches at 26 inches back, separation 5 feet 5 inches and the total area is 432 square feet. The trailing edge of the upper plane is cut away for propeller clearance but at a point near the ailerons it curves out to 6 feet 5 inches. The main planes have an angle of incidence of 6 degrees. In their construction spruce has been used throughout. The upper is in 3 sections and the lower in two. In the entering edge two strips have been used, the outer being sharply pointed. For the trailing edge a strip of spruce is used with an oval leaving edge. Ribs, of I section, built up are used in main planes, ailerons and elevators. Battens of .25 inches by .5 inches have been used and to give lightness the .25 inch web has been bored out. The web is mortised into the batten, glued and nailed. Oval strips .875 inches by .375 inches run diagonally through the inside of each plane and a number of small tapered strips between the end ribs act as a reinforcement. The main beams are of I section, formed by a web having 3 laminations .75 inch thick mortised into strips 1.375 inches by .375 inches. At the hull the main spars have their greatest thickness, 1.625 inches, tapering down to about 1 inch about half the length of the wing.

Lateral stability is maintained by two ailerons in the top plane. 2.5 feet wide by 6.5 feet., with a reverse camber of .375 inch.

The fixed part of the tail has an area of

24 square feet., maximum spread 9 feet and maximum length fore and aft of 4.75 inches and is set at a negative angle. Spruce I ribs are used as in main planes.

The twin elevators are splayed out to afford room for the rudder. The two elevators' spread total 12.5 feet and the total area is 34-33 square feet. In the stabilizer and elevators the forward edges are hollowed out and the ribs set in.

The balanced rudder is 4.25 feet by 3 feet high and has an area of 9.75 square feet. Goodyear fabric is used throughout, and three sizes of Roebling cable. In the turnbuckles chrome nickel steel is used for the ends and Tobin bronze in the centers. The wire ends are all made fast by double ferrules. Cold rolled steel is used for strut sockets and bed rail clamps. All the metal parts are nickel plated. The total weight is 1,200 lbs.

Length of hull from stem to stern is 24.5 feet, the maximum beam is 34 inches and the greatest depth 32 inches; draft is approximately 4 inches. The greatest width and depth are found at a point even with the deepest camber. The maximum beam runs back to a point 12 inches forward of the trailing edge of the lower plane and then rounding off gently flattens out to a wedge at the stern. The hull rounds up 12 inches at the bow and has approximately 9 feet of flat bottom measuring from a line taken at the rear of the hood. The bottom is protected by 2 runners of spruce, having a base of 2 inches and a running surface of 1.5 inches, and 2.5 inches in depth. The runners taper off both fore and aft and are hollowed out in sections. In order to prevent water leaking into the hollow chambers the entire base of the runner is covered with canvas and waterproofed. Hull sheathing is .25 inch cedar on the bottom, .1875 inch to a point 14 inches up the sides, and from here to the gunwale .125 inch cedar has been put on over .2; inch by .5 inch spruce ribs that are reinforced by .5 inch longitudinal spruce

-trips. The hood is covered with .125 inch mahogany and runs back to a _ cockpit that has an opening of 9 feet which furnishes ample room for pilot, passengers, motor and propeller clearance. The balance back of the hull is sheathed with .125 inch cedar.

The ico H. P. Hall-Scott motor is placed in the rear of the cockpit and is braced by 16 ga. by .25 inch tubing. The motor is geared 18-24 and drives by Diamond chain a Christoffer-son propeller of 9 feet pitch by 8 feet 5 (Continued on page 37)

Christofferson Flying Boat

The Cooke Tractor Airboat

The Weldon B. Cooke Aeroplane Company, of Sandusky, Ohio, has just completed a flying boat of novel design, which, it is claimed, embodies the good features of all its contemporaries. It is a seaworthy-looking design and the motor is in an accessible position. The motor is mounted in the hull just forward of the aviator's seat, and can be very easily reached. A hot bearing, a disconnected wire, a loose nut, can all be discovered and quickly remedied "even while in flight." It is not necessary to climb over the seat or onto the planes to change a spark plug or do any of the hundred and one things an aeroplane motor needs.

The most notable feature of the Cooke air-boat is the hull, built by the Davis Boat Works Co. of Sandusky. It is a fine example of the boat builder's art, light, substantial, and graceful. There is not an abrupt line in the hull, with the exception of the step. It is finished in natural wood throughout and a most attractive boat. The materials employed are oak, mahogany, and cedar, all very carefully selected from well-seasoned stock, and thoroughly varnished inside and out. with Valspar. The planking is double, with the inner layer laid diagonally, and oiled gingham between the layers. The sides are two layers of V% inch, the deck one thickness of inch.

and the bottom forward where the blows strike in hydroplaning, are two layers of -fa inch. The planking is riveted every two inches with copper nails, making a hull that will withstand enormous shocks without splitting or springing a leak. The beam is very broad and the freeboard very high, making an excellent boat for rough water. A dive into a wave, except from a height is almost impossible. The Cooke company is the only firm of its kind located on the Great Lakes, and the head of the firm has done a great deal of flying over Lake Erie. The firm is. therefore, well qualified to know what is most important in the design of an airboat for severe conditions. The hull has four watertight compartments, any one of them large enough to keep the boat afloat in the event of a collision damaging the bottom. The planes are entirely independent of any other part of the boat, and could be cast adrift in a storm without crippling the boat or power plant, and, it would even be possible to drive home under power without the planes.

The boat has a comfortable seating capacity for Ave persons besides the pilot, in two seats arranged in tandem. The total weight of the machine in flying order is 1.500 pounds, leaving a margin of about 700 pounds for live load.

Dimensions of the hull are as follows: Length, 28 feet; beam, 5 feet; beam (at step), 4 feet; height of step, 8 inches; draught at step, 16 inches; position of step, 11 feet aft; position of C. G., 10 feet aft; freeboard at bow, 3 feet; freeboard at stern, 1 foot; seats, two, in tandem; width of seats, 4 feet. The motor is a Roberts Six, 75 H. P., located in hull, forward, double chain drive to paragon propeller, 10 feet diameter, 10 feet pitch. Motor speed, 1,200 R. P. M. Propeller speed, 600 R. P. M. Gasoline and oil capacity, three hours.

The propeller is mounted in front, on a framework of steel tubing built up from the deck, and is driven at half motor speed by two roller chains running in guides. The propeller shaft is in a direct line with the center of head resistance in the air. 1 he blade is a Paragon, left-hand, 10 feet diameter by 10 feet 2 inches pitch. The propeller shaft is mounted on radial and thrust ball bearings.

The planes are substantial, made up in 7^2 foot sections, center sections all double wired, chord 7 feet, gap 7 feet. There are six sections in the top plane and four in the bottom. The top plane spreads 45 feet and the lower 30 feet., the total area being 500 square feet. The wing tip pontoons are flat on the bottom side and have a displacement of 200 pounds each. The two ailerons, of 19 square feet each, are hinged to the rear beam of the top outside section, are interconnected and work both ways. The tail is the conventional fixed stabilizer of 40 square feet surface. There are two elevators of 25 square feet each and a rudder of 19 square feet. There is no vertical fin.

The operation of the control is similar to the Benoist, right-hand lever for lateral and longitudinal control, and left-hand lever for rudder. The trials of the boat have not yet taken place, but the builders expect to put it through its paces in the near future.

BRITISH MOTO

The British War Office will hold a naval and military aeroplane engine competition to begin on February 1, 1914, at the Royal Aircraft Factory, Farnborough, Hampshire, 33 miles from London. A prize of £5,000 ($24,332) will be awarded to the maker of the engine which, in the opinion of the judges, best fulfills the requirements of the competition and which is entirely suited for the aeroplane service. Although only engines of British manufacture will be allowed in the competition, a statement of what will be required to permit of an entry and also of the attributes which are considered desirable in an aeroplane engine may be of interest to American manufacturers.

specified requirements.

Horsepower: Ninety to two hundred.

Number of cylinders: More than four.

Gross weight per horsepower: Calculated for six hours' run, not to exceed 11 pounds.

Shape of engine: Suitable for fitting in an aeroplane.

Origin of engine: British manufacture throughout.

desirable attributes.

Light total weight; economy of consumption ; absence of vibration; smooth running, whether in normal or inclined position and whether at full power or throttled down; slow running under light loads; workmanship; silence; absence of deterioration after tests; simplicity of construction; suitable shape to minimize head resistance; precautions against accidental stoppage, e. g., dual ignition; adaptable for starting otherwise than by propeller swinging; accessibility of parts; freedom from risk of fire; absence of smoke or of ejections of oil or petrol (gasoline) ; convenience of fitting in aeroplane; relative invulnerability to small-arm projectiles; economy

R COMPETITION

(in bulk, weight, and number) of minimum spare-part equipment; excellence of material; reasonable price; satisfactory running under climatic variations of temperature.

The engines will be submitted to the following tests:

Two runs of six hours each, at full power or throttled down, as desired by the judges. Engines to be placed in inclined positions not exceeding 15 degrees for short special runs. The consumption of fuel and lubricant will be measured. Engines to be dismantled by the competitors' mechanics between the runs if desired by the competitors or the judges, but no work of any kind to be done on an engine except under observation.

At any period during the competition the judges may impose such other tests as they desire, including runs of longer duration, in order to bring out the relative merits of competing engines.

OPENING FOR AMERICAN MANUFACTURERS

The most satisfactory way to secure a market for American aero engines in the United Kingdom would be by direct representation in this country and by using every opportunity for making demonstrations. An excellent opportunity exists at present for the establishment of an English market for American aero engines provided their efficiency can be absolutely demonstrated. Nothing should be left undone to interest the British Admiralty and War Office, and manufacturers of aerial craft of every description, as well as professional aviators. Moreover, a definite and persistent course of advertising would produce satisfactory results to the manufacturer. —From the U. S. Consular Report. The Gyro motor has already gone to England and is demonstrating the Gyro in flight.

New Developments in Aeronautics

LATEST BENOIST BOAT

The illustration shows the new Benoist flying boat, "Lakes Cruise'' model. This machine will carry two passengers besides the aviator with ease and makes about 70 miles an hour. Its dimensions are as follows:

Spread 35 feet; fore and aft, over all, 23 feet: chord 5 feet; gap 6 feet; width 36 inches ; depth of boat at the step 30 inches. The propeller is driven by sprocket and chain with "engine installed in the boat as is common with the Benoist machines.

STREAM-LINE FLOW UNDER Al R BO AT HULLS

In one airboat of recent date the exhaust from the motor comes out immediately behind the step in the main float, with the object of producing a layer of gas abaft the step in order that the get off from the water may be speedy. Again, in an airboat exhibited at the last Olympia show a pair of quadri-spherical cowls, fitted on top of the float, lead air down sloping-aft tubes to just behind the step, with the same end in view. Even though the introduced exhaust in the one case and air in the other achieve their object when the airboat is rising, it might be asked whether they are worth while when their detrimental effect on the streamlines when in the air is considered, says James E. Steele, Associate Member Institute of Naval Architects, in British Aeronautics.

When flying, the lift, which would otherwise be exerted by the sweet-flowing streamlines beneath the float, is in part destroyed l>v the disturbing influence of the introduced air

or exhaust; this results in a lift-reduction due to the loss in air reaction.

The air issuing from the bottom of the float at an angle of about 45 degrees to the stream lines will disturb their natural flow, resulting in the lift-reduction mentioned above. It might be thought that the admission of air behind the step would get rid of the negative pressure or suction at that part, but air admitted for that purpose would only increase the body of dead air which must be dragged along with the float.

To retain what good there may be when rising, and yet to get rid of the adverse effect when flying, means should be provided for cutting out in both the cases mentioned, when the machine is in the air. Cowls capable of being housed when flying would achieve that object in the one case, besides doing away with the drag which they exert.

FLYING BOATS ARE OFFICIALLY MOTOR BOATS

V*'bile to require flying boats or hydroaeroplanes when operating in the water as motor boats to be equipped in accordance with the Act of June 9, 1910, will impose conditions which might interfere, at least to some extent, to their use out of water; at the same time, it is the opinion of E. E. Chamberlain, Commissioner of the Department of Commerce, in a letter to AERONAUTICS, that these vessels which go at a high rate of speed should, for the protection of other vessels, be equipped with lights if navigated after sunset, and for the protection of those on board should have life saving, devices. The course which they propose to take should be indicated by signals as in the case of other vessels and if they are in a fog their position should be indicated. "I am inclined to think, therefore." says Mr. Williams, "'that while navigated as motor boats they are required to have equipment on such vessels and comply with the Rules of the Road," as contained in Department Circular 236.

The rules of the department provide that these craft, motorboats, must be inspected by the local inspectors; they are divided into classes—less than 26 feet. 26 feet to 39 feet inclusive, and 40 feet to 64 feet. Certain lights must be carried after sunset, and these of a certain size and properly positioned. Whistle, fog horn, bell are other fittings. If carrying passengers for hire, certain life preservers must be carried and the pilot must be licensed. A fine of $100 is provided. The act is enforced by collectors of customs and other officers.

Airships are not made of air, neither are they exactly shipshape. But let not these inconsistencies discourage you, for if an airship is not what you think, it is at least as dangerous as it looks. But why speak of danger—look at the people who marry!

—"Doctor" S and "Doctor"' W.

NEW HALL-SCOTT-1 00 H. P.

The new ioo H. P. motor of the Hall-Scott Motor Car Co. has been built especially for the flying boat, although it can be used directly connected in any standard machine. Enough power is provided to lift a standard flying boat into the air under any weather conditions, or get off the water with more passengers. The bore and stroke is 5 inches respectively.

Their system of cylinder construction is much similar to the previous models. Cylinder walls, heads, and pistons are cast from a special grade of close grained grey iron. Main cylinder walls are machined upon both sides. Steel water jackets are autogenously welded to the cylinder walls, forming non-leakable joints; the steel of such thickness that it is not readily dented. The assembly is then baked, enameled black on the outside, and ground to size.

Comparison of the 8o H. P. and ioo H.P. Cylinders

Cylinder heads are cast with water jackets completely encircling the valves, so that there is no danger of the valves sticking or breaking from overheating. The inside of the head is carefully machined to insure equal compression. Two plugs are carried in the head, a Bosch magneto firing both at the same time, insuring increased power over the single system.

Particular attention is called to the strength and rigidity of the cylinder and head assembly mounting on the crank case, the five steel rods brought from inside the crank case and passing through the heads, to which they are securely bolted. Copper asbestos gaskets

placed between head and cylinder provide an] easy means of assembling and an absolutely] tight joint.

Crank cases are of the best aluminum alloy! hand scraped both inside and out, and hanJ polished on the outside. The bottom oil casJ is removable, so that main bearings, etc., majl be easily inspected. A large capacity oil pumJ is cast integral with lower case, providing enough oil for a run of seven hours.

The crank shaft is hand forged from onJ piece of special heat treated steel, machineJ and ground to size, and accurately balanced! It is supported on five bearings of unusually large diameter. The cam shaft gear is driveii by a gear, formed integral with crank shafll All main bearings of Win. Cramp's whitl metal. Main bearing caps are of aluminunl alloy with heavy steel strap supporting samel

Cam shaft is of heavy, seamless steel tub! ing, supported on five bearings. Cams of mal chine steel, hardened and accurately grounJ to size and doubly pinned on cam shaft. I

Large 2l/2 inch nickel-steel valves are placed] directly in cylinder heads, no valve cages usedl which allows of simplicity in design, the head] being easily removed, and equal compression in all cylinders.

All connecting rods are of I beam construe! tion, made of special carbon steel, drop forged! and heat treated, which develops great stiff-] ness, and prevents crystallization. * They ara bored and reamed on special machine tooll made for this one purpose, which absolutely insures correct centers and alignment. Thl connecting rod caps are held in place by spe! cial nickel-steel bolts, properly secured bw locking device.

The oiling system is a combination force! feed and splash, with constant level. Tha oil is circulated by means of a gear pump] which forces the oil in equal amounts to tha different individual compartments in which] the connecting rods dip, and an absoluteljl constant level is maintained at any motor speed!

Liberal allowance is made in cylinder jacket! space, in the size of water pipes and all con-| nections, to allow of perfect cooling of the! motor under most severe conditions. A large] capacity centrifugal pump is used in connect tion. Connection between the cylinder andl head is made with pipe by-pass, preventing any danger of water leak into cylinder.

The 8o and ioo Crank Cases

Tublijhed Monthly by Aeronauttcj Trejj

122 E. 25th ST., NEW YORK Cable: Aeronautic. New York 'Phone, 9122 Madison Sq. ERNEST L. JONES. Pres'i — - THOMAS C. WATKINS, Treas'r-Sec'y ERNEST L. JONES, Edilor — M. B. SELLERS, Technical Editor HARRY SCHULTZ, Model Edilor SUBSCRIPTION RATES

Umted States, S3.00 Foreign, $3 50

No. 71___JULY, 1913_Vol. XIII, No. 1

Entered as second-class mailer September 22, 1908, al ihe Posloffice, New York, under the Act of March 3, 1879.

<J AERONAUTICS is issued on the 30th of each Month. All copy must be received by the 20th. Advertising pages close on the 25th.

«J Make all checks or money orders free of exchange and payable to AERONAUTICS. Do not send currency. No foreign stamps accepted.

cylero cTWart

RATES: 15 cents a line, 7 words to the line. Payment in advance.

80 II. P. motor. Full equipment of exhibition extras. Everything in good mechanical condition; $3,200 cash will buy it. Act quick. K. care of AERONAUTICS.

MOTORS FOR SALE

ENGINE FOR SALE—S-cyl. "V," list price, $1,500; new, never used. The one who buys this motor gets one of those few real bargains that isn't picked up every day. Thoroughly tested by maker who desires to sell the last one in his shop. Complete with propeller, $800. Address, "Eight Cylinder," care of AERONAUTICS, 122 E. 25th St., New York.

BARGAIN—50 H. P. Gnome; also 50 H. P. An-zani. Both guaranteed in excellent condition. Will sell cheap owing to death of aviator. Address, Rose, AERONAUTICS.

MISCELLANEOUS

WISE—One copy of the rare book by John Wise, A System of Aeronautics, for sale to first coiner at $10. First-class condition. This book is getting more rare every day. Address Sheahan, care of AERONAUTICS, 122 E. 25th St., New York.

BACK NUMBERS OF AERONAUTICS WANTED —Volume one, number five; volume two. number two; volume three, numbers two and four; volume four, numbers four, five and six; volume six, number one. Address Arvis Roach. 401 Cedar St., San Antonio, Tex.

AEROPLANES

SACRIFICE—A Curtiss type biplane, flown by one of America's most famous aviators, with 8 cyl. Hall-Scott 60 H. P. motor, all in Al condition, for $1,800 cash, subject to demonstration to bonafide purchaser. Shipping boxes, propeller, crates, completely equipped for the road. Free instruction in flight to purchaser at well-known flying field. The best bargain of the season. Opportunity knocks but once at every man's door. Address "Sacrifice," care of AERONAUTICS, 122 E. 25th St., New York.

HYDROAEROPLANES, AEROPLANES, MOTORS—30, 50, 75 H. P. Great Bargains. Demonstrations. Fatterson, A986 Trumbull, Detroit,—July.

WANTED ENPLOYMENT—Young man, 25 years old. no bad habits, engine expert, designed and built machine for past 5 years, also considerable work in gas engine designing, wants position with firm or individual in aeronautical work. Herbert Kellogg, Kewanee, 111.

MERCHANDISE WANTED

FOR SALE—Tractor biplane. Good exhibition machine. Tent, extra parts, crates, $400. Eight cylinder 60 H. P. motor, Bosch magneto, Schebler carburetor, radiators, gas tank, two propellers, fully guaranteed, $800. F. Robinson, 59 Glasgow St., Rochester, N. Y.

BARGAIN— 30 foot Curtiss type biplane, with 5 foot extensions, chord 5ft., single surfaced, laminated ribs, dble. surf, elevator, 4-cyl. 50-60 H. P., new. Engine turns 6 by 5 propeller at 1,500. Also extra 7 ft. propeller. Engine alone cost $1.600. Can be seen any time. Must be seen to be appreciated. $850 whole outfit. Address W. B. R., care of AERONAUTICS, 122 E. 25th St., New York.

FOR SALE—My 38 ft. double surfaced mono., weight 750 lbs. Exceptionally well built of best materials, 8 foot 2 inch propeller. Simple control (see November, 1912. AERONAUTICS). Machine now powered by 4-cyl. 30 H. P. Boulevard engine, which is light. Am unable to finance further. Complete machine, tools, etc., for first $1,000. Will sell power plant separate including engine, complete ignition system, special designed 18 lb. radiator for $150. Herbert Kellogg, Kewanee, 111.

IMMEDIATE SALE NECESSARY! One Model "D" genuine Curtiss aeroplane with hydro attachment, equipped with brand new Model "O" Curtiss

WANTED—A 60 or 70 H. P. aero motor. Must be water cooled, with radiator, magneto, propeller, all complete. Price not over $500. Hall-Scott preferred. Address Motor, care of AERONAUTICS, 122 East 25th St.. New York.

BOLAND AEROPLANE AND MOTOR COMPANY

THE BOLAND MOTOR

S cyl. " V " type 60 HP. 240 pounds.

RELIABILITY DURABILITY

MAXIMUM POWER. MINIMUM WEIGHT.

THE BOLAND TAILLESS BIPLANE

equipped with the Roland Control (two movements) and BOLAND MOTOR.

THE BOLAND CONTROL is the embodiment of utmost safety and simplicity in a new system of control which is basic in principle. Write for particulars.

Factory : Ft. Center St., Newark, N. J.

Office: 1821 BROADWAY, NEW YORK.

A special designed 2 inch carburetor is furnished which is adjustable from the aviator's seat.

With the exception of crank cases, cylinder heads, water and oil pumps, etc., all parts are fully nickel plated.

This motor is claimed to actually develop 120 brake test at 1,500 R. P. M. "Rating its propeller thrust test, as most aviation engines are rated, it actually delivers 175 H. P. at 1,500 revolutions," the manufacturer states.

The Hall-Scott Motor Car Company rate this motor by brake test at 1,500 R. P. M. "During a recent four-day test, this new type motor never failed to register under 120 brake test horsepower at 1,500 R. P. M. Taking the horsepower by propeller thrust, or wind horsepower, it actually registered 170 H. P. at the same speed."

In placing such a motor before the public, this company believe they have come as near as possible to perfecting a motor that will run as long and constantly as a slow speed stationary engine. This is due to the fact that special care has been taken in the cooling system as well as the large bearing surface to the crank shaft, connecting rod, and cam shaft bearings.--THE Bl LLINGSLEY ACCIDENT

Some conclusions have been arrived at by Captain W. Irving Chambers from the fatal accident to Ensign Billingsley, all the details of which were fully known. It shows: (1) the advantages of sticking to the machine, especially in flights over water; (2) that safety straps should be used invariably; (3) the necessity for wearing a life saving coat or equally effective device in flights over water; (4) the desirability of a standard control—this has now been systematically decided for the navy.

No fault has been attached to the machine which had been fully examined and parts thereof tested. It was a Wright with Curtiss 8-cyl. engine and Curtiss pontoon with wing tip balancing floats. The machine was extra strengthened, which, no doubt, prevented its collapse during the fall.

The illustration shows this machine the navy's B2. Note flotation and freeboard. Lieut. Ensign Herbster was particularly pleased with the pontoon and engine, and used it in his altitude flight.

HEAT AND COLD RETAINING BOTTLES

We have been advised that the new Icy-Hot Bottle for keeping things hot or cold has been so improved that it will withstand the ordinary jars and jolts of setting down too hard or even dropping. This great stride in the manufacture of these bottles means a great deal to sportsmen as they are unable at all times to give things their proper care. They

are absolutely guaranteed to keep hot liquids hot 24 hours or cold liquids cold 3 days. The Icy-Hot is the same double glass bottle vacuum principle, discovered by James Dewar in 1892, but through ingeniously inserted shock absorbers it has been commercialized to the extent that it is now considered a necessity, and is as simple as a child's toy. The Icy-Hot Bottle Company is located in Cincinnati, Ohio.

The Navy's B-2

A E RON A UTICS

Page 23

July, 1913

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Used by The Curtiss Aeroplane Co., The Wright Co., Burgess Company & Curtis, Glenn L. Martin Co., Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co., Benoist Aircraft Co., and by Lincoln Beachey, Walter Johnson, and other prominent manufacturers and aviators.

GOODYEAR AEROPLANE TIRES SINGLE TUBE, ALSO NO-RIM-CUT AND CLINCHER DOUBLE TUBE

The bigger the tires the better the service. Large tires means greater cushioning effect and greater strength to sustain the strain of landing. So we recommend and build large tires. Let us tell you more about Goodyear Aeroplane tires and the famous aviators who use them.

Besides Aeroplane fabric and tires we also make Aeroplane Springs, Shock Absorbers, and other accessories.

BALLOON HEADQUARTERS

We are the American headquarters for Balloons. We build balloons complete, guaranteeing them fully in every respect. The best principles of Foreign and Domestic Balloon building combined in Goodyear.

Write us for full particulars.

Consult With Us Iti

we can effect a SAVING.

into your confidence. Tell us your particular em. Perhaps we can help you solve it. We know Let us send descriptive booklet. Write TONIGHT.

The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Akron, Ohio

Branches and Agencies in 103 Principal Cities

We Make All Kinds of Rubber Tires, Tire Accessories and Repair Outfits MAIN CANADIAN OFFICE, Toronto, Ont. CANADIAN FACTORY, Bowmanville, Ont.

SIMPLE STRUT SOCKET

The strut socket used by the Thomas Brothers is very simple, makes possible the removal of struts without loosening or detaching any wires or cables, nuts or bolts, or else.

A heavy cotter pin keeps the strut in its place in the socket. The angle of the casting is figured out so that these sockets may be used for either front or rear struts by simply turning them end for end. The casting is of aluminum.

BENOIST'S CHAIN DRIVE

The illustration shows the chain drive of the Benoist flying boat. Since the photo was taken, Shelby tubing chain guards are used. The engine is cranked by inserting a lever in a ratchet at the forward end of the propeller shaft, the operator standing up in the front by the seat. The chain is standard Diamond i% inch roller, i inch pitch. Both engine and propeller sprockets have i8 teeth. The propeller shaft is wired in with Roebling cable with spoke nipple turnbuckles.

The engine shaft and propeller shaft is separated by a distance rod which is adjustable, this distance rod, of course, carrying one-half inch "two in one" New Departure ball bearings at each end.

The forward end of the propeller shaft is also carried in a ball bearing, and the four thrust wires originally used to take up the thrust of the propeller, have since been changed to two upper thrust wires, but the two lower ones have been replaced by two spruce thrust members extending from the bearing housing at the rear end of the propeller shaft anchored down at the lower end of the front engine struts.

Newspapermen usually re-write their stolen dope but an aeronautical weekly in this country takes the whole thing bodily from advance sheets of AERONAUTICS and prints it as an important piece of A. W.'s own news.

Benoist Chain Drive BLERIOT CAN NOW LAND ON VESSELS

According to cabled reports, Louis Bleriot has devised a scheme by which aeroplanes may take flight from steel ropes stretched over the deck of a vessel, and land upon the same. It is said that successful trials have been made of the device.

Leo Stevens may be very careful in counting out the aviator's share of the money; indeed, he is over careful. Sometimes he figures out there's nothing coming to Stevens at all when the aviator gets his.

BOLAND AEROPLANE AND MOTOR COMPANY

Factory: CENTER STREET, NEWARK, N. J. Office: 1821 Broadway, New York City

VLT A KîTCn at once AVIATOR who will YY All 1 LaU FLY at Exhibitions ::

One-half Interest in this Company is offered for sale by the administrator of the Frank E. Boland Estate.

Address: CHARLES W. FOLEY

7 White Terrace, Newark, N. J.

Only the best methods and the best equipment will insure you satisfaction

The

Sloane School

provides these ASK OUR PUPILS

AEROPLANES, MOTORS and ACCESSORIES

Manufactured and Sold

Agents for

Deperdussin Caudron Anzani Gnome Renault Clerget Le Rhone

"FIXATOR" METAL FITTINGS

WE SELL NOTHING BUT THE BEST

SLOANE AEROPLANE CO.

MAIN OFFICE, 1733 BROADWAY, NEW YORK

'Phone Columbus 5421

I C. & A. Wittemann

T AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERS

Manufacturers of

Biplanes

Monoplanes

Hydro-Aeroplanes

Gliders Propellers Parts |

+

J Special Machines and Parts Built 1

+ to Specifications A

f +

+ +

•fi Laree stock of Steel Fittings, Laminated Riba, .{. <f and Struts of all sizes carried in stock. + Hall-Scott Motors, 40-60-80 II. P.

t FLYING AND |

j TRAINING GROUNDS |

T —-_--,--- +

+ - +

T Works: Ocean Terrace and Little Clove Road

X STATEN ISLAND, NEW YORK CITY +

T +

+ Established 1906 Tel. 717 Tornpkinsville +

(REG. U. S. PAT. off.)

AERONAUTICAL MOTORS IN GOVERNMENT SERVICE

The motor mentioned in the following clipping from a Washington paper is one of the several muffled STURTEVANT motors in daily operation at the Army and Navy Aviation camps.

Army Officers in Southern Camps Making Rec#ls. Four Mew Det

Notice has been recei\jjfa- at the War Department of several .important flights made by the army avlajprs at their southern winter camps. Lffeut. Thomas Milling-, In what Is knrjRn as the Burgess tractor, with Lieut.isSherman as passenger, flew from Gaiylston to Houston and returned, a total d/stance of ninety miles, in about an hour^and a half. He circjed the city of Houafon in the course of the flight and rfei^sed^. through two rain storms. %

Lieut. "HaTTy Graham, with Lieut. Call as passenger, flew over approximately the same course in the Burgess machine equipped with a Sturtevant motor. They covered a distance ol about eigTfEy miles and passed through one "rainstorm in the course of the flight.

Lieut. Klr-tland, with Sergf. Idzarik ¿9 passenger, started over the same course but after covering about forty-five miles was compelled to stop on account of the rain.

SEND FOR CATALOG No. 2002

B. F. STURTEVANT CO.

Hyde Park,

Boston, Mass.

And all principal cities of the world

MODEL NOTES

tut*

Obst Hydro

By HARRY SCHULTZ

The hydroaeroplane model herein shown and described was constructed by Mr. Charles V. Obst, of Cypress Hills, Long Island. Mr. Obst was lately elected president of the Long Island Model Aero Club and it may be well stated that he is very capable of filling that office. Mr. Obst is one of the neatest constructors of model aeroplanes in America today, and all his models are original with him, and are worked out on a scientific basis.

The model shown in the accompanying drawing holds the world's record for single propeller hydros, having made a duration of 30 seconds; and, in fact, is the first successful single propeller hydro model in the world, with the possible exception of the Bragg Smith model of England.

The fuselage consists of a single stick of balsa wood, one-half inch square at the middle, tapering to one-half by one-quarter of an inch at the ends. The stick is 40 inches long and is made of two pieces of wood y2 inch by l/\ inch laminated together for strength. A small pine plug is fitted to the front of the stick as shown at "A" to protect the same, as balsa

wood is very soft. The bearing for the pro-I peller is placed on the rear end of the sticW as shown, and the stick is given a coat om shellac.

The planes are constructed of bamboo, thel main plane having a span of 23^4 inches, thel chord at the center being 4 inches and at thm tips 2 inches; area 69 square inches. Thm elevator has a span of 12 inches and a chorcl of 3 inches at the center. The main planJ has a dihedral angle of 150 degrees, and irl the center of the same a slot is left for thel center stick to fit in. Both planes are cov-l ered on the under side with silk fibre papeil treated with Ambroid.

The propeller is nine inches in diametej and has a pitch of 11^2 inches. The width of the blade is ii% inches. The propeller re-1 volves at 1,160 R. P. M., gives a thrust of 3% ounces and is driven by 18 strands of Y% inch flat rubber, the rubber being carriecl above the single stick.

The pontoons are constructed of 32 incrl spruce and are covered with double thick-1 ness of silk fibre paper coated with Ambroidl

3=

III Ift'SS /?

SI

OBST HYDRO.

< BENOIST «r

PLANES hold the followiug records:

world's lon$ distance hydro record with one passenger. world's lon$ distance hydro record with two passengers. ameiican endurance record, aviator and three passengers. have more world's records than all other m'f'rs combined. the first successful tractor biplane built in america.

Records indicate superior efficiency. Why not get an efficient machine •while vou are about it?

BENOIST AIR CRAFT CO.

6628 DELMAR BLVD. ST. LOUIS, MO.

50 H.P.

160 POUNDS

GYRO MOTOR

80 H.P.

207 POUNDS

Endurance Record to Date 4 hrs., 23 min.

built of nickel steel and vanadium steel throughout

From the

"MOTORWAGEN"

of Nov. 20, 1912

In the testing establishment of Dr. Bendemannat Adleishof (neai Berlin), a 7-cylinder Gvro Motor was recently tested. In a 5-hour endurance run and at 1,000 R. P.M., an average of 45.7 H. P. was obtained. The fuel consumed was 14.7 kg. gasoline per hour and 3.06 kg. lubricating oil, which is more favorable than the Gnome motor of the same horse-power. The weight o'" the motor was 73 kg.

Send for Catalog

THE GYR0 MOTOR COMPANY, 774 Girard Street, Washington, D. C.

MAGXALIUM

lti 1-21 l1gi1tkr, 1w stkon'gkk

and over ten tim ics as tough as tiik 1? r«t aluminum castings. wbigiis (i.ne-thihd aw much as ikon. : : : : 1

for cylindkks, ims tons, crank casks, socivkts am) otiikr ahuoplank fittings

G. A. CRAYEN cS* CO.

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morris r. m.vclior.

BUILD YOUR OWN

Over 100 complete drawings. Scale 1" to foot: some full size

prints 28"x36" only complete prints ever sold

aeronautics. 122 east 25lh st.. new york

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uvvll 1 jou arp interested in a reliable, efficient jnd economical power plant. t hat is the only kind we build. four sizes. Reasonable Prices

kemp machine works

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15

The main or front pontoons each measure 7^4 inches in length, 1J/2 inches in width and J/2 inch in depth, and are divided up in five airtight compartments, these compartments being constructed or formed by double thicknesses of silk fibre fastened across from upper to lower braces. The rear pontoon measures 3)4 inches in length, 1^2 inches in width and y2 inch in depth, and is divided into two airtight compartments in the same manner as the main pontoons.

The main pontoons are fastened to the frame by rubber bands, are held 6^2 inches below the main stick by diagonal bamboo braces as shown at an angle of 10 degrees to the water level. The rear pontoon is placed at the extreme rear, extending under the propeller and is fastened to the main stick by two upright bamboo sticks as shown.

The model rises in 4 or 5 feet, flies at an altitude of 30 or 40 feet and is a fast, steady flyer. Complete and ready for flight, it weighs 4^2 ounces.

MODEL NOTES BY HARRY SCHULTZ

In the first interclub contest in America which was held a few weeks ago at Ralph and Church Avenues, Brooklyn, N. Y., the following clubs entered: N. Y. Model Aero Club, Long Island Model Aero Club. Bay Ridge Model Aero Club and Summit Model Aero Club. Owing to the inclement weather and many other obstacles the Summit and New York clubs became discouraged and fell out of the race, leaving the contest to be bitterly fought out between the Long Island and Bay Ridge clubs.

The following are the results of the contests, it being seen that the Bay Ridge club

is the winner, it having 94.41 points to 93.02 points of the Long Island Model Aero Club.

   

L. I.

Bay Rie

   

Points

Points

Distance

from hand

... .20

14-53

Duration,

hand ......

... 20

19.88

 

ground . .

.... 19.38

20

Distance

 

. . . .14.89

20

Duration,

water .....

.... 18.75

20

The cup for which the above contests were held, was kindly offered by Mr. Francis A. Collins of New York.

In order that all records for model flying may be held by America it has been decided to hold an interclub tractor contest, the record for tractors now being held by England. All persons interested kindly communicate with Mr. Edward Durant, Aeronautical Bureau. World Bldg., New York City.

Great interest has been aroused among the model enthusiasts by a contest to be held shortly, known as the Scientific Contest. The models must weigh 8 ounces without the rubber, and must be a scale model or a prototype of a full size machine. In order that models mav be studied from a more scientific point of view and that the so-called "flying stick" may be done away with, a club to be known as the Scientific Model Aero Club is now in the process of formation. The meeting will be held in the board room of the World Building. All persons interested in this branch of model aeronautics should communicate with Mr. Edward A. Durant for particulars regarding the club.

Model flying contests are held every Sunday afternoon at the field of the Long Island Model Aero Club, Old Mill Park, Crescent Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y.

NEW WORLD DISTANCE RECORD

The world's model distance was broken June 14, 1913, at the Cicero Aerodome, by Arthur Nealy, former President of the Illinois Model Aero Club, according to the Aero Club of Illinois of the Windy City. "The distance made was 2,740 feet and duration was 72 seconds. The model was a very fast one and a very good climber as the average altitude was 400 feet. The distance was taken by the officials of the Illinois Model Aero Club. This was the final meet for distance machines and the club is now devoting its time to hydros.

STRAND TWISTING DEVICE

Model flyers will be interested in the device of Montague Palmer, of New York, for winding up rubber power plants. In the device shown in the illustration there are two friction wheels each of which carries an eye consisting of a U-shaped piece of wire secured at its ends in the wheel, thus the wheels with these eyes form twisting heads to which the elastic strands of twin propeller machines are attached. These small wheels are driven in opposite directions by friction from a driving wheel 23, which wheel is retained in engagement with a spring as shown. Proper bearings are provided for these wheels and the shafts. In winding, the two strands of rubber

are secured by their hooks in the eyes 21 and 22 and turning the crank operates the small wheels in opposite directions. When wound the strands are disengaged by removing their hooks one at a time from the eyes. In this

way both strands are wound up the same number of revolutions simultaneously. The patent has been assigned to M. Rosenstein of the Ideal model concern.

A New Wright Flyer

We will present this season a new model, known as Model ''E", designed especially for

EXHIBITION FLYING '

This model will be equipped with either four or six cylinder motor, turning a single propeller. It is so designed that it can be taken down for express shipment and reassembled within a few hours.

The old models, refined, in details, will be continued for use of those who wish to fly for pleasure and sport.

All models mav be equipped with HYDROPLANES.

The Wright School of Aviation

Our School of Aviation will open at Simms Station (Dayton) about April ist with a corps of competent instructors. The school will be under the personal supervision of Mr. Orvi1le Wright. Tuition for a complete course will be $250.00. Enroll now.

THE WRIGHT COMPANY

Dept. "A", Dayton, Ohio

New York Office, - - 11 Pine Street

Hotel Cumberland

NEW YORK Broadway at 54th Street

"Broadway" cars from Grand Central Depot in 10 minutes, also 7th Avenue cars from Pennsylvania Station

Headquarters for A vi 1 tors and Auto-mobilists.

New and Fireproof

Strictly first class. Rates reasonable.

$2,50

With Bath

and up

Send for booklet

Ten Minutes' Walk to Thirty Theatres

H. P. STIMSON

Formerly with Hotel Imperial

*$* *£

t T ATI f\ +

Aeronautical Cloth

NAIAD

AND

Aero Varnish

+ +

t

+

We were the first in the field, + and the test of time is proving + that our product is the best. *

+ Sample Book A-6, Data and Prices on Request J

* 4«

+ hp* r« r* r* 4.

MANUFACTURERS *

101 Franklin Street, New York *

C. E. Conover Co.

AERONA UTICS

Page 30

Jub, 1913

NEW INCORPORATIONS

Shaw Aeroplane Co.. Indianapolis, Ind.. $10,000. The directors of the new company are P>. Russell Shaw, a local aviator; F. Russell Horn, L. L. Boyer, N. V. Boyer and N. E. Carter.

The Thomas Flying Boat in the Lakes Cruise

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS

International Aerial Company, Boston, $50,000; Guiseppe Colucci. Carlo F. Arzillo, Sophia J. Lager.

BUSINESS TROUBLES

Papers have been served in a suit by the City of New York against the defunct Walden-Dyott Co. for the collection of taxes.

DEATH OF KERNS

Thaddeus Kerns, an aviator, 20 years old, was killed at Chico, Cal., July 15. When the wreckage hit the ground the radiator crushed the aviator's head, while other parts of the biplane pierced his body.

At the end of May, for which report is just issued, there remained in warehouse 10 foreign built aeroplanes and parts, valued at $10.084. Perhaps aviators lack the funds to take them out or send them back. Exports for May totaled but 1, at $2.752. No imports and exports of foreign machines.

VILAS CROSSES LAKE MICHIGAN

On July 1st, Logan A. Villas, in his new Curtiss flying boat, flew across Lake Michigan, from St. Joseph, Mich., to Chicago, 111., a distance of 64 miles in one hour and ten minutes. The start was made from St. Joseph at 4.15 P. M.. with William Bastar of Benton Harbor, as passenger. The flight was made at an average height of 3.000 feet. _ This was the first aeroplane flight across Lake Michigan. Details of the Vilas boat appeared in the last issue.

"Page 3 1

MORE POWER PER CUBIC INCH OF PISTON DISPLACEMENT THAN ANY

OTHER rYPE MOTOR EVER BUILT

IT

WILL PAY YOU WELL TO INVESTIGATE OUR NEW OVERHEAD VALVE MOTORS

WRITE FOR CATALOG

EARL V. FRITTS who gained his pilot license with a Thomas Biplane, equipped with a 60-70 h.p. MAXIMOTOR

Vlaximotor Makers, Detroit, Mich. Bath, N. Y., Feb. 5, 1913.

Dear Sirs:—Wish to inform you that I have today successfully filled the requirements in a number of flights to qualify for my pilot license. The MAXIMOTOR itood with me right through to the end and no other motor on the field has anything )n your new product. I wish you the most of success during this coming season.

Sincerely, EARL V. FRITTS.

Maximotor Makers

DETROIT

No. 1528 East Jefferson

Airmen Should Be Interested In Photography

THE PHOTOGRAPHIC TIMES

Has long been regarded as the standard American Authority on photographic matters.

Each number has forfy pages of interesting photographic text, printed on fine paper from good tvpe, and illustrated with many attractive half tones.

The cover for each month is printed in varying colors, and is ornamented with a different and pleasing photograph.

The valuable and authoritative formulae furnished throughout the year are alone worth the priee asked for subscription.

ONE DOLLAR FIFTY A YEAR SUBSCRIBE NOW FIFTEEN CENTS A COPY

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THE PHOTOGRAPHIC TIMES PUBLISHING ASSOCIATION

135 West 14th Street, : : : New York

Some of the other regular features are

Articles on practical and timely photographic topics.

Illustrations showing examples of the work of the best American and foreign pictorialists.

Foreign Digest.

Camera club happenings, exhibitions, and photographers' association notes. Items of Interest.

A department devoted to "Discoveries."

Reviews of the new photographic books.

Description of the latest novelties and specialties brought out by dealers and manufacturers.

Page 32

NATIONAL BALLOON RACE

The national championship balloon race from Kansas City, July 4, to decide this year's championship and to select the team of three to represent America in the international race from Paris this Fall, was won by the balloon "Goodyear," R. H. Upson, pilot, and R. A. U. Preston, aide. The balloon was built by the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co., and both the aeronauts are good fellows connected with that company. This balloon made the longest duration in the race, 19 hours 52 minutes.

There were seven entries but only five balloons actually got away from the grounds. Following is a table of the contestants, the first three being now eligible for the .American team:

"Goodyear," R. H. Upson and R. A. D. Preston, to West Branch, Mich., 685 miles.

"Kansas City II," John Watts and Geo. J. Quisen-berg, to Goodrich, Mich., 673 miles.

"Kansas City Post," Capt. H. E. Honevwell and W". C. Gifford, to Rockwood, Mich.. 658 miles. '

"Mill. Population Club," John Perry, Albert Von Hoffman and A. Yon Hoffman, Jr., to Manchester, Mich., 616 miles.

"Overland," Roy F. Donaldson; unplaced, as no reports sent in of landing. If he is going yet there ought to be a new record.

BALLOON ASCENSIONS

Phila., July 1.—Dr. T. E. Eldridge, Dr. Geo. H. Simmerman, Helen Simmerman and Mrs. Chas. Pooley in the "Phila. II" to North Penn.

Phila., July 8.—Rob't. E. Glendenning and A. M. Biddle, Jr., to Ilammonton, N. J.

Kansas City, July 4.—E. S. Cole piloted three young women in the Kansas City III in a 21 mile trip.

Akron, O.. June 22.— R. H. Upson, pilot, and R. A. D. Preston, both of the Goodvear Tire & Rubber Co., in the "Goodvear" at 10:05 P. M.

NEW PILOTS

Following are the new pilots certificated, with date and place of trials:

239. Henry K. Crowell (Wright copy with Gyro motor). College Park, June 6.

240. E. Wm. Steele (Curtiss), Los Angeles, Tune 15.

241. Lt. C. G. Chapman (Wright). Manila, Mav 13.

242. Lt. Herbert Dargue (Wright), Manila, May 2.

243. Lt. Clyde P. Rich (Wright), Manila, May 5.

244. Tomoshige Ikuhara (Curtiss) San Diego, June 28.

245. Alfred F. Lym (Curtiss), San Diego, Tune 30.

246. Tohn A. P.ixler (Wright), Davton, Tu'ly 2.

247. "Bernard L. Whelan (Wright), Dayton, July 10.

248. A. A. Bressman (Wright), Davton, Tuly 14. 249 Tos. A. Ritchie (Curtiss), San Diego, June 28.

GROVER BELL

Petaluma, Cal., July 6—In trying to avert a collision with a frightened horse which dashed across the field as Grover Bell was finishing a glide resulted in his death. Bell threw his machine over too far and came down head foremost. He died next day from a fractured skull.

DEATH OF LIEUT. CALL

Houston, Tex., July 8—Lieut. Loren H. Call. U. S. Signal Corps, was killed on this day in an army aeroB plane near the aviation camp at Texas City.

The Board of Officers appointed by Gen. Carter t<I investigate and report on the circumstances connected! with the death of Lieut. Loren H. Call, C. A. C.J reported the accident to have' occurred as follows!

Lieut. Call left the aviation field in a type (1 Wright aeroplane at 6.21 a. m., July 8, 1913. Hel climbed till he attained an altitude of about 800l or 1,000 feet. He was flying towards some smoothl ground at a different part of the camp in order to take some tests to qualify as "Military AviatorJ While flying at this altitude it appears that one win* dropped but the machine was brought to the level immediately. A very short time afterward the lefi wing dropped very much so that the machine madfl an angle of about 45 degrees in the air. Lieut. Call evidently attempted to straighten out the machine by making a turn to the left and pointing the nose ol the machine down, for at this time the machine tooll a very steep angle downward. From that time on thia angle gradually increased until the aeroplane came] down towards the earth perpendicularly. At about] 200 or 300 feet from the ground the plane began tol turn upside down and during that turn the wingl collapsed and the machine dropped to the ground. I

It appears that the machine hesitated a moment! as it began to turn upside down at the end of thJ drop during which time Lieut. Call climbed out onl one wing, evidently with the intention of straight! ening out the machine as that wing was a trifll higher than the other one. However, when the mal chine hit the ground the wing to which Lieut. Call was hanging struck the ground first.

There is no evidence to show that the machine wal broken in any parts until it began to turn upside dowrl at the end of the drop. However, at the time the] machine made this turn it apparently collapsed.

The board further called attention to the fact thai the testimony of the eye witnesses of the accidenl shows that Lieut. Call preserved his possession to thJ last moment and did all in his power to right his plane.

ROBINSON APPRECIATES NAIAD CLOTH

Hugh Robinson, of the Benoist Aircraft Co., writes the C. E. Conover Co.: "After using your Naiad aerol nautical cloth for several years I wish to say that I find it entirely satisfactory in every particular. I] find it particularly well adapted to hydroaeroplanes as it is not affected by the action of either salt oi] fresh water."

At the Burgess works the editor noted the fine wingl finish produced by the Conover "dope" which is now] used in preference to the already prepared fabric] This varnish is put on with a brush after the cloth] is stretched and tacked, making it water, weather] and fireproof.

GREAT LAKES FLYING BOAT CRUISE

Flying about 885 miles, from Chicago to Detroit, in less than fifteen hours flying time, the only one out of five starters to finish the course, J. B. Yer-planck's Curtiss flying boat, with Beckwith Havens as pilot, won the cruise, though one day late according to the schedule. Mr. Verplanck was a passenger throughout the trip. The trip started July 8 and finished July 18.

The starters were: Antony Jannus in the Benoist machine, Walter Johnson in the Thomas, Glenn L. Martin in the Martin Tractor, and Roy N. Francis in the l'aterson-Francis. Owing to an accident Martin had to delay the start until Friday, July 11.

The details of the race, day by day, are as follows:

Tuesday, July 8.—Jannus started with Paul Mc-Cullough from Grant Park, Chicago, with Havens close on his heels in advance of a big storm. Jannus and McCullough, his passenger, flew as far as Gary, Ind. The propeller was broken off at Gary and they started to piddle seven miles to shore. A gale

struck them and completely wrecked the machine and the boys were rescued by a tug. The machine has never been found. The race was abandoned by Jannus at this point.

Havens reached Michigan City and made the approximately 50 miles in 50 minutes, actual flying time. He made but one stop and this was to offerl assistance to Jannus.

Johnson started third, without a passenger, but got to land before the storm broke at Robertsdale, Ind., just outside of Chicago. Francis did not start until the following day on account of the high wind.

Walter Johnson abandoned the race here on the 12th after an unsuccessful attempt to get a start from Robertsdale, Ind., where he had been delayed. John-' son launched his craft and started the engine. Heading into the face of the sun, he failed to notice a piece of wreckage which punctured two of the watertight compartments; he had no facilities for making the necessary repairs.

4 E RON A UT IC S

"Page 33

July, 1913

PAT E NTS SECURED OR fee returned

•J"

Send sketch or model for FREE Search of Patent Office records. Write for our Guide Books + and What to Invent with valuable List of Inventions Wanted sent Free. Send for our J special list of prizes offered for Aeroplanes.

$600,000 OFFERED IN PRIZES FOR AIRSHIPS J

We are Experts in Aeronautics and have a special Aeronautical Department. Copies of T patents in Airships, 10 cents each. Improvements in Airships should be protected without delay 4. as this is a very active field of invention and is being rapidly developed. +

VICTOR J. EVANS & COMPANY !

Main Offices - 724-726 NINTH ST., N. W. - WASHINGTON, D. C. J

P ATE NT sPATENTS

C. L. PARKER

Ex-member Examining Corps, U. S. PalenI Offiee Attorney-at-Law and Solicitor of Patents American and foreign patents secured promptly and with special regard to the complete legal protection of the invention. Handbook for inventors sent upon request. 30 McGill Bide. WASHINGTON, D. C.

HONEST ADVICE AND REAL PATENTS

Patents and patent causes. Specialist in Aeroplanes and Ga-i Engines.

JOHN O. SEIFERT 50 Church Street New York, N.Y.

A T E N T S

AEROPLANES and FLYING BOATS

That Won't Tip Over-

CHARLES H. BURLEIGH, South Berwyck, Me.

Ideal" Plans and Drawings

are accurate and areaccompanied by clear, concise building instructions, postpaid at the following prices: Wright 3-ft. Biplane, 25c. ' Bleriot 3-ft. Monoplane, 15c. "Cecil Peoli" Champion Racer, 25c. Curtiss Convertible Hydroaeroplane (new), 35c. Nieuport 3-ft. Monoplane, 25c.

COMPLETE SET OF FIVE, . . . $1.00 Postpaid Send for iur ne\v4.i-pp."Ideal 'Mode/ aeroplane supply catalog, fully illustrated. 5c. brings it (None free) IDEAL AEROPLANE & SUPPLY CO., 82a West Broadway, New York

Special grades of Bamboo for Aeronautic Work. Reed, Rattan and Split Bamboo for models. Tonka Rattan or Skids lJ4 diameter and under any length.

J. DELTOUR, Inc.

804-810 Jefferson St. Hoboken, N. J.

DUCK for AEROPLANES

Samples and prices on request

JOHN BOYLE t> CO., Inc.

112 Duane Street,

New York City

HYDRO - AEROPLANES

Port Jefferson ::

READY FOR POWER

— WILSON-

New York

PEDERSEN OIL PUMPS

have positive action, are small and light, easily applied to any motor

———- Write for circular ""~~~"~—~~"~—

JOURNAL OF THE UNITED STAT ES ARTILLERY

A bi-monthly magazine of artillery and other matter relating to coast defense.

Published under the supervision of the School Board, Coast Artillery School, Fort Monroe, Virginia.

$2.50 a year. With Index to Current Military Literature, $2.75.

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Builders should have our catalogue, describing 750 parts and fittings, for reterence.

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Cordeaux - Etter Mfg. Corporation'

(formerly New York Aeronautical Supply Co.) (OJ

11, 13, 15 McKibben St., Brooklyn, N. Y.

Marshall Earl Reid's Curtiss Flying Boat as it struck, nose first, on the marsh back of Wildwood. Whenl Reid struck the " hole in the air" which wrecked his boat he started to glide to a lagoon, but the flying boaB came down within 14 feet of the water's edge and safety. The planes were smashed, but the boat did nol receive so much as a scratch. The boat will be repaired.

Wednesday, July 9.—Havens flew from Michigan City to South Haven for more gasoline. He finally flew into the harbor at Macatawa by dark.

Hot in pursuit of Havens, Roy M. Francis, with Irving in the passenger's seat, started from Chicago and flew to Michigan City. After taking on a fresh supply of gas he left Michigan City for Macatawa Bay, expecting to overtake Havens. It was nearly 7 p. m. when Francis made an attempt to start for Macatawa but ran into a log and he was forced to put back to shore for the night.

Johnson stayed ashore at Robertsdale.

Thursday, July 10.—None of the contestants made an attempt to proceed, owing to the high winds.

Friday, July 11.—Francis left South Haven and flew over the land to Macatawa, alighting on the water there at 7.15 a. m. and was under way again an hour later, flying to Pentwater, 236 miles from Chicago.

Havens and Yerplanck flew from Macatawa to Pentwater, a distance of 74 miles in a headwind.

Glenn L. Martin, the last of the contestants to start, sailed away from Chicago at 7.30 a. m. He set out to catch up with the leaders and registered the record day's mileage thus far, a distance of 162 miles. He flew the distance from Chicago to the first control, Michigan City in 40 minutes, a distance of SO miles. He stopped at Michigan City for one hour, and was off again. After stopping at the Macatawa control, 84 miles away, Martin, with Charles Day, as passenger headed for Manistee. A thumbscrew worked loose on his carburetor and dropped off a spring. They glided to the surface of the water at Lake Harbor, near Muskegon, a distance of 162 miles from Chicago.

Saturday, July 12-13.—High winds, rough seas and accidents to machines from the storm, during the night, suspended the race for the day, with the only three flyers, who remain, at the same points where they spent the night.

Monday, July 14.—Havens and Yerplanck started from Pentwater, were checked past Manistee and arrived at Frankfort for gasoline. Starting again from Frankfort they flew to Charlevoix, Mich.

It was reported that Martin left Muskegon and flew to Pentwater within an hour after Havens soared away from the latter town.

Roy Francis made several unsuccessful attempts to leave Pentwater in the afternoon and finally announced that he would pack up his boat and return to Chicago, the referee having disqualified him.

Tuesday, July 15.—(ilenn L. Martin returned to Muskegon, Mich., this afternoon from Pentwater and withdrew from the cruise.

After Francis and Martin had withdrawn from the contest, Havens set out from Charlevoix and passed the checking station at Mackinac Island and landed

at Duncan, near Cheboygan. They were away agai» after lunch and then made the longest non-stop fligrB of the cruise, a distance of 105 miles to Alpina. Therl setting out again at 5.45 they flew to a port neal Point Lookout, landing at 7.35 p. m.

Wednesday, July 16.—Havens flew to Bay Cityl thirty miles away, flying the distance in 40 minutes!

Thursday, July 17.—Owing to the bad weather irl the morning, they did not start until 12.29 p. m.J flying through a storm, which broke while in flightl they reached Port Sanilac, north of Port Huronl where they passed the night.

Friday, July IS.—The aviators left Port SanilacB Mich., flying down to Edison Beach, near Port Huron,] in a heavy wind.

Starting away again at about 2.30 p. m. they com-l pleted the trip from Edison Beach to Detroit, a dis-l tance of 60 miles in 60 minutes.

W. E. Scripps, of Detroit, in a Burgess hydrol aeroplane, met Havens and Yerplanck in Lake Stl Clair and escorted him into the city.

Havens and Yerplanck are considered to have wonl the silver trophy offered by the Aero Club of Michil gan for the best elapsed time between the two citiesl there having been no other contender.

Photos of the Thomas and Martin machines appeal in this issue. Details of the Yilas were in the JunJ number. (See scale drawings in February.) Benoisl boat described in January.

AUTOMOBILES AND AIRCRAFT IN I GERMANY

The automobile industry enjoyed a mosl prosperous year, expansion along all linea surpassing that made during 1911. Foreign trade grew from $14,000,000 in 1911 to $21,1 oco,ooo in 1912, the increase manifesting itseli principally in the exportation of passenger] cars.

The aircraft industry, on the other handl passed through a bad year and remains in a critical condition, owing to overproduction! The army and navy are practically the onbj customers and for various reasons they con-| fine their purchases to as few types as pos-l sible, while new manufacturers, most of theml with little capital, are constantly opening up] shops for the development of new ideas andl unduly increasing the field of production.— Daily Consular Report.

sk Men Who Know

L WHAT THEY THINK OF

1913 ROBERTS MOTORS

Gentlemen: St. Louis, Mo.. July 24, 191 3

We have been using one of your new 1913 6-Cylinder 75-H. P. motors in one of our new flying boats, and would say that

we have found this motor to be exactly what we want for our flying boats without a single qualification.

We were able to carry two passengers beside the aviator in the new Lakes Cruise Boat, and are now working night and day

on another flying boat for one of your motors.

We congratulate you on your success in getting out this last product, and beg to remain

Yours very truly, THE BENOIST AIRCRAFT COMPANY,

Send for our IQIJ Catalog.__ pcr Tom W. Benoist, Mgr.

The ROBERTS MOTOR CO., 1430 Columbus Ave., Sandusky, Ohio

Now Ready

The Airman's Vade=Mecum

"NO. 1," METEOROLOGY

By Colonel H. E. Rawson, C. B.

(Vice-President Royal Meteorological Society; Council Aeronautical Society1

CONTENTS : Introduction and 5 Chapters on Temperature, Pressure,Wind, and Precipitation. Weather Forecasting. Index. {Illustrated) Price 40 Cents Net Post Free

"AERONAUTICS," 3, London Wall Buildings, London Wall, London, E. C.

WIRE

We make an extra high grade plated finish wire for aviators' use.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ADDRESS

John A. Roebling's Sons Co.

TRENTON, N. J.

ALBATROSS ENGINES

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50 H. P. 6-cyl. Air-cooled, 2S£

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ALBATROSS COMPANY

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HAMILTON AERO MFG. CO.

208 30th Avenue Seattle, Wash.

U. S. Patents Gone to Issue

Copies of any of These Patents may be Secured by Sending Five Cents in Coin to the Commissioner of Patents, Washington, D. C.

Even in these enlightened days, the crop of patents on absolutely worthless, or even questionable, devices increases rather than decreases.

It would take an entire issue of the magazine to abstract in a full and clear manner the claims of the majority of the patents issued. In a great many cases it is even impossible to give in a few lines what sort of an apparatus the patent relates to. In most instances we have used merely the word "aeroplane" or "helicopter" if such it is. Where it is impossible to indicate the class, even, in which the patent belongs, without printing the whole patent, we have used the word "flying machine."

The patents starred (*) are those which may be found of particular interest; but it must be understood we do not pretend to pass judgment upon merits or demerits.

Where patent seems to have particular interest, the date of filing will be given.—Editor.

Do not attempt to invent in a field the science and prior art of which are unknown to you—William Macomber.

ISSUED JUNE 17, 1913

1,064,872—David S. Thomas, North Platte, Neb., FLYING MACHINE.

1,065,033;—Frederick William Dufwa, Mexico, Mex., Equilibrium Device, in which a swinging car operates various rudders.

1,065,216—Julius C. Christiansen, New York, N. Y., Universally operating STEERING MECHANISM.

1,065,263—Gustav Mees, Dusseldorf, Germany, STEERING and STABILIZING MECHANISM ; shaft, spokes radiating therefrom, blades rotatable on spokes, outer and inner frame, flexible sheet, etc.

ISSUED JUNE 24, 1913

*I,065.389—Harry A. Orme. Wesley Heights, D. C, LANDING GEAR, of flexible design, in which wheels are capable of swinging outwardly for landing on skids, etc.

1,065,394—William Rabsilber, New York, N. Y., FLYING MACHINE consisting of tubular body, propellers and supporting planes therein.

*1.065,506—Louis Constantin, Paris, France. Reducing the Resistance of a Surface by means of a "screen" of appropriate section less than that of the midship section at an appropriate distance in front of a wing (or vehicle), screen constituted of several inclined walls parallel to each other and separated by vacant spaces, attachments connecting them, and connection of screen (or bow) to wing (or vehicle). See p. 219, June.

1,065,656—Paul Benni. Lublin, Russia, AUTOMATIC MEANS for STEERING and BALANCING. Pendulum and electro-magnetic system.

1,065,739—Ludwig Sommer, Munich, Germany, MAN POWER FLYING MACHINE.

* 1,065,799—Ambroise Goupy, Paris, France, AEROPLANE, in which planes are "stepped" and may be moved forward or backward to the desired angle with relation lo the longitudinal dimension of the frame.

ISSUED JULY 1, 1913

1,066,203—Richard Gilardone, Mutzig, Germany, AEROPLANE TRACK; amusement device.

1,066,346—Ernest Peter Vincent, Oceanic, N. J., AEROPLANE, in which supporting planes rotate.

ISSUED JULY 8. 1913. *1,066,860—Edmund Sparmann. Vienna, Austria-Hungary. Filed Dec. 5, 1910. AUTOMATIC \ STABILIZER, both lateral and longitudinal. Uses gyroscopes whose axes of rotation are vertical but whose axes of oscillation are perpendicular to each other. The claims are too long to abstract here.

066.981—Thomas W. Benoist. St. Louis, Mo. Filed July I, 1912. CURVE changing mechanism in which the camber may be reduced and changed back to normal while in flight or otherwise, in which a third lateral (but sectional) beam is used and apparatus for altering the camber by flattening the ribs.

1,067,086—William Tames Wells and Daniel Lewis, Cananea, Mex., AIRSHIP.

ISSUED JULY 15, 1913

*1,067,271—Lewis Hector Ray, Ottawa, Ontario, Can., CONTROL FOR AEROPLANES; wheel on a column extending through a bell-shaped member, spindle below column with lever for rudder, universal joint connecting column with spindle, etc.

1,067.272—Arthur J. M. Recklin, Bay City, Mich., KITE.

1,067,425—Herbert E. Hawes, New York, N. Y., AEROPLANE.

*1,067,432—Charles Francis Tenkins, Washington, D.r C, AILERON STABILITY and ELEVATING SYSTEM; usual ailerons between outer portions of wings, longitudinal central seat rod arranged to swing vertically and having oppositely projecting lateral arms, a rotary and sliding steering column arranged to actuate said vane in rotating, means whereby sliding said column compels variation in the elevation of the arm-bearing portion of said rod, and wires connecting the arms to the wings and compelling both to move in the direction of the movement of the arms.

1,067,466—Norman Clark and Albert E. Plank, Quincy, 111., SURFACE. An aeroplane having a plane flat top surface and a convex-curved lower surface adjacent to the front edge and extending back beyond the middle of the body of the plane almost to its rear, and reversing into a concave surface adjacent to the rear, substantially as described.

1,067,559—Joseph A. Steinmetz, Philadelphia, Pa., PARACHUTE for an entire aeroplane.

TECHNICAL TALKS

{Continuedfrom page y) from that shown in figure 3 to that shown in figure 4 produced a marked improvement in flying qualities.

This is all very interesting and remarkable; but, until we can see the tabulated data giving Kx and Kv we can not form a definite conclusion as to the actual value of this improvement.

If the thickness of a wing is increased by changing the contour of its upper surface, both the lift and drift are increased. The use of a concave entering edge and the existence of head resistance in a complete aeroplane bring about that the ratio of lift to total horizontal resistance is not greater for a thick wing than for a thin one. Consequently with a wing of variable thickness we obtain an aeroplane of variable speed. This method is safer than changing the cambre of the wing, and simpler than changing the area.

M. B. Sellers.

I FRENCH AEROPLANES

engineers Inventors [viators constructors

TAKE NOTICE!

For all photos, descriptions, data, news, drawings, etc., regarding FRENCH AVIATION, address below:

LEtudes Aeronautiques ALEX. DUMAS, Engineer, E.C.P. 20 Rue Ste. Marie, Neufchateau (Vosges\ France

\ DAMS-FAR WELL

DEVOLVING MOTORS

AVE BEEN IN

r H E ADAMS

'!1 ATHOL STREET,

COMPANY

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—Thomas School

OF AVIATION

OFFERS SUPERIOR ADVANTAGES

( Addresi, Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co. BATH, N. Y.

The Bowden Patent Wire Mechanism

J. S. BRETZ COMPANY

SOLE IMPORTERS 250 WEST 54th ST., NEW YORK

AERONAUTICAL RADIATORS

Built in capacities and types for standard and special aviation motors

Write for prices on standard makes. Send your specifications for special designs

EL ARCO RADIATOR COMPANY

Broadway and 57th St., New York City Also Manufacturers of Automobile Radiators <jf all types

FOR FLYING BOATS USE

JEFFERY'S MARINE GLUE

Use our Waterproof Liquid Glue, or No. 7 Black, White, or Yellow Soft Quality Glue for waterproofing' the canvas covering of flying boats. It not only waterproofs and preserves the canvas but attaches it to the wood, and with a coat of paint once a year will last as long as the boat.

For use in combination with calico or canvas between veneer in diagonal planking, and for waterproofing muslin for wing surfaces.

Send for samples^circu-Iars, directions for use.'etc.

L. W. FERDINAND & CO. 201 South Street Boston, Mass., U.S.A.

CHRISTOFFERSON FLYING BOAT

{Continued from page j6)

inches diameter. The center of the hollow chrome nickel steel propeller shaft is placed 14 inches below the rear main beam. The diameter of the shaft tapers from 2 inches at the propeller and gears to 1 foot 5 inches at the forward end. The radiator is at the rear of the motor and the 20 gallon gasoline and the oil tanks are located in the hull under the motor.

Wing floats are used at extremities of lower plane. These are torpedo shaped in vertical section, oval at front and flattened at the rear.

The control is of the Dep type.

V-Ray Spark-Plugs Never Lay Down

The V-RAY CO. Marshalltown, la.

CHARAVAY PROPELLERS

BETTER THAN EVER

Have you seen our new price list ? Write for it. A price for everybody.

SLOANE AEROPLANE CO., - 1733 BROADWAY, New York City.

Agents: Eamei Tricyle Co., San Francisco; National Aeroplane Co., Chicago.

JERON A UTICS

'Page 38

Jub, 1911

5 :«Stt

Harry Bingham Brown

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Managers of high standing that want something extraordinary will do well to address

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BALDWIN

Vulcanized Proof Material

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"Red Devil" Aeroplanes

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Hall-Scott Motors

Eastern distributor. 40 h. p., 4-cyl.; 60 and 80 h. p., 8-cyl., on exhibition at Wittemann's. All motors guaranteed. Immediate delivery.

Experting

Will install a Hall-Scott free of charge in anyone's aeroplane and demonstrate by expert flyer. Expert advice. 'Planes balanced.

Private Flying Field

Fine private field with smooth water frontage for hydro-aeroplanes. Private sheds and workshop. Located at Oakwood Heights, Staten Island.

CAPTAIN THOMAS S. BALDWIN

Box 78, Madison Sq. P.O. New York

AEROPLANES

JERON AU TICS

"Page 40

July, 1913

EIFFEL

Translated by Lieut. Jerome C. Hunsaker, U.S. Naval Constructor

Resistance of the Air and Aviation IN ENGLISH

Magnificent Quarto Volume, Cloth, 242 pp. 27 LARGE PLATES AND TABLE OF POLAR DIAGRAMS 1913 ENLARGED EDITION

Lieutenant Jerome C. Hunsaker. U.S.N., naval constructor, detailed by the government to superintend the courses in aeronautics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, has made a notable contribution to his subject by translating into English GusUv Eiffels master-work, "The Resistance of the Air and Aviation." The translation includes the record of experiments conducted at the Champ-de-Mars laboratory, and an appendix givinpr a summary of the results, and supplementary chapters containing valuable and impor tant tables and diagrams.

Captain W. IRVING CHAMBERS, of the Bureau of Navigation, says :

"This book, in my opinion, contains the most valuable information on Aviation yet published, and it is very desirable for our American students, designers, manufacturers, aeronautical and engineering associations, clubs, colleges, and libraries, to secure copies in English as soon as possible."

The " SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN " says :

" Eiffel's work makes it possible to calculate a full-sized aeroplane from the data obtained in experiments with a model. In nearly all cases, the full-sized machines thus determined have given the results expected."

Heretofore, this misterly production has only been procurable in French, yet even in the original version it is now extensively used in America for reference. The translation of the text with additional matter is of the greatest importance to every one interested in the scientific study of aviation.

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■ Write for Catalogues =1

upon these power plants and let us figure on your equipl ment if you want the BEST.

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'SSOrJAUi^^^^

CURTISS MOTOR

Verplanck, owner of the boat, said to a Detroit news-n : "No, I'm not specially surprised. My Flying Boat vvhat I bought it to do; what the Curtiss people told me it ; what my experience at their camp led me to think it . So far as the trip was concerned we had no mechanical batever. Much of the credit for our success must be given tiss O-X Motor.

d perfectly."

In a Curtiss Flying Boat, Driven by Two Curtiss Pupils

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raising Contest

If You Fly for Sport or Business You Should Own a Curtiss Motor

RTISS MOTOR COMPANY hamVondspo™," v.

AERONAUTICS

< BENOIST «e

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From the

" MOTOR WAGEN of Nov. 20, 1912 In the testing establishment of Dr. Bendemann at Adlershof (near Berlin), a 7-cylinder Gyro Motor was recently tested. In a 5-hour endurance run and at r.ooo R. P.M., an average of 45.7 H. P. was obtained. The fuel consumed was 14.7 kg. gasoline per hour and 3.06 kg. lubiicat-ing oil, which is more favorable than the Gnome motor of the same horse-power. The weight of the motor was 73 kg.

Send for Catalog

THE GYR0 MOTOR COMPANY, 774 Girard Street, Washington, D. C.

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Paragons Prove Themselves-Endorsed by Highest Authorities

Used on all Navy Machines

American Propeller Co., 249 e. Hamburg St., Baltimore, md.

Burgess Flying Boat

Built for U. S. Navy

HE BURGESS FLYING BOAT

is another record breaker. Built to comply with the strenuous requirements of the U. S. Navy, it fulfilled its test flights and was immediately accepted. Already a number of orders have been placed by sportsmen for similar machines.

Burgess Aeroplanes and Hydro-aeroplanes aie still unexcelled. Motor equipment depends entirely upon the purchaber. We recommend the Sturtevant motor as the most reliable American type.

We have a number of used motors and hydro-planes which we are offering at greatly reduced prices.

Training school patronized by both the Army and Navy, under the direction of Frank Coffyn, is located at Marblehead adjoining the works. Early application is necessary to secure enrollment.

BURGESS COMPANY AND CURTIS, Marblehead, Mass.

JERONA UTICS

August, 191

Are You Absolutely Sure of your Ignition ?

THE achievements of the world's most notable gas engine designers have been made most effective thru their selection of the Bosch Magneto. You are assured perfect ignition when it's Bosch—you take no chances.

Literature sent on request

Bosch Magneto Company

201 W. 46th STREET :: NEW YORK

Developing New Ideas

By GEORGE M. DYOTT

The title of this talk may seem rather dull; nevertheless, I feel sure that a great many of us set about development work in a way that is expensive and non-productive of results. So, if I can lay before you in a clear and concise manner the most logical method of approaching new problems the time may not be altogether wasted.

Time and time again I have witnessed individuals vainly endeavoring to exploit some new ideas, which, at the start, were fundamentally wrong. Had a little thought been brought to bear on the subject at the outset considerable time and money would have been saved.

There is a right way and a wrong way of doing everything in this world and 1 see no reason why aviation should be any exception to this rule. A few years ago, when there was very little authentic information published concerning aeronautics, the only method of procedure was to experiment and collect data upon which to work; but in these days, when the main principles are so well established there is no excuse for ignoring what others have already done in the field.

Before proceeding, I ought to first define just what 1 mean by a right and wrong way. Spending money and learning nothing, or spending time and money proving principles which are already known to be wrong, are wrong ways; the right way is that one which, for a minimum of time and monej', produces definite concrete results.

The qualities necessary for success in development work are: good judgment and a logical, open mind coupled with a keen appreciation and respect for other people's ideas. Prejudice is fatal to the development of sound ideas.

The first stumbling block to avoid is ignorance of what is already known of the laws of mechanics irrespective of aeronautical ideas.

"Let me illustrate the point at issue. A short time ago a man asked my advice concerning a pendulum stability device which he was about to finance. The inventor had constructed a model and from it was suspended a weight at the end of a cable. By a single throw of a lever this weight could be raised or lowered as desired. In the full sized machine, which was to be built, the pendulum would weigh 150 to 200 pounds and had to be raised 20 to 30 feet in two seconds. In order to accomplish this, it would require the expenditure of well over one horse power of energy. Xo matter what merit the device had, this one feature alone would make it worthless.

Before working on new ideas be sure you are familiar with the old ones. When a principle is once established there is no good in proving it all over again at the expense of

* Lecture before The Aeronautical Society.

time and money. Take a few lessons from those who have had experience and you will learn belter and quicker. Take as' an example the theory of low centre of gravity as an aid to stability. The position of the centre of gravity is now fairly well understood and yet we still find individuals placing it as low as possible; a little careful study would often help the novice in avoiding errors of this kind.

In carrying out new ideas it is essential that the reasoning in support of them should be logical, but still more important it is to see that the premises upon which the reasoning is based are true. The only way to be sure of this is to be thoroughly familiar with the subject in hand.

When I first started building machines I considered the Bleriot type of under carriage extremely dangerous for ground work. Hence, instead of making my wings light and flexible, 1 made them rigid and heavy. The advantage of this was apparent when I found my machine continually tipping over on a wing tip. So on every occasion I decried the Bleriot landing gear and wing construction, pointing out the superiority of my own ideas. All of this reasoning sounded well enough but later on when 1 actually went to the Bleriot school in France my astonishment knew no bounds when I discovered that it was almost impossible for one of their machines to lurch over on a wing tip. The reason was then apparent—it was the undercarriage, which a few months previously I told everyone was dangerous; actual experience proved it to be a marvel of ingenuity and necessitated a considerable rearrangement of my own ideas on the subject.

In developing a device we often overlook the fact that it must not only work to be successful but it must work better than other devices or have some point of superiority, whether it be low cost or simplicity which places it ahead of existing devices. As a business proposition today it is of little use to construct an aeroplane that merely flies— it must fly better than others or else navigate to better advantage. A tight rope walker once conceived the idea of running a wire from the roof of his house to the street below and over it he effected entrance and egress. His friends, however, still continued to use the staircase as it required less agility and was more reliable. This same line of reasoning applies to the development of aeronautical apparatus.

Some experimenters make originality the kevnote of their designs; originality should not be overlooked, yet to strive for it to the exclusion of everything else is decidedly bad practice. I once saw a machine equipped with a very original shock absorbing device. Its weight was 35 pounds. On a Deperdussin monoplane the shock absorbers weigh three

pounds and are just as efficient. The extra 32 pounds could have been well dispensed with and as a whole the machine would have been improved.

As most of you are interested in developing complete machines rather than the appliances let me say a few words on this subject. At first do not depart too far from the beaten path and be sure you know what constitutes a good flying machine before starting to build oue. Without doubt, the money spent in going to a standard first class school is well invested; the pupil becomes familiar with the feel of the air and if under good instructors will learn principles of flight which he never can learn from books. When once he has passed his license tests, experience in flying other standard types of machines will prove interesting and valuable if development work is to be undertaken. The broader one is experienced the better is one able to judge the relative merits of different ideas.

Avoid many variable or unknown quantities wherever possible. The combination of unknown motor, propeller, machine and operator makes it exceedingly difficult to arrive at facts. If, for example, you wish to try a certain propeller, do so on a machine with which you are familiar and with an engine whose characteristics are well known; then, if the performance of the aeroplane as a whole is improved, it must be due to the propeller, providing that no other changes have been made. By such a process of elimination really interesting data can be procured.

I know a man who spent the entire summer building a machine in which he mounted a new motor with a propeller of an uncertain design. Everything about the machine was novel and when it refused to fly he never knew to what to attribute the failure. It is a deplorable fact that there are so many cases of a similar nature on record as such methods hinder rather than advance the cause of aviation.

SUBSEQUENT DEVELOPMENT.

I look for subsequent development of the aeroplane to take place along standard lines just the same way that the automobile or other industries have developed along paths which were more or less defined at the start. Evolution is always slow and new ideas never supplant old ones over night so that I do not expect anything very startling for some time to come. The helicopter, which is the dream of many inventors, will undoubtedly come with increased knowledge of aerial appliances, but I feel that it will be through a perfection of the present aeroplane rather than a new discovery relating to helicopters. Witness the extraordinary manner in which some of the modern machines climb and then compare the slow rate of ascents years ago. It certainly looks as if the logical outcome were to be a vertical rise with all facilities for moving in any horizontal direction.

As to automatic stability, here, again, we are logically forced to the conclusion that it is but a matter of time when it will be an actual fact; nevertheless, we must not overlook the fact that great advancement has

been made along this line, particularly with wings which might be termed inherently stable. As it is impossible to design an automatic machine to do a piece of work until we can first do it manually, so. likewise, is it impossible for us to automatically control an aeroplane until we can do so first by hand under all conditions. It will probably be some time before we can thoroughly understand all the conditions which exist in the vast expanse of atmosphere which surrounds us. THE FUTURE OF THE AEROPLANE.

One word as to the future of the aeroplane. Does it, in its present state, look like a commercial article? Fortunately for myself, I am one of those who is absolutely convinced that it has a future, and a great one. Admitting its many shortcomings and its present limitations, I still see a vast field of usefulness spreading out before me. Not as a weapon of war so much as a vehicle of peace. Granted that in the former capacity it will find wide application, but it is in the cause of peace where it will evidently play its greatest part. To send a thousand tons of coal to Albany one would naturally resort to river transport, a ton of valuable merchandise would go by freight train and an individual by express passenger service. In each successive step, the cost of transport increases and does so in certain proportion to the speed of travel. Had I to be in Albany at 3 P. M. and it was now 2.30 P. M. the air route would be employed if possible; did it take an aeroplane the same time as it did a steam train there would be no occasion to develop aerial transport, but if the latter offers a speed of transit hitherto unattainable by other means then there will be a demand for it irrespective of the cost. In other words, high speed travel is an essential feature of this age and generation, and anything which brings about this end is indispensable to civilization.

In conclusion I might say that the foregoing remarks apply to the development of ideas rather than the research work in unknown fields. Those engaged in research must always deal with the unknown and allow their imagination full play as it is only by tearing onesself away from the beaten path and preconceived ideas that new theories can be postulated. Work of this kind is always tedious and costly and those who engage in it simply blaze the trail for the more practical man to come in and pass judgment on the theories which have been evolved.

A man in Long Beach, Cal., "refused" the magazine at the post office after accepting it for a year after his subscription expired. Not receiving reply to notification of expiration, or to letters requesting payment, presumption was that the subscriber wished the magazine continued. However, he takes this round-about way of notification rather than come forward and say he cannot pay for the numbers he has had, or advise us on notification of expiration that he doesn't wish to continue. This is a cheap and underhanded way of obtaining a subscription for nothing.

Technical Talks

By the Technical Editor

Resistance of Solids and Wind Deflection

In my last talk I said that by initiating an nward deflection at the stern of a blunt mded body, the resistance of that portion :ould be diminished. This is illustrated by experiments of the National Physical Labo-atory, made in water, on the model of a lirigible having a stern removable in sec-ions. It was found that a portion having a liameter equal to four-fifths of the major ,ection could be removed, without materially ncreasing the resistance. Tests with colored vater showed that the portion truncated was ■eplaced by a conical zone of dead water. The sloping sides of the truncated stern caused he fluid streams to converge as shown in 7ig. i.

In connection with the subject of wind deflection, Dr. Cousin and M. Gingon have, in the Technique Aeronautique of Feb. I, an article on the determinism of the form on the iflight and speed of the bird. They quote from Xlouillard the statement: "there are probably forms which give a counterpressure superior to the pressure"; meaning, thereby, that such a body, once started, would experience a resultant pressure forcing it forward. This is obviously absurd.

It is possible, however, to have a body on which the counter-pressure would equal the pressure; in which case only frictional resistance would remain.

1 shall not attempt here to abstract this article, but shall give only the most salient points of the theory. Fig. 2 shows an out-

line of a bird, seen from above, showing direction of air streams. It is seen that the bird's head forms a wind deflector shielding the front of the body from pressure, and

deflecting the air streams in such a way that their convergence produces a pressure on the after-body.

These investigators point out that:

(1) There is an inverse ratio between the size of the head and the length of the neck.

(2) There is a direct ratio between the length of the neck and the major transverse diameter of the body.

(3) There is, therefore, a direct ratio between the size of the head and the diameter of the bod}-.

The head and fore part of the body form a cone of penetration; and the after-body, a cone of utilization ; the relation between these two cones being such, that the air streams deflected by the head shall return to produce a pressure on the whole after cone, and shall not return too soon or too late. Hence the necessary relation between the size and shape of the beak, head, neck and bod}'.

Similarly, in Fig. 3, we have a side view of the bird showing that here the air streams deflected downward return to produce pressure (lift) on the under side of the after body; while those deflected upward produce a rarifaction (lift) over the whole upper surface.

The authors go much further with their theory, showing how the direction of the air streams may be controlled by the lengthening of the neck and binding of the wings; besides, much more. But at present the important questions are:

(1) Does the bird's head act as a wind deflector, reducing the resistance of the body to forward motion; and,

(2) Can the air streams be deflected so as to converge on the after-body annulling the rarifaction generally occurring over that area?

As soon as I have opportunity I shall investigate these questions, using my wind-tunnel. M. B. Sellers.

AERONA UTICS Page 48 August, 1913(

New Burgess

On July 19 the flying boat built for R. J. Collier and powered with a 220 H. P. Anzani motor was taken up by Frank Coffyn for the first time. It proved wonderfully fast on the water. After two short runs Coffyn took it a few feet into the air. He found that the speed far exceeded that which he had anticipated. It developed well over 75 miles per hour. This is especially surprising on account of the very large extra weight carried, tlie power plant complete weighing 96S pounds. On account of the difficulties in starting the motor by hand with a reducing gear a Hartford self-starter was installed and it is very pretty indeed to see Coffyn alongside the wharf press a button, when the Anzani motor immediately jumps into action and the big double propellers create a hurricane that well nigh sweeps one off his feet if he happens to be behind it.

On account of the very high speed and increased weight over the estimated weight, wing extensions were added to make the machine more easyr to operate.

Late in the spring Collier placed an order with the Burgess Company and Curtis for a flying boat, and at the same time purchased a 220 H. P. 20-cylinder Anzani motor from the Anzani Company in France. It was specified that the flying boat should make a speed of at least 75 miles per hour, should carry a fuel capacity of about 4 hours flying and carry

Flying Boat

one or two passengers. Coffyn has taken contract to fly it for him.

It will be noticed from the plans that thi upper plane alone warps, the lower planed being rigid and are separated by a single linl of steel struts. This is a distinct departure in American design which gives a greateJ efficiency by a marked reduction of the heal resistance.

Each wing is built up on a tubular steel spaJ inches in diameter and with the tube ste« vertical struts separating the main planes, thl main cell is practically a steel skeleton. A wood entering edge (hollowed out for lighl ness) and a wood stringer parallel to thJ wing spar serve to maintain the spacing 0] the ribs, which are of wood, placed ever] twelve inches apart.

The upper surface is fitted with 5 foot exi tensions and has a span of 41 feet 4J/2 inches As the drawings show, it is made up in 4 sec tions. The lower plane measures 33 feet 4J/\ inches in span.

The 20-cylinder motor, with its cylinder arranged radially in staggered rows, drives four-bladed propeller direct through an exteii sion of the crank-shaft, supported on ball bearings upon a tubular steel standard buil up from the hull. In this latest design it hal been possible to get the center of thrust verl near the center of resistance.

(Continued on page 61)

ERONA UTICS Page 49 . A ugust, 1913

Burgess 220 H.P. Flying Boat

96

AERONAUTICS

Jíugust, 1913

The Grant Monoplane

With Changeable Angle of Incidence

Mr. R. R. Grant, of Norfolk, Va., following-out the same line of experiments made with his former machine at the old Jamestown Exposition grounds, has just finished a new tandem monoplane, a hydroaeroplane of the catamaran type, which, while embodying the same general principles of the old machine, has some interesting new features, one of which is a device whereby the angle of incidence is changed while in flight.

To accomplish this, a double movement, which maintains a constant lifting centre and adjusts the proper ratio between the forward and rear surface, is provided. The operator turns a small wheel located between the double seats when changing or adjusting for the proper angle.

Further, the surfaces are full Cissoid of Diocles form, this form having been adopted on account of its high efficiency and that for all change in angle the C. of P. movement travels at a constant ratio, j. c, within reasonable angles of flight. With this curve a very much increased inherent stability has been obtained and, further, it functions perfectly with the tandem system, i. e.. the C. of P. variations are always in a corrective direction, thereby assisting in making the machine automatically stable.

From many experiments with the old ma-

chine in flight Mr. Grant found that the gooJ effects of the negative angle in the rear planl of the tandem system is destroyed by thl improper placement of the C. of G. ThesI two physical elements being the secret ol longitudinal stability and when coupled witll the best form of surface the longitudinal stability can be considered as nearly perfectl In the old machine after these feature! were incorporated the longitudinal stability! could always be depended upon, and in nJ instance did it ever fail though many severJ tests were made. A very fine technical del scription of the inherent longitudinal stability! feature of the tandem system will be found ill Captain W. Irving Chambers' article ill AERONAUTICS for February, this year! Capt. Chambers states that the theory or ob-l ject of the tandem system (referring to tha Drzewiecki machine) is, "to so adjust tha plane surface that when exterior perturbinJ forces disturb the equilibrium a dynamic couple is born which restores the equilibriunl immediately and automatically." The saiml physical results take place in the tandeui system with the small plane in the rear, pro-l vided, the C. of G. is properly placed, the! centre of gravity must at all times become tha axis centre around which the lifting and drifll pressures converge, for in this type of ma-l

chine no inertia pressures are necessary, for, as Capt. Chambers puts it, it is "Aerostable," /'. c. all corrections being the secondary result of the perturbating forces themselves. At the conclusion of three years' experiment in the field Air. Grant corroborates the laboratory results of M. Eiffel on the tandem system but brings out the fact that whereas by a properly designed tandem system, longitudinal stability can be made practicly perfect and, therefore, lateral stability will be greatly increased, nevertheless, a perfect lateral system is necessary and he has developed one embodying the same inherent or automatic feature as the longitudinal, a system depending upon the secondary effect of the perturbing forces to bring about the necessary corrections. A full description of his lateral system will be found in AERONAUTICS of August, 1912.

The new machine's dimensions are : spread, 42 feet; length, over all, 41 feet; physical length, 32 feet; each main wing, 16 feet by 92 inches chord; camber, top, 6 inches, bottom 3J/2 inches; mean curvature, Cissoid of Diocles. or the curve giving the duplication of the cube; the surfaces are pivoted 11 inches back from the entering edge, the axis consisting of a i¿4 inch Shelby steel tube of 18 gauge which runs the entire length of the plane. All supports and stays converge along this axis centre. This scheme of support is so rigid that the machine can be lifted by the outer tip of the surface, although it weighs 1600 pounds.

The power plant consists of a 100 H. P. Emerson 2 cycle engine, which has been thoroughly rebuilt by Mr. Grant. This engine was used and its many defects located in the first machine and will be used during the tests of the present machine. The engine swings a 9.33 diameter, 6 feet pitch propeller of Mr. Grant's own make. The engine, if it proves satisfactory, will be equipped with a Delco starting system with a special Exide battery. The starting outfit weighs 160 pounds, and is all ready to be installed as soon as the engine has proven satisfactory, otherwise a new engine will be installed.

The El Arco radiator is placed in front of the operator, the operator's car being arranged automobile style. This arrangement has been adopted to centre the weight as much as possible, as well as to form a windshield and supply warm air to the occupants. The air

can be deflected, if desired, by a shield forward of the seats.

The elevator and rudders have the same surface area, 30 square feet, and there is also 30 square feet in the damper wall; the damper wall can be adjusted for use with and without pontoons, as the machine is convertible.

The wing framework is constructed of white ash and Shelby steel tubing, covered with Goodrich Alumina cloth. The front lateral spar is of ash 1 inch by 1 inch, and the rear is a tube iJ4 inches by 1J/2 inches, 11 inches from front edge. Ribs are solid web 1 beam section glued and brass screwed, made of bass wood. For the rear 2 feet there is no web and the rib is flexible. A Y% inch brass tube forms the rear edge.

The control system is of the Curtiss principle, constructed of aluminum and brass tubing. The control wires are run in duplicate on both sides of the machine through the longitudinal steel tubes, and so arranged that one entire side may break without in the least affecting the control.

The surfaces are rigidly supported to the strut member and, while lateral equilibrium is controlled by the forward plane by a differential change in the angle of incidence, which works normally automatic, no warping or change in form of surface is made. The forward surface is normally 2 degrees higher than the rear, but ratio changes with angle of incidence.

The construction of this machine has been carefully calculated and all stresses and strains taken into consideration along the same line as if it were a bridge and a factor of safety of 50 to 1 has been obtained. All stays and guys are of Swedish steel wire and sockets and clips of steel. Total area of machine, 364 square feet.

The floats are of catamaran type, each 2 feet wide, 21 feet long. For the forward 9 feet the sides are parallel but from this point converge to a point at the stern. For the forward 9 feet the bottom slopes at an angle of 4 degrees to a depth of 13 inches, sloping tip again aft at a reverse angle of 3 degrees. The decking of the float is crowned to a height of 3 inches and the bottom is curved transversely with a 2 inch camber. Each pontoon is divided into five water-tight compartments.

BOOKS RECEIVED

ALL THE WORLD'S AIRCRAFT 1913, by Fred T. Jane. Fifth issue of this book, a large cloth volume, which contains a list of the principal types of dirigibles and aeroplanes in all countries, with scale drawings and short table of dimensions and details with each: a section devoted to historical aeroplanes of the last six years; a department giving illustrations and details of all the world's engines; and, finallv. an aeronautical "Who's Who" and directory. Published by Sampson Low, Marston & Co., Overy House, 100 Southwark St., London, S. E.

METEOROLOGISCHE AUSBILDUNG PES FLIEGERS, by Pr. Franz Linke. Cloth, 8vo., 70 pp., with 30 text illustrations, colored weather

charts and tables. Published at Mk. 1.70, by R. Oldenbourg, München, Germany.

PIE WAHRHEIT UNPER PEN STAND PER LUFTSCHIFFAHRT, 1913. by Victor Silberer,_ published by Verlag der Allgemeinen Sport-Zeitung. Vienna, Austria.

CAUSERIES TECHNIQUES, SANS FORMULES, SUR L'AEROPLANE, by Captaine du Genie Duchene, published by Librairie Aéronautique, 40 Rue de Seine, Paris, at 6 francs. 8vo., paper, 258 pp., with figures and charts, etc. Chapters include, Speed, Power, Propellers, Longitudinal Stability, Transverse Stability, Turning, Effects of Wind, etc. The Eiffel and other tables are given and attempt has been made to treat of aerodynamics in simple language. In French.

AERONAUTICS

Page 53

August, 1913

New Curtiss for Navy

The latest Curtiss flying boat, "U. S. X. C2," for the United States Xavy completed its official tests on August 14 under the observation of Captain W. Irving Chambers, U. S. X., Lieut. H. C. Richardson, Naval Constructor, U. S. X., and Lieut. P. X. L. Bellinger, U. S. X. Most of the tests were made by moonlight the night before. This was done because the specifications demanded calm weather for certain trials.

In addition to an unusual equipment of instruments, about 300 pounds of oil and gasoline, the flying boat made the trial flights with a load of approximately 700 pounds. With this load an average of ten flights with and against the wind showed a mean speed of a fraction less than 60 miles per hour. Slow speed tests with the same load showed a mean of less than 50 miles per hour. Unofficially the same machine has shown a slow speed of less than 45 miles per hour, but the air was "bumpy" during the tests and it was not considered advisable to slow the flying boat to the limit. The gliding test proved a surprise, for with motor stopped at an altitude of four hundred feet the boat glided 2,800 feet before touching the water, and then was brought down purposely to avoid landing on the shore. With the load carried a gliding angle of not more than five to one had been expected.

Compared with the Curtiss flying boats the Xavy has used during the past year the new machine seems very large. The hull has an extreme width of 50 inches, a depth of 46 inches, and a total weight of 500 pounds. Fulh- loaded for the tests the machine weighed approximately 2400 pounds.

"C-2" is a decided Vee-bottom, and her step is a deep Yee-shaped notch, the boat riding on the extremities of the branches of the V when at speed. Her sides are built up solid to the coaming and have a decided flare, so that her flotation increases with the load imposed. Instead of the collapsible windshield used on the earlier craft the sloping bow of the new boat is built up strongly and is solid except for the hinged panel in the centre

which turns forward to form a gang-plank over the bow. Looked at from the bow the hull suggests a wedge, the resistance of which increases almost evenly on all four sides.

The equipment of the hull of "C-2" is very complete. Behind the seats in the hull is located a 40 gallon fuel tank, in addition to the tanks direct-connected with the power plant. At present it also has a gyroscopic stabilizer which operates both lateral and longitudinal controls. The instrument board is especially compact and shows at a glance conditions affecting every part of the machine. An air-pressure speed gauge shows very accurately the speed of the machine in still air or traveling across the wind. A shaft-speed indicator shows engine speeds at all times. An angle indicator, a barometer, an anemometer, a gasoline gauge, and a clock, are on the same board.

Above the hull are minor changes. The wings are built up one piece, with very substantial frames, with a spread of 39 feet for the upper plane, and 30 feet for the lower one. The chord is 66 inches and the gap 66 inches. They are covered with the toughest of unbleached linen, coated with some new "dope" which waterproofs them and at the same time renders them nearly transparent. The tail structure remains practically unchanged.

The power plant includes a rebuilt Model O Curtiss motor with Model O-X valve action, —practically an O-X complete, and developing 90-100 H. P.

From Chicago—"Enshrouded in smoke 4,000 feet in the air almost directly above the loop district, \V. C. Robinson, a Chicago aviator, yesterday fought a desperate battle against death when a fuse blew out cn his engine and flames ignited the wings of his monoplane. The aviator finally succeeded in quenching the fire with a small hand extinguisher which he carried on the machine and reached the aviation field at Cicero safely.

"Scores of members of the Aero Club of Illinois, watched the battle through field glasses."

A Comparison of Wind Tunnels

BY M. B. SELLERS

M. Raibouchinski, in the Bulletin of the Aerodynamic Laboratory of Koutchino, Part IV, gives an account of experiments to determine the comparative value of various types of wind tunnel.

A model of the Eiffel tunnel was made having a trunk or nozzle 60 cm. in diameter; this was compared with the Koutchino tunnel, with reference to the variation in air speed and pressure due to the variation in size of the bodies under experiment.

For this purpose discs of different sizes were mounted on the balance normal to the current. The air speed in the Eiffel tunnel was measured in the nozzle. Taking for comparison the ratio of the diameter of the disc to that of the tunnel, it was found that the air speed in both tunnels diminished with increasing size of discs, but for discs of small diameter ratio, the variation was less for the Koutchino tunnel.

The unit pressure on a disc decreased with increasing size, in the Eiffel tunnel; whereas in the Koutchino tunnel, it increased.

But, for small discs, the variation in the Koutchino tunnel was very small, while in the Eiffel tunnel it was much greater.

Therefore, so long as the dimensions of the objects of experiment are kept within proper limits, the variations in air speed and unit pressure are small in the Koutchino tunnel, and M. Raibouchinski concludes that it is superior to the Eiffel tunnel for that reason.

The pressure in the Eiffel tunnel decreases because the cylinder of air is expanded by the obstruction offered by the disc, its velocity diminished and the rarifaction on back of disc reduced. In the Koutchino tunnel it is iucrcasvd because the obstruction causes a

local increase of air speed increasing the rarifaction on the back of the disc. The Rateau and similar tunnels are open to the same objection as the Eiffel tunnel, but in a greater degree.

M. Eiffel and M. Flopp have recently found, for square plates, a maximum pressure, very pronounced near 40 degrees inclination, while observations made before 1910, by a number of investigators, showed no similar condition. M. Rateau, Prof. Prandtl and Prof. Mallock have found that between 30 degrees and 40 degrees inclination of a plate, the pressure was subject to more or less rapid fluctuations, and they attributed this to different types of eddies formed behind the plate.

AI. Raibouchinski, with his large tunnel, found no greater fluctuation between 30 degrees and 40 degrees than at other angles; and no similar maximum at 40 degrees. In order, therefore, to determine if possible the reason for the difference, he constructed a small Prandtl tunnel (which is a closed circuit tunnel) 60 by 60 cm.; and in order to produce less interference with the air flow around the plate, the rod, which usually supports the plate at its edge, was bent around so as to support the plate at its middle. With this support the same pressure fluctuations and maximum were found, as described by Prof. Prandtl, but with the usual support they were not found. On removing all the return portion of the Prandtl tunnel these conditions were not found with either support.

AI. Raibouchinski concludes that the current in the Prandtl tunnel is steadier, and consequently the eddies or vortices are longer preserved, thus provoking the rapid rise in pressure at the critical angle.

BOOKS RECEIVED

MECHANISCHE GRUNDLAGEN DES FLUGZEUGBAUES, by A. Baumann. Published in two parts by K. Oldenbourg, Gluckstrasse 8, München, Gerniany. Fully illustrated with drawings and tables. Each part sells at 4 Mk.—Das vorstehend angegebene Werk stellt einen Niederschlag nicht nur der theoretischen, sondern auch der praktischen Arbeit des Verfassers auf dem vorliegenden Gebiete dar. Es behandelt, ohne auf irgendwelche speziellen Konstruktionen näher einzugehen, diejenigen Fragen und mechanischen Probleme, welch für alle Flugzeug gattungen von gleich groser Bedeutung sind. Um das Verständnis und die Verarbeitung des Stoffes zu erleichtern, wird der Leser, von den denkbar einfachsten Fällen ausgehend, schrittweise mit den komplizierten Problemen vertraut gemacht. Es werden so nach und nach alle Fragen behandelt, die für die Berechnung und den Bau von Flugzeugen von Wichtigkeit sind und gleichzeitig der Grund gelegt für das Verständnis des noch folgenden Bandes, der sieh mit den Stabilitätsfragen befassen wird. Nach einer kurzen allgemein gehaltenen Besprechung des Luftwiderstandgesetzes gibt der Verfasser neue, mit seinen Versuchen und praktischen Ergebnissen übereinstimmende, einfache Formeln, auf Grund deren die Berechnung des Auf- und Rücktriebes von Tragflächen ermöglicht wird.

BAU UND BETRIEB VON PRALL-LUFTSCHIFFE, Part II, by Richard Basenach, 117 pp., cloth, with 80 illustrations. Published at 3 Mk. each part by R. Oldtnbourg, München, Germany.

THE GAS ENGINE HANDBOOK, by E. W. Roberts, M. E., seventh edition, rewritten and enlarged. Pocket size, flexible leather binding, 313 pp. freely illustrated; published by Gas Engine Publishing Co., Cincinnati, O., at $2. The book has been written as an epitome of gas engine practice and as a handy book of reference. All the matter is simply written and no one could be said to be an expert on gas engines without having the knowledge sold in this book. All knowledge must be bought somehow. There is a chapter on the design of aeroplane motors in which there is given a few simple rules for the design of engines of the light weight required in this service. The chapter deals with an up-to-date subject in a concise manner. While the author does not go into minute details on this subject as much as might be desired, it is touched upon in the chapters on the design of details.

MODEL EVING MACHINES, by A. P. Morgan. Paper, 16mo., 70 pp., fully illustrated. Published by Cole & Morgan, Newark, N. J., at 25 cents. A handbook on model flying machines, with full instructions as to making, scale drawings of various models, etc. Indispensable to the novice.

WONAUTICS Page 55 August, \9\3

New Developments in Aeronautics

IT WAS FLY TIME

An aviator flew into

A garden where he found

A pretty maiden, bashful, too—

And so—lie "stuck around !''

Indeed, this flyer chap pursued His wooing with a vim, For this coy maiden whom he wooed Had made a hit with him.

And so he formed a plan to gain This maiden, oh, so shy; Said he: "Let's take my aeroplane And spoon up in the sky!"

The maid demurely hung her head; A plan she also had : "I'll tell you what let's do instead— Let's go and see my dad.

My daddy always loves to meet You chaps who aviate; You see, he has a special treat He likes to demonstrate.

For daddy now and then invents. The latest thing he's done Is what he calls the 'Home Defence Electric Airship Gun.'

You see, they live when they go up : YVhen thev come down—they're dead! And, -•"

The flyer chap had fled!

'And did'your caller fly, my dear?'" Asked father, with a whoop; And daughter answered with a cheer: "You bet! He flew the coop !"

Hazen Conkein.

LATEST GERMAN WRIGHT

^ new, much improved, military aeroplane the Wright type has now been produced

the German army. The new flying mane, in contrast with the old model, which ried only two people, provides room for r and, if necessary, five persons. For this pose the machine has been fitted with a my fuselage, which offers a comfort and tection against the wind. Windows have n built in the floor, through which the )t may see downward or throw projectiles, carrying capacity of about 400 kg. (880 ) and superior climbing ability have been lined. The construction of the supporting ties is in the main the same as in the nor-1 Wright machine. The steering gear has I arranged according to the regulations of

army board; consequently, pilots used to er types will have no particular difficulty steering this new Wright type.

The measurements of the machine are as follows: The span of the main planes is 13.5 m. (44 ft., 4 in.) from tip to tip, the planes are 1.8 m. (5 ft., 11 ins.). The area of supporting surface is 42 sq. meters (ap-prox., 463 sq. ft.). The distance between planes is 1.6 m. (5 ft., 3 in.). Length from front to rear is only 9.65 m. (31 ft., 8 in.). The motor develops 100 H. P. at 1,350 revolutions. A specially constructed transmission reduces the revolutions of the propellers, which are 2.6 m. (8 ft., 6 in.) long, to 810 as compared to the revolutions of the motor.

In this way the machine attains a speed of about 90 kilos, (approx. 56 miles) an hour. Its weight is 750 kg. (1,635 lbs.), the carrying capacity, including fuel, etc., 400 kg. (882 lbs.). The machine fully loaded needs, for starting or landing, a space of only 60 to 80 meters (197 to 262 ft.) in length.

HALL-SCOTT ENGINE TEST

Besides testing the new 100 H. P. Hall-Scott motor on a dynamometer, it was put on a test stand under propeller load and it gave a pitch speed of 10,500 feet per minute with a 7 foot pitch propeller. The thrust was 550 lbs. This shows a low thrust but is explained by the fact that a high pitch blade was used, being cut down until the required R. P. M. were obtained. This would show an estimated horsepower of 175, which is incorrect as the same engine tested on a dynamometer gave 120 H. P. at the same R. P. M. This is stated by R. S. Scott, of the company, to prove that horsepower cannot be correctly estimated by using the formula pitch speed x R. P. M. x thrust, divided by 33,000.

Page 56

NAVY TRIES STANDARD CONTROL

The U. S. Navy will be the first military, or civil body in the world to adopt a standard method of control. The necessity for this has previously been announced in this magazine. .

A temporary conclusion has been arrived at by theoretical analysis, and Captain Chambers intends to put this in each of a Wright and Curtiss machine in one seat but hooked up to the old control so that either aviator can work it.

This will be tested, as well as all other systems and modifications on a land machine that is being rigged up, whereby each aviator can be tried with each system and the fatigue, smoothness and all other results can be recorded chronographically and compared. The final result will be fitted in all machines on one side of the double system and when all aviators are proficient the old controls will be replaced entirely. The aviators themselves are at last stirred up to desiring the change, but, of course, are not unanimous as to recommendations.

HEAVY DUTY CURTISS WHEEL

A new wheel for heavy duty has been marketed by Curtiss. There are 10S spokes ii gauge, set in a double row on the inside and in a single row on the outside; the rim is of pressed steel, swedge countersunk for

nipples; steel hub offset 2 inches, screw dust cap; shaft diameter 1 inch, adjustable cones on shaft held by lock washers and nut. Size 20 inches by 4 inches, straight clincher; weight, with tire and inner tube, 17 pounds.

WILSON STABILITY DEVICE

After patenting in many countries an automatic lateral stability device, John W. Wilson announces the marketing of it in the adver-

tising pages of this issue. Referring to tl system, Mr. Wilson states:

"My device and its method of applicatio is absolutely new, and has never, to m knowledge, been attempted by any builder c flying machines of any type, and constitute in my opinion, the first step towards re; flight, as I hope to be able to show by soni of my more recent applications for patent I have long realized that an aeroplane, lil a bird, is an effect, a single track vehicl calling for absolute alignment, and that : no time should the centre of pressure be s altered as to constitute a drag for the purpos of restoring lateral balance. It is well knou that the systems of ailerons and wing warpir are both ineffective unless the aeroplane mail tains a forward motion, and once stalled : the air, there is always grave danger th; the aeroplane may never again be righte My device, depending upon no drag of ar kind, allows of an instant change of suppo by the turning of the entire supporting plan the banking side of the plane moving on 2 axis oblique to the perpendicular forward, 111 ward and inward, while the opposite side tnovi backward, downward and inward, and at tl same time the weight-carrying body havii thus been thrown out of line, automatical adjusts itself back into line. This rearrang merit of the four incidences—support, pre sure, gravity and thrust,—is accomplish* without the use of either vertical or horizont rudders, without either ailerons or wing war ing, without changing the centre of pressu or slacking speed, a combination of advai tages which also allows of slower speed lan< ings, owing to the instant readjustment of tl centre of support, and aids in reducing tl dangers of aeroplaning to a minimum."

WRIGHT INCIDENCE INDICATOR

A new instrument for the use of aviators now marketed by The Wright Company. Tl use of an instrument showing angles of ii cidence in the air, so that a pilot, who knov his machine's limiting range of angles, coil be sure of remaining within safe flying posl tions, would save a good many lives.

On climbing, if the machine is set at tc great an angle, the lift falls off, the drift ii creases, and the machine first begins to sir and then in losing headway to "stall." 1 diving, if the angle is made too small, tl centre of pressure moves very far back, ar the degree of safety is greatly reduced 1 its proximity to a position of down pressui on the top of the wing; there is also tl possibility in again turning up of receiving pressure on the under-side of the tail surfac which would prevent the machine's recove ing from the dive. There are many noi who consider this the principal cause ( diving accidents that have taken place.

Tf in climbing, diving or in normal flyii the air currents are disturbed, rising, desceil ing or deflecting from side to side, the ang of the machine with the horizontal, which registered by the ordinary gravity clinomete

Wilson's Lateral Balance

for Aeroplanes

advantages Over All Others

Absolutely no drag in turning. No vertical rudders required at any time.

Automatically rights itself laterally.

Centre of Support, Pressure, Gravity and Thrust always in line. Makes its own banking without reducing speed.

Fastest and safest aeroplane in the world.

Strain equalized, danger of buckling reduced to a minimum. Can be propelled for miles by lateral device alone.

FULLY PROTECTED

BY PATENTS AND RIGHTS IN THE FOLLOWING COUNTRIES

UPWARD

REAT BRITAIN

ERMANY

OSSIA

pSTRIA

RANCE

ELGIUM

PAIN

DRTUGAL ALY

NORWAY DENMARK SWEDEN HUNGARY CHINA JAPAN CANADA AUSTRALIA SWITZERLAND

THE UNITED STATES

Adapted to all types of Aeroplanes and Dirigibles

:enses Granted. Correspondence Solicited

OHN W.WILSON, Patentee

COURT ST., BOSTON, MASS., U. S. A.

Now Ready

IThe Airman's Vademecum

"NO. 1," METEOROLOGY

By Colonel H. E. Rawson, C. B.

(Vice-President Royal Meteorological Society; Council Aeronautical Society)

CONTENTS : Introduction and 5 Chapters on Temperature, Pressure,Wind, and Precipitation. Weather Forecasting. Index. {Illustrated) Price 40 Cents Net Post Free

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AERONA UTICS

Page 58

does not represent the angle of the planes to the air. This latter, however, is the important thing to know, and, as no such instrument was on the market, The Wright Company proceeded to turn out one of their own, which has recently come into extended use in Government service.

In ascending or descending currents, to fly properh' balanced, the machine may take an angle quite out of proportion to the horizontal, but with this incidence indicator, the pilot is positive that the planes are receiving their proper pressure, and that the centre of support has the correct relation with regard to the centre of weight. It is safe to say that keeping within the range of safe flying angles would eliminate almost 80 per cent, of the accidents.

!

As may be seen from the illustration, the Wright Incidence Indicator consists of a light air vane, which operates a pointer on a dial by a special mechanical contrivance eliminating any gravity influence. The pointer indicates at any time the angle of the chord of the planes with respect to the air currents through which the machine is flying, and, as already stated, is entirely independent of gravity in distinction to the usual clinometer, which takes no account of ascending or descending currents. The weight of this instrument is 2^4 lbs., and the dial can be read clearly at a distance of 10 feet. It can be fitted to any type of biplane on a convenient strut, and on a monoplane can readily be fitted to one of the cabanes, or to some member of the chassis. It sells for fifty dollars.

GERMAN ARMY SPECIFICATIONS

The Aeronautical Department of the German Army has promulgated standard specifications applicable to all aeroplanes purchased during 1913 for military purposes. In substance they are as follows:

German materials and products must be ex-

clusively employed in the construction of t| aeroplanes. They must be insusceptible weather influences and all parts must easily interchangeable. They must be buj so as to be readily assembled and demount] into sections which can be easily loaded u railway cars or road vehicles. Assembliil must not take more than two hours nor d mounting more than one hour nor requi the assistance of more than five persons. Wil a view to transportation the greatest widj must not exceed 14.5 meters (.47-6 feet); t| length over-all, 12 meters (39.4 feet); aij the height, 3.5 meters (11.5 feet). Motors 1 more than 100 H. P. are not to be used excet with the special approval of the militaJ authorities. Other things being equal, prefcl ence will be given to machines equipped wil low-powered motors. It must be possible I start the motor from the pilot's seat, positive speed of at least 90 kilometers (I miles) an hour is required. Moreover, J must be possible in every case to reduce tl speed during a flight to 75 kilometers (4(1 miles) and still fly forward on a horizonll line. Provision must be made for carryiil fuel, oil, etc., sufficient for four hour's rul ning. The fuel supply must be placed so ] to afford absolutely no danger to the crel There must be some device provided fl thoroughly suppressing the noise of the mottl A machine loaded not only with fuel, oil, etl for four hours and with instruments ail tools but also with a further load of at leal 200 kilograms (441 lbs.), in which the weigl of the pilot and observer is included, mr.1 be capable of leaving the ground after a nl of not more than one hundred meters (3I feet) ; of attaining within 15 minutes an all tude of at least 8co meters (2625 feet) aif of coming to a standstill after landing <f even ground within a distance of 70 metel (220 feet). The machine must also be capabj of rising from rough ground and landiij thereon. It must further be possible to lail by gliding with motor shut off from a heigl of 500 meters (1640 feet) making eithl right or left-hand curves. Comfortable a commodations must be provided for pilot ail observer with protection from the wind. Tl body must afford sufficient room for the ii stallation of a bomb-throwing device, fl the storing of bombs and for photographirl The instruments, including barometer, barl graph, compass, tachometer and stop-watcl must be arranged so as to be readily 01 servable. It must further be possible for tl pilot to watch the stand of fuel and oil ] flight. There must be easy communicatid between him and the observer. The steerinj apparatus must work as easily as possibl Automatic stability is a great desideratum. 1

Among the "millionaire sportsmen" purchase! (that seems to he the popular title for any purchase of a flying boat) who are being instructed in tl operation of the new Curtiss flying boats, are Georl U. von Utassy of New York, William Thaw, Willis E. Scripps of Detroit, Gerald Hanley of ProvidenJ Barton L. Peck of Detroit, and Sieve MacGordon.

AERONAUTICS

Page 59

August, 1913

HEATH PROPELLER PITCH METER

Spencer Heath, who makes "Paragon" propellers, carries with him wherever he goes, a curious instrument which he made several years ago for the purpose of measuring the pitch of aeroplane propellers. The instrument is a direct reading or direct recording pitch meter. It shows the pitch of any part of a propeller blade upon which it is laid, just like reading the time of day from a watch. In the manufacture of propellers it is considered indispensable for reliable work.

The main body of the instrument is an aluminum plate about twelve inches long and nearly half as wide. A card covering the greater portion of the plate registers in a groove at the bottom and at the side and is held by a clasp. This card is marked with vertical divisions to correspond with each half foot of blade radius, indicating each foot of diameter. A protractor arm, or blade, is pivoted near the left end of the plate so that the blade will swing upward across the card. A spirit level carried on the pivoted end of the blade shows when it is in a level position.

To use the instrument, the propeller is placed with its axis vertical and the flat or concave sides of the blades up. The blades are chalked off in half-foot spaces from the center out. The bottom edge of the pitch meter is laid across the blade at one of the chalkings. This gives the instrument the same inclination as the angle of the propeller blade, but the protractor arm is brought up to the level position and a short line or prick mark is made where its edge intersects the corresponding division on the card. By repeating at various division points along the propeller blade a series of marks or intersections is obtained, the height of which from the base line of the instrument indicates the exact pitch of the propeller for each division point. Connecting these points by a smooth line gives the pitch curve, or "graph," of the propeller blade measured. If the blade is a true screw of uniform pitch from hub to tip, the "graph" will be a straight line parallel with the base of the instrument. "Very few blades," says Mr. Heath, "are found to possess the pitch characteristic, although some of them apparently were so intended. In some propellers, the Curtiss, for example, there is a decided upward trend to the curve, showing a rapid increase of pitch out to the tips of the blades. In others, the Chauviere, say, the

pitch is high near the hub and rapidly diminishing towards the end and then, in most cases, suddenly going up a little at the tip."

In the construction the graph card is made as part of the design and the propeller built accordingly, with the pitch at every point exactly corresponding with the angle formed by the protractor arm.

TO AVOID GAS LINE TROUBLES

Many are the aero motor stoppages caused by a leaking gas line. If the pipe is not chafed the trouble usually lies in a break through vibration. Copper pipe should be annealed by heating red hot and cooling rapidly in cold water to make it soft and pliable. One or two spiral turns will give the pipe a springy action that absorbs vibrations. The coil should lie in a horizontal plane to

■Pi

prevent the collection of sediment or air locks. The bending should be done around a pipe held in a vise. The illustration from The Car shows the proper method of making the coil. If the motor chokes on opening the throttle wide but runs smoothly partially open, the trouble is due to dirt in the carburetor or lint in the feed line. Disconnect at the carburetor; if the gas flows free, look in the carburetor.

MORE POWER-EASY STARTING

The motor starts easier and runs smoothly at slow speed if the mixture is slightly rich. The admission of extra air in the manifold above the carburetor will speed up the engine, produce more power and reduce likelihood of carbon deposits. A hole may be drilled in the intake pipe and threaded. Fit a coupling in the pipe and a petcock at the other end, or screw a petcock directly in the manifold, after drilling out to a larger diameter the hole through the petcock. A spring pulling one way on the lever of the petcock will keep it closed and preserve the set mixture. A Bowden wire or cable to a sector at the operator's hand will pull the petcock open the desired amount. After starting the run, the petcock may be opened to obtain the increased engine speed. Priming may be done through the petcock in starting the cold engine. The same system may be employed for cleaning the engine with kerosene. A rubber tube with one end slipped over the petcock and the other in a can of kerosene, the petcock then opened, the kerosene will be rapidly sucked up through the motor and the carbon softened up and blown out. As the motor slows down, shut off the cock till it picks up again and repeat.

Sopwith Biplanes

T. (). M. Sopwith, whose flights in America will be easily remembered, is now one of the foremost constructors in England. A number of models are being putout of the tractor type in addition to the "hat boat," and propeller machine.

Both the land and water machines are of the tractor type, with planes staggered. In the So H. P. Gnome land machine accommodation is made for two passengers to be seated side by side in addition to the pilot, all three having an excellent view. Only the head of a person of average size protrudes from the covered-in fuselage, ample protection being afforded in consequence. The wing-section seems to be the outcome of practical experience on a number of machines fitted with planes of various cambers. In normal flight this plane-section flies the machine at an angle of incidence of between 1^4 degrees and 2 degrees.

Balanced ailerons take the place of the warping wings. Wing sections, can, it is claimed, in consequence of the use of ailerons, be built considerably stronger—not only this, but another addition is employed to increase the strength of the wings, in the shape of a number of rectangular distance-pieces between the front and rear spars at each point where the interplane struts are attached. These relieve the various ribs of compression strains. The four tips of the main planes, and the outer extremities of each member of the tailplanes. consist of steel tubing. Attachment of the fabric is effected by sewing, the "bag" thus formed being slipped on afterwards. . With regard to the hydro-aeroplanes, three different types are under construction, apart from the "bat-boat." which has temporarily been put aside in order to permit the construction of less original types.

Two main floats fitted with spring suspension are fitted in addition to a single tail-float. A ioo H. P. Anzani drives a propeller of approximately 9 feet diameter, covered with thin copper to prevent splintering on the waves. The span of the top plane is approximately 56 feet; the floats are widely spaced, 10 feet 3 inches apart. There is, in consequence, no necessity for wing-tip floats. The main ones are mounted on inverted V-struts. As in all the other models, balanced ailerons are fitted, these being of considerable dimensions. Current for wireless is provided by a dynamo driven by chain from the starting-shaft at a rotational speed of 3.400 R. P. M.. there being a metal-to-metal cone-clutch to disengage the magneto when necessary. Pressure is maintained in the petrol tanks by means of the usual air-fan and pump. The. plane section is the same as that employed in the land-tractor, though the machine flies with its main planes at an angle of incidence of about 4 degrees.

Each float is covered with thin Holland blind union, which is glued on and varnished,

and through which the wood can clearly be seen. Three inspection covers are fitted, the interior edges of the interstices for which are padded in order to render them watertight. The hull is built up in two inch thicknesses of cedar, the first skin being diagonally built up with 4 inch strips, while the outer is composed of similar strips running longitudinally. In addition to the outer layer of fabric, another one is placed between the two layers of wood. The interior is coated with black varnish—a suitable combination of gas-tar and naphtha.

The floats on the particular model in question are fitted with laminated steel springs^ Four of these springs are attached to each float, the extremities of the front one being rigidly fastened to clips screwed onto a 1 inch by \l/2 inch vertical strut within the hull. The rear spring, on the other hand, is free to

move. The apex of the front spring is connected to that of the rear by means of a radius rod. There are, of course, two of these—one on each side of the float. The only result of the flattening out of the front spring is to slide the rear one backwards, the enormous compressive stresses which would otherwise arise on that portion of the float between them being, in consequence, avoided.

The bottoms of the floats are convex, with a camber of 15/3 inch. The bottom consists in part of a number of "ribbons," or minor longitudinals. Those running along the bottom of the rear half of the float are continued past the step until they die off where they meet, and where they are attached to, the ribbons from the bow. These are themselves continued to the upright portion of the step, on which they abut, the consequence being that triangular girder is formed.

NEW BURGESS FLYING BOAT

{Continuedfrom page 4S.)

Gasoline and oil are supplied from tanks above the motor, they, in turn, being tilled from the larger tanks placed in the hull.

The hull of the new boat presents some refinements over the last type, though in general its design is much like the other. A higher free-board, however, adds to the comfort of the occupants when negotiating rough water. The hull proper is 2 feet 5 inches wide from the front to slightly aft of the engine section, whence it tapers to the conventional knife-edge supporting the vertical rudder. Its overall length is 28 feet. The hull is built of mahogany planking over oak frames, with a number of watertight compartments distributed along its length, and is constructed in two sections to facilitate shipment.

General specifications are as follows: Spread of upper wing, 41 feet 4^2 inches; spread of lower wing, 33 feet 4^2 inches; depth of wing, 5 feet 6 inches each; gap, 6 feet 8y2 inches; area supporting surface, 373 square feet; length over all, 30 feet, 6 inches; length of hull, 28 feet; height, 10 feet 2 inches; power plant. Anzani motor; total weight of power plant, 968 pounds; total weight, net of machine. 2.000 pounds. Propeller, Fkirgess type, 4 blade: diameter, 8 feet each; pitch 7 feet 9 inches.

The work on the 1913 specification Army aeroplane has been delayed on account of the non-receipt of the 100 H. P. Renault motor which furnishes the power. The parts are all manufactured and the assembly will progress very speedily after receipt of the motor and the armor plate.

The new steel construction and reinforced ribs have awakened a great deal of interest on the part of those acquainted with aeroplane construction. There is no doubt but that this machine represents a stronger type of construction than anything heretofore built in this country.

The three standard Burgess tractors ordered by the Signal Corps are well nigh completed and are also awaiting delivery of motors. The company is employing more men than ever before.

I will never fly again. Fear has driven me out of the skies for all time. Not fear of my own death or the dread of bodily injury for myself has made me give up an art which I dearly love, but the blame and remorse for the death of brother aviators who went crashing into eternity trying to "out-Beachey Beachey." I have quit as pacemaker for Death. * * * I am tormented with a desire to "Loop the Loop" in the air. I know that 1 can do it, but 1 know that no one else can do it. * * * They say I have shown wisdom rare in a gambler, for I quit the game when I was a winner.—Lincoln Beachey.

And they say gamblers dont "squeal!"' If a winner, why do immeasurable harm by writing rot like this for a few paltry '"yellow journal" dollars?

THE LANGLEY AERODYNAMICAL LABORATORY

A concrete plan of organization and conduct of the Langley Aerodynamical Laboratory, inaugurated at a meeting of the Regents of Smithsonian Institution on May I, has been formulated by the secretary.

An advisory committee, composed of the director of the laboratory, one member designated by the Secretary of War, one by the Secretary of the Navy, one by the Secretary of Agriculture and one by the Secretary of Commerce, and others designated by Secretary Walcott of Smithsonian, a total of not more than fourteen, will advise as to the organization and work of the laboratory.

The organization, under proper regulations and fees, may exercise its functions for the departments of the Government and for any individual, firm or association, provided such department, firm, etc., defray the cost of all material and services employed in the exercise thereof.

The advisory committee comprises a chairman, recorder and twelve additional members, all of whom serve for one year, elected annually about May 6, the new members to be appointed prior to date of election.

The advisory committee is provided by Smithsonian with suitable office headquarters, administrative and accounting systems, library, etc., and the laboratory has an income provided for it of $10,000 the first year and $5,000 annually for five years. The franking privilege of the Postal Service is also provided.

For the exact determination of aerophysical constants, the calibration of instruments, testing of aero engines, propellers, materials, etc., the committee has the co-operation of the U. S. Bureau of Standards, which has complete equipment for studying the mechanics of materials and structural forms; for standardizing instruments; for testing power and efficiency of motors. The Weather Bureau co-operates on every phase of aeronautic meteorology and is completely equipped for this work. The War and Navy Departments have official representatives abroad to report periodically on every important phase of the art; each has an assignment of officers who design, test and operate air craft and who determine largely the scope and character of their development; each has machines in actual service with fields and shops.

Smithsonian Institution possesses the unique character of a private organization with Governmental functions and prerogatives. It can receive appropriations directly from Congress, or be recipient or custodian of private funds, or be the recipient of material objects representing any province of nature or any branch of human knowledge or art.

Endowment or other funds bearing the name of the giver will be accepted. Until adequate appropriations have been made by the Government the activities of the organization and committee will have to be sustained largely by private resources.

SUBSIDISED FLYING

The German national aviation fund committee has decided to expend a large portion of the fund in reliability prizes. Every German flier on a German machine, with a German or foreign engine, who remains an hour in the air—not in a competition—receives $250, and for each further consecutive hour another $250; if with a passenger he receives an additional $125. This holds good from March 1st till December 12th, 1914.

The flier must be insured, must stay at an altitude of 1,500 feet for at least fifteen minutes, the receipt of a prize binding the aviator to place himself at the disposal of the military authorities in case of war, and to participate in a three weeks' practice.

Whoever flies more than six hours at a stretch is entitled to a monthly sum of $500 in addition to the former sum. This income the pilot holds until his record is beaten, but his receipts may not exceed in any case the sum of $2,500.

For the longest distance across country within 24 hours, minimum not be less than 312 miles, the prizes consist of a monthly payment of $750, not exceeding $2,250 altogether—until such time as 'he winner is beaten in similar manner. A considerable proportion of the fund is to he expended in insurance against accident—a well-known insurance company having agreed to undertake it at a very low premium.

A SOMERSAULT IN THE AIR

A most unusual occurrence reminiscent of Capt. Reynolds' somersault recently befel Capt. Aubry when flying a Deperdussin for the purpose of effecting reconnaissance over the region of Villerupt. "I was returning after a 35 minute flight," he says, "facing a wind of about 22 M. P. H. My altitude was about 2,500 feet. At the moment of descent a series of violent gusts struck the machine, and on throttling-down and switching off, I was obliged to dive in order to make the controls effective.

"As I dipped the nose of the machine," he continues, "a couple of quickly successive gusts struck the top of the main planes and placed me in a vertical position. While endeavoring to manipulate the elevator I found the machine had taken me in a perfectly vertical chute to less than 1,500 feet. It here adopted a horizontal attitude upside-dozvn and proceeded to effect a tail-first vol-plané."

The pilot, fortunately, was able to retain his seat. "The machine then gradually took up the vertical position again, describing a gigantic form of S while doing so. Flattening out, I flew to a spot about two miles distant."

It appears that the captain then desired to make another short flight in order to keep away any "bad impression" that might come to him subsequently, but his mechanic, who had witnessed the whole affair, persuaded him that the top cabane might have been weakened by the strain.

"Three prominent French officers certify the truth of this statement.

AERONA UTICS

TESTS OF SPRUCE BEAMS

Alee Ogilvie has recently carried out some tests with various types of white spruce which would be used for the upper rear beam of a biplane. In the test the load was applied as in a Wright machine, assuming the upper plane carries 55 per cent, of the load, or, say, 715 pounds of the 1300 pounds (exclusive of weight of wings), and of this 58 per cent, being carried by the rear beam in normal flight at 42 M. P. H., which, in a machine spreading 40 feet would mean a distributed load of 10.3 pounds per running foot. At a speed of 60 M. P. H. the rear beam is assumed to carry 83.5 per cent, of the load, or 14.8 pounds the running foot.

pensive to make, it gave very satisfactory results under test.

Spar No. 5 is easily made with a spindle machine, but when tested shows up as being rather weak laterally.

Spar No. 6 is a mild steel tube measuring 1.25 inches in outside diameter. Its section is 19 gauge; it is solid drawn and unannealed.

The breakages were particularly interesting, and the accompanying photographs show up the weakness of the spars very clearly.

The method of testing is shown in the accompanying diagram, the wire connections being similar to those in use in Wright machines, and it will be seen the bracing system of this machine is identical with the guying of the beams in the tests. Loading was done by putting bricks in boxes hung from the beam where the ribs would cross the spar and the additional boxes shown represent the calculated strut thrusts.

Spar No. 3 was difficult to construct because the glue on such a long length gets cold before the nails can be driven in.

Spar No. 4 is of the Maurice Farman type. Its halves are joined up with a fillet of hard wood. It will be observed that, although ex-

Spar No. 1 broke downwards as a beam in the inner bay.* It was obviously at the point of fracture also at the hook joint. There was twice as much deflection in the inner as in the outer bay.

Spar No. 2 broke in the inner bay as a beam. It also broke at the screw holes of the hook fitting. This was probably because the screw holes cut into too large a proportion of the fibres of the spar.

Spar No. 3 showed weakness in the glued joint. It was also weak against torsion, and twisted at the inner hook fixing through an angle of approximately 30 degrees just before fracture. The fine nails used weakened the side members, as is shown by the failure in compression at each nail.

Spar No. 4 is undoubtedly the best spar of the series. It failed as a beam in the inner bay.

* "May" is the portion of the beam between the supports.

Page 64

ßugml, 1913

Spar Xo. S is too weak sideways, and the failure occurred in the inner bay by the lateral collapse of the spar as a strut. This was not altogether unexpected, as the low lateral moment of inertia for this spar is very noticeable. It was also apparent from the fracture that a larger radius in the channels would have been an improvement.

Spar No. 6 failed as a beam in the inner bay. The objection to this spar is that it is rather heavy.

Table 1.—strength

c a ^ ü. "

,o'-S_. -F a"5 J c'y «'

"S E ^ . S ^ a E on a ~ w w C

1 .485 1.94 .285 .558 .554 1.08 2.19 62.3 128

2 .495 2.02 .558 .285 1.13 .575 2.19 104.0 210

3 .354 1.79 .577 .577 1.03 1.03 1.50 60.2 170

4 .405 1.21 .697 .672 .84 .81 1.94 90.3 223

5 .400 1.65 .697 .356 1.15 .59 1.94 83.9 210

6 .517 25.1 .0307 .0307 .77 .77 .157 69.9 135 The units for columns EI1 and EI are "millions

of pound square inches."

Table II.—deflections Inner Bay. I Outer Bay

Maximum deflection in inches in each span at

No.

 

15.6

26.1

36.6

47.2

15.6

26.1

1

.30

(.70)

1.22

2.18 i

.37

.66

2

.10

.21

.34

.50 !

.16

.29

3

.16

.38

.61

 

.35

(.53)

4

.18

.32

.50

.72

.30

.48

5

.13

.24

.35

.49

(.18)

.30

6

.10

.24

.51

.90

(.30)

.50

.85 .41

.44 .67

.94 .52

.57 .85

The bracketed deflections were interpolated.

type are made possible principally by the minimum gas loss which characterizes this system. In the rigid ships the gas is not contained at large in the balloon body but in bal-loonettes, which are confined within the main balloon body. The balloonettes are very impervious to gas. Recently they have been made out of gold beater's skin. The balloonettes are furthermore surrounded by the air inside the balloon body and by the balloon covering itself, which hinder the invasion of the sun's rays. It is a great advantage of the rigid type that the outer shape of the body cannot be altered by temperature changes. The chief difference between the Schtitte-Lanz and the Zeppelin airship lies in the material of which they are built and in the outer shape. Neither factory takes orders for export.

The Parseval dirigibles are the most widely used in Germany. They have the great advantage over the rigid types, that they can be emptied anywhere and packed for transportation. The Parseval patents have been purchased by the Luftfahrzueg-Gesellschaft m. b. h. in Bitterfeld, and orders for export are taken by the companv.

The Siemens-Schuckert airship is of very large dimensions and possesses a high load-carrying power. It differs from the Parseval ship only in the details of construction. A half-rigid dirigible exclusively for military use is manufactured by Maj. Gross, but it has been supplanted by the types mentioned above.

The speed of a Zeppelin airship, equipped with a 500 H. P. engine reaches some 70 kilometers (43.5 miles) an hour. A Zeppelin can carry more than 30 persons.

GERMAN DIRIGIBLES

The best known German dirigibles are the Zeppelin, Schutte-Lanz, Parseval, Siemens-Schuckert and Gross. These five types differ markedly from each other in construction. The two first have rigid balloon bodies. Zeppelin uses aluminum and Schiitte-Lanz, wood for the material of the frame. Both types of construction have so far proved good. The Zeppelin has often remained very long aloft in test flights; thus, a short time ago it accomplished a 36-hour voyage without any accident or stop whatsoever. These ships are built so that they can land on water and they are, therefore, purchased by the naval administration. The motors are very reliable and are manufactured by a sister company of the Zeppelin shipbuilding concern (Maybach motors). Herr Maybach was formerly an engineer with the Daimler (Mercedes) Motor Co. The Daimler Motor Co., besides Maybach, makes airship motors. They are of 100 H. P. and 200 H. P. The products are of about equal value, but it may be that Maybach has had the greater experience with airship motors. The other German airship motors cannot be counted as first class.

The rigid ships manoeuver very well in the air, but good hangars are necessary. Turn-able hangars are the best. There is one in Germany. The long trips made by the rigid

A subscriber wants to know why aero clubs do not investigate fatal accidents and endeavor to determine the causes for the general benefit of the art. "Search us!" AERONAUTICS has urged this but nothing has ever come about.

I wish to say a word in regard to your magazine while I am writing. Ever since the early part of 1910 I have been reading your magazine and I don't know what I would have done in several cases without it. It has proved a boon to me ever since the start. I also wish to congratulate you upon the technical work that you publish. Out here much work is done by such articles and great improvement has been issued therefrom.— L. S. IV., Calif.

AEROPLANE GUNS IN U. S. ARMY

According to the Ordnance Department of the U. S. Army, the development of special batteries of guns for firing at aeroplanes is considered impracticable. In the development of field artillery, however, the carriages are now being built to provide for high elevations which will permit of their being used against aeroplanes if necessary. The new field gun carriages will also permit of a greater traverse of the gun on the carriage than formerly, which will permit of following a fast moving target for a considerable distance without moving the carriage itself. These changes, however, are not directly caused by the use of aeroplanes but are the natural improvements in field gun carriage design.

Page 65

^T7

MODEL NOTES

Obst Tractor No. 36

By HARRY SCHULTZ, Model Editor

The model shown in the accompanying drawing was designed by Air. C. V. Obs't of the Long Island Model Aero Club.

It is a scientifically designed tractor model and has shown its great stability by flying in heavy winds, as the writer can personally testify to. Hand launched it has repeatedly made flights of over 600 feet and when used as a R.O.G. model has made a duration of over 40 seconds.

The centre of gravity and centre of pressure coincide while the thrust is i}4 inches above the centre of pressure. The weight of the model complete and ready for flight is 4 ounces.

The fuselage is built up in a triangular form and is 31 inches in length, 2 inches wide and 2^ inches high at the front, tapering to a point at the rear, the two lower spars being bent up at the front to join the upper spar, as shown. The fuselage is held rigid

by a series of bamboo braces, each 5 inches apart. Upper spar is poplar 14 'nch square, tapering to % inch square at the rear where it is rounded and held loosely in a loop of wire. By this method the whole torque of the motor is taken up by the last 6 inches of this spar and the whole frame is not twisted. The lower spars are maple dowel sticks 3/16 inch diameter, planed on two sides and tapering towards the rear. All joints are bound and glued with Ambroid, then the entire frame is shellaced. The main plane is 27JX inches in spread, with a chord of 4 inches. The centre point of the same is 2 inches in advance of the tips and the plane has a dihedral angle of 145 degrees. The plane is made entirely of bamboo and the front spar of the same is bent around to form the ends. Seven ribs are used, placed 4^4 inches apart and having a camber of V% inch. The plane is covered on the under-

6U ÍaocW

rudder

Tnofo7-%hcÁ s u.spenJ

Ccl T-n TVCrc.

•74-1-

     
 

^-1/____/ _

   

—\. y)

 
     

SOM U LT?

side with silk fibre paper treated with Ambroid varnish. The rear plane is rectangular in form, 13 inches by 4 inches, and is made of bamboo, and covered and treated in the same manner as the main plane.

The rudder is made of a single piece of split bamboo bent to the shape shown, with a flat piece projecting forward for binding the same to the frame with rubber. It measures iy2 inches by 2^/2 inches and is double surfaced with silk fibre paper and treated with Ambroid.

The screw is gli inches in diameter and 12 inches pitch and a blade width of \l/> inches. It is driven hy 14 strands of yi inch flat rubber 27 inches long placed above the frame and gives a thrust of 2 ounces, at 1,000 R. P. M. The propeller bearing is of tubing and the shaft is a heavy threaded rod with washers and nuts.

The landing gear consists of two 12 inch bamboo skids bent up in front to protect the propeller. The skids measure J4 nicn by 1/16 inch in cross section and taper to V% inch by 1/16 inch at the rear. The skids are attached to the fuselage by four uprights as shown. A pair of \V\ inch tin wheels covered with fibre and revolving on a steel axle are slung from the skids by rubber bands.

The model is a fast and steady flyer and has won many contests when the wind was of such velocity as to prevent other tractor models from remaining in the air.

THE BAUER PARACHUTE DROPPER FOR MODEL AEROPLANES

The device shown in the accompanying drawing is the idea of George Bauer, of New York, and is a very ingenious device for the dropping of small parachutes from model aeroplanes while model is in free flight. The device has been tried out many times at Van Cortlandt Park and works excellently.

The device is applicable to model aeroplanes with the usual "A" frame, but with minor modifications it may be readily applied to any type model. It is usually placed a few inches in front of the centre of gravity but it may be placed wherever desired, according to the machine in which it is placed.

In the drawing, ff represent the two main bars of the frame. The receptacle for the parachute is constructed of a sheet of aluminum, 34 gauge, bent to a stream-line form as shown; about a half inch of the same on each side is bent and secured together, as shown, to form the rear of the receptacle. At the rear of the receptacle 2, a small brass lug 3 is attached, this lug having a perforation 4 therein. Through this perforation 4 extends a small bolt or paper fastener, this bolt or paper fastener holding on the bottom 5 of the receptacle very loosely so that it can swing very easily from side to side. On one side of the bottom 5 an upright lug 6 is formed as shown. Another lug 7 is formed on the front of the bottom plate as shown.

this lug being provided with a small perforation. The receptacle is secured to the frame of the model by being attached to the two bamboo braces 1,1 as shown.

Attached to the frame in the position shown is a small wire hook 15, and running from this hook to a hook 13 is a small rubber band 14, this rubber band being stretched when placed upon the hooks, the object being to hold the door of the parachute receptacle open (see Fig. 3).

On the opposite framework, a small piece of tubing 11 is secured. In this tube a wire shaft turns freely; upon the outer end of this shaft a tiny copper washer is soldered, and on the other end of the shaft a hook 10 is formed. Attached to the frame is another hook 10a as shown. Running from the hook 10 to the hook 8 is a small rubber band, this band being hung very loosely between the hooks.

The operation of the device is as follows: 1 he hook 8 is attached to the ordinary winder for winding up the motors of the model aeroplane, and the hook 10a is inserted in the hook 10, to prevent the shaft from turning in the tube 11 while the rubber is being wound, and then the rubber is wound up (the number of winds being governed by the time when it is desired that the parachute drop). When the rubber is wound it is hooked back in its proper position, and it then will draw the door 5 of the parachute receptacle closed, the lug 6 preventing the door from being pulled over too far. The parachute is then placed in the receptacle.

The model is then wound up and the hook 10a is released from its interlocking position with the hook 10, thereby allowing the hook 10 and its shaft to revolve in the tube 11 under the power of the rubber band 9. The model is then launched for flight. When the winds in the rubber 9 have wound out (this taking about 20 seconds, although the time may be regulated as desired as hereinbefore stated) the rubber will hang loosely, allowing the rubber band 14 to draw the door 5 open (Fig. 3), and the parachute will fall out, open in two or three feet and gently descend to earth, this having no effect on the flying of the model. If the device is made properly it should not weigh more than il/2 ounces.

-TARACHUTE DROPPEK FOK

noVtZX. AEROPLANE 3 . O •».». K.

AKRON, OHIO

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Extra Service Tires and Wheels

Goodyear Aeroplane Tires are the last word in service. They are made large because large tires are stronger and more resilient—two qualities vital to the success of aeroplane tires. Built by tire experts to do for aviators what famous Goodyear Xo-Rim-Cuts do for automobile owners—minimize expense and multiply service. Single Tube, and Double Tube Tires of No-Rim-Cut and Clincher Types. Also strong wheels.

Balloons

Besides (ioodyear Aeroplane Fabric, Tires, Sp'rints, etc , we build balloons complete and guarantee them as to material and workmanship. All spherical balloons purchased by U.S. Government during past two vears have been Good-\ears. Big future tor ballooning. Let us explain their value as advertising and amusement features.

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Branches and Agencies in 103 Principal Cities

Antony Jannus with Two Passengers Flying the New Benoist Flying Boat, Equipped with Six Cylinder

urlevci nl Aeronautical Motor

(reg. u. s. pat. off.)

This machine is now owned by Mr. W. D. Jones of Duluth The most prominent aeroplane manufacturers in the country recognize the superiority of the Sturtevant motor

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AUGUST, 1913

Vol. XIII, No. 2

Entered as second-class malter September 22, 1908, at the PosloJfice, New York, under the Act oJ March 3, 1B79.

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MOTORS FOR SALE

ENGINE FOR SALE—8-cyl. "V," list price, $1,500; new, never used. The one who buys this motor gets one of those few real bargains that isn't picked up every day. Thoroughly tested by maker who desires to sell the last one in his shop. Complete with propeller, $800. Address, "Eight Cylinder," care of AERONAUTICS, 122 E. 25th St., New York.

AEROPLANES

SACRIFICE—A Curtiss type biplane, flown by one of America's most famous aviators, with 8 cyl. Hall-Scott 60 H. P. motor, all in Al condition, for $1,800 cash, subject to demonstration to bonafide purchaser. Shipping boxes, propeller, crates, completely equipped for the road. Free instruction in flight to purchaser at well-known flying field. The best bargain of the season. Opportunity knocks but once at every man's door. Address "Sacrifice," care of AERONAUTICS, 122 E. 25th St., New York.

BARGAIN—30 foot Curtiss type biplane, with 5 foot extensions, chord 5ft., single surfaced, laminated ribs, dble. surf, elevator, 4-cyl. 50-60 H. P., new. Engine turns 6 by 5 propeller at 1,500. Also extra 7 ft. propeller. Engine alone cost $1,600. Can be seen any time. Must be seen to be appreciated. $850 whole outfit. Address W. B. R., care of AERONAUTICS, 122 E. 25th St., New York.

IMMEDIATE SALE NECESSARY! One Model "D" genuine Curtiss aeroplane with hydro attachment, equipped with brand new Model. "O" Curtiss 80 H. P. motor. Full equipment of exhibition extras. Everything in good mechanical condition; $3,200 cash will buy it. Act quick. K, care of AERONAUTICS.

FOR SALE—Curtiss Military Aeroplane. Planes not covered and without engine. Price, $90. A. B. C, 95 West St., Maiden, Mass.

MONOPLANE GLIDER. Exhibition Flyer. Moneymaker. Practically New. Has Rudder Controls and Skids. Immediate Sale Necessary. Bargain! Aviation Directory, Lawrence, Kansas.

MODEL CONTESTS

Brooklyn, N. Y., July 13, 1913—A tractor contest was held by the Bay Ridge Model Aero Club on the above date. Flights from the hand of over 600 feet were made by W. F. Bamberger, with a duration of 43 seconds. A flight of 25 seconds was made by L. Bamberger. The models were all single propellered. The members of this club are greatly interested in Tractor models and are desirous of competing with other clubs in contests of this kind.

A contest for biplane models, rising from the ground, for duration will be held by the Long Island Model Aero Club 011 Sept. 1, 1913, at their grounds, Old Mill Park, Crescent Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y., for a silver medal.

At a competition for duration from the hand, held at the Ingleside Golf Grounds in California on May 30th, the world's record was broken by W. L. Butler of Vista Grande, Cal., who made a flight of 170 seconds. It is interesting to note that Mr. Butler, who is one of California's best model flyers, made five other flights, all over 100 seconds. The official world's records now stand as follows:

Duration from hand, W. L. Butler, 170 sees.

Distance from hand, Arthur Nealy, 2,740 ft.

Distance from ground, L. Bamberger, 1,542 ft.

Duration from ground, W. F. Bamberger, 81 sees.

Hydroaeroplane duration, Geo. A. Cavannah, 60.4 sees.

Tractor hydro, duration, Harry Herzog, 28.4 sees.

At the semi-annual election of the Long Island Model Aero Club held in July, the following members were elected officers: Charles V. Obst, President; Dan Criscioli, Secretary, George H. Gorgas, Treasurer, and Harry Schultz, Corresponding Editor and Club Photographer. The club is growing fast. Meetings are held every Friday evening at S p. m. at 123

Euclid Ave., Cypress Hills. L. I. Every Sunday morning at 9 a. m., much interesting flying and testing of new models can be seen at the club grounds at Old Mill Park, Brooklyn. Monthly contests are held with silver and bronze medals as prizes. Non-members are permitted to compete in these contests on payment of a small fee.

During the past two months a great deal of fine flying has been done, and many new and interesting machines have been brought out. Freeland and Ness have been making duration flights with featherweight machines, while Hackradt with a heavy, original type speed monoplane has shown his model capable of fine altitude and distance. Obst has been making excellent high flights with his novel tractor model. He has lately brought out a small staggered biplane model which has made excellent flights. Fine R.O.G. flights under favorable weather conditions have been made by King. Ness has been experimenting with a flying boat model, which has given promising results. H. Criscioli has under construction a six foot monoplane model of which excellent results can be expected. Scientific models are becoming very popular among the members of the club, and models of this kind have been constructed by Corgas, Obst, Cavanagh and Funk. Some of the members are experimenting with other methods of propulsion besides rubber. A power turbine is being tested by one flyer and a machine is all ready for its. installation. Two other members have designed a simple steam driven model with many original ideas. The same is now in the course of construction and will soon be completed.

Address all inquiries regarding model flving to the model editor. Harrv Schultz, 252 West'115th St., New York City, N. Y.

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Send sketch or model for FREE Search of Patent Office records. Write for our Guide Books and What to Invent with valuable List of Inventions Wanted sent Free. Send for our special list of prizes offered for Aeroplanes.

$600,000 OFFERED IN PRIZES FOR AIRSHIPS

tfTJWe.

^jj patents in Airships, 10 cents each. Improvements in Airships should be protected without delay

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Main Offices - 724-726 NINTH ST., N. W. - WASHINGTON, D. C.

+

BURGESS pate NTS

FOR SALE—Year old passenger water machine, Sturtevant Motot, guaranteed in first class condition. (Jnlv bargavi ever offered. Owner has'bought flying boat. $2,000.

Address, Burgess, care Aeronautics

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Samples and prices on request

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A bi-monthly magazine of artillery and other matter relating to coast defense.

Published under the supervision of the School Board, Coast Artillery School, Fort Monroe, Virginia.

$2.50 a year. With Index to Current Military Literature, $2.75.

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Ex-member Examining Corps, U. S. Patent Office Attorney-at-Law and Solicitor of Patents American and foreign patents secured promptly and with special regard to the complete legal protection of the invention. Handbook for inventors sent upon request. 30 McGill Bids. WASHINGTON, D. C.

curtiss 3-foot Model PLYING BOAT

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THE BOLAND MOTOR

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Office: 1821 BROADWAY, NEW YORK.

AERONA UTICS Page 70 A ugust, 1913J

NEW ARMY AEROPLANES

About September 15th the official tests will be made of the new high-powered military machines in which the engines are now being installed. These machines are: a 100 H. P. Renault motored aeroplane from Burgess Co. & Curtis, a 90 H. P. Austro-Daimler motored Wright and a 160 Gnome engined machine from Curtiss.

In addition to_ these machines there are due to be delivered this autumn three Burgess tractors with 7U Renaults and one Curtiss tractor. These machines will all probably be delivered by the'first of November, making a ttotal number of machines in the possession of the Signal Corps at that time, twenty-four.

A field has been leased for three months at Osborne, ()., near Dayton, for the purpose of conducting tests on the three new aeroplanes ordered to conform to the most recent requirements for military type aeroplanes formulated by the office of the Chief Signal Officer. A svnopsi's of these rigid requirements were printed in AERONAUTICS for February.

IN THE NAVY

The Navy will purchase as many machines as it can use to advantage, or, in emergency, as many as may he required, but it is the intention of Captain Chambers to keep along with development and expects better results with each machine. Just now, no new ones will be ordered until the matter of a standard control is settled and this is being done as rapidly as possible.

THE GYRO MOTOR IN ENGLAND

The Gyro motor is coming in for a good deal of attention through the sensational flying of the aviator demonstrating it and the machine is being advertised as one of the attractions at the Hendon weekly meetings which are always novel and crowd-drawing and have proven wonderfully producting of live interest. The few attempts made in America by clubs to hold anything like regular "days" invariably prove fizzles from the attendance point of view. The recent review on Long Island by Navy officials resulted in magnificient flying by the Moisant and other flyers but outside of the Navy men themselves the public was not among those present.

Claude Grahame-hyphen-White might be able to duplicate Hendon over here, but no one else seems to have the knack.

ALTITUDE RECORD ALMOST BROKEN

The American altitude record, 11,642 feet, as made by Lincoln Beachey at Chicago in 1911, was almost broken at Bath. N. Y., July 26, when Frank Bumside reached a height of 11,450 feet. Burnside is connected .tith the Thomas Brothers aviation school and in the flight operated one of their new type headless biplanes. He ascended at 4:29 o'clock and completed the flight at 6:15 o'clock, being in the air one hour and 46 minutes.

The day was very clear, the sky almost cloudless, and yet he would disappear from sight at times, while directly overhead. It was a beautiful flight. Tin machine and motor behaved perfectly. A new Curtiss O-X motor was used.

Burnside said that the earth seemed to be saucer shaped, and that a great concrete wall surrounded this concaved earth; and, of course, he was always directly above the centre; and that around the top of this dark concrete-like wall, the horizon appeared woolly.

On July 31, Burnside left the school grounds at five o'clock and landed on the Curtiss field at Hammondsport at 5:10. He visited with a number of his friends, attended a dance, and returned the following morning.

For the Perry's Victory Centennial Celebration, August 16, Walter Johnson will have the flying boat, equipped with a 90 H. P. Austro-Daimler, and Frank! Burnside will pilot the hydroaeroplane. This will be] equipped with a 90-100 Curtiss.

SPEED ALONE WILL NOT WIN INTERNATIONAL PLANE RACE

The distance this year for the_ international aeroplane race will remain at 200 kiloms. over a minimum circuit of 5 kiloms. Competitors must passj a preliminary test consisting of a flight over a| straight course of two kiloms., there and back, speed to be taken both ways, which must be no more than 70 kiloms. an hour. mean. The winner, therefore, of the contest will be he of the machine which has' the greatest range of speed.

NEW CORPORATIONS

Heinrich Aeroplane Co., Inc., Baldwin, N. Y.J manufacturers of aeroplanes; capital, $15,000. IrB corporators; Arthur O. Heinrich, Albert S. Heinrich! Baldwin. L. 1., N. V.; Henry C. Karpen, 584 Broadl way, Brooklyn.

Shaw Aeroplane Co., Portland. To build aéroplanes! give exhibitions, etc.; capital, $500,000. President! R. C. Brown, Somerville, Mass.; treasurer, C. J. Poingdester, Belmont, Mass.

G. S. A. Aviation Company, Inc., Horneil, N. Vi To manufacture and exploit aerial machines, etc! Capital, $10,000. Incorporators: Clinton Gray, 22B Main street; George A. Salzman, 28 W. GeneseJJ street, and Harry L. Allen, 27 Armory place, all uf llornell, N. Y.

The Flying Association, Inc., New York City! To manufacture and exploit aerial craft and to conl duct a general publishing business in connection therel with. Capital, $30,000. Incorporators: Thomas A| Stoddart and_ Arthur C. Beck, both of 2 Rector street! New York City and David Kaess, 11 Broadway, New York City.

The Atwater Safety Flying Machine Company! Akron, Ohio. Capital, $25,000. Incorporators: M| L. Atwater and Joy Atwater, both of Akron, Ohio.

Aero Sales Companv. Inc., Springfield, Mass. Capj tal, $50,000. Directors and officers: George Ulriclj president and treasurer, Hartford, Conn.; C. H Sughrue and J. J. Tanzy, both of Springfield, Mass.

Itala Aeroplane Company, Inc., New York, N. Y Capital, $100,000. Incorporators: Rubino Piastino, 4M Maiden Lane, New York, N. Y.; Arthur B. La FaB and George R. Cooper, both of 80 Maiden Lane, Ne\B York, N. Y.

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS

Three aeroplanes and parts of domestic make werJ exported during June with a value of $7,826. NJ imports for the month. During 12 months, endin! June 30, 13 machines and parts were imported, value* at $52,696. There remain in the warehouse 3 fori eign machines of a value of $11,623.

August Stenzy, a Baltimorean, who catalogues sev! eral aeronautical motors of great powers, was re! strained by three policemen from leaping over thJJ lieutenant's desk to attack his wife when he receivecl a sentence of 60 days in jail for beating his mate! who swore out a warrant for him, according to thJJ Baltimore Sun. Must have thought he was aviatoJ Beatty!

J FRENCH AEROPLANES

ENGINEERS iNVENTORS AVIATORS

CONSTRUCTORS

TAKE NOTICE!

For all photos, descriptions, data,news, drawings, etc., regarding FRENCH AVIATION, address below :

AD AMS-FAR WELL

REVOLVING MOTORS

HAVE BEEN IN

THE ADAMS

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COMPANY

DUBUQUE, IOWA, U. S. A.

^Thomas School

OF AVIATION

OFFERS SUPERIOR ADVANTAGES

Address, Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co. BATH, N. Y.

The Bowden Patent Wire Mechanism

J. S. BRETZ COMPANY

SOLE IMPORTERS 250 WEST 54tb ST., NEW YORK

AERONAUTICAL RADIATORS

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EL ARCO RADIATOR COMPANY

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FOR FLYING BOATS USE

JEFFERY'S MARINE GLUE

LTse our Waterproof Liquid Glue, or No. 7 Black, White, or Yellow Soft Quality Glue for waterproofing the canvas covering of flying boats. It not only waterproofs and preserves the canvas but attaches it to the wood, and with a coat of paint once a year will last as long as the boat.

For use in combination with calico or canvas between veneer in diagonal planking, and for waterproofing muslin for wing surfaces.

Send for samples, circulars, directions for use, etc.

L. W. FERDINAND & CO. 201 South Street Boston, Mass., U. S. A.

WIRE

We make an extra high grade plated finish wire for aviators' use.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ADDRESS

John A. Roebling's Sons Co.

TRENTON, N. J.

V-Ray Spark-Plugs Never Lay Down

The V-RAY CO. Marshalltown. Ia.

CHARAVAY PROPELLERS

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SLOANE AEROPLANE CO., - 1733 BROADWAY, New York City.

Ageots: Eames Tricyle Co., Sao Francisco; National Aeroplaoe Co., Chicago.

A ERONA UTICS Page 72 A ugust, 1913

DEATH OF ROCHE

Henri de la Roche, who claimed to be a French aviator, died in the hospital at Omaha, Neb., on August 15th, from injuries received the previous week in getting off the ground with an experimental machine. He pulled back on the elevator suddenly, the 'plane lifted and fell on one wing. Eye witnesses state that apparently the man was not accustomed to aeroplanes. He claimed to be a brother of Baroness de la Roche.

DEATH OF BRYANT

Johnny Bryant was killed at Victoria, B. C, on August 6, when he landed on the top of a two-story building. Bryant was an exhibition flyer of three years' experience. It is reported that the accident was due to improper repairs. As usual, no official investigation is made of these fatalities.

DEATH OF COLONEL CODY

Col. S. F. Cody was killed while trying out a new aeroplane of his own construction on August 7th at Aldershot, England. His passenger, named Evans, was also killed.

The machine used at the time of the accident was a new hydroaeroplane, fitted with a 100 H. P. motor and was built for the race around England and Scotland, for which a prize of $25,000 is offered. The machine appeared to "crumple up," the wings suddenly shooting upwards and the whole structure collapsing.

Col. Cody's death is the hardest blow that British aviation has felt, perhaps, since the time of the tragic loss of Rolls. He was an Anglo-American, born in Fort Worth about 1861. A few years ago he became a British subject.

He was a cow puncher in his early days and later turned his attention to experimenting with man-lift-ing_ kites. Going to England he continued his experiments and achieved such success that the British War Department attached him to its aviation staff and he helped to design and construct the first British dirigible. In 190S he made short flights with his first aeroplane. In 1909, Cody broke the world's record for cross-country flight, flying 40 miles over the country around Farnhorough. He won all of the British Michelin prizes but one. Last year he won the $20,000 prize in the military competition open to the world, and $5,000 for British machines. He was also awarded $25,000 for his kites.

Col. Cody was buried at Aldershot on August 11th, with military honors.

Mr. Evans, the other victim, wis a sportsman and an officer in the Indian Civil Service.

"The most reasonable assumptions are either that a wire of some fitting came loose and hit the propeller which broke, the fractured blade flying forward and cutting the rear spar, and so letting the whole wing fold up, or else that the spar broke and the flying pieces broke the propeller.

It is believed that both Cody and his passenger, Mr. Evans, might have been saved if they had worn safety belts, for the evidence is conclusive that they were thrown out as the machine broke, and came to the ground some distance from the machine which itself came down on the tops of some trees which so broke the fall that the central section, comprising the seats for the pilot and passenger, and the engine, came down comparatively gently, the engine not being torn from its bed, and the woodwork surrounding the seats not being broken anywhere."

EVERYTHING FOR THE MODEL MAKER

Everything imaginable in the way of supplies and scale models, and then some more is listed in the new 48-page catalogue of the Ideal Aeroplane & Supply Co., the fourth issued, beginning with a little sheet of 6 pages a couple of years ago. Even Cecil Peoli is made famous by a model named after him because it is a replica of his record model made when he was a model flyer instead of a real dyed-in-the-wool aviator. Models to scale may be had of the well-known types of aeroplanes, even to the latest Curtiss flying boat. This is a surprise catalogue.

SCOTT TO DROP BOMBS FOR ARMY

Riley E. Scott is to drop bombs at the army's field at San Diego in the near future at the request

of General Scriven, chief signal officer. The army wants to know if Scott can drop bombs with as great continued accuracy as he did when he won the Michelin prize for bomb dropping over all foreign competitors on their own ground, and if these bombs will do as great damage as promised by the bomb dropping adherents. The French Government has bought several of Scott's devices, of which a full description lias appeared in AERONAUTICS. Scott is now on the Pacific Coast.

BALLOON ASCENSIONS

Akron, O., July 19.—R. A. D. Preston, pilot, with N. M. Patterson in the "Goodyear" to Hadley, Pa. Distance, 70 miles; duration, 6 hours 30 minutes.

AKRON DISTANCE RECORD Akron, O., July 26.—R. H. Upson, pilot, and Dr. J. S. Millard in the "Goodyear" to Rushford, N. Y., covering 190 miles in 11 hours 15 minutes.

This last flight was a very good illustration of the possibilities of steering spherical balloons. "We went due north for a while, but gradually brought around to the northeast striking Lake Erie at Ashtabula. We found the wind below 1,200 feet to be blowing toward the lake, but above that to be from the lake, and by keeping the balloon at the proper height we succeeded in just skirting the shore for a distance of over 60 miles, passing over the cities of Ashtabula, Conneaut and Erie."

Other ascensions from Akron, unlisted, are: One on July 4th, 30 miles in 2f£ hours; one on June 17th, 100 miles in 5 hours.

Kansas City, July 27.—H. E. Honeywell and party were up in the "K. C. Ill," using lunch for ballast. The aeronauts want to know what becomes of the weight when the lunch is eaten.

"If you eat a pound of food you don't weigh a pound more than before eating it. You weigh a few ounces more, but not a pound. What becomes of the weight, I'm not philosopher enough to say, I only know it is a fact. So by consuming some ten pounds of food yesterday, we lightened the balloon by several pounds, and arose accordingly."

The party finally made a safe landing on the Kellerstrass farm, south of Kansas City. The start was made from Overland Park.

Phila., Aug. 23—A. T. Atherholt, pilot, Harrison Smith and G. B. Newbold in the "Penn." to Lake-wood, N. J.

RECRUITS WANTED FOR AVIATION SERVICE

It is desired to invite the attention of officers of the army to the status of aviation in our service. At present the law permits the detail of 30 army officers for aviation and provides an increase of thirty-five per_ cent, pay and allowances while on such duty. It is hoped Congress will enact legislation providing for further increase of pay and other advantages.

About ten vacancies are now existing. Applications for these will be given due consideration, taking into account the order of their receipt. The detached service law does not apply to officers on aviation duty. Experience in training officers for this duty has shown that it is advisable to limit the details to men not exceeding thirty years of age. The applicant should be certain of his fitness physically and temperamentally. This involves excellent eyesight, good hearing, endurance, quickness of action and presence of mind. Blanks covering these points may be obtained from the Chief Signal Officer, Washington, D. C, on application.

North Carolina man wants $25,000 for involuntary ride through air in the suit of J. W. Smith against the Cumberland County (N. C.) Agricultural Society for $25,000, which Smith demands for "menial anguish," he is alleged to have suffered during an involuntary ride he took when his foot was caught in a rope' attached to a balloon on the grounds of the society last fall and was carried a mile through the air. And yet, some people buy 5,000 dollar aeroplanes to do the same thing.

AERONA UTICS

Vage 73

ylugust, 1913

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EARL V. FRITTS who gained his pilot license with a Thomas Biplane, equipped with a 60-70 h. p. MAX1MOTOR

Maximotor Makers, Detroit, Mich. Bath, N. Y., Feb. 5, 1913.

Dear Sirs:—Wish to inform you that I have today successfully filled the requirements in a number of flights to qualify for my pilot license. The M AXIMOTOR stood with me right through to the end and no other motor on the field has anything on your new product. I wish you the most of success during this coming season.

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Airmen Should Be Interested In Photography

THE PHOTOGRAPHIC TIMES

Has long been regarded as the standard American Authority on photographic matters.

Each number has forty pages of interesting photographic text, printed on fine paper from good type, and illustrated with many attractive half tones.

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Illustrations showing examples of the work of the best American and foreign pictorialists.

Foreign Digest.

Camera club happenings, exhibitions, and photographers' association notes. Items of Interest.

A department devoted to "Discoveries."

Reviews of the new photographic books.

Description of the latest novelties and specialties brought out by dealers and manufacturers.

New Moisant Monoplane. Designed by Kantner

WOOD BREAKS CROSS COUNTRY RECORD

August 8—The American cross-country non-stop distance record was probably broken when C. Murvin Wood, the Moisant flyer, flew from his shed on the Hempstead Plains. L. 1., to Gaithersburg, Md., where he landed to adjust his engine, which had been missing for some time, and to get his bearings, after having become lost in the smoke and haze over the city of Baltimore. The distance has been figured as 239 miles. His total time in the air was 5 hours, 1 minute.

Wood started at 4:30 in the morning in the attempt to fly to Fort Myer, Washington, demonstrate his new monoplane before army and navy officials, and

return the same day. The incident at Gaithersburg delayed him until late in the afternoon, when he finally completed his journey by landing on the parade ground at Ft. Myer, where General Leonard Wood and several officers were waiting. At 4:30 a special train engaged by the Moisant company, the builder of the machine, left the Pennsylvania station and though it made over 90 miles an hour for portions of the distance, a delay at Philadelphia to get word of Wood's location allowed him to get some twenty minutes ahead of the train at that point, so that further attempts to beat Wood to Washington were given up by those on board the train.

Later demonstrations were made before officials of the army and the machine finally shipped back to New York.

The longest non-stop cross-country record, made in this country is the official 220 miles of Lt. Milling and passenger, made between Texas City and San Antonio.

Chassis of the New Moisant

PRINCIPAL EVENTS

July 22—Glenn Martin left Muskegon, Mich., at which point he had abandoned the Lakes Cruise, at 6:45 a. m. and landed at Grant Park, Chicago, at 12:50 p. m., covering a total of 160 miles. The trip from Muskegon to St. Joseph was made without a stop, a distance of 80 miles. The next stop was Calumet Park where more fuel was taken on to finish the trip. He carried with him Charles Day, the builder of the machine.

August 6—Beckwith Havens, with a passenger, left the Detroit Motor Boat Club at 5:25 p. m. for Toledo, where he arrived safely, covering a distance of 55 miles in 65 minutes. With Harry Atwood he flew to Detroit again and back to Toledo, going one way in 37 minutes.

August 15.—Grover C. Bergdoll flew alone from Llanerch, Pa., to Atlantic City, N. J., a distance of approximately 63 miles in 1 hour 50 minutes in his Wright, his second flight to Atlantic City within a year.

Aug. 23—Havens arrived at Cleveland on way to Buffalo, having made stops at Sandusky and Cedar Point on the way.

FAIL TO INDICT DE VILLERS

The Curtiss aeroplane company tried on Aug. 26 to have Yves de Yillers, president of the notorious Aeroplane Motor and Equipment Company, indicted on a charge of grand larceny.

Curtiss made a contract with the Government to furnish a Gnome 160 II. P. tractor.

"Curtiss said that he contracted with De Villers to furnish the motor for $7,772, and that after various delays a second-hand motor, not equal to 160 H. P. was delivered. The payment of $5.239.67 in June was the transaction on which the charge was based. The grand jury decided that no crime had been committed."

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Private Flying Field

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CAPTAIN THOMAS S. BALDWIN

Box 78, Madison Sq. P.O. New York

AEROPLANES

AERONAUTICS Page 76 Jlugust, \9\\

U. S. Patents Gone to Issue

Copies of any of These Patents may be Secured by Sending Five Cents in Coin to the Commissioner of Patents, Washington, D. C.

Even in these enlightened days, the crop of patents on absolutely worthless, or even questionable, devices increases rather than decreases.

It would take an entire issue of the magazine to abstract in a full and clear manner the claims of the majority of the patents issued. In a great many cases it is even impossible to give in a few lines what sort of an apparatus the patent relates to. In most instances we have used merely the word "aeroplane" or "helicopter" if such it is. Where it is impossible to indicate the class, fven, in which the patent belongs, without printing the whole patent, we have used the word "flying machine."

The patents starred (*) are those which may be found of particular interest; but it must be understood we do not pretend to pass judgment upon merits or demerits.

Where patent seems to have particular interest, the date of filing will be given.—Editor.

Do not attempt to invent in a field the science and prior art of which are unknown to you—William Macomber.

ISSUED JULY 15

1,067,773—Joseph A. Steinmetz, Philadelphia, Pa., APPARATUS FOR DEFENDING AGAINST AIRCRAFT, consisting of captive aerial bombs which explode on contact. Filed Sept. 6, 1912.

ISSUED JULY 22

1,068,108—Giuseppe Colucci, Boston, Mass.. AEROPLANE in which there are alternately biplane and monoplane surfaces arranged tandem.

-1.068,110—Newton B. Converse, Fresno, Cal., STABILITY system using compressed air or electromagnet devices.

1,068,165—Peter Peterson, San Francisco, CaL, Spring device for giving an initial upward impetus to an aeroplane at the moment of starting.

* 1.068.166—Peter Peterson, San Francisco, Cal., LANDING GEAR in which pontoons and wheels are employed and pontoons raised for purpose of landing on land.

1.068.311—Romulo Felix Burga, Liverpool, England, AEROPLANE; wing surface, means for adjusting inclination or curvature of main planes, etc.

1.068,332—Rudolph G. Dressier, New York, N. Y., FLYING MACHINE with oscillating wings.

ISSUED JULY 29

*1,068.437—Augustus F. W. Macmanus, San Antonio, Texas, STABILITY device employing ailerons between main planes and vertical rudders moved by a swinging weight, such as motor and pilot.

1.068,501—Tohn S. Jorgensen, Reno, Nevada, AEROPLANE.

1.068.651—De Bert Hartley, Chicago, ill., AEROPLANE with tilting supporting and controlling planes, automatically or manually operated; balancing sustaining planes pivoted on longitudinal axes with areas outside pivots overbalancing that inside, etc.; 31 claims.

1.068,652—De Bert Hartley. Chicago. 111.. AER(| PLANE with main planes dihedrally angled or curveB pivoted to change angle of incidence, capable o being independently or simultaneously warped, etcl 29 claims.

1.068,663—James C. Johnston, Blackwell, Okla. STABILITY device comprising front, rear and sid controlling planes swing about axes transverse t. line of flight, levers, etc., operated by pendulum.

1,068,727—Guido Antoni and Ugo Antoni. Pisaj Italy, SURFACE: a lifting plane which is rigil along front edge with a part of its rear edge adjacenl to the body of the aeroplane flexible upward anl downward and warped into an upward curve.

ISSUED AUGUST 5

1,069,138—Henrv L. E. Johnson. Washington D. C, STRLTCTURE patent providing for an inverte arch structure under the lower plane, on whic motor and operator may be carried if desired.

1,069,332—Richard F. Hommel, San Francisco, Calj PIVOTED PROPELLER driving motors on eac plane, adjustable "centerboard."

*1,069,346—Stanislaus Palmowski and Wincerj Chwalkowski, New York. N. Y.. means for CHANG ING THE ANGLE OF INCIDENCE of main wind by rotating them about an axis.

ISSUED AUGUST 12

1,069,662—Daniel W. Adams, Glendale Spring/ N. C, PARACHUTE LAUNCHING device i\ aviators.

1,069,688—Toseph Gavura, Tohnstown, Pa., COM BINED AEROPLANE AND AUTOMOBILE.

1.069,694—Louis Adolphe Hayot, Beauvais, Francl JET PROPULSION device for sustaining and prl pelling aeroplanes.

1.069.823—Alfred M. Sipes, Mobeetie, Texal DIRIGIBLE propelling device.

1,069,906—Henry J. Snook, Santa Monica, Cal HELICOPTER.

1,070,197—Charles Scott Snell, London, Englanl means for supplying stores or other articles to aeril craft while in flight by a winding mechanism, hoistirl device, grapple, etc.

1.070,200—Peter Stolberg, San Francisco, Cal

BALANCING DEVICE comprising vertical surfacl

pivotally mounted at extremities of the lower plan! means for shifting, etc.

ISSUED AUGUST 19

1,070,576—Frank M. Bell, El Paso, Tex. Con pressed air engine starter with the tanks used » floats; vertical fins on top plane; wing sections opei top and bottom, under fins and horizontally dispose propeller in line with openings, two engines drivin concentric propellers.

1,070,625—Leon W. Perry, Denver, Colo., ST£ BILJTY device in which electrical contacts are mad by a ball on an oscillatory runway.*

1,070,782—John E. DeBaun, Spring Valley, N. Y FLYING MACHINE in which bag-like devices ope and close alternately.

1,070,856—August L. Batslecr and Samuel I

Thomas, Manchester, N. H., ANCHORING device fo

holding aeroplanes, which may be tripped by th' aviator himself.

1,070.972—George XV. Lynn, Detroit, Mich., PRC PELLER with adjustable controlled pitch blades an means to control pitch of blades by an operating roc bell-crank lever, etc.

4 E RON A UTICS

Page 77

August, 1913

BARGAIN

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St. Louis. Mo., July 24, 1913

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Mr. ORVILLE WRIGHT and our engineer, Mr. G. C. Lof.ning, have spent over two years in careful experiment on the air-worthiness and sea-worthiness of aeroboats, in order to determine thoroughly the conditions that these craft would have to meet. Naturally, therefore,

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AERONAUTICS

Tage 80

August, 1913

1913 Edition

EIFFEL

Translated by Lieut. Jerome C. Hunsakkk, U.S. Aava/ Constructor

Resistance of the Air and Aviation IN ENGLISH

Magnificent Quarto Volume, Cloth, 242 pp. 27 LARGE PLATES AND TABLE OF POLAR DIAGRAMS 1913 ENLARGED EDITION

Lieutenant Jerome C. Hunsaker. U.S.N., naval constructor, detailed by the government to superintend the courses in aeronautics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, has made a notable contribution to his subject by translating into English Gustav Eiffel's master-work, "The Resistance of the Air and Aviation." The translation includes the record of experiments conducted at the Champ-de-Mars laboratory, and an appendix giving a summary of the results, and supplementary chapters containing valuable and impor tant tables and diagrams.

Captain W. IRVING CHAMBERS, of the Bureau of Navigation, says:

"This book, in my opinion, contains the most valuable information on Aviation yet published, and it is very desirable for our American students, designers, manufacturers, aeronautical and engineering associations, clubs, colleges, and libraries, to secure copies in English as soon as possible."

The "SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN " says:

" Eiffel's work makes it possible to calculate a full-sized aeroplane from the data obtained in experiments with a model. In nearly all cases, the full-sized machines thus determined have given the results expected."

Heretofore, this m isterly production has only been procurable in French, yet even in the original version it is now extensively Ubed in America for reference. The translation of the text with additional matter is of the greatest importance to every one interested in the scientific study of aviation.

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SEPTEMBER, 1913

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Burgess Flying Boat

Built for U. S. Navy

HE BURGESS FLYING BOAT

is another record breaker. Built to comply with the strenuous requirements of the U. S. Navy, it fulfilled its test flights and was immediately accepted. Already a number of orders have been placed by sportsmen for similar machines.

Burgess Aeroplanes and Hydro-aeroplanes are still unexcelled. Foreign or Domestic Motors installed to meet the preference of individual purchasers. We recommend the Sturtevant motor as the most reliable American type.

We have a number of used motors and hydro-planes which we are offering at greatly reduced prices.

Training school patronized by both the Army and Navy, is located at Marble-head adjoining the works. Early application is necessary to secure enrollment.

BURGESS COMPANY AND CURTIS, Marblehead, Mass.

JERON A UTICS

Tage 84

September, 19131

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AERONAUTICS

Page 85

September. 1913

Aviation in France

BY LEICESTER B. HOLLAND

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N actual development of the aeroplane, France is undoubtedly considerably ahead of the United States, but this is due neither to great superiority on the part of the constructors and aviators, but chiefly to the fact that France is in a continual fever of militarism, a condition not altogether to be envied. Ever since 1871 public opinion in France has had its eyes fixed on Germany, either in fear of further invasion or in hope of revenge for the loss of Alsace-Lorrain, and the aeroplane has now suddenly appeared as a magic weapon by which the national honor and prestige is to be restored.

It is not the government alone that is buying aeroplanes for the army, but well-to-do individuals, clubs, newspapers, actors and actresses, and even schools present them to the national flying corps. Those who can not afford to present a machine themselves, contribute to the general subscription for "aerial defense."

Great interest is also taken in all things connected with military aviation; demountable hangars, aeroplane workshops mounted on auto trucks, rapid fire guns for use on aeroplanes and on automobiles for use against aircraft are of absorbing interest to the French nation and occupy a large part of the space in aero exhibitions. Wireless experiments, too, have been very successful, though only in sending messages. I do not know of any great success attained in receiving wireless messages on aeroplanes. The result is that with such a steady inflow of orders the manufacturers are enabled to keep fairly large plants going and run their business on a scale and with a degree of competition and progress quite impossible in this country.

But if military aviation were not existant in France the conditions there would be practically what they are here, for aviation has not yet developed to a state of commercial utility while as a form of sport the French are perhaps even less interested in it than we are ourselves.

Aeroplanes are not being bought by individuals. The majority of those flying are officers of the army and such civilians who fly are demonstrators in the employ of the manufacturers. Of the makers themselves, none are flying save the Farmans. Bleriot, even, has given up flying.

It seems quite possible, therefore, because the military development is denied us in this country, that we will be forced to develop along the commercial and sporting side; and this, after all, is the more permanent though

slower development. We have already developed the hydroaeroplane, the ideal machine for sport, into the "flying boat," a type not unknown in France, but far ahead of the great majority of French hydroaeroplanes which retain the old form of a land machine fitted with floats instead of wheels.

France has been known as the country of monoplanes while the biplane was called the American type. This distinction can no longer be applied as biplanes are coming more and more into general use for "all 'round" work. The biplane is generally considered safer and more stable and the monoplane's development is being confined to speed lines. The latter is not a weight carrier, it is not adaptable to the purposes for which a biplane may be used. In it every effort is being made to increase speed. "Monococque" construction is becoming more and more common, every bit of wood and metal is given stream line form to reduce head resistance, every ounce of weight is being eliminated, increased power is being used and the wing surfaces are being studied for speed effects.

It seems quite possible that the eventual type will be between the monoplane and biplane, the "sesquiplane" if one may so term it. For the biplanes are approaching the monoplanes in a way. Eiffel has shown in his laboratory that the lower plane carries, approximately, only a third the weight carried by the upper and advises reduction in size of the lower. This is being generally done. The lower plane gives increased stability over that of a single plane and has considerable use for structural reasons, while the efficiency of the machine is increased over that of the old biplane. Where warping systems are used, however, in the Breguet and Astra, the lower plane still remains the same size as the upper. A feature of the Breguet machine is that the entire wings are very flexible, even the control cables have springs introduced in their lengths and beyond a certain point the operation of rudder and elevator and warping is impossible. This produces a machine which while "smooth" and indifferent in light wind eddies, is rather difficult to manage under severe conditions. In general the manufacturers are building their wings less rigidly, almost all having flexible trailing edges and some being positively "S" shaped in order to allow gusts to slide more easily past.

Another interesting type that is being developed is the "canard" or tail-first machine; this may be either a monoplane or biplane. Of this genus the original Wright is considered the prototype though strictly speaking the Wright had no tail at all. The number of experimental machines of this kind has increased rapidly of late, the Voisin biplane being the best known. Bleriot built two, the

AERONA UTICS "Page 86 September, 1913

first a failure, the second is being tried out. Lieutenant Blard has been flying fairly successfully at the army station of Chalais-Meudon with a machine built along these lines, and another of all-welded metallic construction is being manufactured for general sale by Besson. The advantages claimed for this type are, greater longitudinal stability, greater field of vision, the pilot being in front of, rather than behind the main wings, and greater security in landing, the centre of gravity being over the rear rather than the front of the skids.

The tandem plane machine is coming for its share of experimentation. Drzewiecki has built a tandem monoplane with the front plane nearly as large as the rear one, with the centre of gravity approximately in the middle of the fuselage. The front and rear planes are of different sections, the front being normally at 8 degrees and the rear one at 5 degrees, or 3 degrees negative to the forward plane. On account of the difference in section and area of the front and rear surfaces, the total lift of the forward surface varies less rapidly than that of the rear surface when the angle of incidence changes. In case of a sudden dip, the difference in power of the two units is reversed. That under the forward plane becomes preponderant and rights the machine. Lateral stability is maintained by changing the angle of incidence of either half of the front plane. (See in AERONAUTICS for February, 1913, article by Captain W. Jrving Chambers.)

This assurance of longitudinal stability seems to be the most important step in the direction of security in aeroplanes, as the majority of accidents seem to be due to a loss of headway and consequent "slipping" of the machine, in mounting too suddenly or to

"engaging" the rudder in descending too rapidly. Farman has a system of control levers by which the control acts with less and less efficiency the further the rudders are turned toward one extreme or the other and the Doutre stablizer has proven very efficient and is being considerably used. This instrument consists briefly of a plate placed at right angle to the direction of flight. Any sudden increase of lelative speed through the air causes increased pressure on the plate which pushes back a piston in a cylinder which in turn operates a servo-motor and controls the elevator. A decrease in pressure allows the plate to be pushed forward by a spring when a similar operation takes place and the elevator automatically heads the machine down. Two small weights by their inertia actuate the piston in the same manner when there is any such things as "holes in the air" which would not effect the wind plates (fully described in AERONAUTICS.

The chief effort that is being made in development along lines not strictly military is due, more than to any other person, to the present president of the Aero Club de France, Deutsch de la Meurthe. He is an immensely wealthy man, has given large sums to aeronautics in prizes, for achievements in dirigibles as well as aeroplanes, and established the Aerodynamic Laboratory at St. Cyr. He has interested himself in encouraging development of weight carrying machines and it will be remembered that he had Bleriot build him an aeroplane taxi, with an inclosed cab body, with every convenience found in the automobile taxi, except the indicator of the fare. His latest machine is one he had built for him by Voisin. It is a huge hydro called the "Icaire" capable of carrying eight to twelve passengers.

NO GREAT PROGRESS SINCE 1903

I am not quite so keen for aeronautical literature as I was a year or more ago, because it seems to me that no adequate progress has been made since the Wrights pointed the way. The amount of flying is great enough, machines are better built, motors are more reliable and more powerful in proportion to weight, but after all, the Wright principle of construction has not been materially improved upon except in such manner as experience would naturally suggest and the essential features remain unaltered. This either speaks pretty well for the Wrights or not very well for those who have followed in their footsteps.

My own belief is that the aeroplane as at present constructed has not nearly reached its greatest stage of development either in theory or practice. I have not lost interest in the future of aviation, as I believe there is very much yet to be accomplished in the way of improvement. What is most needed now is a new race of aviators. At present those aviators who are most in the public eye, seem to care

nothing for their occupation except as a temporary stepping stone to enable them to reach as soon as possible a stage of existence where they wont need to risk their own necks in the air. It is the machine itself that is mostly to blame for this state of things. When the ideal flying machine makes its appearance, aviators wont be so anxious to retire from their aerial experiences, but will enjoy them so thoroughly that they will never want to quit. Neither will the enjoyment of these experiences be confined to the young and the strong. It will be common for old men and even invalids to get the benefit of the upper air without a suggestion of fear, and I expect to see this consummation, although I am in my sixty-seventh year. I can not myself claim to have contributed very much to the promotion of aviation except as a passenger on two occasions when I certainly did make some contributions, in a way. I covered about forty miles all told with a noted aviator who soon thereafter lost his life, doing stunts, I think, which his better judgment did not approve,

—Subscriber.

September, 1913

Technical Talks

by m. b. sellers

THE DUNNE AEROPLANE

In view of the present public interest in the Dunne aeroplane, I shall give a brief explanation of its stabilizing qualities, based chiefly on material contained in Mr. Dunne's communication to the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain (Jan. 29, 1913).

As is generally known, the machine has retreating wings, forming a V in a horizontal plane. These wings are cambered as though they formed the roof of a cylindrical tunnel, running diagonally lengthwise of each wing, so that the crown is nearer the rear side of the wing at its outer end; the diameter of the tunnel preferably diminishing toward the wing tip.

Thus, the wing presents a quasi warp; the chord of the outer end being at a negative angle in normal flight as shown in Fig. 1, which shows a front and plane view.

Fig. 1

Now the relative wind, due to a side gust, will come across the port or starboard bow, and will blow more across the tunnel in case of the windward wing and more down the tunnel on the leeward wing as shown in Fig. 2 (in which the wind is supposed to come from the observer's eye toward the picture). It is obvious that the windward wing wilt encounter greater resistance than the other, land the machine will at once swing around to face the wind. This device, therefore, possesses greater weathercock stability than would be conferred by a large vertical tail plane on a conventional machine, besides acting more quickly.

Considering, now, longitudinal balance: the forward and central part of the aeroplane constitutes, with the lateral parts, a "longitudinal V"; in fact, every portion of the wing bears this relation to the part adjacent. When the machine rears, the lift on the after positive portions of the wings increases more rapidly than that on the forward portions, because the angles of attack are nearer zero; this causes the centre of pressure to move backward along the wing; at the same time

the negative portions are being reduced in area; all of which promote longitudinal stability.

Finally, we have what Air. Dunne calls the reserve tangent device. If the vectors (representing the resultant pressures) are drawn at points along the wing, say at each rib, those in front will slope backward, and as we go toward the wing tip the vectors will become shorter and slope more and more forward; and in normal flight the resultant of them all will slope backward.

But if the machine loses headway, and therefore begins to sink, the angle of attack will increase, the rear pressures will increase more rapidly than those in front, and the centre of pressure will not only move backward but will incline forward, thus furnishing a propelling component. Instead, therefore, of diving like a conventional aeroplane, it will be able to accelerate with only a gradual descent. Mr. Dunne states that the effect this has on the smoothness of path in high winds is simply amazing, and that the machine maintains itself under full control at apparently impossible angles. (I do not entirely agree with the above explanation.)

Mr. Dunne shows mathematically what occurs after the machine has been forcibly tilted sideways, but I shall not give that here. The machine first commences to circle toward the low side, but at once the outer wing tends to lag and be depressed, due to the faster moving negative tip, and to the angle at which the different parts of the wings meet the air in describing the curve. The machine will, therefore, tend to level up. and straighten out the curve. In order, therefore, to maintain the bank and curve, ailerons must be used. If turned by an ordinary rudder the machine depresses the outer zving.

As to lateral stability, or steadiness, the coning of the wings at the front produces a slight positive dihedral, while the tips present a negative dihedral. These, under the action of a side gust, oppose each other, and tend to clamp <>ut incipient oscillations, and it is found that in ordinary side gusts, little rocking is produced.

The negative surface exposed decreases with increasing angle of attack. If a strong side gust initiates a windward roll, it will also increase the angle of attack and so decrease the negative surface, thus checking the roll; and vice versa.

Page 88

The 1913 Dunne.

Finally, an aerofoil presenting its long edge to the wind, receives at small angles, greater pressure than if exposed the other way; but .it large angles, beyond 30 degrees, it receives less pressure. Now, a side gust encounters the windward wing more on its long edge, and the leeward wing more endwise, therefore, the pressures are greater on the windward wing. But if by an excess of overturning forces, the machine is being upset sideways, the preponderance of pressures on the windward wing will diminish as the inclination increases, and, beyond 30 degrees the pressures on the leeward wing will be the greater. It would seem, then, impossible to be blown over much beyond 30 degrees no matter how violent and unevenly applied the gust.

Though we may not concede all that Mr. Dunne claims for his machine, we must admit that it possesses remarkable stability.

THE DUNNE RUDDERLESS MONOPLANE

Patrick Y. Alexander once said: "Dunne is one man you should watch carefully." J W. Dunne began active work on gliders in 190S in secrecy.

In 1909 Dunne started on his own account and built a heavy biplane, and, after many changes, in the fall of 1910 he flew before Orville Wright and Griffith Brewer, letting go the levers and writing notes. (See AERONAUTICS, March. 1911, pages 81-83 for description and text of patent.)

Then work on a monoplane was begun. The monoplane had its trials in the summer of 1911 and was along similar lines. Little was heard of this.

Dunne went back to his biplane, lightened it and began flying it with X. S. Persival as pilot, in the summer of 1912. Many passengers were carried, among them Commandant Felix, who was attracted by the monoplane and who induced the Nieuport firm to lend a Gnome motor. "I saw the apparatus fly once, then mounted it without hesitation.

made the first flight with levers in hand and manouvered to test the apparatus, then a second flight during which "I let go everything, and at the end of a moment stood up on my seat and had great trouble to avoid dancing a jig for joy. The next day I started for France."

Readers will remember the successful flight just recently made by Felix from London to Paris in the latest Dunne biplane. "The apparatus stood there every possible test: hail, wind, heat waves met with in the country at 1500 metres height and difficult landings both hard and brutal, the machine acted admirably everywhere. I flew in very doubtful weather at Villacoublay, and the next day in really rough weather before my superiors, who, according to their habit desired to form their own conclusions, says Julien Felix.

Ailerons are necessary for steering as there is no rudder or elevator. These ailerons are used for both purposes.

(References: Aeronautical Journal, January, 1911 ; Flight, June 24, 1911; Flight, June 18 and 25, 1910; British Aero, July, 1911; Flugsport. September 6, 1911; AERONAUTICS, March, 1911.)

AERONA UTICS Page 89 September, 1913 _i__ L____

1911 DU/AN f . $£0 H O.'

Recent doings of the Dunne machine are of interest. After flying over Paris and giving demonstrations at Yillacoublay, during one of which Commandant Felix got out of the seat and walked along the lower wing (on the side with, not against, the torque couple), he flew the machine to Deauville, where he has been flying consistently. Once, while flying at Deauville, he gave an interesting demonstration of what could be done in emergencies. Hearing the engine missing, he locked the levers, walked back to the engine, a distance of over 12 feet, adjusted matters to his satisfaction and then returned and resumed control, the episode taking two or three minutes. It is not known what the trouble with the engine was, but it is believed that it was the ignition wire to the back-plate. The centre of gravity must have moved nearly a foot.

The present Dunne machine is operated by two levers which actuate the ailerons situated

"^^^^mjl 1910, DUNNF B)..

1764

at the extremities of the upper and lower planes. Moving the two levers forward or back makes the machine descend or ascend respectively. When steering to the right, the right hand lever is drawn backward and the left hand one pushed simultaneously forward. These actions result in the flap on the pilot's right having its trailing edge elevated while that on the left has its trailing edge depressed. Each of the wings spreads 7.9 metres, chord 1.65 in. spaced 2 metres apart. The ailerons in the upper plane measure 2.25 m. by 75 cm.; those in the lower plane, which are not out quite so far, measure in spread 1.45 m. The fuselage is 5.40 m. long, height at rear 1 m., at the seat 1.80 m.; greatest width 80 cm. The chassis is novel. There are skids under each wing tip, and at the fore and aft extremities of the fuselage. The running gear consists of two wheels. The motor is an 80 II. P. Gnome and the speed averages 80-90 K. P. II.

AERONAUTICS 'Page 90 September, 1913

Benoist "Type XIV" Air-boat

The new "type 14" Benoist air-boat differs in detail only from the old type 13 boat built by that company in the latter part of 1912 and flown the first time successfully on the last dav of the year. (Full drawings and details in January, 1913, AERONAUTICS.)

The new type is constructed as the old with the motor down in the boat, and, of course, is still chain drive. The original lines of the boat part are still preserved, only being built wider to make seating capacity for two side by side.

The boat proper is twenty-three feet long, the direction rudder extending two feet further back. The hull is twenty-two inches high at the step and carries practically the same height up to and including the passenger seat and control lever space. Step is five inches deep.

The air and water rudders are constructed integral, the lower part of the air rudder being made of wood and extending down into the water. To make the water rudder efficient when machine is moving slowly or the tail is high it is extended six inches below the stern of the boat and protected by a sprag which is simply an extension of the small centre board placed under that part of the boat.

A larger gap between the main planes is employed than in the regular Benoist tractor machine, it now being six feet..

The Benoist company was the first to build a successful flying boat with the motor down in the hull. This was adopted unanimously by the engineering board, consisting of Tony J annus, Hugh Robinson and Tom Benoist, after repeated tests for efficiency both in water and in air; great attention being given

to the factor of safety regardless of whetherl the machine was to be used as a boat or aeroplane The findings in favor of the motor in the hull were as follows: "1st—The motor in] the hull made the machine much more stable in the water, eliminating the trouble experienced by the other builders in keeping the machine from turning over when the water was a little rough or a light wind blowing, when the machine was anchored or not moving forward. 2nd—This also added greatly to the apparent safety of the machine. The same objections urged against the motor up high between the planes back and above the aviator and passengers holding good in the flying boat as well as in exhibition machines. The Benoist company developed the first successful tractor biplane in this country, and as this style of plane has become very popular the last two years among exhibition men because of its much greater factor of safety in comparison with the propeller-driven machines it was decided that the motor must not go up high under any condition."

The motor is placed on two strong beams running parallel with one another practically the full length of the boat. These beams are made strong and heavy and add materially in strengthening and stiffening the boat fore and aft. They are sixteen inches high in front of the step and, under the motor, seventeen feet long and two inches thick.

The motor drives a propeller 8J/2 feet diameter by 5.50 feet pitch. These propellers are constructed by the Benoist company, being brought up to the highest state of perfection after repeated tests and experiments. A

AERONA UTICS <Page 9 1 September, 1913

y2 inch by inch by i inch Diamond roller chain is used to transmit the power of the engine to the propellers, the chain running in tubular steel guards to eliminate any possibility of becoming entangled in wiring or propeller in case of high speed, breakage, or strain.

A honeycomb radiator of their own manufacture is used with 513 sq. in. of presented surface on the 75 H. P. Roberts motor and 480 sq. in. on the Sturtevant 70 H. P. motor.

The radiator is placed above and back of the motor just in front of the drive chain.

The shaft that carries the propeller is mounted between the main planes eighteen inches below the trailing edge of the upper plane. It took a great deal of experimenting coupled with some ingenuity to evolve a system of struts and wires to carry this shaft that would take up the strains, both thrust and tortional. However, this was overcome after many experiments, and a system both light and durable, substantially as indicated in the drawings is used. Roth ends of this shaft are carried by combined thrust and radial ball bearings; the distance rod or chain tightener also using ball bearings at each end.

The regular Benoist tractor planes are used, differing only in gap and length of separate sections: Spread of main planes. 35 feet 4 inches; gap, 6 feet; length of sections outside of engine section, 8 feet; chord of wing 5 feet; camber 2j4 inches; greatest depth of camber, 21 inches back of front edge: wing area, 337 sq. ft.; ailerons, four, each 8 feet long and 20 inches wide. Wings covered with No. 2B Naiad aero cloth. All guy and control wires Roebling special stranded cable.

This boat equipped with either a Roberts or Sturtevant motor will carry two passengers beside the aviator, and is capable of carrying seven hundred pounds of useful load' consisting of passengers, gasoline or freight.

The motor is cranked by a lever and ratchet arrangement on the forward end of the propeller shaft.

Page 92

September, 1913

Curtiss "English" Flying Boat

Certainly there is nothing slow about the development of the Curtiss flying boat. Last month, as in previous successive months, a new model was described in these columns, and here, almost before the varnish on its predecessor has had time to set, comes another new craft with still further modifications.

This time it is a really truly four-passenger craft along the same general lines as the now well-known Curtiss model. For lack of a more appropriate name we may refer to it as the "English" flying boat, because it is the machine shipped to Mr. Curtiss in England for the demonstrations already arranged for there. It also may be used for the proposed Anglo-American flying boat contest; the Sopwith air-boat being mentioned in the despatches as a probable competitor.

Instructor Francis Wildman of the Curtiss training camp tested the new machine September 15-16, and reports indicate that this boat marks some distinct advances over any of the previous models. On the first "jump," which Wildman made alone, the boat left the water within a hundred feet of the starting point. It proved a quick climber and a steady flier. About quarter of an hour was devoted to this preliminary test, during which Wild-man tried the machine at every angle. Returning to the landing stage Wildman, who weighs 158 pounds, took aboard Henry Kleck-ler, weight 168 pounds; Mortimer Bates, 155 pounds; Harvey R. Kidney, 138 lbs. His flight with these four aboard lasted nearly an hour, during which an altitude of approximately 2,000 feet was attained. Wildman was anxious to attempt the establishment of an official passenger-carrying duration and distance record, but like many other really competent flyers, he never has troubled to fly for a pilot license so that his record would not be "official." Photographs taken during

this four-passenger flight show the handi-ness of the new boat both on the water and in the air. The machine is shown steeply banked on a short turn near the water, as well as climbing on turns; good evidence that even when carrying 700 pounds the craft is not overloaded.

Repeated trials over the measured mile showed an average speed of exactly 60 M. P. H. The average mile with the wind was 55 seconds, against the wind, 1.05.

During the two days devoted to the tests Wildman flew several hundred miles with the new machine, trying it on different occasions with two, three and four passengers. Some of the old hands at aviation were inclined to be skeptical about the desirability of the after cockpit until they tried it out. Then all were unanimous in declaring it the most comfortable place on the "ship."

"1 never fully realized the luxury of aerial travel until I rode in the back of this flying landaulet," said one experienced airman after a long flight. "There one seems indeed 'monarch of all he surveys.' Wildman told me to make myself comfortable without giving a thought to the balance of the machine and I proceeded to do so. I lounged back in one corner, smoked a cigarette and enjoyed the scenery. Then it occurred to me that I had long been curious as to the effect of air pressure on different parts of the machines when in action, so I spent several minutes watching for vibration in the cables or surfaces. The yellow wings spread out on both sides of me, smooth and solid as a floor. There was no perceptible movement in them, the cables were motionless; none of that vibration which is said to make a 1/16 cable equal in head-resistance to a 1 inch upright was apparent. I changed at will from one side of the cockpit to the other, without any noticeable effect on the balance of the ma-

"Page 93

chine. Finally I stood up and leaned over the forward edge, then shifted to the after side. It was always the same,—nothing to disturb the feeling of absolute stability."

Improvements are shown from keel to upper surface. The hull, which is of solid mahogany, polished like a piano case, has six inches more beam than any previous model, a decided Vee-bottom, with a steel-shod keel extending beyond the step. Mahogany is used for planking the bottom, but is covered with sheet Duralumin, and mahogany lines the double cockpit. A new style of construction in the hull has resulted in greater strength, though the boat weighs considerably less than the canvas-covered models built for Jack Vilas, J. B. R. Verplanck, and some others. Increased comfort' for the passengers is secured by the raised deck.

In the wings and ailerons further changes are noticeable. Considerable weight is saved by the new one-piece construction, and with no sacrifice of strength. The spread of the upper surface has been increased to 41 feet, while the lower one measures 30 feet. Instead of being secured by a diagonal brace as heretofore, the upper extension is trussed above and below, and the outer end of the aileron is supported by a post descending from a socket near the end of the upper plane. Surfaces are of unbleached linen, made semi-transparent by the new Curtiss waterproofing preparation. No changes of any moment have been made in the tail structure. Like those in the U. S. Navy's "C-2," described last month, the horizontal members are higher than in former Curtiss machines, but the area and general dimensions are the same.

The hull is 25 feet long, with a beam of So inches, and an extreme depth of 46 inches. Made entirely of dark Honduras mahogany, fastened throughout with copper rivets and outside with round-headed brass screws. Both forward and after cockpits are ceiled and

panelled in mahogany Seats are upholstered in dark brown corduroy, and after cockpit seat-back is upholstered. Metal fittings are finished in maroon enamel. Center panel of forward deck folds over to form rubber covered and cleated gangplank. Entrance to after cockpit is through the forward one, engine supports having been designed to allow room, and to decrease head resistance of machine. Hull is mono-hydroplane, with Vee-bottom, keel extending beyond the step, so as to form a substantial support when boat is run high and dry on runway or beach.

Design of the superstructure differs considerably from previous models. Wings are of one piece. Upper wings have a spread of 41 feet; lower wings measure 30 feet. Chord, 61 inches. Wing structure is lighter and stronger than formerly. Beams are laminated and tapered, fastened at joints with copper straps. No holes are bored in the main beams. Ailerons have been increased in size and now measure 12 feet long by 3 feet deep. These are hinged on the outside rear uprights, and steadied by struts depending from the outer extreme of each upper surface. Each aileron is wired independent of the other and in case of the disablement of one the machine can be handled by the other.

The power plant comprises one of the new Model O-X 90-100 H. P. Curtiss motors, with a new style of radiator which is of smaller area than the old ones but of greater capacity. An 8 feet 6 inches Curtiss propeller is attached direct. Main fuel supply is from two 20 gallon tanks fitted into the corners of the after cockpit. Air pressure forces the gasoline from these tanks to a 3-gallon tank located on the motor bed, whence the gasoline flows by gravity to the carburetor.

Weight of this boat is approximately 1,400 pounds, speed to M. P. H, ,

An important use of the aeroplane would be picking out headquarters, the enemy's commanding general and important encampments like that, and by using shrapnel, a large shell weighing 500 pounds with high explosives, and being able to drop it within a square >f 120 feet, I think you could make it very uncomfortable for the commanding general. I think that would be an important use of the aeroplanes. Against fortifications—I firmly believe that 500 pounds of nitrogelatin placed near a barbette disappearing gun carriage would put that completely out of service. If dropped on a mortar battery, I think it would temporarily at least put that out of order, and especially the range-finding system. The accuracy of these guns depends entirely on the range-finding system. These systems are screened as much as possible from the sea in the scacoast fortifications, but they cannot be screened from the air, and I think it would be very readily put out of business, and when the range-finding system is put out of business the battery is put out of business, at least until it is repaired.

Lieut. R. E. Scott.

New Developments in Aeronautics

HOW PEGOUD DIDN'T LOOP THE LOOP

The newspapers widely heralded the reported feat of the French aviator Pegoud, with a Bleriot monoplane, in "looping the loop." As a matter of fact, he did nothing of the kind. Wonderful as his feat was, which he repeated for the benefit of the military, he merely headed downward in a vertical line, and with his elevator turned the machine on its back for an approximate distance of 400 yards for 15 seconds. Again with the eleva-

tor, the machine was brought to the vertical position again and leveled out. Of course, Pegoud was strapped in. It will be remembered by readers of AERONAUTICS that a similar performance was done involuntarily by Capt. Aubry in a Dep. It is reported that Bleriot hopes to see Pegoud turn his monoplane over sideways in the air and back again, instead of in the vertical direction.

In 1905 Maloney, who was employed by Prof. J. J. Montgomery to operate his gliders in free flight after being released high in the air, once pressed too hard on the ".stirrup" which warped the wings, and made a side somersault very much like one turn of a corkscrew. Wilkie, another operator, not to be outdone, said he would do the same, and actually made two side somersaults, one in one direction and one in an opposite, then made a deep dive and a long glide and when about 300 feet high brought the aeroplane to a sudden stop and settled to the earth.

After this, Montgomery changed the machine to allow but plain sailing. (See p. 49, January, 1909, AERONAUTICS.)

In 1911 Lieut Pi. R. P. Reynolds, _ R.E., was turned upside down in a Bristol biplane by a whirlwind at a height of some 2,000 feet, and alighted safely, but wrong side up.

In 1912 W. R. B. Moorhouse purposely forced the nose of a Bleriot up as far as it would go and then switched off, in an endeavor to force a tail-slide, by way of an experiment. The machine stood still on end, then rolled slightly over sideways and dived, descending without damage. A Maurice Farman, piloted by a pupil, performed a similar feat involuntarily at Eastchurch. Capt. Aubry, on a Deperdus-sin, also turned a somersault in the air, unintentionally, and survived.

On August 25th Pegoud left his aeroplane at an altitude of about 750 feet and descended in a parachute invented by a man named Bonnet. The aeroplane was left to shift for itself.

After attaining an altitude of about 600 feet, and. facing the direction of the wind, Pegoud was seen to release the lever for liberating the parachute, diving at a slight angle as he did so. Suddenly he was seen to be suspended in the air, while the machine continued on its course alone with its engine running. It rose till, at a height considerably above Pegoud and his parachute, it effected a tail-slide and turned completely over. Righting itself almost immediately it glided at a normal angle to the earth, very little damage being done. Pegoud, meanwhile, was gently lowered into the branches of a tree, entirely unharmed.

The device is constructed by Bonnet, and is kept flat against the rear of the fuselage by means of two spring arms. The pilot is attached to it by means of rubber cords, and can release the arms when necessary with a lever at his side. Oscillations of the parachute when in action are dampened by a hole 14 cms. in diameter, and through the fact that the air can percolate slightly through the silk immediately adjacent to it.

A PRIZE FOR STABILIZERS

M. Henry Bonnet has offered a prize of $200 to the pilot of a machine which shall fly a distance of 20 kil. without there being any intervention on his part in order to maintain balance in either the lateral or longitudinal direction. The rudder may be used for steering, but no warping to nullify its effects on balance is permissible. The tests will take place in a wind having a minimum velocity of 10 M. P. H. A representative of the Commission Sportive Aéronautique will be seated beside the pilot, and will, in consequence, be able to assure himself that none of the controls are manipulated.

CHANGE IN PILOT CONDITIONS

At the last meeting of the F. A. I. it_ was decided that the conditions under which pilots' certificates are obtained should he altered, though not to any serious extent. The aeroplane pupil must now ascend to an altitude of 100 metres instead of 50 in the height test, and glide with his engine completely stopped.

The dirigible pupil, also, must now make 20 ascents in order to obtain his brevet. This number holds good if he already has one for spherical balloons—if not, 25 ascents must be made.

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September, 1913

WOMAN DROPS FROM AEROPLANE

European papers seem to have the idea that Pegoud, when he cut loose from his aeroplane n mid-air with a parachute and safely defended to earth, did a new and wonderful eat. And here, since Leo Stevens a year igo, introduced dropping from aeroplanes by )arachute, one can almost say this "stunt" s being done daily.

k Scarcely more than a line was given in newspapers to the drops made by Miss "Tiny" Broadwick from Glenn Martin's tractor during the Perry Centennial Celebration during August, and now being made as an exhibition feature in the Middle West. The illustration shows how the parachute was attached to the fuselage of the machine.

BLERIOT AERIAL LAUNCHER

. The latest invention of Louis Bleriot, already mentioned in AERONAUTICS, may be [found of practical value for the launching and tianding of aeroplanes on board war vessels suitably equipped. Trials have already been successfully made in the presence of French jnarine officials. In the trials the apparatus psed was an 80 meter long cable suspended in the air by transverse cables at each end attached to posts in the ground 20 meters apart. On the Bleriot monoplane is a V-shaped frame which supports the actual device itself. The aviator, who was Pegoud again, approached the long cable in flight and maneuvered his aeroplane so that the two wooden forks attached to the framework mentioned before came on either side of the cable. Under pressure the catch at the junction of the forks allows the cable to pass by and closes again. /The motor is stopped and the machine slows down on the upgrade of the cable. To start from the wire, speed is attained and the catch

released by the pilot's pulling the control, which can easily be seen in the illustration, and the monoplane is free. The left photo shows the catch closed over the wire. The one on the right shows Pegoud just before catching the cable.

EFFECT OF CHANGES IN TEMPERATURE ON CARBURETION

Ordinarily the change is not so great that it will have any effect on the motor. The only time that I have ever noticed this to occur was at Texas City, while maneuvering there with the troops. It was late in the season, about May, I think, and the sun had begun to get pretty hot. I had climbed to 3,000 feet and noticed a bank of cloud coming up. There was a very perceptible change of temperature, beginning at 1,500 feet, being much cooler than on the ground. The carburetor had been adjusted to the temperature on the ground, this usually being sufficient for all ordinary heights. In coming back, after circling over the places that I had been sent to reconnoiter, the cloud bank had moved inland about 10 mi!es. The clouds were so thick that 1 could see nothing, so I glided down until I had passed through them.| All of this time the motor had been missing considerably but just as soon as 1 went through the cloud the motor immediately started firing properly. There must have been a difference of 10 degrees or 15 degrees in the temperature.

Lieut. Milling.

It is of interest to note that the motor on this flight was a Renault, air-cooled. We can recall a certain air-cooled car which demanded carburetor adjustment night and morning.

It does not take long to teach a man to fly, but it takes a long time to make a military aviator. It is easy to teach a man to fly. They are doing it now at the Wright school in 10 days, and any man can learn to fly in 10 days.

To make a man an expert military aviator cannot possihlv be done under one year.

Lieut. Arnold.

NEW FAST WRIGHT MODEL

While the school work has been progressing steadily, one of the new model "E," exhibition machines has appeared at the field, and under the expert guidance of Mr. Orville Wright on September 3rd, a few hours after leaving the factory, was in the air on its initial flight, climbing with plenty of reserve power and showing up a good speed. This machine is of the single propeller type, the first one of the products of the Wright factory to be so equipped, and the comparison of its performances with that of the two propeller machine, is even more interesting and instructive than the technical staff of the Wright Company had anticipated. Many exceedingly important features have been brought out, and Mr. Wright is spending a good deal of time flying this machine in various kinds of weather.

Its chief features are the ease of knocking-down and packing in boxes for cheap shipment from place to place, and also that the size of the sections themselves are such that if complete knocking-down into boxes is not done, the sections of the machine can be placed in an express car. This so greatly facilitates the getting around from place to place in making exhibition dates, that those familiar with this field, who in recent visits to the factory have inspected type "E" are most enthusiastic, and foresee in it exactly the type of machine that they require in their work.

The tests that are being made now will continue for some time, so that this type will be standardized and ready for the road long before next spring.

Many exhibition flyers and managers are expected at Dayton to view the performances of this machine later in the fall, "when it has gone through the mill" of the thorough tests and experiments that it is being put to.

The work at the Wright School, at Simms Station, has been continued steadily and one of the recent graduates of the school, who demonstrated excellent ability in his lessons was Mr. A. B. Gaines, of New York City. Although Mr. Gaines got to the stage where he was flying alone in fine form, it was necessary for him to return to the city before taking his pilot's license. However, Gaines is to continue work on the aeroboat next spring.

At present there are training at the school under Oscar Brindley's expert guidance, Mr. Lindop E. Brown of Glasgow, Montana, and Mr. H. M. Rinehart of Davton, Ohio.

CORK FOR HYDROAEROPLANE FLOATS

An English dealer in a special variety of granulated cork (Leoline Edwards, 81 St. Margaret's Road, Twickenham) claims that this is twice as buoyant as ordinary cork, the air cells being considerably larger. It is suggested that floats be filled with this, with the handicap of slight extra weight, but with the assurance that danger from punctures would be greatly diminished. This cork is resilient and could as well be used for jackets, padding for seats, and so forth.

AIR EQUIPMENT OF THE U. S. ARMY

Sixteen aeroplanes are in the Army aviation service at the present time and seven more are on order and ought to be delivered early in October.

In the Philippines are: 1 Wright B, 30 H. P., training machine; 1 Burgess hydroaeroplane with 60 H. P. Sturtevant; 2 Wright C, 50 H. P.; all of which can be turned into hydros with equipment at hand. There are 5 pilots.

In Hawaii: 1 Curtiss E, 75 H. P.; 1 Curtiss tractor, 80 H. P.; 1 pilot.

San Diego: 1 Wright B, 30 H. P.; 1 Wright C, 30 H. P.; 1 Burgess-Wright F, 40 Sturtevant ; 2 Wright C, so H. P.; 1 Curtiss D-E, 60 H. P.; 1 Curtiss D, 75 H. P. There are 7 pilots and 8 under instruction.

San Antonio: 1 Wright D, 50 H. P. No pilot.

Texas City : 1 Wright C, 50 H. P.; 1 Burgess tractor, 70 Renault. Two pilots.

In all, there are but 19 officers on aviation duty, of which number all can fly.

The machines on order are: 1 Curtiss standard, 70 H. P. Curtiss motor; 3 Burgess tractors, 70 H. P. Renaults; 1 Wright with 90 H. P. Daimler; 1 Curtiss tractor with 160 H. P. Gnome; 1 Burgess tractor with a 100 H. P. Renault. The State Department has purchased 8 Renault 70's and the new machines added to the one on hand will make 4 of these most successful tractors with 4 engines in reserve; these are considered an intermediate type between the standard Wright and Curtiss machines and the new high-powered machines coming through.

At Fort Omaha there are 5 fill balloons and 1 captive and a complete hydrogen outfit using the electrolytic process.

The old original Wright is now in Smithsonian Institute. Two Wrights, a Curtiss, a Curtiss flying boat and a Burgess (Wright type) have been destroyed in accidents.

U. S. AEROPLANE GUN

Very few details are available of the experiments that have been made by the Ordnance Department on high-angle guns, but it can at least be said that improvements have been made to existing types in the U. S. Army sufficient to make them adaptable.

Technical details: Weight of projectile, 6 pounds; muzzle velocity, 2400 feet per second; maximum limit of elevation 70 degrees; semiautomatic breech mechanism. Most promising projectile, high explosive shrapnel, the head of which detonates after a travel of about 75 yards beyond point of burst of the shrapnel The two puffs of smoke thereby secured serve to outline the trajectory near the point of burst and facilitate adjustment of range.

In the flight around Berlin on August 30th and 31st, 22 machines started and 16 finished. Of the successful aeroplanes, Bosch magnetos were used on 11 of them, which number also used Rosch plugs.

I think the Panama Canal would be put out of business, probably in one hour or two hours, by an enemy with aeroplanes. That is, of course, my own personal opinion. We do not know the effect of an explosive dropped from an aeroplane, because it has never been done except in a small way. I firmly believe when the experiments are carried on in that direction that it will be found to be very destructive.

Xo matter how strongly the canal is fortified a (enemy's) fleet does not come within range of the guns; they cruise out 20 or 30 miles. The distance to Gatun Dam or to the

locks would be probably half an hour's fly. They send out their aeroplanes loaded with high explosives, say 20 or 30 of them, as many as they can send, hoping that some of them will get back; but in warfare we take chances, and if they destroyed the canal no doubt they would be willing to lose them all. They send them up and they are flying one after another, placing 500 pounds of nitrogelatin first on the spillway and later up the Culebra Cut, causing slides. I think some of you gentlemen know the effect of an explosive, on the earth, causing it to slide.

Lieut. R. E. Scott.

THE ROYAL AIRCRAFT FACTORY BE 2

The biplane built by the Royal Aircraft Factory, England, the BE 2, early this year was the third of a series constructed and was designed after a series of experiments on full-sized machines to improve their efficiency and stability and the results obtained were in almost perfect accord with the computations of laboratory data. During these tests, improvements in speed, in range, in amount of load carried, in climbing ability, stability, ease of control and total efficiency, were obtained as the net results of applying laboratory data. The BE 2 was expressly calculated to exceed the requirements of the 1912 British aeroplane competition, from data furnished by the British National Aerodynamical Laboratory. The improvements were almost wonderful. The BE 2 has a range of from 42 M. P. H. to 72 M. P. H., can alight at speeds below 40 miles, climb at 480 feet a minute for first thousand feet, and go 6,000 feet at an average climbing speed of 380 feet a minute without passenger and has a gliding angle of 1 in 8 under best conditions.

The wings are set at a dihedral angle, each wing rising 1% degrees. Ends of the planes may be warped 7 degrees in either direction. As the usual flying angle is 2 degrees to 3 degrees, the down side of the plane has a maximum angle of 9 or 10 degrees, while the up side has a negative angle of 4 to 5 degrees. Though the efficiency is superior at 4 or 5 degrees angle, the large surface is used to get range of speed and rapid climbing. The tail plane has an area of 52 sq. ft. and carries flying about 35 pounds. The machine can be turned in a radius of 120 feet if properly banked. The area of the rudder is 12 sq. ft., and exercises a force of 115 pounds at 16 feet radius from c. of g. at 68 M. P. H. and at an angle of 20 degrees.

The elevators are hinged to the rear of the stabilizing plane and have a total surface of 25 sq. ft.

The landing gear consists of ash skids with a reinforced tubular axle with rubber shock absorbers. A rear skid is attached to the fuselage by a swivel joint and is turned with the rudder making steering on the ground possible at low speeds.

The 70 H. P. Renault engine can be throttled down so that the machine will stand still and the pilot can start without assistance. In actual flight the engine revolutions can be run from 1,350 to 1,950 and propeller revolutions from 675 to 975, still maintaining horizontal flight. The muffler which has been tried, seems to reduce the horsepower under load by 2%. The aeroplane has been inverted and laid on its back and the wings have been loaded to three times the loaded weight of the ma-(bine-weight of wings. This resulted in the strengthening of the rear lateral spar to give it the same proportional strength as the front one; however, the lighter spar did not take a permanent set.

The area of the upper wings totals 202 sq. ft., the lower, 172 sq. ft.

THE BREGUET TWIN-FLOAT SEAPLANE

While the hydroaeroplane meeting this spring, at Monaco, proved a succession of disasters, one unqualified success alone stood out. Moineau's magnificent flight in a gale will not readily be forgotten, and more than deserved the gold medal awarded it by the Ministry of Marine; and when Bregi carried off a non-stop flight of 160 miles, Louis Breguet fully established his reputation as the foremost French hydroaeroplane constructor of the day.

The two machines in question were of slightly different type, that of Moineau driven by a 200 H. P. 18-cyl. Canton-Unne being provided with one main central float furnished with oleo-pneumatic shock absorbers and one small auxiliary swivelling float midway along each wing, while Bregi's 130 H. P. machine had twin floats working on rubber shock absorbers. For the present we will confine ourselves to a description of this latter seaplane. To British Aeronautics we are indebted for a description of this machine. Its main dimensions are: Span. 5o.8 feet; chord. 5.7 feet; length over all, 32 feet; plane area, 484 sq. ft.; length of floats, 13 feet; displacement of floats, 560 gallons; weight (empty). 1,980 lbs.;

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Page 99

September, 1913

AERONA UTICS

useful load, 750 lbs.; loading, 5.6 lbs. per sq. ft.; tankage, 4 hours.

The fuselage is not unlike that of the land machine, but with one important difference from the constructional point of view. It consists of four steel tubes converging towards the tail, and braced at intervals by steel struts and cross-pieces, by means of clips, none of the members being pierced. The lower surface of the fuselage is horizontal, the upper side curving downward towards the rear. The forward portion, of heavier gauge tubing, contains the seats and forms the motor bed. The seats are exceptionally roomy and give ample accommodation for two passengers, with a certain amount of space for luggage or spare parts. On the whole, this four-steel-tube fuselage is preferable to the old central-tube one, since it eliminates the danger from torsional stresses to which the other type was always exposed.

The wings are of the usual type, save that, in addition to the wires which prevent the incidence from falling below a certain angle and so obviate the danger of the wings flattening out in their rotary movement about the main steel spar, additional stops are provided, as a farther safeguard, which limit the movement of the steel spring connecting each rib to the spar. The upper plane has no dihedral, but

)30rf» BREGUET

the lower plane has a distinct dihedral angle, which has the further advantage of giving greater clearance to the wing tips.

The control is of the now usual Breguet type, and is universal : fore-and-aft movement of the lever operates the elevator, sideways motion actuates the warp, while steering is effected by twisting the wheel, motor car fashion. A foot warp control is added for the purpose of relieving the arms during long flights—a hydro by reason of its greater weight and the resistance of the floats requires more power to work the controls than a land machine—and of giving greater power of control in gusty weather. Incidentally, of course, it acts as a safeguard against the rupture of one control cable. The foot control is generally only employed to restore lateral balance in gusts and eddies, the hand warp being used for the more delicate maneuver of bankings All the control wires, with the exception of those of the warp, are carried within the fuselage—a most important point in a hydro.

The tail is of the ordinary Breguet type, save that the upper surface of the elevator is cambered so as to lift the weight of the tail float. The rear of the fuselage is equipped with a long triangular fin, to give weathercock stability and to balance the lateral float resistance, fixed to the fuselage by four steel arms.

The engine is a 9-cyl. 130 H. P. Canton Une, fitted with two carburetors and running at i,35o R. P. M. in the air. It is further provided with an excellent self-starter. An auxiliary magneto, giving an exceptionally long spark is fitted and operated from the pilot's seat by twirling a small switch-lever. When this is in operation a single swing of the starting lever starts the engine without effort. The propeller is a Chauviere tipped with copper. The pressure in the main tank is maintained by the familiar little air propeller working in the slip stream.

But the chief feature of the Breguet hydro, all said and done, is the marine portion—the floats and their attachment to the fuselage. The twin floats are of the Fabre type, with a perfectly flat under surface, and are constituted by two skins, the outer one being slightly flexible so as to yield slightly to the uneven surface of the water. Each float is 13 feet long, and divided into six water-tight compartments. The bow is fair-shaped and the upper surface slightly domed, so that, on the whole, the air resistance is not unduly high. The small tail-float rigidly attached to the rear of the fuselage is chiefly designed to protect the rudder since, normally, the machine rides the water on its two main floats. A small streamline float is attached to the extremity of each wing tip.

We now come to the suspension which, more than any other single feature, renders the Breguet hydro so distinctive and has undoubtedly played an important part in its success. Louis Breguet was the first to recognize the great importance of shock absorbers for marine work, in which they play an even more important part than on land machines. (Continued on page ioj)

BIPLANE " PONNIER-PAGNY" ON NEW PRINCIPLE

Half biplane, half monoplane is the structure built by two young French designers, after a study of two machines, a monoplane and a biplane, built by the same firm and with the same system of equilibrium. They found between these two types absolute dissimilarity instead of the similarity expected, considering they are two solutions of the same problem. In other industries similarity is the rule.

However, in the Ponnier-Pagny one finds this similarity, whether a question of monoplane or biplane, one or two passengers.

Excepting hydroaeroplanes, all the apparati of this firm belong to the category of machines whose centres of gravity, pressure, resistance and thrust about coincide. The c. of g. is, however, located slightly below the centre of pressure. The incidence of the horizontal tail, naturally non-supporting, is negative, and its value varies from minus j4 degree for single man machines to minus I degree for two man machines. This disposition gives to the longitudinal dihedral the greatest value and assures excellent longitudinal stability. Moreover, a ''torward preponderance,"* and thus assures automatic gliding descent in the event of a sudden stoppage of the motor.

The screw is always a propeller and mounted direct connected to the motor, except for the. special armored war machine. Its axis passes through the centre of pressure of the supporting surfaces (which are "sloped as desired"). If the machine is a single seater, the pilot, whose weight is an essential factor for proper balance, is placed forward of the entering edge; in the passenger machine, either the passenger sits over the c. of g. and the pilot in front, or else a passenger (observer or marksman) is placed in the extreme front before the pilot; or finally, the pilot and passenger sit side by side in line with the entering edge of the wings. In every case the field of vision is the greatest possible. Furthermore, the masses are near the c. of g. Therefore, the "nacelle," or car, is short and can be enclosed with sheet steel in streamline form.

The first machine of this series has commenced trials and the results were conclusive as to the principles involved, only a few slight details of construction had to be altered and the new machines confirmed expectations.

The "fuselage," or, more exactly, the car, is not in the first machine of steel. It is composed of a framework of steel tubing, covered with a fabric. The disposition of the organs is identical with that of the final apparatus. Special fittings, strong and light, are employed to connect them to the tubes of the fundamental prism.

The wings, designed with great care, comprise three parts: (i) An entering edge, very short, of angular shape acting as a wind deflector. (Modifications are under test for the

* By "forward preponderance" is meant that the <c. of g. is forward of the c. of p. on wings.

application of the Constantine system and actual tests are being made in flight by Ponnier himself. Note, in passing, recent article by i Mr. Sellers in AERONAUTICS on the experiments of M. Constantin.) (2) A thick I sustaining surface, comprised between the two ' spars, acting by depression on the back, and 1 compression on the face. The profile of the back is parabolic and tangent to the leading and trailing edges; that of the face is parallel to it and joins with the leading and trailing edges. (3) The trailing edge is in the form of a blade, with parabolic profiles, and which operates by "recuperation." The centre of pressure is equidistant between the two spars which are jointed and not "journalled." Acting chiefly by depression, the wings have a very small incidence, variable according to the type of machine. Their profiles are similar. All the factors of their outline are in a mathe- 1 matical relation advanced by Pagny, after numerous experiments made on wings of very different dimensions, of which the incidence varies from 4 degrees to o degree, and the '

Page 101

cambre from 150 millimetres to o millimetre, passing through intermediate values. At the limit, for o degree and o millimetre, the face would be flat and the back parabolic.

The transverse dihedral is positive and is 25 millimetres per metre.

The warp is effected by pivoting the spars about their axes, and journalling the ribs on the spars; there is, therefore, no tension. The warp is progressive and powerful, and its extreme flexibility renders it quasi-automatic.

(Bielovucic affirms he did not operate the warp during his flight over the Alps).

Lateral stability is by warping, as above stated. Soon comparative trials will be made with ailerons and flaps. Longitudinal stability is assured by a foldable tail at the rear of the fuselage, same being at a negative angle of incidence, and an elevator in two parts, to permit the swinging of the rudder.

A vertical rudder is hinged to the rearmost strut of the fuselage. The tail truss is composed of beams of steel tubing and struts of the same material, braced with music wire.

The landing gear is composed of two lateral "V's," the branches of which are tied to the car, the tops of which are fastened by two pins rigidly to the prism. The axle is jointed, its displacement being limited by rubber bands.

A special device is used for the attachment of the motor, which can be varied, making it quickly demountable. Controls by a lever with double movement and by foot pedals. The folding of the machine is well worked out. The wings are demountable; also the tail—and their disarrangement is almost impossible.

CAUDRON NOT MERELY AMPHIBIOUS

Abroad they point to American flying boats as inland water craft unsuited for sea flying and supporting this contention they consistently stick to catamaran floats. The Caudron people, of whose machines we have seen a sample in this country use wheels as permanent fixtures, located in slots built in the pontoons, the wheels just projecting below the high step. Other foreign makers frequently use wheels which can be drawn up or let down. As will be seen from the drawings herewith, the "tread" is wide and the wheel axles are attached rigidly to the floats. Spring suspension is provided by rubber shock absorbers. The six chassis struts to each float are connected to two bars which are parallel to the sides of the float and far enough apart for the float to swing freely between them. This framing pivots about a cross-tube attached by clips to the float, which clips act as bearings for the transverse tube. At the rear, between the rearmost struts, there is another transverse tube also secured to the float. The ends of this tube extend far enough on either side to rest upon the parallel side spars mentioned first and the rubber bands bind the two flexibly together at their junction. It will be seen that the float pivots about the forward cross-member with a certain amount of vertical movement as admitted by the rubber bands.

The surfaces are the same as on the land machines. The' rear portion of the main planes are flexible and the front and rear struts are quite close together. Lateral stability is secured by warping and the elevator is one single plane, which is also warped. The rudders are twin and are above the elevator. Control is by a universally mounted post for elevator and warp, with foot-yoke for the rudders.

The 80 H. P. Gnome is carried by overhung bearings and drives an 8 foot propeller. Two unique floats support the tail when the machine is at rest on the water and under the main planes are wing tip cylindrical floats. Some of these machines have been sold to the French Government and are now being introduced into England.

The area of the main planes is 3"o sq ft.; span of upper plane, 42 feet; lower 28 feet: tail plane (elevator). 50 sq. ft.; rudders, 16 sq. ft.; total length, 26 feet 8 inches; chord, 5 feet 1 inch; gap, 5 feet 1 inch. Full details, with scale drawing, of the Caudron monoplane were published in the October, 1912, issue.

ANOTHER NEW SOPWITH WATER 'PLANE

The machine which Harry Hawker used in his great flight for the "Round Britain" Daily Mail prize was built by T. O. iM. Sopwith, whose land machines were described in a previous issue.

This new water 'plane resembles the land machine generally but is fitted with a 100 H. P. 6-cylinder Green engine. It will be remembered by readers that a Green engine won the 24-hour test for the Alexander prize, of which test a full report was printed in AERONAUTICS.

The fuselage of this machine is of conventional construction, the longitudinals being of of ash and the struts and cross members in the head section of ash and in the rear of spruce. The main spars of the staggered planes are of spruce, I-section, the planes being set at a small dihedral angle. The engine section is covered in with aluminum.

Lateral stability is secured by ailerons of large size in both upper and lower surfaces, interconnected. These are operated by the rotation of the hand wheel which is mounted on a vertical column; a forward-and-back movement actuates the elevator and the rudder is turned by a foot lever. The control

cables are inclosed in the body for the greater part of their lengths. The upper plane is open over the engine section. As shown in the drawings, "baffle plates" of streamline form partially make up for the lack of upper surface in this centre section.

With pilot and passenger up, fuel and oil, the weight is about 2,400 pounds and the flying speed around Co M. P. H.

The single-step floats are framed in ash and spruce and covered with cedar. (A note on cedar lumber was published on page 136 of the April, 1913, issue). There are three com-

partments, two of which in each boat will keep the machine afloat. In addition to struts to the lower plane there are struts running up to the bow end of the fuselage to take the weight of the engine. The struts between the planes are hollowed out and all are of spruce.

Pressure is used on the gasoline tank and maintained by a small pump attached to a strut and driven by a small air propeller.

Total area main planes, 500 sq ft.; elevator area, 26 sq. ft.; tail plane area, 120 sq. ft.; rudder, 12 sq. ft.

The Daily Mail offered a prize of $25,000 to the first English aviator who, on a British-built machine, accomplished a circuit of the British Isles in 72 hours. Harry Hawker, after one previous trial in which he was obliged to give up, started with a passenger, on Aug. 25 from Southampton, followed the eastern coast up beyond Aberdeen, most to the north of Scotland, turned across Scotland at Cromarty diagonally southwest over the Caledonian Canal to Oban, on the western coast of the island. They left Oban the morning of the third day and crossed the Irish Sea and down the eastern coast of Ireland to a landing at Portrain, just a few miles north of Dublin. While making a spiral to land here, Hawker's

foot slipped from the rudder bar and lost control of the machine so that it dropped to the water. The mileage covered was 1,043 out of the total of 1,540. This incident was sufficient to preclude the possibility of repairing and finishing within the time limit. The first day 495 miles were covered in five stages, the longest single flight being one of 150 miles in 178 minutes.

Sopwith machines have made the following British records: Duration, 8 hours, 23 minutes; height, 11.450 feet; two-man height. 12,900 feet; three-man height, io.Coo feet, and world's four-man height record of 8,400 feet.

RADLEY'S HYDRO-AEROPLANE

James Radley, another English aviator whose flights have been numerous in America, and one of the members of the English team in the 1910 international race, with Gordon England, has produced a "waterplane" with features a bit out of the ordinary.

This machine is a modification of a machine built earlier this year with similar twin floats in which the pilot and passengers sit but which was powered with three Gnome engines, each driving by chain a propeller shaft,

and each of the three being capable of being eliminated as a driving element. These floats were more or less of the conventional, simple type.

In this latest machine the floats are real boats, constructed by a boat-builder and are "clinker" built, known to all users of row boats, in which the planks overlap instead of butt together. Cedar is used and there are three watertight compartments; water is possible of entrance only in the central section of each boat. Two people may sit in each, tandem. The controls are of the type made famous by Farman.

A single engine is used this time, an S-cyl-inder Sunbeam of 150 H. P., which drives through a two-to-one gear, a 4-bladed propeller, 9.5 ft. diameter and 4 ft. 7 ins. pitch. The engine runs normally at 2.200 and is a development of the automobile engine of the same name which has recently attracted great attention in track racing through its many wins at high speeds.

The location of the tank will be seen from the drawing, and this holds upwards of 80 gallons of gasoline and 8 gallons of oil.

Hickory spars are used for the main planes, of I-section, with poplar and spruce ribs. Struts are spruce, with exception of those in the engine section which are of Honduras mahogany. It may be interesting to note that the struts are hollowed out.

Lateral stability is maintained by ailerons in the top surface only, positive acting; one goes up as the other goes down and vice versa.

The elevator is of conventional type hinged to a non-lifting tail. The rudders are twin. The fabric is linen, coated with British Email-lite, which can now be purchased in the States.

The weight of the entire machine, with four up and fuel for ten hours, is 2,500 lbs., and the speed is 60 miles an hour.

Total area main planes 560 sq. ft.; tail plane, 24 sq ft.; elevator, 35 sq. ft.; top plane, 290 sq. ft.; rudder, 18 sq. ft.

In criticizing the British Government for lack of support of the aeronautical industry and for lack of availaole aeroplanes in case of sudden necessity, the number being set at 38. Howard Flanders, a constructor, remarks quite as a matter of course: "Moreover, there are not more than about 48 British machines on order." Why, if we could count offhand 48 aeroplanes flying daily in America we would think we were flourishing.

Xinety-nine miles an hour for a Wright— This is reported in England when a Wright biplane is said to have exceeded, even, this speed fitted with an 80 H. P. water-cooled motor.

Page 104

DEMOUNTABLE TURNBUCKLE

Everything for rapid take-down ! We have now arrived at the quick detachable wire strainer, or turnbuckle; and it is patented in France and other countries. One wire fas-

tens at A and another at B. To close, the lever C is folded up in its slot, the while the loop A slips into place, the lock D slips over the hook of C and there you are. Tightening would be accomplished in the usual way.

AERO STRENGTH OF VARIOUS COUNTRIES

The strength of the air battalions of the various countries, tables of expenditures and appropriations have been compiled by the aeronautical section of the Signal Corps for use in the recent hearing before the Committee on Military Affairs. Doubtless this information is as near accurate as can be obtained, as it is useless to expect that foreign government are willing to furnish any data whatever. This compilation follows:

France : 14 dirigibles, 8 under construction ; 611 aeroplanes, 238 officers permanently detailed, 620 military pilots, 1,174 officers and enlisted men on aviation duty.

Germany: 15 dirigibles, 5 dirigibles under construction, 420 aeroplanes, 300 military pilots.

Russia: 12 dirigibles, 10 dirigibles under construction, 200 aeroplanes, 80 military pilots.

England: 6 dirigibles, 2 dirigibles under construction, 168 aeroplanes, 135 military pilots, 74 officers and 682 men on permanent air duty.

Japan: 2 dirigibles, 1 dirigible under construction, 23 aeroplanes, 20 military aviators.

United States: no dirigibles, 17 aeroplanes, 19 military pilots, 19 officers detailed for aviation duty.

Italy: 8 dirigibles, 2 dirigibles under construction, 153 aeroplanes, 175 military pilots.

Mexico : 7 aeroplanes, 5 military pilots.

Austria: 7 dirigibles in use. 3 under construction, 136 aeroplanes, 91 pilots.

Brazil: 3 dirigibles, 18 aeroplanes, 12 pilots.

Belgium: 1 dirigible, 1 building, 40 aeroplanes, 68 pilots.

Spain : 1 dirigible, 48 aeroplanes, 20 pilots.

Bulgaria: 1 dirigible, 28 aeroplanes, 10 pilots.

Roumania: 24 aeroplanes, 15 pilots. Chile: 1 dirigible, 6 aeroplanes, 3 pilots. China: 25 aeroplanes, 12 pilots. Greece : 52 aeroplanes, 10 pilots. Switzerland : 4 aeroplanes, 27 pilots.

Turkey: 2 dirigibles, 15 aeroplanes.

Servia: 8 aeroplanes.

Argentine: 5 aeroplanes, 15 pilots.

Australia: 4 aeroplanes.

Norway: 3 aeroplanes, 5 pilots.

Montenegro: 3 aeroplanes, 5 pilots.

Denmark: 6 aeroplanes, 8 pilots.

Holland and Sweden : 3 aeroplanes, 10 pilots.

APPROPRIATIONS FOR 1913, VARIOUS COUNTRIES.

France* ......................... $7,400,000

Germanyf....................... 5,000,000

Russia ........................... 5,000,000

England ......................... 3,000,000

Japan ............................ fi,000,000

Italy ............................. 2,100,000

Mexico .......................... 400,000

United States .................... 125,000

* $2,400,000 in for the Navy.

f Approximate.

t $12,500,000 and $25,000,000 will be expended in the Navy and Army respectively covering a period of 5 years.

By the end of 1916 the Chinese army expects to have 1000 aeroplanes, this year's budget calling for the purchase of 250.

The Chairman. And how long do officers generally stay in the (aviation) service?

Lieut. * * * That depends upon the temperament of the officer. Lieut. * * * has been in the service for some time; he started at the same time I did, and it has not affected him as far as I can see, but his length of service has made him more cautious; that is all. Some other officers find that it gets on their nerves, and they become practically worthless as aviators.

The Chairman. I suppose that after an officer loses his nerve he is worthless as an aviator ?

Tjeut * * * Yes, sir; and he must quit, or he will kill himself; he will probably kill himself and somebody else with him.—Hearing before Committee on Military Affairs.

The model shown in the photograph is that of the Curtiss flying boat. It is ^th full size, is complete in every detail and is one of the finest examples of the model maker's art in America.

AERONA UTICS

Tage 105

September, 1913

Published Monthly by Aeronautics "Press 122 e. 25t- st., new york

Cable: aeronautic, new York •phone, 9122 Madison sq. ERNEST L. JONES. Pres') — - THOMAS C. WATKINS, Treas'r-Sec'y ERNEST L.JONES, Editor - M. B. SELLERS, Technical Editor HARRY SCHULTZ, Model Editor subscription rates Umted States, $3 00 Foreign, $3.50

SEPTEMBER, 1913

Vol. XIII, No. 3

Entered as second-class matter September 22, 1908, at the Pastoffice, New York, under the Act of March 3, 1879.

<J AERONAUTICS is issued on the 30th of each Month. All copy must be received by the 20th. Advertising pages close on the 25th.

<J Make all checks or money orders free of exchange and payable to AERONAUTICS. Do not send currency. No foreign stamps accepted.

cAero cTWart

BREGUET WATER 'PLANE

{Continued from page qq.)

In the case of a central float airboat the matter is relatively simple, but with two floats the designer is immediately confronted by the difficulty of one float being constantly in danger of being struck by a wave, while the other descends into a trough, so that equilibrium may be easily upset; hence the necessity not only for enormous strength in the first place (and each of the Breguet floats weighs 180 lbs.), but for enormous shock absorbing capacity. Moreover, each float must be sprung so as to work wholly independently of the other.

This problem Breguet has solved in quite an original manner. To the front of each float, well in advance of the c. g., are attached two steel struts tied together by cross-struts, and mounted on ordinary universal joints. To the center of the after part of each float is attached a single steel strut by means of a ball-and-socket joint, whence it passes upwards through a hole in the lower plane, giving sufficient room for play, and joins the three front struts on a collar sliding vertically against heavy rubber shock absorbers of the type formerly used on the REP. Moreover a diagonal strut runs from the front and rear of each float to a central longitudinal steel tube connected to the fuselage by an inverted pyramid of steel struts. Every single joint constitutes a hinge, with the result that there is perfect flexibility and play in each direction. The system is ingenious to a degree: more, it is highly effective and once again reveals the originality of mind and the thorough going but unbiased manner in which this constructor approaches each new problem, a quality in which so many other designers, adaptors, and manufacturers are deficient.

This fine machine is not a land aeroplane to which floats have been attached; it is a seaplane in the true meaning of the word.

The amount of accessories to keep aeroplanes in the field is astonishing. During some British manoeuvers with two airships and fourteen aeroplanes, it took 8 motor cars, 12

I light tenders, 10 heavy tenders, and 8 steam

. trucks to keep them going.

RATES: 15 cents a line, 7 words to the line. Payment in advance.

FOR SALE—50 II. P. Gnome motor, practically new. Address letters Gnome, care of AERONAUTICS, 122 E. 25th St., New York.

FOR SALE—Tractor Biplane. Genuine Benoist 1913 model. Good as new. Will demonstrate. Address Tractor, care of AERONAUTICS, 122 E. 25th St., New York.

FOR SALE—Returning to Europe, will sell Tractor Biplane 42 feet spread, extra parts, large tent, crates, etc.. Al exhibition machine, $300.00. 8-cyl. V motor, Paragon & Normale propellers, radiators, gas tank, $700.00. Fully guaranteed. Will accept best offer for complete outfit. Must be sold. Robinson Bros., 59 Glasgow St., Rochester, N. Y.

ENGINE FOR SALE—S-cyl. "V," list price, $1,500; new, never used. The one who buys this motor gets one of those few real bargains that isn't picked up every day. Thoroughly tested by maker who desires to sell the last one in his shop. Complete with propeller, $800. Address, "Eight Cylinder," care of AERONAUTICS, 122 E. 25th St., New York.

SACRIFICE—A Curtiss type biplane, flown by one of America's most famous aviators, with 8 cyl. Hall-Scott 60 H. P. motor, all in Al condition, for $1,800 cash, subject to demonstration to bonafide purchaser. Shipping boxes, propeller, crates, completely equipped for the road. Free instruction in flight to purchaser at well-known flying field. The best bargain of the season. Opportunitv knocks but once at every man's door. Address "Sacrifice," care of AERONAUTICS, 122 E. 25th St., New York.

Now Ready

The Airman's Vade=Mecuni

"NO. 1," METEOROLOGY

By Colonel H. E. Rawson, C. B.

(Vice-President Royal Meteorological Society; Council Aeronautical Society)

CONTENTS : Introduction and 5 Chapters on Temperature, Pressure, Wind, and Precipitation. Weather Forecasting. Index. (f/iustrati-ti) Price 40 Cents Net Post Free

"AERONAUTICS," 3, London Wall Buildings, London Wall, London, E. C.

AERONAUTICS

September, 1913

U. S. ARMY REQUIREMENTS FOR WATER 'PLANES

i. Pontoon type of machine with inclosed body in which aviators are seated and instruments specified installed.

2. In case of single pontoon it shall have at least one longitudinal center line water-tight bulkhead and at least two transverse watertight bulkheads giving not less than six watertight compartments. In case two pontoons are used, each pontoon shall have at least two transverse water-tight bulkheads or not less than three water-tight compartments. Pontoons shall have at least three inches freeboard when machine is fully loaded, this test made after machine has been floating on water 24 hours.

3. In flying boat type of machine aviators to he seated in boat and instruments specified installed. One longitudinal center line water-tight bulkhead and at least two transverse water-tight bulkheads; that is, not less than six watertight compartments. Sufficient freeboard not to ship water going 30 miles an hour in the open sea in a 25 mile wind.

4. Plane of either type capable of easy handling on water, to have a tactical diameter of not more than 100 yards.

5. Protective armor for pilot, observer, and engine, subject to Ordnance Department penetration tests for a small-arm fire. Armor shall be made of chrome steel and be about 0.075 inch thick.

6. The following instruments and radio equipment shall be placed on each machine and shall be considered a part thereof: Tachometer, compass, aneroid barometer, barograph, map holder, stretching board, combined, clock, angle or incidence indicator.

7. All above instruments of make and type approved and furnished by Signal Corps, United States Army.

8. A radio telegraphic apparatus on each machine. Equipment furnished by the Signal Corps.

9. Power plant may be designated by Chief Signal Officer. Six hours' test on the block-to determine its horsepower, speed, gasoline and engine consumption.

10. Upon delivery for tests the manufacturer will furnish the following data concerning the aeroplane: (a) weight, (b) normal angle of incidence in horizontal flight, (c) gliding angle, (d) gasoline and oil consumption of engine, (e) Safe increase angle of incidence, (f) two blueprints of engine and aeroplane, (g) list furnished with data.

TESTS TO BE PASSED

1. Carry two people with seats to permit largest field of observation for both.

2. Control capable of use by either.

3. Floats strong enough to allow beaching and rough water.

4. Pack for assembling by 6 men in 1V2 hours.

5. Ascend at least 1,500 feet in 10 minutes, with live load of 400 pounds, and fuel and oil for 4 hours. This load to be carried in all prescribed flying tests.

6. Starting device.

7. Non-stop 4-hour flight.

8. Minimum speed 38 M. P. H., and maximum not less than 55 M. P. H.

9. Machine capable of safe gliding.

10. Manufacturers shall furnish demonstrators for all tests.

11. Manufacturers must provide name plate, giving necessary data, such as maker's type and serial number.

12. System of control of pattern approved by Board of Officers conducting tests.

13. Desirable features: silencer, flight in 20 mile wind, efficient stabilizing device, starting machine from within exposed body or boat. -

THE SIKORSKY AIR LIMOUSINE

Probably the biggest aeroplane yet built is the new machine just now attracting attention, built by one Igor Sikorsky, a student with the Technical Institute at Kieff, Russia. It has flown a number of times and now holds the world's record for duration with seven on board, 1 hour 4 minutes. The passengers can walk around during flight and make sudden movements without affecting the stability of the aeroplane.

The aeroplane is generally of standard type, but heavy and with a cabin added. Four Argus motors of 100 H. P. each, driving 4 propellers, are placed in pairs, two in front, two at the rear, a pair on either side of the cabin, mounted on the lower plane. In later trials

the rear motors were moved to the front alongside of the other two, and the speed increased to 66 miles an hour. The supporting surface is 120 sq. m., spread 28 metres, total length 20 metres. There are eight wheels to the chassis, with elastic suspension. Ailerons for lateral equilibrium. The weight of the machine is 2700 kilos. (5940 lbs.). The machine gets off in about 6co feet and lands as easily as any other. The speed is over 45 miles an hour. It can carry 1600 lbs. load. The fuselage, of wood, terminates in a balcony for an observer. Back of this is a cabin 10 feet long, with two pilot wheels. Still to the rear is another cabin for passengers, provisions, bombs, etc. Even a couch is provided.

One motor may be out of service or under repairs during flight. The whole machine can be quickly taken down for transport.

THE

WRIGHT COMPANY

OUR aeioplanes for land and water purposes remain toda}7 as in the very beginning of flying, the most efficient machines in use.

Mr. ORVILLE WRIGHT and our

engineer, Mr. G. C. Loening, have spent over two years in careful experiment on the air-worthiness and sea-worthiness of aeroboats, in order todetermine thoroughly thecon-ditions that these craft would have to meet. Naturally, therefore,

THE WRIGHT AEROBOAT

combines efficiency, safety, sea-worthiness, stability and contiol on the water in a degree that surpasses anything yet produced.

Further Information Upon Request

OUR STANDARD TYPES

Model "C", two passenger, military scout, extensively used by United States War Department.

Model "D", one passenger, speed, scout —in its official military tests, this machine has consistently demonstrated a climbing of 1640 feet in 3 minutes.

— I he American Record.

Model "E", single propeller, exhibition machine, designed particularly for ease in assembling and taking down.

Model "C-H", hydro-aeroplane, designed particularly for use over small inland streams. This machine shows higher efficiency than has ever been attained in marine flying.

THE WRIGHT SCHOOL AT SIMMS STATION, NEAR DAYTON, OHIO

Complete tuition, §250. No charge for breakage. Pilot may use school machine for his license tests free of charge. Dual control used. Average length of course, two weeks. Our terms are the best, and our equipment also, as we wish to encourage flying in this way.

™E WRIGHT INCIDENCE INDICATOR

An indispensable instrument for the amateur aviator. Price $50.00.

THE WRIGHT COMPANY

DAYTON, OHIO New York Office: 11 PINE STREET

McCormick's Flying Boat Exceeding 60 Miles Per Hour

If your Business

were Building Aeroplanes

You wouldn't stake your reputation on anything but the most RELIABLE fabric, tires, accessories, etc., that money could buy. Insist on such quality now when your safety is at stake. Follow the lead of successful manufacturers and insist upon the use of

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Stay-Tight Aeroplane Fabric

The one fabric that is reliable at all times and under all conditions. It stays the same rain or shine.

Goodyear Aeroplane Fabric is so treated that weather has little or no effect upon it. It is moisture-proof—non-tot. Won't shrink or stretch—practically non-inflammable.

Here are some of the famous makers who believe in and use this quality fabric : The Curtiss Aeroplane Company, Burgess Company & Curtis ; The Wright Company; Glenn L. Martin Co.; Benoist Aircraft Company; Thomas Brothers Aeroplane Co.

We also make a full line of Aeroplane Tires in single tube, and double tube. No-Rim-Cut and Clincher Types. We furnish rims, also built-up wheels.

Let us inform you more fully on how GOODYEAR renders Aviators a saving service. Write for our circular on aeroplane accessories today.

The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company

AKRON, OHIO

Toronto, Canada. London, England. Mexico City, Mexico Branches and Agencies in 103 Principal Cllies. Write us on Anything You Want in Rubber.

AERONAUTICS

Page

108

September, 1913

 
       
 

MODEL

NOTES

       

THE FREELAN BIPLANE By Harry schultz, model Editor

The model biplane shown in the accompanying drawing was constructed by Clifford Freelan, of Cypress Hills, L. I., and was the winner of a contest recently held by the Long Island Model Aero Club, the results of which appear below:

The fuselage consists of a single stick of balsa 1/2 inch square, tapering to l/2 inch by Yx inch at the front. The rear brace of bamboo is 9 inches long, y$ inch at the center, tapering to Y\ inch at the ends.

The propellers are carved out of spruce, arc 9 inches in diameter and have a pitch angle of 45 degrees. The propellers are fitted with the usual bearings of -in inch tubing.

The planes are constructed entirely of bamboo. The upper main plane has a spread of 28 inches, with a chord of 5 inches at the center, tapering to 4 inches at the tips. The lower main plane has a spread of 19 inches with a chord of 5 inches tapering to 4 inches at the tips. The struts or stanchions between the planes are eight in number and measure 5 inches in length. As shown in the drawing the main stick or fuselage passes between the main planes. As shown, the planes are slightly

staggered. The elevating plane is constructed the same as the main plane, and measures 13 inches in spread with a chord of 3^ inches at the center. It is placed on an elevation block 34 inch high about 3 inches from the front of the main stick. The planes are covered on the under side with silk paper and coated with ambroid varnish.

The chassis is constructed of bamboo, the rear skid being bent from a single strip of bamboo J/£ inch square and 7 inches in length. The front skids are 8 inches in length and are braced as shown. The spread between the wheels is 10 inches. The wheels are ¿4 inch in diameter and are constructed of two layers of 3*2 inch spruce laminated together. They are fitted with small pieces of tubing for hubs.

The model is driven by two motors of 14 strands, each of l/% inch flat rubber.

The accompanying photograph shows an exhibition model built by W. L. Butler, of Daly City, Cal. Air. Butler is one of the foremost model flyers of the Pacific Coast, and as stated in last month's issue, is at present the holder of the world's record for models flying from the hand with a duration of 170 seconds.

to wfje.cZ. j)£tflll of wheel.

st,^ 36"

I7<=»9

side elevation.

••/Kero-na-xM-iSS

AERONA UTICS

Tage 109

September, 1913

PAT E NTS SECURED OR FEE RETURNED

Send sketch or model for FREE, Search of Patent Office records. Wrile for our Guide Books + and What to Invent with valuable List of Inventions Wanted sent Free. Send for our J special list of prizes offered for Aeroplanes. +

$600,000 OFFERED IN PRIZES FOR AIRSHIPS |

We are Experts in Aeronautics and have a special Aeronautical Department. Copies of T patents in Airships, 10 cents each. Improvements in Airships should be protected without delay + as this is a very active field of invention and is being rapidly developed. +

VICTOR J. EVANS &, COMPANY ?

t Main Offices - 724-726 NINTH ST., N. W. - WASH I N GTO N, D. C. J

7 +

BURGESS patents

FOR SALE—Year old passenger water machine, Sturtevant Motor, guaranteed in first class condition. Only bargain ever offered. Owner has bought flying boat. $2,000.

Address, Burgess, care Aeronautics

HYDRO

Special grades of Bamboo for Aeronautic Work. Reed. Rattan and Split Bamboo for models. Tonka Rattan for Skids 154 diameter and under any length.

J. DELTOUR, Inc. ^illt^l*''

DUCK for AEROPLANES

Samples and prices on request

JOHN BOYLE 4 CO., Inc.

112 Duane Street. New York City

202 Market Street, St. Louis, Mo.

JOURNAL OF THE UNITED STAT ES ARTILLERY

A bi-monthly magazine of artillery and other matter relating to coast defense.

Published under the supervision of the School Board, Coast Artillery School, Fort Monroe, Virginia.

$2.50 a year. With Index to Current Military Literature, $2.75.

Ex-member Examining Corps, U. S. Patent Olfioe Attorney-at-L«w and Solicitor of Patents American and foreign patents secured promptly and with special regard to the complete legal protection of the inv.-ntion. Handbook for inventors sent upon request. 30 McGill Bid*. WASHINGTON. D. C.

curtiss s-foot Model FLYING BOAT

Build this Model

It embodies the latest ideas in Aeronautics. Concise Plan with Building Instructions, 25c. OTHER "IDEAL" 3ft. MODEL PLANS:

—Bleriot, 15c; Wright, 25c; Nieuport, 25c; Cecil Peoli Champion Racer, 25c; Curtiss Convertible Hydroaeroplane, 35c.

COMPLETE SET OF SIX, $1.25 POSTPAID 48 pp. "Ideal" Model Aeroplane Supply Catalog 5c IDEAL AEROPLANE & SUPPLY CO., 82A W. Broadway, N.Y.

SUPPLIES AT REDUCED PRICES

Goods of quality at less than the cheaper kind. Get our 40-page catalog "EVERYTHING AVIATIC" and a small order will tell you why those who know send to us when they want the best at the right price. Let us give you a special figure on that supply list.

HAMILTON AERO MFG. CO.

208 30th Avenue Seattle, Wash.

PEDERSEN OIL PUMPS

have positive action, are small and light, easily applied to any motor

———Write for circular

PEDERSEN LUBRICATOR CO.

636-644 First Avenue, New York, U.S.A.

BOLAND AEROPLANE AND MOTOR COMPANY

THE BOLAND MOTOR

8 cyl. "V " type 6o H.P. 240 pounds.

RELIABILITY DURABILITY

MAXIMUM POWER. MINIMUM WEIGHT.

THE BOLAND TAILLESS BIPLANE

equipped with the Boland Control (two movements) and BOLAND MOTOR.

THE BOLAND CONTROL is the embodiment of utmost, safety and simplicity in a new system of control which is basic in principle. Write for particulars.

Factory : Ft. Center St., Newark, N. J.

Office: 1821 BROADWAY, NEW YORK.

AERONA UTICS Page 1 1 0 September, 19131

WRIGHT-CURTISS LITIGATION

The last stage of the suit against the Herring-Curtiss Co. and Glenn II. Curtiss, brought by The Wright Company for alleged infringement of U. S. Patent Number 821,393, will be fought out by Ihe attorneys for both sides in the United States Circuit Court of Appeals, Post Office Building, New York, some time in November, it is expected, the case having been appealed by Curtiss to this, the last court.

In the event of a decision in favor of the plaintiff, the amount of damages to be awarded will have to be figured out by a Master, who will be appointed by the Court._ Arguments may be made before him by representatives of either side tending to arrive at a proper amount. Having made up his mind as to the damages accruing, the Master would take steps to collect, by attachment if necessary. The Court may award no damages, on the other hand. If the decision is that there has been no infringement, the suit will be dismissed and the use of ailerons for maintaining balance will be free.

There is no case in the courts against the present Curtiss Aeroplane Co. or the Curtiss Exhibition Co. The Herring-Curtiss Co. was formed in 1908, but a disagreement between the principals led to internal legal dissensions and the company went through bankruptcy. Mr. Curtiss bought the plant at the receiver's sale and sold it to the newly formed Curtiss Aeroplane Co.

The ailerons in the earliest Curtiss machines had a slight curve and these are the ones on which the present suit is brought. Later Curtiss adopted perfectly flat ailerons and introduced a device intended to equalize the aileron resistance, if any should occur, irrespective of whether they present equal, positive and negative, angles to the line of flight. Neither the flat ailerons, or any using the equalizing device, seem to come within the machine proved in the present case. It would appear that in case the plaintiff wins in this last court, the defendant company is bankrupt, and the suit is for infringement by the company and Curtiss jointly. And, also, the status of the ailerons as used at present on Curtiss machines with the operation of the special equalizing device appears to be still unsettled.

HISTORY OF THIS FAMOUS CASE.

In January, 1910, an order for preliminary injunction was granted, restraining Curtiss. etc., from manufacturing, selling and exhibiting, allowing, however, the concern to proceed under a $10,000 bond. An appeal of the injunction proceedings was taken to the same court as will hear the present appeal, which court reversed the decree. The injunction was dismissed, costs imposed on the plaintiff and the bond cancelled. In November, 1912, after many months of taking testimony, the case was argued, briefs were submitted, and in February, 1913, Judge Hazel handed down the first opinion on the merits of the patent in favor of the Wrights. Appeal was at once taken. Since this decision, the Curtiss interests have operated under a $10,000 bond again.

The above statement of the status of the suit is the view of the attorneys for the defendant. On the other hand, the plaintiff considers that the suit was not based on curved ailerons. The proving of their use was simply for the purpose of demonstrating that it really was not intended to carry pressure on the top as well as the bottom sides. Of course, it will depend entirely on the decision of the Court as to what will be covered.

RUSSIA WANTS MOTORS

Engineer N. Kouznetzoff, Aeronautical Department, Ingeniernaya 13, St. Petersburg, Russia, wants to hear from American motor manufacturers with catalogues.

INTERFERENCE IN PATENT OFFICE OVER DEVICE CLAIMED NOT TO INFRINGE WRIGHT PATENT

Incredible as it may seem, patent examiners, magazine editors, constructors and patent attorneys have never till now discovered the patent issued to Leicester B. Holland for a device which seems identical with that used in the Boland aeroplane, which is alleged not to infringe the Wright patent and on which application for patent was made on March 18, 1910, just a few days prior to the application, on March 21, 1910, for the Holland patent, which actually issued on Sept. 19, 1911, No. 1,003,459.

The patent examiner in each case has apparently not been cognizant of the work of his colleague until very lately, when interference proceedings have_ been instituted. The Holland patent has long been issued and the inventor naturally supposed himself safe as to priority. Boland has priority of application and Holland has the issued patent. Boland has gone along building machines and prosecuting the claims on his unissued patent^ under the same belief, totally unaware of the existence of a patent already issued covering the identical feature—at least it seems so, for did they not conflict there would be no interference action.

There are eight claims to the Holland patent which cover, in short, a rigid vertical surface at each lateral extremity of an aeroplane means for swinging eachof these vertical surfaces about a diagonal axis extending from one edge of one main plane to a point in vertical alinement with the opposite edge of the other main plane.

COL. REBER TO INVESTIGATE ACCIDENTS

Colonel Samuel Reber has begun an exhaustive investigation concerning accidents in the military aviation service.

GYRO EXPLOITS ABROAD

R. S. Moore is making his aviator-demonstrator "hump himself" over there at the Hendon weekly meetings. The Gyro-motored Wright is made to carry four full grown people and race fast Deps in speed contests. The speed contests are handicap affairs and the figures imposed upon the various machines are intended to equalize them and make the results depend principally on the skill of the pilots and the ability of the mechanics to get the engines in best trim. Moore's aviator was able on one occasion to beat our American friend. Brock, who was mounted on a 75 H. P. Dep., a 70 Farman and even a 100 Dep., which started scratch.

BOOKS RECEIVED

GRUNDLAGEN DER PHYSIK DES FLUGES, von Dr. Raimund Nimfuhr, 8vo., paper, 106 pp., with 10 figures. Published by Druckerei und Verlags-Aktiengesellschaft vorm. R. v. Waldheim, Jos. Eberle &- Co., Vienna VII/1, Austria, at M. 4. Chapters: Einleitung; Die Luftverdrängungs- (Luftstoss-) Theorie, Senkrechter Luftstoss, Der schiefe Luftstoss, Mängel der Luftverdrängungstheorie; Die Theorie der statodynamischen Auftriebserzeugung mit Berücksichtigung der Atmosphäre als Ganzes und der Kompressibilität der Luft, etc.; Zur Theorie der Drachenflieger.

REVIEW OF APPLIED MECHANICS, by L. Le Cornu, _8vo., paper, 15 pp. Published by Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C, free upon request. Contains note on aerodynamical laboratories.

HOLES IN THE AIR, by W. J. Humphreys, Ph.D., 8vo., paper, 13 pp., plates. Published by Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C, free upon request.

JIERONA UTICS

Tage I 1 1

September, 1913

J FRENCH AEROPLANES

ENGINEERS INVENTORS AVIATORS CONSTRUCTORS

I

TAKE NOTICE!

For all photos, descriptions, data,news, drawings, etc., regarding FRENCH AVIATION, address below :

Etudes Aeronautiques ALEX. DUMAS, Engineer, E.C.P. 20 Rue Ste. Marie, Neufchateau (.Vosges1, France

ADAMS-FARWELL

REVOLVING MOTORS

HAVE BEEN IN

THE ADAMS

21 ATHOL STREET,

COMPANY

DUBUQUE, IOWA, U. S. A.

^Thomas School

OF AVIATION

OFFERS SUPERIOR ADVANTAGES

Address, Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co. BATH, N. Y.

STYLES & CASH

ESTABLISHED 1865

Printers, Stationers Lithographers

Aeroplane, Motor and Accessory Catalogues Circulars, Brochures, Bulletins, etc. :: ::

135 W. 14th STREET

NEW YORK

AERONAUTICAL RADIATORS

Built in capacities and types for standard and special aviation motors

Write for prices on standard makes. Send your specifications for special designs

EL ARCO RADIATOR COMPANY

64th St. & West End Ave., New York City

Also Manufacturers of Automobile Radiators if all types

FOR FLYING BOATS USE

JEFFERY'S MARINE GLUE

Use our Waterproof Liquid Glue, or No. 7 Black, White, or Yellow Soft Quality Glue for waterproofing the canvas covering of flying boats. It not only waterproofs and preserves the canvas but attaches it to the wood, and with a coat of paint once a year will last as long as the boat.

For use in combination with calico or canvas between veneer in diagonal planking, and for waterproofing muslin for wing surfaces.

Send for samples, circulars, directions for use, etc.

L. W. FERDINAND & CO. 201 South Street Boston, Mass., U.S.A.

WIRE

We make an extra high grade plated finish wire for aviators' use.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ADDRESS

John A. Roebling's Sons Co.

TRENTON, N. J.

V-Ray Spark-Plugs Never Lay Down

The V-RAY CO.

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CHARAVAY PROPELLERS

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Agents: Eames Tricyle Co., San FraDcisco; NatioDal Aeroplane Co., Chicago.

AERONA UTICS Page 1 1 2 September, 1913

DEATH OF LIEUT. LOVE

A Board of Officers at the Signal Corps Aviation School, San Diego, Cal., have investigated the aeroplane accident which resulted in the death of 1st Lieut. Moss L. Love, 11th Cavalry, on Sept. 4, 1913.

This Board, of whom two were eye witnesses of the accident, reported as follows:

Lieut. Love left the field at 7.23 a. m., Sept. 4, in Wright machine No. 18. He climbed to approximately 2,000 feet and flew at that altitude until 8.01 a. m., when he started to volplane. After completing a right turn at an altitude of approximately 1,000 feet, he continued on a straight-away glide very little, if any steeper than the normal gliding angle of this machine. At an altitude of about 300 feet lie was observed to put on power. He continued gliding at approximately the same angle as before for quite a perceptible interval of time. Then the angle oi glide gradually became steeper and steeper, the machine becoming vertical. There is a difference of opinion as to whether the machine went beyond the vertical or not, but the majority of witnesses are of the opinion that it did, striking the ground on the top plane first. The position of the machine seemed to bear this out. Witnesses are uncertain as to whether power was kept on until he struck the ground. The machine was a total wreck, but an examination showed all wires intact. Up to the time of the final dive, Lieut. Love seemed to he flying well, with the machine under thorough control, and as far as anyone could tell there was no collapse of any part of the machine in the air. The machine was thoroughly examined before Lieut. Love went up and had already been flown several times that morning.

The Board is therefore of the opinion that the accident was due in no way to any defect in the aeroplane itself. The air at the time was slightly puffy, but not dangerously so. The machine at all times up to the final dive seemed to be under thorough control, therefore, the only reasons that can be given for the the accident are either that Lieut. Love became unconscious in the air or that the dive was caused by bad air.

MODEL CONTESTS

At the flying field of the Long Island Model Aero Club in Brooklyn, N. V., on Labor Day, September 1, 1913, a contest was held for biplanes rising from the ground for duration.

The contest was won by Clifford Freelan of the Long Island Cluh, whose model is described herein. The total of his three best flights was 155 seconds; the average, therefore, being 51 2/3 seconds.

W. F. Bamberger of the Bay Ridge Model Aero Club was second with a total of 130 seconds and an average of 43 1/3 seconds. His machine was fitted with Dunne type planes and showed remarkable stability in spite of the strong wind prevailing.

Excellent flights were also made by Frank Braun and Chas. V. Obst of the Long Island Club. Obst's machine was an excellently constructed biplane of the headless type with a built-up fuselage. lie, however, was handicapped on account of the weight of his model and the low pitch propellers with which it was provided.

The contest was attended by an enormous amount of spectators and was a great success.

A contest for tractor models was held by the Bay Ridge Model Aero Club at the flying grounds at Rugby, Brooklyn, N. V. The contest was a very exciting one, the models showing remarkable stability.

W. F. Bamberger, president of the Bay Ridge Club, was the winner of the single propeller tractor contest with a flight of 782 feet. This constitutes a new world's record as it surpasses the former record of 519 feet held by F. G. Hindsley of England. F. Hodgeman, flying a double propellered tractor made excellent flights; his best being 633 feet.

The world's record has been broken for rising off ground models, for duration, by Mr. L. H. Slatter, of England, with a duration of 131 seconds. His model weighs ounces.

"Last year we had a few visitors to the field; this year a dozen people at the field on a Sunday we consider quite a crowd; still we keep right on flying and working.

"Why don't you try and get the Aero Cluh to run a meet, spend a few dollars, and give us a chance to make some money; we won't hold on to it but will put it in circulation as fast as we get it."—A Hempstead Aviator.

PEGOUD ACTUALLY DOES THE LOOP

On September 21, cables report that Pegoud, after a dive turned his aeroplane so that the wings formed a right angle with the earth, righted, turned the machine over again on the other wing, righting each time. Then he looped the loop, diving vertically, heading the nose up, gliding upside down with the wheels above around the loop and then diving again to normal position. While the machine makes complete somersault about its transverse axis, it seems clear to aviators here that Pegoud must have been falling all the time, which would make the altitude at the "top" of the loop actually less than at the beginning; in other words, that Pegoud did not actually make a circle in a vertical plane with the top John Iseman, Joy At water, E. C. Flick and C. E. O. Sim.

Pegoud is quoted as follows:

"If some fearful gust of wind should turn an aeroplane over, the pilot could regain a normal position by pivoting on one wing. I proved this three times by flying downwards with a machine on its side and righted each time, both on the right and left wing. The downward falls with the wings perpendicular to the earth, whether the engine is running or not, are no longer dangerous.

"I tried in the whole series of these falls by warping a wing to its fullest extent, without using the rudder. The way in which the machine righted itself, merely by a movement of the rudder in the reverse direction, was simply amazing.

"For my falls of 500 feet, tail downward, 1 pointed the nose of the aeroplane upward by pulling the steering pillar right back, and i let her rip. The way I tried to capsize the machine sidewise was by warping a wing to the fullest extent in the very act of banking steeply.

"If I want to capsize an air machine in the ordinary way 1 simply start coming down, stop the engine and push the steering pillar right forward until the machine has turned over on its back. I have always wanted to loop the loop, though I had not announced my intention of doing so until recently. When I was 2,500 feet up I began a precipitate descent by pushing forward the steering pillar, then I pulled it backward, the engine running freely un'il the machine was round the loop and ready for the vertical dive."

A Russian armv aviator who duplicated Pegoud's first upside-down flights was court martialed and given 30 days in jail to reflect.

MILTON KORN DIES FROM FALL

Celina, O., Aug. 19—Milton Korn died as the result of injuries received in a fall during a flight as passenger with his brother in a biplane, on Aug. 13. The brother did not sustain fatal injuries. No details of the accident are available.

MAX LILLIE KILLED

Galesburg, 111.. Sept. 16—Maximilian Theodore Lil-jestrand, known as Max Lillie, for several years a most successful flyer of his Wright biplane, owner of a school of flight at Chicago, was killed in giving an exhibition. An examination by G. C. Loening, of the Wright Company, states that the machine used was constructed of spare parts of old machines and parts made by Lillie; that vital steel parts were rusted, the cloth was rotten, that joints were stiff, that inferior metal parts were occasionally used, though control wires were in good condition; that any number of joints and wires might have given way due to increased strains; wires and pins showed wear; the direct cause of Lillie's death is ascribed to the folding up of a right wing straightening out from a turn to the left and about to land.

INCORPORATIONS

Indianapolis (Ind.) Aerial Navigation Company of America, $100,000 capital stock. Capt. G. L. Bum-baugh is president and general manager. Associated with him are Harry B. Wilson, assistant cashier of the City National Bank as vice-president and treasurer, and Herbert A. Luckey, attorney, as secretary. The purpose of the company is to deal in dirigible halloons. About $25,000 of the capital stock has been subscribed.

Russell Aeroplane Co., of Cleveland, Tex., capital $12,000; incorporators: James M. Murray, E. T. Murray. J. D. McDowell, A. S. Deuel, Cleveland.

The Atwater Safety Flying Machine Company, Akron; flying machines; $25,000; M. L. Atwater, of the circle higher above the ground than the bottom.

JIERONA UTICS "Page 1 1 3 September, 1913

BALDWIN

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Hall-Scott Motors

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Will install a Hall-Scott free of charge in anyone's aeroplane and demonstrate by expert flyer. Expert advice. 'Planes balanced.

Private Flying Field

Fine private field with smooth water frontage for hydro-aeroplanes. Private sheds and workshop. Located at Oakwood Heights, Staten Island.

CAPTAIN THOMAS S. BALDWIN

Box 78, Madison Sq. P.O. New York

[AEROPLANES

BUSINESS TROUBLES

Paul Studensky, of Brooklyn, N. V., a Russian, who has lived in the United States two years, has brought suit against the Silver Lake Aviation Company of New Berlin, O., for $10,000 damages. The aviation company is supposed to conduct a school of flying. Studensky says he signed a contract June 7, by which he was to be employed one year at $50 a week and 20 per cent, of gross exhibition receipts, are covered by a guarantee of $100 weekly. He says that after two weeks he was notified his salary had been stopped.

WORLD RECORD WATER FLIGHT

Sept. 23—Roland Garros flew from St. Raphael, France, across the Mediterranean to Bizerta, Tunis, non-stop, in 7 hours 53 minutes, a distance over water of about 560 miles. No floats on his land machine were used, nor were any boats stationed along the route.

Sept. 7—Alfred Friedrich and passenger flew from Berlin to Paris. He started on Sept. 3.

Sept. 13—A. L. Sequin flew non-stop from Paris to Berlin, about 590 miles.

Sept. 17—The Michelin cup for distance flying was awarded today to Aviator Fourny, who covered 9,993 miles between August 25 and September 16. Fourny flew daily and never once suffered serious mishap.

CHRISTOFFERSON'S NEW PLANE

Mr. Christofferson is now flying a small racing biplane of his own make; equipped with a Hall-Scott 60 H. P. motor. This is an ideal equipment for filling exhibition dates, and so far he has filled five or six within the last two weeks. The most noteworthy of these was his date at Salt Lake City, altitude 5,200 feet, where he flew without extensions for two days without any trouble whatsoever. The next date was at Provo, 75 miles distance, and he flew this one afternoon at hetter than 72 miles an hour. He states that the equipment was perfect in every way, and that it gave as much or more power than his 80 H. P. motor. Blakely writes from Canada that he has flown 500 miles, cross country, without a stop between flights, within the past 10 days. A 60 H. P. power plant has been sold to the Salvadorean Government.

INTERNATIONAL RACE

There are 10 contestants entered in the international race at Rheims, France, on September 29.

Chas. T. Weymann, the Europeanized American, is to be the representative of the States, and will probably use a Dep.

There will be a three days' meeting at Rheims, on September 27th, 28th and 29th. The first day will be given up to the French eliminating trials for the Gordon-Bennett race; the programme for the second day will be made up of various competitions, while the Gordon-Bennett race will take up the last day. For the race six countries have entered: France, Great Britain, United States, Belgium, Germany and Italy.

The race is over a 10 kil. course for 200 kilometres. Landings are permitted. The winner of the race will be that competitor who has completed the whole distance in the shortest time. The machines must be capable of flying as slow as 42 miles an hour, demonstrated beforehand.

BALLOON ASCENSIONS

Holmesburg, Pa., Sept. 18—A. T. Atherholt, Dr. Terome Kingsbury and P. H. Bridgman in the "Penna." landed at Flagtown, N. J., after a night trip, encountering a heavy rain storm.

AVIATION SCHOOL IN LIMA

An aviation school has recently been founded in Lima under the auspices of the National Aero League (Liga Nacional Pro-Aviacion) under $27,000 subsidy by the Peruvian Government for acquiring aeroplanes and other equipment necessary for such a school. The instruction will probably be in charge of J. Ramon Montero, instructor in the Bleriot school, near Paris, who participated at the Chicago aviation week of 1912, and has since given exhibition flights in Lima. Inquiries regarding possible acquisitions of needed supplies can be addressed in English to Senor Montero.

U. S. Patents Gone to Issue

Copies of any of These Patents may be Secured by Sending Five Cents in Coin to the Commissioner of Patents, Washington, D. C.

Even in these enlightened days, the crop of patents on absolutely worthless, or even questionable, devices increases rather than decreases.

It would take an entire issue of the magazine to abstract in a full and clear manner the claims of the majority of the patents issued. In a great many cases it is even impossible to give in a few lines what sort of an apparatus the patent relates to. In most instances we have used merely the word "aeroplane" or "helicopter" if such it is. Where it is impossible to indicate the class, fven, in which the patent belongs, without printing the whole patent, we have used the word "flying machine."

The patents starred (*) are those which may be found of particular interest; but it must be understood we do not pretend to pass judgment upon merits or demerits.

Where patent seems to have particular interest, the date of filing will be given.—Editor.

Do not attempt to invent in a field the science and prior art of which are unknown to you—William Macomber.

ISSUED AUGUST 26, 1913 1,071,180—Alfred Arnold Remington, Birmingham, England, AIRSHIP. Apparatus for condensing the water vapor in exhaust gases in order to keep total weight of an airship intact.

1,071,425—Rudolph. Jary, Chicago, 111., AEROPLANE, with two upper supporting planes tandem and removable additional planes between the former, and means of attachment.

1,071,505—Alexander Bryant, Chicago, 111., AIRSHIP, with supporting planes and beating wings.

ISSUED SEPT. 2, 1913.

1,072,078—Joseph H. Beckwith, St. Louis, Mo., HELICOPTER with parachute above each lifting propeller.

ISSUED SEPT. 9th

* 1,072,514—Tohann Schutte, Danzig, Germany, DIRIGIBLE BALLOON detail. Attachment of cars to rigid airships so as to avoid injury to the car and connections with the frame as frequently happens with this class.

1.072.663—Anthony R. Silverston, Milwaukee, Wis., FLYING MACHINE, comprising tubular body with means for driving air through it; aeroplanes, etc.

1,072,664—Anthony R. Silverston, Milwaukee, Wis., FLYING MACHINE more or less similar.

1,072,710—Henry C. Fisk, Stafford, Conn., STABILIZER for aeroplanes consisting of a "dished" plane above the supporting planes, and means for attachment.

1,072,764—William A. Nagel, Harrison, Ohio, PARACHUTE ATTACHMENT with tube fitting around the 'chute, means to open parachute container for tube and 'chute, means for ejecting.

ISSUED SEPT. 16th

1,073,277—Henry G. Morris, Philadelphia, Pa., HELICOPTER.

1,073,334—George E. Dickson, New Lenox, 111.. FLYING MACHINE. Rigid reciprocating parachutes, with valves therein.

HERON A UTICS Page 1 1 5 September, 1913

BARGAIN

HARRY BINGHAM

BROWN

Retires from Aviation. Will Dispose of his GENUINE

WRIG HT

Biplane with all equipment, including "Safety Pack" and all extras, in first-class condition, at

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A. LEO STEVENS

Box 181, Madison Square - New York

Subscriber's Forum

AUTOMATIC STABILITY

An article in the June number of AERONAUTICS, which also refers to other articles elsewhere, speaks of the proposed use of negative wing-tips or a reversed dihedral angle of the wings as a means of automatic stability. This should never be attempted.

In the first place, we may draw an inference from the fact that no birds fly in this way, except in hovering, an evidently difficult accomplishment, even for them.

Fiji

In the second place, T demonstrated by theory and experiment, as far back as 1897, that a curved body suspended in an air current follows the line of least resistance. The concave aeroplane "a" (Fig. 4) in still air or drifting with the air, and with sufficient steadying weight at "b" will make an excellent parachute; but if driven forcibly in the direction of the arrow "c," it will tend to buckle around, in the direction of the arrow "d," moving as though on the surface of a sphere of identical curvature. If this plane be slightly elevated at the front, and held rigidly with framework and a tail, it will, of course, be perfectly safe; but, when a question of lateral stability is concerned, and instability is the defect to be overcome, such lateral forms as shown at "f," "g" or "h" are very liable to sudden disaster and should never be employed. Any one of them is liable to "catch a crab" and "turn turtle" (or do any other unde-sired marine zoological stunts) at any instant.

The greatest source of lateral stability, in an aeroplane as in a bicycle, is headway; the greater the speed, the less apparent veering of the head-wind will there be, due to the lateral gusts. And this apparent veering can easily be annulled—as in bicycle riding—by heading up into the gust. This can be almost entirely accomplished by having a larger rudder, or a keel. A large, vertical vane or partition, or several of them a little back of the centers of gravity and support, and centered at about the height of the center of gravity, would be quickly affected by a gust; and the further back it was placed, the more tardy the action, but the smaller the necessary area.

Where the wings are set at a positive dihedral angle, as at "i," any sudden side-gust will bring the apparent headwind more or less under the windward wing. Here, again, the broken curved surface tends to slide as on the surface of a sphere; but it is a lower surface, the center being overhead. This will produce a lateral rocking or careening, but of a much safer kind, because the motion of translation is against gravitation, upward, instead of downward and with the gravitational acceleration, as in the former case. By the time that the gust gets to the rudder, and turns the head into the wind, the aeroplane will be ready to slide back again to safety, from its own weight. Of course, the rocking motion will be less in proportion as the dihedral angle is small and the center of gravity high. It will also be less in proportion as the lateral lever-arm is short. I would, therefore, also suggest shorter span for the wings with three planes, as tending to better lateral stability.

Ruter W. Springer.

CONCERNING THE INVERTED V

An article in this issue by Mr. Springer condemns the transverse inverted V disposition of aeroplane wings. His arguments are answered in the articles to which I referred in my June "Talk."

The statements made there concerning this disposition are justified both by theory and experiment.

As before stated, a lateral gust is equivalent to a] veering head wind or to the momentary turning ofl the aeroplane's longitudinal axis at an angle to its] course.

In Fig. 2 the inverted dihedral wing is shownl turned in this way, the course being toward the observer; and it is evident_that the_ angle of attackj of the windward wing A will be diminished while than

of B will be increased; in fact, A may receive thl air pressure on its upper side. The windward winJ A is, therefore, depressed while the wing B is raised! This is confirmed by experiment, and experiment furl ther shows that a machine of this kind having a loin c. g., and coming into this position, turns toward the! low side. M. B. Sellers. I

The contention that a lateral gust is equivalent td a veering head wind, and that the windward wing] will be depressed while the leeward wing will b3 raised, if an inverted dihedral angle is employed,—! is perfectly correct, so far as it goes. In fact, as the wings cant, under the influences stated, these] influences will continue to act with more and morej power, and the canting will become more and mora pronounced, until the aeroplane upsets. The effect would be exactly analogous to that of feathering arj oar the wrong way in rowing; the near wing woulol receive the air pressure upon its upper side,—which! would be far worse than any "hole in the air," and] there would be an instantaneous and fatal exemplil fication of the law that the V-shaped dihedral is tha form of stability, by the aeroplane assuming that posil tion. However, "crabs" are not aerial animals; anoj I hope no one will experiment in "catching crabs'! in this manner. Of course, a low center of gravitjl would do much to impart steadiness; but a higrl c. g. has many points of superior excellence; and w| are talking of aerial stability, not possibilities of in! stability. Ruter W. Springer. 1

To the Editor:

What is the simplest way to calculate a power planl for an aeroplane for given loan of 2000 lbs., planea placed 1.6, diameter and pitch of propeller at motoJ speed of 1200 R. P. M., speed 60 miles an hour.

J. H. B., Tex.

Answer.—For 60 miles an hour you can count 2fJ lbs. per ii. P. for an average machine (amount carl ried ranges from 16 to 25 lbs.); diam. of propelled depends on make—for 100 ii. P. about 9 ft. by 5.5 ft. pitch.

To the Editor:

Please tell me how to balance a Dumont 'plane which is too heavy in front and not heavy enough behind. The tail will tip up at half speed rudder level.

C. R., 111.

Answer.—Move weights back a little or give tail more negative angle; or both.

HARPER'S AIRCRAFT BOOK, by A. Hyatt Verrill. 8vo., cloth, 242 pp., profusely illustrated. Published by Harper & Brothers, New York, at $1.00 net. Written particularly for boys and young men at school, Mr. Hyatt, through his intimate knowledge has made the book an intimate introduction to the men and boys who have done things in the big as well as little planes. Members of the model aero clubs will find the book invaluable. Mr. Verrill is an authority on motors and is known personally to many of his fellow members of The Aeronautical Society, before which organization he has frequently lectured.

AERONAUTICS

"Page 1 I 7

September, 1913

To the Readers of this Magazine, GREETING:

I beg to steal a page from the many of "good stuff" to air my troubles.

This is no Swan Song. That's settled right now. Periodicals are generally published for two reasons: usually to make money, sometimes as a "philanthropy.

This magazine falls in neither class. It is published for the benefit of those who find profit in it. The editor is not a philanthropist (though he would be were it possible). The editor is not a business man, or he would not be publishing an aeronautical journal.

That some profit by its publication I know, for they pay their subscriptions. That others profit by its publication I know, for they say so. Now there are still some who speak not; neither do they pay.

These do I address. There are but three propositions. Pay, promise to pay, or say frankly you don't want the magazine.

I am doing my best to furnish the best there is. If you find a better magazine, subscribe to it; and then tell me you've found it. That will help me, perhaps. If you object to certain features, tell me.

I can't speak to you all with sounding words. I must ask you to read what I write. If you don't want the magazine, say so. If you have found a better, tell me! If you do want it, may I have your renewal order or your check?

Thank you in advance.

HALL-SCOTT

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September, 1913

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EARL V. FRITTS who gained his pilot license with a Thomas Biplane, equipped with a 60-70 h. p. MAX1M0T0R

Maximotor Makers, Detroit, Mich. Bath, N. Y., Feb. 5, 1913.

Dear Sirs:—Wish to inform you that I have today successfully filled the requirements in a number of flights to qualify for my pilot license. The M AXIMOTOR stood with me right through to the end and no other motor on the field has anything on your new product. 1 wish you the most of success during this coming season.

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Airmen Should Be Interested In Photography

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TO COMMANDER

MISS BOOTH

Grandma Gets One

118 W. 14th St., New York City

Vest'n Dept. Comm. Eilill, 108 N.Dearborn St. Chicago

Only the best methods and the best equipment will insure you satisfaction

The

Sloane School

provides these ASK OUR PUPILS

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MAIN OFFICE, 1733 BROADWAY, NEW YORK

'Phone Columbus 5421

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Largre stock of Steel Fittings, Laminated Ribs, and Struts of all sizes carried in stock. Hall-Scott Motors, 40-60-80 H. P.

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Established 1906 Tel. 717 Tompkinsville

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WHAT THEY THINK OF

101 Q ROBERTS IVYO MOTORS

St. Louis. Mo.. July 24, 1913

Gentlemen:

We have been using one of your new 1913 6-Cylinder 75-H. P. motors in one of our new flying boats, and would say that we have found this motor to be exactly what we want for out flying boats without a single qualification.

We were able to carry two passengers beside the aviator in the new Lakes Cruise Boat, and are now working night and day on another flying boat for one of your motors.

We congratulate you on your success in getting out this last product, and beg to remain.

Yours very truly, THE BENOIST AIRCRAFT COMPANY, Per Tom W. Benoist, Mgr.

The ROBERTS MOTOR CO.

No. 1430 Sandusky Avenue SANDUSKY, :: :: OHIO

X,... No. 4 ^ Qcf^% 1913 ¿00*™ 'VS^Cents

"RESULTS TELL THE STORY"

V YORK AERIAL. DERBY, October 13 . WM. S. LUCKEY, Winner-Second, CHARLES F, NILES-61 Miles in 52 Min. 54 Sec.

WPORT. R. I., to NEW YORK, October 5 . . . . WILLIAM THAW-230 Miles in 220 Minutes —STEVE MacGORDON

BANY to NEW YORK, October 7......BECKWITH HAVENS—172 Miles in 153 Minutes-J. B. R. VERPLANCK

ehind These

events of a week, a score of achievements this season, and hundreds of them during the past ten years, you find the

Curtiss Motors

{RE YOU WASTING TIME, MONEY, PATIENCE, OPPORTUNITY by using motors that "just answer the purpose"?

>k the facts in the face! Why not insure success by booking with us for 1914 motors? Investigation is cheap insurance; write us for information, booklets, photographs, and particularly for proposition to the trade.

URTISS MOTOR CO., 21 Lake Street, Hammondsport, N. Y.

827299�857�58297

October, 19131

< BENOIST «r

PLANES hold ibe followiug records:

world's lon£ distance hydro record with one passenger. world's lon§ distance hydro record with two passengers. american endurance record, aviator and three passengers. have more world's records than all other m'f'rs combined. the first successful tractor biplane built in america.

Records indicate superior efficiency.

hine

Why not get an efficient machine "white you are about it ?

The New Benoist Flying

fr' BENOIST AIR CRAFT CO.I

Action 6628 DELMAR BLVD. ST. LOUIS, MO.

50 H.P.

160 POUNDS

GYRO MOTOR

80 H.P.

207 POUNDS

Built of Nickel Steel and Vanadium Steel Throughout

Endurance Flying Record to Date, 4 hrs., 23 min.

From

"AERONAUTICS" (London) August, 1913.

"Beatty's Gyro (50 h.p.)—beyond doubt a remarkably efficient

engine—must be capable of producing something like 60 h. p."

Send for Catalog

THE 6YR0 MOTOR COMPANY, 774 Girard Street, Washington, D. C.

MAGNALIUM

12 1-2* lighter, 15* stronger

and over ten tim bs as tough as the best aluminum castings. weighs one-thikd as much as iron. 1 : 1 : 1

for cylinders, pistons, crank cases, sockets and other aeroplane fittings

G. A. CR A YEN & CO.

81 new street, >\y. c. metal drpt.

morris r. machol

BUILD YOUR OWN

Over 100 complete drawings. Scale 1" to foot; some full size

Prints 28"x 36" ONLY COMPLETE PRINTS EVER SOLD

aeronautics. 122 east 25th st.. new york

$8.00

flfjw't write us unless U\JY\ 1 yOU are in,,

ested in a reliable, efficient and economical power plant. That is the only kind we build. Four sizes.

Reasonable Prices

Kemp Machine Works Muncie, Ind.

15

ARAGON

Stands for Highest Quality, Lowest Price IN PROPELLERS and Certain Satisfaction

The Enterprise and Integrity—the Character and high Engineering Skill rrought into Paragon Propellers have won for them the highest and widest ecognition, both Government and private, of any propellers in America.

ANNOUNCEMENT

Our facilities have now developed far beyond the demands of the present American trade, lur factory capacity with the special propeller machinery now in operation is more than fXty blades per day in two, three and four-bladed propellers.

We therefore solicit QUANTITY CONTRACTS with responsible dealers and manu-icturers in all countries.

We desire to form trade connections in every large city of Europe and America. By our tethods of production we can deliver highest grade propellers in wholesale quantities at European orts for less than pervailing costs of manufacture.

We can furnish any preferred styles, materials or construction, original or copied designs, or Ibmit samples for specified service—all subject to most rigid inspection and test. Any kind of •etal protection at little, if any, additional cost.

Every Paragon user must have full satisfaction or his money returned. We serve.

AMERICAN PROPELLER CO.

43-249 E. Hamburg Street - - Baltimore, Md., U. S. A.

Burgess Flying Boat

Built for U. S. Navy

HE BURGESS FLYING BOAT

is another record breaker. Built to comply with the strenuous requirements of the U. S. Navy, it fulfilled its test flights and was immediately accepted. Already a number of orders have been placed by sportsmen for similar machines.

Burgess Aeroplanes and Hydro-aeroplanes are still unexcelled. Foreign or Domestic Motors installed to meet the preference of individual purchasers. We recommend .the Sturtevant motor as the most reliable American type.

We have a number of used motors and hydro-planes which we are offering at greatly reduced prices.

Training school patronized by both the Army and Navy, is located at Marble-head adjoining the works. Early application is necessary to secure enrollment.

BURGESS COMPANY AND CURTIS, Marblehead, Mass.

A YACHTMAN'S VIEW OF THE AIR BOAT

By Chas. D. Lynch Chairman Sports Committee Perry Centennial Celebration

Certainly nothing can beat leaving the water and alighting on it with a flying-boat when it comes to sport. Planing through the water at 50 miles an hour sends a wonderful thrill through you. Starting out of the water gives .you a sensation more thrilling. Alighting on the water and skipping along over a few waves, then settling a little and planing along, caps the climax and you are a flying-boat-fan right!

For yachting men who like to handle the stick when "she has a bone in her teeth" the writer recommends a trip in a flying boat as they will be most likely to fully appreciate the I pleasures to be experienced. Sailing high in the air for a long time at 65 miles per hour was intensely interesting and a great experience. Viewing the map below, noting the bays and inlets, the islands, the farms, the boats, the docks, etc., has studying geography backed off the boards. No map ever conveyed ideas such as an air trip will give.

As we circled and soared upward, constantly driven on our course as a first-class motor yacht would be, the writer was greatly impressed with the flying-boat's possibilities for sport and for use in scouting or dispatch-carrying. Sitting in a comfortable position, in a boat wth plenty of "freeboard," enjoying a sense of safety instilled by the substantial construction of the boat and the wonderful operating devices over which the pilot had perfect control, it was a great treat to go around an aerial race-course encircling the bay where Perry had put in after his victory in 1813, then to seemingly "bank" at the turns as it would seem natural we should, then turn and incline downward, not with a drop or slide, but with a steady drive on a down grade, then easily incline upward and drive on an upgrade—all this seemed wonderful to the observant and grateful passenger who was being initiated into the new sport he had been hearing about but never indulged in before.

My flight was made during a four week's regatta at Put-in-Bay. Ohio, a part of the big Perry Centennial Celebration, celebrating the One Hundredth Anniversary of Perry's Victory in the Battle of Lake Erie, and a century of peace between Canada and the United States, was held this August under the auspices of the Inter-Lake Yachting Association, from the 19th to the 26th.

There were regattas for sail yachts, power boats, naval militia cutters and whaleboats, canoes, rowing shells, swimmers, and probably for the first time, "aeroyachts." The sport of flying in and over the water was classed with other aquatic sports.

All the advance fine weather dope was upset. The week proved the worst in August and the worst in August for years. A northeast gale of magnificent proportions, even the kind that would have worried the sail yachts or power boats, proved the only "worry"

the committee had on Tuesday morning of August 19th, the date for things to begin.

The day before the ever-surprising Tony Jannus hove in sight over South Bass Island of which Put-in-Bay is the anchorage, coming straight from Sandusky, over Lake Erie, in his Benoist flying-boat which was destined to be the real "thriller" of the meet. A few minutes after "Tony" landed the crowd sighted another craft in the distant atmosphere. Beck-with Havens, in his big Curtiss flying-boat of Chicago to Buffalo fame, came down from the higher altitudes and made a beautiful landing. Havens had come from Toledo, right over Lake Erie for forty miles, with his friend Chenevert, of Detroit, as passenger. They had enjoyed a delightful forty mile cruise in thirty-six minutes—just an afternoon sail.

On Sunday the 17th, Walter Johnson, with' his Thomas flying boat with his new Austro-Daimler motor; Frank Burnside and Fred Eells, of Thomas Brothers, with a pontoon-type hydroaeroplane, and William Bleakley with his Benoist pontoon-type hydro had arrived at Put-in-Bay and started to assemble their "yachts" at convenient "mooring" points assigned by the committee.

The assembled pilots and aviation representatives, together with the yachtsmen on the committee, all in great enthusiasm over the plans the committee had laid down, turned in that Monday night feeling that things couldn't be any better.

The first day a gale broke and the whole week was stormy, one day flights being completely impossible. Despite the winds and waves every man flew. On Saturday, the 23rd, Havens waved goodby and flew to Cleveland with a passenger.

The next day Jannus concluded his flights and flew away to Sandusky, where he caught a train.

The accident to Bleakley the first day of flying, the 20th, is of interest to builders.

William Bleakley climbed into his seat in the Benoist Tractor of the pontoon-type and slipped into the water heading out into the ba\r. Bleakley had an enviable reputation as a flyer before. His reputation didn't suffer by what happened. It was not his fault. The wind was too strong. As he cleared the water between the piers and tried steering to "starboard" to head into the wind his pontoon was barely lifting from the water.

As it would leave the water it would be slapped back into the trough of the waves which were rather large out in the open water. There was a struggle with the hydro and pilot pitted against the waves and wind. Bleakley in his rather high seat in the fuselage and {Continued on page 132)

TECHNICAL TALKS

By M. B. Seilers

THE AV1ETTE

In a recent contest between bicycles driven by aerial propellers, the first prize was won by René Bernard, who covered the 100 metres in 8 3/5 seconds (about 26 miles per hour), and the 2 kil. in 3 minutes, 25 seconds (22 M. P. H.). This race was organized by the journal "l'Auto" in order to help solve the problem of propulsion of the Aviette. Because no flapping wing machine had been specially built to make the turns of the Pare des Princes, the prize of 500 francs offered by M. Dubos was not contended for.

This calls to mind an article by M. Constan-tine, in which he shows why there is no hope for the Aviette as a practical means of aerial locomotion. His reasoning is briefly this : The maximum speed of a bicycle rider is about 22 miles per hour ; at this speed most of the resistance is air resistance; an Aviette flying this fast will require about 200 sq. ft. of surface ; at a slower speed the area required would be impractically large. As we have assumed that a bicycle rider uses about all his power to propel the bicycle alone at this speed, he certainly cannot maintain the same speed when overcoming the additional resistance due to the drift of the wings. This, of course, refers to the aeroplane aviette.

On the other hand we have the flapping wing machine, the ornithopter, and it would seem that if there is any hope for the Aviette it would be in that direction, as the ornithopter seems to be specially adapted to this purpose. To operate a rotary propeller by muscular power, a slow reciprocating motion must be transformed into a rapid rotary motion, this is not necessary with beating wings. Furthermore, it would seem that while large beating wings, for a power driven machine, would present grave mechanical difficulties, the smaller ones required for a lighter, man-propelled machine would be more practicable.

By beating wings I mean those designed for use in so-called "rowing flight," where the wing acts as an aeroplane, attacking the air at a small angle, on both the up and down stroke. This method of flight, practiced by large birds, is pretty well understood, but, so far, does not seem to have been successfully imitated mechanically. Lilienthal studied this mode of flight, and his book, "Bird Flight as a Basis of the Flying Art," deals chiefly with this subject. He estimated that the air reaction due to reciprocating motion was nine times as great as that due to uniform motion. In some early experiments with a valvular wing machine, actuated by foot power, he obtained a lift of 88 pounds (the estimated effort being 1 H. P.). This machine, however, did not reproduce rowing flight, and I merely cite

it because the lift obtained was considerable. For support in rowing flight rapid forward motion is essential and the flexure of the wing arm must be automatically adjusted to the forward speed and stroke speed. I have made a model travel about 8 feet per stroke. Large birds travel a considerable distance with each stroke.

Some writers are of the opinion that the wing feathers act as valves on the up stroke. This maj- be true in rising or hovering flight, but it can hardly be the case in rowing flight, in which the whole wing has probably a small positive angle of attack on the up stroke; or, at least the inner portion of the wing acts as a supporting surface throughout the stroke. In my opinion a machine with valvular wings will not operate efficiently.

M. B. Sellers.

To the Editor:

Will you be so kind to state, if possible, a fixed table which is the simplest and safest way to calculate a power plant for an aeroplane, a monoplane will take place first to get the right size power for a given load. Planes placed any practical angle. How to determine now the diameter and pitch of propeller according to speed of motor for a desired mileage in minimum winds. Or will name a book which practically deals more to solve these problems.—/. H. B., Texas.

Answer—The power required to drive an aeroplane depends (among other things) on the weight, speed, efficiency of wings, and resistance of the fuselage framing, etc. Unless these data are given the power cannot be computed. The efficiency of the wings depends on their section, aspect ratio, shape, number and spacing, and on the angle of attack required.

The best book for determining the probable value of these data for a proposed machine is: "Eiffel's Resistance of the Air and Aviation." Price $10. Ordinarily, a power plant is determined from the weight carried per horsepower by machines in use and these data are given from time to time in AERONAUTICS and other magazines. M. B. S.

Think very highly of your paper and wish you every success.—R. R. B., Boston.

I want to say that your journal is, in my estimation, the best of the aero papers and I find it of great interest.—W. D. B., Ohio.

Page 127

THOMAS FLYING BOAT

Looking at the Thomas flying boat one begins to wonder whether or not this is really a descendant of the old four-cylinder guess-the-horsepower grass mower built by William T. and O. W. Thomas in the year 190S at Bath, N. Y., which has since been put on the map. However, both the "boys" affirm the verity of the boat's family tree and we can take their word every time. They also promise a later type with a regular limousine body, glass windows, speaking tube, shades and all.

This machine is of just the ordinary conventional pattern but does the work. The boat is of the one-step type, there are wing-tip floats and in general follows accepted practice so far as there may be "practice" in this new branch of the flying family.

The upper plane spreads 43.5 feet; the lower, 33.5 feet. Chord 5.5 feet, spaced 5 feet 4 inches apart. Total area of supporting surface is approximately 350 sq. ft. The curve is fairly deep, being 3.75 inches, about one-third back. The planes are built in sections.

amply guyed with Roebling :h inch wire cable with special turnbuckles.

Goodyear fabric covers, top and bottom, the planes. The laminated spruce ribs (spaced 11.5 inches apart, .375 inches wide and 1.125 inches deep) join to the main spars by metal strips. The lateral spars are D-shaped. laminated, measuring 1.125 inches by 1.75 inches for the front one and the rear spar is approximately the same in cross-section size but rectangular. The spars are spaced 44.5 inches apart. Struts are, of course, of stream line form and join the beams by the quick detachable Thomas sockets, described heretofore in AERONAUTICS. These struts are of solid spruce and measure i*4 inches by 2J/4 inches. The rear edges of the wings are flexible. The gliding angle is about one in eight, it is claimed.

Ailerons are used for lateral stability, hinged to the rear spar of the upper plane only, and measure 13 feet by 2 feet. Cable (Continued on page 142)

NEW BURGESS TRACTORS FOR THE U. S. SIGNAL CORPS

Three 70 H. P. Renault engined tractors ordered in the summer from the Burgess Company and Curtis to be built along the lines of the Burgess Tractor delivered to the Signal Corps in the summer of 1912 are now completed.

Dimensions of the new machines are exactly similar throughout to the original. (See May-June number, 1912). Many refinements are noticeable. The wing sections have been made of the same dimensions top and bottom and are thus interchangeable. The center upper panel is of the same width as the fuselage with the two small sections on either side, thus doing away with a central juncture of the upper wing and the uprights immediately in front of the operators.

           
       

i

 
           

A wind shield is provided and ample room for instruments. Seats are upholstered and neatly finished in leather.

The machine is supported on two pairs of vertical braces instead of diagonal braces as formerly; simplifying not only the number of spare parts required for emergency equipment, but also greatly reducing time required for installation.

The new Burgess treated Irish linen is furnished on the fuselage, wings and rudders.

This has been found to increase the speed of the machine considerably and is absolutely weather proof.

The gasoline supply is carried in two tanks supported on each side of the fuselage and is fed to the engine by gravity, thus doing away with the added complication of pumping devices at a cost of slightly additional head resistance.

The machines are equipped with mahogany Burgess propellers of the two-blade type.

The photograph shows the Model H Burgess Tractor, three of which have been ordered by the U. S. Signal Corps. The first two machines have been tested out successfully.

The hydroplanes on which the tractors are mounted are of special type. The machine is easily convertible into a land machine, the work being accomplished in less than fifteen minutes. The whole machine can be taken down ready for shipment inside of half an hour.

The speed of the machine is increased over the 1912 type by three or four miles on account of the refinements in construction and the use of the Burgess linen. It now has a speed ranging from 45 to 60 M. P. H.

SIGNAL CORPS TEST OF 100 H.P. RENAULT

The details of the Signal Corps' test of its 100 H. P. 12-cyl. air-cooled Renault motor for the big biplane now completed by the Burgess Co. & Curtis, are of interest. The test was made at the Naval Experiment Station, Annapolis, Md., under the supervision of Lieut. X. H. Arnold. The motor was mounted

[through the medium of adjustable pillars and wooden beams to a cast iron testing base. It was clamped to the wooden beams, which Iwere in turn clamped to the wrought iron Ipillars. Adjacent to this base was a second [test base, on which was mounted a water brake with its necessary piping and scale beam. The half time shaft of the motor was rigidly coupled to the shaft of the water brake. As this type of Renault motor drives Ithrough the half time shaft, the revolutions delivered by it are one-half the actual speed of the motor itself. On a third base adjacent to the water brake, a 70 H. P. Sprague dynamometer was mounted, connected by rigid coupling to the free end of the water brake shaft. The cooling was effected by a 60 H. P. turbine driven blower connected to an air shaft about 18 inches diameter. The nozzle was shaped to drive the air over the cylinders, the blower being about 10 feet from the motor under test. The motor at 1,800 R. P. M., the half time shaft being 900, developed easily 100 H. P., about 75 H. P. being con-

sumed in the dynamometer and 25 H. P. in the water brake.

The aeroplane, which must be able to fly as low as 38 M. P. H., weighs 2,600 pounds, has armor plate protecting aviators, consisting of Disston's steel .08 inches thick, 3.4 sq. ft., and has a carrying capacity in excess of any previous American aeroplane. The striking features are its immense size and separation between planes. A large amount of steel tubing is used in place of wood struts and wing members. The landing chassis is particularly strongly built.

BOSCH PUSH BUTTON SWITCH

A new switch put out by the Bosch Company will interest every aviator. With this the magneto is "on" except when pressure of the foot shorts it; or it may be instantly locked in either "on" or "off" position. It certainly "looks bad" to find a knife switch in use—and it is more than occasionally.

The Bosch press button key switch is extraordinarily simple in form and meets the approval of those who desire a positive and mischief-proof method for either temporarily or permanently short-circuiting their magnetos.

It may be located on the floor board and by the pressure of the foot the magneto can be temporarily short-circuited. This is an obvious advantage when gliding down. Release of the foot pressure immediately removes the ground connection, afforded by the switch, and the magneto will resume its intended operation.

When the button key is inserted and turned to the right or left until it snaps into position, the connection between the magneto primary circuit and ground is open ; when pressure is placed upon the key, or the key is removed, which is accomplished by turning it one-quarter turn to the left or right, a connection is made that grounds the primary winding and the magneto is made inoperative.

The Bosch press button key switch is furnished only in nickel finish with the button key as a standard. List price $1.50.

CURTISS 100 H. P. MILITARY TRACTOR

The new military tractor recently shipped to the army aviation camp at San Diego is very similar to that of last spring, described in the February number. Following are the principal dimensions and chief points of difference.

Wings, one piece, upper, 41 feet by 66 inches; lower, 31 feet by 66 inches.

Ailerons, 12 feet by 3 feet; in order to do away with the usual diagonal strut _ at the end of the wing Farman flaps were tried out, but the control proved so much less positive than with the standard ailerons that the latter were restored, the outer ends secured to posts or struts depending from the trailing edge of the upper surface.

Fore and aft, the machine measures 25 feet; tail of fuselage, 14 feet; body, including motor, 7 feet; rudder 4 feet. Tail surfaces and rudder same dimensions as "English" flying boat-standard, described last issue.

The "full floating" fuselage, as shown by the pictures, appears to be new and patents have been applied for. Three sets of heavy rubber bands on each side support the fuselage in the heavy four-wheeled chassis, assisting very decidedly in absorbing the shock of hard landings. The same system has been tried out on the Curtiss hydroaeroplane and the flying boat.

The wings of this machine are practically the same as used on the standard machines, except that they are made in one piece each side of the chassis, instead of the panel construction, which gives them a little greater strength. The beams are very strong and heavy at the inner end and taper all the way out to the tip of the wing, giving them the maximum of strength in proportion to the load at each point and reducing the weight. The planes are very rigid and quickly demountable by the removal of four bolts, one each at top and bottom of either plane.

The chassis with the wings removed is only 42 inches wide at the points where the wings

attach, and the over-all width of the running gear is about 65 inches. The tread of the wheels is 56 inches, which is standard road gauge so that the chassis may be towed along a standard road if necessary.

The tail surfaces and elevators are the same general shape used on the flying boat.

The fuselage is constructed of four members of white spruce, which are tapered from the rear beam out to the extreme end, thereby reducing the weight in proportion to the strain at each point.

A new system of wiring and bracing is used which does not require any holes through these corner members, so a lighter piece may be used and the same strength secured as a larger one fastened in the ordinary way with holes through at each joint.

The lateral balance is by ailerons, separately connected so that they can either be operated in unison or independent of each other. It is claimed the machine can be balanced by either in case of accident to the other.

The tail surfaces are quickly and easily detachable for packing up. The entire fuselage is covered to reduce head resistance and the seats are placed side by side as in all standard Curtiss construction. The field of view from this machine is exceedingly good, as the seats are about midway between the front and rear beams over the lower plane' so that a good downward angle of vision is obtained and for looking directly downward a space of 12 inches is left alongside the fuselage out to the first rib on each side.

The engine is located directly in front of the operators and the carburetor projects through the dashboard into the cockpit where it may be adjusted by either operator and is at all times under observation.

The gasoline tank is placed under the seat and has a capacity of 40 gallons. There is an auxiliary tank on the dashboard which has a capacity of two gallons and is kept supplied by a mechanical pump driven by the engine from the main tank. There is a plate-glass

window in the front of this auxiliary tank which answers two. purposes—the level of gas in this tank may be seen and also tbe stream of gasoline coming in from the pump, and this being directly in front of the pilot, any failure of the pump to work would be quickly noted. If, for any reason the pump should stop working, it is only necessary to throw over a small lever on the front of the tank which controls a distributing valve and give a few strokes on a hand air pump, which is located within easy reach of either operator, when the level in the auxiliary tank will be

maintained as before by air pressure in the main tank.

The propeller is a 9-foot by 8.5-foot pitch two-blade Curtiss, driven direct from a Cur-tiss OX 90-100 H. P.

The radiator is mounted on the forward end and just back of the propeller and tlic hood over the engine is attached to the rear edge of the radiator, similar to an automobile. The air coming through the radiator and around the cylinders is deflected out on each side and away from the operators by curved metal shield which forms the dashboard and closes the cockpit away from the motor.

AERONA UTICS

Page 1 32

October, 1913

The hood over the engine has a small up-curve which deflects the air over the heads of the operators and stops the strong blast in the face, which is common to the ordinary tractor.

This machine is much more convenient for tearing down or reassembling than the standard machine, as the power plant and running gear stay intact when packed for shipment.

The fuselage is easily and quickly attached when setting up, the wings being in one piece are more easily handled so that the assembling can be done in a very short time.

This machine handles exceptionally well on the ground and may be turned around without outside assistance on the ground in a very small space. It is fitted with a standard folding shoulder yoke and dual wheel, which gives either operator control at will. It can, however, Le fitted with a single throw-over wheel if required for military work.

A YACHTMAN'S VIEW OF THE AIR BOAT

(Continuedfrom page 123)

with his big pontoon offered great resistance to the wind and his efforts to "point up into the wind" proved unavailing and he was sheered off his course, along the trough of the waves, with wind "abeam," and in about a minute from the time of his start at the platform was dashed "head on" against a rocky end of the Island of Gibraltar. Committee boats laying out for emergencies headed for the rocky point quickly. Bleakley emerged from the wreck of his craft saying, "I'm all right," and he was, too. Had Bleakley gotten to windward 50 feet he would have cleared the rocky point. In the absence of a rudder and with a straight-sided pontoon offering the greatest possible resistance to the waves and with a high wind to boot, there was only one outcome—a smash.

Leaving the water clean and quick, and soaring at will in the air, circling the harbor, swooping down near the water, then up, then turning, over steamboats, docks or shore, sometimes close and sometimes far away, always smiling and occasionally waving to those on the piers. Control seemed to be the predominating virtue about the flying-boats in all their flights at Put-in-Bay, whereas, the pontoon-type hydros seemed more awkward in the water and less in their element. In the air, too, the flying-boats seemed more pleasing to the eye of the yachting crank on account of their more shipshape lines and more bird-like appearance which seemed to give them grace and make them seem better adapted to flying, at least, about the water where comparison could be made with the lines of the sail and power yachts anchored nearby.

At last the enjoyable occasion was over. The engines had worked perfectly, the Roberts motors in the Benoist machines, the Curtiss and the Austro-Daimler in the Thomas Bros.' machines and the big 96 H. P. Curtiss in the

This tractor is the one ordered to be fitted with a 160 H. P. Gnome over which a suit was brought against the seller, DeVillers, alleging motor not up to standard required. (See drawings February issue.)

The disappointment occasioned by the failure of the motor to meet test requirements, after the Curtiss Co. had paid some $10,000 in cash for it, was accentuated when the motor itself was attached on a writ of replevin by a Mr. Prince of Boston. The Government was then asked to allow the maker to enter a machine equipped with one of the new Curtiss 150 or 200 H. P. motors now under construction, the loss to be entirely on the maker in case the machine failed in any way to meet the requirements established for the machine equipped with the Gnome motor.

"Find enclosed check for $3.00 for my subscription. I would not be without it. I was one of your first ones and will stick."—G. E. Y., Omaha, Neb.

Curtiss flying-boat. Not once, to the committee's knowledge, did any body fail to start when he intended to. Barring the accidents the machines were under perfect control, except it appeared that there should be some sort of a rudder for the pontoon-type machine that would act in the water, and probably a larger rudder on the flying-boats to give them a deeper action and more "sure-footedness" in the water, to prevent leeway and to insure their being able to turn into the wind to get their elevation at all times. It appeals to a yachtsman to have as good a rudder as possible on a flying-boat when it starts with the wind abeam and has to turn into the wind to get up out of the water.

The novel experiences, the knowledge gained, and last but best, the enjoyable companionship with the good fellows connected with aviation who were at Put-in-Bay will always be remembered by the Committee on Aviation of the Perry Centennial, all of whom are boosters for the new aquatic sport —flying-boats. _

"There ought to be a law against aviation," said the humane citizen.

"There is one," replied the cold-blooded man. "The law of gravitation is continually interfering with it."—Washington Star.

Dr. A. F. Zahm and Naval Constructor Hunsaker are in Europe getting information on foreign laboratories.

It (AERONAUTICS) is the only book on aeronautics that is worth while.—\V. B. E., Utah. _

Witty Chap—"Learning this piece of music makes me feel like an aviator." Dense Girl—"How so?"

Witty Chap—-"Trying to conquer the air."

The Globe.

Aviator Weds Nurse.—Headline. The ideal bride for an airman.—Evening Sun.

AERONA UTICS Page 1 33 October, 1913

NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN AERONAUTICS

PUTTING THE 'PLANE TO BED

In mooring the army's machines, five hands are used, two on the engine section, one on either side of the motor, and one at either end of the planes. The tail is held down by a fifth band thrown over the tail spars, the elevator being held in position by a couple of tripods. These bands are drawn taut and held in position by tent pins. The motor and propellers are protected by covers made especially to tit them.

The bands are made of double thickness ten-ounce duck with a six-foot rope attached to either end. The bands are ten feet long by two feet in width. This method of mooring proved very successful, the machine at times being subjected to wind of 60 miles an hour and severe rain and sleet storms.

Yon certainly put out an interesting book. —l7alcntinc & Company.

THE MARS BIPLANE

The Deutsche Flugzeugwerke (German Airship Works) in Lindenthal near Leipzig, produces the Mars biplanes and monoplanes and have obtained success with their machines. The Mars biplane is "distinguished for its great stability, unusual gliding ability, enormous carrying capacity and ascending fitness." In the biplane all parts correspond to the Mars

monoplane, inasmuch as the carriage, the body, the installing of the motors, the seat arrangement and the rudder are the same.

By those means it is possible to substitute parts of a monoplane for a biplane and vice versa.

The total carrying surface of the Mars biplane amounts to 46 square metres; the upper deck has a span of iS metres, the lower one 13 metres. The span can be reduced to 13 metres for the whole apparatus by folding the exterior ends of the upper deck, so it can be placed without difficulty into a small hangar. The length of this machine is 9 metres. In constructing this and the Mars monoplane especial emphasis was laid on quick demounting and speedy re-erection of the same, and the machine responds in this point to all requirements of the military department.

The speed under full load (i. c, pilot, passenger and gasoline for 4 hours) is 120 kilos. The material used is of the very best quality and consists of seamless steel tubing, knotless ash, pine and spruce-wood veneering. The Rami covering is especially impregnated and is protected against climatic influences by a particular varnish.

In front of the body are comfortably and ingeniously sheltered the motor, benzine tank and a little further back passenger and guide, and the body itself consists of a fish-like boat of little air resistance and greatest firmness. The radiator is situated in front of the motor.

The propeller is directly affixed on the motor-shaft. The high-profiled wings are strongly outlined and possess inherent stability through upward bent end-Baps. All control cables are of piano wire. The steering wheel is attached to a lever and by tilting the former-down or putting it back the rudder is put inaction. By turning the steering wheel trie-lateral stability is maintained, while the lateral steering is obtained by means of a foot-lever in such a way that by Dressing down the right

foot the steering corresponds to the right and by pressing down to the left will result in steering to the left side.

The extremely staunch carriage consists of generously dimensioned steel-tubing resting upon four running wheels. The dampening planes can be "displaced while in flight by a patented contrivance which is operated by a specially adjusted hand-wheel. This innovation makes it possible that the pilot doesn't need to attend to the elevation rudder while in flight, with resulting relief in guiding the machine."

minate the demonstration I have described the letter S with the lateral righting of the machine (i. e., turning over sideways)."

At Brooklands, England, he repeated his performance in a strong wind on September 25, making, in different words, a slow spiral in_ the longitudinal sense, the axis of the spiral being approximately horizontal, after a vertical dive and turning the machine on its back. Again he looped the loop by diving for a comparatively short distance with engine on, dropping his tail, rising vertically bv momentum.

PEGOUD'S LOOP

The first illustration shows the complete loop made by Pegoud with his Bleriot on Sept. 21. Three different times he "tried" to upset sideways by a side slip on the wing, but could not accomplish this, the c. of g. of the machine being too low to permit this. In an opening of blue sky among clouds, a glimpse was caught of the machine in a tail first plunge in a vertical position. The machine was then righted after a side slip on the wing (the machine sliding sideways

¡1

downward). Pegoud next tried a complete revolution, taking a vertical drop and turning over sideways. His fourth experiment consisted in flying vertically upward from the force acquired by a sudden descent. Pegoud then did another tail first dive, then ascending to about 8co metres. From this height he suddenly dipped towards the earth and succeeded in making a complete "loop-the-loop," the loop being about 100 metres in diameter. Having accomplished this Pegoud again described the letter S, his head downward, and turning over sideways, as described last month. Then he let go of all controls. The machine descended at first in a dive, then ascended and then made a tail first dive, Pegoud then taking hold again of his controls, these slides producing "a delicious sensation." "I have executed what appeared to be the most difficult feat, the turning over sideways completely and bringing back to equilibrium. Besides I have vertically ascended and have looped the loop. To ter-

The machine used has the top pylon increased in height so that the upper bracing to the planes is at a better angle and the bracing is by stranded cable. The elevator flaps are those of the 70 H. P. Bleriot and straps pass over the aviator's shoulders.

Pegoud proves it is possible to capsize a machine and right it again by exercise of cool judgment if there is sufficient air room and no disturbing air currents.

Later, at Buc, these stunts were continued, Pegoud doing the loop five consecutive times. Lieut. Poulet, of French army, has also flown upside down. The simple "S" was illustrated in the September issue. The second illustration is from Pegoud's own sketch.

One, Chanteloup, on a Caudron 80 H. P. biplane is reported to have turned his machine "over on its side and let it sideslip for some distance, and then gradually got it upside down, and flew in that way for a few seconds before making another dive and regaining the normal flying position."

THE WRECKED ZEPPELIN

The Zeppelin L-2, which burned in the air on October 17, killing the entire party aboard, numbering 28, was the first of the new ships of battleship class built under new specifications.

A third car has been added, way for'ard and the two engine cars have been re-balanced. This bow cabin is the "bridge" of the new ship.

The L-2 represented the highest engineering development of the rigid airship. Dwarfing all preceding Zeppelins, it was the first true unit of the German navy in its fleet of "aerial battleships," of a type and power which answered the Admiralty's demand for offensive action.

The L-2 was sustained by the enormous volume of 27,000 cubic metres of hydrogen, disposed in 24 entirely separate gas chambers, placed end to end throughout the 526 feet length of hull. Her tremendous buoyancy sustained her own weight of 24 tons and an additional cargo of 12 tons. Her four Maybach motors each developed 225 H. P., 900 H. P. in all. These engines were disposed in pairs, one pair in each engine gondola, fore and aft. One engine of each pair could drive both propellers above the gondola, on either side of the hull. Two of these engines—one forward and one aft engine—could drive the airship up to an altitude of a mile and a half.

The radius of action of the L-2, fixed by the attainments of preceding Zeppelins of proportionately smaller size, was given as 2,000 miles by employing only three-fourths of her fuel capacity The percentage of gas leakage in the case of the L-i, which was lost recently in the North Sea, was 1V2. the gas chambers in the L-2 being supposed to be virtually impermeable.

Both of these latest Zeppelins were known to have attained absolute control of the expansion and contraction of their gas lift, due to the perfection of a system of circulating currents of air, driven by pumps through the

air space between the gas chambers and the inclosing hull.

In the captain's "bridge," were placed the valves, pressure gauges, thermostats, barographs, steering wheels and navigating charts. The whole gondola was closed in with a steamer deck canopy and glass windows. Leather divans were placed for the captain and his officers.

The officers' quarters were amidships, built closely into the bottom of the hull. This was a comfortably furnished cabin, 100 feet in length. A long gangway of V shape ran from the bow to the stern of the ship and connected the navigating "bridge," motor gondolas and quarters. It continued upward in a curve to the rudders at the stern, which was reached by a companionway.

The speed developed by the L-2 during her first "shop trials," over Lake Constance, before she proceeded to Berlin, was 54 knots, or 62.18 statute miles an hour. This was accomplished with 390 more horsepower than the L-i possessed. The Mauretania's fastest average speed is 27.04 knots. The L-2 made this great speed with motors weighing only 3,924 pounds, or seventy-six pounds lighter than the same motor that drove the L-i. Motors and the crew of twenty-two represented 3T/2 tons. Fuel for a 2,000-mile run amounted to six tons, leaving 2J/2 tons for wireless equipment, guns and ammunition.

The airship's armament, as demanded by the specifications, published last year by a semi-official army journal, was to be four guns of the quick-firing type, each weighing fifty pounds. One was to be mounted on top, and three to be carried at equidistant points along the gangway, one forward, one aft and a third amidships, in the officers' quarters. The ship could carry two tons of ammunition, or when leaving three guns behind could carry one and a half tons of bombs, according to the mission undertaken.

The L-2 was not the largest airship which the German Admiralty contemplated. Her successors, according to the published estimates by army journals, were to attain sizes

up to 30,000 cubic metres. Zeppelin engineers had expressed the opinion that airships of that size were entirely feasible. A ship of 30,000 metres would arrive at the colossal dimensions of 650 feet, with a diameter of eighty feet, and command 1,400 to 1,500 H. P.

T. R. MacMechen.

The reports state that the cause of the burning, or explosion, of the L-2 was a tire amidships. No definite information is available and from the lack of information it is assumed the Government knows the cause and is not disturbed. As the engines are nowhere near amidships it is possible, if there was a leakage of gas, due to a defect in any of the gas chambers inside the hull, the hydrogen would escape into the air spaces between all the gas chambers and the inclosing hull. Entering the stairway shaft, it would rise to the top, and if the top hatchway was open would escape into the air. Mixed with air, hydrogen will explode instantly, or coming in contact with a spark. If the accepting commission was testing the quick-firing gun a spark might produce the explosion, although it was said that the gun's silencer made the ignition nameless.

The cable dispatches state that the flames first burst from the point where the officers' quarters are located. In the ceiling of the cabin is the hatchway, opening into a shaft through which a spiral stairway ascends between the two central gas chambers and comes out on top of the hull in an observatory, in which a quick-firing gun is mounted for protecting the airship from attack by aeroplanes overhead.

The two motor gondolas are situated, one 160 feet forward and one 160 feet aft of the amidships section, where the officers' quarters and wireless equipment are located. Above these engine gondolas the bottom of the ship's hull is fireproofed with aluminum sheeting. A ladder reaches from the deck of the gondolas to the gangway above. The gondolas are partly exposed, in order that any escaping gasses may be blown away. It is difficult to understand how they could climb the ladder and enter the hatch above.

A writer in La Genie Civil, before the late accident, in discussing the relative merits of dirigbles, mentoned that of the nine destructions of Zeppelins since 1906, two were caused by explosions. "This relative frequency of explosions deserves some consideration and we may state that the system itself favors these accidents. There is between the outer cover and the small elementary balloons closed spaces where the least escape of hydrogen—and there is always an escape of hydrogen—forms a detonating mixture; afterwards, all that is needed to cause the catastrophe is some little casual circumstance. The material of the covering is not stretched and there may be developed between this material or somewhere on the framework a rubbing of some sort that would develop a little bit of electricity and cause a spark."

As the day of the catastrophe to the L-2 was fine one would eliminate the chance of explosion by induction of electricity.

Count Zeppelin has under way in the Zep-| pelin factory a new and greater dirigible andl this he plans to pilot himself across the At-| lantic to the United States and may evenl cross the continent to the 1915 World's Fair! at San Francisco. The North Sea is now! a mill pond to the Zeppelins and crossing! the Atlantic in two days' will make it nothing] more than a large lake. The Hamburg-J American line, which is heavily interested in the Zeppelin Company even plans regular trans-Atlantic passenger trips.

ZEPPELIN PROBE RESULT

Berlin, Oct. 29—The explosion is attributed in the official report to a partial vacuum formed in the centre gondola behind a new kind of windshield, used for the first time. It sucked the gas escaping from beneath the" aluminum structure of the dirigible into the gondola, where it was exploded by a spark from the motor.

A GASLESS DIRIGIBLE

Apparently few have given the subject thought, but there seems to be no reason why there should not be practical airships which do not use hydrogen for sustentation. A hot air dirigible ought to prove useful-—its first cost would be less, upkeep less, operation cheaper and almost equal to hydrogen in lifting capacity.

In the March, 1909, issue of AERONAUTICS is an airship of this type roughly out-j lined by C. W. Sirch ; one made in sections] a la Zeppelin, using fireproofed fabric for a covering over a frame work composed of a" central tubular spine with truss rods extend-1 ing outward therefrom like spokes of a wheel and wires for rims, burners in every compartment, companionway underneath the length of the bag, air compressor, propellers at extremities of the bag, etc.

A curve plotted by Mr. Sirch after calculating the per cent, buoyancy of air at temperatures rising to 1,000 degrees Fahrenheit shows that air at approximately 440 degrees has the same buoyancy as hydrogen gas. Materials have been subjected to a temperature of 440 degrees without damage, although it is designed to raise the temperature only about 100 degrees over atmospheric. The textiles used which are subjected to a high temperature exhibit a remarkable immunity from the effects of heat. It is claimed the contents of the bag will lift 65 pounds for every degreel of rise in temperature.

In maneuvering it is necessary only to additionally heat the air sufficiently to rise above obstructions. Either end can be elevated on lowered by warming or cooling the air in thd compartments situated there.

The use of air disposes at once of the costJ liness of hydrogen, danger from inhalation] explosion and fire, leakage and replenishment* in transit, ballast and the difficulty of obtain-* ing a supply requiring a generating plant.

081732796298750071�228

WRIGHT AUTOMATIC STABILITY SYSTEM

A patent just issued to Orville and Wilbur Wright, assignors to the Wright Co., will be read and digested with great interest by all in aviation.

This patent was filed Feb. 10, 1908, and issued Oct. 14, 1913. The number is 1,075,533.

From the following it will be seen that it is intended to provide automatic means whereby the fore and aft balance of the machine may be maintained at a determined angle of incidence, and means whereby the angle of incidence at which the machine is automatically balanced may be varied at the will of the operator while the machine is in flight: and an automatic mechanism for maintaining the lateral balance of the machine, the automatic controlling mechanism being adapted to adjust the angles of incidence of the opposite lateral portions of the aeroplanes and the position of the vertical rudder to restore the lateral balance of the machine if the same should be caused to tilt to one side or the other.

The device consists in short, according to the claims, of the combination with an aeroplane and means for maintaining balance:

(1) Of {for automatic longitudinal balance) a movable horizontal "vane" actuated by air currents when the course of the machine varies, means controlled by said vane for operating the elevator, connections allowing the angle of incidence at which the machine is automatically maintained to be varied by the operator, a vane so mounted it can rise and sink without changing its angle with aeroplane, means for adjusting the angle of the vane with the aeroplane, means for securing same in adjusted position.

(2) Of {for lateral automatic balance), in a machine whose wing tips may be "twisted" a pendulum mounted to move laterally, means for producing said twist, connection between pendulum and means for twisting, manual means for same, means for separating the one from the other, means to allow pendulum to operate on a turn as well as otherwise, a fluid pressure cylinder, pistons, valves and connections.

Another claim covers the simple combination of means carried by a plane and co-operating therewith to automatically twist said plane, or to move lateral and portions to different angles of incidence, so that if ailerons should be decided in the suit pending to be an equivalent of warping, the system would be barred as far as automatic operation of ailerons is concerned. There are 42 claims in all, concisely and strongly drawn.

The other Wright patents in this country are: 821,303, issued May 22, 1906, now in suit (see AERONAUTICS, page in, Sept., ■913) ; 987,662, of March 21, 1911, covering the use of vertical vanes and ailerons. (See AERONAUTICS, page 192-193. May, 1911.)

The new patent described in this issue is similar to one issued in England, described

in AERONAUTICS, Sept., 1909. This device has been lately used most successfully in a simplified form.

LATEST WRIGHT PATENT.

A fluid pressure cylinder 32 is suitably mounted and comprises an enlarged portion 34 and a reduced portion 35. The enlarged portion is provided with a piston 36 which in turn has a member 37, adapted to serve as a piston rod for the piston 36 and as a piston for the reduced portion 35 of the cylinder. A crank arm 58 is suitably connected to the disk 26, which, in turn is adapted to be connected to the drum 22, said arm being provided at its opposite end with a wrist pin 59 adapted to extend through a slot 60, preferably formed in the wall of the reduced portion 35 of the cylinder, and engage the piston 37, thus causing the drum 22 to be rotated as the pistons 36 and 37 reciprocate within the cylinder 32. The reduced portion 35 of the

Page 139

October, 1913

cylinder is connected with an air storage receptacle 39, by pipe 40, normally in open communication with both the cylinder and the air tank. A constant air pressure is exerted on the piston 37. The enlarged portion of the cylinder is connected with the air tank by means of a pipe 41, which is provided at a point between the cylinder 34 and the tank 39, with a three-way valve 42 adapted to be automatically controlled to regulate the admission of air to the cylinder, as shown in Fig. 8. The port 46, is of such a size that it is at all times in communication with the outlet portion of the pipe 41. The other ports are so arranged to bring either the port 47 into alignment with the inlet portion of the pipe 41, or the port 48 into alignment with the exhaust port 44 in the casing 43, or the valve member may be turned so as to move both of the ports 47 and 48 out of alignment with the respective ports of the casing, thus closing the outlet pipe 41 against the passage of fluid and locking the piston against movement. The valve member 45 is provided with a suitable operating handle or arm 49 which is adapted to be connected to the automatic controlling mechanism.

FOR LONGITUDINAL STABILITY

The automatic controlling mechanism preferably consists of a small horizontal plane 50, mounted upon the frame of the machine, at a small negative angle with reference to the main aeroplanes, free to have a limited vertical movement, and so connected to the arm 49 of the valve member 45 as to actuate the valve as the regulating plane moves up or down. But in order to rise or descend it is necessary to change the angle between the regulating plane and the main aeroplane and adjustment of some kind to permit this change at the will of the operator while the machine is in flight is desirable. There are provided one or more arms 51, which are rigidly mounted on a shaft 52 pivotally connected to the frame of the machine and which extend downward. Pivotally connected to each of the arms 51 are links 53, which are approximately parallel and extend outwardly from the arms 51 and the frame of the machine and support between their outer ends the rigidly mounted plane or vane 50. They are pivotally connected at their outer ends by a connecting member 54. The two upper links 53 are rigidly mounted on a shaft 53'. The vane 50 may be mounted upon a single arm, as shown in Fig. 6. A suitable counterbalance 55 is provided for the vane 50. The frame supporting the vane 50 is connected to the arm 49 of the valve 42. As herein shown, one of the upper links 53 of this frame is connected to the arm 49 by means of a pivoted connecting link 56. The pivotal supports for the arms 51 permit the frame supporting the vane 50 to be moved relatively to the main frame of the machine and thus adjust the vane 50 so that its plane forms any desired angle with the plane of the main aeroplanes. A suitable friction clutch is provided for locking the arms 51 in their adjusted position, such as the spring clip 57.

If desired, suitable stops 61 may be provided for limiting the movement of the links 53 and the vane 50.

In use, the vane 50 is adjusted by means of the arms 51 to such angle with the main aeroplanes as it is desired that the aeroplanes shall maintain with relative wind. If the relative wind at any time strikes the aeroplanes at an angle of incidence greater than the angle between the aeroplanes and the regulating vane 50, it also strikes the vane on the underside and forces it upward and rotates the valve member 45 to bring the inlet port 47 in alignment with the pipe 41, thus permitting the air from the storage tank 39 to pass into the enlarged portion 34 of the cylinder 32. The difference in the area of the piston 36 in the cylinder 34 and the piston 37 in the cylinder 35 is such that the air pressure in the cylinder 34 overcomes that in the cylinder 35 and moves both pistons longitudinally of the cylinder, thus actuating the crank arm 58 and rotating the drum 22 to adjust the elevator to such a position as to cause the forward end of the machine to move downwardly, thus decreasing the angle of incidence of the aeroplanes and also of (Continued on page 142)

NEW WRIGHT MODEL, E.

The Wright Company has recently brought out a new type of machine for exhibition work called Model "E," which is the first product of this company equipped with only one propeller. This machine is a small single propeller biplane with the customary Wright controls, but differs considerably from previous products of this company in details of construction.

A 4-cyl. Wright, water-cooled motor, 30 H. P., is mounted alongside of the operator. The motor drives by chain the single central propeller, which is 7 feet in diameter. The tail spars supporting the rudders are spread wide apart so as to clear the propeller. The motor, seat, gasoline tank, radiator and propeller drive are all concentrated in one center section which is 4 feet 6 inches wide. On either side of this, by means of readily demountable fittings, are attached the wings, consisting of a cell of only two panels. The tail spars are likewise attached to the center section by demountable fittings, so that to take the machine down, it is only necessary to take off the wings on either side, and the tail at the rear, making the largest remaining dimension about 14 x 5 feet.

The wire fittings at the base of the strut on this new machine are a novel hook arrangement of great simplicity, making it possible to undo the wires merely by taking out the strut and loosening them up. As in previous joints on Wright machines the strut is held in place by a pin, and in this fitting the hook plate is the base plate of the strut. With the wires in the hooks, as soon as the strut is put into place the wires are locked in.

The landing chassis is exceedingly simple, resembling very much the landing chassis on the well-known Wright type "C." Two 24 x 4 inches wheel are mounted to the customary Wright skids.

A finished detail which is very effective is the manner in which the front blinkers are constructed of wood, quite rigidly fastened to the front of the skid, and doing away with much of the wire bracing formerly used.

The details of the control mechanism between the levers and rudders are quite different from other types of Wright aeroplanes, because of the necessity of clearing the propeller end of protecting the wires and cables at points in the vicinity of the propeller tips. The vertical rudder is 16 inches in depth, 3 feet 11 inches in height, of the usual biplane form, pivoted in a balanced position. The elevator is 12 feet wide by 2^ feet deep. The wings of this machine are covered with linen, treated with a new preparation which has been evolved after a long series of experiments at the Wright plant, and which gives an excellent finish to the cloth, without at the same time causing it to tighten too much. The finish given to the entire machine is typical of the fine work that is being turned out at the Dayton factory, and the neat appearance of the machine is most pleasing.

This machine has been designed particularly to meet the requirements of exhibition

flying, which calls for a light, handy machine, easily taken down and set together, occupying little space, and possessing plenty of climbing power and speed.

The span of Model "E" is 32 feet, the chord is 5 feet and the surface area approximately 316 sq. ft. The total weight ready for Might is only 730 pounds, which makes the machine all the easier to handle on and off cars, and in getting around from place to place.

During the past month on various occasions, Mr. Orville Wright has been flying this new machine at Simms Station, putting it through a long series of tests. The machine handles well in the air, is remarkably easy to land, and quick to start. A recent test of the time it requires to take down the machine

Lvas made, and it took only 12 minutes after -oiling it into the hangar at the conclusion pf a flight to get it ready for shipment.

THE NEW WRIGHT SIX CYLINDER MOTOR

The new Wright six-cylinder motor, which s a development of the "six" first brought out it Dayton in 1911, has lately demonstrated ■ery high efficiency, and excellent reliability, darry N. Atwood, who is flying a Wright ype hydro-aeroplane at Toledo is the first to ise one of these new motors, and the unusual lerformances of his machine with the new quipment at Toledo have created a very ound enthusiasm. Though not trying for stunt" records, but rather to demonstrate re-

liability and consistent good performance, Atwood has been carrying passengers, among them F. R. Coates, of Toledo Railway & Light Co.; Nathaniel Paige of the General Electric Company, and E. Lee Miller.

The new motor, 4^ inches by 4^2 inches, as were the old ones, has been vastly improved in construction. The ports have been made larger, and both exhaust and intake are now mechanically operated. A novel feature which insures economical use of fuel and a safe and convenient means of throttling down is the fitting of Zenith carburetors.

As this is the type of motor to be used in the new type of Wright aeroboats, the demonstration of its excellence for water flying is of considerable significance. The weight of the motor complete is only 265 pounds, and it is said that the power developed is over 70,

on the Wright type machine. The A. L. A. M. rating would show the motor as developing but 46 H. P. It is common knowledge the A. L. A. M. rating is often exceeded, as in the case of the four-cylinder Wright, for instance.

Atwood consistently succeeded in making his Wright type machine with this new motor get off the water with a passenger in less than 15 seconds, climbing at nearly 300 feet a minute, and with an air speed that is easily varied from 42 to 56 miles an hour, a combination of greater safety, due to the low landing-speed, with higher speed for cruising being' obtained.

I wish to continue reading AERONALT-TICS as I find it * * * far better than the rest. ' V. D., Detroit.

WRIGHT STABILITY PATENT

{Continuedfrom page ijq) the vane 50 and causing the air currents to come in contact with the upper surface of the vane moves the same downwardly, as shown in dotted lines, Fig. 5 and reverses the valve member 45, moving the elevator in the opposite direction and again moving the aeroplanes to an increased angle of incidence. These operations are repeated successively until the movement of the vane 50 has been gradually reduced and the vane has but a very limited movement. By providing means for varying the angle of the vane to the aeroplane, there is provided means for varying the particular angle of incidence at which the aeroplane is automatically maintained, and thus the driver is enabled to direct the machine up or down without interrupting the working of the automatic controlling mechanism.

In Fig. 6 is shown a modified form of the controlling vane and arrangement for varying the angle of incidence. The operation will be apparent from the above details.

FOR LATERAL BALANCE

Any suitable means may be provided for warping the wing-ends and for compensating inequalities in the resistance of the right and left wings. This need not be gone into as readers are familiar with the Wright rudder and warp system.

For automatically operating the warping and rudder drums 65 and 74 of the Wright machine, is provided another air cylinder 78, pistons, etc., similar in construction to the cylinder 32, and connections which operate similarly to above. The arm 83 of the valve 82 is connected by means of a link 84

with one arm 85 of a bell crank lever which is pivotally connected to the frame of the machine at 86 and has its opposite arm 87 of considerably greater length than the arm 85 and extending downwardly to a point near the lower aeroplane, where it is provided with a suitable weight 88, thus forming a pen- ■ dulum. Suitable stops 90 may be provided to regulate the motion of the pendulum. Normally the pendulum 87 is substantially vertical and maintains the valve 82 in its closed position, thus holding the piston in the cylinder 78 against movement. But should one end (side) of the machine rise the pendulum 87 will swing toward the lower side, operating the valve 82 to admit pressure at one end of the piston and move the same longitudinally of the cylinder. Thus through the medium of the connecting rod 79, and the disk 69, the drums 65 and 74 are rotated, thereby warping the wings and turning the vertical rudder 10. The first swing of the pendulum is such as to carry the rudder and aeroplanes beyong the neutral point, and consequently the pendulum will swing back and reverse the position of these parts. These operations are successively repeated until the pendulum 87 loses its movement and comes to rest. If it is desired to drive the machine in a circle, the drum 74, which controls the vertical rudder and which is held in place on the axle 66 by friction only, may be turned to a new position on the axle 66 and thus set the vertical rudder at an angle to its normal position, and with the parts thus reset, the automatic-controlling mechanism will oper-j ate then in exactly the same manner as when the machine is being driven forward in a straight line.

THOMAS FLYING BOAT

(Continuedfrom page 127.)

of .0625 inches diameter runs through copper leaders with bell mouths where turns are made to the steering wheel, rotation of which operates the rudder.

The rear of the boat carries a fixed stabilizing surface of 10 sq. ft., triangular in shape. This is set at a slight angle, 2 degrees. To this stabilizer are hinged the two elevator flaps,

which have a total of 16 sq. ft. of surface. Movement of the steering column fore andl aft operates the elevators by .0625 inch wire cables, which enter the rear part of the boal and continue to the column out of sight in th( interior of the hull. The rudder measures in rough outline 3 feet by 5 feet and has i total area of 9 sq. ft. A foot lever operate; this by concealed wires in the hull.

The boat is 26 feet long, 2 feet deep, with v 3-foot beam. There are four watertight compartments, cross braced cedar bulkheads be ing used. Internal cross ribs spaced 8 inche apart, are used throughout the length of th boat. Cedar planking, in cross diagonal nar< row strips, is used in building the hull. Thi is nailed on the framework with wire bradl Linen and white lead is placed between trl two layers of planking. The hull is entirel covered with sheet steel, painted gray. Th cockpit is formed in the hull itself. Th spray shield, of Goodyear fabric, is detach able. Side doors permit easy entrance. Th boat can carry 750 pounds in excess of il own weight. The boat weighs, empty 4c pounds, and the total weight of the complel machine, empty, is 1,200 pounds. The powe plant is a 65 H. P. 6-cyl. American-bui engine. It drives direct a propeller, 8 fe> diameter by 5 feet pitch.

ERONA UTICS

"Page

143

October, 1913

     

- ~

 

^ , ^ -Mr

   
 

MODEL

NOTES

 
   

THE FUNK TRACTOR

By Harry Schultz, Model Editor

The model shown in the accompanying awing was constructed by Rudie Funk, of ; Long Island Model Aero Club. Although has not been tested very extensively up to : present time, it has many good qualities :1 no doubt will prove itself a prize winner. The fuselage is constructed of spruce ■fs of an inch and is 36 inches long. The ;elage is 3 inches wide at the center and braced by an "X" bracing of bamboo as >wn. It is brought together and glued at front and rear. At the front where the ) main beams are joined together, is at-hed the bearing block and at the rear is 00k for the reception of the rubber motor, 'he main plane is 32 inches in span with a >rd at the center of 6 inches. The edges I ribs of the plane are constructed of iW li flat steel wire, and the main beam is of ite pine % by % of an inch in thickness I is rounded off to a stream line form, s sketch shows the construction of the le.

The tail plane is constructed with its edges of wire and the two ribs are double ribs of bamboo. The planes are covered with silk fibre paper and coated with Ambroid varnish, the main plane being covered on the upper side and the tail double surfaced.

The propeller is carved from a block of white pine and is 10 inches in diameter with a pitch of about 14 inches. The concave edge is the entering edge. It is driven by 12 strands of l/$ inch flat rubber.

MODEL FLYING AND ITS PURPOSES

By the Model Editor

The writer has been asked a number of times the following questions : "What is the purpose of flying models; is it merely a sport for boys, or is there any knowledge to be gained that would aid in the construction of man-carrying or full-sized machines?"

Model flying can be considered in different ways. Some of the model flyers indulge in it for the purpose of whiling away their time while others indulge in it for the purpose of

Page 144

October, 1913

learning whatever can be learnt, and which would aid them in the construction of man-man-carrying or full-sized machines?"

If the new ideas of would-be inventors were first tried out by means of the flying model there would be thousands of dollars saved yearly and less "flying tenement houses" on the scene. When these "inventors" are spoken to on the subject, they no doubt will state that their ideas were embodied in a model, said model being in the form of a glider, the same being cast from a balloon or high elevation and because of the fact that the glider descended safely to earth they consider themselves to be the possessor of a remarkable "invention." This is merely a halfway method of testing out a new idea. Let the invention be embodied in a model equipped with power, let the model be adjusted and placed on the ground. If it will rise and show good stability and good qualities of flight, it is then time to think of embodying the same in a full sized machine. If this is done much of this wanton waste of money will be avoided.

The model aeroplane of today has reached the stage of being practically perfect. It will fly in winds that will keep a man carrying machine on the ground. When equipped with skids it will rise from the ground, show perfect stability, soar away for over fifteen hundred feet and alight perfectly at the end of a flight. When the model is equipped with pontoons or floats it will skim the water, rise gracefully from the surface and fly off. Anything that can be done by a man-carrying machine can be duplicated by its miniature edition, the model aeroplane. Scarcely had the first hydroaeroplane risen from the water when this feat was duplicated in model form. One young enthusiast has attached a parachute dropping device to his model (see AERONAUTICS, Aug., 1913). which enables the parachute to be dropped at any predetermined time.

The canard type machine such as the Valkyrie, Boland, Voisin, and Bleriot, was known to the model flyers years before the above machines were put upon the market, and, in fact, is the type of model that holds all records today.

In conclusion, therefore, I desire to state that those who take up model flying as a sport, will not find a more exhilarating sport, and those who take it up for the purpose of gaining knowledge, will find that there is something new to learn every minute, and they will never regret the time spent.

YUlTIKO PAPER

DUNNE MODEL

The stability of a Dunne type aeroplane may be readily demonstrated with an easily made paper model.

A strip of fairly stiff writing paper 1^6 inches by 10 inches, doubled up, then folded along dotted line, as shown in sketch "A," is the glider. A slight bend should be given the

wings; slight at the center and near the fori ward edge to more convex towards the end! "B." A piece of tin about $4 inch by 1 incl is bent so as to clamp on the keel. This ma;( be moved back or forward till the machinl flies best. Best results are gotten by launcfl ing with a slight forward movement, as i| "C." E. J. Bachmann, Jr.

PROGRESS IN PROPELLERS

The progress of aerodynamics has been ii timately associated with that of the perfec ing of the motors as well as with the increa: of knowledge as to the action of air upon su faces in movement. As to the dynamics < the air, considered with regard to aviatio we may distinguish between the theoretic and experimental results. Among the form there is the important study of Soreau on tl propeller, of which he spoke at a conferen last year of the Société des Ingénieurs civi Soreau remarked that there are two schoc devoted to the theory of the screw. One co siders the elements of the screw itself, wit out taking into account the movements of t fluid molecules ; the other school, better coi( prehending the flow of liquids, finally reach an avowal of their powerlessness and becai strengthened in that avowal as the study _ the physical phenomena showed increasi complexity. Soreau says that, after havi sided with the latter school at first, he nc believes that it is possible to analyze the ; tion of the blades of the screw, with t double reservation that the action takes pk, in a limited space and that we be content w approximate laws. These laws lead to f( muk-e no longer wholly empirical, because, thus developed, they show the parts pla>| by the various dimensions, indicating th > order of magnitude and relative influen Starting thence, the author has comment to analyze, guided by preconceived ideas, 1 better experiments on the subject and ho] to get some general results. For some ti analagous ideas have guided the Naval En neer Doyère in the study of marine sere' for which investigations the Académie Sciences, in 1911, bestowed a part of the V; lant prize. L. Lecorntj)

Model Flying Machines

A thoroughly modern hand book describing and illustrating- in detail the principles of flight and giving full directions for building seven types of model machines. Seventy pages, 56 original illustrations, and 9 full page detail plates. Paper covers only.

25 cents per copy, postpaid

COLE & MORGAN, Pub., Newark, N. J.

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"NO. 1," METEOROLOGY

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CONTENTS: Introduction and 5 Chapters on Temperature, Pressure, Wind, and Precipitation. Weather Forecasting. Index.

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JUST A FEW FOREIGN FLIGHTS AS AN EXAMPLE OF WHAT MIGHT BE TRIED IN THIS COUNTRY

Sept. 4—Gsell (waterplane) flies with three passengers, 3 hours 11 minutes 4 seconds, a new world record.

Sept._ 5-7—Friedrich (Etrich) flies, Berlin to Paris, with a passenger; 3 intermediate stops; 950 kils.

Sept. 9—Reichelt and mechanic (Harlan) fly from Berlin to Paris, making 5 intermediate stops; 950 kils.

Sept. 13—Friedrich flies to London, with Etrich as passenger.

Sept. 13—A Seguin (H. Farman) flies from Paris to Berlin, non-stop, in 10 hours 51 minutes.

Sept. 13—Guillaux (Clement Bayard monoplane, Clerget motor) flies from Paris to Savigny-sur-Braye, 190 kils., with a passenger.

Sept. 14—Chevillard flies Copenhagen, Denmark, to Gottenberg, Sweden, with passenger, 260 kils., non-stop.

Sept. 15—Figueroa (Bleriot) flies from An-tofagasta to La Pampa, Chile, a distance of 210 miles.

Sept. 15—Stoeffler (Aviatik) flies from Mülhausen, Germany, to Plotsk, near Warsaw—Poland, 1,200 kils., during the night in 8 hours, 6 minutes.

Sept. 16—Flying daily at Etampes since Aug. 25, an average of 694 kilometres, Fourny covered a total of 15,990.8 kilometres in 23 days (Maurice Farman biplane, Renault motor), in competition for the Michelin prize for pilot who covers greatest distance in any number of days, flying at least 50 kils. a day. This in miles, is 9,929.54, representing a straight flight along the 40th parallel from Feking to Cape Breton, Nova Scotia.

Sept. 16—Emile Yedrines (Ponnier monoplane. 100 H. P., see AERONAUTICS, p. 101, Sept.) attained 161 M. P. H. cross-country with the wind.

Sept. 16—Stievator flies from Freiburg to Konigsburg, Germany, 700 miles, with passenger; two stops.

Sept. 16—Guillaux returns with passenger in 50 minutes from Savigny, at a speed of 210 K. P. IL, with a strong wind behind.

Sept. 16—Friedrich and Etrich leave Hen-don, and arrived back in Berlin on Sept. 20, made three intermediate stops.

Sept. 22—Noel (White) carries 7 passengers for 17 minutes 25 2/5 seconds, a world record.

Sept. 23—Garros flies non-stop from St. Raphael, France, to Bizerta, Tunis, crossing the Mediterranean Sea, a distance of 560 miles, the longest non-stop over-water flight yet made. It represents a flight from Philadelphia to Charleston, S. C, in distance. He was 7 hours 53 minutes in the air. (Morane monoplane, 60 Gnome).

Sept. 24—Moreau in "aerostable" machine flies 20 kilometre circuit without touching lateral controls in wind not less than 5 kils. per second. He used rudder and elevator entirely.

Sept. 24—Thuelin (Farman) flies across Baltic Sea from Landskroma, Sweden, to Stralsmund, Germany, a distance of 180 kils. nott stop.

Sept. 24—Oct. 2—Chevillard (H. Farman) with passenger flies Stockholm to Gefle, Sweden, ISO kils.; to Falon, 95 kils.; Vasteras, 149 kils.; Upsala, 80 kils.; to Nordkoeping, Sweden, 300 kils.; to Carlstad, to Orekra, 300 kils.; touring Sweden.

Sept. 26—Langer flies 9 hours 1 minute 57 seconds, making German duration record.

Sept. 26—Victor Stoeffler flies from Warsaw to Berlin, 550 kils., non-stop, 4 hours 2 minutes.

Sept. 29—St. Steffen flies from Berlin to Brussels with one intermediate stop. Distance, 420 miles.

Oct. 1—Sablatnig took 3 passengers to a height of 2,800 m., at Berlin; 4 to 2,080 m., and 5 passengers to 1,000 m.

Oct. 2—L. Noel (White) took up 10 passengers; reached 600 feet height.

Oct. 3—Noel flies at Hendon with 9 passengers for 20 mintues, making a new world record.

Oct. 3—Sablatnig took up five to 1,015 m.

Oct. 5—Roland Garros (Morane—160 Gnome) makes new hydroaeroplane speed record in Lake Coino race—127,72 kils. per hour.

Oct. 10—Victor Stoeffler (Aviatik) flies from Warsaw, Russia, to Berlin, Germany, nonstop, in 4 hours 2 minutes. Distance, 341 miles.

Oct. 12—Reiterer (Etrich) with passenger, flies Berlin-Copenhagen, non-stop, 229 miles.

Oct. 13—Seguin (H. Farman) flies from Paris to Bordeaux, and back, non-stop, 1,040 kils., in 13 hours 5 minutes, beating the world's distance and duration record for nonstop flying.

Oct. 14—Stoeffler (Albatross) makes longest flight in one day, 1,376 miles, in 22 hours 47 minutes, actual flying time, from Berlin to Posen and return, Berlin to Mülhausen, and to and from Mülhausen to Darmstadt. Total elapsed time 24 hours 36 minutes. This was in the attempt to beat the record of Brinde-jonc des Moulinais, from Paris to Warsaw, 1,382 kils., who beat Guillaux, who flew from Biarritz to Brockel, Germany, 1,340 kils.; both flights in 24 hours elapsed time. Among other attempts made for the Pommery Cup were Letort (Paris—Dantzig), 1,350 kils; Ja-noir (Etampes—Berlin), 1,000 kils.; Gilbert (Paris—Caceres), 1,300 kils.; Guillaux (Paris-Bermillo), 1,160 kils.; Seguin (Biarritz— Breme), 1,350 kils.

Oct. 15—Thelen (Albatross) flies 867 miles with passenger in one day, making three stops.

Oct. 16—Garros (Morane—Saulnier) flies from Marseilles to Paris, a distance of 836 kils., non-stop.

Receiving orders to join the maneuvers, Lieut. Collard recently flew from Epanile to Agen, his destination, a distance of 600 kils. He encountered very rough weather, especially in the neighborhood of Bordeaux, but accomplished the trip without a hitch.

J

n d »f it

Mr. John D. Cooper, the Curtiss aviator, has completed the demonstration of a recent shipment of Curtiss water-flying machines for the Imperial Russian Navy. The trials were perfectly successful, all the machines being approved and accepted by the government within two weeks after their arrival there.

Curtiss flying-boats and hydroaeroplanes now form

the entire aerial equipment of the naval aviation corps, some sixteen machines having been accepte during the past year, with others under course o construction in America, and arrangements about completed for the establishment of a branch factor)] in St. Petersburg. Extensive experiments were madel during the year with hydroaeroplanes turned out byl leading European builders, but none of these proved as satisfactory as the American machines.

FOR AN AERONAUTICAL CENTER

It is generally admitted in inner circles, and, fortunately, the general public is aware of ; fact, that there is a "slump" in aero-utics.

Ballooning is not quite as popular as it s been but one could scarcely assign a defie cause for the decline. The races here s coming year will have a great beneficial ^ect and we anticipate increased activity, [llooning is comparatively inexpensive. The (5t cost is less than that of an aeroplane; rties can make trips at moderate expense d there is no shed to rent and little repairs. The dirigible is coming back and we are iking hopefully to the time when we will : two-man sporting ships sailing about, and ssibly a big passenger cruiser or two. Zertainly we have less cause to worry over : prospects of the ever-delightful balloons' sport than over the outlook for aviation. Without a doubt it is probable that the iths in aviation so conscientiously chron-ed and totalled in the daily newspapers ve scared off a great many, who have no ►owledge of the "other side." That aeroplanes have been used almost en-ely for exhibition work and not for sport >ne has deterred the so-called "sporting Iss" from taking up aviation with avidity. We have looked to the flying-boat to bring |OUt a reversal of public sentiment and to luce sportsmen to take up over-water avian. With regret one must admit the flying-at has not wrought the change expected— issibly it will in time.

Perhaps a reduction in the selling price would )rk wonders. The automobile has ceased be a rich man's toy—it is the necessity of e man of smaller means. Let the aeroplane, id or water, come within the limit of the cketbook of the bulk of the citizens. We do not want to assume to prescribe for iation but from the following thoughts mething may be worked out. With the novelty of the aeroplane worn f, spectators at "the flying fields are now w and far between. They are no longer ntent to sit around for hours waiting for chance hop or two. Flying fields are gen-ally too far from city limits to make quick-cess feasible and this disadvantage militates ;ainst popularization.

Assuming that New York is the hub of a •eat wheel, and that it has peculiar advan-ges for the furthering of any industry and ort, let us make it a great aeronautical cen-r. Select the best available field, one as :ar the city as possible and with the quick-t means of transportation. Let every manu-

facturer whose future is dependent on activity in aviation lend his aid to making this field the scene of his work. Locate the factories at this field, if possible. At least, here conduct the flying schools.

We find Curtiss training military officers and citizens at San Diego, at Hammondsport; Burgess, at Marblehead; Benoist, at St. Louis; Thomas at Bath; Wright, at Dayton; Moisant and Sloane at Hempstead, and so on; one finds fields scattered all over the country with a machine or two at each. There are individuals conducting schools or experiments at scores of other places. There is little interest created at any one of these individual grounds. No benefit is derived from the public's witnessing the desultory flights at these scattered grounds.

Imagine all these military, naval and civil schools, and some factories, propeller workshops, repair shops, individual exhibition or sporting flyers, making headquarters at one great center! There would certainly be no greater expense conducting schools at one place than another.

With practically all the interests grouped in one place, there would be flying constantly going on. The general public on which we want to draw for recruits will have their enthusiasm returned to them, they will be going to this center to see the flying. They will be sure of seeing machines in the air at any time of any day. They will be making passenger flights, taking lessons, buying machines.

Entrance fees could be charged on every day. Weekly meets could be held at no expense. The students and instructors are flying anyway. Let them make the weekly flights competitive and afford enjoyment for a crowd. The income from attendance could be distributed pro rata among the men flying, among the manufacturers and schools. Soon we would see people in line for passenger flights.

The public would be paying for the privilege of increasing its own interest in flying.

The doings at this great field would be chronicled in the newspapers—we see nothing in the papers about the flights now at our present scattered fields.

A centering of interests like this would absolutely create wide attention. There is no good to result from complaining of lack of interest and doing nothing to make interest. Let the manufacturers do something themselves to help themselves.

A national center such as suggested should be conducted by the manufacturers and school

Page 148

concerns—by those whose interests are most affected—free from any club alliance.

One could add pages of suggestions for making such a center a wonderful missionary movement, a manufacturing and industrial center, a selling institution, profitable from the start.

GOVERNMENT PROGRESS IN AERONAUTICS

Colonel Samuel Reber is now at the head of the Aeronautical Division of the Signal Corps which has been practically reorganized under the present Chief Signal Officer. Heretofore, aeronautical work has been done under the direction of Major Squires and Major Russel, who succeeded the former, but these officers were hampered by other duties in the Signal Office. Good work it has been with the limited funds placed at command by a penurious or short-sighted Congress. Many remember the whole-souled endeavors of General Allen, now retired, and appreciate the labors of his successors, General Scriven and Major Russel.

Acquaintances of Colonel Reber know him for a man with directness of purpose and an adequate knowledge of aeronautical needs. Things will move along just as fast as Congress will permit by provision. The recent bill before Congress to take aeronautics out of the hands of the Signal Corps and make it a separate arm has not yet been passed, praise be!

Captain Chambers, head of aeronautics in the navy, is big-hearted, informed and competent in aeronautical matters. He knows the needs of the navy in aeronautics, is conversant with all that has been done in foreign navies in aeronautics, and is endeavoring to accomplish still greater things than those which have in the past been enumerated in the press.

The ways, routine and red tape, of army and navy secretaries and Congress, are inexplicable to the layman and because every ship of our navy afloat is not equipped with a complement of aeroplanes and aviators is no reason to assume that we are in the ruck on this particular point. We haven't heard of any foreign armored ships with air scouts

J

in actual service and it may be that befol another year rolls around we will be fair! well fitted to hold our own.

Somehow or other we get the idea thl Europe is so far ahead of us that we'll nevl catch up. If we had the public temperamefl here and an open-minded Congress we migll do a shade better.

NOT PREDICTED—MERELY EXPECTED

Mr. McCormick has abandoned his $50,000 experiment station at Cicero flying field

* * *

Failure of the models in which Mr. Mel Cormick has been interested is said to be th{ cause of the closing of the experiment station. On one design, known as the umbrella plan, because of its shape, he is said to have spent $25,000.—Chicago Journal.

Those who disagreed so forcibly with on\ editorial on the ways and ways of spending) in aeronautics, may now find their opinions changed.

WILD BILL EXPA1NS

In days gone by the expression was: "Lo, the pool Indian." Now, however, it is the more up-to-thJ minute: "Lo, the poor aviator!"

Eugene Heth, better known as "Wild Bill," sperl a few hours in Memphis yesterday. Incidentally, Hetl says that aviation is fast becoming so commonplacl that before long the birdmen will find that the re muneration is not sufficient for the risk.

"There are too many aviators, and the country il flooded with machines, good and bad," explained Hetrl "Then another thing that is working against the real artists in the game is that a crowd of amateurs arl glad to make contracts for a few hundreds a day.|-l til em phis Appeal.

BOOKS RECEIVED

THE AIRMAN, by Captain C. Mellor, R. E., ll mo., cloth, 123 pp., illustrated. Published at $1.0(1 postage 10 cents, by the John Lane Co., 120 W. 32nl St.. New York.

This book contains the experiences of a young EnJ lishman, who in three months was to learn to fl; and then present his certificate to the War Office. Hi elected to try the school at Etampes, France, and til Maurice Farman biplane was the machine he chosl He graphically describes his school, his first flighl his visit to the salon to see the exhibition of aeril locomoton. his first flight in a monoplane, etc. Hi gives many useful notes for the prospective pupil, anl his experiences will be invaluable to every woulJ be pilot of the air.

"Published Monthly by Aeronautics Tress ! 122 e. 25th st., new york

Cable: Aeronautic. New York 'Phone, 9122 Madison 5q. ERNEST L. JONES. Pres't — — THOMAS C. WATKINS, Treas'r-Sel ERNEST L. JONES, Editor - M. 8. SELLERS, Technical Editor HARRY SCHULTZ, Model Editor SUBSCRIPTION rates

United States, $3.00 Foreign, $3.3l

No. 74

OCTOBER, 1913

Vol. XIII, Noi

To the Readers of this Journal:

Please accept my thanks for the hearty response to my letter of last issue. It was a surprise to really find such a heavy response.

Now, won't those who have not yet responded make the appeal ioo per cent, fulfilled by replying at once? The encouragement given by those who did co-operate is great. With replies reaching the hundred per cent, mark you'll create enough dynamic energy to last a long while.

This magazine is published for the benefit of those who find profit in it. It is neither a money-making proposition or purely a philanthropy.

That some profit by its publication I know, for they pay their subscriptions. That others profit by its publication I know, for they say so. Now there are still some who speak not; neither do they pay.

These do I address. There are but three propositions. Pay, promise to pay, or say frankly you don't want the magazine.

I am doing my best to furnish the best there is If you find a better magazine, subscribe to it; and then tell me you've found it. That will help me, perhaps. If you object to certain features, tell me.

I can't speak to you all with sounding words I must ask you to read what I write. If you don't want the magazine, say so. If you have found a better, tell me! If you do want it, may I have your renewal order or your check?

Thank you in advance.

HALL-SCOTT MOTORS

Winter flying has already started in California. The following well known aviators have their water planes equipped with HALL-SCOTT motors: —

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WM. BLAKELEY OTTO RYBITZKI

ROY FRANCIS HENRY UNNO

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AERONAUTICS

NEWS IN

GENERAL

AMERICAN WINS BALLOON RACE Goodyear and Honeywell

HE international balloon race was won for Uncle Sam for the fourth time in the eight years of the existence of this event by Ralph H. Upson and R. A. D. Preston in the balloon "Goodyear," with H. E. Honeywell and J. H. Wade in the "Uncle Sam" second.

The race started from Faris, October 12th. There were 18 balloons in the contest. Upson landed a) Bempton, England, on the North Sea, within 200 yard; of the cliffs. Honeywell landed in France nea* Brest. The distance covered by the "Goodyear" i: about 400 miles. No new records were made.

This achievement was only accomplished througl the scientific handling of the balloon by these youni aeronauts. They were competing with men of fa greater experience, and under foreign conditions tha from the beginning were considered a big handicap

Mr. Upson has made a study of ballooning an was well informed on the various currents of ai that were to be encountered along the coast. Ui son and Preston have the honor of being the onl| two contestants who sailed their balloon outside c France. When the balloon "Goodyear" headed fc the ocean, Upson was familiar enough with the prcj vailing air current to know that counter-winds woul be met that were sure to blow him back over tf continent. This proved to be the case. They crosse the English Channel and traveled miles over tl Atlan.tic, however, before these winds were ei countered.

Their scientific study of ballooning and the g; tightness of the fabric were the main reasons f( enabling them to win.

The "Goodyear" is the same balloon that won tl National Championship Balloon Race at Kansas Cit Tuly 4th, 1913. It was also in the national race >l 1912. -

ASCENSIONS

Oct. 10—Wm. Assmann and Joseph O'Reilly in t: "Mill. Pop. Club" from San Antonio to Russellvill Mo., a distance of about 725 miles in 22 hours 40 mi utes in endeavor to beat Lahm Cup record.

Oct. 1—R. H. Upson and R. A. D. Preston in t "Goodyear" from Paris on a trial trip, landing at Poi a distance of 78 miles.

NEWS BREVITIES IN U.S.A.

Sept. 22—"Ed" Steele in a hydroaeroplane flew over the Pacific Ocean from North Bend, Ore., to Florence, with one stop at Gardiner, a distance of 40 miles. Finish is intended to be at Yaquina.

George Dyott has again gone to England.

Oct. 4-5—William Thaw and Steven McGordon (Curtiss flying boat) flew from Newport to New Haven, a distance of 94miles, in 93 minutes. The following day Thaw and AlacGordon continued their flight, S4l/i miles more, and landed near The Aeronautical Society's grounds at Oakwood Heights, S. I., after one intervening stop at Hunters Point.

The steamship distances, Oakwood to Newport, are given above.

Oct. 7—Beckwith Havens and J. B. R. Ver Planck (Curtiss flying-boat) flew from Albany to near Oak-wood Heights, S. I., with a stop at Chelsea, N. Y., a distance of 148.5 miles via route. The total elapsed time was 2 hours 45 minutes. The flying weight was approximately 2,000 pounds. The first stage was 81 miles.

I have always found your magazine invaluable. | R. P., U'illianistown, Mass.

Oct. 16—Havens and Verplanck flew from O: wood Heights, S. I., back to Fishkill, arriving the the 18th, a distance of 64 miles.

Oct. 22—Raymond V. Morris in Gerald Hanle Curtiss flying-boat, with a passenger, made the lot est flight made around Providence this season. 1 covered, according to the Government charts, a c tance of 145 miles in 125 minutes. Bristol, F River and other points on Narragansett Bay wi flown over. Sixteen gallons of gasoline were c< sumed. Morris's passenger was William Batcher, motor expert from the Curtiss factory. During I three months the Hartley flying-boat has been in cc mission it has flown approximately 6,500 miles at average speed of sixty miles per hour.

Oct. 8—W. C. Robinson, carrying copies of a n newspaper, flew from Montreal to Ottawa, cover about 109 miles in 2 hours 55 minutes actual fly time. He made five stops on the way, of which th were scheduled for the delivering of copies of paper.

AERONA UTICS

Page 151

BARGAIN

HARRY BINGHAM

BROWN

Retires from Aviation. Will Dispose of his GENUINE

WRIGHT

Biplane with all equipment, including "Safety Pack" and all extras, in first-class condition, at

$2000.00

A. LEO STEVENS

Box 181, Madison Square - New York

AERONA UTICS

Page 152

INTERNATIONAL 'PLANE RACE

Prevost won for France the 200 kilometre Gordon Bennett "international" aeroplane race, held Sept. 29th, Rheims, France, in a 20-foot span Dep with flat wings, 160 Gnome motor, making new world records as follows:

10 kils. (6.2 m.)............... 2 min. 56 3/5 sec.

20 kils. (12.4 m.)................ 5 min. 54 1/5 sec.

30 kils. (18.6 m.)................ 8 min. 52 1/5 sec.

40kil. (24.8 m.).................11 min. 50 1/5 sec.

50 kils. (31 m.)..................14 min. 48 1/5 sec.

100 kils. (62 m.)..................29 min. 40 sec.

150 kils. (93 m.)..................44 min. 38 sec.

200 kils. (124 m.).................59 min. 45 3/5 sec.

]4 hour ................................... 50 kils.

y2 hour ..................................100 kils.

1 hour ....................................200 kils.

Greatest speed ......................203.85 K.P.H.

His fastest lap was at the rate of 126.9 miles an hour and his average for the entire distance was 124.69 miles.

Emile Vedrines (Ponnier—160 Gnome) was second in 1 hour 51.4 seconds.

Gilbert (Dep—160 Le Rhone), third, in 1 hour

2 minutes 55.4 seconds.

Crombez (Dep—-160 Gnome) was the only foreign contestant, and his time was 1 hour 9 minutes 52 seconds.

America was not represented by Weymann, as expected. He claims he was named by the F. A. I.'s representative in this country and advised hy the club that a syndicate was being formed by Norman Prince to buy a 200 H. P. Dep, the club declining any responsibility. After many cables the Dep was not forthcoming and, according to interviews with Weymann, he was never able to get a satisfactory explanation of Mr. Prince's intentions. 1 can only imagine that the whole business was a big bluff. 1 have telegraphed to him saying so.

"Now, without a machine it is, of course, impossible for me to compete in the race, much to my regret. I understand that another American pilot, named Kantner, was also bluffed in the same way. Who is Mr. Prince, I should like to know?"

Prince denies he's a "bluffer" and replies:

"I countermanded the order for a Deperdussin monoplane because Mr. Weymann stayed at Gynard for one month after the Paris-Deauville race without answering cables sent by me instead of being in Paris attending to the delivery of the machine, or at Rheims practising for the races.

"In other words, he failed to stay on the job and I cancelled the order for the machine."

Harold Kantner was first named by Prince and Kantner went ahroad. When Weymann seemed available, Prince decided Weymann offered a better chance for winning and offered the machine to him.

Winning Dep.

LUCKEY WINS FIRST AIR DERB|

Under the auspices of The Aeronautical Societl for prizes aggregating $2,250, offered by the NeM York Times, five aviators covered a 51 mile cours| around Manhattan Island in a 42 mile wind October 13th in a race held to celebrate the tenti anniversary of man's first power flight, that ol Wilbur and Orville Wright, December 17, 1903. Oil of those who had entered the celebration flights ani the race, the following five actually started on schei ule time, in a wind measured by the Weather Bu£ eau at 36 to 42 miles an hour, from the field of til Society at Oakwood Heights, across Staten lslanl and the Bay, up the East River, over the Harlel and back down the Hudson to the field: William S. Luckey (Curtiss, 100 II. P.), Charles F. Niles (Cui tiss, 100 II. P.), C. Murvin Wood (Moisant moni plane, 50 Gnome), J. Guy Gilpatric (Sloane Monti plane, 50 Gnome), Tony J annus (Benoist Tractor, 71 Roberts) ; and they finished in the order namecl The two monoplanes were blown wide of the coursl and the old passenger carrying Benoist was no speel match for the Curtiss machines. Not an incider! marred the race and each engine drove along witS out skip. Luckey found his intake pipes freezinl but was able to knock off the ice and keep goinJ Coming down the Hudson with the wind at the bacìi a speed of 75 miles an hour was attained by him. lie used a propeller from a flying-boat which gave standing thrust of 650 pounds.

Wood made the fastest time from Spuyten Duyvl to Oakwood Heights, covering the 24 miles in ll minutes 19 seconds, a speed of 100.7 M. P. H. H|| took 58 minutes 19 seconds to get to Spuyten Duyyil Luckey and Niles both beat the monoplanes goinfl up the East River against the wind in speed but WooiB beat both in speed on the return. Figures seem tF show that Niles made 90 miles an hour on the retur| leg, evidently getting a better breeze, or else servers figures were not taken accurately, at Spuj( ten Duyvil.

Exhibition flights had been arranged to take plac' during the afternoon but the high wind kept th, other machines on the ground. Burnside with hi Thomas, Daimler motor, was not able to set up in time and another tractor was disqualified by reasol of alleged poor condition. Other machines preseli were Ray Benedict (Gressier, 60 Anzani), Ruth Lai (Wright 30), Allen S. Adams (Sloane-Dcp, 60 AM zani).

Luckey received first prize of $1,000, Niles til second, $750; and Wood the third, $500.

"Page 153

October, 1913

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AEROPLANES

Page 154

October, 1913!

ACCIDENT TO WALB. Capt. Walb started from Hempstead in a Schneider biplane but fell in the Bay nearing the shore of Staten Island. He was rescued by a boat and his machine towed ashore.

FLY FROM HEMPSTEAD. Wood flew from the Moisant sheds at Hempstead to Oakwood Heights for the race.

AERO CLUB PLACES NILES FIRST. The race was supposed to be open to un-"licensed" aviators as well as licensed pilots. Luckey was an unlicensed man. Every aviator in the race went in with the knowledge that the race was open to anyone and each expressed himself in public as caring nothing one way or the other—whether he had a license or not, however, sanction from the Aero Club of America was asked for by President Twombly of the Society and granted by the Club. At a meeting of the contest committee of the Club, held after the race, it was decided that Niles was officially the winner, moving up the succeeding contestants a place. As the money had already been paid to the winners by the Times this action on the part of the Club is ridiculous. It is the rule to punish licensed pilots for taking part in unsanctioned contests by suspending them, barring them from any sanctioned contests and failing to record their exploits as "official." The club states that the contestants in the Air Derby asked the judges immediately before the race if it was sanctioned and received an answer in the affirmative. The club also states that the race was sanctioned by it and that, therefore, no punishment could fall on the contestants, save Luckey, who had no license. The Aeronautical Society, it seems, never authorized anyone to apply for a sanction. THE RETURN OF LINCOLN BEACHEY. Lincoln Beachey was one of the first to enter in the round-Manhattan race and had a special machine built by the Curtiss Company. A grievous accident occurred, however, during his trial flight which resulted in the killing of a spectator and the wrecking of his machine, which put him out of the contest which would signal his return to aviation.

The figures, as agreed upon by the New York Timers' Club, and the judges, who struggled through as best they could without the sanction, are as follows:

Luckey .................................. 52:54.0

Niles ................................... 54:55.0

Wood .................................. 58:19.0

Gilpatric .................................1:08:53.6

Jannus ..................................1:13:57.0

_ Cups were also awarded by The Aeronautical Society to Luckey and Niles, the cups having been originally offered by 0._ Chanute_ through the Society to be given for meritorious service.

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS

For month ending July 31, foreign parts were im-' ported at a valuation of $4,531; of domestic exports! one aeroplane and parts at $3,113; in the warehouse] July 31, 3 aeroplanes and parts valued at $6,708. Noj exports of foreign made material.

We exported during August 4 aeroplanes and parts valued at $12,221. Three foreign-made machines and parts remain in warehouse, valued at $7,708. Onlj parts were imported, valued at $53S.

AVIATOR JEWELL DISAPPEARS

Albert H. Jewell, a graduate of the Moisant School at Hempstead, started early in the morning on Octo-13 to fly to the Oakwood Heights aerodrome to go in the Air Derhy. Nothing lias been seen or heard of him,or his 50 Gnome Moisant monoplane. Search parties have failed to find him. It is generally believed that he has been swallowed up in the marshes and quicksands on the south shore of Long Island. Some cling to the opinion that he got out to sea and was drowned. No wireless reports have been received of his having been picked up by any outgoing steamship. The Aeronautical Society has offered $400 for information and the Moisant Company $350.

INCORPORATIONS

The Hudson River Aviation Company of New York, Inc., of Manhattan, motors, engines, etc.; $30,000. H. W. Kays, George J. Foley, Thomas L. Cunningham, 46 Hamilton Place, New York.

The Intermountain Aviation Company of Salt Lajce, City, has filed articles of incorporation. The capital stock of the company is $20,000. C. A. Tyler is president, J. A. Kaufman, vice-president; S. D. Huffaker, secretary and treasurer. These with A. S. Ash, W. N, Hill, D. E. Howard and N. G. Morgan form the directorate. All of the officers are of Salt Lake City except Secretary Huffaker, whose home is in Tooele.

TARIFF ON AEROPLANES LOWERED

The new tariff admits the importation of foreign-built aeroplanes at 20% ad valorem instead of 45%, as formerly. An aeroplane is considered as an entfrey ™nd comes under the heading of structures composed principally of metal. Motors alone are subject, also, to 20% duty.

I know of no better magazine published H. C. R., Othello, IVash. _

Since the first of the year exports of domestic aeroplanes and parts total 4, with a value of $18,395.

BUSINESS TROUBLES

Lulu Joyce has sued the Silver Lake Aviation Co. of New Berlin, O., to obtain judgment on a $500 note The motor mortgaged as security was not valaubl enough to cover the note and she asks for executio' on other assets. Judgment was confessed and fort closure granted.

The case of Dr. D. S. Quickel, asking for the a] pointment of a receiver for the Arbogast Aero Con pany, Anderson, Ind., will be called. The Arboga' Company, in which Dr. Quickel was a stockholder ii vested several hundred dollars in an aeroplane an it is alleged the contrivance flew over into Wisconsi somewhere and has not been seen since.

How Joseph C. O'Flaherty, known in the aviatic world as Joseph C. Stevenson, did his flying on nurse's money until he finally met his death, at Bi mingham, Ala., on Oct. 8, last year was broug out Sept. 30 in the Surrogates' Court, New Yor in the course of an inquiry demanded by the aviatoi brother, William F. O'Flaherty of 152 West Fort eighth Street, administrator of the estate.

One matter in dispute was the ownership of Hall-Scott motor. Mr. O'Flaherty learned that t motor was still in the possession of Miss Libbie Dixon, of 246 West Fifty-first Street, and she w| subpoenaed to the Surrogates' Court for examinatic

She said that she first met the aviator while was ill in a hospital in which she was a nurse. S had come into an inheritance of about $50,000 a gave up nursing. She bought his aeroplane and • vanced $2,165 in payment for the motor. When met an untimely death at Birmingham the only thi she could do was to take possession of the motor.

FINAL DIVIDEND OF HERRING-CURTISS cl

A final meeting of the creditors of the Herrij Curtiss Company is called for the 1st day of. Novel ber 1913, to be held at the Court House in Bai N Y., at which time and place an application will 1 made for a final accounting. by the trustee in J proceeding and for an order directing a final d dend to be paid to the creditors.

BAR AIRMEN FROM CANAL ZONE

Washington, D. C, Oct. 4—President Wilson signed an executive order forbidding the operat of aeroplanes or_ any other aeronautical craft a the canal zone without the written permission of j chief executive^ of the canal zone. The order i forbids the taking of pictures from any aeroplane balloon over the zone without similar permission. ' penalty is a fine of $1,000 or a term in jail not cecding one year or both fine and imprisonment the discretion of the court.

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The cover for each month is printed in ■arying colors, and is ornamented with a ifferent and pleasing photograph.

The valuable and authoritative formulae urnished throughout the year are alone yorth the price asked for subscription.

Some of the other regular features are

Articles on practical and timely photographic topics.

Illustrations showing examples of the work of the best American and foreign pictorialists.

Foreign Digest.

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MODEL CONTESTS

New York, Sept. 27th, 1913.—A very exciting contest for duration for models rising from the ground was held at Van Cortlandt Park today. In spite of the strong wind prevailing, excellent flights were made. The contest was won by Carl Trube, a 12-year-old_ Yonkers boy with a flight of 60 seconds. Truhe, in spite of his youth, has proven a wonder at the "game," and has been a winner of most of the contests held here lately. Excellent flights were also made by Kipp, Radcliff and McLaughlin. The prize was a bronze medal donated by the Aeronautical Society. Official timer, Mr. Edward Durant.

New York, October 24th, 1913—Carl Trube again proved to be the winner of the contest held here at Van Cortlandt Park on the above date, with a flight of 61 seconds. The prize was a copy of "Harper's Aircraft Rook for Boys," donated by Mr. Edward Durant of the Aeronautical Bureau.

Oakwood Heights, S. I., October 13, 1913—A number of contests were held here in connection with the flying tournament of The Aeronautical Society. In spite of the strong wind prevailing in the morning, which kept the full-sized machines on the ground, at times the air was literally "full of models." The antics and capers of the models in the strong wind demonstrated their stability and seemed to greatly amuse the crowd. Much amusement was caused by a model striking the roof of a hangar, bouncing off and continuing its flight as if nothing had happened.

The contest for models rising from the ground was won by \V. F. Bamberger with a flight of 65 3/5 seconds. He was hard pressed by G. A. Cavanagh, who was forced to withdraw from the contest, owing to a mishap to his model. The Tractor contest was also won hy \V. F. Bamberger with a flight of 25 seconds. Lester Ness was second with a flight of 24 seconds.

Many of the flyers were provided with models unsuitable for entry in the contests and they proceeded to demonstrate the flying qualities of the models.

Excellent flights were made by L. P. Steinberg, a diminutive member of the New York Model Aero Club, \V. F. Bamberger, L. Bamberger, Harry Herzog, Olson, Braun, Ness and others too numerous to mention. Among those present was the former world's champion, Armour Selley, who, although not provided with a model of his own, endeavored to entertain the spectators by showing that he could fly others' models as well as his own. Mr. Nicholas S. Schroeder, the well-known model flyer and writer on the science was also present and endeavored to explain to the various model flyers, the proper method of flying their respective models. The contests were a great success in every respect.

All questions regarding models and model flying may be addressed to the model editor, Harry Schultz, 23 West 106th Street, New York City, N. Y.

club, has experimented with and has lately perfecte a new type of rubber motor by which a model can b flown with about one-fifth the length of rubber use The power is the same and a great saving in weigl is made. He has also constructed a new style mod< glider which has proven to be a remarkably steady an efficient flyer. Tractor models are being given mucl prominence by the club members and excellent flight have been made with models of this type by Obsl Braun, Ness and Funk. Persons in the vicinity c the club interested in models and model flying ca not do better than to join this club. All applicatioi can be addressed to the president, C. V. Obst, 4(| Grant Ave., Cypress Hills, L. I.

MAN-MADE MUSIC RIVALS THE BIRDS

Captain G. L. Bumbaugh, the veteran balloon mail is responsible for furnishing the songsters of the ki| above Indianapolis with piano music for he recenffl ascended with a Baldwin player piano attached |t< one of his balloons with a young lady operator pill ing sweet tunes and Bumbaugh reclining on the toj of the piano just under the load ring. On landim the drag rope was caught by spectators and to shS the piano to be still playable Miss McDonald favoijl the natives with another tune.

ON SCHMIDT'S DEATH

Charles H. Schmidt, brother of George Schmid who met with a fatal accident at Rutland, VI Sept. 2, writes regarding it:

"When at an altitude of 500 feet the motor beg£ to miss fire—dirt in carburetor—and George imm diately started a volplane. Spcllman, the passenge lost his head, rose from his seat and stood on thr rear control wires which passed between his le; This terrible strain broke the rudder wire. Then t passenger reached forward and seized my brothe shoulder control and pulled that toward him. Tl of course, threw the plane on a steep bank. Wi the rudder control gone, George was powerless straighten again, while the passenger hung desp'' ately to the shoulder control. My brother struggl| hard to bring her back, but he could not get outY| Spellman's grasp. The machine took a very ste« or sharp turn and crashed to the ground. Gecji4 stuck to his seat trying hard to straighten the plai while the passenger freed himself entirely from) \ seat, still hanging on to the shoulder control. ^1 actual fall was about 200 feet. Spellman escai . with a few slight injuries."

MODEL CLUB NOTES

The Long Island Model Aero Club members, owing to the increase in interest, have had a very busy summer, and new members are being added regularly. The club held a biplane contest lately, the results of_ which appeared in last month's issue, C. Freelan being the winner with a duration of 57 seconds. As far as can be ascertained at the present time this constitutes a world's record for biplanes. His biplane, a splendid piece of workmanship, flew very steadily and easily captured the prize, a handsomely engraved silver medal.

Biplanes have become very popular with the members of this club and many very fine specimens of workmanship are being brought out. Hartman's biplane has surpassed all others in spectacular and exhibition flights. The flying field of the club has been changed and all flying is now done at Liberty Heights, Woodhaven, L. I. The club has under consideration the construction of a man-carrying glider and a committee is investigating the cost, method of construction and design.

Among the many new and novel models developed is a steady Dunne type monoplane built by Freelan. A small heavy R. O. G. speed model has 'been constructed by Shotwell and has proven itself to be one of the speediest and finest spectacular flyers ever constructed and is constantly duplicating the stunts of Pegoud in model form. Dan Criscouli's four foot model proved to be a very steady stable distance and duration flier. Charles V. Obst, the president of the

CLUBS COMBINE IN PH1LLY

At the reconciliation meeting of the Aeronaut League of Pennsylvania and the Philadelphia A Club on Sept. _26th, a firm foundation was laid I the new organization. Every member seemed v active in the new project with the result of the lowing nominations for officers:

President, Walter Bryan, Edwin J. Doyle; v president, Joseph J. Hickey, Kenneth Robertson t Reginald Woodcock; secretary, D. Earle Dunlap, ^ Han Keck and Percy Pierce; treasurer, IIai| Woodcock, Alan McMurry. Donald Robertson, Earle Dunlap and Percy Pierce.

The election took place Oct. 3rd at 8 p. m. meetings for the time being will be held at 610 Sc 31st Street.

The Kemp Machine Works of Muncie, Ind., mil facturers of the well-known Kemp air-eooled aerou motors, announce that they have secured Mr. ' G. Ilanna to take charge of the sales department. Hanna lias been actively connected with the busill side of aviation since 1910 and is thoroughly fanji with all branches of the sport. Intending purchaj may be assured that their wants will be well promptly attended to. This enterprising firm ports business excellent. They have booked six orL in the past three weeks which certainly is not I for this rather dull time of the year. While f American market has so far been monopolized the water-cooled motor, there are evidences c change of opinion. The Government's apparent 1 erance for Renaults is significant.

4ER0NA UTICS

Page 157

October, 1913

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There are reasons for the change. It is now gen-rally admitted that an engine can get the most ower out of the gasoline when it is operating at a jmperature around 350 degrees. If ample bearing nd wearing surfaces are provided, high-grade ma-irials used, and an efficient lubricating system in-talled, a motor can function perfectly at this tem-erature for any desired time, and without undue epreciation. To thus get more power from a given ylinder size, or the same power from a smaller cyl-lder, of course, means less weight per horsepower, ind to eliminate the chance of radiator leakage or f the water boiling away is, of course, another step >ward reliability.

Mr. Kemp states that the factory is running full me and keeping well ahead of orders. The firm takes it a point to always have motors in stock ready Dr immediate delivery. It is expected that the new -cyl. 75 H. P. model will be ready for the market in le spring. Prospects for a big business next year re regarded as excellent.

YOUNG GERMAN AVIATOR—Engineer and onstructor of flying machines not infringing Wright stent, Licensed Pilot, late Constructor and Instructor ith German firm, Expert on Gnome, Mercedes and .rgus motors, Driver high power autos and Motor-yclist, is looking for position with firm or private wner of a Flying Boat, etc. Speaks English. Ad-■ress, German Aviator, care of AERONAUTICS, 22 E. 25th St., New York.

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curtiss 3-foot Model FLYING BOAT

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AERONAUTICS

October, 1913

Antony Jannus with Two Passengers Flying the New Benoist Flying Boat, Equipped with Six Cylinder

</?£•©. u. S. PAT. OFF.)

Aeronautical Motor

This machine is now owned by Mr. W. D. Jones of Duluth The most prominent aeroplane manufacturers in the country recognize the superiority of the Sturtevant motor -SEND FOR BULLETIN No. 2002 -

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WHAT MOTOR DO YOU Mf?

d you buy it because it was the best you could find, orjmecauseQtl wis cn^ap?? has it cost you in lost opportunities ? \V

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From

"AERONAUTICS"

(London) SEPTEMBER, 1913

"During the week he(Beatly) made a striking performance, taking up three passengers at once on his machine, which speaks volumes for the efficiency of the Wright and even more for his 50 h.p. Gyro, unquestionably one of the best rotary motors in existence."

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A thoroughly modern hand book describing and illustrating in detail the principles of flisht and giving full directions for building seven types of model machines. Seventy pages, 56 original illustrations, and 9 full page detail plates. Paper covers only.

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J FRENCH AEROPLANES

ENGINEERS INVENTORS AVIATORS CONSTRUCTORS

TAKE NOTICE!

For all photos, descriptions, data, news, drawings, etc., regarding FRENCH AVIATION, address below :

Etudes Aeronautiques ALEX. DUMAS, Engineer, E.G.P. I 20 Rue Ste. Marie, Neufchaleau Vosges , France,

ERONAUTICS, Nov. 1913 Page 163

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BURGESS COMPANY AND CURTIS Marblehead, Mass.

Page 164

AERONAUTICS, X

T eading aeronautical pi-1 j lots the world over give preference to the

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AERONAUTICS, Nor. 1913

lJage 165

REVOLVING CYLINDER MOTORS*

By EMILE BERLINER.

Any man who is a member of an organiza-ion in which Mr. Hammer is a leader is sure o be live and progressive. I presume you nembers are familiar with motors in general nd there is no need to dwell on the features if the various internal combustion engines, rhe automobile has been of service in devel-iping the aeroplane and the airship through íe education given in motors.

motion left. There is reciprocating motion in that the gas action is reciprocating; also a slight amount in the connecting rods moving left and right.

To give you the history of our motor, we were experimenting with a helicopter in 1901-3 and it was necessary to have a very light motor. After trying the lightest reciprocating motors we could obtain, we heard a few years later that a rotary motor was being made by the Adams Company, of Dubuque, la., and that several were being used in automobiles. I sent Mr. Moore out there to see if they would make an engine of very light weight. The weight of these motors at that time was very considerable, probably 20 pounds per H. P. "Can you make one of 3 or 4 pounds per H. P.?" They finally said, "Yes." They succeeded in producing two motors of about 30 H. P., weighing less than 100 pounds each. These motors were built in the winter of 1907-8 and were the first light weight revolving cylinder internal combustion motors ever made. One is now next to Mr. Langley's radial reciprocating motor in the National museum in Washington. While we do not know whether the French or Gnome makers, knew of this or not, they did not come out with the Gnome until the latter part of 1909, so that this country has not pirated anything in the way of rotary

Latest Gyro Motor of

habere is no need to discuss the status of the faciprocating motor. It has its good points Id its limitations, as, for instance, the fly-lheel which adds weight, the muffler which knsumes power, vibration, etc. With the Itary motor, we have the difficulty of cooling I contend with.

It was a long time before our shop settled e question of whether or not a revolving •finder motor was a reciprocating engine, finally I asked Mr. Simmons to make a model I our motor, showing the cylinders and pis-ns, etc., in fact, a complete cross section of When ready and rotated one side figured at the pistons had a movement of about 4

The other side then took a circular piece of rdboard, covered up the major portion of lie pistons so that only their tips extended \yond the cardboard sheet (illustrating) and is showed that there was no reciprocating

*Paper read before The Aeronautical So-fety, November 20, 1913.

JV-c.*A^U**n..

New Intake Mechanism of the 80 Gyro

aeronautic motors. It is strange that in all these years there should be only one or two successful rotary motors in the world when it is well known that the Gnome has been a great financial success. The reason is that it is not easy to make such motors.

The very highest type of workmanship is (Continued on page 171)

GORDON-BENNETT BALLOON RACE

By CAPT. H, E. HONEYWELL.

The great international balloon race, in which the Yankees carried off all honors with colors Hying, started from the Tuileries Gardens, a beautiful spot in the very heart of Paris, President Poincaire giving the word that released the first at 4 p. m. and the others every five minutes thereafter, in the presence of an enthusiastic crowd of 500,000 people of all nations. They gave all a hearty cheer, especially the French and American balloons, as they proved the favorites.

"Uncle Sam" took the air gracefully at 5 p. m., No. 12 in the race, and the only other American balloon, piloted by Upson and Preston followed No. 17. All made a fine getaway to the south. We weighed off heavier than all, just tipping the tree tops and missing the Louvre by a few feet followed up the Seine. The people went wild.

The next morning found us about 150 miles south of Paris, with 13 balloons in sight, all around, above and below us. How to get away from our competitors was a great question. Finally about 10 a. m. the light breeze veered around carrying all to the northwest, the altitude varying from 3,000 to 7,000 feet. Mr. Wade, my worthy aide, and myself held a regular council of war in the basket for two hours at the same time feeling for new air currents that might spring up. Something had to be done; we were getting desperate. Finally we located one very thin current running to the west, near the earth and underneath the clouds now forming. Either one of two things could be done: make a great altitude at a great sacrifice of ballast, with no certainty of finding the usual east current that would carry us over the Alps; or valve down, run underneath our competitors to the west, gain the outside of the circle, putting all nearer Paris and in a trap, as it were, make for Brest, the extreme west point of France. We decided on the latter course, and it proved excellent. Every time we passed under one of oar competitors we would kiss them good-bye, knowing that they were out of the race unless they crossed the channel during the second night, which we figured they would not do—surely a trap if we could hold our position.

Upson and Preston out-nerved the rest and landed up in England, distance 400 miles, taking first honors. Good for them! However, fortune favored them somewhat. By starting last in the race they did not backtrack nearly so far as some others, hitting the channel early in the evening and at a narrow point, Cherbourg, while the rest did not draw up to the channel until after midnight, at a much wider place further west.

We struck the Bay of Biscay at the northeast corner about dusk. Throwing a little ballast, we ascended to the northwest current, followed along the shore, with nothing but lighthouses in sight. The clouds obscured the moon, very dark, altitude 2,000 feet, making

12 miles per hour. At about 10 p. in. two mor lighthouses showed up just ahead, on eithe side. Knowing we were Hearing the west coast and our trip must necessarily terminate shortly, as Ireland was several hnndred miles away and the only land in our path, we valved quite near to earth, continuing on for some time, with a sharp look-out for the ocean. Suddenly the moon broke through the banks of fog clouds, and showed the shimmering water about }i mile ahead, with no more lighthouses to invite us further. We valved a hasty descent. Touching earth lightly, I pulled the panel, and the balloon laid ever on a steep hillside, with the basket trying to roll backwards down the embankment. After extricat-

ing ourselves from the general mix-up of sand provisions and water, of which we had plent] for another day's run, we looked at our watch 10.30 exactly, 2qV2 hours out.

Making a house of our basket we rolled J in our steamer nigs for the night, damp am cold. Daylight found us preparing a ho breakfast on our lime stove. Soon a fcl hundred natives gathered. After exhaustin our limited French we resorted to the sig language that worked so well in Russia las year. After securing a wagon, we drove t Pont de Buis (Finistère), province of Brittairl and caught the train for Paris, winners I the second prize.

It is rumored in Paris that "Uncle Sam" is a French creation. She is strictly an ail-American balloon, made by the French-American Balloon Co., of St. Louis, Mo., as was the old "Uncle Sam" that took third honors for America in the 1912 Gordon-Bennett, from Germany to the tall porcupine forests of Russia, 1,100 miles away.

Til E INTERNATIONAL BALLOON.

The accompanying sketch has been drawn by Captain H. E. Honeywell to illustrate his airmanship in dropping to a lower western current to obtain further distance before reaching the ocean in the international ballon race of October 12th in which America won first and

second place. Upson and his aide Preston "out-nerved" the other contestants, numbering eighteen, from eight different countries, and Honeywell and Wade "out-generaled" them. The circles near the bottom of the map show the relative positions of the balloons 18 hours out from Paris, the start; the others mark the landings.

The official distances made by the three obtaining places are as follows:

Upson and Preston (America). 618 kils.; dur. 29 h. 35 min.

Honeywell and Wade (America), 483 kils.; dur. 29 h. 35 "i-

Capt. Pastine (Italy), 457 kils.; dnr. 32 h. 25 111.

The French balloons finished sixth, ninth and thirteenth.

HOW WE WON THE GORDON-BENNETT

By R. A. D. PRESTON.

The Gordon-Bennett Cup was won this year by taking every advantage of winds at the different altitudes, of our knowledge of the probable meteorological conditions over Great Britain, and our willingness to sacrifice gas and ballast to maintain the proper direction. Practically all of the voyage was easy sailing and most of it at moderate speed. Drag-roping across the lower part of Yorkshire in the storm and the landing less than 300 yards from the cliff at Bempton (Yorkshire) were rather exciting, and while crossing the southern part of England we made great speed; otherwise there was little excitement during the trip.

The "Goodyear" had been carefully groomed I for the race, and behaved excellently through-.out. Our equipment of navigating instruments is very complete, and proved of utmost service, as, given a tight balloon, it was direction Irather than endurance that would count in 'the peculiar weather conditions then existing.

We were well provisioned, carrying non-perishable food and water sufficient for five [days (in case of landing far from habitations) and a nice box of sandwiches, cakes, cheese, and fruit to eat in the air. Thermos bottles of malted milk, coffee, and a bottle of milk completed the list.

We took no stimulants on this trip, except, of course, a bottle of oxygen and a respiratory apparatus for use at high altitudes. This last was not used, however, as the third day out, when ordinarily we should have gone high, we kept low over England to prevent being blown to the east.

Except at our maximum altitudes, over the Channel, it was not excessively cold. Here fe were glad to make use of the heavy llankets and woollen leggins our trial flight from St. Cloud on October 6 had shown us were required.

The start of the race from the Tuileries was beautifully managed, and the "Goodyear," No. IS. ascended at 5.25 p. m. and sailed away 1 low over Paris to the southeast. Most

of the other balloons were visible, those which went high bearing to the west. Our compatriot, Honeywell, was also going low, and, as long as we could see him, farthest of all to the east.

We remained at about i.oco ft. during the night, gradually working round to the west, passing over Illiers at 6.15 p. m. and Nogent at 7-53 P- m.

Monday was a beautiful da}-. We let the balloon rise with the sun to 5,800 ft., remaining till after 12 o'clock in fine equilibrium. The course at that altitude was nearly due west. The light, cumulus clouds below us over the green fields and white villages made a pretty picture.

At 11.15 a. m. we sighted Berliner for the second time, approximately 15 miles to the southeast, and in another half hour nine balloons were in sight from southeast to southwest all higher than the "Goodyear."

In the afternoon the wind (at 5,800 ft.) worked round towards the south a few degrees. Remaining at this altitude till about 3 o'clock, we were then a few miles south of Mortain. Knowing that the wind at 5,800 ft. at least would easily take us across the Channel, and that to beat Brest we would have to reach Hull on the east coast of England, LTpson proposed descending, on the chance that the surface currents would veer sufficiently to the south to allow us to drag-rope across the Channel, for which we had a particularly suitable drag rope. By 4 p. m. the barograph showed 2,300 ft., but the wind was carrying us too much towards the west. Overboard went a little ballast, and soon fie "Goodyear" was up to 13.000 ft., sailing finely to the northwest.

At 6.20 the coast north of Granville passed beneath us. Over the Channel, however, due to the radiation from the water, we rose to 8,200 ft., where the direction was too far north and carried us overland again near St. Germain. Dropping slowly, the direction became

more favorable, the wind carrying us out over Armond Yille la Roge (14 miles west of Cherbourg) at 10.25 p. m. At this point I took charge of the balloon while Upson got a little sleep.

We were but a short time at sea before the lights of St. Catherine's Point, the Needles, and St. Albans' Head, together with several others I did not recognize, were visible, and it was easy to chart our course from bearings on these lights. On this night, as well as on the previous one, the moon shone brightly and nearly full, and several steamers were visible below.

Berliner had followed us all the afternoon, and looked as though he were coining across the Channel, but we lost sight of him a little east of Granville.

Crossing the Channel the "Goodyear" gradually descended to 3,600 ft., and at this height I watched, with keen satisfaction, the Isle of Wight bluff pass beneath our basket at 2.7 a. 111. The wind was coming more and more from the west at this elevation. Soundings showed a better and faster current near the ground, so down we came to below 1,000 ft. and struck off north through England at a tremendous speed, most of the time in low, heavy clouds. The moon became obscured shortly after landfall, and we saw neither moon nor sun again. Crossing the river just below Southampton I hailed a steamer below and got a reply, which, however, I could not make out.

It was now only a question of keeping as far to the west as possible, but only to 600 ft. were the currents favorable, and Upson, now at the helm, displayed great skill in holding the "Goodyear"' just above the trees without crashing into obstacles. We kept this up an hour or so. Ballast was going fast, however, and as it was now day and the wind not quite so strong, we cut loose the drag rope and trailed for miles through Lincolnshire. After repeated hailings we located ourselves precisely near Lincoln. Near the ground the direction of the wind would just enable us in make Hull, now our objective.

At 11.30 a. m. the "Goodyear" shot out over the Humber, south of Hull, the drag rope leaving a white wake in the river 300 ft. below. It was now quite stormy, the wind more violent and gusty, and pouring rain. The "Goodyear" is provided with a drip-band near the bottom to drain off rain outside the basket, but we had lost so much gas that this was no longer efficient, and a mean drizzle spattered down on our heads.

As we had sufficient ballast now to reach the sea, and drag-roping in the storm was anything but pleasant, Upson let the "Goodyear" rise to 800 to 1,000 ft. to test the upper currents, while I watched the misty horizon for the North Sea. After one or two false alarms we sighted it near Bridlington, but the wind veered round sharply here and for a few minutes there were hopes of our going still further north. A sudden squall caught us, however, and from a good altitude I saw the water over Buckton Cliffs. Less than a quar-

ter of a mile away, Upson made a remarkable landing. We dropped 111 a turnip patch only one field away from the edge of the cliff. It must have been blowing at least 35 miles an hour, and the basket rolled and slipped along over the uprooted turnips at a great rate. I remember thinking at the time what fine roller-bearings these turnips made. For an instant! or two it looked as if we would not bring it up short of the cliffs, and Upson told me afterwards that he had been figuring on the quickest way to get over the edge of the! basket. We struck a confusion of earth, fence and hedge at the end of this field, how-] ever, and it held the basket long enough foil a good deal of gas to escape through tlnJ large slit made by pulling the ripping panel. A few feet beyond this hedge the basket cama to rest, and the voyage was ended. We ran tq the edge of the cliff and congratulated eacll other that we had stopped just in time.—BritX ish .icronautics.

ROBERT G. FOWLER'S VIEWS.

Mr. Ernest L. Jones, New York, N. Y.

My Dear Mr. Jones,—Have been perusinJ your October number with a good deal of inl terest, particularly as regards comparisons ol activity in this country and abroad; but when] you stop to consider the market the European] maker has to demonstrate his planes to and] the national pride in their achievements.

In this country flying comes under the beau of circus stunts, whereas in Europe they justbj regard it as scientific advancement.

To-day's paper recorded the death of twcjj more army fliers. It seems time that thejl should be safeguarded a little,- provided with] speed and angle indicators, and not allowed tJ blindly grope their way to a knowledge o| flying.

I have used such instruments since 191 il and have been saved many a nasty smasl| through their cpiick indication of a plane'J misbehavior.

It is also a fact that my plane is the onlj one in the United States that has a motorj speed indicator, incidence indicator, and anl aerometer to show flying speed.

Speaking of arousing interest in the flying! exhibitions in large cities, it is interesting tol cite our experience here with our water planes.1

On November 16 we had five planes in ac-l tion along the bay shore of the Panama Pa-I cific grounds, a charge of twenty-five cents being made, motor-cars fifty cents, and the at! tendance after only eight days' advertising waJ around 6,000.

Last Sunday, the 23rd hist., we had nearlJ thirteen thousand people inside and a largJ grand stand completely filled. Am enclosing! the list of events run off with six planes in action a great deal of the time.

ROBERT G. FOWLER.

THE WRIGHT AEROBOAT

The Wright aeroboat may briefly be described, therefore, as a step in which hydroaeroplane and flying boat characteristics have been altered to give a new type. The machine consists of two distinct parts: the boat hull containing the seats and motor, to which is rigidly attached the aeroplane structure, consisting of wings and rudders. The two seats side by side are placed in front of the main surfaces, the motor is set below and behind them, and drives two propellers in the customary Wright fashion. The aeroplane and rudder details are quite similar to the standard Wright type "C," excepting that the strut arrangement is altered, and due to the concentration of the load at the center, the wiring and joints have necessarily been made of much larger and- stronger section. The span of the surfaces is 38 ft., the chord is 6 ft., and the total lifting surface is 432 sq. ft. The propellers are Sl/2 ft. in diameter and are driven by the motor at 600 r.p.m. The elevator which is raised to the center line of the propellers is 48 sq. ft. in area and with the large type ''C" rudder, and the enormous transverse control that is given by the warping system, the control in the air of this machine is more powerful than on other marine aeroplanes.

Perhaps the most interesting part of the machine is the boat hull itself, which is of novel construction and which inaugurates a new type of craft. The hull is made of special metal alloy, treated so as to prevent corrosion by salt water, and more nearly approaches in its hydroplaning qualities, good practice of motor boat work than has previously been done. The hydroplaning part of the hull consists virtually of two hydroplane surfaces, both presenting their most efficient angle to the water at the same time that there is given the best lifting angle of the planes, and the best line of thrust of the propellers. The rear plane has been studied with extreme care, as the angle of this plane for its highest efficiency

requires consideration of the wave thrown back from the front hydroplane surface.

The hull is 3 ft. deep, iS ft. long and 43 in. wide. The weight of the hull fully equipped is 300 pounds. This includes the motor bed and seats, dash board, etc. Its strength, not only due to its compact form, but due to the manner in which the framework back of the metal has been designed, is enormous. The hull is divided into six entirely water-tight compartments. The hull is water-tight throughout, the motor and seats being set above the top of the water-tight portion, so that the hull itself is really in this sense a pontoon. There is no possibility, therefore, of shipping water and adding to the weight of the machine.

The arrangement of the seats and controls is exceedingly neat, and effective, and approaches in appearance, as well as comfort, to automobile practice. The engine is operated entirely by foot throttle combined with a throttle lever exactly as on motor cars. A dash board is fitted on which the instruments are placed, and back of the hood, conveniently at hand, are a klaxon horn, priming can, starting crank, anchor and anchor rope. The anchor rope is passed out through a port in the extreme bow of the machine, a very neat detail, which makes anchoring easy, and quick of operation. The starting mechanism consists merely of a safety starter, geared up from the motor. The handle is inserted on the auxiliary shaft back of the seats, and is easily turned with one hand. The motor is very accessible from the seats, even permitting of replacing spark plugs while in flight and of easy inspection. Being at the rear, the noise and exhaust are entirely away from the operator. A small flag is fitted at the bow to indicate, as in usual Wright practice, the least tendency of the machine to skid.

The manner in which the seats are closed in, the form of the hood, and the neat side doors and steps fitted, make the entire arrangement not only finished in appearance, but perfect in protection against air and waves.

29999999

I The total weight of the aeroboat ready for ■flight is 1,200 pounds. The live load that has Ijeen carried in the tests at Dayton has mmounted to practically 600 pounds, making Ithe total load in flight, 1,800 pounds. I The machine is equipped with a six-cylinder, to H. P. Wright motor, which gives 30 pounds tarried per H. P., the highest figure yet attained in marine aeroplane work. I In addition to the main center pontoon, two auxiliary pontoons are fitted. These are plso made of metal, weighing 11 pounds apiece, find are of a form which insures the correction of the balance of the machine with the least amount of drag, a feature which for rough water work is of the utmost importance.

The control of the craft on the water is tlone entirely by the side paddle system, invented by Grover C. Loening some time ago, and used by him in his early aeroboat experiments. This method of control is far more effective than a water rudder, and turns the bachine at high speed in any kind of wind. . The aeroboat was designed by Grover C. Loening under the direction of Mr. Orville Wright, and was entirely constructed at the Dayton factory.

REVOLVING CYLINDER MOTORS.

{.Continued from paije 165]

imperative and one has to contend with the well-known formula of centrifugal pressure, according to which each pound of weight rotating at a distance of i foot from the center of rotation at 1,100 r.p.m. produces a centrifugal pressure of 412.6 pounds. Every moving part has to be calculated with reference to that law. Everything must be made of the finest steel, perfectly balanced, perfectly hardened. If not balanced there is produced a knocking. All wearing parts must be perfectly tempered, especially the valves and the mechanism operating them.

(Here Mr. Berliner illustrated his talk by reference to the moving model of the Gyro motor.)

The makers of rotary motors are engaged right now in attempts to produce a motor with but one valve, leaving out the intake valve. I believe it will be accomplished success ftdly. It has been done in a way but not yet economically. (Illustrating on model.) The intake will be very similar to that in two-cycle engines. When that time comes, we will have the model motor for aeronautics and it ought to run a hundred hours without any trouble. In the Gyro motor we have reduced [Continued on page iSO]

Page 172

NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN AERONAUTICS

CURTISS RUNNING GEAR SYSTEM.

A device for equipping water 'planes with wheels which can be raised or lowered while in night has been patented by Glenn H. Cnr-tiss in Great Britain (12,643).

The claims cover the combination of surfaces with float, hydro surfaces at wing ends capable of variation of inclination, ailerons, wheels which in lowered position project through the float, with locking device.

In order that the operator may vary the inclination of the floats and blades, there is provided a lever 42 connected to a wire 43 leading to each float, so that by movement of said lever from the position shown in Fig. 2 to that shown in Fig. 1, the floats, and with them the blades, may be inclined upward. Movement of the lever in the reverse direction allows the floats and blades to return to a horizontal position where they will exert slight head resistance to the rush of air. At rest on the water, the floats may be allowed to take the horizontal position. When the machine is started, the operator may throw his lever to incline the floats and blades, as shown in Fig. 1, and they will then act as a stabilizing means. Wheels are hung from the machine and project slightly below the lower surface of the boat, as indicated in Fig. 2. For raising the wheels out of the water when the machine is floating, and for depressing the same at will, 47 is a brace pivoted at 48 to the frame of the machine, and 49 is another brace pivoted at 50 to the frame, and at 51 pivoted to a short arm 52. A locking device shown in Figs. 3 and 4 in detail operates to hold the wheels in their depressed position shown in Fig. 1. As shown in Figs. 3 and 4 the wheel is pivoted to the U-shaped frame 52 having projections 53 pivoted to the U-shaped end 54 of the brace 49. Bent arms 55 fixed to the frame 52 carry pivoted to them at 56 a locking detent 57, which has a catch-nose 58 engaging a bar 59 on the U-shaped frame 54. 60 is a spring normally holding the latch in the position shown in Fig. 4. The preferred mechanism for raising the wheels comprises a slidable rack bar 105 engaged by a spring-pressed detent 106. 62 is a wire connected to the bar and running to the axle of the wheel, being led over suitable pulleys such as 61. 107 is a foot lever pivoted to the boat at 108 and carrying a spring dog 109. no is a spring to draw lever 107 backwards. As the foot lever is reciprocated it forces the bar 105 downwardly, being held by detent 106 at each reciprocation, drawing on wire 62 and collapsing the frame 47, 49, 52 to the raised position. The holding latch 106 may be tripped by a wire in and handle 112 adjacent to the operator's seat. In order to release lock 57 a wire 113 runs therefore to a pulley 114 loose on wire 62. This latter is slack when the wheels are down and locked, and as the slack is taken up it draws on wire 113, unlocking latch 57 just before wire 62 becomes taut. Of course, the other wheel is provided with the same construction, the wires 62 of

both wheels being connected to rack bar 105. Releasing the detent 106 before the machine comes out of the water allows the weight of the parts and the resistance offered by the water to throw the wheels back to the locked position. The machine may then travel out of the water onto the land and over the same without the resistance which would be exerted by the boat if in contact with the earth.

THE AUSTRO DAIMLER MOTOR.

The 90 H. P. Austin Daimler motor, with one of which one Thomas flying-boat is equipped, has recently been tested by the Austrian army authorities.

Previous to the first test the engine was tested on the dynamometer, and was found to deliver 80 B. H. P. at 1,310 revolutions per minute. It was then disconnected from the dynamometer and the propeller fitted that the engine was to drive when in the machine. The engine then ran without a stop for 20 hours under full load.—Average number of revolutions per minute. 1,320.

At the end of this run the engine was voluntarily stopped for half an hour and examined. Everything was found to be in perfect order, and no adjustments at all were necessary. Following directly after the half an hour's stop the test was resumed and the engine ran for a further 20 hours without a stop, under full load.—Average number of revolutions per minute, 1,320.

At the conclusion of this period the engine was again voluntarily stopped and once more connected up to the dynamometer, and was found to be delivering the same power as before the tests.

The engine was straightway dismantled and the parts examined by the army officials. It was found that no visible wear had taken place and that all the parts were in perfect condition.

I he yo H. P. Austro-Daimler has recently undergone several alterations in detail all of which go far towards improving it as an engine for use under all manner of conditions while making no real change as to its reliability.

The cylinder (120 by 140 mm.) attachments are different. At the bottom of the cylinder a pressed steel flange is screwed on to the barrel. This flange is drilled to take seven holding-down bolts. There is little likelihood of cylinders leaving the engine in future.

A propeller carrier, consisting of a flange and collar in one piece, tapered to fit the crankshaft and keyed in two places, is supplied with every engine. A second detachable flange-piece bolts to the other.

The Bosch magneto fitted is wholly enclosed that it may be both dust and waterproof—a most necessary provision in these days. It is of the two spark type (that is, it sparks simultaneously on two plugs in each cylinder).

Each of the sparking plugs has a fibre and porcelain cover, thereby ensuring that it will not short-circuit even in the heaviest rain.

Another necessary provision has been made as a result of several serious accidents which have recently occurred with various types of aero engines—the carburetor has been made fireproof. To quote the firm's own descrip-

tion, "The float chamber is wholly enclosed and airtight except for an overflow and vent pipe of very small bore. The intake passage is continued in the shape of a long pipe, so that should the engine 'blow back' the flame would be muffled. So also is the extra air-pipe similarly muffled and gauze covered."

Lubrication is by Bosch lubricator driven by helical gearing from the crankshaft. Two piston pumps, one a piston valve and the other a positive pump, are actuated by cam-shaped discs. The pressure obtainable is about 1,000 pounds to the square inch. The oil leads are of weldless steel tubing and are arranged neatly outside the engine. Thus any repairs can be made readily and quickly.

The throw of these pumps can be regulated in a simple manner by moving in or out a scries of screws placed round the rim of the filling up orifice.

The oil consumption is one-half gallon per hour; the gas consumption, about 8 gallons per hour. Copper jackets are electrically deposited on the cylinders. The motor is equipped with push-button and battery starter. The motor develops 90 H. P. at 1,300 revolutions.

A BLERIOT STABILISER.

Perreyon has been testing a Buc a Blériot machine fitted with a new stabilizer invented by M. Blériot. The apparatus principally consists of a weight attached to an extension of the cloche, and in its trials it seems to have worked perfectly. In one flight, Perreyon took up M. Rene Quinton, and flew round and round for a quarter of an hour without touching the cloche, his arms, in fact, remaining folded.

I like to have your magazine till I stop you from sending it.—V. M. K., Nczu Jersey.

WHY ROTATIVE MOTORS HAVE ODD NUMBER CYLINDERS.

L. Lecornu has told succinctly why rotative motors have an odd number of cylinders. "The reply is given through the formula which I had occasion to prove, and which may be stated as follows: n=K (-f-p—2) where "n" is the number of cylinders, "K" the number of cranks, and "p" the order in which the sparking occurs; that is, after having sparked the first cylinder, then the one of rank, p+i, is sparked, then 2p-f-i, and so on until the first one is reached again. In order that all the cylinders may be sparked in turn it is necessary and sufficient that "p" is prime with "n." "hat granted, it follows that, if one crank is i mployed in order to simplify and make the m itor as light as possible, "k" must equal "1" rnd when p—2, "n" must be odd.

NEW BOOKS RECEIVED.

THE CURTISS FLYING liOAT is the title of a brochure gotten out by the Curtiss Aeroplane Co.. of 1 lammondsport, N. Y., which deals with the pleasures of aerial aquatics and is from the pen of Lyman T. Seely, although he doesn't say so. It's a beautifully gotten up booklet, immensely practical, absorbingly interesting and enough to almost make an aero editor buy.

THE DUNNE MACHINE IN AMERICA.

For a number of years W. Starling Burgess, together with everyone engaged in the development of aviation, has watched with the greatest interest the development of Lieutenant Dunne's experiments. The many accidents during the last year on machines generally recognized as the safest yet built has caused the general public and many intimately interested in aviation to well-nigh despair of attaining the long wished for safety in flight.

The commercial development of the aeroplane depends upon the production of a flying machine that is inherently stable. It is not too much to say that little or nothing haa been accomplished either in this country or France towards this end during the last three years. That mechanical devices for the operation of wings and rudders, however perfect, cannot be considered as solving the problem, is claimed by adherents of inherent stability.

Like almost every great inventor Lieutenant Dunne has worked alone with little or no encouragement from those already interested in the art of flying to a point where his success could not be further overlooked. The flight of Commander Felix, so fully reported in AERONAUTICS and the American press, marked the debut before the world of the first inherently stable aeroplane.

Not only private individuals but the military aviation experts in both England and France became interested at once. Before the mails bringing the details of the new aeroplane could arrive the Nieuport Company, one of the mosi progressive in France, had obtained not only a license to build the Dunne machine in France, but also an order from the Government for the construction of four Dunne aeroplanes to be delivered at the earliest possible moment.

The English Government, which up to this time had looked upon the Dunne machine merely as an undeveloped possibility, hastened to place their order for three machines for immediate delivery and thus tardily recognized Dunne's great achievement.

Mr. Burgess went abroad for the sole purpose of thoroughly investigating the latest developments in Lieutenant Dunne's work. He was both surprised and delighted to find that Lieutenant Dunne was already fully acquainted with his own success as a designer of aeroplanes as well as of yachts.

London "Engineering," the leading technical paper of the world, in its issue of October 3 devoted its supplement and principal pages to a detailed description with photographs and drawings of the three latest and most successful Burgess aeroplanes—the Burgess Tractor, the Burgess Coast Defence Hydroaeroplane, and the Burgess Flying Boat, all now in active service in our Army and Navy.

Under these favorable conditions a contract giving Mr. Burgess the sole license to manufacture under the Dunne patents was easily arranged. Investigation of these patents reveals the fact that Lieutenant Dunne has very carefully protected in them the basic prin-

ciples of his method of inherent stability, and that they can be easily defended from infringement.

"With its advent in America the many disputed questions of the easiest method of control, whether by wheel or by levers, whether by ailerons or by warping wings, lose their importance. The Dunne aeroplane is inherently' stable, but two levers are used and these are used simply for guiding up or down, or to the right or left. The machine cannot tip over either laterally or fore or aft."

Of course one can appreciate the enthusiasmj which Commander Felix has so well describedl when he first realized that he could remove hisl hands from the levers and allow his machine! to fly alone over the waters of the English! channel while he spread out before him hisl mid-day lunch.

The Dunne machine is not an easy aero-l plane to construct. Its principles of balance! depend upon a very careful co-ordination ofl varying wing curvatures from center to tip J Lieutenant Dunne has supplied Mr. BurgesJ with the fullest drawings, patterns and templets and the first American Dunne is now undeJ construction. Mr. Burgess is now designing the hydroplanes for the new machine, for hi has not yet been equipped to fly over the water! This involves serious engineering problems, aJ the machine arises and alights in a very dif-l ferent manner from the older types of aero-| planes.

Mr. Burgess' work therefore will be watchedl most carefully by the thousands interested in aviation who are waiting for the day to arrive when they can take up the art themselves withl an assurance that in doing so they are noi entering an unduly hazardous sport or occupa-l tion.

The advent of the Dunne machine in Amer-I ica under Mr. Burgess' skillful guidance marks! a great step in the development of American! aviation.

AEROPLANE TO SPEED UP WAR-I FARE.

"An all-around speeding up" of strategic! operations may be expected in wars where! aeroplanes are used is the opinion expresses by Major F. H. Sykes, Commandant, Military* Wing, Royal Flying Corps, of England, ancB the plans drawn out previously in peace wilfl require greater care in order that the pre-l liminary dispositions of troops may be the best! possible; yet, "the old, old principles prevail"! in warfare and in any case "no revolution ofl methods will occur."

Citing instances from the battles of recent! and not so recent history, Major Sykes wenS on to tell The Aeronautical Society of Greafl Britain at a recent meeting that, due to theH use of aircraft, "the sequence, order, counter-B order and disorder should be less frequentH If the huge masses of modern armies are« found to have been wrongly placed, no amounB of zeal, training, bravery, or mobility canH make up. There will be no time for_ a gen-B eral re-shuffling. The offensive will increase™ in advantage over the defensive. Leaders must I

be prompt and correct in decision ; troops prepared to make long and rapid movements."

Certain things being equal, the greatest number will win. General Jackson, by small, mobile daring forces, by rapid hidden movements was sometimes able to defeat considerably larger numbers. "Aircraft will, I think, render this line of action impossible," says the Major.

That war is impossible without command of the air, he thinks is a statement which should refer possibly to wars of a few years hence. Further, he says: "I even hold that command of the air can never really be of the same nature as command of the sea. Neither can the same extent of strategical or tactical freedom in the area of operations be obtained, which might result from the vigorous use of good cavalry.

"At sea and on land there are only two dimensions. In the air the third, climbing, is the difficulty. It may be overcome" with time and further progress but this third dimension is a "severe stumbling block." A heavy machine, perhaps, with guns and ammunition and armor, would be a slow climber and difficult to land easily and safely. "For the time being it would certainly seem that the fast scouting machine will have various advantages over the heavier type." Then, if both sides use it, each will know a pretty good lot about what the other is doing. "If both sides have fighting machines, the side upon which this fact has the least moral effect will have an important advantage. A little fighting in the air will, I think, have a far-reaching deterrent effect on the moral of the aerial forces of the losing side."

Aeroplanes will save cavalry much unnecessary work. A general in three and a half hours can report the enemy's strength, position, etc., if within an 80-mile radius. "The reports of aircraft will afford a degree of security, a saving of officers, men and horseflesh, in anxiety and strain on the commander, in mental wear and tear of the infantry and artillery." Fog and night will prevent aerial reconnaissance and, owing to the speed, the field of observation will not be very detailed; and small bodies of men will learn to quickly hide.

It will be difficult to recognize opposing aircraft, or any at all from the ground. A reduction in number of types is suggested as an aid to recognition, and tables of types of friend and foe will have to be issued to troops.

THE TURNER "AVIAPHONE."

Mr. K. M. Turner, who has been a close follower of aeronautics for several years, developed his aviaphone originally for the U. S. Army Aeronautics Corps to facilitate and make more effective aerial reconnaissances.

The device, which is an adaptation to aeronautics of Mr. Turner's famous "Dictograph-Turner" interconversing system, was worked up to its present state of efficiency in co-operation with a number of the Army aviation ex-

perts, at the Government grounds in Augusta, Ga., and also at Hempstead, Long Island, where its utility and value was demonstrated in a number of very exacting tests.

As is well known, the noise of the engine has long made it difficult for the observation officer in any heavier than air craft to freely communicate with the operator of the machine. Army officers have recognized this as a serious handicap to the operation of the machine and its mobility in action, where seconds are too precious to be wasted.

The Aviaphone consists of a powerful transmitter with a tube projecting upward from it, permanently attached to each man in the machine, connected by wire with a set of pow-

erful earpieces permanently affixed to the head, by means of a headband. The transmitter is attached to each man by means of a light_ harness and is arranged so that bj bending his head slightly downward, his mouth is directly in front of the tube. This enables him to talk freely into it and keeps both hands free at all times, he having nothing to handle in the use or operation of the system. The wire connecting the transmitter with the earpieces of the other man in the machine is so arranged that in the event of the latter falling from the machine, the wire is instantly disconnected and the second man prevented from being carried down with his companion.

At the same time that the transmitter of the aviaphone magnifies sound several hundred per cent., it also clarifies sound, providing perfect articulation. The earpieces rest on rubber cushions and while held so firmly against the ears that no outside sounds can intrude, the pressure of continuous use causes the user no annoyance. The batteries for the operation of the instrument can be stowed on the person of either one of the men, being so small that they fit easily into a pocket. They register less than three volts and about twenty amperes.

The experiments made of the device by Army officers and also by lay-aviators, both amateur and professional, have been so highly successful, that Mr. Turner is confident that the aviaphone will soon become a necessary and indispensable appointment of every air craft.

KNABENSHUE DIRIGIBLE.

The only dirigible known to be operating in this country is now the new big ship of Roy Knabenshue, who has gone back to the gas bag after dallying ■with the aeroplane as an exhibition contractor.

The car has a capacity of ten persons, and has taken up 132 people for trips of 3 to 15 miles from and back to the aerodrome at Pasadena at a speed of 30 miles an hour, with but a 30 h. p. motor.

The bag is 150 ft. long, 2,000 cubic metres capacity, Hansen motor. The propellers are Wright type.

The ship is of non-rigid type, with a rectangular (cross section) framework below running the entire length of the bag. The elevating rudders are at the rear, and behind them are the six vertical rudders. The motor drives two propellers, one at either side of the framework at the end of triangular braces, driven by chain. Twenty trips were made from Sept. 20 to October 16 (20 days) with a total duration of 6 hours 31 minutes.

CURTISS O-X MOTORS COMPARED.

With the weight of the remodeled 75-80 h. p. Curtiss motor increased by a few pounds, new valve action and increased bearing surfaces bringing the net total up to 320 pounds, and the gross total ready for a run of four hours, including gasoline, oil, radiator, water, etc., up to 638 pounds in producing the 90-100 h. p. O-X motor of the same bore and stroke, the O-X shows real lightness. Here is a comparative table, the figures taken from a European publication:

"In the table below a net delivered horsepower of 85 is claimed for the 100 h. p. Gnome, the same for the O-X Curtiss and 72 for the 70 h. p. Renault. Weights for the Gnome and Renault motor fuel, etc., I have taken from the foreign publication referred to; those for the Curtiss O-X were supplied by Lieut. B. L. Smith, U. S. N., who had compiled the data from his Navy machine for his own information." At 1,800 r.p.m., the O-X shows 106 6 h. p.

THE FLYING BOAT AS A DEPENDABLE VEHICLE.

Raymond V. Morris, who acted during the summer and fall as pilot for Gerald Hanley of Providence, has kept a daily record of his season's flying with the Curtiss boat. His book shows a total of more than no flying hours, approximately 6,000 miles, with but one overhauling. Broke one rod.

C. C. Witmer, in charge of Harold F. Mc-Cormick's flying boat, has flown approximately 5,000 miles, with one overhauling of the motor. No breakage.

L. A. Vilas kept a partial record of his summer's flying from June to October, and he estimates that he flew more than 3,500 miles. So far he has not had occasion to drop the lower half of the crankcase. The motor has not been overhauled since it left the factory. No breakage.

J. A. D. McCurdy, in charge of George von Utassy's flying boat, flew every fair day from mid-July to mid-October. Estimated mileage 5,oco. Broke one bearing cap.

MOTOR

WEIGHT Net

GALS. GAS Per Hour

GALS. OIL Per Hour

FUEL WT. Four Hours

TOTAL WT. Motor and Fuel

WT. PER H.P. For 4 Hours

100 Gnome

308.64

12.1675

2.7

377.76 lbs.

686.4 lbs.

8.07 lbs.

70 Renault

462.966

9.26

.79

246.03 "

709. "

9.946 "

90-100 Curtiss

430.

8.

.5

208. "

638. "

7.505 "

 

Knabenshue Dirigible

MAXIMOTOR: LATEST 100-HORSE-POWER MOTOR.

The ever-increasing popularity of the flying-boat brought with it the necessity of larger-powered motors. Maximotor makers have kept step with this demand and the new powerful 100-borsepower Maximotor is the result.

A brief description will give the reader a good idea of how Maximotors are built up, from materials mostly imported from England and Germany; also showing a good many points of refinement in mechanical construction not found in other American aeronautic motors.

To begin with, the cylinders are of the overhead valve type cast in pairs from vanadium gray iron containing 30 per cent, steel.

Casting the cylinder in pairs has the advantage of producing a more compact power plant, giving them united strength and reducing the manifold joints. The piston also is cast from the same material, heavily ribbed at the head and machined both inside and outside, allowing equal expansion.

All the valves are located in the head and mechanically operated.

Maximotor, 100 H. P.

The crank shaft is cut out of a solid billet of imported chrome nickel steel, double heat treated, thereby producing a very high tensile strength, machined, hollow bored, and ground to size within one thousandth of an inch.

Imported ball-bearings are employed on all main crank-shaft bearings, which are five in number. The propeller-end of crank-shaft is unusually rigidly supported; two extra heavy annular ball-bearings are employed to carry the load as well as thrust, and arc mounted in a vanadium steel bousing which, in turn, is recessed and bolted to the crank-case proper by six nickel steel studs.

The cranf<-case is in one casting from a special aluminum alloy, eliminating a good many joints and bolts; which feature is most essential in an aeronautic power plant.

The connecting rods are drop-forgings of I chrome nickel steel, double heat treated, to |give extra strength and allowing them to be made very light.

The cam-shaft is of nickel steel tubing; the cams of special high carbon steel tempered, ground and held in place by taper pins.

The oiling system is mechanical by a small rotary pump placed in the oil-sump in bottom of crank-case.

A double oiling, carburetor, and ignition system can be arranged if especially desired.

In a three hours' test by a hydro-dynamometer the motor showed in excess of 100 horsepower at 1,350 r.p.m., consuming 8^4 gallons of fuel and 7 pints of lubricating oil per hour. On the testing stand, for propeller test, the motor pulled from 625 to 650 pounds thrust, turning a two-bladed propeller, with a diameter of 8 feet and a perimeter of 6 feet, at from i.35o to 1,400 r.p.m. The weight is approximately 375 pounds exclusive of radiator and propeller.

The Maximotor makers are prepared to make prompt delivery on the following sizes of motors : Model "A" : 4 cylinders, 40-50 horsepower; Model "B": 4 cylinders, 60-70 horsepower; Model "C": 6 cylinders, 70-80 horsepower; Model "D": 6 cylinders, 90-100 horsepower.

THE 6-CYLINDER 60-HORSEPOWER WRIGHT MOTOR.

Ever since the first motor that flew the first aeroplane was developed in 1903 by the Wright brothers, the development of the Wright motor has steadily continued. The basic principle adopted in those early days to develop a power plant that combined efficiency, reliability, lightness, strength and simplicity, has been adhered to with remarkable perseverance. In 1908, when public flying first began, the world was astonished to find the Wright 4-cylinder 40-horsepower motor a more reliable and more efficient aeroplane engine than any that had been previously developed by acknowledged experts in gasoline engine work.

Several automobile firms abroad in 1908 and 1909 took to perfecting the Wright 4-cylinder engine for use on the foreign Wright machines, and the fact remains that not a single one equalled in general adaptability combined with lightness, reliability and strength, the genuine Wright motor, manufactured in Dayton.

It is needless to dwell upon the marvellous feats that have been performed with the Wright 4-cylinder engine. Since 1908. when it was first publicly flown by the Wright brothers, their product has remained to this day a standard exponent of reliability and good service.

1 he necessity for greater power, particularly in heavy scouting military machines and in aeroboat work, led the Wright Company to consider a more powerful engine, and for over two years steady development work has been done on a 6-cylinder engine of larger stroke than the four, and replete with improvements in detail. This new 6-cylinder engine, called type "6-60" has lately reached the completion of its development stage and the Wright Company are now prepared to make deliveries on the new engine.

In general the appearance of the motor is very compact. Its projected area on the plane is small, making its air resistance low. Accessibility of all parts is apparent on first glance. There are an unusually small number of parts that can get out of order.

The magneto, pump and oiler are all driven from the crank shaft, through gears on the end of the motor at ij4 engine speed. All the gears, water pump, oil pump and magneto connections are in the open, accessible and easy of inspection. The pump, oiler and magneto are all placed on a shelf, integral with the crank case on the exhaust side of the motor

On the opposite side is the cam shaft, also driven by gears, all enclosed with the pump and magneto gearing in one gear case.

The new "6-60" has not been developed for

the use of specialists, but on the contrary it is adaptable to the most general aeroplane practice, to motor boats, or to any apparatus requiring a light, compact, reliable gas engine power plant. No special oil or gasoline is required for its operation, and in its construction there is an entire absence of complication which would in any way render replacement difficult.

Ignition is by a "Mea" high-tension magneto. Provisions for two sets of plugs are made in the cylinder heads, and either a single or dual system of ignition can be used. If it is

not desired to use a dual system the plugs are either left unwired or replaced by a blank stud, or pet cocks for priming In cold weather. Provision is also made for fitting water-tight caps on the plugs. A 60-degree rotation of the magneto is obtained, giving retardation necessary for safe cranking.

A gear pump driven by worm from the pump and magneto shaft forces the oil from the well in the crank case to the distribution points. A splash system is used, with lips on the ends of the connecting rods. Throughout the engine grease cups are fitted, in simple and accessible manner.

Two "Zenith" carburetters of ample size, each feeding 3 cylinders, are mounted in a very neat manner on the intake manifold. The intake air-vents of the carburreters being close to the cylinder walls and receiving hot air from around the cylinders. The two control levers are joined by a rod and locked turnbuckle fitting. The "Zenith" carburreter is remarkably simple and effective, and will operate perfectly on the lowest to the highest speeds on practically any grade of fuel. It is not affected by altitude. There are no springs to weaken, no valves to bind or get dirty, and no pistons to get loose. The construction of the spray nozzle is such that the motor receives a constant mixture at all speeds.

As in all previous Wright aeroplane motors, a water cooling system is used. On the same shaft used for the magneto drive is mounted! a centrifugal pump, 2>Ya inches in diameter, which, like the magneto, runs at i1/? times the engine speed, and which delivers a high-pressure flow of water directly to the intake manifold on the base of the cylinder and cylinder! heads, cooling the valve and spark plug regions and passing out through the manifold above to the radiator. A T-bolt construction is used for fixing the manifold to the cylinders and for aeroplane work it has been found exceedingly simple and reliable. By a convenient arrangement of the bolts the water flow is restricted in a uniform manner so that it delivers an equal amount to all cylinders and insures the uniform cooling of the entire motor. The water jackets on the new "6-60" consist of Bessemer steel, seamless, tubing, shrunk on with a .005 inch shrinkage, with ample shoulder for bearing surface and plenty of stock to insure water tightness. The cylinder head is screwed into the cylinders and the jacket shrunk on, after which the entire cylinder is tested out by a water pressure test.

The one-piece crank shaft on the "6-60" is made of crucible chrome nickel auto steel. The steel is first drop-forged and roughed out, and after a special heat treatment the bearings j are ground to exact size.

The cylinders cast separately, with their J novel heads and their remarkable strength and lightness, are made of a light, medium grade of I cast iron of fine grain, uniform structure, low in sulphur, avoiding brittleness, and medium in I silicon, which gives softness enough for per-| feet machining. The iron is high enough in I manganese to produce a splendid wearing sur-l face, and the casting is, throughout, light inl

structure, well-proportioned, and splendidly designed to avoid casting strains. The cylinder heads are made of medium gray iron of the same composition.

The cylinder head is screwed onto the cylinder and, as previously described, the water jacket is fitted and the whole tested for water tightness. Then the cylinders are again set in a lathe and bored to exact size. This method of treatment insures absolutely perfect alignment of the cylinder walls as it relieves all strains due to shrinking of the jacket.

To-avoid the possibility of pitting, cast iron valves are adopted. The valve is made with a chrome nickel steel stem; screwed into a gray cast iron head with a fine thread. The s"tem is riveted to the head, after which the valve is centered and machined to a finished size.

The valve springs are made of a specially drawn Vanadium steel wire. The springs are rolled and ground on the ends, after which they are heated and in tests show a pull of 3S3/2 pounds per inch. The breaking of a valve spring is practically rendered impossible.

The rocker arms, fitted with rollers on the end, are made in a simple manner of high grade steel plate, carrying a plug fitting into the push rod tube in a manner which permits of exceedingly simple adjustment by the manufacturer, but one which can in no way work loose or be tampered with when the motor is

in use. However, any necessary adjustment is always easily made by adding or reducing the number of small washers between the end of the push rods and the base of the stem on the rocker arm. The valves are unusually large and are all mechanically operated.

The pistons are made of a very fine grade of gray iron, low in sulphur, carefully machined and of generous proportions. The piston rings are also made of gray iron of a special casting, which insures springiness to the ring. The piston pin is made of Shelby tubing, machined to .010 of an inch. The pin is then heat-treated and carbonized after which it is ground to size. The connecting rod of "H" column cross section is a drop-forging of high grade machine steel. Bronze bearings are used on the piston end of the connecting rod.

For general use the fly wdieel is fitted to the engine, as is also the ingenious Wright valve release rod, which, by merely pushing with one hand at once opens all the valves of the engine.

The Wright "6-60" engine weighs 305 pounds complete, and although rated at 60 horsepower, develops at its high speed considerably more than this. The speed of the engine can be varied at will between the limits of 1500 and 600 r.p.m. without affecting the smoothness of its running.

A muffler and cut-out may be fitted, on order, for which an extra charge is made.

O

Wright 6-60 Engine

BEACHEY'S LOOP MACHINE.

The machine which Lincoln Beachey is using in his loop-the-loop stunts is a special Curtiss built by him and James LaMont at the Curtiss factory. There are really few changes over the standard Model D Curtiss land machine, details of which have heretofore appeared in AERONAUTICS. The engine is a Curtiss of 90-100 horsepower.

The whole machine is heavily wired, the plane sections with 3/32-inch Roebling wire, and doubled in parts as usual. The front and rear lateral spars are double-heavy, about inch by 3 inches, and a trailing edge has been replaced. The wings spread 24 feet 3 inches over all, built in three sections each, 9 feet x 6 feet 3 inches x 9 feet. The separation between planes is 5 feet 6 inches. The tail outriggers are 2 feet shorter than usual and there is no fixed stabilizing plane at all save one, 6 inches at widest part, in center, tapering to 2 inches at either side to which the elevators are attached, the latter having been increased slightly fore and aft to give more surface. The front wheel is brought in about 2 feet and the pilot sits almost over it. The rear wheels have been set slightly further forward and the planes are closer to the ground than normally due to shortening of rear wheel braces, forks and front "V," the top plane being only 7 feet from the ground.

A belt comes from the bottom of the seat and up over Beachey's lap to hold him in while upside down, this strap being set loose instantly by pulling out a pin or key. In addition, there is a shoulder strap. The machine weighs, unloaded, 901 pounds.

On November 18, at Los Angeles, Lincoln Beachey celebrated his return to flying by flying upside down, and later looped the loop with a specially built and braced miniature Curtiss biplane. Pegoud is touring Europe giving exhibitions, Chevillard has done the loop with a Farman biplane, and others are copying the feat in various parts of the world.

REVOLVING CYLINDER MOTORS.

[Continued from page 171] the amount of oil used through oil shields as it is well known that a large amount escapes through the intake and exhaust valves through centrifugal pressure.

As to gyroscopic effect—all aviators who have flown with both reciprocating and rotary motors state they would never go back to the reciprocating kind.

It is astonishing to see a Wright machine, fitted with a rotary motor, fly. It is a different machine. It will rise from the ground almost like a helicopter. It will have a lifting pow-tr for ballast three times of one with a Wright motor. It is quite a revelation to see that combination of a splendidly designed lifting machine as the Wright always has been economical in power, when a first class rotary motor is hitched to it. The chains are seen to run straight like ribbons, showing the lack of vibration. There is very little vibration on the plane with a rotary motor. We test our Gyros on a very lightly constructed "wind wagon,"' but while you can feel some vibration when touching the wooden supports you could not see them move.

Some experiments have been made using graphite instead of oil. We have tried something along this line, with the graphite suspended in the gasoline. We tried it the other day with 76 gasoline to see whether it would stay in suspension as well as it does with 65 gas. We found it would not keep suspended any length of time but it took but very little vibration to keep it suspended and we rather think that even the slight vibration of the motor will suffice on future tests. This idea was given to us by Captain A. T. Lucas, of Washington, D. C, who found that artificial grap'iite had sufficient lightness for permitting this system of lubrication to the exclusion of oil. But whether the motor would develop as much power is somewhat questionable as the "sealing" property of oil would be lacking.

DESIGN FOR A SELF-RISING MODEL

By HARRY SCHULTZ, Model Editor.

The accompanying drawing shows a design for a self-rising model. Models of this type are much in use in England, where this tail-behind type first originated. This model is designed for flying in windy weather and ought to be just the thing for this time of the year.

The fuselage consists of two strips of silver spruce, ]4 in. by 3/16 in. at the center, tapering slightly towards the ends and out to a stream line form. The frame is bound at the front, fitted with the usual hooks, and glued.

Running across the frame 12 in. from the apex is a bamboo brace, 3/16 in. wide, out to stream-line form, and extending upright from this brace is a 2.V2 in. piece of 1/16 in. piano wire, fitted with a loop at the top through which extend bracing wires as shown. The construction is clearly shown in Figs. 1 and 3. The rear brace of the frame, or propeller-bar, is of bamboo, :4 in. wide by % in. in thickness, out to stream-line form, and \2 in. from this rear brace is another brace of bamboo, and extending from this brace to

the rear brace are diagonal strips of bamboo, this space being filled in with fabric to form the tail.

The main planes measure 24 in. span, with a chord of 4r{. in. at the ends, extending in for 8 in. The entering edge and main beam of the plane is of 3/16 in. wide by 1/16 in. spruce, cut to stream line form and the trailing edge is of % in. square bamboo. The plane and tail is covered on top with silk treated with Ambroid varnish. The fin is constructed of a single piece of bamboo, and is 2l/2 in. high and 3r^ in. long. Fig 4 shows the construction of the same.

The propellers are cut from a solid block of white pine, and are 8 in. in diameter, with a pitch of 20 in. They are given a coat of white shellac.

The bearings consist of Y± in. lengths of tubing, bound and glued to each end of the propeller bar. Bent around the propellers at the hub are small strips of tin as shown In Fig. 5-

The chassis or running gear is made of 1/16 in. flat steel wire, the rear skid being 5 in. long and the front chassis, including the wheels, being 10 in. high. The wheels are of laminated wood, fitted with small pieces of tubing for bearings as shown in Fig. 6.

The motors consist of 12 strands of Y% in. flat rubber for each propeller.

The Long Island Model Aero Club is one of the foremost organizations of its kind in America. The membership of this club is steadily increasing and at the present time there are over twenty-five members on the books of the club. Model flying contests are held every Saturday afternoon at Van Cort-landt Park under the auspices of The Yonkers Model Aeroplane Association between 3 and 5 P. M. Official Mr. Edward Durant.

MODEL FLYING IN ENGLAND.

Those who have kept close watch on the progress of model flying are aware that there is great activity on the other side of the Atlantic. Throughout England there are over fifteen model aero clubs, many of them having workshops, private flying grounds, man-carrying gliders and many members.

All records that the American model flyers could boast of as being World's records are gradually being swept away by the fine flying of our English cousins. For instance, our rise-off-ground duration record is 81 seconds, while the English record for this branch of flying is 169 seconds by Mr. J. E. Louch. Mr. J. E. Louch is one of the foremost model flyers

in Great Britain and is the holder of the record for hand launched tractor models, 45 seconds.

Another famous English flyer is Mr. L. H. Slatter, who holds the records for distance, R. O. G. models. 365 yards, single screw hydro, 35 seconds, twin screw hydro, 45 seconds.

The French model flyers take a more serious view of model flying than is taken in this country. Their models are mostly large scale models or scientific models equipped with carbonic acid gas motors, compressed air or miniature gasoline motors.

From the above it will be seen that if the American model flyers desire to retain "World's Records" in this country, they must "put their best foot forward" at once in that direction.

The following is a statement of the world's records as they stand today:

Distance, hand launched, Arthur Nealey (American), 2,740 ft.

Duration, hand launched, W. L. Butler (American), 170 seconds.

Distance, R. O. G., L. Bamberger (American), 1,542 ft.

Duration, R. O. G., J. E. Louch (English), 169 seconds.

Frydroaeroplane, Geo. E. Cavanagh (American), 60 2/5 seconds.

Single screw tractor, hand launched, distance, C. C. Dutton (English), 798 ft.

Single screw tractor, R. O. G., distance, C. C. Dutton (English), 590 ft.

TRYING A GYROSCOPE STABILIZER.

Army and navy fliers have about concluded a busy season of study and experiment at the Curtiss camp and factory at Hammondsport, N. Y. Lieut. P. N. L. Bellinger made hundreds of flights while trying out a gyroscope stabilizer, flying on one occasion "from Hammonds-port to Penn Yan and return, a distance of about 40 miles, without using the manual controls." He is now on duty at Annapolis. Lieut. Richardson, N. C, who spent the summer at Hammondsport observing trials of new machines and studying flying boat construction, is now on duty at Washington where he is conducting a series of tank experiments on hydroplane models. Lieut. B. L. Smith, M. C, is still at Hammondsport flying the Curtiss bat-boat A-2 and watching the construction of the navy's new fleet of flyingboats Lieut. W. R. Taliaferro, U. S. A., and Lieut. J. E. Carberry, U. S. A., who have been studying motor and aeroplane construction at the Curtiss factory, leave December 1st.

I always look forward to the coming of your paper with great interest, and want to congratulate you on the big up-hill fight which you are making in the service of aerial navigation in the United States.—C. L. L., Paris.

\l

   

P

 

1 \T' J

Published Monthly by Aeronautics Press

122 E. 25th St., New York Cable: AERONAUTIC, New York 'Phone, 9122 Madison Sq.

A. V. JONES, Pres't ERNEST t. JONES, Treas'r-Sec'y

ERNEST t. JONES, Editor M. B. SELLERS,'Technical Editor

HARRY SCHULTZ, Model Editor

SUBSCRIPTION RATES

United States, $3.00 Foreign, $3.50

No. 75 NOVEMBER, 1913 Vol. XIII, No. 5

Entered as second-class matter September 22, l'.M)8, at the Postoflk-e, New York, under the Act of March 3, 18T.I.

<I AERONAUTICS is issued on the 30th of each Month. All copy must be received by the 20th. Advertising pages close on the 25th.

*jMake all checks or money orders free of exchange and payable to AERONAUTICS. Do not send currency. No foreign stamps accepted.

Panama-Pacific Meet.

The first meet of the Panama-Pacific Exposition flyers took place Nov. 16 on the Exposition Grounds, and was distinctive in that all machines participating were hydros or flying boats. It was a great success, notwithstanding the one or two mishaps which occurred. The following Sunday Roy Francisco, Frank Bryant and William Blakeley were added to the list of machines flying, those of Fowler, Christof-ferson, Sutro, Rybitski. A prettier sight cannot be imagined than five hydroaeroplanes in the air at one time. Sutro's mishap cost the loss of his machine, as the boats towing the submerged hydro to shore broke it up considerably. lie was endeavoring to make a turn with a passenger too close to the water and dug a wing tip in the water.

Hall-Scott equipment is used in all the machines flying at the Exposition Grounds so far.

The meet was held under the direction of the Pacific Aero Club. The six 'planes raced around Alcatraz Island, through the Golden Gate and back and forth over the fair grounds. The flights were all exhibition, and no times were officially recorded.

Similar aviation meets will be held every Sunday and holiday throughout the winter. Three more aviators, Glenn Martin, Frank Bryant and Miss Siedel, a pupil of Martin's, will fly beginning next Sunday.

bers. The hope is to eventually organize all the air pilots in a good fellowship organization. The club will have no clues or membership fees. Persons who have been passengers and aero editors can belong as '"honorary" members. This is the first the Eastern aero world has heard of "Charlie" Willard for many moons.

Judge C. O. Prowse, of Ilopkinsville, Ky., has built a fine-looking aerial yacht, with many refinements. All diagonal bracing wires are removed. One row of struts is used instead of two and there is but one main lateral beam, lie is working on an automatic stability device on which patents are pending.

For Flying Boat -Builders.

L. W. Ferdinand & Co. have received the following testimonial to the excellence of their ,glue from Hugh Robinson:

"T wish to say that I have always used your Jeffrey's Marine Glue in the construction of motor boats, etc., and have never been able to find another glue which would give the entire satisfaction that it does. In the construction of the hull of the Benoist Flying Boats, which I designed and built. I always use Jeffrey's Marine Glue exclusively and they are a marvel of strength and lightness and never leak or take water in the least."

5 <9^/

/

Air Pilots' Club.

Licensed pilots living at Los Angeles have organized the Air Pilots' Club, with George B. Harrison president: Roy Knabenshue, vice-president; Charles F. Willard, secretary. W a 1 t e r Brookins. Glenn Martin, Beryl Williams, Harry Holmes and others in Southern California are also mem-

û y

The halftone is of a letter from Garros endorsing the Bosch Magneto used in his Trans-Mediterranean Flight

Imports and Exports.

The imports and exports of aeroplanes and parts are running far behind the figures for 1912, as shown by the following schedule:

 

Sept.

9 mos. ending Sept.

Imports, aeroplanes ..............

Imports, parts ...................

Exports of domestic aeroplanes....

Exports of domestic parts.........

Exports of foreign aeroplanes......

Exports of foreign parts.........

Foreign aeroplanes in warehouse... Foreign parts in warehouse.......

1912 S @ $17.162

— $196

3 @ $5,500 ' — $533

5 @ $29,259

4 @ $17,055

— $73

IÇI3

— @ $i3,5-48 4 @ $13,800

— $1,100

3 @ $7,623

— $85

1912 8 @ $58,639

— $i,439 25 (Q1 $84,901

— $3,927 14 @ $55,335

— $2,677

1913

1 Ö1 $900

— $18,617 16 @ $48,900

— $14,200

2 @ $10.332

Deaths of Army Officers.

San Diego, Nov. 24.—Lieutenants Hugh M. Kelly and Eric L. Ellington met death in flight.

Captain A. C. Cowan, commanding the post, was among the eye-witnesses of the accident.

"They were trying out a new six-cylinder machine," he said, "and they were between 80 and 100 feet from the ground when they lost control.

"The machine was a new one and Kelly was not familiar with it. Ellington went as instructor. The machine had a dual control, which enahles either occupant to manage it at will. The controls were connected, enabling the instructor to correct instantly any mistake made hy the pupil.

"The machine apparently began its descent in a proper manner and at the usual angle. Then it appeared out of control. The altitude was so low we felt the officers would have only a rough fall.

"A careful inspection of the wrecked aeroplane convinced us that the controls were in good order. The men were instantly killed."

"The death of Lieutenants Kelly and Ellington was due to their starting the engine when 80 feet from the earth, while making a long glide," said Lincoln Peachy, "and it was impossible to right it in the short distance between the men and earth."

The official report has not yet been made.

Manila, Nov. 14.—Second Lieutenant C. Perry Rich, of the Philippine Scouts, U. S. A., was killed to-day in a fall with a hydroaeroplane into Manila Pay. Lieutenant Rich, who was the only member of the Philippine Scouts attached to the aviation corps here, was encircling the Asiatic fleet, which was at anchor in the bay, when the accident occurred. A launch from the torpedo boat Decatur picked up his body. No official report as yet.

Business Troubles.

Yves de Yillers, of the Aeroplanes, Motors and Equipment Company, No. 1780 Broadway, was arrested on Nov. 25 by Detective Leigh, of the District Attorney's office, on an indictment charging grand larceny. The amount involved is $5,239.67, and the charge is made by the^ Curtiss Aeroplane Company, of Hammondsport, N. Y. The action grew out of a deal involving the purchase of an aeroplane engine.—-.VccO York Herald.

The jury in the $25,000 libel suit of J. Y. Martin againt the Times Printing Company, of Seattle (Wash.), on Oct. 29, brought in a verdict for the defendant. Martin charged that a libelous story of his work as an aviator at the 1912 Potlatch was published by the defendants and hurt his business.

Judgment was rendered Oct. 24, New York, in favor of plaintiff in Aeronautics vs. Fred Schneider in the sum of $195.50 for advertising alleged to he due plaintiff, and execution was issued.

Wright-Curtiss Suit.

On Nov. 6-7 the last hearing was had in the United States Circuit Court of Appeals on the appeal of the defendant company from the decision of

Judge Hazel. Briefs submitted and arguments heard. The Court is now working over the evidence and is expected to render its opinion by the end of the month. This opinion will be final unless the United States Supreme Court will consent to a review of the case.

Balloon Ascensions.

Holmesburg, Pa., Nov. 4.—C. P. Wynne, pilot; Dr. Jerome Kingsbury and T. 11. Pridgeman, passengers, ascended in the "l'enn. I" and landed at Medford, N. J., 25 minutes later.

Oct. 10—Capt. G. L. Bumbaugh took up four passengers from Indianapolis and made a short trip.

New Companies.

Flint Automatic Hydro-Airship Co., Incorporated, Manhattan; hydro-airship factory; capital, $100,000. Incorporators: G. W. Martin, C. II. Flint, 11. Flint, Brooklyn.

The Lubin Safety Hydroplane and Aeroplane Company, Incorporated, of Manhattan; hydroplanes, aeroplanes, motors for air craft, $100,000; J. 11. Freedman, Benjamin J. Lubin and Arthur P. Marr, 108 Fulton street, New York.

Curtiss Goes Abroad.

Glenn II. Curtiss is sailing again for Europe, and expects to he there for several months. His immediate destination is the Paris show, but most of the winter probably will be spent in Italy.

With Mr. Curtiss will be Mohan Singh, a Hindu from the Punjaub. Singh has heen in America for the past three years, lie became interested in aviation in 1910, joined the Curtiss training camp at San Diego, and flew a Curtiss land machine for a year or more. With the development of the hydroaeroplane he took up water-flying and in due course qualified as a flying boat pilot. lie is one of the few licensed pilots operating three types of machines. Singh's present intention is to make his way to India by easy stages. There he hopes to take some part in the development of aviation in his own country. En route he will make a short stop in London. Singh's real ambition is to find among the wealthy _ Indian visitors of the metropolis some multimillionaire rajah who would like to navigate the Indus at a speed of a mile a minute in a Curtiss flying boat.

AERO MART.

60 llall-Scott ................................$475

50 Farman, all 4-cylinder...................... 375

30 Heath, water cooled........................ 190

20 Thomas ................................... 50

All like new.

500 aeroplane wheels complete with tires, $5.75 each, while they last.

HEATH AERIAL YE1IICLE CO., Chicago, 111.

WANTED TO BUY or rent an aeroplane motor. 20-50 h. p., good condition. A. lllisson, 6 Revere St., Portland, Ore.

Balloons -

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Balloon Fabric

It was the Balloon "Goodyear" -built complete in our factory—that won the National Championship Balloon Race at Kansas City, on July 4. It went up in the teeth of a sale that actually whipped to pieces some of the competing bugs. It was the Balloon "Gooilucar" that iron the International Race for the Gordon Bennett Cn/»— October 12—going half again us far us its nearest

Write today for full particulars about Goodyear Balloons and Balloon Fabric (also (Ioodyear Aeroplane Accessories, Fabric, Tires anil Springs.)

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Write Us on Anythitui Van Want in Rubber

THE WRIGHT COMPANY

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The New Wright Aeroboat, Model "G"

EQUIPPED WITH TWIN SCREWS, DRIVEN BY THE NEW WRIGHT SIX CYLINDER 60 H. P. MOTOR, FITTED WITH MUFFLER AND ELECTRIC STARTER

This craft is the development of years of careful experiment and combines in its novel form the best practice in hydro-aeroplane and flying boat work. The dangerous features of the flying boat—lack of safety in flying, shipping of water and foundering in a rough sea, addition of weight, due to water soaking, the presence of the motor unprotected over the heads of the passengers, and the drag and unseaworthiness of the long fuselage hull, have been eliminated. The structural details of the new machine are worked out to combine simplicity, strength and reliability.

The craft is perfectly adapted to the use of sporlsmen as a machine for safe and comfortable travel over water at high speed.

THE WRIGHT COMPANY New York Office

Dayton, Ohio 11 PINE STREET

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Christmas Dinners

FOR

300,000

POOR PEOPLE

Will be supplied by The

Salvation Army

Throughout the raited States

Will you help by x uncling- si donation, no matter how small

TO COMMANDER

MISS BOOTH Grandma Gets One

118 W. 14th St., New York City

Vest'n Dept. Comm. Estill. 108 N.Dearborn St. Chicam

Special grades of Bamboo for Aeronautic Work. Reed, Rattan and Split Bamboo for models. Tonka Rattan for Skids l}4 diameter and under any length.

J. DELTOUR, Inc. mtLi1^St'

Model Club Notes.

With three out of four Sundays unfit for flying, and the majority of the days upon which the meetings were held rainy, things have been rather unfavorable for the Long Island Model Aero Club members. A series of weekly contests have been arranged, and those that have already been held have proven very interesting.

On October 26 a combination distance and duration contest for hand launched models w^as held in spite of very unfavorable weather, which kept many of the flyers from participating in the event.

The contest was won by L. Bamberger, of the Hay Ridge Club, with C V. Obst, of the L. I. M. A. C, a close second. Because of the unfavorable weather, the flying was far below the standard.

The results follow:

Points Points Total Distance Duration Points

L. Bamberger .............. 1 1 2

C. V. Obst .............. 2 3 5

Ness ...................... 8 2 10

Braun .................... 6 5 11

C.orgas .................... 7 6 13

Freelan ................... 9 5 14

W. Bamberger ............ 5 7 12

R. Olson ................. 3 8 11

G. Webber ................ 4 4 8

W. Koch ................. o 9

Time, 3 p. 111. to 5 p. m. Judges—Messrs. Swini and Moriarity. The best flying of the month was done on November 2, when a very large number of flyers were at the field. A remarkable point of this day's flying was the fact that every model on the field, regardless of size or type, made flights of over 100 seconds. The duration races by Lester Ness and R. Funk were very interesting, both models circling close to one another with very close and exciting finishes.

Freelan's single propellered model made very excellent distance and duration flights and his ihree-bladed bent wood propeller when tested on C. Y. Obst's large single propellered model gave very good results. Three bladed propellers are becoming very popular with members of this club.

In the altitude and distance races C. V. Obst's bird mode] excelled all others, showing marvelous climbing qualities, at times reaching an altitude of over 500 feet and making distance flights of over 2,000 feet.

A club repair and supply box is one of the new accessories of the club, so that individual flyers need not bring supplies or parts to the field. A very interesting meeting was held on November 14, at which the writer had the pleasure to be present. A number of very interesting discussions arose regarding contests to be held, proposed challenges, altitude of various flyers on the field, etc.

The club is looking forward to a very interesting series of contests to be held this winter, including the Collins Gold Medal contest to be held shortly.

All queries relating to models and model flying may be addressed to the model editor, Harry Schultz, 23 West 106th Street, New York City, N. Y.

Books Received.

AYIATION, by Algernon E. Perriman, Svo, cloth, 360 pp., with 30 plates and many diagrams, published at $4.00, postage 21 cents extra, by George 1L Doran Co., New York. A popular technical work of interest to the general student as well as to the man who is in aviation as a profession. To the amateur builder of aeroplanes in the United States it will be of incalculable benefit.

Chapters include: What an Aeroplane Is—lnstruct-iveness of Paper Models—Constructional Features of the Modern Aeroplane—Equilibrium in the Air— Lateral Balance—Steering—Longitudinal Stability— Principles of Propulsion—Concerning Resistance— The Cambered Wing—Work of Lilienthal, Wrights, Yoisin, Farman, Dunne and Weiss—British Military Trials of 1912—1 lydroaeroplanes—Accidents—Romance and Early History—Founding of the Science of Flight—Invention of the Glider and Pioneers— History and Appendices containing numerical examples, application of laws, etc.

Patents.

ISSUED OCT. 21st.

1,076,422—Herbert Champion Harrison, Lockport, N. Y. RADIATOR having vertical front and side faces extending at acute angles to the line of travel, said radiator comprising a vertical series of perforated plates extending at an acute angle rearwardly from said front face, and a series of water tubes extending vertically in the passages between said angularly-extending plates.

1,076,514—Yictor M. Osborn, La Fayette, Ind. AEROPLANE, including a main frame of approximately frusto-pyramidal form, a car or platform carried by said main frame, a similarly shaped independent frame pivotally connected with the vortex of said main frame for relative longitudinal tilting motion on a horizontal transverse axis, said independent frame extending above the main frame and beneath the car or platform, and wings fixed to the independent frame and mounted to tilt therewith, the said main frame and car forming a gravity controlled body operating by gravity to maintain a normal perpendicular position, and means for tilting said independent frame upon the body and holding it in tilted position.

1,076,644—William Lafavete Quick, New Market, Ala. ORNITHOPTEK.

ISSUED OCT. 28th

1,076,803—J. N. Williams, Derby, Conn. HELICOPTER.

1,076,879—B. Flick and Paul Reinig, Berlin-Mariendorf, Germany. AEROPLANE.

1,077,004—Frederick Sifferman, South Bethlehem, Pa. FLYING MACHINE.

HALL-SCOTT MOTORS

Winter flying has already started in California. The following well-known aviators have their water planes equipped with HALL-SCOTT motors:—

BOB FOWLER

SILAS CHRISTOFFERSON

WM. BLAKELEY

ROY FRANCIS

A. G. SUTRO ALFRED BARRETT OTTO RYBITZKI HENRY UNNO

Besides these there are fifteen other planes, or 80% of all aeroplanes and flying boats upon the Pacific Coast, equipped with HALL-SCOTT motors.

We can furnish you with the most complete, powerful, and reliable power plant upon the market from 30 to 100 H-P. Write for our interesting catalogues fully describing these motors.

HALL-SCOTT MOTOR CAR CO.

818 Crocker Bldg.

San Francisco, Cal.

Aeronaut Leo Stevens

Supplying' Ninety-Jive per cent, of the Clubs and Sportsmen of this Country

USED BY

When you buy a BALLOON or DIRIGIBLE from the Stevens Shops you get an article which has been carefully tested. His years of experience as an Aeronaut and Constructor is a guarantee of a good outfit. They cost no more than any other BALLOON.

FOR SALE

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with all equipment and all extras at a

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GENERATORS for making- GAS installed in any part of the world. PILOTS furnished for LONG and SHORT VOYAGES.

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| Second Hand Balloons—Gas or Hot Air

% ALWAYS ON HAND

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Mr. Alan It. Hawley, Captain l)e Forest Chandler, £

Mr. J. H. Wade, Jr., Mr. J. C. McCoy, \

Mr. Frank Goodale, Mr. Charles J. Glidden, \

Mr. Arthur T. Atherholt, Mr. YVm. Van Sleet, >

Major Henry B. Hersey, Mr. Harry N. Arnold,

Lieut. Frank P. Lahm, Mr. A. H. Morgan, >

Mr. Percy Shearman, Drs. Eldridge & Zimmerman, >

Mr. E. B. Weston, Leroy M. Taylor. >

and hundreds of other prominent PILOTS \

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U. S. PATENTS GONE TO ISSUE

Copies of any of These Patents may be Secured by Sending Five Cents in Coin to the Commissioner

of Patents, Washington, D. C.

ISSUED SEPT. 23, 1913 1,073,648—Paul Witzel, Berlin-Weissensee, Germany. Combination aeroplane and airship.

1,073,655—Josef Bercz, Cologne-Ehrenfield, Germany. Flapping wing machine.

1,073,977—Ralph P. Fox, Fort Hancock, N. J. Balancing system in which auxiliary balancing and supporting surfaces are arranged in front, the rear, and at opposite sides of the machine beyond the main supporting surface; the auxiliary surfaces being of circular form in plan and elliptical in vertical section.

1,074,007—Frederic Mylius, Atlanta, Ga. AEROPLANE, comprising a transverse carrier plane extending downwardly and forwardly having its upper surface concave, and rearwardly converging guide planes secured at their forward ends to the carrier plane, said guide planes having their upper surfaces concave adjacent their forward ends and convex adjacent their rear ends, etc.

1,074,031—Ira Allen, Dansville, N. Y. AIRSHIP with the controlling means mounted upon and within (he gas bag.

1,074,063—Harry A. Orme, Wesley Heights, D. C. RUDDER for aeroplanes comprising a vertical s:eering plane, said front rod being pivotally connected to the rudder post of the vertical plane, said horizontal plane being centrally slotted or divided to receive the vertical plane therebetween, elevating cords connected centrally to the horizontal plane, said cords being arranged within the vertical plane, and passing through the rudder post, and cords connected to the front rod of horizontal plane, upon opposite sides of the said post, for movement.

ISSUED SEPTEMBER 30th

1,074,135—Nathan J. Paddock, Jersey City, N. J. STABILITY DEVICE, employing a pendulum which can be raised or lowered.

"1,074,256—Edson F. Gallaudet, Norwich, Conn. CONTROL SYSTEM, using movable surfaces to tilt an aeroplane around with its longitudinal and transverse axis operator's seat swinging as a pendulum, operative connections; rudders in pairs, upper and lower, forward and aft and means for turning upper ones in one direction and lower in opposite to balance machine about longitudinal axis, similar arrangement for horizontal rudders, etc.

* 1,074,257—Edson F. Gallaudet, Norwich, Conn., CONTROL SYSTEM, using movably mounted auxiliary sustaining planes above and below the main wings, means for simultaneously effecting both a lateral displacement and a transverse angular movement, control mechanism, etc., so that when a machine is tilted laterally, the horizontal component of the reactions may be used for controlling the machine.

1,074,281—George Mitchell, Los Angeles, Cal. Combined AEROPLANE and HELICOPTER.

1,074,288—Martin Pearson, Los Angeles, Cal. HELICOPTER. Navigation.

* 1,074,499—Wesley N. Ensign, Whitestone, N. Y. SHOCK ABSORBER for aeroplanes, comprising air cylinder and piston with a vertically disposed standard rigidly secured to the frame of the aeroplane at its upper end; a swinging rod pivotally secured to the lower end of the said standard and extending forwardly from said standard, its forward end journaled to the axle of a supporting wheel, and a member having its upper end pivotally secured to said standard near the upper end thereof and having in its lower end an air cylinder, a second member having its lower end journaled to the axle _ of the wheel and having its upper end slidably engaging the exterior of the air cylinder, and having a suitable plunger disposed within the cylinder.

1,074,525—Michael A. Parisano, New York, N. Y. STABILITY DEVICE in which pendulum is used to operate ailerons, a toothed bar engaging flexible tip of pendulum dampens small movements; main frame of aeroplane being a tube in which propeller is placed; wings at dihedral angle.

ISSUED OCTOBER 7 1,074,659—Leon Spiro, Everett, Wash. AUTOMATIC BALANCE for aeroplanes, in which horizontal propellers are placed at lateral extremities of the wings and put in motion by clutch, shaft and gearing mechanism from motor, actuated by a pendulum.

1,074,830—Ernst Blochmann, Bitterfield, Germany. SUSPENSION of the sliding cars of airships on a running cable, with means to automatically stop the movement.

1,075,302—Rubino Plastino, New York, N. Y. AEROPLANE in which a central plane is movable fore and aft and auxiliary planes at both ends capable of adjustment to various inclinations, etc.

ISSUED OCTOBER 14th. 1,075,447—Edwin D. Stevenson, Wadsworth, Ohio. EQUILIBRATOR, comprising a lifting propeller above center of machine driven by motor, and controlled by a pendulum.

*1,075,533—Orville and Wilbur Wright, Dayton, Ohio. AUTOMATIC STABILITY device comprising a vane actuated by the air currents with means for operating a balancing mechanism, which consists of horizontal rudder, for longitudinal stability; and a pendulum operating movable surfaces at lateral extremities of machine and a vertical rudder.

1,075,540—John W. Boughton, Philadelphia, Pa. AEROPLANE, comprising a central frame, stationary vertical planes mounted thereon, horizontal planes pivotally mounted on said vertical planes, auxiliary frames movable on said vertical planes, said horizontal planes being pivotally connected with the auxiliary frames and transversely extending planes to the rear of said vertical planes.

1,075,791—Johann Pobuta, Elizabeth, N. J. AEROPLANE with cigar shaped body, flat on top, deck house, main parallel sustaining planes with lower mounted on deck house, propellers, etc.

1,075,863—Ingemar Rvstedt and Melvin Steele, Dayton, Ohio. FLYING MACHINE, with "safety wings" which can be folded or extended from opposite sides of the body, lifting propellers, driving" propellers, etc.

1,075,969—James Edward Fraser, St. John, N. B., Canada. FLYING MACHINE in which the wings furnish ascension and propulsion by being driven in circular orbits, the plane of rotation being coincident with the line of flight.

ISSUED OCTOBER 21st.

1,076,218—Harry W. Macomber and Frederich H. D. Bergmann, St. Louis, Mo. AEROPLANE.

Aeroplane comprising a plurality of overlapping sections with air inlet openings between said sections, said sections being arranged in a series in the line of flight of the machine and with their forward edges in the same horizontal plane, each of said sections having its lateral edges drooped more than the next one in front.

Top plane constructed in two laterally divided portions, each portion comprising a plurality of sections inclined rearwardly and downwardly with ths forward edge of all but one of the sections disposed above and spaced from the rear edge of adjacent sections, etc.

1,076,339—Wm. F. Wiles, Thomas Macleod, and Frederick Wm. Wiles, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. AEROPLANE in which the wings are hingedly connected to the central section and may be moved to various dihedral angles during flight, which movement operates ailerons at lateral extremities of top planes.

1,076,377—John George Aulsebrook Kitchen, Scott-forth, England. AEROPLANE having a circular main supporting surface with an opening in the center, the rear part of the surface having a sharp depression in the upper surface along the longitudinal center line forming a keel on the under side.

Now Ready

The Airman's Vade=Mecum

"NO. 1/' METEOROLOGY

Py Colonel H. E. Rawson, C. B.

(Vice-President Royal Meteorological Society; Council Aeronautical SociUy)

CONTENTS: Introduction and 5 Chapters on Temperature, Pressure, Wind, and Precipitation. Weather Forecasting. Index. {Illustrated) Price 40 Cents Net Post Free

"AERONAUTICS," 3, London Wall Buildings, London Wall, London, E. C.

ADAMS-FAR WELL

REVOLVING MOTORS

HAVE BEEN IN

THE ADAMS

21 ATHOL STREET,

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The Thomas School

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STYLES & CASH

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AERONAUTICAL RADIATORS

Built in capacities and types fur standard and special aviation motors

Write for prices on standard makes. Send your specifications for special designs

EL ARCO RADIATOR COMPANY

64th St. & West End Aye., New York City

Abo Manufacturers of Automobile Radiators cf all types

FOR FLYING BOATS USE

JEFFERY'S MARINE GLUE

Use our Waterproof Liquid Glue, or No. 7 Black, White, or Yellow Soft Quality Glue for waterproofing the canvas covering of flying boats. It not only waterproofs and preserves the canvas but attaches it to the wood, and with a coat of paint once a year will last as long as the boat.

For use in combination with calico or canvas between veneer in diagonal planking, and for waterproofing muslin for wing surfaces.

L. W. FERDINAND & CO. 201 South Street Boston, Mass., U.S.A.

Send for samples, circulars, directions for use, etc.

WIRE

We make an extra high grade plated finish wire for aviators' use.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ADDRESS

John A. Roebling's Sons Co.

TRENTON, N. J.

ALL AERO BOOKS FOR SALE BY

AERONAUTICS

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CH ARMY

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USED by Gilpatric and Wood in "Times" Aerial D^rby USED by Wood in his flight to Washington Have proven their superiority

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PATENTS SECURED OR FEE RETURNED

Send sketch or model for FREE Search of Patent Office records. Write for our Guide Books and What to Invent with valuable List of Inventions Wanted sent Free. Send for our special list of prizes offered for Aeroplanes.

$600,000 OFFERED IN PRIZES FOR AIRSHIPS

We are Experts in Aeronautics and have a special Aeronautical Department. Copies of patents in Airships, 10 cents each. Improvements in Airships should be protected without delay as this is a very active field of invention and is being rapidly developed.

VICTOR J. EVANS &, COMPANY

Main Offices

724-726 NINTH ST., N. W.

WASHINGTON, D. C.

JOURNAL OF THE UNITED STATES ARTILLERY

A bi-monthly magazine of artillery and other matter relating to coast defense.

Published under the supervision of the School Board, Coast Artillery School, Fort Monroe, Virginia.

$2.50 a year.

With Index to Current Military Literature, $2.75.

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Nowhere else does there exist such a complete and accurate record of the development of this Art, and it represents an enormous amount of labor. Much of these data has never been published elsewhere.

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lltllUII 122 East 25th St., New York

HYDROS

BUILD YOUR OWN

Over 100 complete drawings. Scale 1" to foot; some full size

Prints 28"x 36" ONLY COMPLETE PRINTS EVER SOLD

AERONAUTICS, 122 East 25lh St.. New York

$8.00

DON'T 'vvli,e us vnless

* you are interested in a reliable, efficient arc economice I power plant. Irat is the only kind we build. Four sizes. Reasonable Prices

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patents

C. L. PARKER

Ex-member Examining Corp., U.S. Petent Offie*

Attorney-at-Law and Solicitor of Patents

American and foreign patents secured promptly and with special regard to the complete legal protection of the invention. Handbook for inventors sent upon request. 30 McGill Bide. WASHINGTON. D. C.

curtiss 3-foot Model FLYING BOAT

Build this Model

It embodies the latest ideas in Aeronautics. Concise Plan with Building Instructions, 25c. OTHER "IDEAL" 3ft. MODEL PLANS: -Bleriot, 15c; Wright, 25c; Nieuport. 25c; Cecil Peoli Champion Racer, 25c; Curtiss Convertible Hydroaeroplane. 35c.

COMPLETE SET OF SIX. $1.25 POSTPAID 48 pp. "Ideal" Model Aeroplane Supply Catalog 5c IDEAL AEROPIANE & SUPPI Y C0..82A W. Broadway, N.Y.

Reliable Demonstrators and Agents Wanted

TO INTRODUCE TO THE PUBLIC THE ]9H MODEL

HAMILTON AEROBOAT

The sturdiest construction and design at the lowest possible price. Von will be surprised when you investigate this machine which is destined to be the Ford of the aeroplane world. Write for agents' proposition and catalog, 'EVERYTHING AV1AT1C," of aeroplanes and supplies.

HAMILTON AERO MFG. CO., 208 Thirtieth Ave., SEATTLE, WASH.

PEDERSEN OIL PUMPS

have positive action, are small and light, easily applied to any motor

~™—— Write for circular "~~

PEDERSEN LUBRICATOR CO

636-644 First Avenue, New York, u. s. A.

BOLAND AEROPLANE AND MOTOR COMPANY

THE BOLAND MOTOR

8 cyl. "V'type 6o H.P. 240 pounds.

RELIABILITY DURABILITY

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THE BOLAND TAILLESS BIPLANE

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THE BOLAND CONTROL is the embodiment of utmost safety and simplicity in a new system of control which is basic in principle. Write for particulars.

Factory: Ft. Center St., Newark, N. J.

Office: 1821 BROADWAY, NEW YORK.

In aiiSii'cring advertisements please mention this magazine.

5555

47

Antony Jannus with Two Passengers Flying the New Benoist Flying Boat, Equipped with Six Cylinder

if Aeronautical Motor

{REG. U. S. PAT. OFF.)

This machine is now owned by Mr. W. D. Jones of Duluth The most prominent aeroplane manufacturers in the country recognize the superiority of the Sturtevant motor

SEND FOR BULLETIN No. 2002

B. F. Sturtevant Company, Hyde park, boston, mass.

I NAIAD Aeronautical Cloth

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FURNISHES

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at lower prices

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1733 Broadway - New York City

XIII. No. 6

DECEMBER, 1913

25 Cents

Results Tell the Story"

During 1913 more than a score of prominent Americans flew 200,000 passenger miles in Curtiss Flying Boats, without a single serious accident.

For more than two years Curtiss Water-Flying Machines have been used by the World's Leading Navies, including those of the U. S. A., Russia, Germany, Austria, Italy and Japan, without a single serious accident.

These pertinent records are unique in the history of aviation. Careful comparisons will convince you the Curtiss Flying Boat is in a class absolutely by itself.

Illustrated Descriptive Matter Mailed Free

THE CURTISS AEROPLANE CO., 21 Lake St., Hammondsport, N. Y.

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ANNOUNCEMENT

The Benoist School of Aviation will open on January 1st, at St. Petersburg, Florida. The school will be under the personal supervision of Tom W. Benoist and Tony Jannus. We will also eonduct the first regular schedule passenger-carrying air line in the world, St. Petersburg to Tampa, Fla. Students who want to join the sehool and prospective agents who want their territory for the exclusive sale of our flying boats will do well to address

Tìi e Xew Be noi at Flying Boat in Action

BENOIST AIR CRAFT COMPANY

St. Louis, Missouri or St. Petersburg, Florida

50 H.P.

160 POUNDS

GYRO MOTOR

80 H. P.

207 POUNDS

Endurance Flying Record to Date, 4 hrs., 23 min.

From

"FLIGHT"

July 26th, 1913

"Some may say—to the obvious benefit of the Company whose representatives have adopted his very practical method of calling attention to the GYRO engine (50 h. p.) that it is all due to the motor, which probably develops about three times as much power as the machine requires for the purposes of straightforward flight."

Built of Nickel Steel and Vanadium Steel Throughout

Send for Catalog

THE GYR0 MOTOR COMPANY, 774 Girard Street, Washington, D. C.

Model Flying Machines

A thoroughly modern hand book describing and illustrating in detail the principles of flight and giving full directions for building seven types of model machines. Seventy pages, 56 original illustrations, and 9 full page detail plates. Paper covers only,

25 cents per copy, postpaid

COLE & MORGAN, Pub., nevvyorxk!n7y.

WITH MANY ILLUSTRATIONS

AVIATION

Net $4.00; postage 21 cts. extra

By ALGERNON E. BERR1MAN, M.I.A.E., A.F.Ae.S.

Technical Editor of "Flight"

A popular technical work of interest to the general student as well as to the man who is in aviation as a profession. To the amateur builder of aeroplanes in the United States it will be of incalculable benefit.

Chapters include: What an Aeroplane Is; Instruetlreness of Paper Models; Constructional Features of the Modern Aeroplane; Kquilib-rium in the Air; Lateral Balance; Steering; Longitudinal Stability; Principles of Propulsion; Concerning Resistance; The Cambered Wine: Work of Lilienthal, Wrights, Voisin, Farman, Dunne and Weiss; British Military Trials of 1912; Hydroaeroplanes; Accidents; Romance and Early History: Founding of the Science of Flight; Invention of the Glider and Pioneers; History and Appendices containing numerical examples, application of laws, etc

ALL MARINE FLYERS

Should investigate the merits of the Three-Bladed Paragons. Smaller Size than corresponding two blades, with fine lines of design, make them turn more freely. Free turning enables them to carry higher pitch. The added blade gives them a stronger hold on the air.

Results:—Less Vibration — Full Turning Speed — Higher Pitch Speed = Smaller Slip—Faster Flying—Stronger Manoeuvering—Safer Handling and Control.

Uncle Sam uses three-bladed Paragons almost exclusively in his Navy Boats—There's a reason and Paragon price economy besides.

There are questions in your mind. Write to us for the answers intelligently stated and illustrated by photographs. Full brass blade protection at only nominal cost.

AMERICAN PROPELLER CO., 243-249 E. Hamburg St., Baltimore, Md.

HALL-SCOTT MOTORS

Winter flying has already started in California. The following well-known aviators have their water planes equipped with HALL-SCOTT motors:—

BOB FOWLER A. G. SUTRO

SILAS CHRISTOFFERSON ALFRED BARRETT WM. BLAKELEY OTTO RYBITZKI

ROY FRANCIS HENRY UNNO

Besides these there are fifteen other planes, or 80% of all aeroplanes and flying boats upon the Pacific Coast, equipped with HALL-SCOTT motors.

We can furnish you with the most complete, powerful, and reliable power plant upon the market from 30 to 100 H-P. Write for our interesting catalogues fully describing these motors.

HALL-SCOTT MOTOR CAR CO.

818 Crocker BIdg.

San Francisco, Cai.

One of the

BURGESS FLYING BOATS

Built for U. S. Navy

Our aeroplanes have always met the Government's most rigid specifications on the first test

THAT IS BECAUSE WE SPECIALIZE

THE BURGESS MILITARY TRACTOR holds the American Endurance and Distance Record for pilot and passenger—4 hours 22 minutes—during which a speed of 72 miles per hour was attained. The Government has ordered three more Burgess Tractors for immediate service. THE BURGESS FLYING BOATS of special design built for U. S. Navy represent a startling departure in construction, affording a maximum of efficiency in flight and ease of handling. The staggered wings, rigid lower surface, entire warping upper surface constructed about a steel member are original features of this type.

Flying Boats of similar design are under construction for use ot sportsmen.

THE BURGESS TRAINING SCHOOL patronized by both the Army and Navy is located at Marble head adjoining the works. Continued flying until January first. Special rates on application.

BURGESS COMPANY AND CURTIS Marblehead, Mass.

On the Way to Two Million

THE demand for Bosch Magnetos is such that within a remarkably few years it has been necessary to greatly increase manufacturing schedules. The Bosch Factories are well on the way to supplying the two millionth magneto.

THE

Bosch Magneto

remains the one perfectly reliable ignition source and as such it is universally recognized. ^ It is so well made, so carefully designed that its regularity can be depended upon under all conditions. You always will have confidence when your engine is Bosch-Equipt. *J If you will tell us the engine you use we shall recommend the magneto most suitable for it and send you literature describing the magneto in detail.

Why not be among the Two Million Satisfied

Bosch MagnetoCompany

201 West 46th Street : New York

THE DREAMED AEROPLANE

By RITA GREEN BREEZE

Since the time of the first aeroplane, man has thought of taking pozver from the air, delivering poller by wireless or using some yet undiscovered force to antagonize gravity. Buel Hurndon Green, M. E., zcas a charter member of the Aero Club of California, a man of distinction who was a credit to his time. He died August 27, 1911, and his life and works xvere written doxi.ni in the October issue of AERONAUTICS for that year. His sister, the zAfe of an attorney of Los Angeles, is a musician zAth no mediumis'tic leanings, and with no knozAedge of mechanics. The following "message" came to her in a dream on December 2, 1913, and as near as she has been able without technical knozAedgc she has set down his za'ords as recalled by her.

On the night of December 2, my brother, Buel H. Green, deceased August 27, 1911, appeared to me in a dream; he was jubilant: said he had returned to earth to teach a great thing.

With that he brought forward a contrivance that resembled in form a huge sled, but built without a solid bottom to it, which he said was an aeroplane. There were no wings or overhanging parts, except for a network of copper wires. The frame was made of aluminum and was riveted together with myriads of copper bolts, the caps of which glistened brightly in the sunshine. Toward the front on the right-hand side, as I stood looking at it from the front, was the dynamo, and toward the back on the left was the seat. This seat was made of, and thus completely insulated by, rubber.

He stepped in and soared into the air gracefully, easily, and without the least hesitation; upon alighting he explained to me the principle upon which the invention was constructed.

"On the sea," he said, "the ships are quite at the mercy of the elements. There has been no way found yet to extract the power from the water, both to propel the craft and to insure its safety. The present forms of aircraft are equally, or, on account of the unexplored nature of the atmosphere, etc., still more unsafe.

"This invention that you see is run by electricity, and constructed of aluminum to make it light; the dynamos and all the rivets and wires are made of copper, which is the best known conductor of electricity; my dynamos arc sufficiently charged in the beginning to start with, and the wires and rivets are so proportioned and arranged as to act as conductors which supply the power, collected from the atmosphere, to run with: here at my feet (pointing to a place in front of the rubber seat) is a dial which registers the amount of electricity which I have at command at any given moment; if the supply becomes more than I need, I simply shut it off by turning this lever (pointing again to one of a collection of handles in front of the seat), which insulates some of my copper collectors; or, if need be, by deadening the dynamo. This dynamo is placed toward the front, as you see, in order that the air in motion may strike it first, thus enabling mc to get the

full benefit of a brisk current of air before its force is spent.

"This machine is safe," he said, "because it is not only self-propelling, by gaining its power from the atmosphere, and can be accurately regulated, but because the operator need fear no current of air, however swift or stagnant, however charged with electricity or inert, because he is independent of all these heretofore fearsome forces. He can generate power in his dynamo, when he needs it, and repel an overcharge of electricity when he doesn't.

"Bags of gas, upon which the dirigibles depend, are clumsy and unsafe; and wings to an aeroplane are more unsafe, being often unwieldy, beside the unreliability of the engines. This latter form of invention is only suited to the limited intelligence of birds, which the Creator has so admirably equipped for their purpose, but for man, the supreme creature of creation, let him not continue to be subject to the elements; let him conquer them.

"Set this message of mine abroad on the earth by describing this machine; perhaps it will direct the efforts of my brother inventors, so that they may reach the goal sooner."

Lincoln Beachey has in a way proved something more remarkable than his ability to fly upside-down and to loop-the-loop; he has proved that the public is very much interested in aviation and quite willing to pay for the privilege of seeing flying that is out of the ordinary. One might think no more bizarre idea possible than that of giving a public flying exhibition in San Diego, Cal. No town or city in the United States sees as much free flying. The natives of San Diego have only to look over their heads any day in the week to sec the military aviators from the U. S. Army aviation camp flying over the city. It is claimed that the average San Dicgan will not bother to turn his head to sec an aeroplane in flight, yet San Diego put clown $4,000 to see Beachey loop the loop. There was no guarantee, nothing but an ordinary announcement that an admission fee would be charged that afternoon, and the "gate" was four thousand big iron men. What will the gate be in the big cities?

GOVERNMENT ENGINE TESTING PLANT

With facilities now for the testing of engines under official conditions, zvidc-azvake engine builders will at once see the advertising value in a Certificate of the Bureau of Standards of the U. S. Government. The English 12- and 24-hour tests have brought the Green engine an international reputation. The Gyro motor of American fame has had its official laboratory test in Germany. Purchasers zvill demand official data. The data derived from these tests will be of value to designers of aeroplanes.

The purpose of the testing plant of the U. S. Signal Corps and Bureau of Standards is that of determining the performance under load of commercial gasoline motors for aviation or for general purposes. As previously announced in AERONAUTICS, any maker may have tests made upon payment of the actual expense of the test.

Facilities are provided for determining: (a) horsepower actually developed, (b) weight of motor and essential accessories per actual h.p., (c) fuel consumption per h.p.h., (d) maximum power motor will develop and sustain for six or more hours, (e) reliability during the six hours' test, (f) power at various throttle openings.

One room is the motor room and when the doors are closed gases and the din of the exhaust are kept out of the dynamo room. Testing base is a single cast-iron unit extending 51^2 feet into the dynamo room and 6l/2 feet into the motor room, grooved like a planer bed, provided with holding bolts, and is set on a concrete sub-base extending downward 2 feet to solid soil. The cast-iron base has north and south center line scribed into it for aligning motor with dynamo shaft.

By a Yale & Towne half-ton trolley and hoist one man can handle a whole motor without help.

Two pairs of cast-iron jacks with connecting angle iron form a part of the equipment of the test base in the motor room. They provide ready means for both leveling and alignment.

Cooling is provided for by means of a No. 8 Sturtevant top horizontal-discharge blower, its inlet being connected with the outer air. The outlet connects to a gal-vanized-iron chute extending to the center of the test base. A removable section of this chute is provided so that when in position the air may be forced directly against the motor to be tested or may be diverted to cool the radiator of water-cooled motor.

An impact tube is provided for determining velocity of cooling air and a Taylor thermometer is supplied for checking temperature of cooling air at point of outlet and temperature of cooling water in circulating system of water-cooled motor.

A pair of Fairbanks scales are provided for weighing motor.

Attached to the blower is a pressure gauge for reading the air pressure from the impact tube, a throttle for connection to the gasoline motor, and a double pole single-

throw switch for short-circuiting the motor. The throttle may be adjusted for various lengths of throttle openings and fitted to any type carburetter.

The gasoline supply is located on the dynamo side. Two 25-gallon tanks are provided, set in a fixed rest. Above each tank is a hook with pendant and a Fairbanks suspension scale is installed for attachment to either tank. The tanks are filled at the outer end in the usual way and their outlet provides a water pocket with drain cock and a shut-off cock; each shut-off cock being connected to one side of a Y branch. The main stem of the Y extends through the partition for connection to the motor.

The Sprague dynamometer used is rated at 125 h.p., and should not be loaded above 150 h.p. It carries a Hopkins tachometer. The drive shaft extends through the partition into the engine room.

The switchboard carries in addition to the equipment provided by its makers a sub-panel by means of which the blower may be operated either from the local 250-volt circuit or from the dynamo circuit. The dynamometer may be operated as a motor, thus serving the purpose of a motor starter when used in test.

For a test the motor is swung into position, clamped to the angles, using a plumb bob to make sure of center line; surface gauge to determine its height with reference to the motor shaft and spirit level to check its setting. The universal joint is next set on the dynamo shaft and a coupling made up for motor shaft. As these couplings are not universal a set of bronze castings has been provided which may be machined to fit the various types of motor ends. The drawing shows general scheme 1 of attachment of these couplings. A drop-forged end has been provided with the set, which may be utilized for smaller motors] having short ends.

All oil is drained from crank case and newl oil is brought up to running level, weight of oil used being determined and recorded. Tachometer is tested for accuracy, the gasoline tanks are filled and weighed and gasoline tested for specific gravity, blower operated and velocity of cooling air checked, temperature of outer air is read.

The "dynamometer sheet" shows the observer's records so far as the dynamometer] is concerned. Before starting the test proper the leading data describing the, motor and the test number is checked withl the "motor sheet." Every reading or datuml

called for on these sheets must be clearly recorded in order that the test may be complete.

As soon as the motor is started a 15-min-ute run is made, observing all apparatus closely and stopping and starting as often as necessary to correct any defects which would prevent a life test. Just at the close of the preliminary run the load should be added until the motor loses speed and a record made of the power thus developed. This record should also show power at J4, y2 and YA throttle.

When everything is operating properly, observers take station and arrangements are made for the test proper for a period of six hours at the full rated power of the motor, or if the motor will not develop its rated power, at the maximum load it will maintain. The motor man reads pressure gauge and temperature, the assistant tester reads Fairbanks scale attached to gas tank in use; the dynamo man reads tachometer and notes reading of dynamometer scale, which he locks in position as he signals for reading. This is repeated every 15 minutes during the six-hour test. In interval between tests assistant makes entries for time on all sheets and checks weights of oils, etc., used by motor man. When gasoline tank approaches empty point, dynamo man takes charge of shift of tank connections and, making proper notes, cuts in new tank.

At the completion of the test, the motor rs loaded to its capacity and record made, showing actual power developed at ]4, l/2, }i and full throttle. If motor is water cooled, radiator is watched for refill and weight of water added and when refilled, noted. Short stops if not the fault of the motor need not vitiate the test, but must be

noted. Stops of such duration as to give the motor time to get cool vitiate results.

Test being completed, oil is removed from motor and weighed, filled radiator with connections are weighed, motor with its regular fittings are weighed, motor is carefully inspected for loose or defective parts or for bearings running unduly hot.

All engines tested at this plant will receive a certificate from the Bureau of Standards, giving the power for varying speeds, and gasoline and oil consumption, upon payment of a nominal fee. In every case those submitting the engine for test will have to pay all expenses incident to shipment to and from testing plant and for the provision of the necessary gasoline, oil and other supplies. Under direction of the official in charge of the tests, he will attend to the installation of the engine for test, its operation during the test, and its dismounting and removal as soon as test is completed. The owner of the engine under test is privileged if he so desires to be represented at the test.

Complete folder, data sheets, etc., may be had free upon application to the Bureau of Standards.

The 80 h. p. Gnome "Avro" biplane is the latest success of the Roe company. One of the most amusing sights at Hendon at the present moment is to see the pilot, Mr. Raynham, one minute going at over 80 miles per hour and then gently sauntering round the Aerodrome at less than 30.

One of his favorite tricks is to vol-plane upwards. This he does by stopping his engine when 5 ft. from the ground, and then gliding up to some 60 ft. or so.

AVIATION IN THE NAVY

Abridged from the Annual Report By Captain W. IRVING CHAMBERS

Among the lines of work in naval aviation have been the development of the flying boat and the establishment of a national aeronautical laboratory.* The success of the former is assured, and only the action of Congress in appropriating suitable funds is needed to enlarge the work of the Langley Aerodynamic Laboratory, now being carried on with limited endowed funds. Various Government departments and civil institutions will work with the laboratory and are represented on its advisory committee. A broad scheme of co-operation is now in practice whereby the work at all institutions in the country and the Government departments will be co-ordinated with that of the Laboratory.

The coming year the Naval aeronautic service will be greatly enlarged and will include the use of dirigibles, if the Navy Department acts in accordance with recommendations recently made.

During the twelve months (August, 1912-July, 1913) 1,525 flights were made, as compared with 593 from the beginning of naval aviation, in 1911, up to August, 1912. The total of flights from beginning to end of July, 1913, was 2.118, carrying 1,470 passengers, for purposes of instruction or observation, for 502 hours, covering a distance of about 27,097 miles. These flights have been made by fourteen aviators, in a total of 653 hours, sometimes as pilot and sometimes as passengers.

Other officers to the number of 240 have taken flights of instruction or observation, in addition to other duties. Besides these, 266 flights have been given petty officers and enlisted men, and 130 to civilians. The figures for these latter are included in previous figures.

The Navy now owns five Curtiss and two Burgess flying boats, in addition to three machines of another class. Three officers are under instruction at the present time, all that the department can spare; others expected later.

EXPERIMENTAL WORK. Lieut. Ellyson has demonstrated the practicability of starting in flight from a taut wire cable (see AERONAUTICS, Oct.. 1911), using a Curtiss hydroaeroplane, and in being launched from a catapult (see AERONAUTICS, Dec, 1911). Night flights have been made by Lieut. Towers in a Curtiss hydroaeroplane, in one of which he made the present world's endurance record for water 'planes of 6:35:10.0 and the American endurance record for any 'plane. Another machine of similar make was used by Lieut. P. N. L- Bellinger in a climbing test to 6.200 feet. A Wright land machine has

*Aeronautics, Feb.. May and Aug., 1913.

been used for experimenting with various pontoons, finally adopting a single one with balancing floats. Various motors have been used, and is now fitted with a Sturte-vant 4-40. Wireless tests have been made with this machine, and notable long flights. Another, made from Wright parts by the Navy officers, was fitted with a six-cylinder Curtiss and a pontoon of same make. Notable moonlight and other flights were made with it, and it had good climbing and manoeuvering powers. Specially strengthened with extra wires, it was saved from collapse in the flight of June 20, when Lieut. Rillingsley was thrown out and the machine fell some 1,600 feet, without putting it beyond repair. A Curtiss flying boat has been used for many long flights. The measured speed is 60.53 m.p.h., with Curtiss 90-100 h.p. motor. In all the Curtiss machines, the original power plants have been increased by Curtiss engines of greater power.

Lieut. Ellyson has been launched from a catapult in this machine. The Burgess 70 Renault-engined flying boat has been received too recently for report, but has shown up well (AERONAUTICS. May, 1913). An improved catapult, along the same principles as the_ old (see AERONAUTICS, Dec, 1912), with improvements, will shortly be tested on board ship.

An improvised Sperry gyroscopic stabilizer is fitted to a Curtiss flying boat, and experiments have not been completed.

Efforts are being made to test out all systems of control, with the purpose of adopting a standard control to be fitted to all Navy aeroplanes, which, after trials, will be installed in all machines.

^The model basin has given the Navy a mass of information on the location of steps in pontoons, effects and location of ventilating tubes, efficiency of shapes, etc., and diving effects of hulls now in use. The craftsmanship of the scientific boat builder is now required to decrease weight while improving strength and sea-keeping qualities. Experiments are under way with metal hulls.

Improvements suggested by Navy aviators and by work abroad in the arrangement and shape of wing surfaces are being tested by using power models. It is expected to equip a full-size machine especially for research work in co-operation with the national laboratory. An old 1911 Curtiss hydroaeroplane, converted into a hydro, has now been changed into an experimental machine (E-i). called the "O-W-L" boat (over water and land), and shows a range of speed of 44 to 65 m.p.h. It is efficient as a land machine, with resilient landing gear, enough weight or power of endurance being sacrificed to provide efficiency as a water machine; has

improved handiness and efficiency as a water machine, and the possibility of eliminating the land gear for extended flying over water exclusively. Lieut. Smith, who had never flown a land machine before, used this and negotiated eleven landings and starts on land with ease. This was done before the characteristics of the Wright "aeroboat" were known, and it is anticipated that boats of this type will be equipped as an "O-W-L" boat, with wheels, to rival the performances of E-i.

The navy has purchased this year two Burgess flying boats, four Curtiss flying boats, one O. W. L. boat made at the Curtiss factory, three Renault engines, five Curtiss engines, and a great quantity of spare parts. _

Three more Curtiss flying boats will be delivered to the U. S. Navy this year, if present expectations are realized. With its highly polished hull of solid mahogany, after

cockpit or cabin paneled in the same wood, and upholstered in dark-brown corduroy stuffed with Kapok, these big machines make a beautiful picture. Especially designed to meet the latest naval requirements, the boat has a highly arched forward deck, which effectually shields the occupants of the cockpit from wind and spray and makes swamping of the forward cockpit practically impossible. Instead of the usual flat bottom, this boat has a double concave forming a V in the center, better able to withstand heavy seas; it alights on the water with no perceptible shock. Some changes are noticeable in the superstructure. The wings are both of the same spread, about 35 feet, with a cord of 66 inches. A gap of 72 inches separates the planes. They are covered in heavy unbleached Irish linen, treated with a semi-transparent "dope," which makes the fabric impervious to oil, gasoline or water. High effciency in the plane surfaces was shown on the gliding test.

ARMY AERONAUTICS FOR 1913

By the end of this year the Signal Corps will have 15 aeroplanes and hydroaeroplanes in service. The total complete purchases to date have been 24, of which 9 have been destroyed in accidents.

The following is the list of this equipment, scattered in San Diego, Manila, Hawaii and San Antonio:

1 Wright B, 30 h.p. Wright.

2 Wright C, 50 h.p. Wright. 2 Wright D, 50 h.p. Wright.

1 Curtiss D, 75 Curtiss.

2 Curtiss E. 75 h.p. Curtiss.

2 Curtiss H, 75 and 90 h.p. resp. 1 Burgess F, Wright type, 40 Sturte-vant.

4 Burgess H, 70 Renault.

To be yet delivered are: 1 Wright, 90 Daimler; Curtiss tractor. 160 Gnome; and a Burgess tractor, 100 Renault.

Alore than 2.943 flights have been made, with a total duration of over 626 hours, during the year.

There are 11 officers capable of flying alone. These have militarv aviator certificates and there are 9 taking instruction. It has been found that a year is not too short a time in which a military aviator may perfect himself. It is to be regretted that the Army offers no inducements to officers to enter flying ranks and even though the limit allowed for this work from the regular army is but 30, this number has never been reached at any one time. The officers, as a rule, remain but a short time in this service unless they have shown marked interest or ability. Of those now flying, but 3 have been connected with aviation for two years and of the balance but 2 for more than a year.

Eleven officers and one enlisted man have been killed in aeroplane accidents since 1908.

of which 7 have met their deaths this year.

None of the civilian flyers is trained for military purposes and none of the Militia has had opportunities for flying. One attempt in years past to organize a civilian flying branch failed miserably. Another attempt is now being made along the same lines by another civilian. There are extremely few private aviators even trained in cross country flying. Alore stringent rules for military aviators' certificates are in force January 1st next.

A new radio equipment for aeroplanes has been developed in the Signal Corps laboratory and it is expected that ranges of at least 30 miles will be possible from the aeroplane (AERONAUTICS, June). The set developed represents the latest achievements in the art: the quenched spark, 500-cycle generator, etc., and it is believed no foreign army is prepared to duplicate the set. Experiments have been made with dropping cards and with smoke signals from the James Means device, the latter with more or less success.

Mapping and photographic experiments have been conducted with good success for the past two years—234 miles being covered in one particular map, every 6 inches equalling 10 minutes of flight (AERONAUTICS, April).

The Scott bomb dropper was tried and this proved the principle of the device correct. No other instrument has equalled it, as proven in the Michelin competitions. Further experiments will be made at San Diego shortly.

Eight Renault 70 h. p. engines have been bought by the Signal Corps and it is expected to have an entire squadron of 4 machines of the Burgess tractor type, with 4 engines in reserve.

All the flying this year has been at Manila. San Diego. Hawaii and at Texas City, with the second division of the regular army. H ere .long cross country flights were made, up to 4 hours 22 minutes non-stop. One trip, out and back in three days, covered 540 miles (AERONAUTICS, April). At Texas City the flights were made in connection with the field operations of the troops and under the eyes of the commanding officers.

In the Fall of 1012 aeroplanes were used to locate troops, targets, give range and direction and locate hits; in gun fire experiments with the Lewis aeroplane gun (AERONAUTICS, October, 1912).

In firing experiments conducted by the Signal Corps at College Park, the Lewis aeroplane gun was found to be well adapted for service on aeroplanes, as it is sufficiently light in weight for a man to fire from his shoulder. The gun was fired both from the ground and from an aeroplane. In the latter case it was mounted temporarily on a practice machine of the Wright type, and was fired from an altitude varying from 200 to 600 feet. There were 14 hits out of 50 shots. The speed of the aeroplane was 45 miles an hour. The target used was a strip of white cloth 60 feet long by 5 feet wide. The results of this firing were gratifying, as it was found that the aim could be obtained by driving the machine directly over the target and holding the gun in place or by pivoting the gun itself and using both methods together. The rate of firing was 300 to 700 a minute.

The Ordnance Department has developed a high-angle gun for offensive use against aircraft (AERONAUTICS, September).

Aviation is to the Army a vital necessity. Much data has been compiled and every-

thing is now in good shape for rapid progress and practical results if the encouragement asked from Congress is extended. Navigation of the air will be developed into a powerful military force—if not already such—and if present plans can be carried out the Signal Corps will demonstrate the efficiency of military aeronautics. The immediate future seems to rest with the Signal Corps—and Congress. The scientific knowledge necessary is in the Signal Corps, which supervises under the law all the services of communication, observation and reconnaissance and thus far aircraft have proven to be of the utmost value for these purposes. When the aeroplane and the dirigible have demonstrated their value as fighting units, then it may be advisable to relieve the Signal Corps from aeronautical work and put the air machines in a separate arm.

It is hoped, when Congress appropriates the funds, to establish aeronautical centers and schools at Augusta, Ga.. San Diego, San Antonio, and other places where land and weather conditions are favorable for teaching. At San Antonio there will soon be a great artificial lake most suitable for water flying and the first and principle center will be located near this city. Here plans include administration and school buildings, barracks for 80 men, field officer's quarters, 20 officers' quarters, 10 sheds, ma-j chine shop and stores, shed for 16 auto trac-l tors and a stable. If the estimates for the! following 3'ear are approved, two non-rigid dirigibles and two revolving houses and hydrogen plants will be put in service. Al moderate-sized dirigible of this type will cost about $175,750 and a rotating shed, $122,500. A gas plant will cost $8,955. Port-| able gas plants cost about $7,500. Three officers and 50 men are suggested for the lighter-than-air work.

THE YEAR 1913 IN REVIEW

Figures for 1913 show that eight manufacturers of aeroplanes have produced and practically sold 162 aeroplanes, of which 71 have been flying boats and 4 hydroaeroplanes, valued at over $857,955. Additional to these, the products of scattered makers and individuals should figure considerably over 100. The majority of these are home-built and fitted with lower-priced engines, so that the valuation of these would approximate $230,000. Of these, a dozen were flying boats and five or six hydroaeroplanes.

It is not at all unlikely that many more than 100 were built of which no record has ever appeared, and which cannot, of course, be counted. Many machines have been rebuilt many times, while we have figured construction entire but once. Parts supplied by manufacturers would add considerably to the total.

The motors built by builders who do not! make aeroplanes, or by aeroplane factories] which also make motors, total 115, valued! at $141,400. Of these figures, but fiva ($17,000) are included elsewhere.

Aeroplanes and parts of domestic manul facture exported from January, 1913, tdl November 1, totaled 16, valued at $64,175! Foreign-built aeroplanes and parts importer! during the same period totaled one, with a value of $19,625, while two foreign mal chines were sent out of the country, beinJ valued at $10,332. Remaining in the ware! houses are two foreign machines and partsl valued at $7,708. Domestic exports for 191J were fifty, valued at $167,255, while import! were twenty-nine, valued at $109,733.

The above figures are much better tharl those of 1912, when one manufacturer estil (Continued on page 215)

INTERNATIONAL AEROPLANE RECORDS

Duration, h., m., Distance, kiloms. Altitude, meters Greatest Speed in Climbing Speed

Speed, h., m., s.

k. p. h. 500 m. 1000 m. 5 kil. 10 kil. 20 kil. 30 kil. 40 kil. 50 kil. 100 kil. 150 kil. 200 kil. 250 kil. 300 kil. 350 kil.

" " 400 kil.

450 kil. 500 kil. 600 kil. 700 kil. 800 kil. 900 kil. 1000 kil.

Time, kils., in j4 hr.

Vz hr. 1 hr. ahr.

" 3 hr.

4hr.

5 hr.

6 hr. 7hr.

'! " 8hr-

9 hr.

10 hr.

11 hr.

12 hr.

I '* " 13 hr.

IDistance, straight line, in kils.

1-Man

{13:17:57.2 1,010.9 5,880.0 203.8 tt*3:35-o tÎ4:56.5 $*i=43-4 2:56.6 5=54-2 8:52-2 ii ¡50.2

14:48.2

29 ¡40.0 44:38.0 59:45-6

2:01 =53.6 1:2:49:00.0 $3:26:16.0 $3:55:27.6 $4:24:44-8 $4:54:06.2 Î5:52:33.o {9:31 :oi.o $10:44:45.S $11:59:o9.6 $13:01 :i2.o 50.0 100.0 200.0 246.9 $310.2 $410.9 $510.0 +490.0 $522.9 $585.2 Î661.2 $744-8 + 820.8 $904.4 $980.4 461.7

2-Men

6 ¡42 :49.6 410.0 4,960.0 ÎI35-9

t$*9:oo.o $2:58.0 $4:24.8 $8:51.0 $13:18.6 $17:44.8 $23:13-0 $44:36.6 $1 :o7:io.o $2:03:49.0 2:34:48.4 3:04:50.0 3:34:46.8 4:04:42.6

$31-0 $66.6 $133-4 191-9 291.9 391-9

3-Men

3:16:00.0 $112.0 $3,580.0 $102.8

$2:52.0 $5:45-o $11 =59-4 $17:52.6 + 22:44.4 + 29:37-4 $59 :o8.o

4-Men

3:11 :i4.o + 110. o 2,830.0 $ 106.0

$3:48.0 $6:16.6 $12:03.0 $17:37.0 $23:iko $29:47.0 $56:33-0

5-Men

3 :oi ¡17.0 250.0 1,400.0 $87.2

$3=34-0 $7:08.0 $14:00.6 21:53-8 29:13-4 30:31.0 1113:01.2 1:49:u.8 2:25:02.2 3:01 :i7.o

6-Men

i :io:i7.o

600.0

7-Men

Duration

i :oo :oo.o Altitude 850.0 m.

8-Men

Duration 00:17:25.4

$106.0

20.0 40.0 82.3 165.0 247.3

. *Made in the United States.

. Fractically all records are held by Bosch-equipped .motors.

. $Made before 1913.

. tNot recognized by F. A. i. but official according to A. C. A.

AMERICAN AEROPLANE RECORDS

Duration, h., in., s. Instance, kiloms. Altitude, meters

greatest Speed in k.

'limbing Speed,

hpeed, h., m., s.,

|rime, kils.,

500 m. 1000 m. 5 kil.

10 kil.

20 kil.

30 kil.

40 kil.

50 kil. _ 100 kil. 150 kil. 200 kil. 250 kil.

V hr.

Vz hr.

1 hr.

2 hr.

3 hr-

4 hr. meters

1-Man

t$6:io:35.o 1283.62 t3.548.50 "ÏI74-io t*3:35.oo

2-Men

4:22:00.00

tl,422.00 tlOI.76

t*09 :oo.oo

3-Men

ti :54:42.6o

4-Men

1:54.00

156.26

t6:i3-40 ti2:26.oo ti8:42.oo 124:49.80 t31 :oi.6o

t24.i4

Î36.2+

f6:56.40

1:54.oo

t*> :43.3S t3=27.87 t6:55-95 110:32.51 fi4:o3.59 ti7:34.88 t35:i6.65 t53:o4.73 ti :io:56.85 13:32:56.40 t40.oo tSo.oo ti66.6o f 141.97 t2i4.57 1283.62

-Man Alighting from mark, meters to.445

-Man, Weight-carrying, pounds t4s8.o

-Man Endurance, Cross-country, Non-stop, 4 h. 31 m. -Man Endurance and Distance, Cross-country, Xon-stop for Monoplanes. 4 h. 31 ni., 217.5 miles. :-Man Distance and Duration, Cross-country, Non-stop, 220 miles, 4 h. 22 m.

*\Vorld records. $HydroaeropIane. tPrior to 1913.

[Miscellaneous World Records

Walloons

Distance—**2,42o.653 kiloms.

Duration—**$73 hrs.

Altitude—+ io,Soo meters. dirigibles

Distance—810 kiloms.

Duration—15 hrs.

Altitude—$3,080 meters.

Speed—64.S k. p. h. kites

Altitude—$7,265 meters. SOUNDING BALLOONS

Altitude—35,0S0 meters. Made in U. S. A.

'Just beaten, according to cables. Made prior to 1913.

Miscellaneous U. S. Records

BALLOONS

Distance—+ 1.SS7.6 kiloms. Duration-—$48 h. 26 m. Lahm Cup—$1,172.9 miles.

DIRIGIBLES

Speed—$31-559 k. p. h. Duration—$2 h. 1 m. 50 s.

KITES

Altitude—1*7,265 meters.

SOUNDING BALLOONS

Altitude—$ 30,486 meters. *\\'orld records. $Made prior to 1913-

NEW DEVELOPMEN

AEROPLANE INSPECTION OF POWER AND TELEGRAPH CABLES.

That it is feasible and even practical from the results standpoint to inspect power wires, telephone and telegraph lines, etc., from on high, may be deduced from the experiments recently made by Robert G. Fowler in his tractor biplane, with which be crossed the Isthmus of Panama.

The first part of December, Fowler entered into a contract with the Great Western Power Co., of Sacramento, Calif., to carry one of their regular line inspectors over the territory usually covered by several men to discover broken insulators, wires down, etc., in order that the repair crew may get to the spot in the quickest possible time.

Sections of the line that usually take 8 to 10 hours to discover mishaps were covered by Fowler and a passenger-patrolman in less than an hour. A broken insulator was easily discovered from a height of 1,500 feet even. A landing was quickly made and the information telephoned in to the company's office. The progress of the pedestrian-patrolman could easily be seen from the aeroplane. The photograph is that of Fowler in his machine with his passenger.

Fowler's machine is a Gage tractor, Hall-Scott 80-h.p. power plant. Spread of top plane is 42 ft.; lower, 31 ft.; weight ready for flight, 1,100 lbs.; speed, 60-70 m.p.h.

:S IN AERONAUTICS

ZEPPELIN MILEAGE STATISTICS.

An interesting statement of the work done by the Zeppelin passenger cruisers since the commencement of the passenger service in June, 1910, has now been published. Ending September, 1913, the list runs as follows:

"Deutschland," 7 trips of 20^ hours' duration, 1,035 kms. (625 miles) distance, carrying with crew 142 persons.

"L. Z. 6," 34 trips, 66 hours 11 minutes' duration, 3,132 kms. (1,880 miles), 726 passengers.

"Ersatz Deutschland," 24 trips, 52 hours, 2,627 kms. (1,580 miles), 436 persons.

"Schwaben," 230 trips, 499M2 hours, 28,468 kms. (17,100 miles), 4,622 persons.

"Viktoria Luise," 372 trips, 820 hours 51 minutes, 45,343 kms. (27,250 miles), 7,863 persons.

"Hansa," 268 trips, 577^2 hours, 31,273 kms. (18,800 miles), 5,598 persons.

"Sachsen," 170 trips, 337^2 hours, 18,614 kms. (11,200 miles), 3,884 persons.

Roughly computed, the above figures work out at 100 entire days spent in the air by the vessels, out of a total of 1,218 days, covering a distance of 130,492 kms. (81,375 miles), or about three times round the globe, and carrying 23,271 passengers without injury to any of them.

I lend all possible aid to AERONAUTICS, as I consider it the most deserving of all aero magazines printed in the English language. J. A. B., Calif.

I well know that there are few technical journals that cover their field in such a thorough, reliable and practical manner as AERONAUTICS. H. R. K., Calif.

THE GRANT "AEROSTABLE "

Flights have been made during the past month of Mr. R. R. Grant's water monoplane, with changeable angle of incidence, on the Elizabeth River, Norfolk, Va.

With the exception of the engine all parts of the machine worked out as anticipated, it was found that slight changes would be necessary in the pontoons, that is, they did not free from the water quick enough, therefore, a step in vertical alinement with the center of gravity is necessary.

Satisfactory tests could not be made with the change of angle on account of the unsteady running of the engine and the short periods in the air, but the mechanical parts of this system worked perfectly.

The machine will be converted for land ..work and in the spring a new engine will be I installed. The same landing system which I proved so satisfactory on the first machine I will be used, French and Italian patents have been issued and on file are German, English and three American patents covering the machine.

If present plans come out as expected Mr. Grant will ship the machine to New York I and continue the demonstration work.

It may be interesting to add that the picture shown was taken after the machine had been six weeks on the bay without shelter, during which it went through two very severe storms without damage, during one of the storms it dragged anchor and went into the marsh but without any damage. The machine proved itself to be safer in a storm than the average motor boat.

See AERONAUTICS for August 1912, and August, 1913, for details and drawings.

METAL PROPELLERS NEXT

The recent flying boat accident in the Hudson in which a propeller tore loose at the hub and one blade drove through the boat, calls

to mind a patent issued some time ago to Spencer Heath.

Inquiry reveals the fact that soon sheet steel propellers will be on the market.

The American Propeller Co. will, of course, continue making the wooden ones in various styles and sizes until they have a complete line of tools and dies for a wide range of manufacture in the metal ones.

"There is no doubt about the metal propeller being the real thing when it is formed up out of a single sheet of steel, as disclosed in my patent," says Mr. Heath. Using steel about .05 to .10 inch in thickness, the weight will be just about the same as the present hardwood propellers. From the manufacturers' standpoint, the great advantage will be cheapness of manufacture. From the aviator's standpoint, it will be their extreme durability against both wear and accident and their almost perfect safety and security owing to the fact that they can never go to pieces or get out of balance in any way. Whatever happens in an accident, the steel will always be there, no matter how badly it may be crumpled. There will be the same safety contrast as between wood and all-steel construction in railway coaches. The steel propellers will also be in demand from a military standpoint. They can be made from the same chrome nickel steel that is required by the War Department for the armoring of vital parts of the machine. The propeller will then be as nearly bullet proof as any other part.

The peripheral velocity of the blades in comparison with the velocity of a rifle ball is such that it will make no practical differ-

ence as regards the penetrating power of the ball, whether the blade meets it coming or going in the course of its revolutions.

Figures 1 and 2 are plan views of blanks from which the propeller may be formed. Figs. 3, 4 and 5 are top, side, and bottom views respectively of a propeller formed from the blank of Fig. 1. Fig. 9 is a plan view illustrating the method of forming the material of the propeller into the requisite shape. Fig. 10 is a modified form of Fig. 1. Fig. 11

is a perspective view of Fig. 10 folded complete. Figs. 12 to 17 are sections of Figs. 10. Fig. 19 is a section through the hub portion.

The propeller is formed into shape from a blank of sheet material, the central portion of which is formed into a hollow shell at and adjacent the axis of the screw, and the other parts of which form the main portions of the blades, the hollow central portion being extended along the blades toward their extremities in such manner as to give them firm strength and stiffness.

In constructing the propeller, a cast metal form or pattern, made sectional to facilitate subsequent removal, is superposed upon the blank, as shown in Fig. 9. The blank is shaped or spun closely to the pattern which is afterward removed, leaving the sheet metal shell.

The single seam or joint extending from end to end of the propeller (along either the entering or the trailing edge) is made whole by electric or other autogenous welding. The hubs are reinforced by diamond-shaped welded plates carrying the bolt-circle for attachment to the engine forge. The strain of the bolts is taken by a cylinder between the hub plates. The surprising thing about these propellers is their enormous strength and hardness, considering the amount and weight of material used.

Pending the coming out of the all-steel blades, the above mentioned concern now provides steel armor on nearly all the wooden Paragons turned out and is now putting up for the navy large three-bladed propellers similarly protected; also a four-bladed propeller to be used on a seven ton boat. The

of the question of durability except in case of serious and violent accidents.

steel plating is about .025 inch thick and made in one piece shaped up over cast iron die forms so that it will fit perfectly over the ends of the blades. They are fastened by thin nails 1%. inches long extending clear through the propeller and further secured by cement which gives great adhesion between the metal and wood. For the U. S. Navy Paragons, copper and bronze are used in place of steel. With this metal protection there is not much left

AEROPLANES IN THE BALKANS

The Russian aviator, M. Sakoff, played a not unimportant part in the taking of Yanina. He left Nicopolis in a biplane on February 8th, carrying six bombs. At a height of 460 feet he steered for the forts surrounding the town. His machine was assailed by artillery and rifle fire and two bullets struck the biplane; but the parts hit were not vital, and the pilot was able to continue his flight. Over Fort Bezhani, which was the key to the situation, M. Sakoff dropped his six bombs, which did considerable damage and caused a panic. I In the course of his return flight to Nicopolis the airman suddenly discovered that his petrol was exhausted, as one of the enemy's bullets had pierced his reservoir. M. Sakoff was, consequently, obliged to descend near Pre-veza for petrol and repair. He regained Nicopolis without further trouble. The in-1 formation that he was able to give to the military authorities justified an immediate attack, with the result that Yanina fell a few days later.

Other Bulgarian aeroplanes were hit during the war. Out of four aviators who were killed, but one death was due to enemy's bullets or shrapnel. A great part of the 251 machines were old, more or less decrepit, or obsolete. The aviators were mostly foreign civilians.

The Servians had 20 machines and the Greeks twelve. The Greek aviators did note-l worthy reconnaisance work over Salonika and good drawing were made of Prereza.l One Greek, with a hydroaeroplane, recon-j noitered the Turkish fleet with an observer, dropped bombs on the vessels and forts and returned safely after 2l/2 hours to the Greek destroyer.

The Turks had about 14 machines but only one was set up when the war broke out. For-I eign civil pilots as well as Turkish military! were employed. Two machines were cap-l tured, a few broken by continued movingl and some burned to save them from the! enemy. No mechanics could be had and thel lack of information obtainable by aeroplanJ caused disaster at Kirkkilisseh.

FOKKER FLYING BOAT

ARMY AERONAUTICS Appeals to Congress for aeronautical appropriations during the past three years have resulted in meagre funds indeed. Perhaps those who rail may be spending their efforts in vain. This country is proverbially slow in taking up new inventions. Military aeronautics is undoubtedly new, even to military men themselves. Yet, abroad, every effort is being made by experts in the science of arms to ascertain the last vestige of benefit the aeroplane may be in warfare and through countless experiments and trials to invent improvements in aircraft. The results of all this work are, obviously, most gratifying.

In this new art and science of aeronautics it is particularly difficult to impress matter-of-fact people. The calls of the Army and Navy for aeronautical funds, and the endorsements of civil aeronautical organizations are discounted by Congress. Quite naturally!

National pride on the part of taxpayers,

as well as the military importance of being properly prepared, demands that this country be in the forefront of progress in aeronautics as in other branches of national administration.

The whole matter of aeronautical appropriations can quickly be settled by first-hand methods. Let Congress send a small committee abroad to see with its own eyes what the great powers of Europe are doing in aeronautics. Let this committee study the question! All interested in aeronautics are willing and anxious to abide by the views of Congress once the importance of this art is given the opportunity to demonstrate for itself. This is better than volumes of officers' reports and lay handbooks. This would be a Congressional trip that the American people want to have some Congressmen take.

We believe Congress is fair and willing "to be shown" if the proper opportunity is presented. May not this suggestion offer this opportunity?

Aeronautics Issues Semi-Monthly

BEGINNING with the first of 1914, AERONAUTICS will be issued twice a month, on the 15th and 30th. The first January Number will appear January 15th ; the second January Number will be mailed January 30th. Advertisements will appear every issue or every other issue as desired by advertisers. The price of single issues will be 15 cents.

THINGS are moving more swiftly these days. The "slump" in aeronautics in this country is over. Whatever of industry there is is now solid and growth from now on will be real. "There will be more done in the next 18 months than has been done to date in aeronautics."

THE aeronautical manufacturers are most enthusiastic over the announcement that AERONAUTICS is to be a semi-monthly, the first in this country. "If any magazine gives value received it is AERONAUTICS." "We think the time is about ripe for such a step and no doubt will make AERONAUTICS more popular than ever." "It will increase the field of AERONAUTICS' usefulness to a great extent." With such whole-hearted support from the trade, and with the generous endorsement of the readers, which AERONAUTICS has always enjoyed, the future holds no limitations.

WILL my good friends, the readers, show their so often expressed appreciation of the magazine in an active way? Will you, friends, see that your town library subscribes? If you know of someone who may be interested in the magazine, will you send me his name for a sample copy? Will you induce your clubs' secretaries to subscribe to AERONAUTICS ? If there is an educational institution in your town, will you say a word? Wherever you can find an opportunity, will you boost for aeronautics and the magazine?

TENTH A

At a public meeting held December 18, the nearest date of the scheduled monthly meetings of The Aeronautical Society, there was celebrated the Tenth Anniversary of Practical Power Aeroplane Flight. Ten years and a day before, Orville Wright flew a distance of 120 feet under power at a uniform elevation.

The meeting was presided over by William J. Hammer, a long-time friend of the Wright Brothers. Hudson Maxim and Hon. James M. Beck lauded the achievements of the famous inventors. "Much honor is due to the many inventors, from Leonardo da Vinci down to the Wright Brothers, for helping to solve the problem of mechanical flight. A few of them almost did it, but not quite. There was that difference in what they did and what the Wright Brothers did, which, in this world, divides success and failure. Consequently, the Wright Brothers are at once the Columbus, the Peary, the Ericcson, the Morse, the Bell, the Edison, of aeronautics," said Mr. Maxim.

A set of engrossed resolutions were presented to Mr. Orville Wright by Lee S. Burridge in behalf of the Society. Thomas A. Hill was called upon to present Mr. Wright with a bronze figure by Auguste Moreau. Ralph II. Upson addressed the meeting and told of the situation in aeronautics in Europe as viewed by him.

On December 17th was celebrated the Tenth Anniversary of the First blight made in a Power Driven Aeroplane.

Ten years ago on that day, Wilbur and Orville Wright made four flights on the coast of North Carolina near Roanoke Island, a spot historic in America's history as the site of the first English settlement in the Western Hemisphere.

The first flight started from level ground against a 27-mile wind. After a run of 40 feet on a monorail track, the machine lifted and covered a distance of 120 feet over the ground in 12 seconds. It had a speed through the air of a little over 45 feet per second, and the flight, if made in calm air, would have covered a distance of over 540 feet.

Three days before, on the 14th of December, Wilbur Wright had essayed a flight from the side of the Kill Devil sand hill, but in three and one-half seconds he landed at the foot of the hill without having demonstrated the ability of the machine to sustain itself in horizontal flight. Altogether four flights were made on the 17th. The first and third by Orville Wright, the second and fourth by Wilbur Wright. The last flight was the longest, covering a distance of 852 feet over the ground in 59 seconds. After the fourth flight, a gust of wind struck the machine standing on the ground and rolled it over, injuring it to an extent that made further flights with it impossible for that year.

The gliding experiments of Lilienthal in 1896 led the Wright Brothers to become interested in flight. The next four years were spent in reading and theorizing. In the Fall of 1900 practical experiments were begun with a man carrying glider. These experiments were carried on from the sand hills near Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. The first glider was without a tail, the lateral equilibrium and the right and left steering were obtained by warping of the main surfaces. A flexible forward elevator was used. This machine was

DF FLIGHT

Mr. Wright said: "I wish to take advantage of this opportunity to express to the members of this Society my appreciation of the honor they have done my brother ami myself in making us honorary members at the inception of the organization, and also for the resolutions in commemoration of our first flight ami the presentation of this figure, which is very beautiful, I can assure you.

"Your presiding officer has mentioned the stabilizer. I think it is a little premature to say anything about it at present. It is true that for some years we have been working on a machine to make flying safe, taking balancing out of the hands of the man, so that only steering is left to the care of the operator. We have a device which experiments of the last few months have given us very great hopes will do this. I do not know what there is I can say about it at present. I do not like to talk too much about things until we have them actually perfected and in operation. What we have at present takes care of both lateral and fore-and-aft balance and it performs in a manner better than an operator can do. In making turns it banks the machine the proper amount, it never allows 'stalling,' which is common to too many of. our operators and has been the cause of so many accidents. We have had a few little mechanical problems which have delayed us but we hope to have it ready for the market before the summer season."

flown as a kite with and without operator, and several glides were made with it.

A second machine was designed of larger size, and many glides were made with it in 1901. This machine was similar to the one of 1900 but had slightly deeper curved surfaces, Experiments with this macliine demonstrated the inaccuracy of all the recognized tables of air pressures, upon which its design had been based.

In 1902 a third glider was constructed, based upon tables of air pressures made by the Wright Brothers themselves. The lateral control was maintained by warping surfaces, and a vertical rear rudder operated in conjunction with the surfaces. Nearly a thousand gliding flights were made with this machine. An account of these experiments given in 1903 by Mr. Chanute in talks before scientific societies in Europe and in articles contributed to technical papers, led a number of persons in France to take up experiments with a similar machine, which was called a Chanute-Wright type. Among these were Archdeacon, Esnault-Pelterie and the Voisin Brothers. Captain Ferber had already in 1902 built what he termed a "Chanute-Wright" type machine.

In 1903, the Wright Brothers designed a machine to be driven with a motor. They also designed and built their own motor. This had four horizontal cylinders, 4 in. by 4 in., and developed 12 h. p. Two propellers, turning in opposite directions, were driven by chains from the engine. After many delays the machine was finally ready and was flown on the 17th of December, 1903, as related above.

In the Spring of 1904. power flights were continued near Dayton with a machine similar to the one flown in 1903, but slightly heavier.

The first complete circle was accomplished on the 20th of September, 1904, in a flight

Continued on i>aue 220

'STABILITY IN FLYING MACHINES"*

Criticism on Mr. Merrill's Paper

By L. B. SPERRY

Let me ask if there are any aviators present who care to rly a machine which under certain conditions would suddenly dive or climb, with a tendency more powerful than his controls? If there are any who are looking for such a vehicle on which to test their powers let them choose the so-called inherently stable plane.

Mr. Merrill has conceded that the so-called inherent stability is more or less pendulous in action, resulting in undulating flight. So-called inherent stability cannot call upon a considerable righting couple without moving out of its stable zone to generate that righting couple; it cannot, therefore, return to its zone until the disturbing forces cease. In other words, a so-called inherently stable plane defeats its own purpose when, in order to fight a disturbing influence, it departs from its stable zone to do it. Then consider that a machine having powerful torques, which tend to make it assume certain aspects to the atmosphere, will be most dangerous on rough days. When this machine enters an up or down trend it will try to bring about the same relation to that up or down trend that it formerly had in quiet atmosphere. The aviator will then have to fight to keep the machine from diving or climbing.

Now let us compare an aeroplane with a ship. It is true that the longitudinal stability of a ship working in two fluids, as it does, is not analogous to the longitudinal stability of an aeroplane. In lateral stability it is akin, since lateral tip does not increase the lift of either, but decreases it. We find, as naval architecture has advanced in seeking seaworthiness, that the righting couple has been tremendously reduced. The "Imperator," for instance, has a metercentric height of about the length of your 16-inch slide rule. Now, if powerful righting couples are the vogue for ships, then a raft would be the boat on which to fight rough seas, and we should wish to discard the present type of aeroplane.

We have it from an eye-witness of the so-called lateral inherently stable Fowker machine that to him it did not fly but fluttered constantly, tipping from one side to the other. At times it tipped to large angles, and what amazed him was that it did not go all the way over. From the foregoing we feel justified in describing such a machine as inherently cranky instead of inherently stable.

So-called inherent stability is not a new thing; on the other hand, very old. Lang-ley, Lilienthal, Montgomery, all worked on

*Read before the Society of Mechanical Engineers, October 14, subsequent to the Merrill's lecture before the same Society.

this theory for stability. One of the first Bleriot machines was a following plane type, copied from Langley. In 1905, John J. Montgomery, of Santa Clara, California, filed a patent for his inherent stable plane. From 1885 to October 31, 1911, he experimented with his inherently stable plane which caused his death when he evidently was unable to straighten it from a nose dive. That that type is not the present type, is only another indication of the fallacy of a large righting couple.

My experience has led me to believe that present machines have more righting couple already than is necessary. So much for so-called inherent stability.

The sum and substance of Mr. Merrill's paper is that present machines have certain defects in design which make them unsafe. He suggests remedies for these defects, and concludes by saying that before aviation is placed upon a firm foundation a correct theory of design must be worked out by laboratory research.

Paragraphs 5 and 6 of the abstract read as follows:

"Present machines are so badly designed that dangerous couples are introduced which have to be offset by other couples introduced by the pilot. That we fly as well as we do is not due to the design of the machine but to the skill of the pilot."

"It is possible to design a machine in which the couples introduced are righting couples, and in which no offsetting couples are needed. Until such a machine is produced there will be only a small market for the sale of flying machines."

All save one minor defect in "present machines" do not exist in a correctly designed machine, as for instance the Curtiss flying boat. I have no connection, by the way, with the Curtiss Company, but am naming this machine because it is the one with which I am familiar.

The first defect, see paragraph 4 of the body of the paper, reads as follows:

"These rotations have a great influence upon safety in flight, not only because they throw the machine away from a safe horizontal position, but particularly because they affect the speed of the machine upon which control depends. Of the two, a stalling rotation is the more dangerous for two rea-ons: (a) because the pressure angle is increased, which increased the resistance, and, unless the thrust of the screw is increased proportionally, the speed is decreased. This is always dangerous, and many accidents have been due to stalling, (b) If the angular velocity of a stalling rotation is high, there will be a rapid increase of pressure per square foot on the supporting surfaces,

and this sudden strain may cause the machine to collapse. Several deaths have been clue to this cause."

Reason (a). We will grant that the theory is correct, although I do not know of anyone experiencing difficulty along this line.

Reason (b). That if the angular rotation is too high, it may cause the collapsing of the machine is ridiculous. Imagine a machine to be dived vertically so as to attain a maximum velocity of 125 miles per hour (Beachey timed on a vertical dive). The machine to then be given the angle at which it will give the maximum lift, this total lift on a 2,000 flying boat will be 6.7 times the normal lift. This is a rough estimate of the maximum stress that can be possibly exerted upon a machine. Dr. Zahm allowed a safety factor of 10 or 12 on the Curtiss flying boat. Mind you that in normal flying one never reaches beyond 70 or 75 miles per hour. I can of course get the necessary coefficient from Eiffel which would allow me to calculate the stress within a small per cent.

Next, see paragraph 7, which reads: "Too rapid a diving rotation has caused the downward collapse of machines and the deaths of some aviators." This stress has been considered in a similar manner by Dr. Zahm in the design of the Curtiss Flying Boat.

Referring to paragraph 11 of his paper, Mr. Merrill does not consider the pressure brought to play on the tail surfaces, when the machine's angle is changed from 5 deg.

to 8 deg. The stability couple produced by the shifting of the center of pressure is very small compared with the stability one caused by pressure on the tail planes. Eiffel's graphs show that a change of angle of from 5 deg. to 8 deg. shifts the pressure -lA per cent, forward, which means a moment of J/i feet on a machine having a 5 foot cord. The anti couple would therefore be on this 2,000 lb. machine 250 lbs.— ft. Now let us consider the stability couple. The 50 sq. ft. of tail area having an angle of 3 deg., will give us according to Eiffel, 144 lbs. lift, acting at a distance of 14 1-5 ft. The stability couple is equal to 2,045 lbs. ft. minus 250 lbs. ft., the anti couple produced by the center of pressure shift, leaves 1,795 lbs. ft. stability force.

The gist of paragraph 18 and on, etc., is given in paragraph 4 of the abstract, which reads:

"In most machines lateral stability is maintained by increasing the positive pressure angle of the tip to be raised. This tends to retard that tip and turn the machine in the wrong direction. This false turning movement is offset by the vertical rudder. It is possible to maintain lateral stability by moving a surface to a negative angle on the tip to be lowered, and this will produce a turning movement in the right direction, hence no offset will be needed."

This defect is not present in the Curtiss machine, when the high side is retarded more than the low one because of the down trend that exists between the wings.

NEW TESTS FOR MILITARY PILOT

The following requirements for a military aviator, effective January 1, 1914, have been approved by the Secretary of War.

Make a cross-country flight over a triangular course not less than 100 miles in perimeter with two intermediate landings; flight to be completed within 48 hours after start.

Make a straight-away cross-country flight, without landing, of at least 60 miles, over a previously designated course; return flight to be made either same day or first subsequent day weather permits.

During both flights candidate shall remain at least 1,500 feet up.

Remain for at least 30 minutes at an altitude of between 2,500 and 3,000 feet. This requirement may be accomplished during one of the cross-country flights.

Execute a volplane, with motor cutout completely, at an altitude of 1,500 feet, the motor to be cut out when aeroplane is over the landing field, and on landing cause the aeroplane to come to rest within 300 feet of a previously designated point.

Reports will be submitted giving the main military features observed during the flights made under first two paragraphs.

No tests made with passengers.

The candidate will then be examined theoretically and practically on his ability to read maps; his knowledge of the compass and how to steer thereby; his knowledge of the aeroplane, i. e., what constitutes safe construction; how to make the ordinary repairs of an aeroplane; the action of the machine under ordinary flying conditions, covering the points on the action of the controls, how the angles of lift on the wings change in making turns, how the pressures change both on the main planes, rear elevator, and vertical rudder; and what constitutes safe flying as far as gliding, banking, etc., is concerned.

He will be examined on his knowledge of gasoline motors, carburetters, the most common troubles that occur to motors, and how to correct them. He shall be able to make simple repairs, dismantle and assemble motors, and shall show a thorough knowledge of all motors in use at the school.

He shall be examined in meteorology and topography in so far as they relate to aviation.

To AERONAUTICS.—You have done a great pioneer work. W. S. H., Miss.

SPECIAL PREMIUM OFFER TO MODEL BUILDERS

A special premium offer is made to new subscribers in the model field. A complete set of materials for a model Bleriot-type monoplane, shown in the

illustration, with directions for construction and flying, will be given free with each new yearly subscription sent in by a model flyer. This set of parts

sells alone for $3. The subscription to AERONAUTICS is $3 yearly. Readers of the model page may have both for the price of one.

This unassembled model is built by the Wading River Mfg. Co., of Wading River, N. Y., and includes complete woodwork and rattan cut to lengths, fabric for covering planes, proofing solution, wheels, ball-bearing propeller shaft, propeller blank, rubber strands, nails, wire, tubing, axle, etc., etc. This concern makes, in unassembled or assembled form, miniature aeroplanes of all the well-known types and furnishes supplies of all kinds for the building of miniature flying machines. An extensive catalogue is sent free on request.

MODEL NOTES

By HARRY G. SCHULTZ, Model Editor.

The model shown in the accompanying drawing was constructed by Derza Dayko, of Perth Amboy, N. J.

In spite of its large plane surface and high pitch slow turning propellers, it is an excellent flyer and has made flights of 2,100 feet and 121 seconds' duration.

The fuselage is of the well-known "triangle" or "A" type, and is constructed of two spruce strips 38 inches long by Y x % inch in cross section, braced at the center by an X-brace of bamboo. The rear brace or propeller bar is also constructed of split bamboo % x Y% inch.

~DÄYKO ALBATROSS*

' z > + I *

The planes are constructed of spruce and bamboo, the main spar in each being of spruce; the spar in the main plane being % x 5/32 inch in thickness, and that in the elevator being 3/16 x V% inch in thickness. The ribs and entering and trailing edges of the planes are of bamboo, and the tips ot each plane are given a slight negative angle, as shown. Both planes have a rather deep camber and are covered on the upper side with bamboo paper, treated with Ambroid varnish.

The propellers are 12 inches in diameter, with a pitch of approximately 36 inches, and are carved from a solid block of white pine. The bearings consists of the usual small pieces of tubing and washers. Each propeller is driven by 11 strands of J^-inch flat rubber.

MODEL GLIDERS.

Although there are many model flyers thoughout the country, there are very few who have gone into the model glider side of the sport, although those who have experimented in this manner will readily testify that much more sport can be had with model gliders than with the model aeroplanes.

In order to obtain good glides, a hill or slope must be obtainable, and the glider is

launched from the top of the hill against the wind, with the nose of the glider pointing slightly downward.

A glider must be much more delicately balanced than a model aeroplane, and flights can be obtained with a well-balanced glider of over 1,500 feet with durations of over 100 seconds. If the glider has the least too much elevation and is headed into a strong breeze, it will quickly stall and slide backwards. The object is always to get the glider on an even keel, and in view of the fact that the glider is headed into the wind, there always is a tendency for the front of the machine to rise and the rear to drop, thereby causing the glider to stall, as above stated. To overcome this it is generally necessary to weight the front of the glider in some manner, although the writer knows of one flyer who had his front plane, or elevator, so arranged as to increase or decrease its surface, according to the velocity of the wind.

The writer is an enthusiast on this side of the sport and would like to hear from others, receive descriptions of their gliders, results of flights, etc.

All queries regarding models and model flying should be addressed to the Model Editor, Mr. Harry G. Schultz, 23 West 106th street, New York City, N. Y.

MODEL AEROPLANE CIRCLES CITY HALL.

Mr. Frank Schoher, late of the Curtiss Company, has lately turned his attention to performing stunts with model aeroplanes, and on the 21st of Novemher, 19J.I. he proceeded to entertain the downtown section of New York by launching a model from the tower of the World Building. The model was a small affair, of a type known as Red Racer, and immediately following the model a small glider was launched.

The model climbed in spirals to an immense height, circled the City Hall several times and with unerring accuracy landed in the doorway of the Hall, as though it had full intentions of paying a visit to his Honor the Mayor. The glider soared practically out of sight, having a duration of over 2 minutes.

The tests were witnessed by a large crowd and Mr. Schober had a very difficult time getting his model into his possession again.

THE COLLINS CONTEST.

The Collins R. O. G. model contest, held on December 14, proved to be a great success and resulted in a new world's record being established by Mr. R. Funk, of the Long Island Model Aeroplane Club, with a flight of 1,620 feet, breaking Mr. L. Bamberger's record of 1,542 feet.

In the distance contest held in the morning, the small, speedy model of Mr. C. Obst (L. I. M. A. C.) had its own way and looked to be an easy winner, but by his last flight Mr. Funk demonstrated the superiority of his model by easily eclipsing Obst's best flight of 1,264 feet.

The afternoon contest was for duration, and Hodg-man (B. R. M. A. C.) showed that his model possessed great stability in spite of the very strong wind blowing, by winning the contest with a flight of 56 2/5 seconds. The field was covered with small trees, which greatly interfered with the flying of the models and resulted in a combination model flying and tree climbing contest. A very strong wind blew all day, and it can be said that there were not more than two or three models in good condition after the contest. While in the air some of the models performed feats that would have put Mr. Pegoud to shame,

looping the loop, flying upside down, side slipping and performing other marvelous feats.

Mr. Edward Durant and his very able assistant, Mr. George Bauer, conducted the contests in fine style. Mr. Durant acted as official timer and Mr. Bauer had the tiresome task of measuring all flights, and it can be said that quite a number of miles were traversed by him. The contest was conducted on the point system, and after the mathematicians had consulted, it was found that Mr. R. Funk was the winner. The results are as follows: POINTS.

Dis- Dura- Points, tance. tion. Total.

Funk ............... 1 3 4

Hodgman ........... 4 1 5

Obst ............... 2 5 7

Heil ................ 6 2 8

Cavanagh ........... 6 4 10

W. Bamberger ...... 3 7 10

Ness ............... 6 5 11

Judges—Messrs. Durant and Bauer. The prize for which the contest was held was a handsome gold medal offered by Mr. Francis A. Collins. Mr. Collins is one of the benefactors of the sport and is continually offering prizes to encourage the flyers.

MODEL CONTESTS.

Excellent contests are held every Saturday afternoon at Van Cortlandt Park, between the hours of 2, 3 and s o'clock. The contests held on December 6, 1913. for duration, R. O. G. models, was won by Mr. Frederick Watkins, with a duration of 62 seconds; second, Mr. Carl Trube, 55 seconds, and Mr. Rad-cliffe was third with 46 seconds.

Contests in competition for a cup offered by Mr. Herreshoff started_ on December 14. The first contest was a very exciting affair, with a great number of spectators and competitors, and was won by Mr. Frederick Watkins, who, by the way, seems to have the knack of winning these weekly contests, with a flight of 1,224 feet, rising from the ground. Mr. Radcliffe was second, with a flight of 940 feet. These contests will run for two weeks longer and promise to be very interesting affairs.

SUBSCRIBER'S FORUM

ON LATERAL CONTROL.

May 19, 1912.

To the Editor:—

In regard to Albert Adams Merrill's article in your April issue on the " 'The Fallacy' of Existing Systems of Lateral Control":

When Mr. Merrill states that in his proposed system of producing simply a negative angle of incidence on the high side of the aeroplane for lateral balance "the rudder plays no part,'' he must be calculating on flying in random directions in the air; for in order to keep in the straight or desired course the vertical rudder must surely be used in nearly every balancing operation with such an arrangement. If both ailerons are meant to be normally lifting, then to leave the low-side aileron normal and first simply decrease the angle of incidence on the high side must cause greater speed on that side and consequent deviation from the course unless the rudder is used to counteract it; and if the rudder is not used to counteract it, then the greater speed of the high side resulting from the lessened head resistance will tend to cause increased lift— instead of depression—on this high side, making it necessary to bring the aileron to the same angle of incidence upward from the horizontal (in horizontal flight) as that to which the untouched (low-side) aileron is set downwards, before the head resistances on the two sides are equal; for until this is accomplished either the vertical rudder must be used or the machine will veer out of its course—toward the side of the greater angle of incidence; and as, much oltener than not, the amount of depression of the high side caused by bringing the aileron on that side to the same angle upward as it was downward, would not be exactly the amount of depression required to right the machine, the steering device must therefore be used more or less in all these other cases in order to keep in a straight course; and a wavering course is wasteful because longer.

This action is hence more complicated than the present aileron and rudder use; and while it is doubtless somewhat more efficient, especially in making turns, than the ordinary method, which uses large and wasteful angles of incidence and then uses the vertical rudder to counteract the very unequal lateral resistances (such as bringing one aileron to 12 degrees incidence while the other is level), there is, I am convinced, a much better and more logical method. This is the_ use of ailerons normally level and non-resisting when the machine is flying on the level, thus turning equally as much upward on one side as downward on the other, so that the head resistances are always equal in level, straightaway flight and the vertical rudder is therefore not required at all in balancing, greatly_ simplifying it; smaller—and hence more efficient—angles of incidence are used than in any other system in producing the same balancing effect, and in banking for turning there is less resist-

ance on the swift-moving, outer side and more resistance on the slow inner side (aiding in steering) than probably in any other balancing method with ailerons or wing-tips, and less use of the vertical rudder is therefore necessary in turning. And, in this connection, it should be noted that the vertical rudder must slow up the whole machine when used, because located at the center line; so that steering by means of using a variable resistance surface on the inner side of the turn is doubtless more efficient, because it slows up only the side that should be slowed.

Besides making ailerons normally level, or zero-angle, I would make them bend in a curve up or down, as does the Wright elevator, thus giving a more efficient lifting or depressing surface than a flat one would; and I also add- vertical, lateral sides, extending several inches above and below, so as to conserve the vacuum above and also prevent the compressed air below from spreading sideways to no purpose, especially toward the rear of the aileron ; but perhaps level ailerons with a fixed concavity and these vertical sides would be most practicable and efficient.

Yours very truly,

Elmer G. Still, Livermore, Cal.

THE BOSCH NEWS.

Attention is called to the Bosch News, published by the Bosch Magneto Co., 223 West 46th Street, New York. The Bosch News is a handsome little house organ and each issue contains valuable information on the care of magnetos, new developments, various types, mounting, wiring, relation to horsepower of motors, etc., etc. Every one who owns a magneto should ask the Bosch company to put him on its mailing list. This little journal is full of worth-while data and should be received regularly. This is not a "press notice" but a plain, simple paragraph for the good of all.

PATENTS ISSUED.

"1,077,111—C. R. and A. D. Wittemann. Ocean Terrace, Staten Island, N. V. STABILITY system. Claims cover combination, with an aeroplane, of automatic pivoted connected balancing vanes arranged in vertical positions parallel to the direction of travel adjacent wing ends and having their upper rear ends turned diagonally outward and forward, means for adjusting said vanes, connection between them.

By shifting the operating lever to right or left, the upper curved edge of the right hand balancing vane will be moved outwardly and downwardly while the corresponding end of the left baud balancing vane will be moved inwardly. By this movement a greater portion of the outer surface of the right hand balancing plane will be caused to assume a more horizontal position and thereby offer a greater resistance to the air and serve to lift the right hand plane, the left hand balancing plane at the same time being caused to present a smaller area to the air and lessening the resistance of the air thereto will permit of the left hand plane rising and thus cause the machine as a whole to move and become properly balanced.

1,077,114—C. E. Baker, Hamilton, O. PARACHUTE for aviators.

AERONAUTICS. Dec. 1913

Page 215

f^rws PATÉ.

\ ^ATlR.»ROOlj

;Liûuid CLl|

c ovauty

■OlTO«. HA»

FOR FLYING BOATS USE

JEFFERY'S MARINE GLUE

Use our Waterproof Liquid Glue, or No. 7 Black, White, or Yellow Soft Quality Glue for waterproofing the canvas covering of flying boats. It not only waterproofs and preserves the canvas but attaches it to the wood, and with a coat of paint once a year will last as long as the boat

For use tn combination with calico or canvas between veneer in diagonal planking, and' for waterproofing muslin for wing surfaces. Send for samples, circulars, directions for u%e etc L. W. FERDINAND & CO. 201 South Street, Boston, Mass., U. S. A.

THE YEAR 1913 IN REVIEW.

Continued from page 202

mated some 46 as the total production for established factories. All these figures are far below the total for 1911, when the count was 750 for manufactured aeroplanes by bona fide factories and individuals.

The definite advance of the year 1913 bears out in every particular the statements published in the January, 1913, number. Estimates for 1914 by several conservative manufacturers put the production for next year at more than double that for 1913. It is encouraging to note the confident opinion of the trade concerning the outlook for 1914.

The holding of the international and national balloon races in this country next year, as well as the growing interest in the pleasttre of free ballooning, will stimulate this sport, and balloon builders view with satisfaction the anticipated increase in the volume of business, which has been negligible for the past few years.

The small exhibition dirigible may be expected to return to the favor of fair managers, as these will appear now as real novelties. With hydrogen easily available in compressed form, smaller and lighter balloons will be built to take advantage of the superiority of hydrogen over coal gas. Perhaps we will see a demonstration of the "hot-air" dirigible next year, as admissions are now made of its practicability.

STATEMENT OF THE AERONAUTICAL SOCIETY REGARDING "TIMES'" AERIAL DERBY.

In the course of arrangements for the race and the interchange of communications between possible contestants and The Aeronautical Society, upon the affirmation of at least three "licensed" contestants that they had no objection to competing in a so-called "unlicensed" contest, and by reason of the fact that one entrant (who turned out to be the winner) was not the holder of any flight certificate from any organization, it was announced to all competitors and was well known that the race was open to any competent flyer who cared to take part.

The Society is given to understand that a few days subsequent to the race the Aero Club of America held a meeting of its contest committee and declared that as far as its "official" records were concerned Charles S. Niles was the winner, and not William S. Luckey, who made the best time, by reason of the latter not being a "licensed" pilot.

Having been informed that the Aero Cluh of America had, prior to the race, communicated with the Ke-u- York Times, the donor of the prizes, regarding the matter of "license" for the race, The Aeronautical Society addressed the Aero Club of America asking that body to inform the Society whether or not it had so communicated with the Times and, if so, the purpose of the interference. No satisfactory information or replies were vouchsafed.

The magazine Flying, the official organ of the Aero Club of America, later reported the event, placing Luckey first, Niles second, etc., in accordance with the report of the Society's judges, stating therein that

the race had been sanctioned upon application made a few days before and that W. Irving Twombly, then president of The Aeronautical Society and a member of the Aero Club of America, had been appointed the Club's "responsible steward."

It developed that Mr. Twombly had asked for "sanction" on behalf of the Society, without authority. A resolution was passed by the Hoard of Directors of The Aeronautical Society to the effect that Mr. Twomhly's action, though taken in good faith and with the best of intentions, was unauthorized by the by-laws of the Society or any action on the part of the memhers; the Society being already on record in favor of Federal control. The by-laws provide

that nothing shall be done affecting the policy of the Society without vote of the membership. This resolution further provided:

"That it is the sense of this meeting that the Aeronautical Society desires to maintain its friendly relations with the Aero Club of America and all other bodies of a similar character for promoting the general welfare of the science and sport of aviation hut the recognized and established policy of this Society is and always has been to maintain strict impartiality in its relations with all other bodies and organizations engaged in similar undertakings, that it is not and never has been affiliated with any other organization and does not recognize and has not at any time recognized the authority of any other organization in directing, controlling licensing, or otherwise interfering in the discharge of the work for which this Society was organized, and

"Re it further resolved that it is the sense of this meeting that this Society should continue to maintain its attitude of impartiality and individuality in all matters aeronautical, both scientific and of a sporting character, at the same time maintaining as far as possible the most friendly relation with all other bodies or organizations similarly engaged."—Statement authorized by the Board of Directors.

AERO MART. For Sale—Our last year's monoplanes and biplanes; very cheap for cash, or trade for anything of value. —F. M., 1522 Norwood Ave., Toledo, Ohio.

Published Monthly by Aeronautics Press

122 E. 25th St.. New York Cable : AERONAUTIC, New York

'Phones J £ Madison Sq.

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HARRY SCHULTZ, Model Ed tor

SUBSCRIPTION RATES United States, $3.00 Foreign, $3.50

No. 76

DECEMBER, 1913 Vol. XIII, No. 6

Entered as second-class matter September 22. 190S, at the Postoflice, New York, under the Act of March 3, 1879.

<J AERONAUTICS is issued on the 30th of each Month. All copy must be received by the 20th. Advertising pages close on the 25th.

CjMake all checks or money orders free of exchange and payable to AERONAUTICS. Do not send currency. No foreign stamps accepted.

AT THE ARMY AVIATION SCHOOL.

The winter course of instruction at the Army aviation school at San Diego started on the 8th of December by a course of lectures on aero mechanics and aero design by Dr. A. F. Zahm, Secretary of the Advisory Committee of the Aerodynamical Laboratory. On December 30 and 31 Prof. \V. F. Durand, of Leland Stanford, will give two lectures on propellers. At the close of Dr. Zahm's lectures, W. J. Humphreys, Ph.D., of the Weather Bureau, will give a course on meteorological physics and the laws of the atmosphere as applied to aeronautics. There will follow a course on theory, design and operation of aviation motors, a course on topography, aerial reconnaissance and photography, and a course in radio-telegraphy. The lectures are given immediately after the close of flying each day, which continues from daylight to 10 p. m. It has been found that it requires from nine months to a year, with a lot of experience in cross country work, before a man can really be said to be an aviator.

LIEUT. RICH'S ACCIDENT AT MANILA.

The following is the substance of an extract from an official letter on this subject: The machine was flying at an altitude of approximately 500 feet and through some unaccountable reason Lieut. Rich fell from or was thrown out of the_ Wright 50-h.p. hydroaeroplane to the waters of Manila Bay. Instant death resulted, as when the relief party arrived on the scene it was found that he had breathed his last. The cause of the fall will probably never be definitely known, as it seems that he got a good start and was progressing nicely at that altitude—when suddenly the machine was seen to wabble and tilt forward and Lieut. Rich was seen to fall clear of the machine, striking the water with terrific velocity, and the machine fell directly, or as near as could be determined, upon him.

DR. BRASHEAR RIDES IN 'PLANE.

Prof. John A. Brashear has been the first scientist in this country to try the aeroplane. Accompanied by Prof. E. C. Larkin, of the Mt. Lowe Observatory, Dr. Brashear was interested in_ seeing Mt. Holly, near Los Angeles, as a possible site for an observatory. They visited the aeroplane sheds, and Glenn Martin offered to show Dr. Brashear Mt. Holly as no professor has ever seen it before. The Doctor accepted the offer, and pronounced his trip the realization of a dream.

Dr. John Alfred Brashear is an authority on solar phenomena, the floor of the lunar crater Plato, comets and their physical changes, formation of volcanic craters in the moon, development of astrophvsical instruments, optical surfaces plane and curved, the refinement of modern measurments. etc. He is a member or officer of many of the world's greatest scientific bodies.

LONGEST FOREIGN CROSSCOUNTRY TOUR.

Daucourt, a French aviator, and a passenger started from Paris on Oct. 21st, with their destination at Cairo. Egypt. The flight was made via Augsburg, Munich, in Germany: Vienna, Budapest, Arad, in Austria-Hungary; Bucharest, Varna, on the coast of Bulgaria, thence to Constantinople, where they arrived on Nov. gth. On Nov. 16th the start for the second stage of the flight was made. On Nov. 26th they reached Ihsian, in Asia Minor, within 700 miles of their goal, where the Borel monoplane was slightly damaged in landing. On the following night the machine was set on fire, and the force of the explo-

sion of the gasoline tank _ completely wrecked the machine, thus ending the flight. The total distance flown by the aviators was about 3,000 miles, in 35 days.

FLIES 13,000 MILES IN 39 DAYS.

Paris, France, Nov. 29.—By flying 9.996 miles (16,096 kil.) in 30 consecutive days, Helen won the Michelin prize for the pilot who covers the greatest distance in any number of consecutive days, flying at least 50 kil. a day. The remarkable record was made over a cross-country circuit. Helen covered more than the direct distance through the air between the north and south poles. Counting the flying on nine days, of which Helen lost the credit through having to stop before reaching the official timekeeper, he had covered 20,787 kil. in 39 consecutive days.

SANTA CLAUS BY AIRSHIP.

Cecil Peoli delighted the children of Montreal by flying in to the announced location from a secret starting place, dressed in Santa Claus costume. This is the first time Santa has made his Xmas trips by 'plane.

Corning, N. Y., Dec. 23.—Santa Claus came to Corning by aeroplane to-day. The Corning Business Men's Association hired Frank Burnside, of Thomas Bros., to fly to Corning dressed as Santa, and distribute gifts to the children of the city from his aeroplane as he flew low over the streets.

NEW SPHERICAL RECORD.

Berlin, Dec. 22.—Herr Kevlen, with two passengers, ascended from Bitterfeld, Prussian Saxony, in the balloon "Duisburg" on December 13. He descended at Perm, in European Russia, near, the Siberian frontier, establishing a world's distance and duration record. He was in the air 87 hours and traveled a distance of 1,738.8 miles.

BOMB DROPPING IN GERMANY.

The bomb-dropping competition, organized by the Ministry of War, came to an end on Nov. 17th at Doeberitz. The weather was unfavorable and the aviators lacked experience. The winner was Herr Schauenberg, who, while flying at an altitude of between 2,500 and 3,000 feet, managed in the course of an hour to drop two bombs on a target 262 feet in diameter. The attempts were not brilliant, and the entire competition was a deep disappointment to all concerned.—The Aeroplane.

NEW RECORD FOR ARMY.

San Diego, Cal., Dec. 18.—A new army altitude record was made here to-day by Lieutenant II. B. Post, who ascended 10.600 feet, a gain of more than 2.000 feet over the previous record. The ascent was made in a Curtiss 90-100 h.p. aeroplane No. 23, from North Island. Lieutenant Post made the first 3,000 feet at an average rate of 540 feet a minute.

MARTIN MAKES RECORD ALTITUDE FLIGHT.

Los Angeles, Cal., Nov. 26.—Glenn L. Martin ascended with a passenger to an altitude of 9.800 feet. He used a Martin tractor, Curtiss 90-100 h.p. motor.

Raymond V. Morris is building at the Curtiss works a wonderful fine monoplane flying boat.

No Atlantic Flight Yet," Wright Thinks.—Headline. Our files corroborate Mr. Wright.—N. Y. Sun. Same here!

THE WRIGHT COMPANY

ARE NOW PREPARED TO DELIVER

The New Wright Aeroboat, Model "G"

EQUIPPED WITH TWIN SCREWS. DRIVEN BY THE NEW WRIGHT SIX CYLINDER 60 H. P. MOTOR. FITTED WITH MUFFLER AND ELECTRIC STARTER

This craft is the development of years of careful experiment and combines in its novel form the best practice in hydro-aeroplane and flying boat work. The dangerous features of the flying boat—lack of safety in flying, shipping of water and foundering in a rough sea, addition of weight, due to water soaking, the presence of the motor unprotected over the heads of the passengers, and the drag and unseaworthiness of the long fuselage hull, have been eliminated. The structural details of the new machine are worked out to combine simplicity, strength and reliability.

The craft is perfectly adapted to the use of sportsmen as a machine for safe and comfortable travel over water at high speed.

THE WRIGHT COMPANY New York Office

Dayton, Ohio 11 PINE STREET

Airmen Should Be Interested In Photography

THE PHOTOGRAPHIC TIMES

Has long been regarded as the standard American Authority on photographic matters.

Each number has forty pages of interesting photographic text, printed on fine paper from good type, and illustrated witn many attractive half-tones.

The cover for each month is printed in varying colors, and is ornamented with a different and pleasing photograph.

The valuable and authoritative formulae furnished throughout the year are alone worth the price asked for subscription.

Some of the other regular features are

Articles on practical and timely photographic topics.

Illustrations showing examples of the work of the best American and foreign pictorialists.

Foreign Digest.

Camera club happenings, exhibitions, and photographers' association notes. Items of Interest.

A department devoted to "Discoveries."

Reviews of the new photographic books.

Description of the latest novelties and specialties brought out by dealers and manufacturers.

ONE DOLLAR FIFTY A YEAR SUBSCRIBE NOW FIFTEEN CENTS A COPY

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THE PHOTOGRAPHIC TIMES PUBLISHING ASSOCIATION

135 West 14th Street, : : : New York

Note.—Volume I started with the first issue, that of July, 1907, Volume II started with the issue of January, 1908. Volume III started with the July,

1908, issue. Volume IV started with the January,

1909, number. Volume V started with the July,

1909, number. Volume VI started with the January,

1910, issue and Volume VII started with the July, 1910, issue. Volume VIII started with January, 1911, number. Volume IX started with the July,_ 1911, issue, Volume X with January, 1912, Volume XI with

July, 1912, Volume XII with January, 1913, ancj Volume XIII with July, 1913.

Only principal articles are indexed. News notes in general, and smaller mentions are not indexed. Pages 1—40, No. 1, July 1913.

41—80, No. 2, August, 1913.

" 81—T20, No. 3, September, 1913.

" 121—160, No. 4, October, 1913.

" 161—192, No. s, November, 1913.

" 193—224, No. 6, December, 1913.

Aeronautics, Government Progress in........... 148

Accidents, Fatal:

Schmidt ............................ 156

Jewell .............................. 154

Lillie ............................... 112

" Korn ............................... 113

" Kelly and Ellington ..............184-216

" Love ............................... 112

Billingsley .......................... 22

Bell ................................ 32

Call ................................ 32

" Roche .............................. 72

" Bryant ............................. 72

" Rich ............................184-216

Aeronautical Society Statement on Derby....... 215

Aeroplane, Beachey's Special Curtiss............ 180

Army, tests of....................... 70

" Army, German specifications.......... 58

" Breguet Hydroaeroplane ............ 98

Burgess Tractor for Army........... 128

" Caudron, drawings .................. 101

" Curtiss, 100 H. P. Army Tractor..... 130

" • Christofferson, 60 H. P. Racing, with

drawings ....................... 134

" Derby, Race around Manhattan....... 152

" Dunne, Burgess building............. 174

" Dunne, with drawings............... 87

" German Army specifications.......... 58

" Grant Monoplane, with Changeable

Angle of Incidence, with drawings 50, 205

" Guns in U. S. Army................64-96

" International Race...............114, 152

Mars biplane ....................... 133

" Martin "Aeroyacht," with scale drawings ............................ 13

Mooring of Army.................... 133

" Navy, Standard control for.........12-56

" Ponnier-Pagny biplane, with drawings too " Radley-England hydroaeroplane, with

drawings ....................... 103

" Record, Burnside almost makes....... 70

" " Flight, by Garros across Mediterranean ................ 114

" " Wood's Cross-Country nonstop ...................... 74

" Royal Aircraft Factory BE 2, with

scale drawings .................. 93

" Savary Tractor, by Leicester B. Holland, with drawings............. S

" Sikorskv Air-limousine .............. 106

Sop with, 80 H. P. Land Tractor----60-102

" Tariff lowered on.................... 154

The Green Dreamed, by Rita Green

Breeze ......................... '97

" United States Army requirements for

water-'planes .................... lr>6

Wright, German military............. 5 5

" Model E ............q6, 140, 137

" " Model "CH." hydroaeroplane,

with scale drawings........ it

Apro Strength of various countries.............. 104

Airboat. AYachtman's View of the, by Chas. D.

Lvnch .................................

Aircraft and Automobiles in Germany........... 34

Army, Aeroplanes, test of...................... 7°

" " mooring of ................. 13.1

" Equipment of the United States......... Qr>

" German, specifications for aeroplanes..... 58

" Tests for aviators....................... 211

United States, requirements for water

'planes ............................. 106

" United States, aeroplane guns in.........64-96

" Aeronautics for 1913.................... 201

" Aeroplanes in Balkans.................. 206

" Aviation School, Lectures............... 210

Aviaphone, Turners' .......................... 175

Aviette, the, by M. B. Sellers.................. 126

Balloon, Ascensions ...........32, 72, 114, 150, 184

Dirigible, German ................... 64

" " Knabenshue ............... 176

" " Zeppelin "12" disaster ....135-6

" •' a Gasless ................. 130

New Record ......................... 210

'' Race, International, by H. E. Honeywell and R. A. D. Preston. . 150, 166, 167

" " National championship ........6, 32

Bell, Grover, death of......................... 32

Bleriot Aerial Launcher.......................24-95

Billingsley accident ............................ 22

Bryant, death of............................... 72

Carburetion, Effect of Temperature on.......... 95

Call, death of Lieut.......................... 32

Center, For An Aeronautical (Editoral)........ 147

Chain Drive, Benoist........................... 24

Cody, death of Col. S. F....................... 72

Constantin Fluid Deflectors, by M. B. Sellers---- 5

Control, Navy tries standard.................... 56

Corporations, New .........30, 70, 112, 154, 184, 216"

Curtiss-Wright suit ........................no> 184

Developing New Ideas, by G. M. Dyott........ 45

Dirigibles, German ............................ 64

L-II Disaster ....................... 13S

Ellington, death of............................ l84

Floats, cork for............................... 06

Flying-Boat, as a dependable vehicle............ 170

Benoist, "Lakes Cruise" model..... 19

ings ............................ 90

Benoist. "Type XIV," with scale

drawings ....................... 9°

" Benoist Chain Drive............... 24

" Burgess, 220 H. P., with scale draw-

ings

" Christofferson, with scale drawings.. 15

" Cooke tractor "airboat"............ 17

Curtiss "English".................. 92

Curtiss, Navy C-2................. 53

Great Lakes Cruise................ 32

" Hulls, Stream Line Flow under... 19

" Officially a Motor Boat............ 19

Thomas .......................... 127

Wright, Model G.................. 169

Fowler, Inspection of Power Wires............. 204

France, Aviation in, by Leicester B. Holland.... 85

Great Lakes Flying Boat Cruise................ 32

Germany, Subsidized Flying.................... 63

" Dirigibles .......................... 64

Ideas, Developing New, by George M. Dyott---- 45

Imports and Exports................30, 70, 154, .1S4

Industry, Review for 191:3.................... 202

Inspection of Power Wires, by R. G. Fowler.... 204

Jewell's disappearance.......................... 154

Kelly, death of Lieut.......................... 184

Laboratory, Langley aerodynamical............. 62

Lillie, death of Max........................... 112

Love, death of Lieut.......................... 112

Metal Propellers .............................. 205

Models, by Harry Schultz,

26, 68, 65, 108, 143. 156. 181, 186, 212, 216

" Strand Twisting Device................ 28

Motor Boat, Officially the flying boat is a........ 19

Motor, Austro-Diamler 90 H. P.............."... 172

" British Competition (1914).............. 18

Bureau of Standards Testing Plant...... 198

" • Curtiss OX compared.................. 176

Easy starting of........................ 59

" Gvro in England....................... 7°

" Hall-Scott 100 II. T. description and test.20-55

" Maximotor, 100 H. P................... i/7

" Renault, Signal Corps test of the 100 II. P. 128

INDEX FOR VOLUME XIII.

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jj ALWAYS ON HAND |

Motor, Revolving Cylinder, by Emile Berliner... 165 Rotative, why cylinders aie odd in number 173

Wright 6 cylinder 60 II. P..........141-177

Navy, Curtiss C-2 Flying Boat.................. 53

" Aviation in, for 1913.................... 20»

Standard Control for Aeroplanes........12-56

Patents ..................186, 188, 114, 76, 36, 214

" IJoland Interference .................... no

Curtiss running gear................... 172

Wright ............................... 138

Legoud's "Loop the Loop"..............94- 112, '3-?

Rich, Lieut, death of........................184-216

Pilots. F. A. I. changes in conditions.......... 94

Propeller, Heath pitch meter for............... 59

Progress made ..................... 144

Propellers, Metal ............................. 205

Records for 1913.............................. -03

Review of 1913................................ 202

Revolving Cylinder Motors, by Emile Berliner.. 165

Roche, death of............................... 7*

Schmidt, death of.............................. 156

Somersault in the air, a.............62. 94, 112, 134

Spruce beams, tests of......................... 63

Stability. P.leriot stabilizer...................... 173

" Bonnet prize for..................... 94

" Device, Wilson....................... 56

" Gyroscope Stabilizer tried ............ 182

" Inverted "V" ....................... 116

" Wright automatic .................... 138

"Stability in Flying Machines," Criticism on

Merrill Paper, bv L. B. Sperry............ 210

Stability, bv E. O. Still......................... 214

Strut Socket, Thomas.......................... 24

TENTH ANNIVERSARY OF FLIGHT

Continued from vage 209

covering a distance of about one mile. Altogether 105 flights were attempted during the year, the longest of which were two of five minutes each, covering a distance of about three miles. All of the flights were started from a monorail.

After September a - derrick and a falling weight were used to assist in launching the machine.

Experiments were continued in 1905 near Dayton with a machine similar to the ones of the two previous years. Between the dates of September 26th and October 5th, six flights were made, each covering a distance of more than 10 miles and lasting more than 17 minutes. The longest was a little more than 24 miles in length and 38 minutes in duration.

The years 1906 and 1907 were spent by the Wright Brothers in constructing new machines and in negotiations with various Governments. The Wrights proposed to furnish a machine that would carry a man and fuel supplies, sufficient for a flight of 100 miles; to demonstrate the machine with a flight of one hour's duration, in which the machine must cover a distance of more than 30 miles and rise to a height of more than 100 feet. They further proposed to manceuver over circular and "L" shaped cotuses. They agreed that they were not to receive one penny if their machine should fail in any one of these particulars, but the heads of the military departments of all the Governments were so skeptical that they were afraid of becoming the "laughing stock of the world" in entering into negotiations even under such conditions.

It was not till 190S that the Wright Brothers found purchasers for their invention. In that year they made a contract to furnish one machine to the Signal Corps of the United States Army and to sell the rights to their invention in France to a French company. In both cases they agreed to carry a passenger in ad-

Subsidized flying ............................. 62

Switch, new Bosch press-button................ 129

Tariff lowered on aeroplanes................... 154

Technical Talks, by M. B. Sellers:

" " Avielte, the .................. 126

" " Constantin, Fluid Deflector of

M., and Its Application to the

Aeroplane.................. 5

" " Dunne Aeroplane, with scale

drawings ................... 87

" " Solids, Resistance of, and Wind

Deflection .................. 47

" " Wind Tunnels, Comparison of.. 54

Test, of spruce beams.......................... 63

" Signal Corps test of Renault 100 II. P.

motor ................................. 128

Turnbuckle, demountable ...................... io^

Turner "Aviaphone" .......................... 175

LTnited States Signal Corps buys Burgess tractors ........................................ 128

Vilas Crosses Lake Michigan................... 30

War, Aeroplanes in Balkans.................... 206

Wilson Stability Patent........................ 56

Wind, deflections and resistance of Solids, by M.

B. Sellers ........................... 47

Tunnels, A Comparison of, by M. B.

Sellers ........................*. 54

Wood Flies to Washington..................... 74

Wright-Curtiss Suit .......................no, 184

Wright Incidence Indicator.................... 56

Wright, Tenth Anniversary of Flight............ 208

Zeppelin, L-II ................................135-6

Mileage Statistics .................... 204

dition to the operator, fuel sufficient for a flight of ico miles, and to make a speed of 40 miles an hour.

After making some preliminary practice flights at their old experiment grounds near Kitty Hawk in May, 1908, Wilbur Wright went to France to give demonstrations before the French Syndicate and Orville Wright to Washington to deliver the machine to» the United States Signal Corps. The machines used by Wilbur Wright had been standing in bond in the warehouse at Havre since August of the year before. Owing to damage done to the machine in shipment, it was not ready for the official demonstrations until late in the year.

Meanwhile Orville Wright in September, 1908, started demonstrations of the machine contracted for by the United States Govern-* ment. On the 9th he made two flights, one of 57 minutes, and the other one hour and 2 minutes, world's records. On the 10th and* nth, these records were increased, and on the" 12th a ight of 1 hour and 15 minutes wai made. On the 17th, the tests were terminated by an accident in which Lieutenant Selj fridge met his death and Mr. Wright was sfl verely injured, so that he was not able to con« plete the tests until the following year.

Four days after the accident, on 21st ofc September, Wilbur Wright made a flight of 1 hour and 31 minutes at Le Mans, France, whicl record he improved several times during th« following months, and on the 31st of Del cember, won the Michelin Trophy by a flighll in which he remained in the air 2 hours and 2I minutes.

From 1907 to date readers are entirely fal miliar with progress through the reports in< this magazine. A complete chronology of th« flights of the Wright Brothers and all other! up to iqio will be found in William J. Haml mer's "Chronology of Aviation," which can hit had free, upon application to AERONAUTICS.

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47

AERONAUTICS

New and Enlarged Edition, Commencing January, 1914

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77

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I am asked to say something about the ying motorcycle, meaning, in this case, a lotorcycle fitted with wings, but without ir propeller, and intended to make "hops." 'o do this it is obviously necessary to attain

speed during the preliminary run greater lan that required for flying; and then to se up the momentum, due to this excess Deed, in overcoming resistance during the lide. The glide can be made by first sending and then gliding down; or, by a early horizontal flight, using an increasing tigle of attack as the speed diminishes. In ly experience these two methods give

>out the same trajectory.

During the run the wings will be held at

small angle, preferably the angle of least Drizontal resistance; and the type of wing ;sired would be one having a very small Drizontal resistance at this angle, and a msiderable lift combined with good effi-ency at its flying angle. (I shall not con-

sider wing dimensions or profile in this article.) In order to rise it will be necessary either to change the angle of the wings with the machine, or to operate the elevator. As the weight of the rider and engine are between the wheels, it will require considerable force in an elevator to raise the front wheel unless some special provision is made for this.

The wheel can, however, be fitted with extensible fork or spring fork or other device to aid in raising front of machine (I have used a spring balanced rear wheel on my aeroplane for a similar purpose for several years).

One serious difficulty suggests itself, viz.: that of landing. If the machine lands sideways or in an inclined position, there will be likelihood of a smash. I shall not at this time consider the question of dimensions, weight, etc., because I have no data at hand.

THE WRIGHT AUTOMATIC STABILIZER

Orville Wright, who has for some months >en doing active experimenting and test-g with the automatic device, which has ?en patented in various countries (see ctober AERONAUTICS for full abstract

the system), has been awarded the Col-tr trophy for 1913 in consideration of the greatest achievement in aviation" for the ?ar, the practical demonstration of auto-atic stability, despite the fact that the use

the device in 190S-9, when others were arcely flying, was a much greater achieve-ent than that of to-day's date. On De-■mber 31, 1913, Mr. Wright flew before a lecial awards committee. He used only e rudder lever, and at one time made ven successive turns of the same diameter •about one thousand feet. In this raan-•uvre, although a puffy wind was blowing, e machine preserved practically the same ink throughout, and proof that this bank as the correct one was shown by the con-ant altitude of about seventy-five feet, hich was preserved throughout the seven ccessive turns, the machine neither skid-ng nor side slipping.

The apparatus has been greatly simpli-:d over the form described so fully in the ctober number, and any oscillating tenden-ss are overcome. The purpose of the esent experiments are to determine the st form of the apparatus, and since many instruction changes are continually being ade, a detailed description of the device this moment would have no value. The Wright device consists essentially of '0 elements, of course—the one preserves e, lateral stability of the machine, the other eserves the longitudinal, that is, its diving

or rearing. The lateral stability mechanism is functioned by a pendulum. The pendulum preserves its position, and when the machine, due to lateral oscillations, changes its positions with respect to the pendulum, the latter at once operates a mechanism which brings the machine back to a level. The pendulum motion being entirely lateral no accelerations of the machine can start it swinging. The longitudinal stabilizer is functioned by an air vane on the basis that the only correct base line for operation in longitudinal stability is the relation of the aeroplane to the air that is passing through it and is entirely independent of gravity, of the earth's axis or of any other attraction which would involve the use of pendulums, gyroscopes, etc. The reason for this is that very often in flying there are apt to be large bodies of air that have considerable up trend and down trend, and unless a machine preserves its angle of incidence for proper balance in these up trends and down trends irrespective of its relation to the horizontal, it is apt to be upset.

The apparatus banks the machine on turns the proper amount, it prevents "over-controlling." it prevents "stalling," it operates automatically to balance the machine fore and aft and laterally—all that the pilot has to do is to steer and land. The device always operates to the exact extent proper and is a better operator than the man himself. It takes balancing entirely out of the hands of the navigator, though the latter is at all times free to take control himself.

Once a course is set. using the automatic device, and the desired elevation attained,

TECHNICAL TALKS: The Flying Motorcycle

By M. B. SELLERS

the pilot can spend his time conversing, taking notes, pictures or eating and drinking. On a long glide, the usual lever is set for the desired angle and the device again takes care of head-on gusts as well as lateral stability. The same statement can be made for climbing—and the device recently invented, called an Incidence Indicator, described in the August issue, tells the pilot the safe angle of incidence at which to set his machine for the climb.

Mr. Wright stated to AERONAUTICS that inside of ten years—this period was

CURTISS 200-H.P. MOTOR. A new model still of Curtiss motors is in course of production at Hammondsport. This will be rated at 200 h.p., cylinders 5 in.

by 7 in. The chart of expected power issued by the company shows 200 h.p. at 1,600, although at 3,000 r.p.m. the power may run up to 260 h.p. The cylinders are larger bore and stroke than those of any other aeronautical engine. The maximum power is high on account of the high volumetric efficiency effected by two inlet and two exhaust valves, all 2^ in. diameter with 15/32 in. lift. This new motor is known as Model V.

mentioned in the query—people would think no more of entering an aeroplane than stepping in an automobile.

As shown by the September, 1909, number of AERONAUTICS, the automatil stabilizing device is not new with the Wright company. It was even used in act! ual flights in 1908 and 1909 by Orville and Wilbur Wright.

During the exhibition flights with the del vice on Dec. 31, 1913. the wind was 15-20 m.p.h., according to the local weather bui reau.

THE CAR FOR THE AVIATION FIELD.

A little car to travel between railroal stations and the ayAafion field, to run to town with, to carC;a.roimd parts and repaS work, to tow disablejdyplanes off the iielfl and for general utility purposes, ought to find favor with aviators and others whj have much walking to do in connection witl the aeronautical trade. Charlie Merz, thl

Stutz race driver, is the designer of thi very thing, and our old friend, "Talk witl Parsons," 54th street and Broadway, Nev York, sells it, or will to anyone mentioning this magazine. Parsons will even send i circular if you want it. It would be jus line for Sloane to deliver propellers witl Paragon might jack up one wheel and run the band saAV Avith it. "Cap'' Baldwin sureb needs it to save that long walk from Oal wood Heights. And it only costs $43 Fifty miles an hour and 50 miles to tli gallon of gas.

C. C. Winner is at Miami, Fla.. from which poll he plans regular trips to Soldiers Key, Cape Fiend and later to Palm Beach in his Curtiss flying boat.

OXYGEN RESPIRATION AT HIGH ALTITUDES.

The French seem very prejudiced in favor i oxygen and often start using it at only 0.000 feet. In the Gordon-Bennett Race, Jpson and Preston carried a small tube of ■xygen for emergency purposes, but did not se it. The breatbing apparatus consisted sim-•ly of a small gas tight bag connected with lie oxygen tank, and provided with a mouth n'ece through which the oxygen could be readied.

Based on valuable works on the hygiene of ir-navigation by Prof. Dr. von Schroetter, ,11 d the eminent aeronauts, Dr. Fleming, 'Vigand and others, the Draegerwerk has conducted special breathing apparatus for this er "ice.

There are two different types—one for high lltitudes in balloons and the other for aero uid hydro-aeroplanes. The Draeger, for blended high altitude flying, has an oxygen ;tore of 2,000 litres in large twin steel cylin-:lers. In this apparatus is embodied all the experience gained by long years of successful practice in the construction of oxygen inhala-:ion apparatus. Special care was also here :aken in adapting the mask for mouth and nose breathing. The inhalation is started by jpening the valve on the oxygen cylinder. A 'finimeter" allows of the control of the pressure contained in the steel cylinders, and the oxygen consumed per minute can be ascertained from a small manometer. A regulating screw on the reducing valve permits of an adjustment of the oxygen supply, from 1 to 10 litres per minute. The oxygen passes in the first place into an economizer bag, and is from tkence inhaled through a flexible aluminum pipe, which does not hinder the free movement ,of the user. The additional requirements of outside atmosphere is obtained through a small hple in the mask, so that the breathing air is as a rule saturated with 40 per cent, of oxygen, quite sufficient for alveolaric tension. The exhaled air and oxygen surplus escape to the

outside. The working capacity of the apparatus is dependent on the oxygen consumption. If the emergency type provided with 180 litres of oxygen consumes on an average 5 litres per minute, the oxygen store will be sufficient for 36 minutes' breathing. Based on the same average consumption of oxygen, the type to be used for intended high altitude flying supplies one man with air for three to four hours—if twin cylinders are taken up; the same time for two fliers. Special care should be taken that breathing appliances used for aeronautics should be fitted with a reducing valve protected against burning out. as otherwise explosions attended by serious consequences may occur. This apparatus may be obtained from Draeger Oxygen Appliance Co., Pittsburg.

"SKY TRAVEL MADE SAFE."

"An aeroplane that positively won't tip over and which will go faster with a 50 H. P. engine than any other aeroplane with 100 H. P., and which will carry passengers is the invention of John R. Humphrey, of 423 Willard Avenue, Richmond Hill. X. Y.," at least we are so informed by Mr. Humphrey himself in the reading notice he has kindly mailed us.

"Mr. Humphrey has waited until all the improvements and devices he has invented have been amply protected by law before making his discovery known to the world. He has been working on the improvements for sky-traveling for the past three years, and has experimented and tested his machine until he has proven its success beyond the peradventure of a doubt.'' We have Mr. Humphrey's own words for this.

"With this aeroplane the aeronaut [sic.J can fix his steering apparatus rigidly fast and travel over the machine to the engine when anything is out of order and leisurely make the needed repairs or new arrangements of the parts." Running water and conveniences seem to have been omitted.

"One of the most interesting features of this new flying machine is the automatic balancing device. It is so simple that it's a marvel that it was never discovered and applied before. With this device a tyro can sail aloft in this machine and be certain that no matter how adverse the elements or treacherous the air currents the machine will sail serenely along."

"Another interesting thing about the apparatus is the peculiarity of the shape of the new airship [sic. again]. Mr. Humphrey has applied the name of 'Arrow-aeroplane.' 't offers less air resistance than any other sky ship thus far devised and skims through the air practically on the same principle that Nature has embodied in swift birds. It is long and rakish in appearance and answers more readily to the impulse of the machine's power than any aeroplane thus far seen. Technically speaking it is a monoplane." That "long and rakish" is awfully in vogue among reporters.

"Mr. Humphrey has invented many devices, one of his most noted ones being a power-

potato digger, which took the first prize at the State Fair in Minneapolis in 1897, and which is being used widely in the West. One curious thing about the inventor is that he writes verse and has written many volumes. This proves that a man can be a poet and still be practical. His aeroplane promises to be his greatest achievement." If it fulfills the above promises it will dig up more money than ever did a potato digger potatoes.

WHAT IS A RECIPROCATING MOTOR?

November 24, 1913. Editor AERONAUTICS,

122 East 25th Street, City. Dear Sir:

At the last meeting of The Aeronautical Society (Thursday, November 20th), Mr. Emile Berliner gave a talk on the revolving cylinder motor, and in the course of his lecture brought out the point very strongly that his motor was not a reciprocating piston motor. This, I wish to state, is a wrong impression and one which can be easily disproved. The reciprocation is there whether the cylinders revolve or not.

Let us take for example the five cylinder motor as used for demonstration by Mr. Berliner.

Let us consider cylinder No. 1. Here we have the piston in the position ia. In order to have a true rotary motion it should be in the position ib, that is, parallel to the axis of the cylinder, and we see that it is just a distance equal to the length of the crank behind its true position for non-rotary reciprocating motion, if we consider the rotation as clockwise.

In cylinder No. 2 the two positions are not so far apart and for a cylinder at a position exactly above in a line with the centers of the crank-pin and the crank-shaft they coincide. As we pass on around the cycle to position of cylinder No. 3 the difference again begins t:> increase, but is now ahead of its "non-reciprocating" position. For a cylinder in the horizontal position on this side the piston will be just as far in advance of its true position as it was behind on the opposite side. Again at the bottom we find a position of coincidence

and from there to the top it again falls behind. Thus we see that in one revolution the piston has reciprocated a distance equal to twice the length of the crank or exactly equB to the stroke of the motor, which is the sanB as the reciprocation of the ordinary |fixdj cylinder motor.

The fact that the angles between the connecB ing rods vary, being less on the side away froB the crank, shows that the pistons get clostB together and farther apart alternately durinH the revolution, shows this very clearly.

Angular ~Posi t io f) Of Crank „,r

Another erroneous idea is that which onB might be led to believe from the statement by Mr. Berliner that there is a loss of power in accelerating the reciprocating parts, and in slowing down and reversing the direction of motion of these parts. If we plot a cur\H showing the relation between the work or energy of the piston of any reciprocating piston motor and the angular position of the craifl we obtain a curve of the type shown in Fig. 2. During the first part of the stroke energy is put into the piston in the form of momentunH the velocity increasing up to the point that till connecting rod is tangent to the crank-circlB From there on, the piston must slow down anl in so doing acts as a flywheel, giving up its energy to keep the crank in motion, to coirB press the fresh charge or to eject the burnl gases as the case may be. The only loss is the friction loss, which is common to all typeB of engines, reciprocating or otherwise.

Hoping that this letter may be printed in your next issue, while the subject is still fresl in the minds of those who heard the lecturB as I think the matter one of great importance! I remain,

Yours sincerely,

Ralph S. Barnaby.

257 Hamilton Avenue,

New Brighton, Staten Island.

' I guess I'm one of the earliest settlers, all rightl" -ScsiiterjX

TO MAKE A YAW METER.

Is the little piece of string used by Wright aviators to detect side-slipping, which string caused so much unsatisfied curiosity when Orville Wright was making the first flights at Washington, now to be displaced by an instrument, which does exactly the same thing? The Wright bit of "rag" is not possible on monoplanes but the instrument may be.

A "yaw-meter" is an instrument that measures, if the air is at rest, the angle that the direction of movement of an aeroplane makes with its keel, and at once indicates a "sideslip." If one considers an aeroplane at rest and the air blowing against it, it measures how nearly the direction of the wind is "head-on." "If an eddy in the moving air meets the aeroplane, the direction of the wind will change and this will be indicated. A wind-vane carried by an airship or aeroplane would also show how nearly the movement was head-on in the same way as the yaw-meter. But the wind vane would be difficult to read when

placed in a position free from eddies in the air caused by the aircraft itself. With the yaw-meter the dial and hand can be placed in a convenient place for observation," states Horace Darwin in the first "Wilbur Wright Memorial Lecture" before the British Aeronautical Society, a talk on scientific instruments.

"Two Pitot tubes are made like the letter

Y (see figure) with the openings at the tops of the two arms. If the wind blows symmetrically to the two tubes the pressure will be equal in both. But if the direction of the wind changes it will meet the opening at the end of one tube more nearly in the direction in which the tube is pointing, and the pressure will be increased. The opposite will take place in the other Pitot tube and the pressure in it will be diminished.

"The pressure from these two Pitot tubes is taken by two pipes to the indicating apparatus which can be at any convenient distance away. Each tube is connected to a circular box the top of which is an airtight flexible diaphragm which can move outwards. A rod is connected to each diaphragm, and these rods are pushed outwards by the air pressure.

"The hand indicating the angle of "yaw," that is the angle at which the air meets the

Y Pitot tube, is pivoted about the point 0,

and is continued to P. At this point it is connected to the two rods from the diaphragms by a freely moving joint. If one rod pushes with a greater force than the other the hand is moved over to one side, and it will come to rest when OP is in the direction of the resultant of the forces with which the two rods are pushed outwards, and when it is in equilibrium the hand will show on the scale the angle of yaw. If the speed of the aeroplane increases the hand will not move because the air pressure and consequently the pushing forces in the two rods will both be increased in the same ratio.

"The same instrument can be connected to a wind-vane which moves the Y Pitot tubes so as to face the wind. The tubes are arranged to show if the wind has an upward or downward tendency and the angle between the direction of the wind and a horizontal plane is measured."

PERRIN LIFE PRESERVER.

A novel collapsible life preserver has been marketed by a Frenchman named Perrin. A couple of bags hang deflated over one's breast. These may be quickly inflated, on the occasion of a descent or fall into water, by means of a small tube of compressed air, for which a pocket is arranged in one of the floats.

The outfit consists of a well-made and comfortably shaped airbag of rubberized fabric; it slips on and fastens in front, more or less in the fashion of a vest, and in its deflated condition is not in the way. Inflation is

achieved with the help of a tube some four or five inches long, containing air, highly compressed. This cylinder is placed in a receptacle made for it in one corner of the belt, and the pressure of a thumb upon an external lever suffices to puncture the cylinder's cap and allow its contents to expand into the airtight bag. Thus the belt or "brace" may be worn without inconvenience, deflated, and may be inflated immediately when the unde-sired emergency occurs.

OFFICIAL REPORT ON ELLINGTON-KELLY ACCIDENT.

The following is the summary of the official report in the case of the accident to Lieuts. Ellington and Kelly. About 7 o'clock on the morning of November 24, Lieut. Ellington, Chief Instructor on the Wright machines, made a flight in aeroplane No. 14, and found that the engine and machine were in excellent condition. On landing, both he and Lieut. Kelly inspected the machine and left the ground. When a mile from the hangars, the machine was seen to descend at a normal gliding angle, beginning at about 200 feet from the ground; the glide continued until about 75 feet from the ground, when the angle of glide suddenly steepened into a headlong plunge, and at the moment of striking the ground the machine was nearly vertical. The machine was practically a new one, having been only a total of 34 minutes in the air before the flight in which the accident occurred.

The students at San Diego made 289 flights, with a total of 43 hours and 34 minutes, during the month of November.

NEW CORPORATIONS.

The Ostend Aerial Navigation Co., Cincinnati, O.; manufacturing and dealing in airships; $15,000. The incorporators are Charles E. Droste, W. H. Droste, Laura Kelcher, Joseph Ostend, Dave Ostend and Agron Strashem.

The Grinnell (Iowa) Aeroplane Co. has come into existence, with the following business men as incorporators: D. S. Morrison, president; F. H. Gifford, vice-president; W. C. Robinson, secretary; E. B. Brande, treasurer; H. W. Spaulding, B. J. Ricker and Jesse L. Fellows.

Connecticut Aeroplane Company, of New Haven, $500,000 paid in. Officers: President and treasurer, Everard Thompson: vice president, E. A. Mullikin; secretary, Samuel C. Morehouse, all of New Haven.

NEW COURSE AT MASSACHUSETTS TECHNOLOGY IN AERODYNAMICS.

Before the Alumni Council of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology at its last meeting, Lieut. Jerome C. Hunsaker, U. S. N., outlined some of the needs of education in aerodynamics, with suggestions as to the courses that are to be offered in the study at the institute. President Maclaurin's recent report to the corporation announced the establishment of the courses, making Tech. the first educational institution in the country to begin the work of making adequate provision for developing the science of aeronautics. Lieut. Hunsaker, who lcceived his M.S. from Tech. in 1912, has been detailed by the Secretary of the Navy for duty at the institute, and having spent the summer abroad, presents now an outline of the plans. Incidental to this exposition were a brief history of the development of aerodynamics and a sketch of what is being done in Europe educationally, experimentally and in aeronautics.

Lieut. Hunsaker dwelt on the fact that the real advances in the making of machines must depend on the man technically trained. It lies with the technical schools therefore to be ready to prepare men for the specialty of aerodynamic work. It is only a question of time when aerial navigation will present its problems to the engineer, and the engineers must be ready.

The speaker was careful to indicate that at the present time the principal demand for engineers of the special kind is from governments. He sees no great present demand for such men in work not fostered by such authorities, and sees no immediate future either for commercial use or for sport. But

it is the fact that the governments of Great Britain J France, Germany, Russia, Austria, Italy, Greece, etc.] are all actively at work with the flying machine; he] believes it to be the results of the solution of tacticall problems and that all these powers are not united inl making a mistake. For that reason, therefore, theJ United States must adopt similar methods. It is not] impossible that the demand for skilled specialists mayl be sudden, and it is exceedingly desirable that a bodyl of men be already educated in the special lines that] will be needed in the development of air-craft. Mr] Hunsaker believes it would be unfair to students^ to] make of them nothing but engineers of aerodynamics, for it may be some time before such specialists arel in demand, but at the same time he realizes that] with the engineering training already established at Technology, it is practicable and not difficult to inl stitute courses which will replace certain present options by other ones which bear directly on this specialty.

"Such a course," he said, "would presume goodl preparation and could be given in one year's time! There should be instruction in advanced mathematics! rigid dynamics, fluid dynamics, experimental aerodyl namics, explosion motors, meteorology, propeller, aero! plane and dirigible design, patent law, physics of gases, chemistry of hydrogen and general mathel matics of flight." A wind tunnel of the type usecl in England will be necessary, and is to be installed] without waiting for Technology to get to its new! home.

An aerodynamic laboratory will be desirable and! necessary both for research and industrial testing! The designs made by a student can be tested by hini-l self in the wind tunnel and proved good or bad! Further than this, if a systematic series of models! should be designed and tested, some contribution tol knowledge must inevitably follow. Motor testing! should also be provided for the engines of air craft! in a way especially fitted for their peculiarities.

For the present, it is proposed to give courses in general aeronautics and aeroplane design to the of-l ficers of the United States navy who are under in-l struction in the department of Naval Architecture,! and to the senior class in mechanical engineering as! an option. By next year it is hoped there will bel sufficient interest to warrant a complete graduatel course in aeronautical engineering. A small special! laboratory will be equipped in the near future.

HALL-SCOTT GET 141-H.P. FROM NEW MOTOR.

The Hall-Scott Company reports that the latest test' of one of their new 100 h. p. 8 cyl. motors, 134 and 141 b. h. p. were obtained at 1,500 r. p m. The test was run during a period of three days, and at no time, the company states, was less than 131 b. Ii. p. obtained at 1,500 r. p. m. The factory reports a rush of orders and fine prospects.

NEW HAMILTON "AEROBOAT."

A surprise^ is promised in the new Hamilton aero-boat, which is now nearing completion. It is of the motor-in-the-hull type, and has many new features that should make it very popular the coming season. One of the features will be the standardized construction system in building. The makers intend to build them in groups, and all alike, instead of each and every machine a new model with several experiments attached. By this system cost of production will be greatly reduced, without in any way interfering with the quality. Should a customer require a spare part, it will be ready to install without a lot of fitting. _ The Hamilton people are also establishing a chain of agencies that will be at the service of the owner of the Hamilton product. In fact, thev are modeling their organization along the lines of modern automobile practice.

Aeronautics Issues Semi-Monthly

BEGINNING with the first of 1914, AERONAUTICS will be issued twice a month, on the I5th and 30th. The first January Number will appear January 1.1th ; the second January Number will be mailed January 30th. Advertisements will appear every issue or every other issue as desired by advertisers. The price of single issues will be 15 cents.

THINGS are moving more swiftly these days. The "slump" in aeronautics in this country is over. Whatever of industry there is is now solid and growth from now on will be real. "There will be more done in the next 18 months than has been done to date in aeronautics."

THE aeronautical manufacturers are most enthusiastic over the announcement that AERONAUTICS is to be a semi-monthly, the first in this country. "If any magazine gives value received it is AERONAUTICS." "We think the time is about ripe for such a step and no doubt will make AERONAUTICS more popular than ever." "It will increase the field of AERONAUTICS' usefulness to a great extent." With such whole-hearted support from the trade, and with the generous endorsement of the readers, which AERONAUTICS has always enjoyed, the future holds no limitations.

WILL my good friends, the readers, show their so often expressed appreciation of the magazine in an active way? Will you, friends, see that your town library subscribes? If you know of someone who may be interested in the magazine, will you send me his name for a sample copy? Will you induce your clubs' secretaries to subscribe to AERONAUTICS? If there is an educational institution in your town, will you say a word? Wherever you can find an opportunity, will you boost for aeronautics and the magazine?

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If the Hamilton aeroboat is anywhere near what the builders claim, the price of $2,150 should make them very popular. Their years of experience have taught them that economy in construction and a reasonable selling price are required to interest the majority of prospects. They will market both two and three-seat aeroboats, the first lot of which are now under construction. One of their machines, which was sold through advertising in AERONAUTICS to H. W. Kenzie in New Zealand, was flown by a sixteen-year-old boy for fifteen minutes the first time in the air.

FOWLER'S INSPECTION FLIGHTS.

Robert G. Fowler deserves no little credit for the good flights he has been making during his contract to inspect the power wires of the Great Western Power Co. Two notable flights were of 175 and 200 miles respectively. It took 2 hours and 17 minutes to make 70 miles during the first flight mentioned, on account of the high wind. The other course necessitated flying with his passenger over Mt. Diablo, at an altitude of 5,000 feet.

AN APPRECIATION.

Mr. E. L. Jones, Editor AERONAUTICS.

Dear Sir: Will you be good enough to give space to this inadequate expression of my thanks to those two staunch and steady, tried and trusty friends who permitted me to use their names and gave their time in the important and patriotic campaign started for a certain purpose, of which many readers of this magazine are aware. These gentlemen, Mr. C. J. Hall, of the Union Savings Bank and Trust Co., and Mr. W. W. Gibbs, vice-president of the German-American Savings Bank, Los Angeles, gave their services for the national campaign as if they knew what our European friends do in such campaigns. Service is the great thing in this world. It is to be hoped that the rest of us will do our part during the coming months. Sincerely yours,

C. W. SIRCH.

NAVAL AERONAUTICS—AIR CRAFT WILL TAKE THEIR PLACE IN THE FLEET.

The Secretary of the Navy has decided that the science of aerial navigation has reached that point where air craft must form a large part of our naval force for offensive and defensive operations. Nearly all countries having a navy are giving attention to this subject. This country has not fully recognized the value of aeronautics in preparing for war, but it is believed that we should take our proper place.

This is the policy that has been adopted. Captain W. I. Chambers, U. S. N., retired, in charge of aviation in the navy, is recognized as one of the leading men in this science in the world. Lieut. John H. Towers, U. S. N., an aviator of recognized ability, has had charge of the aviation camp at Annapolis, under Captain Chambers. He has contributed largely to the development of naval aviation by practical work in experimentation and in training personnel for flying. Several other officers and a detachment of men are working with Lieut. Towers. The navy has other qualified aviators and some students of aviation to assist in further development.

Captain Chambers will continue his excellent work at the Navy Department. Captain Mark L. Bristol has been assigned to the study and development of the art of aerial warfare for the navy.

It has been decided by a board of naval officers that Pensacola is the best location in this country for a naval aeronautical center. The Secretary has approved the findings of this board, and selected the naval station at Pensacola, Fla., for a naval aeronautical station. The aviation camp at Annapolis will be transferred there, and a flying school, in charge of Lieut. Towers, will be permanently established. The battleship Mississippi has been detached from the reserve fleet and assigned as aeronautical station ship at Pensacola. She will sail in a few days. Lieut. Commander II. C. Mustin, a qualified aviator, student of aviation and an officer of much mechanical ability, has been assigned to special aeronautical duty on board the Mississippi. He is to take up the problem of the work of air craft at sea with the fleet.

This new impetus to aeronautics in our navy is only the beginning of a program that has been mapped

out. The flying school at Tensacola, working with the Mississippi, will produce trained personnel and evolvl a complete system of training. A scheme for systl matically carrying out experiments and tests and bringing outside experts into close touch with our work will be developed. The designers of air cral in the United States, and of the world if possibll will be invited and induced by substantial financil assistance to provide for our navy the best type of air craft obtainable. The question of airships has already been considered. The purchase of airship! for experiment and the training of personnel will be taken up soon. The manufacture of air craft in this country will be encouraged.

When the Navy Department goes to Congress for financial assistance, it will not be based upon theoriel but upon actual experience and practical results.

BEACHEY'S LOOP RECORD.

During the month more than 100,000 people ha\l paid to see Beachey fly. From Oakland and LcB Angeles, he starts for a tour of the world via Aul traha, stopping at Honolulu.

From Dec. 13th to Jan. 1st Beachey flew in fi\l cities, looping the loop some thirty-eight times and flying upside down twenty-seven times.

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS.

Imports of 'Planes and Parts.

October...................................$ 108

For 10 months ending October 1............. 19,625

Exports of Domestic 'Planes and Parts.

October...................................$ 1,015

For 10 months ending October 16............ 64,17!

Exports of Foreign 'Planes and Parts.

October ...................................$ 900

For 10 months ending October 2............. n,2;B

In Warehouse. October 31—Three ..........................$7>6B

NO SPEED FREAKS IN 1914 RACE. I

The regulations governing the 1914 race for the III ternational Cup, which will be held in France ovdl a 200-kilometre course, provide that competing machines will have to compete in preliminary tests oveB a straight line out and hack of about two kilometre! at a mean speed of not more than 70 kilometres (43« miles) an hour. In this test the machine must cariH sufficient petrol and oil to cover the whole of the course of 200 kilometres. Three attempts will be allowed each competitor._ After this qualifying te! has been passed, no modification may be made to til machine. Repairs will only De allowed with the pel mission and under the control of the stewards.

SETS NEW ALTITUDE RECORD.

Saint Raphael, France, Dec. 27.—The world's altitude record fur aeroplanes was broken to-day by Georges Legagneux, who ascended to a height of 20,295 feet in his monoplane. The duration of the flight was 1 hour and 35 minutes.

FIVE NEW ZEPPELINS.

Five new Zeppelins are to be ready by April; twl for the Germany army, two for the navy, and till fifth is for passenger service on Lake Constance.

AUTO MOTOR RUNS 14 DAYS.

Of the accessories fitted to the Moline-Knigll sleeve-valve engine, which on January 2d complete! the 336-hour test, none shows up more prominent! than the Bosch magneto and the Bosch plugs. TheJ important attributes of the engine were subjected to a difficult trial, having passed through the 336-houl test, the preliminary runs, the horsepower test and the 5-hour economy test without being touched or adjusted in any manner whatsoever, and neither til magneto nor the plugs missed an explosion durinl the entire time.

One gains an idea of what the ignition system pel formed during the 336-hour test when it is know! that over 44,352,000 sparks were produced by the magneto and 11,088,000 sparks passed across till

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The craft is perfectly adapted to the use of sporlsmen as a machine for safe and comfortable travel over water at high speed.

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A. V. JONES, Pres't ERNEST L. JONES, Treas'r-Sec'y

ERNEST L. JONES, Editor M. B. SELLERS, Technical Editor

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JANUARY 15, 1914 Vol. XIV, No. 1

Entered as second-class matter September 22, 1908, at tbe Postoffiee, New York, under tbe Act of Marcb 3, 1879.

<I AERONAUTICS is issued on the 15th and 30th of each Month. All copy must be received 6 days before date of publication. If proof is to be shown, allowance must be made for mailing.

<jMake all checks or money orders free of exchange and payable to AERONAUTICS. Do not send currency. No foreign stamps accepted.

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electrodes of each of the four plugs. It took just 88,704,000 separate movements of the magneto contact breaker to produce these sparks.

This is an unprecedented performance. The motor ran without any stop whatever for 336 hours, with wide-open throttle and set spark, at an average speed of 1,117 revolutions per minute, giving an average brake horsepower of 38.3. The lowest horsepower reading for any fifteen-minute interval during the entire 336 hours was 36.4.

At the end of the 336 hours, without stopping the motor, the speed was increased and the motor developed an average of 53 brake horsepower for a period of one hour, while averaging 1,670 revolutions per minute.

Prior to and following the endurance run, a series of short tests were made, with wide-open throttle and spark set for maximum power, to determine the power, friction and fuel consumption of the motor at various speeds. The same carbureter setting employed during the endurance run was used in these runs. The maximum brake power shown in these tests was 53.6, at 1,682 revolutions per minute.

The motor was dismantled before and after the test to permit careful inspection. At the end of the test the parts of the motor were, without exception, in excellent condition. There was no perceptible wear on the bearings, sleeves or other parts.

ST. PETERSBURG-TAMPA AIRBOAT LINE.

The St. Petersburg-Tampa (Fla.) Airboat Line announces its 1914 schedule. Boats leave St. Petersburg daily at 10 a. m. and 2 p. m., returning from Tampa at 11 a. in. and 3 p. 111. The popular captain, Tony Jannus, remains on the bridge this year as usual. A change has been made in rates, however-—-quite a reduction, in fact, from previous schedules: $5 per trip, round trip $10. Passengers are allowed 200 lbs. gross, including hand baggage. Excess is charged at ?5 per 100 lbs., minimum charge 25 cents. Express rates for packages, mail matter, etc., $5 per 100 lbs., minimum charge 25 cents. Fat men over 200 lbs. pay for excess baggage.

Captain Jannus began this season's daily trips from St. Petersburg across the water to Tampa on January 1, Mayor Pfeil, of the former city, bidding the privilege of the first flight up to $400, while N. A. Mitchell paid $175 for the second. The over-water trip takes from 19 to 23 minutes.

The new vessel is the product of the Benoist air ship building plant at St. Louis and follows standard commercial packet lines. Little attention has been given to luxuries; in fact, there are no staterooms at all on this boat.

Tony Jannus made himself known to New Yorkers in the race around Manhattan on Columbus Day last when he piloted to its dock the good ship Benoist in a 43 mile wind. With progress in these air cruiser packets, we will doubtless soon come to vessels more or less analogous to the old luxurious steamers of 1913, which oldest inhabitants will remember with fond recollections.

Entering the above in my diary after an interesting discourse with Mr. Foss, the engine builder, to bed, albeit 1 would much rather stay up awhile and see the new mail boats with their great lights make a patchwork of the upper air.

AERO MAIL BILL MAY BE KILLED.

The bill to provide for experimental carrying of mails in certain parts of the United States where it now takes many days for the delivery of pouches is meeting with strenuous opposition on the part of hard headed Congressmen. The greater need is for aeroplanes and dirigibles for the Army and Navy and efforts should be concentrated towards proper appropriations in this respect rather than for mails.

BEACHEY FLIES INSIDE BUILDING.

Lincoln Beachey again demonstrated his own superior technique and at the same time evidenced the great accuracy with which he handles his Curtiss biplane, when be flew around inside Machinery Hall at the Panama Exposition grounds in San Francisco last week. He started his flight with his "loop" machine (see AERONAUTICS for November, 1913) outside the building, then swooped through the doorway and around the great building. Machinery Hall is some 900 ft. long and the arches are 75 ft. wide. In flight Beachey is said to have had no difficulty, but in landing it is reported he ran into a big net, set at one end of the hall for his protection, and slightly damaged his machine. He was quite uninjured and the 1 machine so slightly that it was ready for the exhibitions he gave next day. Beachey is. booked to start round the world next week.

CURTISS 'PLANES WITH AUTOMATIC STABILIZER.

Two Curtiss aeroplanes equipped with automatic stabilizers are entered in the $77,200 prize contest to be conducted in France, beginning in February, by the Aero Club of France for L'Union pour la Securite en Aeroplanes (see p. 152, August issue). One of the machines is now in Paris, while the other is being prepared here for final tests and will be shipped soon.

Mr. Curtiss, working with the United States Army aviation corps, and the U. S. Navy aviation corps, and the Sperry gyroscope company, has devoted much time to the problem since 1912. Tests made during the past season were so satisfactory that the device was entered for the competition inaugurated by the Union Pour La Securite en Aeroplans several months ago. More recently a second Curtiss machine, to be equipped with another device which has passed the severest tests, was entered and will be shipped in time for the elimination trials. Little publicity has been given the trials here.

MACKAY TROPHY WON AT RECORD BREAKING SPEED.

Flying 58 miles in 46 minutes, locating and accurately describing an advancing "enemy," and finishing the flight with a glide of S miles to within 25 ft. of a prearranged landing mark, won the Mackay Trophy for Lieutenant Joseph C. Carberry, Sixth Infantry. The flight was made in the latest Curtis military tractor delivered to the U. S. Army aviation corps at San Diego, equipped with a Curtiss 90-100 h.p. motor, on December 30th.

Lieutenant Fred Seydel, C. A. C, accompanied Lieutenant Carberry on the record breaking flight as official observer.

Flying at an altitude of 3,500 feet the aviators searched the country for the expected enemy and when well over Point Loma discovered the troops which had left Fort Rosecrans at 7 a. m. Indicating the number of troops, their marching speed and direction on the map, they swung about and flew back to Encinitas.

Orville Wright says flying now is fool-proof. This is gratifying—because it is the only thing that is.— N. V. Eve. Sun.

Ilaldeman von Figyelmessy is doing some good work-on IStaten Island with the Curtiss engine tractor of O. E. Williams. Fig.-etc. doesn't at all mind turning over in the air a couple of times with a loose engine bed and getting thrown out. Never heard that it was part of the Tlammondsport course to fall three stories on one's head to get a degree. Perhaps Ilaldeman von F. was only doing post-graduate work.

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NAVY RECEIVES MORE FLYING BOATS.

Three more Curtiss flying boats and an O. YV. L. have been delivered to the U. S. Navy. The C-3 was tried Dec. 7 at Hammondsport and showed 60 m.p.h., minimum 45 m.p.h., with Lieut. B. L. Smith and Ensign Chevalier in the machine. She readily car-tied three people and 25 gallons of gas, total weight 500 lbs. Left the water inside of 1,500 ft., climbed 1,500 ft. in 13 minutes and made an endurance run of an hour. This machine was packed for transport with the marines to Culebra for winter maneouvres.

The C-4 and the C-5 were tested at Annapolis on Dec. 24. The maximum speed of eacli was, respectively, 64.157 and 59.052 m.p.h. The minimum speeds were, respectively, 45.033 and 49.672 in.p.li., the apparent shortcoming in C-5 being due to lack of time to adjust motor. C-5 left the water in 1,100 ft. and climbed at the rate of 143 ft. per minute. The oil consumption was 5 pts. per hour and the fuel consumption y'.% gals, per hour. C-4 left the water in a run of 1,000 ft. and climbed at the rate of 150 ft. per minute to 1,500 ft. Oil and gas consumption, respectively, 4 pts. and 8 gals, per hour.

The O. VV. L. Cover land and water) machine, the E-i, is a modified Curtiss hydroaeroplane, fitted with v heels, running in rectangular slots in the pontoon. These wheels can be drawn up out of the way and fixed stationary by a lever. This machine has also gone to Culebra. The first tests of this experimental type, hastily constructed, were highly satisfactory, showing a speed range of 44 to 65 m.p.h., with surprising maneouvering qualities in the air and splendid adaptability for work on botli land and water.

BOOKS RECEIVED.

FLIEGERKURZ. Leitfaden für Militär-und Zivilflieger, von Josef Klassig, k. u. k. Leutnant und Feldpilot der Oesterreich!' sehen Luftschifferabteilung. i6ino, cloth, 164 illustrations and tables, charts and drawings, publishcd at K. 7.20 by R. v. Waldheitn, Jos. Eberle & Co., Andreasgasse 17, Wien VII, Austria.

Contents include: DIE PHYSIKALISCHEN UND METEOROLOGISCHEN EIGENSCHAFTEN DER I.UST—Physikalische Eigenschaften, Der Luftdruck, Die Lufttemperatur, Der Wind, Die Luftfeuchtigkeit. DER LUFTWIDERSTAND—Senkrechter Luftstofs, Schiefer Lnftstots, Stirnwiderstand auf Stäbe, Änderung des Luftwiderstandes durch die Form des Körpers, Widerstände von Streben und Seilen, Wirkung der strömenden Luft auf gewölbte Flachen, Versuche von Lilienthal, der Cottinger Anstalt und der Versuche von Eiffel, Der Luftwinderstand bei Drachen-fleigern, Die Berechnung von Propellern. DIE FLUGMASCIIINE—Der Rumpf, Die Steuerung, Die Die Kolben, Die Kolbenringe, Das Motorgehäuse, Vcrwindung. DER BENZINMOTOR—Die Zylinder, Yorang hei der Zündung. Zündvorrichtungen, Die Wichtigsten Vergastertypen, Die Arbeitsweise des Benzinmotors. Instandhaltung des Motors und Repara-turdesselbcn, Visiticrungstabelle, Störungen am Motor, Die Typen der Aeromotoren, Bremstande. BENZIN UND OL—Die chemische Untersuchung der Brennstoffe, Die chemisch-physikalische Untersuchung der Schmiermittel. MATERTALKUNDE—Das Holz, Eisen & Stahl, Zink, Kupfer, Blei, Zinn, Nickel, Aluminium, Legierungen, Zugfestigkeit der Metalle und deren Legierungen, Zugfestigkeit von Drahten, Das Loten, Das Schweifscn, Das Harten. FESTIGKEITSLEHRE —Zulassige Spannungen, Festigkeit gerader Stahe, Zusammengesetzte Festigkeit, Belastungsfalle beim Flugzeugbau. DIE SCHULE DES FLIEGENS— Dienstordnung und Direcktiven fur den Pilotenkurs, Die Haftpflicht fur die Flieger, Die Ausbildung im Flieeen. FLUGTECHNISCHE PHOTOGRAPHIE ANHANG—Organisatorische Bestimmungen fur die Luftschifferabteilung, M eldeformular, Die Sportkommissare fur Fltigmachinen, Die Prufungskommissare, Die neuen Bestimmungen, Die Fédération Aéronautique Internationale, Lizenz.

COURT GIVES WRIGHT DECISION New York, Jan. 14.—Yesterday the U. S. Circuit Court handed down an opinion in favor of the plaintiff in the Wright-Curtiss suit. Full abstract of decision in next issue.

FLYING AT PANAMA-PACIFIC.

The flying at the Exposition grounds has been truly wonderful. Every Sunday there are at least six hydros, and sometimes ten, giving beautiful demonstrations of the modern water craft, its efficiency, speed and reliability. "Beachey's stunt is wonderful. At first I did not think much of it from hearing others talk ahout it, but, believe me, when 1 say it, is worth walking miles to see."

At the Paris Exhibition, December 25th, there were 65 pieces of apparatus on which ignition systems were fitted. Of these 65, 56, or 86<%, used the Bosch magneto. The balance was divided among three other makes of ignition systems.

In the national award for the best distance covered in 24 hours, Bosch-equipped aeroplanes made a clean sweep, winning all prizes from 1 to 6, inclusive.

Prize 1 was won by Stoeffler—Aviatik monoplane, Mercedes engine, Bosch magneto. Stoeffler covered 2,079 kilometers, about 1,291 miles, which is a world's record. Ifis prize was 100,000 marks, or $25,000.

The second prize, Schlegel—Gotha monoplane, Mercedes engine, Bosch magneto. Distance, 1,497 kilometers. Prize, 60,000 marks.

Third prize, Caspar—Gotha Hansa monoplane, Mercedes engine, Bosch magneto. 1,381 kilometers.

Fourth prize, Thelen—Albatros biplane, Mercedes engine, Bosch magneto. 1,373 kilometers.

Fifth prize, Kastner—Albatros monoplane, Mercedes engine, Bosch magneto. 1,228 kilometers.

Sixth prize, Geyer—Aviatik biplane, Mercedes engine, Bosch magneto. 1,173 kilometers.

AERO MART.

SACRIFICE—A Curtiss type biplane, flown by one of America's most famous aviators, with 8 cyl. Ilall-Scott 60 II. P. motor, all in Ai condition, for $1,350 cash, subject to demonstration to bona-fide purchaser. Shipping boxes, propeller, crates, completely equipped for the road. Free instruction in flight to purchaser at well-known flying field. The best bargain of the season. Opportunity knocks but once at every man's door. Address -'Sacrifice," care of AERONAUTICS, 122 E. 25th St., New York.

AVIATOR WANTED—Can use a good aviator who can fly exhibitions, make repairs, build, etc., a first-class all-around man. Fair salary year round. Address, with references, Aviator, care of AERONAUTICS, 122 E. 25th St., New York.

On Board S. S. Coamo,

Nov. 28, 1913.

Mr. Jones,

Editor of AERONAUTICS, New York City.

My Dear Sir,—Read with regret that Mr. Brown is retiring from aviation. Perhaps Mr. Stevens can use him as an assistant on the bee farm he became interested in at Rio Pcdras, Porto Rico. He told me personally when I met him on the island that he would supply much honey to the world by his millions of bees. I wish both of those gentlemen luck, and hope they will not get stuck as my friend Mr. Beachey did with his sugar. Perhaps Mr. Stevens' idea is to have the bees carry the honey from the sugar cane that Beachey left behind. Leave it to him.

With my best wishes to you, I beg to remain,

Cordially, (Signed) Antonio Morales.

PATENTS

SECURED or FEE RETURNED VICTOR J. EVANS & COMPANY

Send sketch or model for FRKE search of Patent Office record. Write for our Guide Books and What to Invent with valuable List of Invenlions Wanted sent Free. Send for our special list of prizes ottered for Aeroplanes. $600,000 offered in prizes for airships. We are Kxperts in Aeronautics and have a special Aeronautical Department. Copies of Patents in Airships, 10 cents each.

Main Offices: 724-726 NINTH STREET, N. W.

WASHINGTON. D. C.

■ t^7$tJf DON'T *,ile us ?rless

■■*H=3-: J-»V»11 a you are ,nter.

I ested in a reliable, efficient f3si ar^econcrricflrowerplant. Ja j : I'-^y 11 at is the cr,ly kind we

1-4.1 -

r our sizes. Reasonable Prices

Kemp Machine Works

Muncie, Ind.

ALL AERO BOOKS FOR SALE BY

AERONAUTICS

122 E.25 St., New York

tents

C. L. PARKER

Ex-membcr Examining Corps, U. S. Patent Oltioe Attorney-at-L»w and Solicitor of Patents

American and foreign patents secured promptly and with special regard to the complete legal protection of the invention. Handbook for inventors sent upon request. 30 M-GiII BMe. WASHINGTON, D. C.

We wish to announce the 1914 models of the

Hamilton Aeroboat

60-70 H. P., $2,150

Two-seater

90-100 H. P., $2,700

Three-seater

Just what you have been waiting for. The price is made possible only by quantity production. It is our aim to make this Aeroboat the same to aviation as the Ford is to the auto realm. If you are interested in this new model, just drop us a line lor full particulars. Also ask for a copy of our catalog, "Everything Aviatic," all that the name implies.

HAMILTON AERO MFG. CO.

208 Thirtieth Avenue

Seattle, Wash.

HALL-SCOTT MOTORS

Tom Gunn, the greatest Chinese Pilot, making one of his spectacular flights at Honolulu, H. I., using 60 h.p. HALL-SCOTT power plant.

"Investigate the 100 h. p. Hall-Scott"

Two of the best pilots in the United States have, with the result that this /"powerful motor will ' equip their flying boats for the coming year.

Write fur catalogues iipon our motors

Hall-Scott Motor Car Co.

818 Crocker Bldg. San Francisco Ctl.

PEDERSEN OIL PUMPS

have positive action, are small and light, easily applied to any motor

•—--~Write for circular ~~

PEDERSEN LUBRICATOR CO,

636-644 First Avenue, New York, U.S.A.

This page contracted for by

A. LEO STEVENS

FOR NEXT ISSUE

FOR FLYING BOATS USE

JEFFERY'S MARINE GLUE

Use our Waterproof Liquid Glue, or No. 7 Black, While, or Yellow Soft Quality (Hue for waterproofing the canvas covering of flying boats. It not only waterproofs and preserves the canvas but attaches it to the wood, and with a coat of paint once a year will last as long as the boat.

For use in combination with calico or canvas between veneer in diagonal planking, and for waterproofing muslin for wing surfaces. Send for samples, circulars, directions for use, etc.

L. W. FERDINAND & CO. 201 South Street, Boston, Mass., U. S. A.

< BENOIST «g

ANNOUNCEMENT

The Benoist School of Aviation will open on January 1st, at St. Petersburg, Florida. The school will be under the personal supervision of Tom W. Benoist and Tony Jannus. We will also conduct the first regular schedule passenger-carrying air line in the world, St. Petersburg to Tampa, Fla. Students who want to join the school and prospective agents who want their territory for the exclusive sale of our flying boats will do well to address

The Xcw Benoist Fttiinv Boat in Action

BENOIST AIR CRAFT COMPANY

St. Louis, Missouri or St. Petersburg, Florida

GYRO MOTOR

50 H.P.

160 POUNDS

80 H.P.

207 POUNDS

.Built of Nickel Steel and Vanadium Steel Throughout

Endurance Flying Record to Date, 4 hrs., 23 min.

From

"FLIGHT"

July 26th, 1913

"Some may say—to the obvious benefit of the Company whose representatives have adopted his very practical method of calling attention to the GYRO engine (50 h.p.) that it is all due to the motor, which probably develops about three times as much power as the machine requires for the purposes of straightforward flight."

Send for Catalog

THE GYR0 MOTOR COMPANY, 774 Girard Street, Washington, D. C.

ALL MARINE FLYERS

Should investigate the merits of the Three-Bladed Paragons. Smaller Size than corresponding two blades, with fine lines of design, make them turn more freely. Free turning enables them to carry higher pitch. The added blade gives them a stronger hold on the air.

Results:— Less Vibration — Full Turning Speed — Higher Pitch Speed = Smaller Slip—Faster Flying—Stronger Manoeu vering—Safer Handling and Control.

Uncle Sam uses three-bladed Paragons almost exclusively in his Navy Boats—There's a reason and Paragon price economy besides.

There are questions in your mind. Write to us for the answers intelligently stated and illustrated by photographs. Full brass blade protection at only nominal cost.

AMERICAN PROPELLER CO., 243-249 E. Hamburg St., Baltimore, Md.

In answering advertisements please mention this magasine.

COMBINED WITH "FLY" MAGAZINE

XIV. No. 2

JANUARY 31, 1914

1 5 Cents

Property of E. W. ROBISCHON

Kay V. Morris and Photographer Estey Flying over Narragansett Bay in Gerald Hanley's Curtiss Flying Boat

The comfortable confidence enjoyed in the Curtiss Flying Boats is largely due to the every day reliability of Model O-X

CURTISS MOTORS

Seven years of development work were represented by the Curtiss motor used in making the first public flight made in America. Fourteen years of consistent application are represented in the Curtiss Motors of to-day. May we send you the facts?

■•■■■■■■■■■a ■■■■■■■•■•■a

THE CURTISS MOTOR COMPANY

21 LAKE STREET, HAMMONDSPORT, N. Y.

380467029635201788028042856258

841646257245�0796655512424

339700551982793348

0805

< BENOIST

ANNOUNCEMENT

The Benoist School of Aviation will open on January 1st, at St. Petersburg, Florida. The school will be under the personal supervision of Tom W. Benoist and Tony Jannus. We will also conduct the first regular schedule passenger-carrying air line in the world, St. Petersburg to Tampa, Fla. Students who want to join the school and prospective agents who want their territory for the exclusive sale of our flying boats will do well to address

TU e Sew Benoist Flilinu Boat in Action

BENOIST AIR CRAFT COMPANY

St. Louis, Missouri or St. Petersburg, Florida

50 H.P.

160 POUNDS

GYRO MOTOR

80 H. P.

207 POUNDS

Endurance Flying Record to Date, 4 hrs., 23 min.

From

" FL'JGHT"

July 26th, 1913

"Some may say—to the obvious benefit of the Company whose representatives have adopted his very practical method of calling attention to the GYKO engine (50 h. p.) that it is all due to the motor, which probably develops about three times as much power as the machine requires for the purposes of straightforward flight."

Built of Nickel Steel and Vanadium Steel Throughout

Send for Catalog

THE GYR0 MOTOR COMPANY, 774 Girard Street, Washington, D. C.

ALL MARINE FLYERS

Should investigate the merits of the Three-Bladed Paragons. Smaller Size than corresponding two blades, with fine lines of design, make them turn more freely. Free turning enables them to carry higher pitch. The added blade gives them a stronger hold on the air.

Results:—Less Vibration — Full Turning Speed — Higher Pitch Speed = Smaller Slip—Faster Flying—Stronger Manoeuvering—Safer Handling and Control.

Uncle Sam uses three-bladed Paragons almost exclusively in his Navy Boats—There's a reason and Paragon price economy besides.

There are questions in your mind. Write to us for the answers intelligently stated and illustrated by photographs. Full brass blade protection at only nominal cost.

AMERICAN PROPELLER CO., 243-249 E. Hamburg St., Baltimore, Md.

The Navy's Board of Aeronautics, convened under Navy Department Orders, composed of Senior Member Captain IV. Irving Chambers, Commander C. IV. Brittain, Commander S. S. Robison, Lieut, M. H. Simons, Naval Constructor H. C. Richardson, Lieut. J. H. Towers, First Lieut. A. A. Cunningham, has reported a very comprehensive plan for the organisation of an adequate mobile Xaval Aeronautic Service, to include a great aeronautical centre, with a goodly equipment of aeroplanes and dirigibles as a starter.

The plan proposed shows that something is being accomplished in our Navy, just about the time some-

one has alleged it to be asleep. If put in practice, our naval aeronautic equipment will be second to none. Even the over-boosted foreign naval air work will be eclipsed. Some of the work already done by the boats and the new type O. IV. L. machine. It only remains for Congress to supply the asked-for funds, to which cud the efforts of those interested should be bent, rather than to picking Haws and pulling political wires. It is understood, however, that there is money enough available for proceeding zvitli the main part of the work at once.

The Board recommends that Congress be asked to appropriate as early as possible $1,297,700. This covers estimates as fol-

lows:

(a) 50 Units of aeroplane, outfit,

spare engines and parts

(fleet service) ............ $500,000

(b) One 10,000 cubic meter diri-

gible, outfit and parts (fleet

service) ................. 173,000

(c) 1 Fixed and 1 portable hy-

drogen plants (Pensacola

plant) ................... 17,000

(d) 1 Double floating dirigible

shed (Pensacola plant).... 90,000

(e) 1 Mooring mast (Pensacola

plant) ................... 1,200

(f) 1 Combination captive and

free balloon (Pensacola

plant) ................... 800

(g) Fixed and portable aeroplane

sheds (Pensacola plant).. 18,000

(h) 3 Motor boats, 3 tractors, 2

trailers (Pensacola plant). 39,400

(i) Gasoline storage (Pensacola

plant) ................... 4,000

(j) Maintenance............... 100,000

(k) 2 Dirigibles, Vedette type

(Pensacola plant) ....... 85,000

(1) 6 Units of aeroplanes, outfits, spare parts, etc.; 6 tents; 4 knockdown trucks (advance base outfit)........ 92,300

(in) One 2,200 eu. m. dirigible and accessories (advance base) .................... 177,000

$1,297,700

one great air centre most economical.

Based on the experience of foreign countries, the Board has confined its attention principally to the establishment at one suitable aeronautic centre—at the Pensacola (Florida) Navy Yard—for reasons of climate, convenience and facilities.

Immediate additions are planned, as provided for in the foregoing schedule, in which provision is also allowed for a meteorological observatory and equipment, as standard plans for building kites to be furnished to all flagships, library and amusement.

aeroplanes on all ships.

Aeroplanes to be used from ships of the fleet and from auxiliaries. One aeroplane with spare motor, parts, etc., to be placed on

all battleships as soon as practicable. Auxiliaries to carry stores and supplies. Officers to be instructed with machines of the same types, pilots to be available for either hind or water flying, standard type of control to be used, desirable to develop a single type of aeroplane to meet all requirements.

a flying school.

Flying school to be at Pensacola, for reasons previously stated and in order to cooperate with the fleet, maintained in two categories:

Sea Section for advanced practice and experiment. A reserve ship to be used as a mobile advanced flying school, ror testing devices to be employed in installation and use of aeroplanes on battleships, and for such experiments as launching catapult, hoisting apparatus and stowage. This ship would also be used for stores, barracks and in conjunction with dirigible flights at sea to make such tests as the practicability of replenishing an airship with fresh supplies of fuel and hydrogen, the accuracy of bomb dropping appliances, and the tactics to be employed in contests between aeroplanes and dirigibles. Personnel to consist of commanding officer, three air pilots and usual complement of ships in reserve.

Land Section in charge of an officer of the Aeronautic Division. Equipment as per schedule. For instruction and practice.

course of instruction and duty.

Students and air pilots will be given instruction in practical work on machines, theoretical study, instruction in aeroplane and dirigible operating to qualify for naval air pilot certificate whose holders are considered competent for sea service. Those recommended for advanced instruction in aeronautical engineering to be sent each year to the institution giving the best course, this post-graduate instruction to be later conducted at the Xaval Academy if possible.

One or more air pilots each year to be selected for experimental work in the Aircraft Factory and the National Laboratory, or sent abroad for foreign study.

aeronautic service with fleet.

When certified pilots have been transferred to the Sea Section they are available for transfer to a ship of the fleet and to be in charge of the aeroplane attached to that «hip.

U. S. NAVAL AERONAUTIC SERVICE

Page 20

AJlHONArrH'S, Jan. 1!)U

dall.00ns, dirigibles and accessories.

Four dirigibles to be bought: one for expeditionary service with the fleet, one for use at an advanced base and two of Vedette class for Pensaeola plant, as listed previously in the schedule. A mooring mast which has been satisfactorily used in England will be adopted for mooring the airship at the advanced base, or two dirigibles may lie housed in the double floating shed which is provided for. Study to be commenced on a special auxiliary ship in connection with the aeroplane auxiliary, starting on the basis that it must accommodate a 10,000 cubic meter dirigible.

Experiments will be made with a combination free and captive balloon for preliminary instruction of dirigible pilots and to ascertain of what service they may be with the fleet. It is suggested that experiments be also made with hot air balloons.

Laboratory work of the Navy to be carried on at the Washington Navy Yard in connection with the model basin and the National Aeronautic Laboratory.

personnel of navy aeronautic centre.

The personnel of the Navy Aeronautic Centre to consist of: the Commandant, over two divisions (Aeronautic—with aids, officers, enlisted personnel of Navy and Marine Corps to carry on instruction both with dirigibles and aeroplanes; Operative—comprising staff to operate the Yard for purposes of Aeronautic centre); three aids (instructors), Senior Aid to be Executive Officer of Yard and in charge enlisted men; 1 Gunner, 1 Boatswain, 1 Carpenter as assistants to Executive Officer; 1 Marine Officer commanding Marine Guard distinct from Marine Corps personnel of the Aeronautic Department.

department organization.

An Air Department in the Navy Department to be established under the Division of Operations in charge of a Director of Naval Aviation, with assistants and authority and

TRAFFIC MANAGER BENOIST AIR LINE ISSUES OPERATION SHEET.

We have just received the operation sheet of the Benoist Airline at St.' Petersburg, Fla., for the first ten days of its work.

It would seem that not only is the airboat practical for commercial purposes, but' it is more reliable and has a greater earning power than the automobile or motor boat.

The following figures can be taken from the operation sheet which appears herewith:

Number of trips made, 26; number of passengers carried, 52; hours flown, 12 hours, 43 minutes, 30 seconds; miles flown, 682; gallons of gasoline consumed, 170;^; gallons of lubricating oil," ig1/-.

This makes 1,364 passenger miles flown in these ten davs, and 25 passenger hours.

When we figure that 682 miles was made in this ten days in regular commercial work and multiplying this by three, equals 2,000 miles for one month.

The usual pleasure automobile seldom ever runs more than 1,200 to 1,500 miles a month, and then it is supposed to be kept on the road practically all the time. Of course, in a four-passenger machine this runs the passenger mileage up as high or higher than in the airboat, but the usual auto taxicab used in commercial work seldom ever makes more than goo miles in one month, which at three passengers carried continuously would only equal 2,700 passenger

responsibility to carry the organization into effect. The Director to proceed with the organization of a Naval Air Service. This Air Department not to be a separate department, as such is deemed unnecessary and in conflict with present legal status. Great stress is laid on this point with the object of maintaining harmonious operation with the present simple and efficient system in the Navy Department to obtain efficiency in the general results.

The task of co-ordination in the Navy is made possible through the assistance provided for in the Council of Aids, each looking after a natural division of the labor, with authority to advise but not to execute. The system is theoretically perfect. The Board urges that the Secretary of the Navy have one representative especially engaged in aeronautics, with an office for meetings of representatives of the bureaus, for records, files, reports, etc. Aeronautics has heretofore been in charge of the Bureau of Navigation, but this Bureau cannot spare the time to specialize on aeronautics, so that the Board believes the establishment of an office of Naval Aeronautics under the Secretary's office is essential.

office of naval aeronautics.

To be in charge of Director of Naval Aeronautics, with rank of Captain if practicable, to co-ordinate the work for Secretary of Navy in co-operation with necessary assistants representing the Bureaus. Assistant Director—an officer with aeronautic experience, of rank of Commander if practicable, to represent Director in absence. Other Assistants representing each : Bureau of Navigation. Construction and Repair, Steam Engineering, Ordnance, Marine Corps. One of these assistants to be an air pilot. All assistants to form a board or council to investigate all problems connected with development, maintenance an-d instruction of Naval Aeronautic Service, in addition to their regular Bureau duties, and to assemble at the Office of Naval Aeronautics whenever desired.

miles in one month, while the airboat made practically that many passenger miles in twenty days.

This is a really remarkable showing when you consider that the airline at the present time has only one boat at St. Petersburg, and it is necessary to keep this in service all the time. Also this boat has been tised for over six months, having been put into seivice on July 4 and kept in exhibition work all that summer and fall, giving exhibitions at Put-in-Bay, Crand Rapids, Keokuk, Paducah and many other places, besides several long river runs on the Mississippi, Illinois and Ohio Rivers.

It has never had an overhauling since it left the factory, but, of course, is not in as good condition as a new machine would be.

Two more passenger carrying planes, however, were shipped on the 15th inst to St. Petersburg, and it is expected the operation sheet for the next period of ten days will show an even more successful business.

KANSAS CITY GETS BIG BALLOON RACE.

The international balloon race this year will lie started from Kansas City, Mo., on October 6, this city having agreed to offer $7,200 in prizes, allow free gas to the entrants and make all arrangements for handling the event.

MWOXjrTICtf. Jan. .11, 1914

Patjc :>1

WRIGHT-CURTISS LITIGATION ENDED

PATENT UPHELD

On January 13, 1014, Judges Lacombe, Cox and Ward, of the U. S. Circuit Court of Appeals, handed down the final opinion in the Wright-Curtiss suit.

The present opinion merely confirms the previous one of Judge Hazel in this case and that of Judge Hand in the Wright-Paulhan litigation. In part, it says :

"We are in full accord with the reasoning by which * * (Judge Hazel and Judge Hand) reached the conclusions that the patent in suit is a valid one, that the patentees may fairly be considered pioneers in the practical art of flying * * * and that the claims should have a liberal interpretation. * * * That Ihe third claim, when liberally construed, has been infringed seems too plain for argument. As to the other claim, in which the vertical rear rudder is an element we are satisfied from the testimony, as was the court below, that during some parts of their flight defendant's machines use the rudder synchronously with the wings so that by their joint action lost balance may be restored, or a threatened loss of balance be averted. Such use of the rudder constitutes infringement and a machine that infringes part of the time is an infringement, although it may at other times be so operated as not to infringe."

For a period of five years the patent suit of the Wright Company against Glenn H. Curtiss and the defunct Herring Curtiss Company has been litigated. The last hearing was on November 6 and 7, 1913, in New York. The deliberations of the three judges sitting took until January 13, 1914, when the final opinion was handed down.

Readers of AERONAUTICS are aware of every step in this and the other suits brought in the upholding of the validity of the Wright United States patent through the reports and decisions printed in this magazine.

For arguments and the reasoning of Judges Lacombe, Cox and Ward, of the U. S. Circuit Court of Appeals, reference must be had to Judge Hazel's opinion printed in full in the March, 1913, number of AERONAUTICS and to Judge Hand's opinion in the Wright-Paulhan case, printed in the April, 1910, issue, which opinions, up for review before the appeal judges, are now confirmed.

It is not anticipated that the victorious Wright Company will deal harshly with its competitors, now that its privilege of granting licenses has been legally accorded. There would be no advantage accruing from forcing others to close down. The greater the competition, the greater the number of 'planes produced. A thousand aeroplanes on which a hundred thousand dollars in royalties have been paid are more to be desired than the obtaining of the same sum on a hundred machines. It is not unlikely that arrangements will be made for convenient partial payments of back-royalties and for granting licenses for further operations on the basis of moderate fees.

The one great result will be the bending of efforts to devise a system of balance which does not infringe the Wright patent. The Wright brothers have always contended that the adjudication of their patent would stimu-

late inventive genius. The litigation has already had its effect along this line. Patents have been applied for on devices to equalize the pressures on ailerons. There is an interference proceeding in this connection being prosecuted at this time. Others have entered applications or have received patents on systems which are alleged to be non-infringing.

The Wright patent has now been adjudicated in the United States and Germany and practically so in France. There is a small chance, however, that the suit in question may be again before the court. Appeal may be still taken to the United States Supreme Court, the highest in the land, under certain conditions. If carried to this court and not advanced on the list, that it would probably not come to trial for two or three years is the opinion of a lawyer.

The present status, therefore, is that manufacturers of aeroplanes which infringe the Wright patent in accordance with this decision are enjoined from further manufacture and sale unless an arrangement is made with the owners of the patent, the Wright Company, and while the decision applies specifically to the Curtiss type of machine only and indirectly to the Farman type, nevertheless the court rules that the claims of the Wright patent should be liberally construed and consequently modifications of either of these types would not evade the infringement in accordance with the broad scope of the decree.

As to the aeroplanes already manufactured and sold, unless a settlement be made direct, the procedure for the award of loss of profits or damage incurred, is to refer the entire matter to a Master who will take testimony in order to reach a conclusion for an award. This is slow process and dependent upon the evidence produced at the hearings before the Master as to the extent of the award. The statutes specify that the award can be for a sum equal to three times the damage sustained or profit lost by the owner of the patent and precedent in such cases limits the award to one of these conditions and not to both. If loss of profits are demanded, it must be proven that the infringing manufacturer actually made profits and was not doing business at a loss. If damage sustained is claimed, then it is a presumption that purchasers of the infringing article would have purchased the patented machine if the infringement had not been manufactured and offered for sale, but the defendant has the right to prove, so far as he can, that the differences in the two articles are of sufficient importance that purchasers of his machine would not have purchased the patented machine and would, therefore, have not purchased any. It is therefore impossible to anticipate the probable amount of award recommended by the Master and which is then transmitted to the court for final adjudication.

THE SLOANE FLYING BOAT

in accordance with its expansive policy for 1914 the Sloane Aeroplane Company of New York in addition to producing several new types of military monoplanes and biplanes is bringing out flying boats and bat boats [O. W. L.] designed and constructed to meet the most rigid naval requirements.

The first machine, of a sporting class, is now tinder construction.

General Dimensions—"Speed," "Scout" and "Sporting" Types—Span (top), 36 feet; span (lower), 23 feet; chord (top), 6 feet; chord (lower). 5 feet 6 inches; gap. 6 feet; over-all length, 26 feet. Surface—310

square feet on "Speed Scout" and "Sporting Type"; 405 square feet on "Sea Scout." Length of hull, 23 feet; width of hull, 36 inches; seating capacity—2 or 3 persons. Power plant—80 or 100 h. p. Gnome—or 130 h. p. Salmson on Naval (or good domestic motor of 100 h. p.) Speed Scout. Tank capacity—5 hours.

Hull is single step, built up of two-ply mahogany and canvas, copper-riveted, over a framework of ash and spruce ribs. Planing surface 36 inches wide, V-shaped. Eight water-tight bulkheads, fitted with inspection covers.

AERONAUTICS, Jan. 31. 1014

Page 23

Nose of boat rounded off and streamlined. Ample space provided for wireless, marine and navigating equipment.

In the "Navy." "Sea Seout" and "Speed Scout" types, the rounded front is swept back to just in front of the operators' seats and is given a slight curl up at this point to form a wind and spray shield, which at the same time gives an absolutely perfect vision over the front and sides.

In the sporting type a permanent cabin is fitted, constructed of a light framework and entirely covered with transparent pyra-line sheeting with its after part hinged so that it can be tipped forward for entrance or exit to the boat.

Two front seats are placed side by side; double CGntrol of the well-known Deper-dussin type. Behind the operators' seats and immediately between the two planes is the passenger's seat.

Planes are of single piece construction, framed monoplane style. Top one spans 35 feet, chord 6 feet; the bottom one spans 23 feet, chord 5 feet 6 inches.

Strong diagonal bracing is used to truss the planes internally so that there is no bending or straining when in flight.

Only two uprights on each side of the engine section. This cuts down head resistance and permits the top extensions to be folded down when the machine is not in use.

For extended sea work these extensions modified somewhat will be folded from the operator's seat so that in ease of emergency the wing area can be cut down while the eraft is riding on the water.

Factor of safety of six to one allowed for. Main guy wires, J/^-inch and 3/32-ineh steel cable, doubled throughout and fitted with extra strong turnbuckles. All control wires doubled and extra strong.

Ailerons, 9 feet by 2 feet, operate in the usual manner, one up and the other down.

Rear stabilizing fin. 7 feet by 8 feet, is flat and set at a slight lifting angle. It is built

in two parts and hinged to the vertical fin so that it can be folded down out of the way.

The two elevating flaps, which measure 3 feet deep, are spread out so that they operate in a position to give the utmost leverage and control, with the least possible drag and resistance.

The combination braces and control levers of the elevating flaps are made of steel tubing and are so fitted that by merely unfastening one turnbuckle all the bracing can be taken off intact and the ^teel braces folded down flat against the elevators and aileron's. The combination air and water rudder which is hinged to the rear of the boat and its vertical fin swings between the two elevator flaps. This is also fitted with collapsible braces.

The controls consist of the well-known Deperdussin wheel and foot lever arrangement. Pushing the wheel backwards and forwards operates the elevators, while turning the wheel to the right and left works the ailerons. Steering to the right and left is accomplished by the foot bar.

Main gasoline tank carried in the hull under the rear seats. Capacity has been figured out to allow for flights of at least five hours' duration. Tanks are of the pressure type and the air pressure is supplied to them by means of a small air driven propeller which operates through the speed of flight. Gasoline is forced to a small gravity tank situated in front and slightly above the carburetor. Air pressure gauge is fitted in front of the operator. A band pump is fitted to supply pressure in case of emergency.

Either 80 or 100 PI. P. Gnomes will be used as standard equipment. This can be varied, however, and domestic motors of 100 H. P. or more used if desired. In the Speed Scout type of machine a 130 H. P. Salmson Motor will be used. In all cases the motor is mounted midway between the two planes so as to bring the center of thrust more in line with the centers of resistance and weight.

WRIGHT-CURTISS SUIT.

L. J. Seely, of the Curtiss Aeroplane Co., made the following personal statement, in response to inquiries of Aeronautics, regarding his attitude on the recent decision:

"Any intelligent statement regarding the probable effect on the aviation industry in this country of the decision in the YVright-Curtiss case, would depend upon one's knowing whether this long drawn legal battle has been fought for moral or financial reasons.

"If the issue is a financial one, fought out to determine legal rights, any final decision, whether pro or con, must be helpful. The amount of money made in manufacturing aeroplanes in this country by any or all manufacturers has not been enough to keep the contestants busy for long in settling up accounts, and enabling them to start out with a clean slate and a knowledge of just what to expect.

"The winners, one may assume, would establish a schedule of royalties calculated to bring them the best financial return; the losers would then decide whether they could better afford to pay the amount demanded, or set about perfecting and exploiting other means of lateral control; with the further alternative of pulling stakes and establishing their business in some European country where the Wright patents have been more precisely construed.

"If, on the other hand, personal pride, or personal animus, should override all other considerations

settled conditions in the trade may be as far off as ever.

"Here at Ilammondsport, where at this writing we have had definite word neither from Mr. Curtiss, nor from the Wright Company, we are proceeding on the assumption that business expediency will determine the issue."

DEATH OF HAMILTON.

Charles K. Hamilton, the first man to try to loop-the-loop, died at his home, 225 West 109th street. New York, on January 22. from hemorrhage. Hamilton was a New Britain, Conn., boy and started His air experiences riding kites for Israel Ludlow. He went into exhibition dirigible operating. Learning to fly a Curtiss machine in Ilammondsport in 1908, he quickly was known all over the country as the most daring exhibition flier in this country. In attempting the loop in Seattle in 1909 the machine, for some unknown reason, dropped sidewise to the water when he reached the top of the loo]). Hamilton's best known flights were from New York to Philadelphia and return, and from San Diego down into Mexico and return. For the past two years Hamilton has been doing little- flying. Recently he has been connected with the lioland Aeroplane and Motor Company and was expected to fly the new water machine.

THE CURTISS MONOPLANE FLYING BOAT

In the monoplane flying boat designed by Glenn H. Ctirtiss for Raymund V. Morris, of New Haven, is suggested the breadth of the field Curtiss expects to cover with water-flying machines during the coming season. To date we have seen definite announcements of four quite distinct models; first, the new four-passenger mahogany boat; second, the O. W. L. type, designed for naval use; third, the tandem-seated, straight-sided, ocean-going naval type; fourth, this little single-seated speed machine.

In Morris' little racer there is not a single stick that matches up with anything previously turned out by the Curtiss plant. The hull is different, both in design and in method of construction; the wings are dif-' ferent in curve, in shape, in construction; even the radiator and propeller were designed especially for this trim craft. Only the Model O-X Curtiss motor is the same in all the different boats.

That it is a very efficient outfit may be gathered from the fact that the surfaces are lifting approximately ten pounds to the square foot, for with pilot and fuel the machine weighs very nearly 1,200 pounds, while the lifting surface is almost exactly 120 square feet.

Morris tried out the machine under every disadvantage. It was during the blizzardy weather of the early part of January, with a cold, rough wind blowing, and the mercury just above zero. Mist and spray turned immediately to ice and in a few minutes flying boat and flier were well coated. But the monoplane flew and it flew fast. It jumped off the water, running before the wind, and just where the operator did not want to rise with an untried machine and unfamiliar controls. Morris made four flights that day and several more later in

the week for the benefit of a motion picture concern. His actual speed was not determined, for it was too cold to put out timers, but when the boat rushed by on the water it made you think of a rocket in a street-car track.

In form the hull suggests an expensive imported cigar; big at the end between your teeth, flat part of the way on one side, and tapering gently to nothing at the other end. Its principal dimensions are: length. 22 feet; beam. 30 inches; depth, 36 inches. The bottom, as far back as the step, is the new double Vee type prescribed on the new navy boats, C-3, C-4, C-5. The bow is pointed instead of square.

In construction, the hull is unique. The frame is a basketwork of ash strips, the ribs carried completely around the longitudinal members. Around the frame was wound diagonally a first skin of 3-32 inch mahogany planking. This was covered with heavy Sea Island cotton set in marine glue, and over this was secured another skin of 3-32 inch mahogany plank, laid longitudinally. Not only did the partially completed hull look like a cigar, but it was wrapped like one. Two holes were cut in the tube to permit the entrance of the pilot and. possibly, of one passenger. The pilot's seat is low. both to give him every protection from the wind, and to bring the shoulder yokes at the greatest diameter of the hull. Unless Morris sits up very straight to have his picture taken—only half his head shows above the coaming.

The superstructure is novel. The wings are set about 40 inches above the hull, attached at the top to the welded steel structure supporting the engine bed, and braced below by struts extending to a cross beam which carries the balancing pontoons. In

AEIÌOXAFTICS, Jan. M,

Page 2.*)

general outline nothing like them, I believe, has been seen in America. Swept back at an angle of 7 degrees in an easy curve that finishes in the points forming the trailing edge ailerons they strongly suggest, at certain angles, the wings of a monster swallow. This illusion is fostered by the curve given the ribs and by the occasional uptilting of the aileron on the high side of the machine. The rib curve is original, though in some measure similar to that of the British "B-E 2."

Total spread of the wings, from tip to tip of ailerons, is 34 feet. The spread of the supporting surface is 28 feet. For 20 feet in the center the chord is 60 inches, while for four feet at each end the main surface is practically triangular.

Rudder, nippers, and rear stabilizing surfaces follow the lines of those used in standard models of the Curtiss flying boats, modified as to size to fit this smaller machine.

Morris expects to ship the- machine at once to St. Petersburg, Florida, whence to get in trim for the expected series of flying-boat speed contests that seem to be on the cards for the coming season.

\V. J. Minier, of Brooklyn, X. Y„ is now at work on a model Curtiss flying boat. He has just finished an exhibition model of a Bleriot, 1/6 full size. It is of very excellent workmanship and is complete in every detail.

AERONAUTISM LAST YEAR.

Fifty-lwo balloon ascensions were made during 1013 and a total of 150 people taken up, including the pilot, distributed among 18 balloons of from 40,000 to S0.000 cubic feet capacity. The total of gas used was 3,300,000 cubic feet, costing around $3,300. Fifteen of these balloons are in the central West. What a fine big race this would make! No ascensions were made by army balloons or the army dirigible during the year.

AEROPLANES FOR VENEZUELAN ARMY.

Some time ago a fund of $6,000 was raised by popular subscription to purchase one or more aeroplanes for use in the army of Venezuela. Report was made of this fact by representatives of otlier nations, and there has been correspondence with a

London company, but nothing definite has resulted.

General Cmmez, the President of Venezuela, has indicated that he would be willing to alignment the amount raised by popular subscription, which may interest aeroplane manufacturers in the United States.

ARMY FLYER BREAKS RECORD.

San Diego. Cab. Jan. jo.—Lieut. W. R. Talliaferro, of the army's first aero corps, flew continuously from San Diego to Pasadena and back as far as Elsinore to-day. The distance covered—.260 miles—is an American non-stop record. Lieut. Talliaferro was forced to descend because he ran out of fuel.

THE DEAN RACER

By HARRY SCHULTZ, Model Editor

Fuselage is constructed of two strips American whitewood J4 incn square, 34 inches long. They are joined together at front to form a point. A "W" of 1/32 in. diameter steel piano wire is fitted thereover and bound with white silk thread and shellaced. Seventeen inches from the front, or apex, of the fuselage is a cross stay or brace of "dowel wood" planed to a stream line section ]/{ in. by l/& in. and 3^2 ins. long. The rear brace is same thickness, 6-}4 ins. in length, placed 2 ins. from the rear of the fuselage. These braces are secured to

said shaft are two m- clock washers of steel, acting as bearings.

Planes are of whitewood, the main plane measuring 24 ins. in span, with a chord of 2T/ ins. at the center, tapering to 1^4 ins. at the tips. This plane has a camber of 1/16 in. at the center, ''washed out" towards tips. It is 1/16 in. thick at center, coming to a knife edge at entering and trailing edges; entering edge being protected by a strip of silk shellaced to the edge. A slight dihedral angle is obtained by steaming and bending at the center. Eleva-

-JlecLiz Tracer

etei/aiiorc HocK

tips iervi (Zoosrv.

^19

fuselage by means of small nails. Fuselage is braced by diagonal braces of No. 2 guitar wire and these attach to hooks secured at the upper and lower junctions of the wooden cross braces as shown. By merely turning the hooks inwardly the diagonal wire braces are tightened.

Propellers are 8 ins. in diameter, with a blade width of ins. They are steam twisted, the wood being hard quality, straight grained, American whitewood 1/16 in. thick. Bent around the hub of propeller is a strip of sheet tin, secured to the blade by punch boles. Bent around this strip of tin is the shaft of 1/32 iu. steel piano wire, which goes completely around the tin strip and ends in a spiral on the inner side of the propeller, where it is soldered. Mounted on the fuselage, by binding and glueing, are brackets of sheet brass, \\ in. wide by 1/16 in."thick, drilled for the reception of propeller shaft; and fitted on

tor is made of the same material as the main plane, measuring 11 ins. long with a chord of ] 3/5 ins. at the center, tapering to 1% ins. at the ends, and 1/32 in. in thickness. It has a slight dihedral angle and the tips of the same are bent downward to an angle of 300. It is mounted on an elevation block % hi. in height by in. wide. The main plane is so narrow and affords such small lift it is given an elevation on blocks 3/16 in. in height, the blocks being secured to the plane by small nails, driven and clinched over.

Each propeller is driven by six strands of H in. flat rubber totaling \ l/> ozs. iu weight.

When tested in flight the model proved to be marvclously fast and it is unfortunate that its distance qualities have not been ascertained.

See "News in General" for model contests.

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JANUARY 31, 1914 Vol. XIV, No. 2

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Togo 2S AERONAUTICS, Jan. 31, i!)H

LANGLEY AERODYNAMICAL LABORATORY.

The Advisory Committee of the Langley Aerodynamical Laboratory held its third meeting December i at the Smithsonian Institution. Secretary Charles 1). YValcott, Chairman of the Committee, presided, with the following members in attendance: Captain \V. I. Chambers, U.S.N.; Mr. John Hays Hammond, Jr.: Dr. \Y. J. Humphreys; Col. Samuel Kebei\ U.S.A.; Naval Constructor H. C. Richardson, U.S.N.; Major Edgar Kussel, U.S.A.; Brig. Gen. George P. Scriven, U.S.A.; Dr. S. \\r. Stratton; Dr. Albert F. Zahm (Recorder).

Major Russel submitted a complete account of the aeronautical motor-testing laboratory of the U. S. Signal Corps and Bureau of Standards. [Published in the December issue.]

Dr. Zahm submitted to the Committee an extended list of the best recent works on aeronautics in English, French, and German, which will be available to all investigators in aeronautics who may choose to examine them. Dr. Zahm also gave a brief abstract of bis complete and extended report on European aeronautical laboratories, their organization, resources, equipment, investigations, etc.

Captain \Y. I. Chambers reported that his committee on naval air craft design had made extensive experiments during the summer on gyroscopic stabilizing apparatus, the results of which were very interesting, lint not quite ready yet to be given in detail. He stated that the navy desired a form of flying machine adapted for both land and water use.

Dr. Stratton spoke of the great need for a more uniform and accurate type of anneroid barometer at the present time, and told of the work of the Bureau of Standards in developing a standard type of this instrument. lie also gave an account of the aeronautical laboratories of England and France, which he had studied preparatory to aerodynamical experiments for the Advisory Committee at the Bureau of Standards.

Naval Constructor Richardson reported that his committee had conducted elaborate experiments on the forms of hulls of flying boats, in relation to their speed and resistance when on the water and when submerged, as a result of which a form of hull has been devised which appears to have decided advantages over those already in use, in point of stability and economy of power.

General Scriven explained the tests by the Army of the various forms of machines, and took occasion to emphasize the high standard of efficiency now required of the army fliers. At the recently established school of aviation at San Diego, there are at present fifteen army officers receiving instruction and training, which is more thorough and exact than that given at the schools conducted by the commercial companies. He spoke with even greater emphasis of the caution drilled into the minds of the officers not to attempt mere circus feats in the air, but to confine themselves only to such experiments as would lit them for the actual needs of flying in time of war.

Mr. John Hays Hammond, Jr., announced that very satisfactory experiments have been conducted at tiie Hammond Radio-Research Laboratory at Gloucester, Mass., in the development of wireless receiving apparatus for use with air ships. New and much improved results have been achieved in long-distance reception, using small transmitting antenna and small receiving aerials. Mr. Hammond was invited to test the working of his apparatus on a Signal Corps aeroplane to ascertain its value for the transmission of intelligence between the commanding officer and his air scouts on the wing.

CONNECTICUT COMPANY READY] FOR BUSINESS.

The Connecticut Aeroplane Company, of New] Haven, Conn., recently incorporated, now has one of their representatives in Europe, perfecting arrange! ments, securing data, etc., for a start in February! The company proposes to "build a product equal to the world's best in model, strength of constructioJ and finish. Looking still to the future it propose! to go further and standardize its flying machines aa the automobile has been standardized, making alfl parts of any year's model interchangeable, and wit 111 parts easily obtainable. The aeroplanes and flying] boats of The Connecticut Aeroplane Company will lie built by the M. Armstrong Company of New' Haven, one of the oldest firms of its kind in thJ United States, whose product has a national reputal tion for excellence. This company has today a larga trade in automobile bodies, but is able to give spacJ to the manufacture of planes as well, without interl ference with other work. No higher guarantee ol excellence in construction of air craft is needed] than the announcement that The M. Armstrong] Company will build them. Freedom from heavy overl head expense will be largely eliminated, which will, ol course, very considerably reduce the first cost of thi planes." The Armstrong Company has gone veri thoroughly into the matter of manufacture, and havJ guaranteed this company that they can produce and deliver two machines a week.

MODEL CLUB NOTES.

At the well-attended meetings of the Long Island Model Aero Club business has been carried on in the usual way. On Friday, November 28, medals were presented to Messrs. Freelan and Bamberger, winners in recent contests. Mr. L. Ness was awarded a medal for his standing in a recent tractor contest. An excellent contest was held on November 23 for tractor models. This contest was won by Mr. C. V. Obst, with a flight of over 600 feet, which is comparatively a simple flight for this model to make. Many new models are being brought out weekly, the most notable of which are a beautifully constructed headless type duration and altitude flyer constructed by Mr. Daniel Criscouli, and a smaller machine of similar type by Mr. Hackradt. Ness' three-bladed tractor model has been making excellent flights. Obst has been experimenting with the tail planes of his tractor model and has found methods of greatly improving the lift of same.

The club has accepted a challenge from the junior L. I. M. A. C. and the contest will be held shortly. The Bay Ridge Model Aero Club is steadily coining to the fore. At all contests held lately the members of this club were much in evidence, generally scoring a win for the club. Most notable among the members are the Bamberger brothers, who are in fact the founders and guiding spirits of the club, and it is very seldom that the names of one of the brothers does not appear as the winner of a contest. Other well-known flyers are Messrs. Heil and Olson. The club has not a very large membership, but Mr. \V. 11 Bamberger, the president, states they desire "quality and not quantity."

On December 20, 1913, in spite of a hitter cold, hlnstry day the last contest for the Herreshoff trophy was held. The first two contests for this trophy, held on previous Saturdays, had been won by Frederick Watkins, and it looked_ as though he would be a winner of the last and final contest, but Rudie Funk, of the Long Island Model Aero Club, with his world's record distance model proved otherwise and he quickly took the lead with a flight of 1.592 feet. Excellent flights were also made bv L. Bamberger, of the Bay Ridge Model Aero Club.

A E HO X A I 'TK 'S, Jan. 31, 1914

J'age 2!

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A. C. PENN. ELECTION.

The annual election of officers was the principal feature of the meeting of the Aero Club of Pennsylvania, held at the Bellevue-Stratford Hotel, Philadelphia, on Friday evening, January 9th. Those chosen were:

1'resident—Clarence P. Wynne.

Vice-President Joseph A. Steinmetz.

Second Vice-President—\V. 1). Harris.

Secretary—George S. Gassner.

Treasurer-Laurence Marcsch.

The Program Committee have arranged for a talk by the First Vice-President, Jos. A. Steinmetz, at the monthly meeting on Feb. 6th, at which time Mr. Steinmetz will describe the appliances for which he has been recently granted patents, providing for defense against invasion by aeroplanes and dirigibles in time of war. At the monthly meeting, on March 26th, Col. Samuel Reber, U. S. A., will address a joint meeting of the Franklin Institute and the Aero Club on "Recent Progress in Military Aeronautics."

FOUR FLY FAST FOR FLYING BOATS.

Dr. C. M. Olmsted, of the C. M. O. Physical Laboratory, of Buffalo, is now at Miami, Fla., making tests of a new propeller, worked out by the Laboratory, on the McCormick four-passenger Curtiss flying boat in charge of C. C. Witmer. In a preliminary trial on January 17 four heavy passengers were carried at an increased rate of speed over that attained theretofore with aviator alone; also got off the water with four up with the wind and flew with the motor at quarter throttle. This was the first flying test for this new propeller, which has been patented.

SLOANE TO PRODUCE FLYING-BOATS.

Miller Reese Hutchison, E.E., Chief Engineer to Thomas A. Edison, was recently elected Vice-President of the Sloane Aeroplane Company of New York.

This is the first instance of any noted engineer engaging in the manufacture of aeroplanes in this country and. no doubt. Mr. Hutchison's engineering ability will be of much advantage to the company, which has now enlarged its manufacturing activities and is preparing to construct flying boats and biplanes as well as monoplanes.

Mr. Sloane and Walter It. Phipps are working on the design of an original monoplane which, it is confidently expected, will be one of the most efficient aeroplanes in the world.

The Sloane land school, which will open at Hempstead in April with John Guy Gilpatric in charge, promises to be even more successful than in previous years and already a number of pupils have enrolled. The Sloane Aeroplane Company will also open a flying boat school in the vicinity of New York and this will undoubtedly attract a number of pupils as well as arouse considerable interest in flying boats among New Yorkers.

LIEUT. POST MAKES 152 MILES CROSS COUNTRY.

San Diego, Jan. 9.—Lieut. LI. P. Post, in a Wright biplane with 40-h.p. Sturtevant motor, flew non-stop to Winchester, via Oceanside, a distance of about 76 miles.

About 10 miles inland, the country is very mountainous for 10 miles more, with very bad air conditions at the time. The air was so rough that the

effort of staying in the seat became even more wearing than controlling the machine. The machine itself J acted almost like a bucking horse, tipping up, dowiJ and sideways with entire impartiality, and occasion! ally spinning around sideways from 45 to 90 degrees! Many times the maximum wind warp was entirelyl without effect until he allowed the machine to plungel downward a considerable distance and thus pick upj high speed. The altitude at the beginning of thisl 1 o-mile stretch was 5,000 feet, probably 1,500 feet| above the peaks, but he lost about 1,000 feet due to the necessity of plunging to regain control.

The supply of gasoline gave out at 11.05 a. m.,. over Winchester, Cal., 19 miles from P.eaumont, theJ objective, and it was decided to leave the machina at Winchester over night.

The return trip was made without incident the folJ lowing day, except that in the morning Post found! a portion of the tail of the machine to which one of the elevator controls is attached broken, also tha throttle wire.

AERO MART

AVIATORS PAY ATTENTION, PLEASE. Young man, twenty, Russian student, having good idea of some new inventions, seeks position with aviator for general service to learn that line. Wages no object. Harry Raisan, 50-52 East 99th St., New York. 2-15

SACRIFICE—-A Curtiss type biplane, flown by one of America's most famous aviators, with 8 cyl. Ilall-Scott 60 II. P. motor, all in Ai condition, for $1,350 cash, subject to demonstration to bona-fide purchaser. Shipping boxes, propeller, crates, completely equipped for the road. Free instruction in flight to purchaser at well-known flying field. The best bargain of the season. Opportunity knocks but once at every man's door. Address "Sacrifice," care of AERONAUTICS, 122 E. 25th St., New York.

AEROPLANES

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Works: Ocean Terrace and Little Clove Road STATEN ISLAND, NEW YORK CITY Established 1906. Tel. 937 West Brighton

C. & A. WITTEMANN

BOLAND AEROPLANE AND MOTOR COMPANY

THE BOLAND MOTOR

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AERONAUTICS, Feb. 14, 1914

On the Way to Two Million

THE demand for Bosch Magnetos is such that within a remarkably few years it has been necessary to greatly increase manufacturing schedules. The Bosch Factories are well on the way to supplying the two millionth magneto.

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PROPELLER EXPERIMENTS—By M. B. Sellers

Series 1—Oct. 28 to Nov. 6, 1913.

apparatus described, constantin profile tested.

The object of the present investigation is to determine the thrust and speed of various propellers under the same torque, and in this series the Constantine profile is compared with some other types.

If we compare a propeller blade to an aeroplane wing, the thrust will correspond to the lift, and the turning moment to the drift. The propeller, acting on air, in motion axially, might roughly be compared to an aeroplane climbing.

Of two propellers, identical except in blade profile, the torque being the same, that giving the greater thrust will have the more efficient profile (i. e., the higher lift ratio). This, however, involves a consideration of the angle of attack; one profile may be the more efficient at one angle and the other at another angle.

The angle of attack of an element of a propeller blade rotating at a fixed point will depend on its inclination, velocity and on the velocity and direction of the part of the slip stream which it encounters. It would seem that this angle does not differ greatly for fixed point rotation from that in flight; however, I shall consider this matter at another time.

As this inquiry concerns the direct connected propeller with small angle of attack, the pitch of the test propellers was purposely made short.

Apparatus—The function of the present apparatus is to rotate all propellers with the same torque, to measure the thrust, and to enable the speed to be determined. For this I employ a descending weight, rotating the propeller by means of a cord wound around a drum. This device, though primitive, possesses some advantages over more elaborate apparatus.

In Fig. 1 the drum D is affixed to the shaft S turning in bearings CC. The propeller A is fastened to the boss B by two screws. The shaft has a play axially of % 'n-. and the thrust of the propeller extends the spring F, moving the pointer E over the scale G. In Fig. 2 the cord which leads from the drum 1 > over the pulleys H and I to the fastening J, is shown. 1 With the present arrangement, the drum makes 60 revolutions during the descent of the weight W, and it was found that the acceleration continued throughout this run. To obviate this, the weight P was suspended from YV by the cord K. By adjusting the lengthof K and weight of P, the proper acceleration was produced by P and W acting together, and after P had struck the floor the speed was maintained constant by W acting alone. To keep the cord from escaping, the loop L, Fig. 3, was made in its end. The rotation at constant speed varied from 35 to 40 revolutions with different propellers, during which time the pointer remained stationary. The time was taken from the moment when P struck the floor till W struck P; the possible error was one-fifth second, giving speed error between

termine speed accurately.

5 and 10 per cent. It was not intended to de-

To insure an open scale several springs were used, one from 0 to 10, one from 8 to 18, etc. The calibration was tested every few runs. The aggregate thrust error did not exceed ]/> oz. The drum measures 1J4 i»- x 6 in.; the actual measured torque (at 1 ft. .) was 3.8 oz. All propeller blades were segmental as shown in Fig. 4. The pitch of all, except Nos. 3 and 4, is 10 in., practically uniform (except near hub). Propellers lb and le are modifications of la. Type b has the Constantin wind deflecting curve at the entering edge. No. 1 and No. 2 are the same except in thickness. The table gives the thrust in ounces and revolutions per minute.

It is seen that the Constantin profiles are inferior to types a and c; this was a surprise to me because, although it confirmed my original opinion, it was contrary to the reported results obtained with this profile.

In the second experiment with No. lb', where the weight \Y has been increased to give a torque of 5.6 oz., the velocity has risen to 800 rev.; but the thrust is still less than that for la or lc. The conclusion is obvious.

no 3 j^u /'•'V/c

Tio-f li" pitch

lit)1 2V'> 2ç' /■>■">'

The c type is more efficient than the a type, at least for small angles of attack.

No. Id, cambered on face 1-16 in., gave fliu'htlv less thrust than with flat face.

The" superiority of No. 2 over No. 1 shows the advantage of a thin blade.

Continneihm ikuji' I-

FOREIGN AERONAUTICAL MOTORS

By the Staff Correspondent.

The variety of different types of motors exhibited at the recent Paris Aeronautical Salon would indicate that European designers and manufacturers are still at a difference of opinion as to which is the best type of motor for the purpose. It is not the purpose of this article, however, to discuss suitability or prophesy the ultimate type. We will confine ourselves to the salient points of each motor, commencing with those of the stationary type.

The Renault is probably the best known of the foreign motors in the United States because of the fact that our Government has purchased ten or more of these during the past year, and the American cross-country record was accomplished by Lieut. Milling with a Burgess tractor biplane fitted with a 70-h.p. Renault. This engine is built in one of 70 and 100-h.p. sizes. The smaller motor has eight individual, air-cooled cylinders arranged on one crank case in groups of 4 at 90 degrees to each other and acting upon a single crank shaft. A single cam shaft also operates all the valves, the inlet valves being in pockets on the sides of the cylinders and the exhaust valves in the heads.

The cylinders have a bore of 334 in. and a stroke of 4^ in., and the motor develops its rated horsepower at 1,800 r.p.m. As this speed is not suitable for direct operation, the propeller shaft is formed by an extension of the cam shaft, which, of course, rotates at one-half the speed of the crank shaft, or 900 r.p.m. This feature has undoubtedly contributed largely to the sticcess of the engine because of

the fact that the slow speed propeller, for slow speed machines, is much more efficient. It is also claimed by the manufacturers that any gyroscopic effect of the propeller is overcome by the crank shaft rotating, in the opposite direction.

Cylinders are cooled by a fan on the crank shaft which delivers a large volume of air into a chamber between the two groups of cylinders formed by a sheet metal housing over the top of the engine, and the air passes out through the horizontal flanges on the cylinders, thereby giving very uniform cooling to each one. This

fan, however, absorbs a considerable amount of power, probably not less than 6 h.p. when the engine is operating at full speed, and it is a question whether this arrangement is lighter per horsepower delivered to the propeller shaft than the water-cooled design when one subtracts the power required to operate the fan, and adds the weight of the fan and its sheet metal housing and the rather heavy cooling flanges which are necessary on the eight cylinders. The convenience of the air cooling, however, is a great advantage.

The carburetor is of the manufacturer's own make of the duplex type, having a single float chamber and two separate jet chambers, with an inlet pipe leading to each group of four cylinders. The engine is fitted with a single spark, Bosch magneto of the H.L. type, operating at engine speed and firing all eight cylinders.

Lubrication is accomplished by a gear pump located in the oil sump in the bottom of the crank case. This pump delivers the oil under a slight pressure to the main bearings, from where it is thrown off into circular oil scoops on the crank shaft, lubricating the connecting rods by centrifugal force. All other parts of the motor are oiled by splash. Baffle plates are interposed between the base of the cylinders and the crank case to prevent over-lubrication of the cylinders.

The two groups of cylinders do not stand directly opposite each other on the crank case, but are staggered the necessary amount, so that all the connecting rods are alike, and each has separate big end bearings. The weight of this motor, complete with magneto and carburetor, is 415 lbs.

The 100-h.p. Renault is of the same general appearance as the 70-h.p. size, except that it has 12 cylinders, 33/j-in. bore by Sj^-in. stroke, and these are arranged in two groups of six at an angle of 60 degrees to each other. This difference between the angle of the cylinders of the 8-cylinder and 12-cylinder motors is, of course, necessary in order to secure uniform firing.

In the case of this larger motor, the cylinders are placed opposite each other, and the two connecting rods act upon a common crank shaft bearing, one being a master rod and the other being attached to it with a small pin like the piston pin arrangement. Two single spark Bosch magnetos are used, each firing one set of six cylinders. A double carburetor, as on the 8-cylinder motor, also divides the motor into two separate 6-cylinder engines.

This engine is very long and somewhat clumsy for its power, weighing 630 lbs. However, it develops its rated horsepower quite easily, as was shown when one was recently tested by the U. S. Government at Annapolis, and developed 103 h.p. on the propeller shaft at 900 r.p.m., and, of course, was developing somewhat more than this on the crank shaft because of the loss in the reduction gears. To be covtim(c<l

Page 37

AERONAUTICS, Feb. 14, 1O14

THE SPERRY GYROSCOPIC STABILIZER

One January 21st, Lawrence B. Sperry left for France with the latest development of the gyroscopic stabilizer, with which experiments have been conducted at the Cur-tiss plant, at Hammondsport, for the past eighteen months.

The device may be placed in any convenient location on a gasless craft and connected by cables with ailerons or warping wings and with the elevator. The sole ambition in life of the controlling gyroscopes used is to maintain their position parallel with the horizon. A tilting up on one wing end opens a small valve in an air cylinder and permits air from a storage tank to move a piston. The piston rod is connected to a vertical lever, to which cables run to the ailerons. It is clear that this can be arranged to pull upward the aileron on the high side and create a downward pressure, and the reverse for the low side.

The same gyroscopes resent longitudinal tipping, and another cylinder and piston are employed for operating the elevator.

To bank on a turn, the operator in the Curtiss machine, for instance, moves bis shoulder brace as ordinarily. This, of course, opens the valve in the cylinder again and the ailerons operate to bank. At the point desired, the automatic device, the gyroscope, takes up the work again and maintains the set bank, until the operator puts the machine back on a level keel again. As a matter of fact, the pilot "fools" the gyroscope by changing its horizontal relation to the horizon, and it goes right on believing that any further alteration in bank beyond the amount set for is abnormal and should be automatically corrected. A similar stunt is done to volplane.

The illustration (Fig. 1) shows the earlier

device located under the seats of the Navy's "C-2." The device in the foreground is the one for lateral stability. A separate unit was used for longitudinal stability, located in the bow of the boat. A is the arm opening the valve. A cable is run to a foot lever; pulling on this opens the valve to the outside air and cuts out the automatic device. C is the lever which is hooked by a rod to the usual Curtiss shoulder yoke control. E is the piston rod which operates the lever C, as is obvious.

Fig. 1 also shows a diagrammatic view of the wiring of the aileron control system. H is a little lever which opens the shoulder braces to permit easy ingress. At J is the device equalizing the pressure on the ailerons. Many changes have been made in the device now taken to Europe, as will be noticed later on.

Electric current to rotate the gyroscopes, which are practically induction motors, at

a speed of 14,000 r.p.m. is obtained from a generator, which is now driven by a belt from the aeroplane's engine. Increase of engine speed shifts the belt, so that a fairly uniform generator speed is obtained. This generator furnishes both direct and alternating current, which may be used for lighting, ignition, wireless or other purposes. This generator weighs about 22 lbs. The gyroscopes, their frames, cylinders and other mechanisms, weigh about 40 lbs. A compressed air tank adds some 12 lbs. Uniform pressure is maintained in the tank by an automatic pump fitted in a hole drilled in the top of the cylinder, and forces air and gases from the engine cylinder into the reservoir on the firing stroke. Later on electricity will be used instead of the compressed air tank.

Continued on 7><me 3'J

THE THOMAS FLYING BOAT

The 1914 Thomas flying boat has many new features, both in design and construction, and is in keeping with the Thomas reputation of high-grade design and efficiency. During the past year several methods of construction were experimented with.

First, the all-wood hull was tried and discarded because of the great amount of water absorbed by the planking. It was

found that the all-wood hull would increase in weight over 100 lbs. after being in use a couple of weeks.

Next, a wooden hull was tried with metall bottom. This was found to have advant-l ages over the all-Avood hull, but still thel sides absorbed a great deal of water.

Finally, a third type was tried, in which the hull was built of wood and then en-l tirely covered with metal. This boat was!

put through a number of tests during the summer and fall, and in efficiency, both in the water and air, more than tilled its designer's expectations. It has been timed to leave the water in eight seconds from the time the engine was started, and to have a speed of over 65 miles an hour in the air.

The 1914 model contains all the good features of last year's model, and in addition has new ones in both design and construction. The new model might well be called "The boat with a backbone,'' as, contrary to the usual practice in flying-boat construction of building over frames and fitting in braces and centerboard last, the new model is built from the keel up, just as all boats are built, from the smallest motor boat to an ocean liner.

Length over all, 25 ft. 5 in.; length of hull, 23 ft; span of top plane, 36 ft. 4 in.; span of lower plane, 28 ft. 4 in.; chord, 5 ft.; gap, 68 in.; top beam, 40 in.; bottom beam, 34y2 in.; maximum depth, 36 in.; total area of main planes, 310 sq. ft.; power plant, Austro-Daimler 90 h. p.; total weight of Hying boat, empty, 1,275 lbs. Hull proper is 23 ft. in length, beam 34l/2 in. at bottom and 40 in. at top. Divided into water-tight compartments, any one of sufficient capacity to float the machine. Spruce keel entire length of boat; from this the body of the hull is built up on ribs of spruce spaced 4 in. apart and double planked with cedar. Two layers of J<J-iit. planking. Decided V bottom, from the step to a point forward of the seats, which makes a stronger construction than flat bottom and does not add to weight. After planking, the boat is entirely covered with a special grade of galvanized sheet steel. It will not absorb water, is easy to repair in case of puncture, and will last indefinitely. Mahogany spray shields; cockpit paneled with same material. Seats upholstered in dark gray. Center panel of spray shield operated by

small lever in cockpit, making an easy entrance to the boat.

Bottom of boat is protected by a large center skid of ash, running entire length, and two smaller ones on the sides. Center skid is fastened to inside keel by an improved method, which prevents leakage. Skid is shod with steel, and at the step has a heavy heel which is capable of supporting the entire weight of the machine. The boat is finished in battleship-gray color, and all metal work is highly polished.

The hull has been designed for use with the engine mounted either midway between the planes or on the hull itself. With the motors mounted between the planes, the boat has extra seating capacity in the after cockpit.

Wings are built up in panels, for convenience in shipping; upper plane containing seven sections, and lower five. AH guy wires 3/32 in. galvanized steel cable, fitted with a special type of Bleriot turnbuckle. All control wires are doubled for safety. The standard Thomas strut socket is used, and struts can be taken out and planes packed without losing any wires. Wing curve is standard Thomas curve, used for past four years. The stabilizer is 10 ft. in length and an average of 2 ft., with an area of 20 sq. ft. The two elevator flaps contain 22y2 sq. ft., and the balanced rudder 9 sq. ft. The ailerons have a length of 11 ft. and an average width of 18 in., and contain about 33 sq. ft.

The boat is fitted with a new system of control. The elevator is worked in the usual way, by forward and backward movement of the steering column, and the rudder by rotating wheel on it, but the aileron control is worked by foot pedals. The whole control is very neatly worked out and undoubtedly will be adopted as standard, with a view to meeting the United States Navy requirements.

THE SPERRY GYROSCOPIC STABILIZER

Continued from ixi(/e 37

A dial on one side of the device shows the angle of flight at all times. A plate anemometer, which may be located in any convenient place, shows on a dial, similar to an automobile speedometer, the speed of the aeroplane relative to the air. Adjustment can be made so that a fall in speed to any set point will operate the air valve in the cylinder and cause the machine to 'plane until the proper speed has again been attained.

The bow of the boat shown in Fig. 1 contains, in the experimental device, a duplicate of the set shown, connected to the elevator control system and operating in the same manner as the other unit. Added to this was the plate anemometer.

In the latest machine, the gyroscopes for both stability systems and all mechanisms are located in one unit.

Table For Calculating Weights of Aeroplane frame-Work

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orni

       

0563

0611

0675

0731

.0788

0BÌ4

0100

3i '

c,22

0IÛ3

0214

4305

0366

0417

0*8)

^J4l)

0601

0670

073/

0712

0853

0114

0175

A-

r.'3>

0/97

0161

031$

0314

0451

0525

0511

0656

0722

0788

0853

.01/1

018*

.105

 

01*1

02/1

.0181

0351

0412

041.3

0563

.06 33

0703

0733

Of4*

ì «

i 184

.105

.113

4 '

.CI so

0225

0300

0375

0450

0625

0600

.06 75

0750

0625

0100

.0175

0/05

.113

.120

               

Ce

Icuìot.d

9> Hi. freut

This reale <S"-es The IVeioht, Fer Inch of ¿enolh, of ¿>,ff er. ni

Sizes of Spruce

for /I s h ifuHiply By 1.467

for found or fHip ficol Shapes Multiply By .7e54-

rh/s roble is Computeo* on rhe Bos'S of Spruce * .U/S Per Cubtc Inch and /Ish - . Pee * fer Cubic Inch._

THE BOLAND FLYING BOAT

The Boland flying boat made its debut at the Motor Boat Show in February. Here is surely an original affair—a tailless, rudderless, aileronless monoplane flying boat, and alleged to be non-infringing!

Frank E. Boland began experimenting, as we recall, in 1907, and bought an almost unliable machine in 1908 and started to work. Eventually he brought to the public notice his ''jib" system of control, with which readers are entirely familiar through drawings and descriptions of earlier machines. To steer the machine, the hand-wheel is turned left or right for steering thus respectively. The cable pulls one jib only inward, creating a resistance on that side of the machine tending to turn and bank it. The jib is revoluble about an oblique axis from the lower end of the forward strut to the upper end of the rear strut. To balance, the jib on the high side is pulled in, the hand-wheel being turned naturally to the high side. The jib produces a drag and a down pressure and the aeroplane rights. To operate the elevator, the wheel and steering column is pushed forward for "going down" and pulled toward the operator for "going up."

The wings, rigid, are guyed to a mast in the, stern of the boat. A light cantilever bridgl extends from the boat out to the wing-encfl floats and acts as a truss for the jibs and the1 floats.

The two-step boat is of mahogany ribs and' stays, covered with one ply spruce and a layerj of Irish linen painted with Conover "dope'l and enamel varnish. A 3-in. ash gunwale ex-1 tends along the deck and projects forward tOj form the support for the elevator. The engine! struts are also fastened to this gunwale. The| cockpit carries two tandem; 6-in. gunwale. The passenger sits under the horizontal center of gravity. At every step is a handhole for bailing out. On the dashboard there is a hand pressure pump for gasoline supply, a tachometer and an air gauge. A magneto cut-outi button is located in the hand-wheel, and there( is also a switch in the hub of the wheel. The, right foot operates the throttle and spark, the spark advance being connected with the throttle.

The hollow mast is of oak and mahogany,, laminated. This is fastened in the keel audi

Continued on page, i'i

- .B;B?k*^}---

Va\ a,«ivi yi {....'. i"'.^

A i>

J

ANOTHER NEW CURTISS FLYING BOAT

A change in hull design, in engine section ubing and wing-end floats are the principal features of the latest Curtiss flying boat, ex-libited at the Motor Boat Show in New York 11 February.

There is no folding hood, as the mahogany idieathing is brought up in a solid rounded :orm. At the forward seat the sides flare out slightly to make more room. The shoulder )races which operate the ailerons fold outward )n either side, making for easy entrance and >gress. An Elliott instrument board under the ■iood contains a clock, indicating barometer, 'achometer and air speed indicator. A knife ■witch for the magneto is fastened to the under side of the hood. As the main 30-gallon fas tank is under the rear passenger seat, air >ressure is employed, and there is an air gauge itted under the hood. A pop-off valve limits he amount of pressure. The air pump is geared to the cam shaft. This forces gasoline nto the small 3-gallon gravity tank just back )f the radiator, which is now slightly enlarged, md has thin vertical tubes. In conjunction /ith the instrument board there is also an angle >f flight indicator.

Curtiss boats are now made with one-piece •vings, which allows more strength and better ilignment. The lower plane in the engine sec-ion is of mahogany, cut out to allow another ;eat for the third and fourth passengers. The ipper wings separate in the center of the engine section. The lower wings are each shorter than the two upper halves on account )f allowance for the above arrangement in the ower engine section. Both upper and lower ,vings are connected to the engine section by

Q. D. sockets. A removable pin permits rapid demounting. All struts may be removed with the wings without loosening up any of the guy wrires. The power plant remains intact with the boat.

Under the wing ends are floats., fitted to the curve of the wings, straight sided, terminating in a sharp vertical edge at the rear under the beam. A flat paddle is attached on the under side. Non-skid panels are fitted as usual. The engine is an O-X 90-100, which insures an average of around 60 m.p.h. The total weight of the machine, without operator or supplies, is 1,400 lbs.

The surfaces are covered with linen, coated with spar varnish, with a high gloss. There is a starting crank, of course. This conflicts with the single large beam running down from the engine bed to the bow, but as the engine does not have to be "swung," there is no objection on this account.

The forward part of the hull has a V bottom, the greatest curvature being forward, decreasing to straight lines at the step. A towing ring is in the extreme nose of the boat, and the bow is protected with copper sheathing. The usual hand holes are to be found in the top of the tail of the boat. The wings have been flattened somewhat and the angle of flight is about 6 degrees. The fixed tail surface has a slight lifting angle. The propeller is a standard Curtiss, metal tipped, 8 ft. diameter by Sy'2 ft. pitch. The steering column provides two wheels for either of two men to use. Under the engine is a drip pan, which protects the occupants of the rear seat. The chord has been shortened to 5 ft.

THE U. S. NAVY'S LATEST FLYING BOATS.

The last three machines supplied the U. S. Navy are similar to the Curtiss boat seen at the Boat Show and the previous boats supplied in a general way. There is no seat under the engine for extra passengers and no drip pan under the engine. The chord is 5 ft. 6 in. The gasoline tanks flank the engine, as shown in the drawing, and the upper plane is fitted with extensions. The hood is rigid, but is differently shaped, as will be noticed in the sketch. The engine tube bracing at the rear beam is not as simple as the Show boat.

CURTISS FLYING BOAT FOR ITALIAN NAVY

Another new hull design has been employed in making the machine for the Italian Navy. The hull is straight sided instead of flaring at the forward seat, as is the custom in the standard and the U. S. Navy boats, where the occupants sit side by side. But two occupants are provided for in the Italian boat, placed tandem, permitting a narrower hull. The vertical sides are of mahogany veneer, 3-ply. This enables the entire side to be made of one

piece, i. e., the mahogany is cut out the full shape instead of being used in narrow strips. Otherwise, the internal construction is the same as that of other Curtiss boats.

The occupants, seated tandem, are entirely protected except for the face when the hood is down; when the hood is raised, they are completely covered up. This hood is constructed similar to an automobile top, with bows and fabric; transparent material is inserted in the cloth between the bows and across the front. The bows run fore and aft, and the top opens in the longitudinal center and folds down within the sides of the hull.

The hull being narrower than standard, allows of a transparent strip on either side of (he hull in the lower engine section, so that

the rear occupant has sight directly downward.! The cockpit, in which both sit, is elliptical inl shape. The front wing beam crosses the cockpit just ahead of the rear man. Controls arei standard Curtiss, except that they are so ar-J ranged either man may do the operating, orj can be disconnected at once for instruction! work. In this boat there are two spars run-< ning down from the engine bed to the bow of the boat. In other respects the machine is the same as that seen at the Boat Show.

The weight, empty and without supplies, is 1,400 lbs. The chord of the wings in this boat] is 5 ft. 6 in.; the spread is the same as the* Show boat.

PROPELLER EXPERIMENTS

Continued from puijc S"i

With zero pitch, type b gave practically no thrust, while type c gave 9 oz.

The No. 4, same as No. 1 except that it has 15-in. pitch, gave less thrust than No. 1.

No. 5, with 24-in. diameter, gave more thrust than No. 1; and No. 6, with blade 4*4-in. wide, gave same thrust as No. 5 at slightly reduced speed.

Table 1.

Propeller

Thrust,

Speed.

 

Propeller

Thrust,

Speed.

ounces

rev. p.m.

 

ounces

rev. p.m. ;

la

201o

750

 

2c

26

800 I

lx

13

670

 

3c

9

920

lb

ll'i:

630

 

4a

18

640

lb'

II

600

 

5a

26

1,100 J

lc

23

800

 

5b

16

960 1

Id

2212

800

5c

27

1,200

2a

23^

800

6a

26

1,050 1

2b

IS

800

 

lb'2

17

800

2b'

18

800

       

(To be continued)

THE BOLAND FLYING BOAT.

Continued from page in

guys run to the wings, the bow of the boat! and the engine bed. The main wing spars end! in a special socket on the mast. The wingsj have a camber of 4y_- in, tapering to 3^4 in-and are set at a 5-in. angle. The wings are also set at a dihedral angle in the later direel tion. Wings are of linen, Conover treated anj spar varnished.

The 70-h.p. Boland engine will be supplanted by the new 100-h.p. motor, Ay> x 5V2, drivinB a 4-bladed propeller 5^-ft. pitch by 7-ft. diairl eter; 100 b.p. is claimed at 1,250 r.p.m. Will the present engine the outfit weighs arounB 900 lbs.

Leonard W. Bonney, a former Wright flyerl is chief pilot with the Boland Aeroplane & Motor Co. A description of the 100-h.p. Bol land engine will be given in a subsequent issue"

FOR FLYING BOATS USE

JEFFERY'S MARINE GLUE

Use our Waterproof Liquid Glue, or No. 7 Black, White, or Yellow Soft Quality Glue for waterproofing the canvas covering of flying boats. It not only waterproofs and preserves the canvas but attaches it to the wood, and with a coat of paint once a year will last as Ions as the boat.

For use in combination with calico or canvas between veneer in diagonal planking, and for waterproofing muslin for wing surfaces. Send for samples, circulars, direction! for use, etc.

L. W. FERDINAND & CO. 201 South Street, Boston, Mass., U. S. A.

Longren and his HALL-SCOTT powered tractor

The Young Aviation Co., Topeka, Kansas have written

"We have used No. 51 three seasons, has done elegant work all this time, no motor failure, and have filled more dates than any other aviator in the state of Kansas and most of Oklahoma and Nebraska.

Signed A. K. LONGREN."

Investigate our 100 H. P. equipment

Hall-Scott Motors Guarantee Success

Hall-Scott Motor Car Co.

818 Crocker Bldg San Francisco, Cal.

AERONAUTICAL RADIATORS

Built in capacities and types for standard and special aviation motors

Write for prices on standard makes. Send your specifications for special designs

EL ARCO RADIATOR COMPANY

64th St. & West End Ave., New York City Also Manufacturers of Automobile Radiators of all types

PEDERSEN OIL PUMPS

have positive action, are small and light, easily applied to any motor

——"— Write for circular ———™c——

it; >;

>;

$

>; >] ;♦. >; $

$

>]

>: >' 'M >; >] >;

>; >; >;

>;

I

>: >; >; >] >;

The Sloane Aeroplane Co. ;♦;

The only builders in the world of military mono- y

planes, biplanes and flying boa ts. Full equipment $ for military and naval aviation furnished.

SLOANE

FLYING BOATS

For Sporting and Naval Use

OWL BOATS

For Over Water and Land Flying

SLOANE MONOPLANES TRACTOR BIPLANES

and

Rear Propeller Gun-Planes

SLOANE AERO-SKIMMERS for sportsmen. Ideal for high speed travel on the water and delivery use on shallow streams.

GNOME —ANZANI—RENAULT, at lowest prices

Aeroplanes built lo special design. Designs developed. Parts supplied—In fact everything aeronautical furnished.

Sloane Aeroplane Co.

1733 Broadway :: New York City

BOLAND AEROPLANE AND MOTOR COMPANY

THE BOLAND MOTOR

8 cyl. " V " type 6o H.P. 240 pounds.

RELIABILITY MAXIMUM POWER.

DURABILITY MINIMUM WEIGHT.

THE BOLAND TAILLESS BIPLANE

equipped with the Boland Control (two movements) and BOLAND MOTOR.

THE BOLAND CONTROL is the embodiment of utmost safety and simplicity in a new system of control which is basic in principle. Write fo'r particulars.

Factory: Ft. Center St., Newark, N. J.

Office: 1821 BROADWAY, NEW YORK.

CAPITALIST or PROMOTER

.--Wanted —-—

PEDERSEN LUBRICATOR CO.

636-644 Firat Avenue, New York. U. S. A.

Will try to cross the Atlantic in shortest possible time with my new type airship

A Practical Accomplishment WALTER V. KAMP, 551W. 178th St., New,York

CURTISS AIR BOAT TO CROSS ATLANTIC.

Rodman Wanamaker is having built by the Curtiss Aeroplane Cj. a huge flying boat in which an attempt is expected to be made to cross the Atlantic in its smallest dimension during the year.

At the p-esent "state of the art" it has been thought imp -unable that crossing the pond would be accomplished. However, Curtiss has done a lot of things peopl; said he couldn't do, and this may be one of them. There are plenty of battleships scattered about this 1 ttle sphere. Perhaps this country, England, France. Germany and others could be induced to distribute a chain of boats along the projected route. At best, they would be some considerable distance apart: at the same time, any safeguard is better than none and it might be possible, by traveling at a great leight, with powerful glasses, to almost keep a battleship in sight at all times.

GLOBE AIR RACE.

It is clai ned the Panama-Pacific Exposition has

offered $150.000 in prizes for an air race around the

world, open to all types of craft, and will raise $150,000 mote.

AERO CLUB OF PHILADELPHIA DINNER.

The first annual hanquet of the Philadelphia Aero Club was held February 5th. The speakers were: Marshall Red, Henry M. Neely, William D. Harris, Ulysses S. Wilson, E. R. Brown, Dr. George S. Gassner. Percy Pierce was toastmaster. The club was founded in 911 and in the first two years many records were made in model flying. An incomplete aeroplane has been presented to the club.

STEVENS' LIFE PACK AGAIN DEMONSTRATED.

On Febrt fry 4, Leo Stevens' "life pack" was again employed by moving picture people for a sensational him. With two taxicabs, Rodman Law and Miss Consta ice Bennett started across Brooklyn bridge and at the center leaped out and climbed over the rail anc —dropped. 1 f this had happened in France, the capers and magazines would have been full of the "wonderful" feat. Here, however, where the idea ori rinated. such feats are so common they scarcely call for comment. The "pack," as everyone knows, is merely a silken parachute properly folded in a little big strapped to the shoulders. When the jump is made, the 'chute opens in 20 or 30 feet.

TALIAFERRO'S RECORD TRIP.

The official report of the trip of Lieut. Taliaferro, on January 20 'rom North Island, Cal., via Los Angeles and Pasadena to Elsinore, shows that he covered 224 miles in 3 hours and 50 minutes, an average of 58.4 miles pi.-r hour.

Taliaferro flew at an average altitude of about 5,000 feet. Having obtained gasoline and oil from Flsinore, he flew to a point six miles southeast of Temecula, landing there on account of the engine having stopped. He flew back to Elsinore, spending the night at that place (total distance in air for the day 270 milts; total time in air 4 hours and 41 minutes). Leav ng Elsinore at 9:30 a. in. on the morning of January 21, he continued his flight until eight miles west cf Corona, where the engine stopped on account of tie poor gasoline obtained at Elsinore. He landed ii the only possible landing place in that part of the country, a very muddy, newly plowed field, at io:cfc a. m. (distance 35 miles, time 38 minutes). The field where he landed was so soft that the wheels sink into the ground to their hubs. This field was si rrounded 011 three sides by high hills and trees, a id a swamp on the fourth side, and as there was no place within a radius of 5 miles from which he coi.ld take to the air he deemed it inad-

visable to continue his flight. He dismounted the! machine, loaded it in a box car, and shipped it toj San Diego by rail. The machine used was a Curtissl speed scout type, with Curtiss OX 90-100 horsepower engine.

The summary of the reports from San Diego foJ the week ending January 24 shows no flights, 45] passengers carried; total time in air 25 hours and 28i minutes. Since January 1 to January 24, there havl been 306 flights, 140 passengers carried; total time in* air 77 hours and 52 minutes. In the above total are! included three cross-country flights of 85, 134 anil 220 miles.

IMPORT AND EXPORTS.

Imports.

For November..................................

11 months ending November 1, aeroplane

and parts ............................... $19,625

Exports of Domestic Manufacture.

For November, 2 and parts................ T5>37a

11 months ending November, 18 and parts.. 79.531 Exports of Foreign.

For November, none......................

11 months ending November, 2 and parts... 11,23a

In Warehouse, November 30. 3 Aeroplanes ............................. 7>62^

NEW ALTITUDE FLIGHT ENDS FATALLY.

After making a new American altitude record 01 [2,120 feet at San Diego, February 9, Lieut. Henry B. Post, army aviator, was killed, after descending! safely to within some 600 feet of the earth. It Is reported that at that height "the plane was seen tc' collapse" and the pilot was thrown clear of the machine into five feet of water. The Signal Corps' will, of course, make an official report.

The altitude record has been held by Beachey whl made 11,642 feet at Chicago in 1911. Lieut. Post's* best flight was one of 152 miles in 2 days. (Sec( issue of January 31.)

NILES FLIES UPSIDE DOWN.

C. S. Niles, second in the race around New YorfcJ a former Curtiss and Thomas biplane flyer, flew a Moisant monoplane upside down in a most sensation™ and heart-stopping flight at Mineola 011 February 3. In attempting to make the loop, it is reported till machine dropped tail first before getting completell over, but Niles was able to recover.

SCOTT TO DROP BOMBS.

Lieut. Riley E. Scott is on his way to San Dieguj to resume bomb dropping experiments after thosd made with mediocre results at Washington two years) ago, due to inability of the machine used to lift the weight.

INTERNATIONAL BALLOON RACE.

R. H. Upson and Capt. II. E. Honeywell have so far been selected as two of the team to represent Uncle Sam in the big race from Kansas City, October 6. It is apparent that there will be 110 national race this year to select the team as originally urged by AERONAUTICS, finally put in practice and as has been the custom for the past three years.

AVIATOR IN AIR SIXTEEN HOURSl

Munich, Feb. 8.—The aviator lngold broke thej world's record for a cross country endurance flighi.1 He remained in the air for 16 hours and 20 minutes! and covered a distance estimated at 1,050 miles with! out landing. lngold started at Mülhausen, Alsacel and flew far to the north. He then proceeded southl ward to Munich, lauding in a suburb.

Johaiinisthal, Feb. 3.—The aviator Brunolanger today broke the world's record for an endurance flight. He remained in the air for fourteen hours and seven minutes.

'age 45

AERONAUTICS, Feb. 14, iyM

< BENOIST

ANNOUNCEMENT

The Benoist School of Aviation will open on Janua-/ 1st, at St. Petersburg, Florida. The school will be inder the personal supervision of Tom W. Benoist and Tony Jannus. We will also conduct the first regular schedule paäsenger-carrying air line in the world, St. Petersburg to Ta^ipa, Fla. Students who want to join the school and prospective agents who want their territory for the exclusive sale of our flying boats will do well to address

The Xew Be noi ut Flying Jioat in Action

BENOIST AIR CRAFT COMPANY

St. Louis, Missouri or St. Petersburg Florida

GYRO MOTOR

50 H.P.

160 POUNDS

80 H.P.

207 POUNDS

Built of Nickel Steel and Vanadium Steel Throughout

Endurance Flying F ecord to Date, 4 hrs., 23 min.

From

"FLIGHT"

July 26th, 1913

"Some may say—to the obvious benefit of the Company whose representatives have adopted his very practical method of calling attention to the GYRO engine (50 h. p.) that it is all due to the motor, which probably develops about three times as much power as the machine requires for the purposes of straightforward flight."

Send for Catalog

THE GYRO MOTOR COMPANY, 774 Girard Sireet, Washington, D. C.

ALL MARINE FLYERS

Should investigate the merits of the Three-Bladed Paragons. Smaller Size than corresponding two blades, with fine lines of design, make them turn more freely. Free turning enables them to carry higher pitch. The added blade gives them a stronger hold on the air.

Results:—Less Vibration — Full Turning Speed — Higher Pitch Speed = Smaller Slip—Faster Flying—Stronger Manoeuvering—Safer Handling and Control.

Uncle Sam uses three-bladed Paragons almost exclusively in his Navy Boats—There's a reason and Paragon price economy besides.

There are questions in your mind. Write to ns for the answers intelligently stated and illustrated by photographs. Full brass blade protection at only nominal cost.

AMERICAN PROPELLER CO., 243-249 E. Hamburg St., Baltimore, Md.

OFFICERS.

Clarence I'. Wynne, President. Jos. A. Steinmetz, uf J'ice-President. \\'m. I). Harris, 2111/ Tice-Prcsidcnt. ( iEORge S. Gassner, Secretary Laurence Marescii, Treasurer. Office of the Club, Pcl'.evue-Stratford, I'hila., Pa.

NOTICE TO MEMBERS.

Members of the Aero Club of Pennsylvania in good standing will receive semi-monthly copies of AERONAUTICS as one of the benefits of membership, together with the monthly journal "Flying." Py this arrangement, A. C. P. members obtain more from a magazine standpoint than those of any other club in the country. _

DEMAND FOR CHARAVAY

That the consistent good work of Charavay propellers and the high quality of construction is upholding their enviable reputation for efficiency and long service is evident from the number of new orders and repeats orders that the Sloane Aeroplane Company is continually receiving

The Sloane Aeroplane Company has just brought out a new 3 bladed type for flying-boats and tractors, the first of which was delivered to the U. S. Navy. No propeller is allowed to leave the factory before being inspected by an expert as to correct pitch and balance. The balancing is accomplished on a special ball bearing bracket and the weights of the blades are not allowed to vary a fraction of an ounce.

Amongst recent purchasers are the governments of the United States, Guatemala ami Mexico, Moisant International Aviators, Capt. Thomas S. Paldwin, ('apt. Hugh L. YVilloughby, Lieut. J. M. Murray, Richmond Aeroplane Co., Lieut. Wall), Maximillian Schmitt, Penoist Aircraft Co., R. V. Morris, and E. P. Ford, son of the famous maker of Ford cars.

ST. PETERSBURG LINE ADDS NEW ROUTE.

The St. ['etersburg-Tampa Airboat Line, established by the Penoist Aircraft Company of St. Louis, has issued a statement of its first month's business, covering the 31 days of January. With no Sunday flying, this left only 27 possible days of operation. Jn these 27 days, 97 trips were made. Out of these, 4^/2 days of flying were lost, 3 days loss was caused by a broken crank shaft in the motor, and the balance ascribed to bad weather.

There were carried in all, 184 passengers, and the boat made a distance of 2,234 miles, or 4,468 passenger-miles, which surely compares not only favorably, but much better than the usual taxicab or automobile used for commercial work.

The line has proved highly remunerative, as the cost of upkeep has been much less than for the same work with an automobile, and the amounts received for the work have, of course, been greater.

The first understanding was that this line was to be operated for three months during the tourist season, but the business men have been so delighted with the performances of the boats that they are now making arrangements to continue the line clear through thi siminier and fall, and increase the number of machines to a great extent for next winter.

Two more machines have been received now and arc to be put in active service.

Another line is contemplated between St. Petersburg and Tarpon Springs, a distance of about 45 miles. This to make stops at Pass-A-Grille, Clearwater, Pel-lair and Tarpon Springs.

AERO MART

FOR SALE—Our last year's monoplanes and bj planes; very cheap for cash, or trade for anythin of value.—F. M., 1522 Norwood Ave., Toledo, Ohic

SACRIFICE—A Curtiss type biplane, flown by onj of America's most famous aviators, with 8 cyl. Ilali Scott 60 II. P. motor, all in Ar condition, for $1,35' cash, suhject to demonstration to bona-fide purchasei Shipping boxes, propeller, crates, completely equippei for the road. Free instruction in flight to purchase) at well-known flying field. The best bargain of tlJ season. Opportunity knocks but once at every maul door. Address "Sacrifice," care of AERONAUTICS! 122 E. 25th St., New York.

EXCEPTIONAL OPPORTUNITY is offered by e:| pert to finance building of patented Cross-Country an Water Aeroplane of the future which possesses star ling new features. Self-balancing, impossible to col lapse. Can be built with one or more motors. Ernl Ebbinghaus, 105 East 84th St., New York.

NATIONAL AVIATION FUND NO^ $1,270,000.

Paris, Feb. 1.—The national subscription for tl French aerial war fleet amounts to $1,270,000, accor] ing to announcement made by Senator ReymonJ president of the National Aviation Committee, ai the fund will enable the committee to present to til army 210 aeroplanes, pay for the training of expert pilots and erect 70 aeroplane sheds. It is il tended to establish a complete system of militai air ports throughout the country, so that militai aeroplane pilots will be able to acquire an intimaj knowledge of every part of France without ever beiu out of reach of shelter and needful supplies.

San Francisco and the Hall-Scott concern are d( veloping an intrepid flock of flying men. Roy Franc', Otto Rybitzki, W. II. Plakley, Alfred Barrett, Chart I Pryant, R. G. Fowler, Silas Christofferson, and 1 brother Harry; and, until quite recently when 1 family ohjected, Adolph Sutro.

Each Sunday, when the weather is favorable, ai that has been every Sunday since the beginning the enterprise two months ago. a flying tournamei so to say, has been held on the Exposition grouiu

George A. Gray, a Wright flyer of more or lej repute, is reputed to have looped the loop at Atlanl Peach, Fla., on January 25. Strange to say, accoJ ing to the newspaper reports, he flew his "aeropla| upside down."

NEW BENOIST AIR BOAT.

The new Penoist Airboat "45" has been received J St. Petersburg and put in active service on the i\ Petersburg-Tampa line. This boat is about the saj as the previous models, with several refinements ai a new wing that has demonstrated much greater e] ciency over the old one. It created much surpri around the areo camp when Jannus got ready to mal his regular trip to Tampa after trying out the iv chine, and announced that he would take two passed gers instead of one. Two passengers were quiclJ loaded in and Jannus had no trouble at all in gl ting these out of the water and made the round til on schedule time. Each of the two trips were maj that day; several special flights were made and tl machine tallied up over 100 miles for the first d| equipped with but a 75-h.p. Roberts motor.

It will be noticed by examination that it has null cleaner lines than the older 'plane; motor much moj accessible; chain guards and back part of the motl exposed, making it much more efficient for the radl lion of heat, while the hood has a new curve, will eliminates a lot of spray and_ the strong wind tli blows in the passengers' faces in the old boat.

It has a spread of 42 ft.; a gap of 6 ft. and chord of 5 ft. 2 in. The complete machine, readv fill up. weighs 1,250 lbs. On the regular Tampa triri with two passengers aboard, besides the aviator, thi take enough gasoline for the round trip and thl some for emergencies—about 22 gallons in all. Tl gasoline and water cooling weighs about 150 lbs.

:w a class e>y stoic ilf

For your Flying-boat, or cross country flying,

...MAXIMOTOR...

will fill a long felt want for an ideal aero-

E. V. Fcitts flying at Oneonta, N. Y. in his 100 H-P ,• I .

MAXIMOTORED Biplane. nautic, power-plant.

Builders, as well as aviators, are MAXIMOTOR'S most ardent supporters.

For testimonials, and further particulars, just write to MAXIMOTORS

ARE BU1LT IN FOUR DIFFERENT SIZES FROM 50 TO 150 H-P

DETROIT

1528 JEFFERSON AVENUE E.

The Thomas School

OF AVIATION

OFFERS SUPERIOR ADVANTAGES

Address, Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co. BATH, N. Y.

We make an extra high grade plated finish wire for aviators' use.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ADDRESS

John A. Roebling's Sons Co.

TRENTON, N. J.

Broadway Central — Hotel -

CORNER THIRD STREET

In the Heart of New York

Special attention given to Ladies unescorted

SPECIAL RATES FOR SUMMER

OUR TABLE is the foundation of our enormous business

AMERICAN PLAN EUROPEAN PLAN

$2.50 upwards $1.00 upwards

Send for Large Colored Map and Guide of New York, FREE

TILLY HAYNES

Proprietor

DANIEL C. WEBB. Manager Formerly of Charleston. S. C.

The Only New York Hotel Featuring

AMERICAN PLAN

Excellent Food Good Service

Moderate Prices

PATENTS

SECURED or FEE RETURNED VICTOR J. EVANS & COMPANY Main offices: ™-lj^g-SSg?g£-w'

Send sketch or model for FREE search of Patent Office record. Write for our Guide Books and What to Invent with valuable List of Inventions Wanted sent Free. Send for our special list of piizes offered for Aeroplanes. $600,000 Offered in Prizes for Airships. We are Experts in Aeronautics and have a special Aeronautical Department. Copies of Patents in Airships, 10cents each.

V\JVS 1 you are inter, ested in a ft.liable, efficient sr ceconcrricf I fower plant, list is the enly kind we build. Four sizes. Reasonable Prices

Kemp Machine Works Muncie, Ind.

PATENTS

C. I_. PARKER

Ex-member Ex.mining Corps, U. S. P.lent Otfie. Attorney-at-Law and Solicitor of Patents

Ameriean and foreign patents seeured promptly and with special regard to the eomplete legal protection ol the invention. Handbook for inventors sent upon request. 30 McGill Bld.. WASHINGTON. D. C.

Special grades of Bamboo for Aeronautic Work. Reed, Rattan and Split Bamboo for models. Tonka Rattan for Skids l!4 diameter and under any length.

J. DELTOUR, Inc. ^tllitT^

Published Semi-Monthly by Aeronautics Press

122 E. 25th St.. New York Cable : AERONAUTIC, New York

•Phones j ^| \ Madison Sq. A V JONES, Pres't ERNEST t. JONES, Treas'r-Sec'y

ERNEST L. JONES, Editor M. B. SELLERS, Technical Editor

HARRY SCHULTZ, Model Editor

SUBSCRIPTION RATES

United States, $3.00 Foreign, $3.50

No. 79

FEBRUARY 14, 1914 Vol. XIV, No. 3

Entered as second-class matter September 22, 19(18, at the Postoffice, New York, under the Act of March 3, 1819.

«I AERONAUTICS is issued on the 15th and 30th of each Month. All copy must be received 6 days before date of publication. If proof is to be shown, allowance must be made for mailing.

*llvlake all checks or money orders free of exchange and payable to AERONAUTICS. Do not send currency. No foreign stamps accepted.

The

Wright

Company

(The

Wright

Patents)

We are now prepared to make prompt deliveries ot our various types for

EXHIBITION FLYING

The United States Courts have upheld the Wright Patents, declaring the Curtiss, Faiman, Bleriot and similar machines to be infringements, and permanently enjoining the use of all such infringing machines.

The xeason of 1914 will be a iiros/ieroux one for

WRIGHT FLYERS

Prices and information upon request

The Wright Company

DAYTON, OHIO New York Office : 11 Pine St.

This page contracted for by

A. LEO STEVENS

FOR NEXT ISSUE

WE ARE HEADQUARTERS)

for model aeroplanes, accessories and supplies I Very complete eatalog free on request I

Wading River Mfg. Co.

Wading River. N. Y.

models

CHAR/WAY

Two- and Three-Bladed

PROPELLERSSL0ANE AER0PLANE co''1733 Broadway.NewYork

The Standard American Propeller. Furnished to the Governments of the United States, Mexico, Guatemala, etc., and the leading American Aviators.

Three-bladed type for flying boats and tractors

Actual tests have proven the new three-bladed types to he

20 per cent, more efficient than any other.

Hare you our new i>rice list .' Write for it and save money

In answering advertisements please mention this magasine.

T H WHICH

I S

COMBINED

Official Organ and Bulletin—Aero Club of Pennsylvania The Aeronautical Society

Press Despatches Say:

"Mountains Check Birdman's Flight"

Silas Christofferson flew well enough with his old motor until he faced the perils of Tejon Pass. There he paused long enough to install a

Curtiss 0-X Motor

With this he' continued safely to San Diego.

Let us give you motor facts

THE CURTISS MOTOR CO., 21 Lake St., Hammondsport, N. Y.

< BENOIST «e

ANNOUNCEMENT

The Benoist School of Aviation now open at St. Petersburg, Florida. The school is under the personal supervision of Tom W. Benoist and Tony Jannus.

We also conduct the first regular schedule passenger-carrying air line in the world, St. Petersburg to Tampa, Fla. Students who want to join the school and prospective agents who want their territory for the exclusive sale of our flying boats will do well to address

The New Benoist Flying Boat in Action

BENOIST AIR CRAFT COMPANY

St. Louis, Missouri or St. Petersburg, Florida

GYRO MOTOR

50 H.P.

160 POUNDS

80 H. P.

207 POUNDS

Endurance Flying Record (0 Date, 4 hrs., 23 min.

From

"FLIGHT"

July 26th, 1913

"Some may say—to the obvious benefit of the Company whose representatives have adopted his very practical method of calling attention to the GYRO engine (50 h.p.) that it is all due to the motor, which probably develops about three times as much power as the machine requires for the purposes of straightforward flight."

Built of Nickel Steel and Vanadium Steel Throughout

Send for Catalog

THE GYR0 MOTOR COMPANY, 774 Girard Street, Washington, D. C.

"REMARKABLE PROPELLERS"

Are those which are able to show results anywhere near to the ordinary performance of two-and three-bladed PARAGONS. The making of constant change, refinement and improvement is a feature of all PARAGON designing, but here are a few figures for the year 1913 : Report of Curtiss Aeroplane Co., February 8, 1913. Curtiss 8' dia. x 5' pitch—Revolutions 1225—Flying speed 54.5 miles per hour. Paragon 8' dia. x 5' pitch—Revolutions 1244—Flying speed 56.5 miles per hour. Weight of machine 1335 lbs. Load carried 565 lbs. Total weight 1900 lbs. Report of Gerald Hanley, Providence, R. I. (Curtiss Flying Boat) October 13, 1913. Curtiss two-blade, 8' dia.—Rev. 1250, Thrust 480 lbs.—Rev. 1300, Thrust 505 lbs. Paragon Three-blade, 7£' dia.—Rev. 1250, Thrust 570 lbs.—Rev. 1300, Thrust 580 lbs. Lieut. J. II. Towers reports to the Secretary of the Navy as follows: "The three-bladed PARAGON gives more thrust and more speed than any propeller we have had."

THE AMERICAN PROPELLER CO., 243-249 E. Hamburg St., Batimore, Md.

Hydroaeroplanes are said to constitute the eyes of the modern navy. The title applied to the most recent aid to naval vision, the "O.W.L." type, is not intended to suggest that these machines see well at night, but was selected by Captain Washington 1. Chambers, at the head of the American naval aviation, to designate craft equally useful "Over Water or Land."

Glenn H. Curtiss produced the "Triad" in February, 1911 (see AERONAUTICS, April, 1911), and later adapted wheels to the flying boat (AERONAUTICS, March, 1913). The "Triad" was the first machine arranged for alighting on either land or water.

To Captain W. I. Chambers, of the Navy, is due the resuscitation of the type, and its present development into the O.W.L. boats built by Air. Curtiss for the U. S. Navy during 1913.

The first machine of the new type was turned over to Lieut. B. L. Smith, U. S. M. C, last June and with it a long series of experiments was carried on. The combined weight of two aviators was some 370 pounds. The wings used were those of the "U. S. A-2," a Model E Curtiss hydroaeroplane acquired in 1911. The motor was a new Curtiss O-X, which gave the machine a mean speed of 65 m.p.h. but which showed in spurts a maximum of 70 m.p.h. In low speed trials landings were made at less than 40 m.p.h., or almost an exact duplication of some recent English trials, where a range of from 38 m.p.h. to 69 m.p.h. was shown and muchly advertised.

O.W.L. differs from the standard hydroaeroplane in that the pontoon, or hull, is wider, and it has a step similar to that of the standard Curtiss flying boat. The seats, instead of being attached to the superstructure is in the hydroaeroplane, or being in the hull,

as in the case with the flying boat, are set on the pontoon.