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American Magazine of Aeronautics: Jahrgang 1912/1913 als digitaler Volltext

Die Zeitschrift Aeronautics war in den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika (USA) das Gegenstück zur vergleichsweise deutschen Zeitschrift Flugsport. Im American Magazine of Aeronautics wurde allerdings nicht nur über die US-amerikanische Entwicklung der Luftfahrt berichtet, sondern auch über den internationalen Luftverkehr, über Erfindungen, über Patente sowie über Flugwettbewerbe und Veranstaltungen. Als die Zeitschrift erstmals im Jahre 1907 erschien, hieß sie "American Magazine of Aeronautics"; der Name wurde mit der Ausgabe Februar 1908 in "American Magazine of Aerial Navigation" geändert. Abermals wurde der Name mit der Ausgabe September 1909 in "American Magazine of Aerial Locomotion" geändert. In den folgenden Jahren wurde die Zeitschrift nur noch als "Aeronautics" herausgegeben. Nachstehend kann der komplette Jahrgang 1912/1913 als digitaler Volltext eingesehen werden. Alternativ kann der komplette Jahrgang 1912/1913 frei und kostenlos als PDF Dokument (54,5 MB) heruntergeladen werden. Weitere Jahrgänge des American Magazine of Aeronautics stehen in der Übersicht zur Verfügung.


American Magazine of Aeronautics

Vol. XI, No. 1 JULY, 1912 Serial No. 59

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KIRKHAM AVIATION MOTORS 1912 MODELS

Model B-6, 50 H.P., Weight, 235 lbs.

IMMEDIATE DELIVERY

Model B-4, Model B-6, Model B-G-6, Model B-12,

35 H. P., 50 H.P., 70 H.P., 120 H.P.

Weight, 185 lbs. Weight, 235 lbs. Weight, 255 lbs. Weight, 400 lbs.

KIRKHAM Motors are used and endorsed by Thomas Bros.; Rex Monoplane Co.; Burgess Company and Curtis; Mills Aviators; Prowse Aeroplane Co.; Sparling-Craig Co.; Twin City Aviators; American Aeroplane Mfg. Co.; Tarnopol Aviation Co., besides several individual owners, and are acknowledged to be the Best American Motor, regardless of price.

When you buy that new motor it is for your interest to investigate thoroughly before you buy any motor. There is a reason why the KIRKHAM has become so popular with those who know and buy on merit only.

INVESTIGA TE

CHARLES B. KIRKHAM

SAVONA, NEW YORK

" Strength—Efficiency—Design—Durability "

PATENTED MARCH 14, 101 I; JULY 25 1911; OCTOBER 17. 1911: OTHERS PENDING

HIGHEST ENDORSEMENT BY FRENCH AND AMERICAN LEADING AVIATORS

DIDIER MASSON, Licensed by Aero Club of France Masson-Gnome Biplanes, Management of Ivan R. Gates

AMERICAN PROPELLER COMPANY, Clinton, Iowa, May 20, 1912.

243-249 E. Hamburg Street, Baltimore. Md.

Gentlemen:—Enclosed please lind some pictures of the Pa ra iron Propeller mounted on the Gnome engine in our machine. 1 have also enclosed some pictures of Mr. Masson and the new military biplane.

1 wUh to slate in behalf of Mr. Masson, that in our four years' experience in this business, we have found no other propeller equal to the Paragon in strength, efficiency, design, durability and appearance, which 1 think covers all the good gualities a propeller should have.

We wish to thank you very much for your considerate and courteous treatment in taking care of our orders. Your promptness is greatly appreciated and if there is any way we can favor or assist you in a business way, we will be pleased to do so. Thanking you again for your favors, 1 remain.

Very truly yours, IVAN R. GATES, Manager for Didier Masson.

The above is an example of the kind of letters that come to us every little while, unsought and unexpected, from customers who neither ask nor receive favors.

Propellers are cheap or dear according to the results they produce—the satisfaction they brinsr. Measured by their results, their lasting qualities, their genuine value, PARAGON PROPELLERS are the best and the cheapest in the world. Think it over, Mr. Purchaser. Let us furnish you the best propeller you ever used. It won't cost much. Then ask our price for a dozen or twenty. Their cheapness will surprise you. Our fine new factory enables us to kill competition when it comes to quantity orders. Try us. We take all the risk. We guarantee every one.

AMERICAN PROPELLER COMPANY,

New Large Factory 243-249 East Hamburg Street

Baltimore, Md.

BURGESS SUMMER TRAINING SCHOOL NOW OPEN

The Hydro-aeroplane Has the Call fcr 1912

<I Unequalled facilities are provided for instruction in the operation of the marine flier over Marblehead Harbor and the bay adjoining. By giving training at our manufactuiing headquarters we offer pupils an opportunity, at no extra cost, to become thoroughly familiar with the details of construction and design, and ensure against delays. Course consists of FOUR HOURS actual flying during which time we assume all breakage risk. We provide hydroaeroplane for license test.

Instructors : Howard W. Gill, Phillips W. Page, Clifford L. Webster—All licensed aviators

Booklet with full particulars furnished on request. •I Aeroplanes and Hydro-aeroplanes for military, sporting and exhibition purposes ready for prompt delivery.

BURGESS COMPANY AND CURTIS, Marblehead, Mass.

Efficiency of Service

I 'HE worth of an aeronautical gas engine *• can be made evident or marred entirely by its ignition system.

No engine is satisfactory unless it is as efficient as or more efficient than required—the greater the efficiency the more productive and valuable the engine becomes.

Bosch Magnetos

are equivalent to efficiency ; engines on which they are employed are noted for their unceasing, unfailing power-productiveness— their mainstay, the ignition system, requires no attention.

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Bosch Magneto Company

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Wilbur Wright was made the recipient of many high honors as follows: Gold medals of the Smithsonian Institution, Decoration "Chevalier of the Legion of Honor of France," Souvenir of the Aero Club of Sarthe, Medal of the Congress of the U. S. A., Bionze medal of the International Peace Society, Gold medal of the Aero Club of the United Kingdom, Gold medal of the Academy of Sports of France, Gold medal of the Society (French) for the Encouragement of Aviation, Gold medal of the Aero Club of France Gold medal of the Academy of Sciences of France, Gold medal of the City of Dayton, Gold Medal of the Aero Club of America, Gold medal of the Aeronautical Society of Great Britian, Gold medal of the City of Le Mans, France.

With the exception of the last above mentioned, duplicate honors were conferred upon Oi ville Wright.

Among other recognitions of the Wright invention are the degrees of L.L.D. of Oberlin (O) College, Master of Science by Earlham College, (Richmond, Ind.), and Doctor of Technical Science of the Royal Technical College of Munich, granted to both Wilbur and Orville Wright.

Both the brothers were made honorary members of many societies, including: Aeroplane Club of Dayton, Aero Club of the U. K., The Aeronautical Society (U. S. A.). Aeronautical Society of Great Britian, Aero Club of America, Oesterreichischen Flugtechnischen Vereines.

THOUSANDS of eulogies have been said and written since the death of Wilbur "Wright. The news of his death brought telegrams and resolutions from all over the world. Strange as it may seem, few have commented on him as a Man, though his work has been lauded to the skies. He was generally misunderstood; he realized this but apparently cared little what the world thought of him. This is unfortunate. Those who knew him best were scarcely able to pierce the veil which seemed to surround his intricate nature. Suffice it to say, however, that the better one knew him, the more he was loved. The world never obtained the proper perspective.

The greatness of the Man, the wonder-fulness of his invention, made it difficult to place on record an estimation of the loss to human progress.

The Committee of the Aero Club of Pennsylvania was "confronted with a task made doubly difficult by the inadequacy of any mere words or formal phrases to express the deep sense of loss which his death has brought to all who are interested in the science for which he was the pathfinder.

"We feel that the passing of this pioneer indefinitely postpones the next great step in aviation. What that step will be, no man now living can say with -certainty, but Wilbur Wright's marvellous instinct of flight was such that we, with many others, have long felt that from him would come, sooner or later, the discoveries which would remove the present limitations of the art and lift it above the prejudices and objections with which it is now so frequently confronted."

Wilbur Wright's methods of work were such as amply to justify the belief that he would first make flying safe as he first made it possible. He was no sensationalist. The wave of popular enthusiasm over unsafe and ill-considered aerial feats of daring left him unmoved. He not only recognized, but insisted upon the limitations of his art as so far developed, and his whole interest was not in present day popularity, but in that unselfish and truly scientific delving for something better and higher in its usefulness that would have meant ultimate triumph and the true launching of the great art of aviation upon the career of service to mankind which we all believe the future holds in store for it.

Wilbur Wright was one of the world's great achievers. His mind was a furnace of thought, and out of its fierce focal fires came a perfected ideation. It requires centuries to produce his like. He was an original and when Nature fashions an original she usually hides the molds for a long time.—Detroit News.

Wilbur Wright will rank in the esteem of future generations with Watt, Stephenson, Morse, Edison and Bell.—New York Times.

With his brother, Wilbur Wright stands forth as the true conqueror of the air, the father of flying, the inventor of the method of balancing without which the modern aeroplane could never have been.

—London Daily Mail.

It was one of the premier feats of man's invention.—Portland Ore., Journal.

Never did men do a big thing as modestly as the Wrights.—Muskogee News.

Place such benefactors of mankind, as Wilbur Wright and Orville Wright in an entirely different class from Caesar and Napoleon. To have served mankind unselfishly in the arts of peace is greater than to have waded through slaughter to a throne.—Dayton Journal.

The Nobility of the earth make pilgrimage to reverently honor the transcendent merit of the silent, modest, immortal Wilbur Wright.—Rev. Dr. Hale.

He was the first man to conquer space with a craft heavier than air.

—Reno Gazette.

The American whose spirit has just soared higher than any aeroplane will ever reach was fully entitled to the honors which are the inalienable right of the pioneer in the untrodden fields. If Wilbur Wright was not the discoverer of a new principle in mechanics at least he was the first to apply

in a practical way the method of flying which he and his brother jointly evolved. ********** The Wrights were creators, the French adaptors.—Pasadena News.

In the death of Wilbur Wright the world has lost the man who really showed the way to fly. ********** The science of aviation owes practically all its progress to Wilbur Wright, for he regarded his work as a contribution to human achievement in locomotion and strove ever for a greater degree of safety.—Sacremento Record Union.

To them is due the great credit of first publicly demonstrating to the world the practicability of dynamic flight.

—Brig. Gen. James Allen. The world was soon beating a pathway to the door of Wilbur Wright. Once he had demonstrated that his machine would fly, the world's presidents and kings were anxious to do him honor. ********* He takes his place in the world with Watt, Stephenson and other real originators.

—Great Falls, Mont., Tribune. Wilbur Wright was not a martyr. His life, if it means anything, shows that a man can carry a great work to success, not only without credit from his fellows, but with supreme indifference to their opinion.

—N. Y. Times. What Edison has been to applied electricity that was Wright to aeroplaning. He mastered the theory and principles of flight, and put his rare American talent for mechanics to the peculiarly difficult task of making these principles work in practice.

—Spokane, Wash., Review. Columbus gave man-kind a new world, and Wilbur Wright, too, may be said to have given it a new world—the world of the air.—Boston Globe.

They are to be recorded as the actual creators of the aeroplane—the men who made air navigation a fact.

—Wilmington, Del., News. He was the pioneer in a new avenue of human enterprise and his name will be coupled with Stephenson and Morse and Edison as a conqueror and harnesser of cosmic forces.—Portland, Me., Express.

He deserves to stand with Fulton, Stephenson and Bell.—President Taft.

No one was better fitted than he to solve the many remaining problems in the science to which he had devoted so much of his life, and his death therefore is a loss that will be felt by all the world.

—Cincinnati, O., Star. Their invention was as distinct a departure from all known means of travel as was the first steam engine or the first steam vessel. Except in mythology, we have no record of any birdmen who antidate them.

—Detroit, Mich., Free Press. But in everything the brothers did their work was one, for they worked not each one for himself, but both for one result.

By this unity of their lives the world still retains the Wright brothers, in the person of Orville Wright.—Detroit Journal.

Yet if we measure the significance of navigating the air in an aeroplane by the difficulties which have accompanied the building of the really first practical heavier-than-air machine, who will deny that Wilbur Wright must be accorded the honor of standing in the annals of invention beside Morse, Bell, Fulton, Bessemer, Watt, Ark-wright, in a word, beside the men who have given us the machinery of modern civilization?—Scientific American.

Presidents, Emperors and Kings were eager to shake his hand, and the Old World and New alike acclaimed his genius; amid all of which he remained ever the same serious, modest, tremendously earnest man.

—Wichita, Kans., Eagle.

It is to those celebrated inventors (Wilbur and Orville Wright) that France owes its present supremacy in aviation, and it is only just that we should take our share in the mourning of the family of the tireless workers of Dayton.—Paris Presse.

With Wilbur Wright disappears the astonishing inventor, the first and the most celebrated of all the aerial pilots, the man of genius whose discoveries allowed an astounded world to witness the launching of a mechanical apparatus of which he had found, before anyone else, the secret of its suspension in the air.—Paris Temps.

Before Wright came to France all other attempts at flying were like hopping on fleas. His work was a genuine revelation. Not only France, but the entire world is indebted to him. He possessed many personal friends here, all of whom deeply deplore his death.—Count Henri de la Vaulx.

The death of Wilbur Wright is a terrible loss to aviation. France owes to him the practicability of aviation. Personally I am depressed at his loss, which for the aviation world is irreparable.—M. Tissandier.

It may be taken for granted that, in all histories of aviation, the greatest of the names recorded will be that of Wilbur Wright. He may not have been absolutely the first human being to ascend in a heavier-than-air machine, for our French friends will persist for all time in attributing that performance to Captain Ader, but Wright's achievement at Kill Devil Hill, North Carolina, on December 17th, 1903, was undoubtedly, of all journeys in the air in the history of the world, the first to which the term "flight" could be properly applied.—The Car, London.

If anybody in 1899 had suggested that these two young men were likely to influence the future of the human race more deeply than any two monarchs or statesmen then alive, he would have been regarded as a lunatic. Yet, so it has been. Wilbur Wright and his brother have gone far to erase frontiers and join the nations by links hitherto unknown. They may change the course of trade. They have already gone far to revolutionize the art of war by land and sea and caused all the war offices and admiralties to remodel their strategy.

—London Standard.

cyiviator Factories and Their Methods

ATCHING- their money fly into certain hot-air pockets that trap the unwary into correspondence courses of flight, many 'plane fool pupils of these disseminators of book ^earning are peevishly fussed over their inability to coax a flying machine off the ground. The idea of becoming a pilot by mail must be very amusing to practised airmen, though they confess one superiority in the method—none of its pupils have so far "bit the dust." But, again a suspicion exists that the lowest hanging cloud has never been brushed by a correspondence school graduate without previous or later familiarity with the practical handling of an aero.

While on the subject, another class of pilot makers will bear some watching. They are the schools that propose to make a skilled pilot out of anyone with from twenty-five to one hundred dollars. It is not always possible to show that many of these schools make no effort to provide the necessary equipment for the safe instruction of pupils. Possibly the men back of some of these unsafe schools are entirely sincere in their representations, but I am only concerned with the lack of precautions as they appear in the conduct of certain schools that have been investigated.

Certainly a school should employ none but a good pilot as instructor, but I am told that one school of aviation started with a

Mr. L-, whose employer appeared

to be under the impression that his instructor had gained a pilot license at Mineola. If this is so, an unfortunate error, one that the alleged aviator and the school employing him should have remedied without delay, has been allowed to pass in the recoras of qualified pilots, for this flyer's name does not appear in the list. In the matter of equipment I have been informed that school facilities consisted of but one machine of dubious flying qualities and another that awaited motive power, possibly until the roll of pupils should represent a sufficient income to make a power plant within the check-writing scope of the company.

Another school, conducted in Chicago, offers the interesting information that pupils will be taught by mail "guiding on the ground, turning, drifting (sic) and landing," but my most enthusiastic inquiries have failed to make known to me the nature of "drifting," though the term may have been coined to meet the exigencies of flying around the Windy City. One is at loss to comprehend the policy that lies in training greenhorns when experienced flyers are burning the air in their efforts to land engagements, unless the object is to get the hundred dollar training fee.

Again, the operations of another "school" with a long name has attracted unfavorable attention. This, too, is a Chicago concern and the interest shown in its methods by the Post Office Department, together "with the dissatisfaction said to have been expressed by several pupils who are reported to have paid for instruction they did not get, has had a deterrent effect upon the public confidence in the men and methods identified with aviation.

The first mentioned Chicago concern reproduced bodily text and illustrations from a copyrighted booklet issued by the New England Automobile Journal, and clothed these lessons in a wrapper which bore a large halftone purporting to be from a photograph of one of its pupils and exhibition flyers in flight. Those in a position to know state that the picture was one of Charles P. Willard. Fifteen dollars were charged for a series of five of these pamphlets. "Actual training in the machine" cost $125 per month with an allowance of $15 charged for the correspondence course if the practise course were taken.

While there is a good deal of sameness about these aviation universities in the matter of advertising and In the schools themselves, some carry the principle *df "anything to get the money" to greater lengths than others. Advertising in the technical and semi-technical papers usually is the first step. The whole business is so cunningly planned as to appeal not only to the indolent ne'er-do-well who, in his ignorance, thinks he sees the gates of fabulous prosperity standing ajar, out also to Uie ill-informed but ambitious youth who has an honest desire to make something better of himself and who devotes his scanty savings and infrequent spare hours to the task.

"Already the demand for aviators far exceeds the supply," says the prospectus of this school, "and there is no relief in sight. ****** One (aviator) is under contract for the 1011 season at a salary of $104,000.00, another $72,000.00, ***** even comparatively unknown pilots are receiving- salaries equal to those of hank presidents."

"The knowledge which has taken the Wrights, Ourtiss, Farman, and others, years of work, study and experiment to acquire, we hring to you through the medium of our school. You can master this science as far as it has been exploited to date in a few months. Once in possession of this knowledge you are equipped to build and fly all types of aeroplanes and you have opened to yourself the broader field of designing and manufacturing."

It seems almost unbelievable that anyone would "fall" for such lies as these. In addition, a list of alleged prizes "available in America" was printed, totalling $225,000. A query to any aero magazine by a prospect would have cut this figure immensely.

This correspondence course cost $40, but $25 extra was charged to practise in a "Cur-tiss'< aeroplane in the "Post-Graduate Course."

What did the students do?

"We were on this field about a week when we were ordered off because the school had no written permit to use it. T paid $40 for the correspondence course and $25 for a flying course, but only got two rides as a passenger for about 400 feet and we never left the ground. All we did was grass cutting. Some of the men told me they were there three months and were not given a chance to leave the ground all this time."

"As regards a position, we would say that some time before the completion of the course we will place you in communication with various exhibitors and manufacturers who apply to us for aviators." states a personal letter to one student just after lie paid his fee. "The correspondence course, even though you never mount the pilot seat of an aeroplane, equips you to earn a splendid income."

Another one of the frauds perpetrated is the use of foreign pilot certificate numbers. One flyer in this country advertises himself as holding French license No. 12. This is an early number and the legitimate holder of it no doubt is as proud of it as he ought to be. It was granted to Santos Dumont. The French flyer who has adopted America for his field of endeavor and has taken for himself this same number, aoes not at all resemble Santos Dumont.

As to what constitutes a scheme to defraud, any attempted definition opens an endless discussion. It may be said however, that in general, the question as to whether or not a given scheme or company is an "artifice to defraud", is a question of fact in each individual case for the jury, and thus the door is widely opened upon the question of the admissibility of the evidence, in that practically all facts and circumstances with reference to the business of a given concern are admissible in cases of the nature with reference to which you inquire. It is proper to show the incidents of tne organization, the facts as to wnether or not a given concern is equipped with such paraphernalia, and with such competent and experienced instructors as would enable them to fairly accomplish what they promise to do by their advertising and other representations, although in this connection it must be borne in mind, that it would probably be insufficient to merely prove that the concern in question failed to fully perform what it promised, but further that criminal intent must be proven, and this places upon the prosecuting power the necessity of establishing that at the time the scheme was put into execution, the defendent or defendants did not intend to carry out their promises. This lack of intention might be established in a given case, by showing that the defendant possessed no aeroplane or other equipment, had no plant, and no text books or proper literature or instructors for the pursuit of the training which it undertakes by its advertising to furnish.

A difficulty which has ..een encountered in attempting to persecute alleged frauds is that in endeavoring to prove bad faith on

the part of the defendants in a failure to carry out their promises to train and educate pupils in the art of aeropianing, one may be met by the defense, tnat the science is a new one, precarious, arm from its very nature, actual work and demonstrat'ons can only be performed with favorable climatic and mechanical conditions, and that many unforeseen difficulties may combine to prevent the carrying out of agreement; although this would hardly be a successful defense,—for instance, to a concern that guarantees to tan.e pupils upon the field, place them in one of a numoer of aeroplanes which it claimed to own and operate for actual demonstration to such pupils, and under the supervision of a certain instructor who had had a definite experience, and was proficient in the art, when in fact said concern had no aeroplane or other machine, no field for operations, and no competent instructor.

"Whoever, having devised or intending to devise any scheme or artifice to defraud, or for obtaining money or property by means of false or fraudulent pretenses, representations, or promises, * * * * shall * * * * place or cause to be placed, any letter, postal card, package, writing, circular, pamphlet or advertisement * * * * in any post office, or station thereof, or street or other letter box of the United States ****** shall be fined no more than one thousand dollars, or imprisoned not more than five years, or both," is the way the section 215 of the new Criminal Code of the United States reads.

To establish any offense, practically two general propositions must be proven. first: that a scheme has been devised which is organized and conducted not in good faith but to defraud the public. Second: that said scheme to defraud was intended to be effected by correspondence through the mails, in the way of letters or circulars, or by advertising in periodicals or magazines which are transmitted through the maas.

It is thus seen that it is a difficult matter for an individual to attempt the prosecution of such fraudulent schemes. The only method of frustrating the plans of fraudulent schools and either operations is by publicity through the aeronautical journals and through the correspondence and announcements of aero clubs which are supposedly formed for the good of aeronautics.

This difficulty of securing proper evidence is the loophole through which the frauds "get by."

It seems to be an unfortunate quality of the American people to allow themselves to be inveigled into the most palpable and cheapest kind of "fake schemes" that can be evolved by swindlers.

Fake schools, stock selling concerns that can never be made paying propositions, and aviators who advertise for dates when they can barely fly, all carry with them the earmarks of a swindle and people endowed with common-sense should certainly be able to detect many suspicious statements that would prevent them from being separated from their money. When their suspicions are aroused the best thing to do is to im-

mediately get in touch with the magazine publishing the advertisement and call upon it to investigate the company concerned and demand a report to the writer as to knwol-edge of the advertiser.

Unquestionably much blame devolves itself upon the magazines that carry questionable advertisements. If they have taken the copy without securing further information, they are culpable; if they have knowledge that the concern is not legitimate, they should discontinue the advertising and state their reasons for doing it.

Again, a duty rests with the subscribers. They should consider it their duty to give a magazine every opportunity to keep fakes out of the advertising columns. The place where a great deal of it is found is in the

classified department. A small sum enables many fakirs to get into this column and as long as the ad reads all right, the magazine has no way of determining the merits of the advertiser unless someone who has answered it and found it unsatisfactory communicates with the magazine. These classified advertisements come from all parts of the United States and in most cases cost less than a dollar for insertion. It is obvious that, unless the publication is endowed, it cannot trace all these advertisers out and decide upon their merits in advance.

Cooperation on the part of the readers of the magazines will go a long way toward eliminating the swindling schemes that today are a disgrace to the honorable science and inquiry of which they 'claim to be a part.

NEW "COLUMBIA" MACHINE

There is now a "Columbia" monoplane, made by Paul Peck and R. S. Moore, of Washington. It is Gyro-motored, as well as the Columbia biplane which made the

new American endurance record mentioned in the previous issue.

Technical details: length 24' 8"; spread 28' 10"; camber 4^"; chord 7' 2y2"; surface 167 square feet; weight 5§0 lbs.

A. C. Menges, of Memphis, Tenn., who in September last, purchased from the American Aeroplane Supply House of Hempstead, N. Y. a Racing Bleriot Type Monoplane, equipped with a 70 H.P. Gnome engine, received his French pilot license, at Pau, France on February 22, and has returned to this country to fill a number of contracts for exhibition flying.

The American Aeroplane Supply House, reports that they have received an order for a monoplane of special design, from Howard Huntington, of Princeton, N. J. This concern has been manufacturing Bleriot Type Monoplanes for the past two years.

They have now at the Hempstead field a single seater, equipped with a Roberts motor, and are prepared to demonstrate the machine to prospective purchasers and three machines are on hand for immediate delivery.

VANIMAN AIRSHIP EXPLODES IN MID-AIR

Atlantic City, July 2.—The "Vaniman dirigible, which has been built under the financial support of V. A. Seiberling, President of the Goodyear Tiie & Rubber Co., exploded at a high altitude today, killing Melvin Vaniman, the designer, his brother Calvin; Fred F.lmes, George Bourillon and Walter Guest assistants. The wreckage took fire and landed in the sea two miles off shore. Three of the bodies came to the surface and the others are expected to be recovered. It is believed that the explosion occurred from a spark from the exhaust. It was current report previously that a large amount of air had become mixed with the gas and this would cause a highly explosive mixture in the envelope. Mrs. Vaniman saw the accident from her home and was prostrated.

Notes on the Recent Experiments of M. Eiffel'

By M. B. SELLERS

^J^PgjSgjS^jONTINUING his experiments with planes and arched ‘2$ surfaces of different aspect-

US I HI ratios> M- Eiffel flnds that

Wl S the efficiency (Le- |y) of

^^^^^ a wing increases with the aspect-ratio up to a ratio of ^re^tsjrv^rt^ G; there seems to be no ad-^/iKtsKt^isKi vantage in exceeding this ratio.

The angle of attack corresponding to the reversal of the centre of pressure curve, varies with the aspect ratio: for a cambre of 1/13.5, it is 15° for a ratio of C; 30° for a ratio of 1; and 60° for a ratio of 1/6. Similar results are found for a cambre of 1/7; therefore, at the usual

angles of attack, the centre of pressure moves toward the rear as the angle diminishes.

Regarding the thickness of the wing, M. Eiffel finds that the thinnest wing is most efficient. Nevertheless, this advantage is not so great as to oppose the use of a wing of moderate thickness to obtain greater strength; a trial of three profiles of different thicknesses showed that the polars differed very little, and that the positions of the centre of pressure, and the distribution of pressure were sensibly the same.

A study of profiles flat below and curved above, and having the maximum cambre 1/5 from front edge, (found often in propellers) showed that here also the thinnest was the most advantageous.

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FIG. 1.—FOLLOWING SURFACES, POLARS & CENTRES OF PRESSURE"

*See previous articles in the March and April numbers.

Regarding the surfaces of double curvature, the centre of pressure moves toward the front as the angle of attack diminishes; which is of advantage for longitudinal stability, but the lift is quite small for this form of wing.

Wings in which the inclination of the chord varies from the centre to the tip, show an interesting peculiarity, viz: the

Position I

Scah fs

FIG. 2—ARRANGEMENTJ)F FOUCAULT WINGS

centre of pressure is displaced very little with change of incidence; the reason being that, while for certain sections the centre of pressure is approaching the front edge, fOT others differently inclined, it is approaching the rear. For the same reason, one might expect a reduced efficiency; and that is what is shown by the experiments. The more a wing is warped, the less efficient it becomes. As above stated, the c. of p. varies very little and is displaced in the same sense as on a plane surface. It is interesting to note that the streams of air flow off the back of the wing perpendicular to the direction of the wind, a condition occurring only near the lateral edges of an unwarped wing.

To determine the advantage in offsetting the wings, as in the Goupy biplane, M. Eiffel tested biplanes with wings 90 by 15 centimeters and a cambre of 13.5. In the first series of experiments the vertical spacing was 20 cm. throughout, while the degree of offset was varied. In the other series, the upper plane was offset y2 width forward, and the vertical spacing was varied. He finds very little difference due to offsetting up to 9° (the best results being with the upper plane forward) and concludes that there seems to be no advantage in offsetting planes so far as supporting power is concerned. Increased vertical spacing is of advantage for offset planes as well as for those not offset.

A preliminary study of following planes (as used by Prof. Langley) was made: (1) surfaces with their chords in the same plane; (2) rear plane inclined at a negative angle of 2%°; (3) rear plane inclined 5° negative. The results (Fig. 1) show that

position II is the best, its supporting power being equivalent to that of a single plane of equal area and even greater for the larger angles of attack. In positions II and III the center of pressure approaches the front of the system as the angle diminishes, which promotes longitudinal stability.

The wings proposed by M. Faucault comprise a series of similar following surfaces placed close together. Four arrangements were tried as shown in Fig. 2. As in case of the other following surfaces, this disposition may give considerable lift, but the excessive drift limits its usefulness.

The advantages of narrow superposed surfaces (like Venitian blinds) have long been foreseen, viz: great supporting power in small space and centre of pressure practically fixed; and the inconvenience, excessive drift. The surfaces submitted by M. Bablon comprised parallel slats 19 mm. wide, 19 mm. apart, and cambred 9.5. Those of M. Caron comprised slats 25 mm. wide and 12 mm. apart, cambred 2 mm. (12.5), being a portion of the full sized surface. The results obtained with the last surface are shown in Fig 3 and are similar for both surfaces. They show that the ratio of drift to lift is considerable, requiring a high thrust to support a given weight.

A perforated curved plate was found to have about the same drift as a similar unper-forated surface, but the lift is considerably

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20 Ώ5 30 35' AO' Angle of inclination of frame to the vertical FIG. 3-HORIZ. & VERT. PRESSURES ON SURFACE OF M. CARON

reduced; there is, therefore, no advantage for lightening aeroplane wings in this way.

A study of the Fabre beam or truss was also made.

Experiments with the Farman struts showed that, for bodies of oval section, the coefficient of resistance diminishes with increase of speed. The strut No. 1 (see Fig 4) is not so good; and the resistance of No.

Strut No. 1

Speed in m. p. s. 5 JO .1.5

Strut No. 2

^J3__10 20 30 m 50 60^1 Diffeienee in level in Pitot tube

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FIG. 4-TEST OF FARMAN STRUTS

2 and of No. 3 is less, the more the sections are lengthened.

This series of articles on the work of Eiffel by Mr. Sellers was begun in the March issue. They comprise, in short form and in simple language, the results of Eiffel's re-

cent elaborate studies. The full report of the recent work of Eiffel in his laboratory "Champ du Mars," from which Mr. Sellers has made his abstracts, is published in a large quarto volume at 12 francs, by H. Dunod et E. Pinat, 49 Quai des GrandsAugustins, Paris.

I like AERONAUTICS better than any other magazine of its kind.— E. D. P., Wise.

Under "Deaths Abroad" I notice that someone has "succumbed to burns and bruises in the hospital." He should have had his hospital protected, as that is a very vital portion of one's anatomy.—Gil Rankin.

Inclosed find $3 covering another year's subscription. She's worth the money.—Ernest C. Hall, Ohio.

Did you see the new booklet of the .American Propeller Co.? Get one!

Yours is a great magazine: places one in easy reacli of practical and scienti'ic information of today's progress in aviation. Success to it.— H. O. B., Missouri.

I procured sample copies of what were supposed to be the best publications In this line and after looking them over decided AERONAUTICS stood a long way ahead for what I wanted.— C. G. W., Mass.

AERONAUTICS is very interesting and I do like it very much. It has given me a great deal of information. T. A., Waterloo.

The "Fallacy" of the Dirigible

By CARL DIENSTBACH

[N an article called "The Fallacy of the Dirigible," Victor Lougheed, of Chicago, discovers that the governments of France, Germany, Italy and other European nations, besides the great Zeppelin and Parseval Airship Companies in Germany and that of the Clement-Bayard in France, are spending millions foolishly, in building scores of dirigible airships. Mr. Lougheed has concluded in his own mind that these crafts are delusions from the standpoint of utility and economy.

What he offers the public as facts is simply an avowal that he is densely ignorant of the entire subject, and this unfamiliarity does not fit his air of pretentious authority, which in countries where the public witness the steady operations of dirigibles during every day of the year, would immediately discredit him. Since not a single big, highspeed dirigible has yet been operated in America, this public falls an easy victim to this kind of slander.

This writer says that thirty miles an hour is the maximum speed of dirigibles. Yes; it was six years ago. What are the facts?

In 1907, Zeppelin airships were running 33 miles an hour. Their speed is certified.

In 1909, the military dirigible, "M 3," of the German army, made 38 miles an hour, and did it regularly.

In 1910, the passenger dirigible "Parseval VI" made regularly, her 33 miles an hour.

In 1911, on increasing the dirigible's size, improving its motors and refining its design, the dirigible progressed by leaps and bounds. Now the largest of all Parsevals "P X," makes 42 miles an hour; the still larger Siemens-Schuckert, 43 miles an hour; and the still larger passenger Zeppelins, Schwab-en and Victoria Luise, 43 miles an hour. But the latest military Zeppelins "Z 2" and "Z 3" each make 47 miles an hour. And for this writer's information, we will impart Europe's common knowledge that any of these Zeppelins run faster than the aeroplanes built and loaded for offensive work in war-time.

Mr. Lougheed's statement that European dirigibles reach their destinations only on practically windless days is not founded on fact. Count Zeppelin's recent stay of 32 hours in the air on his return trip w'th the "Z 3" from Hamburg to Friedrichshafen, through a storm that wrecked all but one of the aeroplanes in the Berlin to Vienna race, should furnish Mr. Lougheed with new reflective perception. That airships do reach their destinations is extremely practical; while it is still an event for an aeroplane to even arrive.

The old Parseval III, with an actual maximum speed of only thirty miles an hour,

and T. R. Mac MECHEN

always reached her destination if running against squalls and high winds. The wind's speed near the ground rarely exceeds 27 miles an hour. Now-a-days it is commonest practice for any expert pilot to always steer any dirigible near the ground where buildings, forests, villages, hills and mountains shield the ship from the full force of the wind. This may surprise Mr. Lougheed, but he must learn the fact that steering the dirigible at a level where the winds are weakest, compensates for its drifting backward along the more exposed parts of its course where the wind's force is unbroken.

This manoeuvering demonstrates the overwhelming by practical utility of even a thirty-mile dirigible in comparison with a forty-mile Wright aeroplane, which, to even fly in an average 30-mile wind must climb much higher in the air where the wind is not disturbed by the very obstructions that protect the dirigible. But, while the wind at greater height is unrestrained, it actually blows forty miles ah hour there, whenever it is blowing thirty nearer the ground. This stops the aeroplane from making headway, and in flying higher, the machine generally encounters dangerous gusts. Even Mr. Lougheed knows that it is suicidal for an aeroplane to fly near obstacles on the ground. It is apt to be quickly upset while aproach-ing the obstacles and before its own speed could assist it. The most skillful pilot, if he could keep his aeroplane on even keel would not equal the dirigible. It requires all of the aeroplane pilot's skill in gusts coming from every side, to avoid running into the very obstacles that shelter and assist the dirigible on its course. A pilot who is busy balancing himself cannot steer with such nicety. Suppose that a super-naturally expert pilot kept his balance anu steered his craft as cleverly as Captain Stelling steered the dirigible Parseval III, on its trip from Munich, through valleys, little wider tha^ a street, between mountains—the aeroplane would still fail from lack of staunchness. This shows Mr. Lougheed that he states the very reverse of the truth.

The aeroplane, because of its frailty, failed under conditions where the dirigible succeeds, because of its staunchness. Captain Stelling could not prevent the Parseval III from bumping the ground and almost killing cattle, though his airship continued to make an enforced headway through a terrific airsurf. An aeroplane would have been upset and completely wrecked, while the dirigible, supported by the great upward pressure of its gas, is enabled to neutralize the worst collision. None of the "critics" have pointed to the staunchness of the ordinary balloon in thousands of landings made before the "ripping panel" was invented. Exhausting gas brought the balloon to earth; its anchor was cast, but always failing to catch immediately, the car struck the ground

July, 1912

with a force that would smash any aeroplane or boat; then it rebounded, and with the escape of enough gas, again came down, to drag at high speed over all kinds of obstacles, until the anchor finally held, with a terrible jerk that abruptly stopped the craft. Quite apart from a frail aeroplane, no watercraft or automobile could withstand such an experience. Passengers have been severely injured, but rarely the car and never the envelope, in spite of the terrific tugging by the wind. -

When the rigid dirigible "Schuette-Lanz" recently rebounded, after striking the ground at full speed, the collision simply spilled four of its passengers. The airship rose intact. The Zeppelin airship Deutschland, short of fuel and sinking, broke thick pine trees in the Teutoburg forest, before it settled deeper and became so entangled that the airship threshed itself apart, but not before it had ploughed a deep furrow for more than 200 yards through the forest. This proved the staunchness of rigid balloons.

Mr. Lougheed is only an amateur in stating that the dirigible loses its gas because of the weak retaining qualities of its envelope. Besides they would have to reinflate extremely little if they did not want to replace the gas lost in crossing mountains. It is the commonest practice to operate dirigibles for two months without completely reinflating them, except a little fresh hydrogen daily. Mr. Lougheed grossly overestimates the cost of gas; in Germany it costs less than 2 cents per cubic meter. The inflation of the airship Schwaben which displaces some 20,000 cuDic meters, cost 40,000 cents, or $400, but this lasts two months and eight passengers carried on one trip pays for the entire inflation. Loss of carrying power as the result of gas escaping is entirely negligible because the constant burning of gasoline automatically lightens the ship; if no other influence were at work, the airship, instead of losing lift would have too much gas and have to exhaust this surplus, to restore the balance between its load and its lift, as long as fuel lasts.

The writer shows the most glaring ignorance of the dirigible in not using in his own favor arguments based on the dirigible's chief inherent fault—that it will ascend with great force when the sun's rays heat the envelope and the gas, and that its gas will expand when it reaches great altitude beyond the capacity of the envelope and escape and be lost through the safety valves. When the gas cools again in the upper air, in the shadow of a cloud, or in rain or mist, not to mention snow, there is not enough lift to support the airship. A conscientious critic would, on the other hand, use argu-

Symposium on Propeller Standardization, by Gibson

Heath, Charavay and others. Grant-Morse Monoplane. Benoist Tractor with Scale Drawing. Christmas Biplane with Scale Drawing. Simple Computations Relating to Aeroplane Design, by

W. S. Horton.

ments that Mr. Lougheed has failed to employ in his favor, by pointing out that the Zeppelin double envelopes have overcome any difficulty from gas.

This has been largely overcome by all modern airships through the remarkable aeroplane action of their hulls when driven at high speed. In other words, if there is too much gas lift the ship bow is simply pointed down and it is driven forward in that position; owing to its surplus gas which would otherwise send it skyward, it continues on a horizontal course, instead of sinking. If the gas has shrunken by cooling; or there is snow or rain on the envelope (another argument this writer fails to mention) the pilot points the bow slightly upward; instead of rising as it would do with surplus gas lift, the ship speeds on a horizontal course, because of its lifting efficiency and because it has now practically a heavier-than-air machine.

Airships, despite their staunchness, have been wrecked. Mr. Lougheed illustrates his article with pictures of nearly all the few airship wrecks. But these were due to faulty operation and handling and were inevitable during the heroic period of the dirigible as well as the aeroplane. But aeroplanes continue to he wrecked at such a lively rate that to display even a small percentage of pictures of aeroplane wrecks would fill a large book. All the money spent on aeroplanes far exceeds the total spent on airships and the aeroplane has yet to show the first return of utility. Expensive airship sheds are practically permanent and not exposed to dangers.

The most charitable thing to say of Mr. Lougheed's essay is that he is simply mistaken.

OPEN TAIL FOR NOVICES

A monoplane, with fuselage uncovered, is easier for novices to fly. A covered body presents considerable resistance in making a turn, according to the expert "Dep" flyer, George M. Dyott.

And in order to make a short turn the pilot must cause the machine to bank. An open fuselage will make a fairly sharp turn remaining level if the natural tendency to bank is counteracted by warping the inside wing. The other type of machine is more sensitive to the rudder which, therefore, can be used as a means for helping lateral stability. Preliminary instruction with an open fuselage is most beneficial as it teaches the pupil the complete art of rudder work and how to employ it intelligently. When this is mastered, and the pupil becomes a proficient pilot, the enclosed fuselage presents superior advantages.

COMING---Am" teur Aeroplane Builders, by Earlc (Kington. Construction of a Weather Bureau Kite, by l'rof. A. J. Henry.

Leonardo da Vinci and Flying, by Charles Beecher Bunnell.

Efficient Development, by Hugo C. Gibson. Columbia Monoplane, with Scale Drawings.

The Mattullath Patent Application

By LEE S. BURRIDGE

Editor's Note: In the Official Gazette of June IS appears for the first time the decision of the Court of Appeals, of the District of Columbia, rendered April 1st.

HEN the invention of Hugo Mattullath issues in the form of a United States Patent, it may play a most important part in the patent situation of aeroplane construction.

This application was filed by Hugo Mattullath, January Sth, 1900. At this time the Patent Office officials classed flying imachine inventions on »a par with perpetual motion inventions and the first action by the examiner was rather discouraging, part of which reads as follows:

"The construction is regarded as inoperative for the purpose intended and therefore not useful within the meaning of the patent law. No successful attempt has yet been made to rise from the earth's surface by means of an aerial vessel unprovided with a balloon. The results of previous experimentation indicate that even if the rising could be successfully accomplished, the vessel would be uncontrollable through ina-bilitv to maintain its normal position or balance. Applicant has disclosed no new principle or construction which would on its face exempt his device from the difficulties by his predecessors in this line. However plausible applicant's theoiy may be, in view of the present state of the mechanic arts and the results of previous experimentation the step is so long from the theory to actual use, and the practicability of his apparatus is so problematical that actual demonstration of operativeness will be required before the grant of a patent."

The inventor, through his attorneys, Barthel & Barthel, however, made amendments to satisfy the technical requirements of the examiner and while he repeated in each of his actions that the rejection on the ground of inoperativeness and consequent lack of utility was adhered to, the application was prosecuted until the death of Mr. Mattullath, December 30th, 1902, shortly after which the examiner notified the attorneys, Barthel & Barthel, of the revocation of their power of attorney by the death of the applicant and there being no further action, the examiner made an indorsement on this application, September 29th, 1903, that "this application as amended September IS, 1903, has been considered. An amendment has been received in this case, but no action can be taken upon the merits thereof for the reason that the applicant's death operates as revocation of the power of attorney to Barthel & Barthel and there is no one of record authorized to prosecute the case."

The application lay dormant until 1909 when the Wright suits against the Aeronautical Society and the Curtiss company

were instituted and it was thought that this invention would provide a successful defense of the Wright contentions in view of the fact that it contains the three rudder system of control. The widow, Mrs. Meta Mattullath, was then urged to .revive this application so long dormant and held to be abandoned, but the first decisions were against the reviving and only upon the last appeal to the Court of Appeals of the District of Columbia, decided April 1st, of this year, has this application been revived and returned to the Patent Office files as a pending application.

The decision was based upon the fact that the widow was not aware of the application and that, therefore, the delay on her part was "unavoidable" and on the further ground that no attempt was made by the Patent Office to notify the widow of the pending application and it appears that the solicitors were not aware of her address.

It is interesting to note that during this recent litigation to revive the application that the Patent Office now withdraws the charge of inoperativeness because as stated by the Commissioner " in the meantime dynamic flight, the age-long dream of man, had become an accomplished fact. Others had succeeded in actually flying in heavier than air machines, had obtained patents on their inventions and were reaping the just rewards of their efforts."

The unearthing of this application appears to be due to the auspices of Dr. A. P. Zahm, of Washington, who claims to have worked in connection with Mr. Mattullath as stated by him in his article published in the June number of "Popular Mechanics," wherein a partial description of the invention is given, but how far the drawings illustrate those of the Mattullath application cannot be determined as this is not open for public inspection and the decision of the Court of Appeals of D. C. criticizes the Patent Office in permitting anyone without permission from the interested parties to inspect the application and drawings.

Dr. Zahm states in his article that he called with the inventor .Mattullath at the Patent Office to assist in the prosecution of the application since he was working with him as "scientific associate." A laboratory was erected where the principles of the Mattullath invention were worked out with a staff of men in conjunction with the inventor and Dr. Zahm.

According to Dr. Zahm, the construction includes a multiplicity of planes with a vertical rudder at the rear and auxiliary lifting planes which could be adjusted to any desired curvature and would seem to

Page 13

July, 1912

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quotations are copied from the decision of the Court of Appeals of D. C.

It is probable that Dr. Zahm's judgment of this invention in 1903 has been modified by the artificial results that have taken place since then, and especially now that this application is likely to result in a patent which will have fundamental claims. It is interesting to see what bearing it may have upon aeroplane construe* tion. If the suit of the Wright Company against Curtiss is decided favorably for the Wrights, then the Mattullath invention will not have been considered by the Court as a good anticipation of the Wright patent, but if, on the other hand, the decree is in favor of Curtiss on the ground that his invention does not infringe the Wright patent because of the construction of Mattullath, then the patent when issued, if the claims are properly drawn (as they undoubtedly will be) will cover the fundamental features of construction of all Curtiss type biplanes and the many constructors and experimentors of that type will be infringing this patent.

What the attitude of the owners of the patent may be when issued, remains to be seen and of course the claims are what control the breadth of the patent and these will not be known until its issue. In any event, no infringement takes place until the date of issue and so there is no need for immediate worry but the possibilities are certainly interesting because this patent will prevail over equivalent constructions produced, or patents issued, since its original filing date, January Sth, 190o.

Good work is being done by the students of the Thomas Aviation School.

On May 26, students Charles Niles and D. C. Patmore Hew an aggregate of 1 hour 40 minutes, consisting of three 10 minute, two 20 minute and one .".0 minute llight.

On June 10 and II Patmore flew for an hour and Niles for an hour and one-half, the latter making a ten-mile cross-country flight to Savona, the home of the Kirkham engine, and returning the following day after installing larger gasohne tank. During the return flight Mr. Niles was up for 41» minutes, and then descended only because of the oncoming darkness.

On June 16 Patmore started on an endurance flight but had to land after 15 minutes through a minor trouble. The school machine used has the 35 h.p , 4 cyl. Kirkham motor, which has flown this machine some 5 hours at odd times.

include the foundation of the Curtiss type biplane.

The one feature of Dr. Zahm's connection which does not appear to be clear is that in January, 1903, the widow was advised to write all the friends of her late husband to determine what property or invention of value he might have left behind him and among others she wrote Dr. Zahm who replied "that he did not know of Mattullath having any patent on flying machines and so far as he knew, there was nothing of value left by him." The

Mr. Harry Bingham Brown who qualified as a Far-man pilot at the Blondeau School in Brook-lands, England, has disposed of his Farman and is enjoying his Wright, which he recently-purchased from Leo Stevens. He has made several clever flights from his private grounds on the Hempstead Plains taking many friends into the air as his passengers. Wilbur K. Kimball has enjoyed many trips with Mr. Brown and considers him a clever operator. Brown is also known by the farmers of Hempstead Plains for frightening the poultry at daybreak while making flights over their chicken coops. He is the son of wealthy parents of Walpole, Mass., and has lived in Boston for some years prior to going abroad. lie has the making of a clever aviator and enjoys the sport

July, 1912

The Concentration of Weight in a Flying Machine and its Effect on Stability

By ALBERT ADAMS MERRILL

LECTURER ON AERONAUTICS, MASS. INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

HE movement of a flying machine must be considered with respect to three axes: movement around the fore and aft axis producing tipping, around the vertical axis producing turning, and around the lateral axis producing rising or falling. Now the angular velocity of movement about any one of these axes will vary as the following

magnitude of disturbing force

fraction:---------.

moment of inertia about the axis The larger the moment of inertia the slower will the machine respond. The question is what should be the relation of the moments of inertia about these three axes to produce the most stable machine. To those who are not engineers I will explain that the moment of inertia varies inversely as the concentration of the weight. That is, the more the weight is concentrated on an axis the less is the moment of inertia about that axis. It is customary in all foreign machines to concentrate the weight along the fore and aft axis and this produces a small moment of inertia about this axis which means that the machine responds quickly to its lateral control but it also means that it is upset quickly by a difference of pressure on its tips. With the Wright machine however the weights are not concentrated. As is well known the engine is at one side, the operator at the other side while there are two heavy propellers and gears away from the center, all of this means that the moment of inertia about the fore and aft axis is relatively large which partly accounts for the lateral steadiness of the Wright machine. On the other hand with a large moment of inertia, very large surfaces have to be used to regain lateral stability and probably, for this reason, the Wright machine could not fly safely with small ailerons such as are sufficient for the Curtiss.

The question as to what should be the moment of inertia of a flying machine about the fore and aft axis is a difficult one to decide and depends somewhat upon the system of lateral control in use. I have shown in "Aeronautics" the inefficiency and danger of warping wings and shall now consider what should be the relation of the moments of inertia in a machine using the negative angle as a means of regaining lateral stability. Of course the ideal system of lateral stability is one which introduces no drift at all, because drift wastes power and if placed on the tip turns the machine out of

its course. It is however impossible to eliminate drift, hence it should be placed so that if it turns the machine at all, it turns it towards the high side. Now in order to reduce the angular velocity of turning we must reduce the drift to its lowest point, and we must increase as much as possible the moment of inertia about the vertical axis. The former is done by using a large aileron moved to a small angle, and the latter is done by concentrating the weights along the fore and aft axis as far from the e.g. as is possible, considering construction details. This we can do by having a tractor and setting the engine far out in front with the operator far behind the center as in the Antoinette. With this design, an aileron at a negative angle will regain stability with little if any turning, which turning however, whenever it exists, will always be in the proper direction.

To distribute the weights fore and aft increases the moment of inertia about the lateral axis also and this steadies the machine in a fore and aft direction as can be seen in the flying of the Antoinette.

Just what relation the three moments of inertia should bear to each other and what their value should be for each machine is a matter that needs investigation. I am of the opinion that of the three, the moment about the fore and aft axis should be the least. Without having made an accurate computation I should say that this condition exists with most foreign machines, but in the Wright I think the moment about the lateral axis is least. I believe this is dangerous as it allows the machine to respond too quickly to the movement of the elevator with the result that after a sharp dive, and unless the operator is very cautious, the machine will be brought level too quickly, too much strain will be put on the surfaces and they may give way. This is just what (according to reports) caused the death of Welsh and his passenger at College Park. If the moment of inertia about the lateral axis had been greater, the machine would have responded more slowly to the elevator and the accident might not have happened. This fact however does not relieve Welsh from the responsibility of having dived too sharply and turned up too quickly.

Nevertheless it is the business of designers to prevent the recurrence of just such accidents as killed Welsh, and one way to do it is to increase the moment of inertia about the lateral axis and another way is to limit the movement of the fore and aft control lever to safe flying angles and make it impossible for an operator to fly his machine at a dangerous angle.

The C. H. Paterson Biplane

By CLEVE T. SHAFFER

LL -California -manufactured are the two excellent passenger-carrying biplanes newly built by the Paterson aeroplane company of San Francisco for the San Francisco Aviators, now dying under the management of J. T. McTarnahan.

In the design of these machines, Frank Bryant, a well known successful San Francisco Bleriot and Curtiss pilot, has drawn upon many types and incorporated many parts and ideas from varied machines.

The modern tendency toward tractor screws (which, by the way, is fast supplanting the old rear propeller drive) is the principal feature in the design of these machines.

A suggestion of the Gage biplane is noticeable in the tubing truss underneath center section and skid bracing, also in rib or plane section. A divergence from popular practice in headless tractor screw design is the use of Curtiss type of outriggers and empennage instead of attaching the latter at the end of a monoplane type of fuselage.

Weight 1100 pounds. Spread 38 feet by 6%. Speed (stated) 50 miles per hour. Paterson propellers of 8 feet 6 inches diameter, 10 feet pitch, are geared 1 to 2l/2 of engine. Ground thrust 480 pounds at 1200 R.P.M. This is claimed to increase to 1400 R.P.M. in flight, consequently the pitch speed is 5G00 feet, if the stated observed speed is correct we have 12 miles per hour slip or over 25%, which is interesting in the light of claimed efficiency for high pitch low revolution screws.

(Note: Aviation statistic sharks please grab dope sheets and figure if pitch too low

or revolutions too nigh; note also that machines have a good gliding angle, possibly 1 in 10. Witness: Aviator Francis when over the City of Oakland ran out of gasoline and "volplaned" back to Peld. Compare results with article on Parmelee's Wright, propeller drive, using same 60 H.P. engine.)

Planes are double covered, fabric on top and bottom tightened at rear of plane by lacing.

Double guying is a good feature arouna center section. Outriggers are of large

diameter. Single lever controls elevator and aileron flaps. Engine in eacii is a 60 H.P. Hall Scott, which is giving entire satisfaction, the combination of California-made engine and plane being hard to beat. 1915 in large letters is written on the underside of each, a good advertisement for the fair.

Hess-Bright radial bearings clamped in forgings take both side and end thrust. Attention is directed to the novel method of tightening chains without the use of center stay, strain being iai<.en by tubing encircling chains. (See sketch.) Machines (Continued on Page !2)

The Gressier "Canard"

HE tail-less biplane seen at the recent Show, built by the Gressier Aviation Company has had trials at Nassau during the past week, It was a pleasure to go over this machine after seeing many of the awful constructions frequently perpetrated. The planes are quickly demountable in five sections. The separation is 5' 2", chord 5' 6", camber 2y2", total spread 32 ft. The spars are spruce 2*4" by l1/^". The struts are also solid spruce, fish-shaped, 1" by 21/£" at greatest dimension. At the engine section are four oak struts, ]i/s" by ?>y2". Double covered with muslin, treated. Rattan strips on top of ribs, which mortise in the spars.

The fixed surface at the forward end of the fuselage is 6' by 3'. A steel rod runs laterally through this and acts as pivot for elevators, each 3' by 3', at the lateral extremities of the fixed plane. These surfaces have a camber of %".

The rudder. 3' by 2' 5" high, turns on a steel tube. The rudder is placed on the upper side of the fixed surface. Double levers of aluminum, bolted to the tube, connected by duplicate sets of Roebling cable to the steering wheel. Cables from the aluminum masts on each elevator run to an aluminum lever on each end of a lateral horizontal steel tube, which is rotated in bearings by swinging fore ana aft a curved bar. Rudder and elevator cables run straight, without guides. Of course, the rudder cables cross each other. Turning wheel to the right turns machine to right. Another set of wires run from

steering wheel to steering rod of the pair of front wheels, which steer on the ground in connection with the rudder. This makes it possible to make turns on the ground at very slow speed and is a good feature in handling the machine in close quarters.

The ailerons are hinged to the rear beam in the usual manner and operate in both directions by cables to a shoulder brace.

The front wheels, 20" x 21/!", are flexibly mounted by coil springs, as shown in the sketch. One spring is vertical to take landing shocks and the other two take side thrusts.

The outriggers are 1" square ash, horizontal and vertical struts the same wood, l1/^" by %" oval. None of the woodwork is laminated.

The rear running gear is the usual Par-man type, with rubber shock absorbers.

A '50 Gnome drives a Normale thrust propeller 7' 6" diameter by 5' 6" pitch. The lo-gallon gas tank is located on the lower

75*7

plane, fed by pressure maintained by hand pump. A 6-gallon castor oil tank feeds by gravity, and pump to sights on the outrigger at the operator's right. Clock, pressure gauge, tachometer, inclinometer and duplicate spark cut-out switches are provided in the equipment. Spark advance and throttle levers on sectors.

The weight of the machine, with tanks filled, ready for operator, is 750 lbs.

The company also makes Farman, Bleriot and Morane types. The "Canard" sells at $4500 with 50-Gnome or $4000 with 60-Anzani.

The Ramsey "Composite" Monoplane

24

L. RAMSEY, of Veracruz, is an American enthusiast in old Mexico who has built under many handicaps what he calls a "composite" machine, using the Bleriot XI as a basis for his calculations.

The fuselage is of the well known Bleriot construction but tapering from at the front end, to a point at the rear. The main beams as well as the struts are of clear, well-seasoned selected white oak, and stayed with No. 25 soft steel music wire at the rear and No. 30 around the engine panels; the ferrules being of 3/16" brass tubing 5/16" long.

The wings have a chord of 6' 10", spread 29' 6", and are of the familiar Anzani-Bleriot type and have an area of 178 sq. ft. and built up of strips of oak x 1" wide, with the corresponding space blocks and so arranged that the rear edge is flexible. The camber is 5-3/16" at 22" from the front edge. There are two main supporting beams which carry the weight and run the whole length of the wing. These are perforated at intervals to reduce their weight. There are also four other oak battens, which only serve to tie the ribs together. The wings are covered over with varnished cloth, and are set at an angle of iy2° from the horizontal. The stays and the warping cables are of 3/32" stranded wire cables with Bleriot turnbuckles. In this connection will say that have adopted the fastening used on the Nieuport machine illustrated in January number of "Aeronautics" for securing the warping and stay wires to

the main beams, as this precludes the necessity of having to weaken them with bolt holes.

The landing gear is similar to that of the Nieuport with the exception that hickory is used instead of metal tubing for the skids and supports. The 3" by 20" wheels are joined to a laminated steel axle attached with an aluminum bronze casting to the middle inverted "A." The struts forming these supports are of stream line form ana are attached to fuselage with McAdamite metal straps and bolts and are stayed with Mi" steel wire to the end of the laminated steel spring axle.

The empennage or rear surface is composed of two triangular forms made of thin strips of oak dove-tailed covered with varnished cloth and attached to the sides of the fuselage with metal pins which fit into small holes bored into the bottom part of the vertical struts and are stayed with thin piano wire to make them rigid. The area of the two sections is 22.5 sq. ft.

The small vertical fin is similar in construction to the empennage and is likewise fastened in place by means of pins and stay wires, its area is 3.6 sq. ft.

The elevators are hinged with McAdamite straps to the rear part of the empennage and are actuated up and down by a McAdamite lever fastened with bolts to the center part of the frame. They have an area of 6 sq. ft. each.

The rudder is hung in place by three straps and also has a lever of the same material attached to its central part to which the wires of the control system which is of the Nieuport pattern, are attached. The area of the rudder is 4.7 sq. ft.

Hillery Beachy Biplane

ILLERY Beachy while overshadowed by the masterly ability of his brother Lincoln as a flyer, has shown ability as a designer, the machine he has piloted at Los Angeles and Oakland being of his own design and construction.

The striking feature of the machine incorporates a most interesting departure from conventional American design, to wit: construc-

tion of the planes in the form of a very broad and flattened "V," the center section of the machine being the blunt point of the "V." The angle toward the rear is very slight.

Allowing S feet for the center section, out of the total spread of 27 feet, we have an angle of a little over 1 in 8. While this is undoubtedly small, it is effective in bringing the center pressure back without causing structural changes about the engine section, which was Mr. Beachy's idea more than securing stabilizing results,

Hill' Beaehy Biplane

such as have been achieved with the sharp pointed "V" of Lieut. Dunne, in England.

By referring to the photo, one may note that the engine is placed well back and that there is no cut in the planes to clear propeller.

used in the running gear, a light skid supports the "empennage" framework.

A 4 cylinder 40 h.p. Hall Scott gave this machine remarkable speed. Exact figures would be interesting. That the machine would be speedy was a foregone conclusion, notwithstanding its comparatively low

HILL ' BUICJiEY BlPLAffE

The machine, a headless biplane, is of very light construction, a little too delicate for exhibition use. Total weight 450 lbs. The necessity for triple rudders (each 30" x 14") is doubtful as they have considerable leverage, and also present side wind disadvantages.

Planes have a chord of 4 feet, 6 inches, are double covered and have the bad feature of the Curtiss construction, namely, the inflexible rear edge.

Double ailerons working down only, like Farman's, are operated by the wheel control.

The elevator, a fragile affair, is warped in the Wright manner, the bend being in the wooden ribs.

A modification of the popular Wright is

horse power, due to small head resistance and light weight.

The machine was noticeably steady in flight in quite strong winds. Mr. Beachy claims, with reason, that this was in a measure due to the "V" of the dihedral construction. Cleve T. Shaffer.

Black Duplicate Control

(Continuedfrom Page 23)

and overcoming the springs on student's control thus rectify the error.

The chief advantage of this control system is that as will be noted all controls are centered in practically one member, an upright surmounted by a hand wheel thus leaving free the shoulders and what is more important both feet of the operator.

The Twining Monoplane

N ATTEMPT has been made in the monoplane designed by Sidney J. Twining and built by him with the aid of his father, Professor H. La V. Twining, of the Polytechnic High School in Los Angeles, author of works on electricity and ex-president of the Aero Club of California, to so shape the planes as to realize a soaring wing and develop lift and forward drift instead of lift and rearward drift. Trials have just begun with the machine.

The spread of both wings is 38 feet and the over-all length is 21 feet, 2 inches. The curve measures 6 inches, 2 feet back. The angle of incidence on the ground is 10 degrees. The front lateral spar is of 1 beam construction, laminated. The rear spar is built-up, hollow, and spacing between is 3 feet. The ribs, consisting of two half-inch wide strips with blocks between, are nailed and glued to the spars. Each wing is IS feet one way by 6 feet, 4 inches where it joins the body. From this point, the front edge slants backward to a point near the end where the chord is but 6 feet. From this point the wing tip spreads out fan-wise to a chord of S feet. A portion of this wing tip is made flexible, as shown in the drawings, and is warped up or down by cables running over pulleys at each end of a vertical stationary guyed mast. The cable from the lower side of the wing runs from the tip to the pulley on the mast and from there to the fuselage where it takes a turn around the steering wheel and on out in the same manner to the other tip. The cable from the upper side of the flexible tip runs to the pulley at the top of the mast, to a pulley at the apex of the skid struts over the fuselage, on out to the other wing tip. Turning the

wheel to the high side increases the angle on the low side, and vice versa.

The wings are double covered with English "long" cloth (muslin), treated. The camtber decreases to a flat surface at the tip, which presents a slight negative angle. Itoebling steel cable is used for guying. The wings are strongly guyed. Cables (3 to each wing) run from points on the front spar to the juncture of the steel-tube braces between the wheels. Three more cables from the rear spar attach to the rear of one skid. Three cables guy from the top of the front spar to the apex of the skid struts, and two from the rear spar to the same point. In addition, there is the warping cable from the flexible tips, and there are guys to the mast. The three rear guys are held by the same cottered "knockout" pin at the clamp on the skid (see sketch), as are other guy attachments, making it easy to mount and dismount the wings rapidly.

The two elevators work in combination and pivot at the rear of the fixed flat tail. The leading edge of the elevator is made of heavy wood and the ribs fasten firmly to that piece, doing away with guys. The fixed, non-lifting tail has about So square feet of surface, measuring 12 feet by 9 feet.

The rudder, 4 feet by 4 feet, 6 inches, (12 square feet) is operated by a foot-yoke, the wires being direct connected.

An adaptation of the Farman running gear is used, 20 inch by 2 inch wheels—two 6 foot skids are provided. There are no guy wires in the running gear; all braced by 4 steel tubes.

A clamp device does away with holes through struts and fuselage spars; composed of 1 outer clamp and 2 inner clamps

(Continued on page 1$)

C. H. Paterson Biplane

(Continued from page Ji) are steady in flight, carrying passengers with ease and their strong running gear makes landing easy.

Mr. Charles H. Paterson should certainly be congratulated on the excellently built machines which his firm have turned out. The machines being well and strongly built in every particular.

The California Aviation Company, of San Francisco, is building a unique type of monoplane-biplane which is reported to be for the Japanese Government, they having recently constructed several machines for Japanese individuals and report considerable business in parts, motors and supplies from Japanese. Upon completion of above machine our correspondent in San Francisco will be permitted to inspect and describe same for "Aeronautics." Ci.evk T. Shaffer.

Twining Monoplane

(Continued from page 20)

over main beam, and 2 others, one each over the cross beam and the vertical, held together by machine screws. Clamps are of thin cold rolled steel. (See sketch).

An altered Ford automobile motor of 25 rated h.p., weighing 150 lbs., bare, at a speed of 1S00 drives a tractor screw by chain, geared 3 to 1, making the propeller turn GOO. The propeller is home-made, 8 feet diameter. The radiator is at the rear of the engine. Static thrust is 200 lbs. Oil is carried under the engine, gas under the seat, pressure feed. The compression of the engine has been increased, an oiling system added and large auxiliary ports provided.

The total weight of the aeroplane is between 750 and 800 lbs. Weight lifted per square foot, 3.4 lbs.; 30 lbs. lifted per h.p.

Page 23

July, 1912

A Duplicate Control System

By ARCHIBALD BLACK

HE accompanying drawing gives a general idea of a control system devised by me, which the brother and myself had proposed to use in a machine of original design which we hope to be able to construct, and for which we are doing some experimental work at present. We do not expect to apply for patent on this detail and any who consider it of use are at liberty to make what use they wish of it.

motion without interfering with elevators.

The rudder wires are carried by means of Bowden tube mechanism into the insid< of upright through a hole near the universal bearing, up inside and out through an arm on top above hand wheel, to rim of wheel, to which they are attached in such manner that they may be wound off one side and on the other by turning wheel in either direction, thus operating rudder. A somewhat similar method is employed with the spark and throttle controls, the wires being brought out of upright through two holes placed below wheel, and being wound

SIDE VIEW

rudder wires-

pilot's seat

DWG.I3

learner's seat REAR VIEW 5imsaw»G:DWG.J

ARCHIBALD BLACK DONALD R RLPCK

DUPLEX CONTROL SYSTEM

DRAWN -5-7-l£ BY flRCH BUO^

Each control comprises an upright tube mounted near its center by a universal bearing "B" allowing for free movement in all directions in a horizontal plane and is provided with a hand wheel mounted to revolve freely on its upper end.

Aileron wires are connected to bottom plate "C" as shown in drawing, so that rocking upright from side to side operates ailerons. Elevator wires are connected to same plate but at right angles to aileron wires so that pushing or pulling the upright from or to the operator will move elevators without interfering with ailerons or vice versa, ailerons may be operated by side to side

around two drums which are rotated by means of two separate levers.

The springs shown on elevator and aileron wires of student's control are a suggestion which might be tried in order to demonstrate whether the idea is feasible or otherwise. These would of necessity be sufficiently stiff to give the student full control of machine through his wheel, but of such tension mat in event of his making a false move (which would be observed immediately by the instructor, both wheels being coupled together, and moving In conjunction) the instructor, by applying more than usual force could operate his control

(Continued on Page 19)

A Composite Hydroaeroplane

PUBLISHER'S NOTE: In the desire to aid progress in aviation through the hydroaeroplane, which seems at this time the more hopetul medium for the encouragement of general flying among men who spend money on other sports, the following article has been written and blueprints and drawings prepared for AERONAUTICS by Mr. Patterson, who is one of the very early men in aviation in this country, an engineer with university training and a man who has had practical experience on the draughting board, in the shop, on the road and in the machine.

More good can be done aviation by a large volume of flights all over the country than in any other way. The more flying, the greater interest, the more sales of complete machines and accessories.

Young men who have not "taken" to the land machine will, it is hoped, incline to the water type—hundreds of motorboat owners who are looking for speed, which they can get in a

hydroaeroplane at less expense than in the fast boat. These drawings, and the blueprints, may aid in arriving at this result.

A complete set of working drawings of an all. steel hydro may now be obtained from AERONAUTICS. Over one hundred scale drawings comprise the set of blueprints, the smallest sketches being 1 inch to the foot, many full size, covering every single part of the apparatus, including quick detachable strut sockets, connectors and fastenings of all sons. There is not a part of the machine, save the engine, propeller and fabric, which may not be made from these blueprints. No set of blueprints has ever before been on the market, wnich give complete measurements. The machine follows standard lines and all question of its flying is eliminated. The complete set will be sold at eight dollars.

The following article tells how to "set-up" the machine and contains first rate information of use to the experienced flyer as well as to the novice.

By R. F. PATTERSON

over 1300 lbs.

5HIS hydroaeroplane has features similar to two of the best standard machines built in this country. It will be noticed the front elevator and tail is of the Curtiss type while the remainder is Capt. Baldwin's. The Curtiss type* pontoon on which it rests is capable of sustaining a weight of The machine is figured to weigh complete with a 300-lb. engine, 20 gals, of gasoline and sufficient oil and water, but without the pilot, between 850 and 900 lbs. The lifting capacity of the planes will carry safely, 1200 lbs., giving leeway for a 300-lb. pilot. These figures are safely within the limit, as similarly constructed land machines, with only 32 feet spread, have carried passengers weighing half again this figure.

One great feature of this machine is the simplicity of construction and the manner in which it is "knocked down" for shipping and again reassembled. The designer has had three years' experience with aeroplanes on the road, and designed this machine with his knowledge of conditions met with in giving exhibitions or otherwise shipping.

It will be noted that the sliding sleeve socket does away with tightening or loosening wires in "tearing down," and in the plane sections, not a wire is changed. The sleeve, which is held in place with a cotter pin, or bolt as the flyer sees fit, is simply slid up the strut, and the posts are removed, allowing the top plane to lay flat on the lower, and both are ready for boxing. The ailerons never leave their sections, which saves time in "knocking down" and setting up. The tail irons (outriggers) are so arranged that the top one also folds down on the lower and are thereby kept in pairs and all together. By removing a bolt which holds a casting on top of the rudder

(see drawing No. 52 in the blue prints) all the wires on the tail come free, allowing the rudder to be free; this also keeps all wires to tail intact.

Steel construction is by far the best to handle, and according to many, in every way, but one, is best for aeroplane work. The only objection is the slightly greater weight. The strength is over twice that of wood or any other material used in the same places and manner. The head resistance is almost half of wood, and in case of an accident, steel tubing lined with spruce never breaks sharp, allowing pieces to pierce the aviator. Each piece that is bent (not buckled, which seldom happens) can always be straightened, and is as good as new.

CAUTIONARY ADVICE Caution, from one who has had experience—never look at a part that appears weakened, and say, "Oh, that's good enough." "Good enough" are not words to be used in aviation, though naturally hydroaeroplanes are, what one would call "absolutely safe" compared with land machines; for its always the sudden stopping that causes the trouble, and naturally water has but little resistance in comparison. At the same time, though it is still unheard of for one to get fatally hurt by such a fall, such could happen. Therefore, before flying, personally look over your entire machine, see that all locks on turnbuckles are fastened, all nuts have lock washers beneath them except at movable parts, where you must have a cotter pin inserted through bolt outside of nut. It is very essential to have all movable wires, which should be Roebling's galvanized steel cable, not less than 3/32" thick with wire core (not string core). Reinforce with a piece of loose hay wire. In case fastening breaks, the reinforcing wire will still allow a safe landing.

Hydroaeroplanes suffer greatly from rust, especially near salt water. All bolts, wires

A patent is pending on the Curtixs float system.

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Rubberized Fabric for Aeroplanes

This fabric bore R. G. Fowler from the Pacific to Atlantic Coast without accident. Drenehed by rain storms lasting some of them eight days, exposed to the burning suns and with the temperature often as low as 10 above zero, this fabric came through unaffected—unweakened—almost as good as new.

It is the only absolutely damp and weatherproof fabric in existence. Its unequaled durability is due to the way made. Instead of being eoated with varnish, paraffin or some other substance, this fabric is rubberized—impregnated so thoroughly with damp-resisting rubber that moisture can't affect it. The process also makes it impervious to heat.

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Strong, light, durable. Built in all standard sizes. — We make tires for all kinds of foreign as well as American made machines.

Goodyear

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BALLOONS

Aeroplane Accessories

Goodyear Detachable Aeroplane Tires

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Springs and Shock Absorbers The Bleriot Type

We manufacture and carry a full line of Aeroplane springs and Shock Absorbers.

The Bleriot Type Rubber Shock Absorber is the only practical device for Monojdanes. Steel springs have been used but the)' are not successful. They snap in cold weather, catch in the tubes, are inefficient, unsatisfactory. You can now get the Bleriot Type at home. We are the sole manufacturers in America. We ean fill your order promptly and with a bi<<: saving. Ask us at once about our big line of springs.

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THE GOODYEAR TIRE & RUBBER COMPANY, Akron, Ohio

Branches and Agencies in 103 Principal Cities

AERONAUTICS

and metal should be oiled or vaselined and continually watched at important parts. Where stationary wires cross each other they should be tied with string or taped, and at the joints of all tubing braces, tail irons, and especially all braces around the engine, that, if broken will fly back to propeller, small holes drilled through the braces and a piece of hay wire inserted and twisted as a precaution.

^^Copper tulu'ry 1 fattened'in <? w$<?

‘5

T -------"™* ws*^ /3}J

*l?if£>t<?d her? To sorj&t____

Before each and every flight, no matter how short, look on top of the planes, and in and around the engine, to see that no tools have been left to fly back into the propeller. Remember, the propeller travelling at 1000 r.p.m. is a solid block and nothing can pass it, and small nuts, etc., will break a blade. Make a practice of trying all movable parts before sitting in the seat, to see that there is no hitch in their working order.

METHOD OF BUILDING AND SETTING IIP

After material is secured, begin with your plane sections first, get your beams the correct size front and rear, while your ribs are being dried after glueing up the laminations. It is best to take boards wide enough to allow cutting S or 10 ribs. Use the finest marine glue in the process of laminating.

The wood used inside of tubing for reinforcing does not necessarily have to be laminated, but must be a snug fit, driven in hard, using oil or vaseline to ease it. After the ribs are finished with sockets, etc., set up on some even floor 12 blocks of wood on end, one coming under each post, making the rear six blocks 6 inches

shorter than the six front ones; this allows the 6 inch drop in your front and rear beams. (Fig. 1.)

Lay your beams from block to block ■making ends butt up against each other. Lay off spacing of ribs and fasten same in place. After all frame work for top and

bottom planes is finished, sockets placed on, insert your posts and connect socket to socket with cross wires. Have all turn-buckles come from bottom plane sockets which makes it easier in future to get at them. True up this frame perfectly square with your guy wires, by stretching a string along front and rear beams and dropping a plum line down from top. This must be done before any iron braces are made, otherwise in future your 'plane will never line up. Remember, ys inch out in the center panel means several inches out on the end section. When this is all squared up and wires taut, place entire frame work upon several horses, giving them the same drop (6") as before. The iron braces can now be made. There are several ways of making these. The one generally used, being the simplest, is to make a chalk sketch (accurately) full size on the floor. For instance, the irons to pontoon under rear beam would look as in Fig. 2.

After laying out your diagram on the floor your tubing braces can be cut the proper length and bent accordingly. Any tubing (use Shelby seamless tubing) over 3 feet in length should be dowled with spruce after the one end is heated and bent. Never bend or flatten tubing cold. Shorter pieces should all be reinforced by drawing a piece of cold tubing into the heated one about 3%" long where the bend comes. (Fig. 3.)

With plane sections raised on the horses, it is simple to make braces accurately, making sure all holes are drilled according to your chalk sketch; for, again, one hole drilled ys inch out will never let your plane line true. When all braces to pontoon are made the planes can then be placed upon it and the seat and engine braces made. It is shown in drawings where plane is to rest upon pontoon, so, if the engine (figur-

f.**************+++*******+

I ATTENTION ! {

* * * * * * * * * + * * * *

Besides our regular Stock Product the J

50 H. P., 6 Cylinder, Self-Starting |

ALBATROSS !

we are putting through a special order of jj)

*

100 H. P. American Defenders *

of the following specifications Albatross Star type water-cooled, 6 Cylinders, Bore 5 1-2", Stroke 5", R. P. M. 1350, Weight 275 lbs., Magneto and Carburettor equipped. Price $850.

We are prepared to accept a limited amount of orders for August deliveries and those anticipating entering the races with an ALL AMERICAN MACHINE should order at once.

* * *

*

*

*

* * *

* *

J ALBATROSS CO.

♦ 41 4" 41 41 *fr "fr *h "fr ^ 41 ^ 41 ■!■ H

Detroit, Mich. *

Farman Running Gears Complete, as above - $47.50

AERONAUTICAL SUPPLIES

Everything to build any type flying machine.

New Catalogue with working drawings of Curtiss. Farman and Bleriot-typc machines in course of construction and will be mailed free upon request to all parties as soon as received from the printer. Write for quotations.

A FEW IMMEDIATE DELIVERY PRICES

Curtiss Steering Wheels - $9.00 FREE with

every $50.00 order for Aeronautical Supplies FLEECE-LINED AVIATOR CAP.

Curtiss Seats -5-Gallon Tanks Aviator Caps -Outrigger Fittings -Oval Post Sockets -

5.50 6.15 1.25 .29 .17

Aluminum pulleys with brass bushings:

2" 25c, 2i" 30c, 3" 40c. Wheels and Tires complete, Eclipse Hub:

20x2in $6.75 20x3" $9.50 E. J. WILLIS COMPANY, New York City 85 Chamberi Street (Telephone 3624 Worth) 67 Reade Street

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1 Bleriot Model Monoplane Guaranteed to fly. Free. O Marble's Pocket Screw" driver and Prest-o-lite Key. Three sizes of blades locked in nickel plated handle which closes up like a knife. Closed 3X2 in. Open5!4in. Just out and it's a dandy. Free. O Doable Magnetic J Reveriible Engine With Speed Contact Lever 1000 to 250 0 revolutions per minute. Free. Send $1.50 to-day in cash, stamps or M. O. and get Modern Electric* for one year and jour choice of the above offers prepaid Abiolnttly Free. Money refunded immediatelyif not pleased in every way. MODERN ELECTRICS, 298 Fulton St., New York

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AERO WIRE WHEELS

Save Money, Buy From Manufacturer ALL SIZES IN STOCK-Any Size or Type Hub

20nx2$« Wheels........$4.00, with Tire........$6.00

20nx3" " ........ 4.75. " " ........ 8.25

Farman Type Gears, Complete - $42.50 Stock Hubs, 6" wide, f or |" knock-out axle or bushed to fit 1" Tubular Axle. 1J" and 1A" furnished special. Hydro-Floats and 34" Wheels for same.

Don't fail to write for complete list of wheels

Terms: Cash or Deposit. Balance C. O. D.

J. A. WEAVER, Jr., Manufacturer

Examination Allowed. Dept. A., 132 West 50th Street. New York

ADAMS-FARWELL

REVOLVING MOTORS

THE ADAMS

21 ATHOL STREET,

COMPANY

DUBUQUE, IOWA, U. S. A.

AERONAUTICS

Page 28

+ +

+

! I

BenoistBiplanes I | NAIAD |

Are in a class by themselves and do not cost much more than poor planes.

3 Models to pick from.

We conduct the Benoist School of Aviation.

Benoist Aircraft Company

6628 DELMAR BLVD., ST.LOUIS, MO.

15

POINTERS

for

MAXIMOTORING YOUR PLANE 3

1. Lowest gasoline consumption (50 h.p., 3M gal. per nr.; 75 lip., 5 gal.)

2. Oil sight-jacketed intake manifold.

3. Self-priming oil pump. / 4. Cylinder bolts

\ 5. Connecting rod bolts \ 6. Crankshaft.

All of imported chrome nickel steel.

7. Semi-steel cylinders and pistons (30$-

steel.)

8. Hand holes in erankcase.

9. Gears enclosed.

10. Auxiliary exhaust.

11. Engine supports on bridge principle.

12. Pyramidal cylinder flange.

13. Very best radiators and propellers.

14. Double magneto.

15. Ball bearings.

The 15 combined and many of them individually cannot be had with any other engine in Europe or America.

50-140 H.P.; 4, 6 and 8 cyl.

Cef illustrated catalog.

DETROIT

Aeronautical Cloth

Manufactured Especially for -— Aeroplanes-

Light, Strong Air-Tight and Moisture Proof

Sample Book A-6, Data and Prices on Request

The C. E. Conover Co.

MANUFACTURERS

101 Franklin St., New York

Dept. 6

Page 31

Juh, 1912

ing on any one of the standard engines) is placed so that the center of the engine conies about one foot back of the center of your plane, the rear foot lug of the engine will be almost in line with your rear beam and will allow about 4" clearance for your propeller to swing in the rear of your plane. Your machine will balance if all material and placing of your seat agrees with these drawings.

Hydroaeroplanes are very tail heavy when floating minus a weight equal to an average man upon the forward end of the pontoon, so don't imagine when you see yours sink tail first before you have tried her running upon the water that she will be tail heavy in flight.

Mmâ/a'fini

 

___ \_ ] /7*

   

i3M ____----- ^--1-J

j£ Bolt hole

Tail irons must be reinforced with spruce dowels and are shown in Fig. 4. In making center and smaller upright braces between the tail irons, drill the 3/16" hole a little to one side and file corner of brace to allow its folding (Fig. 5) for shipping.

   

P

J

 

7

     
     
   

-TîjzT

Make tail irons the same as the braces to the float by drawing sketch on the floor, making one pair longer than the other pair to bring the tail 2 inches above the center of propeller thrust. Also, raise front of fixed tail on small upright about iy2" above center of tail irons. This point can be varied according to flight of machine, the straighter the tail the faster the machine flies; if she flies tail heavy, raise the front of the tail allowing the propeller draught to strike more beneath it. It's better to fly a little nose heavy than tail heavy.

After the machine is all assembled, remove all the controls and planes, in fact "knock it down" and begin covering with cloth. In buying cloth inquire from your dealer what stretch to allow. It averages about 2,y2 inches. Cut cloth correct size

and begin tacking on bottom of each frame work first, starting with front member. This allows the cloth to go around the rear member and up to the front member again and lapping over the lower surface. This prevents the air from getting under the join. Cement all joins and re-tack. The under surface is not put on quite as tight as the upper on account of allowing for the curve of the ribs which pulls it tighter when tacked to the top and bottom of each rib through a strip of "feather bone" cloth. (A strip of cloth doubled over can be used in place of feather bone). Wherever the cloth goes around a corner or sharp edge cement a strip beneath to prevent wearing at that point. Use large %" head tacks, y2" long.

It is recommended that the foreign piano (steel) wire is used in place of the cable, except for movable parts. In wiring controls like the rudder and ailerons, the galvanized steel cable is best. The diagram (Fig. 6) illustrates the aileron system.

The control wire from right aileron at "A" runs to the pulley "K" on the upper front beam, then to pulley "J" on post, then to wire "E" at shoulder brace. Wire at point "B" runs to pulley "L" on front lower beam, thence to wire "H" on shoulder brace. Left aileron wire at point "C" runs to pulley "M" on the upper beam, thence to pulley "I" on post and then to "G" on shoulder brace. Wire "D" runs to pulley "N" on bottom front beam and thence to wire "F" on shoulder brace. Note that wires "E" and "F" cross each other but not "G" and "H."

Wires running through steering column also cross each other to make rudder turn to right when wheel is turned to right, and vice versa. There's a short piece of wire put around the wheel and fastened to a small 3/16" bolt (securely) which is put through wheel to hold wire from slipping. The wire then runs through necessary holes and cross in tubing, the left wire running out on right pulley at bottom and right on left pulley. (Fig. 7.)

After wires pass pulleys they run through "Bowden Cable" wherever there is a corner to be turned, on the way to the rudder helm at No. 53 in the blue prints. See that steering wires in passing near propeller are absolutely protected from jump-

aeroplane, and it is difficult to show some of them in drawings and to write of them would fill a book.

A good reliable engine between 50 and 80 h.p. should be used. I would recommend

ing across and getting caught by the propeller. Never allow wires to jam in pulleys or Bowden cable. Keep well oiled or greased. The Elevators—Front elevator is pushed and pulled to raise machine down or up by a push rod from bottom of steering post. The "flippers," or rear elevators, are governed by wires from steering post. (Fig. 8.)

1 have endeavored, by the use of these drawings and descriptive matter to make all as clear as possible, but one must remember there are hundreds of parts to an

about 60 or 75. Have propeller blades covered with tin on the ends about 2 feet back, as water will splinter wood quickly. Keep machine well painted and oiled to be free from rust. Keep pontoon drained and out of the sun as much as possible. Have all controls working freely, especially ailerons, to save tiring of shoulders. Always watch gasoline, oil and water supply, and never run close to your limit.

-fj-HiH-HnHj-*-

Arrangements have been made by Prof. David L. Gallup, of Worcester, Mass., Polytechnic Institute, with Herrick Aiken of Lawrence, Mass., to combine in further aeronautic experiments, and with the use of Mr. Aiken's biplane they contemplate duplicating the propeller experiments made with the rotating boom, described in a previous issue of AERONAUTICS. The apparatus will be so arranged that Prof.

Gallup can obtain the h.p. delivered, thrust, speed of propeller, and speed of flight for different conditions of operation. They anticipate obtaining the best relation between the Maximotor engine and propeller and surfaces for a given machine. These experiments will be carried on, in all probability, at Lake Quinsiga-mond after equipping the aeroplane with pontoons.

July, 1912

I FRONTIER I Aero Motors I

'j4/u;ays in Front"

C

In casting about for the best there is in a high class motor— one that has withstood every test—the discriminating buyer will make no >; mistake in adopting the Frontier."

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CThe flights made by Beatty with the Frontier Model A-Motor are familiar to all followers of ' Aeronautics.''

COur exhibit at the recent Aero Show in New York created tremendous interest and a flood of requests have since come to us for detailed information regarding this superior power plant for aerial navigation—the final achievement of two years spent in designing and experiments.

FRONTIER FACTS

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Abundant power. Perfectly balanced. Imported ball bearings throughout. Runs without skipping with equal and

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Catalogue on request

Frontier Iron Works %

BUFFALO, N. Y.

E. J. WILLIS CO., New York Agents p.

85 Chambers Street £

WITTEMANN BIPLANE

The Wittemann Biplane with a Reputation, not only sets the pace for Quality but for Service.

Write for information of 1912 Biplane with our new Stabilizer.

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C. a„d A. WITTEMANN

Aeronautical Engineers

Works: OCEAN TERRACE and LITTLE CLOVE RD. Staten Island, N. Y. City

Established 1906 Write for Catalogue

AERONAUTICS

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Specializes on

Tractor Screw I Passenger Biplanes $

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{ PATERSON Makes: *

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+ Nieuport type less power plant - $550 J

t Bleriot " " " " - 500 1

* Curtiss " " " " - 450 *

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I Moisant Aviation School *

At Hempstead Plains, L. I.

Well-known Moisant School Graduates licensed by The Aero Club of America.

Most of our Licensed Pilots Employed by us.

Miss Mathilde Moisant Mr. Harold Kantner Mr. F. E. DeMurias Capt. G. W. MacKay Mr. Francisco Alvarez

Mr. S. S. Jei wan Mr. M. F. Bates Mr. J. Hector Worden Miss Harriet Quimby Mr. Jesse Seligman

Mr. Clarence de Giers MOISANT MONOPLANES USED

For Handsome Illustrated Booklet Address

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Broadway and 58th St., New York City

I Duplex Propellers

Lines and Curves productive of highest efficiency. Laminated and hand made. Select materials.

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Type Nieuport. Stream line form entering edge. Flexible trailing edge. Slight dihedral angle built in. Up-to-date warping arrangement.

For details and prices apply to —-—

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WILMINGTON, N. C.

WE GIVE EVERY

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You unconsciously advertise us while playing, driving or touring in the CYCLEMOBILE.

The CYCLEMOBILE is a newly perfected machine not on the market for sale on account of our large exclusive contract with the inventors. It is built like a real Motor Car with two speeds, forward and reverse, besides a neutral coaster speed. The Body and Hood are Pressed Steel and second growth ash, supported on a Chassis frame of Rolled Steel angle iron, capable of carrying the weight of five full grown men. The Axles are also of Steel and Wheels Rubber Tired. The front wheels pivot on regulation Motor Car steering knuckles, eliminating all danger of upsetting on curves. We simply can not give you one hundredth part of the real Specifications in this limited" space, but send in the coupon and we will TELL IT ALL.

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DISHONEST ADVERTISING SKSfiSWifiVERY dishonest advertiser saps * j£ the effort of every honest one. yj Eg "Every honest advertiser ifitfitfitfitfitri helps to make dishonest advertising possible.

"The success of honest and dishonest advertisers alike, depends on one element— the confidence of the public in advertising —but,

"While honest advertisers are creating this confidence, dishonest advertisers are destroying it.

"Shall dishonest advertising go on?"

The Advertising Men's League has formed a Vigilance Committee to spread the propaganda against dishonest or misleading advertising and make it difficult for the dishonest advertiser to place his offerings before the public; to further legislation which may be reeded to bring certain existing abuses within the law.

There is a law already on the statutes of the State of New York making it a misdemeanor for any person, firm, etc., to disseminate any statement intended to give the appearance of an offer which is advantageous to the purchaser which is untrue or calculated to mislead.

The Post Office Department has stated that $77,000,000 were lost through mail frauds in 1911. Some of this money may be charged to aviation. Honest advertisers are entitled to part of these millions. MORE ON FEDERAL LEGISLATION

Not a single word of protest has arisen, nor have the aero clubs of the country taken any notice, regarding the most foolhardy stunt yet tried. On June 11 Silas Christo-pherson flew from the roof of a tall hotel in Portland across two rivers to Vancouver, about 6 miles. He used an old front elevator Curtiss that Frank Bryant has been flying in California. The runway was 150 feet long, poorly made—so poorly that a wheel went through in rolling the machine in position—and the machine was none too good looking, with lots of wire, tape and string. The machine barely raised before reaching the end of the platform and after dropping over the edge, sank about four feet before it picked up. The reward for this was one hundred dollars.

Is this the sort of flying that is to help aviation ?

Is any attempt to be made to put a ban upon similar feats of daring?

Would a national law discourage this sort of thing? It is obvious that it would. Such flying is a serious matter. Will those who have the interests of flying really at heart use their resources towards regulation by federal enactment or will they submit continuously to present conditions where aviation is alleged to be under the control of a handful of individuals, when facts are otherwise.

SPRATT'S EXPERIMENTS PUBLISHED WfiSfiKKWELIEVING that the work of George jjj D A. Spratt, one of the pioneers in W ' jfi aerodynamics, will benefit experi-Sfiifitfitfitfitfi mentors and tend toward safety in aviation, there will be published simultaneously in "AERONAUTICS" and "Fly," beginning with the August issues, a series of articles introducing his theories on the center of pressure. Mr. Spratt is willing to give his knowledge to the world if it will assist in decreasing the fatalities that have so lately robbed America of some of its most expert flyers.

Mr. Spratt has been a student of air pressures for many years. He was a close friend of Octave Chanute, and was at Kitty Hawk with Mr. Chanute and the Wright brothers.

Since those early days Mr. Spratt has continued his work in seclusion among the Pennsylvania hills. He has studied pressures almost continuously and when the full extent of his work is known it will be seen that his scientific investigations are of a high order.

That this knowledge may be disseminated as widely as possible, Mr. Spratt has made a special arrangement with "AERONAUTICS" and "Fly," whereby the articles are to be published by them simultaneously.

The matter published in March, 1908, AERONAUTICS will be included in the pit-sent articles but more condensed, more complete in its significance, and in better form.

BEAUMONT AND PILOT LICENSES tfitfitfitfiSWHE need for a common-sense law ‘5 '"p $ to regulate general flying is being ffi S voiced here and there by KJfMtfW* thoughtful ones. The New York-Tribune, on June 13th, commented editorially on the article in last month's Aeronautics and urged some legal precautionary measures.

The little value a pilot's license, as grouted by clubs, has as a guide to an aviator's ability and reliability is strongly remarked by Andre Beaumont, in his book "My Three Big Flights." Beaumont, it will be remembered, won the Paris-Rome, European ana British Circuit races, covering 2,99('» miles in flying time of 67 hours 54 minutes.

"One may obtain a pilot's license in a few days," he says, "but this will not protect the debutant from the surprises of the air or the capricious tendencies of both monoplane and biplane." Beaumont urges theoretical study as a preparation, an investigation of the candidate's physical condition, etc.

Until there is Federal control, what aero club will undertake to issue certificates which real aviators will be proud to have and students work to obtain.

Practical Aids to Aviators

A NEW AILERON EQUALIZING MEANS.

fiH'IS device has been worked out on the assumption that if the pilot could, as he swings the control lever from side to side, move the ailerons differentially in opposite directions so as to give any desired greater negative angle of incidence to the aileron on the side to be lowered than the positive angle given to the other aileron, or vice versa, the resistance to forward motion of either aileron or on either side of the aeroplane could be maintained at all times equal and the use of the rudder in balancing rendered unnecessary.

The control lever is shown at 2 in the drawings and it may be fulcrumed at the

Pivotally connected to respective blocks 6 and 7 are rigid links 14, 15 whose opposite ends are attached to suitable devices from which connection is made to the ailerons, indicated diagrammatically at 18 and 19.

By rotating the wheel 12, which can be very readily done simultaneously with the swinging of the lever, the blocks will be adjusted oppositely in the slot 5 and an increased movement given to either aileron as desired, due to the varying distances of the blocks from the fulcrum.

If desired to give the ailerons a greater upward throw without adjusting the blocks 6 and 7, so that in cases where the ailerons are hinged to the main plane the resistance to forward motion will be approximately the same on each side of the aeroplane when the ailerons are operated (the greater upward throw compensating for the angle of inci-

1312

point 3 to any suitable part of the aeroplane, the present illustration of the device being largely diagrammatical.

This lever is slotted as at 5 to provide guides for a pair of blocks G and 7 slidable therein and adjustable by suitable means as the wires 8 looped over the drums 9 and 10 (to which they may be attached to prevent slipping) pivoted respectively in the upper and lower ends of the lever, the wires connecting to the blocks as at 11. The drum 9 is provided with a handwheel 12, or any other suitable form of handle which can be conveniently grasped by the operator, for rotating it.

dence presented by the main plane) the links 14 and 15 may be pivotally connected as at 20, 21, to spiral pulley device 22, 23, upon which the wires 24, 25 leading to the ailerons wind, the wires being attached at their ends to such pulleys.

To make the operation easier for the pilot, springs 2G and 27 are each fastened at one end to the pulleys 22, 23 and at opposite ends to any fixed part indicated at x, such springs being arranged with their axial lines in what is known as dead centre position with regard to the axes of the pulleys when the ailerons arc in similar (or neutral) positions so that the springs will then exert

Welles &

50 H. P. 4 CYCLE

LET US SEND YOU OUR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE SHOWING FRED EELLS" GREAT FLIGHTS OVER THE CITY OF ROCHESTER IN BIPLANE EQUIPPED WITH THIS MOTOR.

One of the few moderate-priced motors that has actually made good.

Weight 200 lbs.

Valves in Head

Cylinders Cast Separate

Every Moving

Part Oiled Automatically

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you wish to do something better than "Grass-Cutting"

consult

WELLES & ADAMS

BATH, N. Y.

I Alumina Aeroplane jj Fabric

'Beautiful as Day."

"Light as a Feather."

Finest Imported Linen, thoroughly Waterproofed, and then coated with Aluminum. Heat and moisture proof. Strongest and Most Durable Aeroplane Cloth on the Market.

OUR PRICES WILL SURPRISE YOU.

Send for samples and price list and be convinced.

AERIAL NAVIGATION COMPANY 2! AMERICA

Girard, Kansas.

El Arco Aeroplane Radiators

CARRIED IN STOCK

Some Manufacturers of Aero Motors who have adopted EL ARCO RADIATORS:

*Also carried in stock, rights and lefts, with fit tings as shown dotted, for installing on either sid" of driver's seat.

There is no lighter radiator made than our Lightweight, except our Featherweight.

10 East 3I»t Street New York

El Arco Radiator Co.

ELBRIDGE ENGINES

So simple anyone can operate them

So strong nobody breaks them

So cheap anyone can buy them

Made in a dozen sizes, to suit all types of machines.

The most generally successful engine known to aviation, for both amateur and professional work. Catalog or folder on request.

Elbridge Engine Company

10 Culver Rd. Rochester, N. Y.

I HYDROS I ?.5LIiyer

A M M m M W M MJ ^ W A In addition to those features which in the past have

A A made Wright Flyers famous for efficiency and reliability,

A ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ZZZ^^^^^^m A the new models can be furnished with Automatic Con-

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y l-rvrllTi m flOVfilVIOIlO ;i For exhibition work we have other models especially

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| Dimensions of every part Only com- | ' Wrfght Schoo, of Ayiation

V plete blue-prints ever sold. Standard £; „ . . • , • ,

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A type. A is accompanied by a competent teacher. No risk and

A no expense whatever from breakage. The most famous

v Scale 1 inch to foot:'some full size. $ flyers in America are graduates of our school and

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Page 35

July, 1912

AERONAUTICS

no turning moment upon the ailerons. As soon as the ailerons are moved such springs move off their dead centre positions and assist in swinging the ailerons against the air pressure. The strength of the springs will of course be such as will give the nearest approximation to counter-balancing the air pressure on the ailerons. It is not essential that these springs be connected to the particular part of the control device here shown. Similar springs might also be applied to the elevator and rudder.

This lever might also be applied to aeroplanes, such as the ordinary type of wing warping monoplane, in which there is a connection between opposite wings which gives an automatic compensation for variation in air pressure. By adjusting the blocks G and 7 a greater pressure on one side might be made to balance a smaller pressure on the opposite side because of the differential leverage and the aeroplane "banked" for a turn without interference by the pilot with the automatic reaction between the wings.

This device is covered by applications pending in the United States Patent Office, made by Alexander Currie, of 70S Merchant's Bank Building, Montreal, Canada, who would be glad to hear from parties who might be interested in acquiring the patent rights.

BURGESS STARTING DEVICE

In this picture of the starting device employed by the Burgess Co. & Curtis on their hydroaeroplanes, the operator is seen grasping a handle, inserting it in a socket fastened

on a special ball ratchet on the large sprocket.

Pulling this up turns the motor over two, and sometimes three compressions, and always starts it without difficulty. The throttle is shut down so that while the hydro « moves slowly through the water the operator has an opportunity to resume his seat and take the levers without difficulty.

THE LEWKOWICZ ANGLE INDICATOR

Ladis Lewkowicz, the well known Bleriot pilot, has invented a device of general use to students and experienced flyers, an angle indicator.

It is often too late to correct the angle at which the aeroplane is ascending, descending or banking, when the aviator finds that such angle is too large. Always in front of the pilot, the indicator shows him positively at what angle his aeroplane is flying at the exact moment he is looking at the instrument. Knowing at what angle his aeroplane should safely ascend, descend and bank, one will be careful not to go farther than the safety angle and less accidents will occur. Mr. Lewkowicz has developed this angle indicator, and gives herewith a full description, not only as to its working, but also full details how same could be made, in the hope that it may help to make aviation safer.

This angle indicator is designed to be placed in front of the aviator, attached to the aeroplane, so as to have the pendulum at dead center when the aeroplane is in flying position. It is composed of a cup, inside of which the degrees are marked by lines running all around. The first line shows 10 degrees, the second line 20, etc. The pendulum which is the only movable

part of the instrument, is mounted on an arm, which brings it to the center of the cup. The pendulum is mounted on a large ball, which rests on three small balls, adjusted in the holding arm. At the other end of the pendulum there is a weight. There is just enough friction in the bearings to prevent oscillation of the pendulum, and it takes always, immediately, the perpendicular position, no matter at what small angle the aeroplane flies.

When the aeroplane is ascending, the pendulum will move toward the aviator, and the point of the pendulum will indicate at what angle the aeroplane is ascending. In case the angle indicator is placed at a distance which prevents the aviator from seeing at what angle he is ascending, a looking glass has been affixed which shows the inside of the cup, and will permit the aviator to see at what angle he is flying by looking in the mirror when ascending, the pendulum should always be vertical. As soon as the pendulum deviates from that line, in either direction, it will be dangerous, as it will show that the aeroplane is climbing and banking at the same time. When the pendulum goes to the right or left, the aeroplane is banking in the same direction, and if it goes on one side and forward, it shows that the aeroplane is banking and descending at the same time.

To make a similar instrument as shown in the two pictures, spin a brass cup, fix it on a little stand of any description just to hold it on your aeroplane, have same made black by gun metal process, divide the cup in degrees from the bottom center of the cup. Take a piece of sheet metal, bend it to form an arm to support the pendulum, and set in it three small balls, secure this arm so that the pendulum will be hanging dead center. The part of the pendulum resting on the three balls, must

be a large perfect ball, and the bottom weight twice as heavy as the top ball. Be careful to place the arm at exactly a height of half the diameter of your circle, and you have a perfect angle indicator. Connection could be made inside of the cup at what may be called a dangerous angle, by fixing inside the cup a metal part, which will be in the way of the pendulum when same will reach the danger zone. Such part of the cup connected to a small electric bell, which will ring when the pendulum will come in contact with the metal part marking the danger zone. The danger zone should be 5 degrees inside the safe limit. Same arrangement could be used to light electric light to attract the aviator's attention to the danger zone.

PROPELLER MAKING MACHINE

A propeller making machine has been designed and built by the Curtiss Aeroplane Co.

This machine turns out propellers which are absolutely accurate and alike, and produces them much more rapidly than any other type of machine.

The block shown on the front side of the machine is the torm, and the partially finished propeller is shown just back of this. The cutter is carried on a balanced spindle head which also carries a ball bearing trailer of the same shape as the cutter, and which is automatically held against the form and duplicates it in the block opposite. The cutter feed and the carriage travel is entirely automatic, and the only attention required is to change the block when a blade is finished.

The propellers made in this way are said to be perfectly in balance both as to weight and the thrust of the two blades. This greatly increases the efficiency of the propeller and eliminates all vibration.

Felix Bischoff Steel Workst r^Jgg,

DU1SBURG, GERMANY.

The VITAL part of a Motor is the

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We make an extra high grade plated finish wire for aviators' use.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ADDRESS

John A. Roebling's Sons Co.

TRENTON, N. J.

The Leading British Monthly Journal Devoted to the Technique and Industry of Aeronautics.

(FOUNDED 1907) Yearly Subscription One Dollar, Post Free

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81 New Street MORRIS R. MACHOL N. Y. C.

THE AERO WHEEL CO.

Builds all Kinds of Wheels for Aeroplanes and Monoplanes Standard or Special Sizes at Very Low Prices

782 Eighth Avenue New York J. DELT0UR, Inc.

Special grades of Bamboo for Aeronautic Work. Reed, Rattan and Split Bamboo for models. Tonka Rattan for Skids 154 diameter and under any length.

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Seventy per cent, of record-breaking American flights with American Aeroplanes were made

with propellers bearing this name

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Agenl«: Eimes Tricycle Co., Sid Francisco and Los Angeles; Nalion.l Aeroplane Co., Chicago ; W. E. Boughton, Washington. D. C-

PATENTS SECURED OR fee returned

Send sketch or model for FREE Search of Patent Office records. Write for our Guide Books j. and What to Invent with valuable List of Inventions Wanted sent Free. Send for our + special list of prizes offered for Aeroplanes. £

$600,000 OFFERED IN PRIZES FOR AIRSHIPS J

#TTWe are Experts in Aeronautics and have a special Aeronautical Department. Copies of ^Jl patents in Airships, 10 cents each. Improvements in Airships should be protected without delay as this is a very active field of invention and is being rapidly developed.

VICTOR J. EVANS &, COMPANY

I Main Offices

724-726 NINTH ST., N.W.

WASHINGTON, D. C.

PATENT

ABLE IDEAS WANTED I p A T E N T S

C. L. PARKER

Ex-member Ei.mining Corps, U. S. Patent Office Attorney-at-Law and Solicitor of Patent!

American and foreign patents secured promptly and with special regard to the complete legal protection of the invention. Handbook for inventors sent upon request. 30 McGill Bide;. WASHINGTON, D. C.

Manufacturers are writing me for patents obtained through me. Send for three books with list of 200 inventions. A postal will bring them free. My clients' patents iold free. Personal services. Aeronautical expert.

RICHARD B, OWEN, 0WDEENpyDG, Washington, D. C.

,JJ and our other hook "Letters of Patent Success," sent on request to inventors. Wide experience. Personal service. Trade-marks registered. Write today.

BEELER & ROBB, Southern Building, Wathington, D. C.

I find more things of interest in your magazine than all the rest together.

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WE SELL AEROPLANE SUPPLIES at prices that make friends. Send 6 cents in stamps for 22 p.Jge, illustrated catalogue.

New York Aeronautical Supply Co. 50 Broadway - - New York

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636-644 First Avenue, New York, U. S. A.

SLOANE SCHOOL OF AVIATION IS NOW IN OPERATION

FOR $300 WE GUARANTEE TO MAKE A PUPIL COMPETENT TO PASS THE MILITARY LICENSE TEST. GEORGE M. DYOTT, OUR INSTRUCTOR, IS ONE OF THE FIRST AND BEST CERTIFIED EUROPEAN AEROPLANE PILOTS. HE CARRIED PRESIDENT MADERO IN MEXICO.

DE PERD USSIN MONOPLANES, WHICH WE SELL EXCLUSIVELY IN AMERICA, HOLD PRACTICALLY ALL WORLD'S SPEED RECORDS AND ARE THE SAFEST AND MOST ECONOMICAL AIRCRAFT.

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Must Sell:—FINE MONOPLANE

1911, cross-country type, two seater, Bleriot, 100 h. p. engine, full equipment

A. V. REYBURN, Jr.

5305 Delmar Boul.

St. Louis, Mo.

_

J. C. (Bud) MARS, now booking season 1912.

Have never been connected with the American Aeroplane Mfg. Co. and School of Aviation.

17 North La Salle Street, Chicago, Ills.

Page 37

July, 1912

News in

General

The Burgess Military

BURGESS WAR 'PLANE TRIED OUT

Aside from the regular work of training, which has gone ahead on the few days of favorable weather in the past month, activity at the Burgess Company headquarters has centered in the trials of the war aeroplane (described with scale drawings in the last issue) and the aeroplane ordered by Howard TV. Gill for the Gould-Scientific American trophy.

The Burgess war 'plane was launched on temporary hydroplanes on June 7 after a thorough testing of its 70 h.p. Renault motor. Trials tor the first few days were for the most part on the water and showed that this new type of machine is more easily steered as a water craft than the standard machine.

During the second week in June, the first actual flight of the Burgess war 'plane was made by Mr. Burgess. For the week succeeding Mr Burgess flew the machine nearly every day in straightaway flights over Salem Bay and along the North Shore.

The turning qualities of the new machine were given their most important tests on June 21 when Mr. Burgess successfully negotiated both left and right hand turns. On this day, Mr. Burgess was in the air for something over forty-five minutes, maintaining an altitude of about 300 feet.

Although the speed qualities of the machine have not yet been tested, since the motor has never been flown with the throttle wide open,, the war aeroplane has reached a speed of 55 miles an hour over a measured course.

During the last month, Howard AV. Gill ha9 been conducting exhaustive tests in the double tractor Burgess equipped with a Hall-Scott motor which has been designed for the Gould Scientific American prize. The tests have been made entirely over water.

This machine, like the Army Burgess, has proven of considerably greater speed and climbing efficiency than the standard Burgess.

GOULD PRIZE CONTEST

Eleven entries were received by the closing date, June 1, for the Gould $15,000* prize offered more than two years ago through the Scientific American.

The competition itself is scheduled to take place on July 4th or the following days, on some aviation field in the vicinity of New York. A committee of three judges will pass upon the machines offered for trial. The following entries have been received:

Alleas Aeroplane Company, Boston, Mass.: Double biplane of the following-surface type. Howard Gill, Boston, Mass.: Biplane. H. Curtis. Manchester, Mass.; Burgess biplane. The Boland Aeroplane and Motor Company, Railway, X. J.: Biplane. Edward J. Elsas, Kansas City, Mo.: Biplane. H. W. Mattoni, 217 West 120th Street, New York: Multiplane. Macleod Multi-

plane Company, Richmond, S. I.: Multiplane. Charles H. Burleigh, South Brunswick, Maine . Multiplane, George W. Beatty, Mineola, Long Island: Biplane. Grover Cleveland Loening, on behalf of the Queen Monoplane Company, Fort George, New York: Monoplane. John P. Conk-ling, 125 East 23rd Street, New York City; Biplane.

The principal conditions governing are as follows:

Prize offered for the "most perfect and practicable heavier-than-air flying machine," designed and demonstrated in this country, and equipped with two or more complete power plants (separate motors and propellers), so connected that any power plant may be operated independently, or together.

Competitors for the prize must file complete drawings and specifications of their machines.

Before making a flight each contestant or his agent must prove he is able to drive eacli engine and propeller independently of the other or others, and able to couple up all engines and propellers and drive in unison. Competitor must demonstrate that he is able to drive his machine in a continuous flight over a designated course; and for a period of at least one hour he must run with one of his power plants disconnected; also he must drive his engines during said flight alternately and together.

Tn the judging of the performances the questions of stability, ease of control and safety will also be taken into consideration. The machine best fulfilling these conditions shall be awarded the prize.

WRIGHTS WIN DAMAGE SUIT

A suit was decided by the Monmouth County (N. J.) Circuit Court on June 2(i, in favor of the Wright Company, Asbury Park Aero & Motor Club, and others, co-defendants, which is of utmost importance to aviators, clubs and exhibition promotors.

The complainant, Morris Gorsuch, a youth whose arm was broken by a Wright aeroplane piloted by Walter Brookins when the machine crashed into the grandstand the opening day of the Asburv Park exhibition, August 10, 1910, brought suit for $25,000 damages

Although there was conflicting testimony as to the extent of the injuries actually received and their results, the case was "non-suited," or thrown out of Court because the plaintiff failed to show that the accident was due to negligence of any kind on the part of any of the defendants, proof having been introduced that due care was ex ercised by all concerned and by expert witnesses that the accident was one which could not have been avoided under the circumstances under which it occurred. This is the first case of its kind in aviation in America to have come to trial.

July, 1912

NEW AERODROME ON STATEN ISLAND

On Staten Island, near Oakwood Heights, 45 minutes from the Battery, the Aeronautical Society has arranged to open early in July the finest aviation field in America. The field is a mile square and as flat as a billiard table. It is ideal for practice purposes. The aeroplane field is a half mile from the ocean shore where arrangements have been made to accommodate hydroaeroplanes. Hangars will be ready for occupancy early in July. The excursion rates to Oakwood Heights are 35 cents. Commutation rates, 15 cents per round trip. Trains run at frequent intervals. Most of the colony on the various Long Island fields and many flyers in New Jersey will locate on the field. Members who desire hangar space should notify the General Secretary at once.

Messrs. C. and A. and Harold Wittemann deserve special recognition for their work in aiding to secure this field.

The Mineola field is being given up. This club is the only one in the East to have its own fields under lease.

WRIGHT-CURTISS SUIT

On account of the death of Mr. Wright, the trial at Buffalo of the merits of the Wright patent in the Curtiss action, has been postponed to the September term.

KEMP CONTINUES RUBEL BUSINESS

The Kemp Machine Works, of Muncie, Ind., are now selling their Grey Eagle motors direct from their own factory.

R. O. Rubel, Jr. & Co., of Louisville, Ky., recently made an assignment owing to their present financial conditions, it is said. They have been the exclusive agents for this motor in the past two years, in which a number of motors are now out with good results.

The Kemp Company reports a good business and are building to their plant and will double their capacity of motors in the near future

FRENCH FAIL IN BOMB DROPPING

The French pilots are failing to come anywhere near the mark in their bomb-drooping trials for the Michelin prize for bomb-dropping, and the competition closes August 16th.

The first contest took place April 2i. with four entries, but only two Frenchmen took part. Lieut Bosquet, on a Henry Farman, could carry but 9 bombs which fell all over the held. Lieut. Mailfert in a 100 h.p. Farman, carried 15 and put. 2 in the target; the others were well scattered. Later in the day Mailfert went up again and put 1 out of 15 in the target—a total of 3 in 3(J. Each of these men has a simple sighing arrangement which is fixed to the plane and which moves with it.

The American entrant for the prize, Lieut. Scott, has been able to put 40% of his bombs in the target. None of the French aviators use pointed bombs with tails, such as are covered by Scott's patent, the French bombs being round regulation O'Hairs supplied by the military authorities.

DOCTOR FLIES TO PATIENT

An aeroplane was put to most practical use at Hammondsport, on June 10, when Hugh Robinson, instructor in the Curtiss school, carried Dr. P. L. Aid en across Lake Keuka in answer to a hurry call from Hrbana, whei e Edwin Petrie's small son had fallen from a balcony in the vaults of the Urbana Wine Company, where his father is chief engineer, and was thought to be fatally injured.

Dr. Alden realized the urgency of the call and appealed to Mr. Robinson to take him over in a hydroaeroplane. The boy's injury was a compound fracture of the hip, and a delay meant serious results from hemorrhage. The distance by road is much greater than by aeroplane.

FOR FRENCH DETAILS

Our collaborator, M. Alex. Dumas, has established an information bureau at 3S, Boulevard Alexandre Martin, Orleans, France. From him may be obtained drawings, photos and detail* of French machines and he is prepared to execute commissions in that country.

NEW COMPANIES

Fowler-Mars Company is being formed by "Bud" Mars and Robert G. Fowler in Kansas City; capital stock $75,000.

The Montana Aeroplane and Exhibition Company, of Butte, capitalized at $25,000, of which $410 is actually subscribed for by Terah T. Maroney of Big Timber, George Nelson and Howard W. Pierce, both of Butte.

Aero Club of Temple, Tex.; $5,000. E. K. Williams, W. E Pozier, F. M. Grazier, and others.

Moisant Exhibition Co., XI. S. Rubber Bldg., New York; $10,000; A. F. Stafford, Jr., M E. John, Edward R. Holden.

Blondin "Safety" Aeroplane Company, Los Angeles. Capiial ,stock, $100,000; par value of shares $1 each; incorporators, Joseph A. Blondin, G. W. Blondin, T. Traumann

Empire Exhibition Co., Binghamton, N. Y.; $5000. Dr. Chas. S Decker, Dr. Edgar H. Coombs, Harry Ferris, Charles Hammond.

Donald Aeroplane Co., Niagara Falls, N. Y.; $20,000. Bruce Donald, Frederick Myers and George C. Jones.

The Montana Aeroplane and Exhibition Company, Butte, Mont.; $25,000; by T. T. Maroney and others.

Perfection Aero-Navigation Co., Pittsburgh, Pa.; capital $200,000. Incorporators, D. Smith, W. L. Meeks, Pittsburgh, Pa.; J. Sinkobitz, Selienoble, Pa.

The Polish Aerial Navigation Company, Cleveland, aeroplanes and other aerial vehicles; $10.Out); M. P. Kuiola, Bolesaw Filipiak, Joseph Selzak, Anthony Piotrowski, Julian Colond-zynier.

To those interested in floats for water machines, Joseph Pastorel, Box 422, Asbury Park, N. J., calls attention to his patent 1,010,309, covering an unsinkable hull of hard rubber, with rubber sheeting on the outside to inclose a number of air tight compartments.

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS

Two aeroplanes were imported in March, valued at $3,409. for the 9 months ending March, 15 were imported at a valuation of $52,042. Domestic machines exported in the 9 months ending March totaled 19, valued at $71,195. One foreign machine ($3,'62S') was exported in February and 4 in March ($7,230). Exports of foreign machines totaled 11 for the 9 months above named, value $35,831. On March 31, 3 foreign machines remained in warehouses, valued at $8,274.

CURTISS SCHOOL MAKES 240 FLIGHTS IN ONE DAY

At the Curtiss aviation school at Hammonds-port, all records were broken on June 23, when 240 flights were made in one day. One hundred and twenty-six of these were with the practice machine called "Lizzie" and constituted straight flights for the length of the field and half circles. Sixty-four nights were made with the eight cylinder practice machine and consisted of half circles, circles and figure eights. The other sixty flights were made with the hydroaeroplane.

The twelve students who made these flights, some of whom were taking the course in both the hydro and land machine, expressed themselves as pretty thoroughly tired out at the end of this strenuous day's work. One hundred or more flights are made practically every day in the week, but Saturday being a particularly fine day this new record was made. The day's flying used up a barrel of gasoline and four gallon's of oil.

AERO LECTURES AT M. I. T.

Albeit A. Merrill is giving a course of lectures at the Mass. Institute of Technology, open to all engineers of the senior class—the first series of aeronautical lectures to have been given at M. I. T.

Now that the Automobile Club of America has closed its own rooms and has joined with the Aero Club of America, it is interesting to note in the last number of the Club Journal the statement that the Aero Club is "primarily a social club."

July, 1912

MONOPLANES

IMMEDIATE DELIVERIES

3 MODELS

FROM S 1.500 TO S I 0,000

Our monoplanes are in every way suited to contest and exhibition work, including speed, altitude, distance, duration, cross-country and cross-city flying, where thorough reliable strength and high efficiency are so vitally important

Single-Seaters Passenger-Carrying Monoplanes Racing Monoplanes

A few of the most prominent owners of our Bleriot-Type Monoplanes are: J. Albeit Braekett, Boston, Mass. A. V. lleylmrn, Jr., St. Louis, Mo. 1\. J. Marley, Sumner, Miss.

A. C. Menges. Memphis, Tenn. <L B. MeNamara, Norton. Mass. Willie llaupt, Philadelphia, Pa.

Visit our factory anil examine in detail the excellent construction of our monoplanes.

We sold more successful Bienot-Type Monoplanes in 1911 than all other manufacturers combined

All passenger-carrying monoplanes are equipped witii Twin Steering Wheels which enables the pilot to instruct the passenger and still retain control of the machine at all times.

SEND FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE. IT IS FREE

American Aeroplane Supply House

HEMPSTEAD, L. 1., N. Y.

137-141 JACKSON STREET

'Phone 427 Hempstead

THOMAS AEROPLANES

Are Safe and Reliable

having been developed by Actual Performance

SCHOOL OF AVIATION

Write for full particulars

THOMAS BROTHERS

SHANNON BLDG. BATH, N. Y-

THE

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Instruction in Aviation After April 1st

BLERIOT and MORANE MONOPLANES FARMAN BIPLANE and GRESSIER HYDRO-AEROPLANES Best terms given first ten applicants

Inspection invited. Write for terms and information

139 West 37th St., :: New York

HAVE YOU ORDERED YOUR COPY

OF THE THIRD EDITION OF

The Aviation World

Containing everything that lie who is interested in Aeronautics would wish to know

PRICE ONE DOLLAR

The Aviation World Who's Who and Industrial Directory— which has been published yearly since l'.IOS)—is the Complete Guide, Reference, or Year Book and Biographical Compendium published In the interests of aviation. It circulates in every country.

It is recognized and used daily by the leading authorities in every country, because it is the reliable and authentic record of the progress of aeronautics throughout the world. The next edition of the AVIATION WORLD will be published by Messrs. Longmans Green & Co., simultaneously in America and Europe, early in July. Mail your order early to:

AVIATION WORLD c/0 AERONAUTICS, New York

London, 85 Fleet Street

"If you get it from HAMILTON it's alright"

We are cutting prices on Aero Supplies and you owe it to yourself to get our new catalog "EVERYTHING AVIAT1C" before ordering elsewhere. A trial order will convince you that our prices and quality are right. Everything for the Aviator and Builder, in-eluding Propellers, Wheels, Tires, Fabrics, Running Gears, Turnbucklcs, Sockets, Term mils, Controls, Uprights. SkyJs Slmts. Ribs and Special Woodwork, Pontoons, Motors and Complete Aeroplanes, etc.

Our MOTOR EXCHANGE will interest you if you need more power or a motor at a price extraordinary. Have you a motor to sell reasonably? Musi be in good working order.

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PERCY PIERCE RACER, No. 68

Official records:—1,814!s feet distance 91 seconds duration. Unofficial (newest) distance 2,890 feet. In ten flights it covered over 3'a miles. The only model to win every competition in which it lias been entered. Most complete drawings published 25 cents. Parts and Made-up machines from

PERCY PIERCE, 5907D Osage Avenue, Phila., Pa.

Write for particulars

93

How would you like to win a Race?

BUY A

French—American Balloon They always Win.

Records Prove It

Chicago International Contest, 1908—9 competitors, 1st for distance and endurance. Indianapolis National, 1909—1st & 3rd money St. Louis Centennial, 1909—1st, 2d & 4th money Peoria Contest, 1909—1st & 2nd money. Indianapolis National, 1910—2nd money. Kansas City National, 1911—1st, 2nd & 3rd money.

Kansas City International, 1911—"K.C. II." non-contestant — whipped the entire field, World's best Balloons.

Insist on Records before buying anywhere.

We" arrange Contests, Qualify Pilots, etc.

French-American Balloon Co.

4460 Chouteau Ave. St. Louis,

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FAIR MANAGERS and Others Interested in AEROPLANE FLIGHTS

MODEL "A" BIPLANE, Single Seater

EXHIBITION and CROSS COUNTRY FLYING

THE PROWSE BIPLANE AND MONOPLANE

"Reliability Means DOLLARS, to the Management" Flights Guaranteed You can Program the Flights—They will be on Time Prices Right

COMPETENT AVIATORS MACHINES THAT FLY CONTRACTS RIGHT

DATES FOR EXHIBITIONS ARE BEING BOOKED-DON'T DELAY

You are cordially invited to the Flying Field, where demonstrations of Exhibition and Cross Counlry Flying will be had any day you may come. My Aviators and Machines HAVE PLEASED OTHERS. THEY WILL PLEASE YOU.

Aeroplane Flights will do more in one day to advertise your Town, Fair or Carnival than anything else. MANUFACTURER OF

AS WELL AS ALL STANDARD MAKES WORKMANSHIP GUARANTEED AGENT OF THE KIRKHAM AERONAUTICAL MOTORS

DO YOU WANT TO FLY?

1 use a Passenger Type Biplane in leaching you io fly. A competent Aviator is with you at all times. Two sets of Control Levers. THE ONLY SANE AND SAFE WAY TO LEARN. My Terms are Reasonable. NO DEPOSIT FOR BREAKAGE REQUIRED. Let me tell you all about it.

Should You be Interested in any Department, Write, Wire or 'I'hone

C. O. PROWSE

HOPKINSVILLE

Kentucky

MODEL "B" BIPLANA, Single^r Double Seated

DEATH OF WELSH AND HAZELHURST

Washington, D. C, June 11.—A. L. Welsh and his passenger, Lieut Hazelhurst, officer-aviator of the U. S. Signal Corps who had just completed a course of instruction under a fellow officer, were killed in testing out the new weight-carrying military biplane Just delivered for trial by the Wright company. All the conditions had been met, save the climbing test of 200 feet a minute for 10 minutes, and it was on this test that Welsh and the Lieutenant had just started, with ballast to make up a weight of 450 pounds in addition to fuel for four hours.

Mr. Welsh for the past year had been the only pilot in the employ of the Wright company. He was pne of the original team, which included Johnston, Hoxey, Brookins, La Chappell and Coffyn. He had an enviable reputation as flyer and had taken up hundreds of passengers and trained scores of pupils including many exhibition flyers of the present day. George W. Beat-ty was one of his pupils who have made names for themselves. No one ever hesitated to fly with Welsh. Sort of a unique character, he had a charming personality and the news of his death came as an excruciating blow to hosts of admiring friends and acquaintances all over the country.

Mr. Welsh expected to gain momentum for his climb by swooping down with power on and suddenly flattening out. It is possible he waited until too late for the changing of his elevator for the machine smashed up on the ground. Mr. Orville Wright has stated that the machine hit tne ground, and that all wires were intact.The timing of the climbing test was to start at the bottom of the swoop. An investigation is being mad3 by a military board. The accident seems to be similar to those which ended fatally for Badger and Ely.

Lieutenant Hazelhurst was on detached duty at the Aviation School, College Park, Maryland.

He was born in Brunswick, Georgia, June 25, 1SS6. He was appointed to the United States Military Academy, from Mississippi, June 1G, 1904, and was graduated, February 14, 1308, and assigned to the 17th Infantry, as a Second Lieutenant. He joined the regiment in Camaguey, Cuba, April IS, 190S, and returned to Fort McPherson with the regiment.

He was on detached service preparing the Progressive Military Map of the LTnited States, stationed at New Orleans, from Feb. IS1, l'.U'i, to June 21, 1910. Volunteered and was detailed for duty in the Signal Corps Aviation School, March 1, 1912.

The regiment extends its warmest sympathy to the bereaved family. The regiment has lost an efficient officer, beloved by all who knew him.

All officers of the 17th Infantry will wear the usual badge of mourning for thirty days.

ENGLISH WOMAN AVIATOR KILLED

Springfield, 111.. June 17. Mrs. Julia Clark of Denver Colo., was killed in an exhibition flight when one wing of her Curtiss biplane struck a small limb of a tree. She, with Lansing Callan, Farnum Fish, Kearney and one or two other flyers, had recently started on an exhibition tour under the management of "Bill" Pickens, of Brighton Beach auto race notoriety, under the title "Curtiss-Wright Aviators."

Mrs. Clark graduated from the Curtiss school at San Diego, Cal., on May 19 and had pilot certificate number 133.

OTHER FATALITIES

Hempstead, L. L. June 22.—Henry Turner, a mechanic formerly employed by Walden, was allowed by Peter McLaughlin to practice flight in one of his machines formerly flown by the late Shriver. Turner made one short straightaway, though he promised he would keep on the ground. On a second attempt he shot the machine up at a steep angle, stalled and the aeroplane came down on its back, resulting in the death of Turner.

Nice, Fr., May 4.—Count de Robillard Cosnac (monoplane)—"wings collapsed."

Riga, May 5.—Aviatrice Galanschkee.

Anvers, Fr., May 5.—Olbrechts.

Pordenone, Italy, May 10.—Lt. Depersis in a monoplane; bad landing.

Etampes, Fr., May 14.— Capt. Eicheman— military monoplane.

Berlin, Ger., May 25.— Lt. von Slighting, passenger with Fokker in latter's own design monoplane, was killed. Wing broke after a "vol plane." Fokker was injured.

Juvisy, Fr., June. .1.—Reby, mechanic, passenger, was killed; pilot Collardeau, sustained injuries; biplane.

Bremen, Ger., June 2.—Albert Buchstaetter and passenger Lieut Stille in a monoplane.

Mourmelon, Fr., June 9.—Albert Kimmerling, a veteran aviator, and his passenger Tonnel, were killed flying a Sommer monoplane

Paris, Fr., June 20.—Captain Dubois and Lieut. Albert Peignan, brother officers. Their biplanes met in midair in a head-on collision.

The total of deaths by pilots or passengers in power machines totals, with these, 169.

SEAGULL CAUSES RODGERS' DEATH

The body of a seagull tightly wedged between the tail and the rudder of his aeroplane, breaking the control wire when he tried to turn his sky craft out over the ocean, caused the death of Calbrailh P. Rodgers, the transcontinental aviator at Long Beach ten weeks ago, is the statement given out by his widow, Mrs. Rodgers. Verification is made by Frank Shafer the chief mechanician for Rodgers, who found the dead gull entangled in the mechanism.

The dead gull was wedged so tightly between the rudder and the tail framework of the machine that it was necessary to break the rudder to extract it. With the rudder made immovable by the gull's body, the control wire was snapped when Rodgers attempted to veer his machine after he had made his last long glide.

Raymond W. Garner, of Davenport, la., lost his life on June 8 fcvhile in a boat which was being towed by a hydroaeroplane.

NEW PILOTS

The following have received pilot certificates, the names of the machines used and the date and place of the trials being given.

125 John G. Kloeckler (Wright), May 22, Dayton.

126 William Kabitzke (Wright), May 23, Dayton.

127 Beckwith Havens (Curtiss), June 1, Bridgeport.

128 Warren S. Eaton (Eaton bi.), April 21, Los Angeles.

129 D. C. DeHart (Eaton), April 21, Los Angeles.

130 Lt.-Col. Chas. B. Winder, (Curtiss), April 23, College Park.

131 Tom Gunn, (Curtiss), April 21, Los Angeles.

132 R. B. Russell, (Curtiss), May IS, San Diego.

133 Mrs. Julia Clark, (Curtiss), May 19, San Diego.

134 De Lloyd Thompson (Wright), June 2. Chicago. .

135 Otto W. Brodie (Farman), June 2, Chicago.

136 W. Starling Burgess (Burgess hydro), June 15, Marblehead, Mass.

137 Sidney F. Beckwith (Wright), June 15, Mineola. -,

On May 2Sth at the Valbuena Aviation field in the Citv of Mexico, the first successful aeroplane built by native labor, was tried out. The machine is a two-seater and an exact copy of the "Deperdussin" owned by the Mexican Av a-tor Mendia, and is equipped with an SO 11.P. Anzani motor.

The woodwork, etc., of the machine was done bv the natives Carlos Leon and .1. G. Villasana under the supervision of Jacques Pobiedesjkey, the owner. The machine on its first trial Hew about 300 meters at about 60 feet.

• ■ h. L. Ramsey.

SKY SCRAPINGS

Bridgeport, June 1.—Beckwith Havens (Curtiss) flew with John Dibert, in his Curtiss hydro from Bridgeport, Ct., across L. 1. Sound to Fort Jefferson, L. I., and return.

Washington, June I. Lieut. Arnold (Burgess) made a new Army Altitude record, 6,540 ft.

Rochester, N. Y., June 25.—Fred. G. Bells in a hydro-aeroplane flight over Irondequoit Bay flew seventy-three miles in one hour and twenty-one minutes at an average speed of fifty-four miles an hour. In a 'plane equipped with a Welles & Adams motor. Elles' Might w as cut short when his supply of gasoline gave out, and he dropped his machine to the bay.

Princeton, N. J., June 9.—Marshall E. Reid, a graduate of Beatty's School flew with his mechanic from Staten Island, stopping once at Trenton.

New York, May 31.i—Oliver B. Sherwood flew his Kirkham-engined Curtiss copy from Nassau, over N. Y. City, across the Hudson to Hackensack, N J.

Hicksville, N. Y., June 26.—J. Rodman Law, the parachute jumper, who has made spectacular leaps from many New York skyscrapers, left the biplane of Harry B. Brown at a high altitude and came to earth safely about a half mile distant.

BALLOON ASCENSIONS

San Antonio, Texas, May 26. John Berry and Albert von Hoffman in the "Million Club" to Roseville, Ills., Dist.—915 miles; dur.—23 hrs. 35 min.; alt., 24,000 ft.

Holmesburg, Pa., June 1.—A. T. Atherholt and P. M. Sharpies in the "Penn. It" to Burlington, N. J.

Atlantic City, June I.—The Seiberling-Vani-man dirigible made an ascent of an hour, with six on board. An accident ended the experiment. (See note elsewhere this issue.)

Ft. Omaha, May 31.—Win. F. Assmann and four Army officers, to near Burlington Jet., Mo., 84 miles.

NEW BOOKS RECEIVED

NOTE: ANY OF THESE BOOKS MAY BE OBTAINED FROM AERONAUTICS, OR DIRECT FROM THE PUBLISHER.

BUILDING AND FLYING AN AEROPLANE, by Chas. B. Hayward, Svo., cloth, 142 pp., illustrated. Published at $1.00 by American School of Correspondence, Chicago. Chapters include: Building Aeroplane Models, Building a Glider, Building a Curtiss Biplane, Building a Bleriot, Art of Flying, Accidents and Their Lessons, Amateur Aviators. This will be found an interesting little book by the amateur builder and novice flyer. The descriptions of the making of the Curtiss-type and the Bleriot copy are quite complete. The drawings of the Curtiss article, for instance, are accurate copies of Mr. Godlev's series of articles in AERONAUTICS and the wording has, no doubt, been adapted and shortened from Mr. Godley's original description.

THE AEROPLANE IN WAR, by C. G. White and Harry Harper. Illustrated, Svo., Cloth, 244 pp., published by J. B. Lippincott Co , Phila., Pa., at $3. Chapters: Review of Military Progress, First French Manoeuvers in 1910, Air Fleets of Foreign Nations, Importance of Organization in the use of War Aeroplanes, England's Position in Regard to Military Flying, War Machines at Paris 1911 Show, What Existing War Aeroplanes can Actually Accomplish, Wireless Telegraphy and Photography, Training of Army Air Men, Cost of War 'Planes, Problem of Artillery Fire, Destructive Potentiality of Weight-Carrying 'Planes, War in the Air, Aeroplanes in Naval Warfare, Work in FYench and German 1911 Manoeuvers. The book is very interesting.

MY THREE BIG FLIGHTS, by Andre Beaumont. Large Svo, cloth. Many illustrations, 156 pp., published at $2.50 by McBride, Nast & Co., New York. Beaumont tells in a way that's absorbing the tale of his winning of the Paris-Rome, European Circuit and British Circuit races, and ends with curious experiences in

meeting people, advice to would-be aviators and some valuable suggestions of which aero clubs might well take advantage.

LUFTSCHRALTBEN. Leitfaden fur den Bau und die Behandling von Propellern. Von Paul Bejeuhr. Over 90 illustrations. S vo. cloth, 177 pp., puhlished by Franz B. Auffarth, Frankfurt a.M., Germany, 4 Mk.

BAU UND BETRIEB VON PRALL-LIT FT -SCHIFFEN, von Richard Basenach, Teil I. Svo., cloth, 100 pp., illustrated, published by Franz B. Auffarth, Frankfurt a.M., at 3 Mk.

THE MECHANICS OF THE AEROPLANE, by Captain DeChene, translated by J. F. Ledeboer and T. O'B. Hubbard. Svo., cloth, 231 pp., $2.25, Longmans, Green & Co., 4th Ave. & 30th St., New York. This work explains in simple terms, with a minimum of formulae,the main principles of dynamic flight and gives the reader an insight into the \arious problems involved in the calculation of the aeroplane, knowledge so greatly needed by the hundreds who are spending money for ridiculous patents on impossible devices.

PRACTICAL AERONAUTICS, by Chas. B. Hayward. Large S vo, cloth, S00 pp., 310 illustrations $3.50 published by American School of correspondence, Drexel Ave., & 5S St., Chicago, Ills.

A valuable contribution to aviation lore has appeared in this new book.

In spite of the rapid growth of the science and the time required to get together and publish such a work it is brought up to date to a remarkable degree and covers almost every phase of experimental as well as practical Held work and operation of the aeroplane.

It should prove a complete compendium to the amateur and professional constructor and flyer.

JAHRBUCH DER LUFTFAHRT. II. Jahrgang 1912. LTnter Mitwirkung vieler Fachleute herausgegeben von Ingenieur Ansbert Vorreiter in Berlin. Mit 775 Abbildungen, davon 120 auf Tafeln, 27 Tabellen und 1 farbigen Tafel: „Die Stander der Vereine des Deutschen LuftfahrerVerbandes". Umfang fiS6 Seiten gr. 8°. München, J. F. Lehmanns Verlag. Preis in Original-Leinwandband M. 12.—

Die Anschaulichkeit wird gewährleistet durch 775 Abbildungen, Pläne und Skizzen und eine grosse farbige Tafel der Vereinsstander. Lehrreiche Vergleiche werden ermöglicht durch zahlreiche besonders eingelegte Tabellen. Um die Vielseitigkeit des Inhalts zu veranschauliche, sein im Nachstehenden die Ueberschriften der Hauptabschnitte genannt:

1. Luftschiffe. 2. Flugzeuge: a) Allgemeines, b) Eindecker, c) Zweidecker, d) 1 Meidecker. 3. Luftfahrzeug-Motoren; Propeller für Luftschiffe und Flugzeuge. 4. Gleitflieger und Drachen. 5. Freiballone und Fessel-ballone. 6. Luftschiffhäfen, Luftschiffderften. 7. Fortschritte in der Erzeugung von Ballongas. S. Kampf- und fahrzeugen. 9. Flugplätze und Fliegerschulen.

10. Wissenschaftliche Forschung: a) Wissenschaftliche Fortschritte der Flugtechnik; b) Die wissenschaftlichen lufttechnischen Institute.

11. Orientierung und Navigation. 12. Die bedeutendsten deutschen Patente auf dem Gebiete der Luftschiffahrt und Flugtechnik. 13. Zusammenstellung der flugsportlich bedeutenderen Ergebnisse in der Zeit vom 1. November 1910 bis I. November 1911. 14. Die Entwick-S. Kampf- und Bekämpfungswaffen von Luft-lung des Militärflugwesens. 15. Vereinswesen. 16 Bezeugsquellenverzeichnis.

The aeroplane of the Detroit company of the Michigan Naval Reserves is now equipped with the model 1 Maximotor at the flying grounds on Fox Creek. There are now from I to S Maximotors in each of 27 states of the Union besides others in a number of foreign countries.

The Military Maximotois are made in 3 models—G, a 4 cyl. of 70 h.p.; H, a 6 cyl. of 105 h.p. and J, an S cyl. of 140 h.p. These were intended chiefly for army use on government aeroplanes. They are equipped with clutch, flywheel, muffler and self-starter.

AERONAUTICS

July, 191

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Page 41

Jul)), 1912

Communications

ON SAFETY IN FLIGHT

To the Editor:

I am pleased to note, in AERONAUTICS, for May-June, Mr. Horton's comments on my article in AERONAUTICS for April. The point that he raises shows that he has read the article fully.

As stated P. 122, par. 6, in the number referred to, "there are several ways in which this bob or weight can be placed so as to act in the same manner as the accelerator of Mr. Doutre and, at the same time, preserve the adjustment features of M, Eteve." And in par. 11, p. 112, "My purpose is to show how this arrangement (the Ellsworth) may be controlled by the modified speed indicator****and, as the design is probably susceptible of improvement, I will submit it****with a view to creating a wide interest in this subject at the earliest practicable date." Also, in Aero Club Bulletin for April, p. 33—■"This design is not complete but, as 1 have hastily prepared it, will soon be published for comment and criticism. I hope it will stimulate others in this important field to experiment with such a device at the earliest opportunity.

In most of the preliminary sketches that I made of this simple, device the accelerating weight K was mounted above the axis O.

A simple expedient would be to abandon the weight K as a pendulum balance and to have the sphere S, as in Fig. 1, heavy enough to perform the accelerating function, as it is adjustable on the stem G and could be perfectly controlled by a tension spring. In this case, however, 1 would have the stem G pivot at the bottom of the box, its connection with a lever L on the axis O, being adjustable.

 

~1

 

_______

 

J

as

A satisfactory arrangement would be afforded, as in Fig. 2, by having the anemometer action directly in line with the spring, a cup, a plate or a disc being used for the pressure surface and connected with a rod passing through the spring, the main accelerator weight K would be attached to the middle of this rod and arranged to move the adjustable lever, 1, on the axis O. (The lesser weight, k, would be for adjustment only.)

Possibly the best way to accomplish this object and still keep the main accelerator weight below the axis O (both for acceleration and adjustment) is to have the stem G pivot on a separate axis, as in Fig. 3 (either above, below or at one side of O) and connected with O either by lever or by gear sectors 1 as shown.

But the arrangement illustrated in AERONAUTICS for April may be regarded as an intermediate step sufficiently novel to attract attention to the main point of change desired in the excellent instrument of Captain Eteve. It is probably not the best, but it seems evident that the torsional effect of the spring pendulum would be less than that of a rigid pendulum, at the instant of acceleration; in other words, it would act, indirectly but momentarily, as the Doutre' accelerator by not opposing at once the full effect of its inertia to the anemometer movement of the pressure sphere when both movements are together positive or negative.

Doubtless there are other points of this design open to improvement. 1 particularly wished to draw criticisms on the method suggested for transmitting the motion from the power plant to the elevating lever. There may be disadvantages, if sparking occurs at the removable contact-points, on breaking contact. As a warning signal, however, the latter would seem to be advantageous rather than objectionable.

Now that Mr. Ilorton has shown that somebody is taking notice, 1 am encouraged to believe that there are others.

I fear that one obstacle to the early settlement of the automatic stabilizing movement is that manufacturers are loath to use any device of which they do not control the patents. Much would be gained if this discussion could lead to something useful that is not patentable. W. IRVING CHAMBERS, Captain, U. S. Navy.

FRAUDULENT ADVERTISING

To the Editor:

Our attention has again been called to the constant repetition of advertisements which offer "Elbridge Engines" and "Elbrldge-type Engines" at prices which would not pay for the fittings.

In almost every case the advertiser is a bunco artist, pure and simple. One fellow in Kansas City requested those who answered his advertisements to send $50 as a guarantee of good faith, promising on receipt of same to forward the motor by express c. o. d., with privilege of examination. The police found he had caught nearly fifty victims for $50 each.

The same dodge was worked in New York City this Spring, and a number of people were caught for sums ranging from $25 to $100 each.

Another fellow advises prospective customers that he has an Elbridge-type, 4-cycle, air-cooled engine.

Of course, anyone who thinks a man will pay a Thousand Dollars for a motor to-day and then sell it "never out of the crate" for $300 is a pretty easy mark, but it also seems to us that the paper printing such an advertisement without investigation is open to some criticism. Very truly yours,

Elbridge Engine Company.

I got Aeronautics all O. K. and it was just a little late. When I have to wait two or three days for your paper, it is like waiting a long time without eating. Every evening for a week about the time your paper was diiv the students came in from the field and said "Mas Aeronautics come yet" and you can bet they never let up until they receive your paper, and then they seemed satisfied to wait another thirty days. _ „

J. N. S , East St. Louis.

o4ero cTWart

RATES: 15 cents a line, 7 words to the line—Payment in advance required

ENGINE FOR SALE—Airship engine, 2 cyl., 4 cycle, 8 h.p.; also frame, shafting, propellers and net of airship "Comet." Electric Pianos for sale. Geo. E. Yager, Omaha, Nehr. Aug.

FOR SALE at a sacrifice one Curtiss-type aeroplane with 6 cylinder 90 horsepower motor. Will sell motor separately or outfit complete. Write for particulars to B. A. Blenner, Richmond, Virginia. July.

WANTED—Dayton Public Library, Dayton, ()., will pay for a copy of AERONAUTICS for June 1909 and January 1910 to complete files. TF

FOR SALE—Burgess biplane, good condition, complete with Curtiss engine. Cost $5000.00. Price $3500.00. C. W. Parker, Leavenworth, Kans. Aug.

FOR SALE—Wm. R Gordon's 5 new types monoplanes, biplanes, combination hydro-monoplanes and biplanes, passenger ships; $1250 to $60,000.00. Scout, torpedo and war ships, 15-25 and $100,000.00. All sines, storm proof. 1-2-3 and 4 propellers, 1 or 2 motors, 3, 5 and 7 sections. Tuition, large craft $500, small $300. Motormen $250.00. Factory and l^Vz acres. Aerial ship yard, Kinlock, Mo.

THREE second hand engine and fan propelleis, good as new. LeBron Adams Aeroplane Co., Omaha, Nebr.

FOR SALE—50 H. P. Bradley Aeroplane Motor, S cylinders, Bosch Magneto, Perkins carburetor. Guaranteed. Price $1,000. Address, J. O. Eberhard, Jr., Bulletin Building, Philadelphia., Pa.

FOR SALE—2 cyl. 30 h.p. Detroit motor, propeller, carburetor and coil. In perfect order $100. W. Beaton, 2709 Pratt St., Bridesburg, Phila., Pa July

FOR SALE—Bleriot type monoplane, fully equipped with 30 h.p. Anzani motor. In perfect condition. A. W. Davol, 107 Sycamore St., Winter Hill, Mass. July

WANTED— Aviation apprentices to operate latest type raeins monoplanes. Instructions free.

Aerial Co.. c/c Aeronautics. 250 VV. 54th St., New York.

WANTED—Position, witli opportunity to fly. Have technical education and mechanical experience.

Box, 762, Farso, N. Dak.

CURTISS—Present design genuine Curtiss, with 4 cyl. Curti«s motor, good condition, $700. Aeronautics, 250 West 54th Street, New York.

WHAT IS THE TRUTH ABOUT WIRELESS?

To the Editor:

From M Clementel's report to the French Chamber, translated by Col. George P. Scriven, U. S. Signal Corps, H. R. Document No. 718, p. 24, 62nd Congress, 2nd Session.

"A machine most valuable in recon-noissance, the aeroplane may also render the greatest service in the transmission of orders and in joining together the larger units. The commander of the army may wish to send urgent instructions to one of his subordinates commanding a portion of the front or a large detachment on the flank whose support in the fight is expected. What messenger can be more rapid than the aeroplane when roads in rear of the front are encumbered by columns hastening toward the battlefield, by regimental trains, by packs, and convoys, when telephonic and telegraphic lines are momentarily cut, and WHEN COMMUNICATION BY WIRELESS IS CONTINUALLY INTERRUPTED?" The above extract is very suggestive. In the efforts whieli are being made to develop a rational method of aerial scouting is it well to concentrate all attention upon the wireless telegraph for signaling purposes?

Is it not possible that the military authorities here and abroad are making a great mistake in assuming that wireless aerial signaling will be dependable in time of war?

What will happen in the unfortunate event of war, when powerful disturbers, producing all wave lengths, are certain to be quickly constructed and brought into action?

It is said that in the German Navy the selective method is in successful operation. Very likely; we have had excellent demonstrations of the same here in the absence of all-wave-length disturbers.

The experiments and investigations concerning wireless telegraphy from aeroplanes are sure to go on; the defects are plainly visible; they may be overcome. Is it safe for the military authorities to take as a working hypothesis that they will be overcome? Should visual aerial signaling be ignored?

One thing has never been claimed for wireless; the possibility of relaying scout messages by passing them from one scouting machine to another.

For this kind of service, as well as for the services mentioned by M. CTementel in the above extract, there is a simple and reliable method, 1 refer to puff-signaling. By this method coloring matter is intermittently injected into the exhaust pipe of the flying-machine motor, from the pipe this is ejected in large and small puffs resembling very black smoke; these correspond to the dashes and dots of the Morse telegraphic code.

JAMES MEANS.

Boston, May 17th.

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Patents Gone to Issue

Copies of any of These Patents may be Secured by Sending Five Cents in Coin to the Commissioner of Patents, Washington, D. C.

Even in these enlightened days, the crop of patents on absolutely worthless, or even questionable, devices increases rather than decreases.

It would take an entire issue of the magazine to abstract in a full and clear manner the claims of the majority of the patents issued. In a great many cases it is even impossible to give in a few lines what sort of an apparatus the patent relates to. In most instances we have

used merely the word "aeroplane" or "helicopter" if such it is. Where it is impossible to indicate the class, even, in whch the patent re-longs, without printing the whole patent, we have used the word "flying machine."

The patents starred (*) are those which mav be found of particular interest; but it must be understood we do not pretend to pass judgment upon merits or demerits.

Editor

John C. Doty, Mount Vernon, Onio, 1,023,927, April 23, 1912. Swinging vertical balancing planes.

John A. Jung, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1,023,937, April 23, 1912. AEROPLANE.

*Roy Louis Matteson, Santa Maria, Cal. 1,024,011, April 23, 1912. Differential gears and rotable sheaves, connecting means, lever system, pulleys, etc., designed to automatically warp or operate ailerons to balances unequal pressures and right the machine.

Alexis Rogestvensky, Moscow, Russia, 1,024,102, April 23, 1912. Flying machine which jumps itself off the ground in starting flight.

Eugene H. Sassil. St. Louis, Mo., 1,024,287, April 23, 1912. AEROPLANE—PARACHUTE combination.

*Hugh L. Willoughby, Philadelphia, Pa., 1,024.303, April 23, 1912. Foot pedal mechanism, throttle engine and short circuit magneto by one operation.

Pierre Octave Detable, Paris, France, 1,024,315, April 23, 1912. Special configuration of SURFACES.

*Dighton B'. Ellsworth, Portland, Ore., 1,024,398, April 23, 1912. Automatic STABILIZER, magnetically operated, with pendulum as the contact making agent. See December, 1911, issue of AERONAUTICS for illustration, details and record of trials.

Karl Voller, Dusseldorf, Germany, 1,024,429, April 23, 1912. STARTING DEVICE using gun powder explosion in a piston to give an aeroplane an initial forward movement.

Walter Lewis, Philadelphia, Pa., 1,024,407, April 23, 1912. PARACHUTE attachment for aviators.

Albert H. Blount, Detroit, Mich., 1,024,607, April 30, 1912. STABILITY device operated by swinging weight.

Charles Henry Burford, Meade, Kansas, 1,024,676, April 30, 1912. PARACHUTE for aviators.

John L. Rikhoff, Denver, Colo., 1,024,700, April 30, 1912. Folding flexible PROPELLER.

Oscar R. Cassell, New York, N. Y., 1,024,766, April 30, 1912. Combination of airship and aeroplane.

*Robert Esnault-Pelterie, Billancourt, France, 1.024.92S, April 30, 1912. AUTOMATIC DEFORMATION of wings; an aeroplane comprising oppositely extending supporting wings, front connecting means between said wings at the front, rear connecting means between said wings at the rear, each of said connecting means being mounted to yield laterally to permit the rising of part of a wing at one side and to cause the lowering of part of the corresponding wing at the other, and a reversing lever between the front connecting means and the rear connecting means and having its longer arm connected to the rear connecting means.

*Robert Esnault-Pelterie, Billancourt, France, 1,024.929, April 30, 1912. VARIATION of INCIDENCE: Means for varying the incidence of a supporting surface simultaneously on both sides of the longitudinal axis thereof or varying the incidence thereof on one side of said axis relative to that on the other side, said means comprising a rotatively mounted rod and a cross piece rotatively mounted on said rod, and connections between the ends of said cross piece and said supporting surface, movement of

said rod operating to vary the incidence of said supporting surface on one side of its longitudinal axis relatively to that on the other, and separate movement of said cross piece operating to vary the incidence of said supporting surface simultaneously on both sides of said axis, and an appendage in the form of intersecting horizontal and vertical planes; designed to avoid use of the vertical rudder to counteract turning movement.

Frederick C. Lambert, New York, N. Y., 1,024,941, April 30, 1912. AILERON system and controlling device.

Zachariah Tisher, Spokane, Washington, 1,025,033, April 30, 1912. AEROPLANE.

Jerry Hubschman, New York, N. Y., 1,025,063, April 30, 1912. MONOPLANE with wings pivotally mounted on vertical shaft.

Joseph A. Goodwin, Millville, N. J., 1,025,085, April 30, 1912. Pivoted wings capable of automatically yielding to air pressure in the same direction.

Herman Jordan, Detroit, Mich., 1,025,093, April 30, 1912. STABILITY system.

Rudolph Anders, Bridgeport, Conn., 1,025,106, April 30, 1912. AEROPLANE.

James E. Sheriff, Frovo, Utah, 1,025,210, May 7, 1912. AEROPLANE designed to soar by special construction of wings.

Randolph It. Rawle and John Rawle, Chicago, 111., 1,025,306. May 7, 1912. FRYING MACHINE.

Adolph Ensslin, North Attleboro, Mass., 1.025.3S6, May 7, 1912. Parachute.

Hurt Reid, United States Navy, 1,025,482, May 7, 1912. STABILITY device; sliding panel in wing extremitv.

Frank Rosborv, Chicago, III., 1,025,539, May 7, 1912. FLYING MACHINE.

John C. Ten Eyck, Yonkers, New York. 1,025,548, May 7, 1912. STABILITY device; supplementary surfaces operated by pendulum.

James Kenefick. Chicago, 111., 1,025,629, May 7, 1912. PARACHUTE and aeroplane combination.

Andre Julien Mahoudeau De Villethiou. Paris, France, 1,025,658, May 7, 1912. PROPELLER with open center or boss.

Abraham Mier Waxier. Philadelphia, Pa., 1,025,662, May 7, 1912. AIRSHIP.

Theodor Fischer, Wurzburg, Germany, 1,025,797, May 7, 1912. SWING employing balloons.

James Walsh, Northfield, Minn., 1,025,891, Mav 7. 1912. RUDDER, horizontal, swinging vertically and horizontally, extensible in area, changeable angle upon lateral swinging.

Robert II. Haag, Louisville, Ky„ 1,025,912, May 7, 1912. MONOPLANE.

*Rene Arnoux, Paris, France, 1,025,941, May 7, 1912. Spring LANDING GEAR. 1,026,677, T. H. & R. F. Keppel. St. Louis, Mo.,

and J. E. Keppel. Jr., Indianapolis, Ind., May

21. 1912. AEROPLANE. 1,026,959, John T. Long, Encanto, Gal., May 21.

1912. DIRIGIBLE. * 1,027,252, Rupert John Isaacson, Leeds, England,

Mav 21, 1912. MOUNTING OF PROPELLERS.

*1 027 25S, John Kubish, Indian Orchard. Mass., 'May 21, 1912. PROPELLER MECHANISM for driving independent propellers from independent engines, independently or simultaneously, in either direction.

»1,027,242, Glenn H. Curtiss, Hammondsport, N. Y., May 21, 1912. Filed Sept. 1, 1911. Means for LAUNCHING FLYING MACHINES.

In an aeroplane launching apparatus, the combination of a suitable mount; aeroplane supporting arms or device pivotally mounted on said mount and operable to swing in parallel relation thereto; and means for imparting, at a variable speed, an angular throw to said supporting device; or means comprising plurality of independently pivoted spring controlled arms for supporting and imparting an increasing swinging movement; means for putting tension on springs; link connecting said arms; arms adapted to fit one within the other; movable platform. 1,027,322, Darrell V. Cole, Los Angeles, Cal., May 21, 1912. AEROPLANE with triangular surfaces, apex forward. 1,027,372, Menzo M. Benster, Gettysburg, S. D.,

May 21, 1912. BEATING WING MACHINE. 1,027,572, Jesse W. Silver, South Tacoma, Wash., May 28, 1912. AUTOMATIC STAB-IBILITY: ' Swinging "car" acts as pendulum to tilt planes. 1,027,590, Ernst Bucher, Heidelberg, Germany,

May 28, 1912. DIRIGIBLE. 1,027,764, Francois Rilleau, Los Angeles, Cat, May 28, 1912. AVIATOR-PROTECTOR. Hollow pneumatic shield inclosing body of aviator.

1,027,954, Joseph A. Williams, Cleveland, Ohio, May 28, 1912. SURFACE, formed in shape of open-topped wedge-shaped trough.

1,027,990, Barrett C. Cole, Marshall, Wyo., May 28, 1912 HELICOPTER.

1,028,071, Geo. Hipwood & Patrick Egan, New York, May 28, 1912. Weight suspended at a considerable distance below an aeroplane to arrive at action of a parachute in case "engine should break down."

1,028,093, August Ahlbrecht, Pittsburgh, Pa., June 4, 1912 Umbrella-like reciprocating PROPELLER.

1,028,120, Leopold A. Leech, Carnegie, Pa., June 4, 1912. HELICOPTER.

1,028,143, William B. Shepard, Belolt, Wise, June 4, 1912, STABILITY DEVICE (ailerons )

CATALOGS RECEIVED

CHICAGO AERO WORKS, 164 N. Wabash Av., Chicago. A very complete 56-page book of aero supplies. It lists among its principal items materials for Bleriot, Farman, Nieuport, Bre-guet, Demoiselle, Deperdussin and Curtiss type machines Various landing gear are listed, as well as floats for hydros, ribs, struts, engines, fabrics, model supplies and many accessories.

E. J. WILLIS CO., 85 Chambers St., New York, lists complete parts for Curtiss-type biplanes, together with full lines of wheels, tires, radiators, Frontier and Eldridge engines and tools.

GOODYEAR TIRE & RUBBER CO., Akron, O.—Send for the new catalog of the Goodyear Company It contains some handy reference tables on strengths of fabrics, lifting capacity of various sized balloons and dirigibles, tables on balloon cloths, besides illustrated list of tires, tubes, Bleriot, Wright and Farman type shock absorbers and photos of the principal aviators.

ROBERTS MOTOR CO., Sandusky, O. This new catalog is certainly the finest yet produced in this country in the way of an aeronautical selling book. In addition to full details, drawings, illustrations and arguments on the Roberts motor, there are .many photographs of well-known users of this power plant, which has received praise even from the Four-cycle "crank." The book is well worth sending for. The last page is devoted to the 5 year guarantee against defects and the maker's warrant that every motor has developed its full rated power before shipment.

AT THE SLOANE SCHOOL

W. Irving Twombly, well known in New York social circles and an inventor of note, is being taught to fly the Sloane Deperdussin monoplane at Westbury, L. I. The Deperdussin is the wonderful French aeroplane that practically

»1,028,336, Wilhelm Duchting, Berlin, Germany, June 4, 1912. STABILITY DEVICE, employing rotating motor as a gyroscope.

1,028,409, Charles Beck Westerman, Columbia, Pa., June 4, 1912. ELASTIC GUYS to planes to prernit hinged wing to give under pressure of gusts.

1,028,517, Carl L. Willard, Denver, Colo., June 14, 1912. PARACHUTE.

1.028.781, Wm. J. Purvis and Chas. A. Wilson, Goodland, Kans., June 4, 1912. HELICOPTER.

1.028.782, Max Raabe, Cronberg in the Taunus, Germany, June 4, 1912 AUTOMATIC STABILIZING system.

1,028,865, Vito Ettore d'Urso, New York, N. Y., June 4, 1912. AEROPLANE.

1,028,887, Henry J. Kraft, Chicago, Ills., June 11, 1912. AEROPLANE.

1,028,891, Wm. David Le Fevre, Dover, Del., June II, 1912. AEROPLANE and HELICOPTER combination.

1,028,968, Lawrence R. Rooney, Hollidaysburg, Pa., June 11, 1912. Means for operating vertical rudder simultaneously with ailerons.

1,028,971, Marion L. Shackleford, Oatman, Ariz., June II, 1912. GAS BAG AEROPLANE.

1,028,981, John W. Wilson, Boston, Mass., June II, 1912. Balancing system in which planes may move from a horizontal position to an oblique position about vertical or horizontal axes.

1,029.010, Harry P. Giullo, Revere, Mass., June 11, 1912. KITE.

1,029,475, Louis W. Stolp, Washington, D. C, June II, 1912. SAFETY PARACHUTE APPLIANCE.

1,029,529, John F. W. Bradshaw, near Overton,

Texas, June 11, 1912. AIRSHIP, i,025,999, Rudolf Salmen, Chicago, Ills., May 14,

1912. TAIL-LESS BIPLANE. 1,126,079, Andrew F. Dierdorff, Los Angeles, Cal.,

May 14, 1912. STABILIZING DEVICE. 1,026,219, Marius Mathiesen, San Antonio, Texas,

May 14, 1912. STABILIZING SYSTEM; aviator and engine used as pendulum. 1,026,304, Einar P. Ekman, Chicago, 111., May 14,

1912. MONOPLANE. 1,026,490, Vladimir Breuer, New York, N. Y., May

14, 1912. AEROPLANE.

holds so many of the world's speed records. The type "Sloane-Deperdussin," is manufactured by the Deperdussin people especially for the Sloane Aeroplane Company of New York.

A school is now in operation under the direction of George M. Dyott who carried President Madero on a flight in Mexico. With Mr. Twombly is Mrs. Twombly, and they intend to use their craft for excursion purposes at their Long Island home. Another pupil at the Sloane School is Vermilylia Loving, a wealth Pittsburgh engineer. He is learning to fly in order to embark on the production of flying machines on a large scale in the West.

MISS QUIMBY AND PASSENGER KILLED.

Boston, July 1. Miss Harriet Quimby and her passenger, W. A. P. Willard, father of the C. F. Willard the aviator, sustained fatal injuries when they struck the shallow water of the bay near Squantum, Mass., after being thrown from the aeroplane. Fracture of the skull and other injuries caused instant death when they struck the mud of the bay's bottom. Witnesses state that Willard either jumped, or was thrown forward out of the 'plane, when Miss Quimby headed it downward for a glide to the field against the S-mile wind. An instant later Miss Quimby followed. Telegraph reports vary. Glenn Martin is quoted as saying the machine struck a "hole in the air" and it dropped from under the occupants.

Leo Stevens, Miss Quimby's manager, reports a broken elevator wire. Miss Quimby was returning from an over-water flight to Boston Light during the Boston meet, an unlicensed affair which was entered into by many well known certified pilots. Miss Quimby was flying a new 70 Gnome Bleriot which she ohtained shortly after her flight across the English Channel.

A. Leo Stevens

/u/p, 1912

TRADE

MARK

160 Î Pounds Weight I

DESIGN

Revolving cylinders Mechanical intake valves Variable compression Double exhaust system

Large ball bearings throughout

Positive lubrication

Positive gasoline feed

Standard Magneto, tachometer, etc.

Easy starting device Aviator starts motor from his seat if required

AMERICAN ENDURANCE RECORD

*PP~ 4 Hours, 23 Minutes "^gg at 60 Miles an Hour

Stopped on account of Severe Thunder Storm Built of Nickel Steel and Vanadium Steel throughout

$ Sizes 3, 5 and 7 cylinders representing 22, 35 and 50 horsepower

^Z^Z^^ZZ^^^^^^^^^^ Send for Catalogue

jj THE GYRO MOTOR COMPANY

:: 774 GIRARD STREET :: :: :: WASHINGTON, D. C.

Sole Agents for SIMMONS Propeller«

1200Sto$4800

We GUARANTEE each

machine to fly at least 1,000 ft. in height and at least 10 Miles of cross-country flying before delivery.

We GUARANTEE our

workmanship, material, and finished machine to be superior to all competitors.

To owners of REX MONOPLANES

we will replace wings, wheels, chassis or any other parts broken during the entire life of the machine

This means a saving of from

50% to 75

NOW AT NASSAU BOULEVARD

FOR

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DEMONSTRATION See Our Machine at the Show

TELEPHONE APPOINTMENT

677-L Tompkinsville

$1200f^to*4800^

Rex Monoplane Co.

SOUTH BEACH, S. I., N. Y.

ï at COST PRICE I

At the Aeronautical Show, Grand Central Palace, New York the

urJeva Aeronautical Molor

received very favorable comment.

The sane design embodying as it does only tried principles of gasolene motor practice' combined with the rigid, careful construction' produces a motor that is at once durable, dependable and highly efficient.

Conservatively rated at 40 H. P. and 60 H. P. respectively, both the four and six cylinder motors show much better power delivery than this.

They run continuously hour after hour without depreciation in power delivery.

Catalog No. 200-M describes these motori in detail. Sent upon request.

B. F. STURTEVANT COMPANY

HYDE PARK, BOSTON. MASS. And Principal Cities of the World. [904J

AERONAUTICS

HALL

SCOT

Complete Aviation Power Plants

Backed by the Hall-Scott guarantee of excellence, reliability, flexibility and power, to a greater degree than can be found in any other motors (with equal number of cylinders and size in bore and stroke).

0y Total Entries 0 Los Angeles

50

International

75 /0 Oakland Meet HALL-SCOTT EQUIPPED

Hall-Scotts purchased, used, and endorsed by the greater number of professional aviators

Send for new catalogue (now ready)

Address: Capt. THOS. S. BALDWIN

P. O. Box 78, Madison Square, New York

or write direct to

Hall-Scott Motor Car Co.

818 CROCKER BUILDING SAN FRANCISCO, CAL.

Vol. XI, No. 2 AUGUST, 1912

Serial No. 60

roberts motor q>

~OHID.V.,f.A*

°ffa„ a rt>r\\Ta wiTtr^a ddtcc nr/i «/__* /r^*t c*___* m____ v—z.

KIRKHAM AVIATION MOTORS 1912 MODELS

Model B-6, 50 H.P., Weight. 235 lbs.

IMMEDIATE DELIVERY

Model B-4, - 35 H. P., - Weight, 185 lbs.

Model B-6, - 50 H.P., - Weight, 235 lbs.

Model B-G-6, - 70 H.P., - Weight, 255 lbs.

Model B-12, - 120 H.P. - Weight, 400 lbs.

KIRKHAM Motors are used and endorsed by Thomas Bros.; Rex Monoplane Co.; Burgess Company and Curtis; Mills Aviators; Prowse Aeroplane Co.; Sparling-Craig Co.; Twin City Aviators; American Aeroplane Mfg. Co.; Tarnopol Aviation Co., besides several individual owners, and are acknowledged to be the Best American Motor, regardless of price.

When you buy that new motor it is for your interest to investigate thoroughly before you buy any motor. There is a reason why the KIRKHAM has become so popular with those who know and buy on merit only.

- INVESTIGATE--

CHARLES B. KIRKHAM s^v^_new_york

mnmtmmm»mmmm»m»»»mnnmMMimii»tmmm»»m

In answering advertisements please mention this magazine.

WHY PARAGON LEADS

trade mark

patented march 14, 1811; july 25. 1811; october 17, 1911: other patents pending

TWENTY REASONS:

It is the only patented propeller on sale.

It is protected in every feature by numerous patents ssned and others pending.

It is the only factory-made propeller made by a patented process and special machinery.

It is the only propeller in which the grain and texture of the wood is exactly duplicated in the blades.

It is the only propeller without "flat grain" wood, being all "edge grain" and therefore certain not to warp.

It is the only propeller that is doubly laminated at the hub and in the wide part of the blade.

It is the only propeller with tough and heavy wood where toughness is required and having light-weight interior of spruce or cherry.

It is the only propeller that is also a fly-wheel with heavy material in the rim. It eliminates vibration.

It is the only propeller with reinforcing in the blade ends.

It is the only propeller having curved dowels inserted edgewise through the blades.

It is the only propeller that cannot be split clear to the hub and beyond repair.

It is the only propeller that will cut grass, twigs, bushes, ice and water without being broken or badly worn.

It is the only propeller progressively improved—showing marked progress over the propellers of years gone by.

It is the only propeller built to a scientifically plotted and patented pitch curve.

It is the most efficient propeller in the world—the only propeller unqualifiedly endorsed by prominent French and American Aviators.

The only propeller furnished to the general trade and used by the U.S. Army and Navy and foreign governments.

It is the only propeller guaranteed to be perfectly suited to the power that is to turn it and to the load that it is to drive—when we are given this information.

It is the only propeller insured against total loss by

accident and repaired free for thirty days.

It is the only propeller that a wise aviator can afford to use. Works belter and lasts longer than any other kind.

It is the easiest to buy and the hardest to find fault with.

It is the cheapest propeller in the world, built on honor and sold on merit, yet priced no higher than the old-fashioned, unpatented kind.

Can anything more be desired? We guarantee and furnish not the propeller alone but perfect satisfaction and highest results as well.

Write for prices, booklet and information sheet. Special agency propositions now open to established parties

AMERICAN PROPELLER COMPANY,

New Large Factory 243-249 East Hamburg Street

Baltimore, Md.

BURGESS SUMMER TRAINING SCHOOL NOW OPEN

The Hydro-aeroplane Has the Call for 1912

^Unequalled facilities are provided for instruction in the operation of the marine flier over Marblehead Harbor and the bay adjoining. By giving training at our manufacturing headquarters we offer pupils an opportunity, at no extra cost, to become thoroughly familiar with the details of construction and design, and ensure against delays. Course consists of FOUR HOURS actual flying during which time we assume all breakage risk. We provide hydroaeroplane for license test.

Instructors: Howard W. Gill, Phillips W. Page, Clifford L. Webster—All licensed aviators

Booklet with full particulars furnished on request. <I Aeroplanes and Hydro-aeroplanes for military, sporting and exhibition purposes ready for prompt delivery.

BURGESS COMPANY AND CURTIS, Marblehead, Mass.

The Perfection of

BOSCH

THE mechanical perfection of Bosch Magnetos and Plugs, combined with their lasting worth, makes the engines on which they are employed a permanent investment in satisfaction and efficiency. They add value far greater than their actual cost and their ability to supply a hot and unfailing spark long after the engine has given its value 'in service is especially pronounced.

Engines having Bosch-Equipment display the Mark of Quality which should be demanded by everyj>urchaser.

Bosch-Equipped Engines are Reliable, Efficient Engines

Be Satisfied—Specify Bosch

Bosch Magneto Company

223-225 W. 46th STREET, NEW YORK

An Analysis of Flight

By GEORGE A. SPRATT, Jr.

Believing that the work of George A Spratt, one of the poineers in aerodynamics, will benefit experimentors and be of general interest, there are being published simultaneously in "AERONAUTICS" and "Fly," beginning with this issue, a series of articles introducing his theories on the center of pressure.

Mr. Spratt has been a student of air pressures for many years. He was a close friend of Octave Chanute, and was at Kitty Hawk with Mr. Chanute and the Wright brothers.

Since those early days Mr. Spratt has continued his work in seclusion among the Pennsylvania hills. He has studied pressures almost continuously and when the full extent

of his work is known it will be seen that his scientific investigations are of a high order.

That this knowledge may be disseminated as widely as possible, Mr. Spratt has made a special arrangement with "AERONAUTICS' and "Fly," whereby the articles are to be published by them simultaneously.

The following article was given in condensed form before the Aero Club of Pennsylvania at the Bellevue-Stratford, March 10, 1912.

The matter published in March, 190S, AERONAUTICS will be included in the present articles but more condensed, more complete in its significance, and in better form.

Through ages Nature has been building— building, tearing down, rebuilding. Nature is the expression of a purpose steadily flowing into a mould whose limiting sand is uselessness. Nothing exists without a merited right to an existence, be it matter, life or spirit. Man's ability to destroy is his power for analysis. He can observe, and can see only what is; he can conceive of nothing that is not. In analyzing he uncovers elements which are the accepted building ma-

terials of Nature. He can imitate and, having the elements, can imitate to his own purpose. Nothing that is conceivable to him is impossible to him. His imagination sets the limit to his achievement, the intensity of his desire determines the speed of accomplishment. This being true of the mass is, only in a less degree, true of the individual

This "creed" constitutes my only right to be a worker in the field of aviation.

ROM my earliest interest in flight I was convinced that there was some fundamental principle, some truth or truths, which gave to flying creatures an assurance of security, and which, probably because of its very simplicity, had remained unrecognized, for attempts to fly had met only with failure. This could be only because the analysis was incomplete, and I turned my whole attention, without reserve, to observing, separating, classifying and verifying, although without having had any training for such work. Opportunities nave opened unexpectedly to me. Success has attended my search in greater measure than I dared hope for. A science has sprung up and grown to greater proportions than I ever expected to see, bearing encouragement, and also a conviction that my search was not ill timed.

Among the opportunities referred to, three stand out with especial prominence. A little more than a year after I had started my search I made the acquaintance of Mr. O. Chanute, an acquaintance that began in 1S98 and continued until his death. Throughout this acquaintance he was earnestly and disinterestedly devoted to securing a solid advancement for the science, and his helpful encouragement was given freely to me. It was given in like spirit to all who knew him, or would accept. His work was of that kind that commands success, not fame. The achievements of today mark the place of his being, more than that of any other one man.

A home on a farm on the hills has been

mine with its opportunities for observation and investigation in the home of the flying creatures.

As a result of Mr. Chanute's interest in the work of the Wright brothers, he asked that he might communicate to them a method I had devised for studying pressures. This resulted in proving its value as a guide to construction and I was privilegea to witness the accuracy of deductions and calculations based thereon, and upon tables they prepared and incorporated in then machines at Kitty Hawk in 1901, 1902 and 1903. My interest, however, was centered in analysis, not in construction. That analysis would be complete when a verified solution could be given for every action observed resulting from the impact of a rigid body with air.

All my observations led to the belief that Nature's creatures fly in stable equilibrium. If this could be proven, the solution of flight would be much simplified. Every observation confirmed the belief that the solution is simple.

The barn swallow calls her young to the open when they first leave the nest; distress is in her note only when they near obstructions.

The first flight of the butterfly is as perfect as any it ever makes; and, to a like degree, experience does not improve the blundering clumsiness of the beetle. Flying for flyers, and walking for walkers, is an equally simple acquirement. Man, being a walker, has first scientifically analyzed walking: flight has remained obscure.

The frequent readjustment of the vulture's surface has been advanced as evidence of the skill necessary to preserve equilibrium,

but the almost incessant readjustment of the steering gear of the steamboat is not accepted, with like reasoning, as a suun.* of equilibrium; Doth have a course to preserve through varying currents.

Nature's great variety of wings declare simplicity, although it has brought confusion to many observers; here is variety in construction, in shape and in action.

Note the feathered wing of the bird; the elastic membrane of the bat; the board-like wing of the butterfly. See the manner of jointing that permits folding. The wings of the bird, the house fly and the butterfly are familiar; the beetle tucks his curiously beneath his elytra; the wing of the flying grasshopper and wasp, fold together like a fan; the dragon fly has no provision for sheltering his. There are creatures with four wings, creatures with two, and the silver maple seed soars successfully with but one. Where there are four wings, note the variety in pairing in the wasp, the dragon fly and the beetle. Note the long narrow wing of the sea bird, with its decided double curve from body to tip, and the blunt wing of the bird of the thicket. As types of action, note the noisy hovering of the humble bee, who moves forward, sidewise, 01 backwards, with equal ease; the peculiar wavy progress of the butterfly; the steady flapping of the crow; the quiet floating of the vulture.

There is no other conclusion possible than that there is some underlying principle that is at once so broad and so simple that it is readily within reach of this great variety, each of which is defining this principle with its own distinctive voice, all declaring a clearly defined simplicity.

If a like problem with a solution could be found it would lend assistance, both in preparing the mind to receive a solution, and also directly in solving the problem. But does not terrestrial locomotion supply this want?

Forget for the moment comparative anatomy, and to the general appearance of the means of flight, compare the general appearance of the means for terrestrial progression. Notice the joint that is midway between the body and the ground with its opposite bending in man and in fowl, and in the front and hind legs of the horse, while in the elephant this bend is in but one direction. Beside these with two, and with four legs, see the number in the insect; the spider, and the centipede. Consider the manner of action of those already mentioned and recall the toad; the snake; the snail. Surely the variety in construction, in shape and in action found in wings is no greater than in legs, but the mechanical action of the latter has long since ceased to excite interest, foi one word explains all— the h'rcr.

In the following analysis I hope to make clear fundamental laws that seem to me to

stand in the same relation to flight as do the laws of the lever to terrestrial locomotion.

If the reader's imagination is such that he can see in the wheel, the resemblance to a leg made perfect in its action, then in accepting my analysis, he will see that, as by means of the wheel all animal forms have been surpassed in burden bearing, endurance and in speed, in a like degree the wing will be brought to do the service of man.

THE EFFECT OF CURVATURE UPON PRESSURE

When the effects of the pressure upon a plane, such as a sheet of metal, are compared with those obtained with the same sheet after arching it, the results are, in certain respects, so different that the relationship of the surfaces so formed seems lost. These differences are, mainly, in the three following points: (1) When arched, one side only, the convex side leads when the sheet is let fall; (2) the point called the centre of pressure does not move the same distance as upon the plane, nor always in the same direction, for an equal change in the angle of incidence; (3) the pressure is greater than upon the plane when the concave side is presented to the current, is less when the convex side is presented, and a pressure exists when the chord is parallel with the current which acts perpendicular to the chord and current. Each of these results, which are peculiar to the curved surface, calls for a clearly defined explanation.

'The following experiment was made for the purpose of establishing the relationship between the action of these two surfaces, the non-existence of which relationship of action is inconceivable since the surfaces may be one and the same, and also to determine, if possible, where occurs this apparent loss of a regular conformity of action for so slight variation in form. The experiment is based upon the assumption that since it is a logical conclusion that the pressure due to velocity is equal in amount and distribution whether the surface or the current is considered as moving against the other, it is as logical to conclude that the pressures peculiar to curvature are of equal amount and distribution whether the surface or the current be curved.

A semicircular board of about 12" radius is attached to the floor, or table, so that it will turn horizontally about its centre. In a line that is tangential to this board, and not far from it, secure a piece of woou 1" x 1" x 36", to serve as a guideway. Out of the block of wood make a rider to slide upon this guideway.

At the circumference of the board erect a stiff wire to stand about 8" high and with a pointed upper end. Place a similar wire to stand erect from the rider. These serve as posts upon which the surraces are to be delicately poised.

(To be continued.)

Unique Grant - Morse Monoplane

S^JS^S^S^^jURING the past Winter and ^!^>^tS£<\^ Spring, flights have been SJpf | ^ made with a propeller—

I 1 ^§ driven monoplane by M. H.

>v4 I j Simmons on the old James-

x&l «£t town Exposition grounds.

^i^^^^^S The machine is the design ^sh^s^sss^ss^h and work of R. R. Grant and c. O. Morse, of Norfolk, Va. ^Sl^^ui^^a The monoplane, in some respects, is a departure from the standard design, being a thrust instead of tractor type. The builders call it a tandem monoplane, but it might be called a staggered monoplane. "I believe we are the first," Mr. Grant writes, "to use the extreme stagger and over-lap system with open center, this part of our design being adopted in September of 1909, at the time we started our experimental work.

"The most important feature of our monoplane is automatic stability both laterally and directionally, and we can now positively state from tests in flight that we have overcome any tendency to slide backward, when the lift is lost in climbing too fast. When, under such conditions, the critical point is reached, the machine automatically drops on its gliding angle, and will land on an even keel independent of the operator, as it falls in a series of glides and recoveries, altho the operator can again gain control during the glide.

"During the past winter and spring we have made many experiments to test out our automatic stability system and have now perfected it. The fifth flight made during our last tests on May 1st, our operator, M. H. "Dick" Simmons, while climbing at a very high angle in a 25 mile wind, cut the power off at about 150 ft. high the

machine settled gradually coming into the gliding angle and landed without misshap. Simmons was entirely out of control during the fall. This is the fifth fall caused by mistakes in handling and the only damage done has been a broken skid brace or stay wire, this goes to show what automatic stability means when properly incorporated in the design of the machine."

"In regards to our automatic features, we do not use any auxiliary device, the auto-tomatic features being internal in the design. We call it natural stability, as the disturbing forces are used to make the corrections; in other words, the reaction of the disturbing cause makes the necessary correction, therefore, the correction is without time-lag."

The dimensions of the machine are as follows: spread 37-y2 ft., length over all :!3 ft., of surface 27S sq. ft., weight equipped for flight close to 1,200 lbs., power 100 h. p.; propeller 7 toot diam., 7 ft. pitch, (own make); engine speed lOtiO-1100 r.p.m., estimated speed of machine 75 to 80 miles per hour. Propeller thrust, 450 lbs., standing at 1000 r.p.m., width of blade 14 inches.

In the summer of 1911, some experiments were made with pontoons, on Wil-loughbay Bay. Hampton Roads. Va. These pontoons were catamaran style, one on each skid. Dimensions: 14 feet long. 12 inches wide and 12 inches dee]), the bottoms concaved one high transversely. They were set at an angle of 4 degrees with their upturned bows out of the water and the sterns sunk to the deck line. In this position they left the water without any spray even in very rough weather. "Our machine's speed is close to GO miles per hour on the water, just before raising."

"The hydro-aeroplane experiments with our machine were made in the spring of 1911, and were, therefore, some of the first hydro-aeroplane tests made and the earliest with the catamaram system that proved successful."

By RUDOLPH R. GRANT

Consulting Electrical & Mechanical Engineer :—Asso. A. I. E. E.

The operating of the automatic lateral stabilizing system is both physical and mechanical, constituting a triple system, as the manual control is interlocked into the automatic system, so that the aviator becomes sensitive to all natural or automatic variations of the system. The part termed the "physical" operates when any variation takes place in the lift and drift pressures, as the forward surfaces are balanced against each other, so that an increase of pressure on one side instantly transfers to the other, thereby, equalizing itself; or in other words, the well known physical law that "every action has an equal and opposite reaction," has been applied throughout our machine, and all disturbing air current displacements in their reaction tend to oppose the action which produced them.

The mechanical system is in opposition to the physical, tending to restore the neutral state, and becomes a damper to prevent over action when rapid variations are taking place. The physical system is obtained by pivoting the forward planes a given distance forward of their centers of pressure, so that the pressure on the planes tends always to close or decrease the angle of incidence, the two forward planes are stayed to bottom and top struts mounted on the inner end of the plane and moves with them, as the angle changes. These strut members are then stayed together by heavy steel wires crossing the fuselage; a ball bearing thrust bar fastened to the fuselage, runs between the swivel points of the planes, on which they are mounted. Where the two lower plane supporting struts pass the lower horizontal member of the fuselage, they are fastened to the bit of the sprocket chains, which in turn pass over pulleys, and are connected by wire across the fuselage to form a closed loop transfer system; the center of the rear side of the transfer loop is fastened to the seat yoke lever, which is pivoted below the seat, so that a swaying of the aviator's body reversely changes the angle of the incidence of the forward plane; also through this system he is made sensitive to all automatic changes passing through the system, and can control any natural changes, if he so desires, at will. The stay wire between the lower plane supporting struts, when in flight, carries a heavy strain; in the present machine this strain being approximately 1200 pounds. The two struts are in perfect alignment when both planes are at equal angles and their relations are fixed by the

transfer loop system, so that any change from the neutral state is opposed and limited by the increased tension of the stay; this constitutes the mechanical and damper system.

During hundreds of test flights the aviator has given little or no attention to the lateral control, while many tests were made in heavy windy weather and in close proximity to buildings and trees. A further advantage of this automatic lateral system is: when turning only the rudders are necessary, as the increased pressure on the outside plane decreases its angle and increases the angle of the inside plane, so that the resultant of the lift and drift pressures become equal for any given turning moment. This equalization of pressure does not prevent the proper banking angle, but does prevent over banking, and at the same time prevents loss of stability while turning, as all pressures are kept in perfect balance by the automatic change in the angles of incidence. As the planes are rigidly stayed their form remains constant at all angles; therefore, the shift in the pressure centers is uniform at all angles, but changes just enough to make the necessary corrections; so that stability is not affected by quick changes in directions which may cause high banking.

The ailerons shown in the drawings have not been used during the latter part of our experiments, although, it is our intention to use them as auxiliaries with the automatic system when considered necessary for any special purpose. Their principle of operation is much the same as other types. They are connected together across the machine laterally, so that when one is at a positive angle the other is negative, their real difference from other types used lies in their aerodynamic function; the pivotal axis is located close to the front or entering edge, the axis being diagonal to the line of flight and converging forwardly, so that the entering edge becomes transverse to the resultant of the drift and side wind pressures; therefore, the windward or high side aileron receives the highest pressure, which will greatly assist in making the necessary recovery. This type aileron will also act, on the low side, in case of a side-slide, as an elevator or rudder to restore equilibrium, the high side under such conditions being masked by the machine. The longitudinal stability of the machine has proven to be almost perfect, having never failed in any incident, even under the worst of conditions, such as: loss of lift when climbing too fast and in very deep "volpianes," although these tests were made in strong wind and close to buildings and trees. Each feature has been repeatedly tested, both with and without the power, by the mistakes of an inexperienced operator, and in every instance the machine has recovered without accident machine has recovered without accident (more than a broken strut or stay in the skid system.) Some of these recoveries have

been from 100 to 200 feet heights, while others have been only 25 to 50 feet.

Longitudinal stability has been obtained by properly locating the lifting and gravity centers, the system being virtually a tandem, but differing from other tandem systems in that the following plane is placed some distance below the forward one. By this arrangement of planes, one of the most important conditions necessary to obtain automatic longitudinal stability is gained, as both the normal and the undulation pressures can be perfectly balanced off or displaced in the proper direction to assist recovery.

T wish to state here, as there seems to be some difference of opinion on the subject, that from many tests made in flight we have found no loss of lifting effort in the rear plane when the propeller is cut off, and no correction has been necessary by the operator from this cause. This may be due to the high efficiency of the propeller, the increased velocity just about off-setting the loss due to the turbulent condition of the air; such probably would not be the case if the propeller were greatly overloaded or inefficient. The machine has always shown a flying speed close to the pitch speed of the propeller; this speed can be accounted for in no other way than that the highest resistant point being placed front of the propeller, the drag recovery just about balances the propeller losses. I recognize the fact that there may be other recoveries in a properly designed propeller than placing in the rear of the highest resistant point, but will not attempt to discuss the merits of propellers at this time.

A word, perhaps, on the relation of the center of gravity to the lifting center will not be out of place; this is an imperative point, and the very secret of longitudinal stability; it makes no difference whether the machine is flying in still air or an even keel or in disturbed air, in "volplane" or over climbing, the only change in the gravity pressure centers are corrective, and this is true even in falling straight down, which, of course, is one of the extreme conditions when the centre of pressure has made its greatest displacement to 50% from the entering edge. In such condition the over-balance is only forward and assists in bringing the machine into a gliding angle. Even under the above cited severe conditions the vertical relation between the center of gravity and lifting pressure has not changed, the displacement being wholly on the horizontal axis,—and this in a corrective direction.

Another point interesting to note is that the inertia pressure brought on top of the plane, when a quick change in direction downward is made, from any cause, will not result in a tendency to rotate around the center of gravity, as the pressure changes a balance state will take place between the forward and rear planes, their relation being the same to top inertia pressure as to the lifting pressures.

The vertical and horizontal walls between the propeller and steering surfaces, are termed the "stabilizers," which perform several functions, first; they correct the turbulent air currents before reaching the rudders and elevator, second; they absorb the torque reaction of the engine and propeller as the turbulent air is in opposition to the dynamic effect of the engine. The advantage gained by this reaction is that stability is in no way affected when turning in either direction—third; the vertical walls prevent gyrations around the vertical axis, also the position of these walls makes them very effective in case of side-sliding, to swing the machine around in the gliding position. This feature has been repeatedly proven during our tests.

Another important point toward automatic stability is the wing form or curve of the lifting surfaces. The curve should be such that smail changes in the angle of incidence or variations in the normal speed of flight will not cause radical change in the pressure center. After many experiments with different curves, we have adopted one which gives at all flying angles these necessary close relations, and at the same time, it is a most efficient lifting curve.

The curve mentioned above is the "Cis-soid of Diodes" or the curve giving the duplication of the cube, the formula of

which is Y2=-. In the development of

2 a—x

this curve for an aeroplane surface the diameter of the generating circle varies inversely with the speed of flight and directly with the weight of the machine. The curve of the planes used on our monoplane was generated from a 10" circle, which proved correct for the weight, speed and angle of incidence calculated.

Published Monthly by Aeronautics Press, 2SO West 54th Street, N. Y. Cable: Aeronautic. New York 'Phone 4833 Columbus A. V. JONES, Pres't — — ERNEST t. JONES, Treas'r-Sec'y ERNEST t. JONES, Editor — M. B. SELLERS, Technical Editor SUBSCRIPTION RATES

United States, S3.00 Foreign. $3.50

advertising representative: e. f. ingraham adv. co., 116 nassau st., new york

No. 60 AUGUST—19 12 Vol. 11, No. 2

Entered as second-class matter September 22, 1908, at the Postotflce

New York, under the Act of March 3, 1879. g] AERONAUTICS is issued on the 30th of each month ^> All copy must be received by the 20th. Advertising pages close on the 25th. :: :: :: :: :: £\ Make all checks or money orders free of exchanee ^ and payable to AERONAUTICS. Do not send currency. No foreign stamps accepted. :: ::

Curtiss Flying Boat

HE Curtiss factory has produced the ideal water machine now, it appears; a craft which will at once appeal to the motor boat enthusiast, the present most promising class of sportsmen to take up "aerial yachting." This machine is not an aeroplane with boats attached, but a Dona fide, dyed-in-the-wool, honest-and-truly motor boat with wings and is an improvement on the experimental flying boat tried out last January, described and illustrated in AERONAUTICS at that time.

The wings of this latest type spread the same as in the E-75 machine (described in April number, with scale drawings). There is more of a drop between the front and rear beams, amounting to oY2". The cambre has been increased from Zy2" to 3TiS".

The sections* are, as usual, quickly demountable. The engine section is the only lone which is double covered with Goodyear • cloth. The other sections are covered on the upper side only, leaving the ribs exposed. The trailing edge, which is in separate sections fastened to the rear spar, is flexible and extends further back than the usual, for 11% inches. The ribs butt against the spars, as shown in April number, fastened by metal straps. The struts are heavier than in the other machines, as well as are the spars. Every section is guyed laterally and fore and aft with Roebling steel cable. The guying in the lateral direction is in duplicate, and in the engine section guying in both directions is double.

The spruce struts have 5 laminations and measure 1 inch by 2y2 inches at the greatest

dimension, tapering to 1 inch round at the sockets. The wings are spaced a feet apart, and the chord is 5y2 feet.

The flying boat can be flown with or without a forward elevator, which may be placed the same as in the previous hydroaeroplanes. If used, rear elevators work inversely in conjunction with the forward one, by steel cables which pass through a portion of the boat and run in a direct line.

The shoulder brace aileron control system is standard. But one steering wheel and column is used, instead of the previous single column with double wheels in the case of two-man machines.

The construction of the boat is similar, generally, to the data given in the June number. It measures 2G ft. long, 2\2 feet wide back a little further than the rear spar. From here it tapers to a point at the stern. There are six watertight compartments. A patent has been applied for on the Curtiss float system.

A standard 75 h.p. Curtiss S cyl. motor drives a left hand propeller, S' diam. by 6' pitch. The engine is mounted rather high, considerably above the axis of the cell. Gasoline is fed by pressure from a 40 gallon tank located in the boat.

The occupants are protected from the spray by a collapsible, water-proof hood. The boat itself is so strongly built that it can be beached with safety, even through a high surf, and is capable of being handled the same as a fisherman would handle his dory. It may be housed afloat, like a motor boat, or anchored to a buoy like a yacht.

By reference to AERONAUTICS it will be found that the previous flying boat had the engine located in the bow of the boat, driving by chain two tractor screws turning

in the same direction. The chain drive produced complications and was discarded.

The "flying boat" makes great speed on the surface of the water, approximated at 50 miles an hour, and GO in the air. The rudder is submerged slightly and enables the boat to be turned around in almost its on length. The boat in the future will be made in two sections to facilitate shipment, and it is also possible metal will be employed instead of wood. The sides extend slightly below the bottom boards, making slight keels. Down the centre, fore and aft, is another small keel. Either the standard wings of the model E 75 can be used, or larger ones for weight carrying. The propeller is well protected from spray and water by the body of the boat and by the overhang of the wings.

A change has been made in the shoulder braces, the outside side bars of which are hinged to allow for facility in entry and egress. A lever disconnects or connects the control from the passenger's seat, so that

either man may operate without the other'fl knowledge of any movements of thM shoulder brace, or both together simultal neously.

The Curtiss "aquaplane" is taking well abroad. Paulhan now has 3 of the previous type, and is buiding 12 more on a royaltj basis, to be fitted with Curtiss engine:! made here. Two machines have been solJ in Germany, one to Herr Kober, chief eul gineer of the Zeppelin company and th! other to the General Aviation Co., of Berlin! Six machines have been taken by th! Russian Navy, of which three have beeil delivered, and three more are being buill for Japan. Three Japanese naval officer! are now here learning to fly. C. G. WhitJ the winner (?) of the 1910 Gordon Bennetl aviation race, is to introduce the machinJ in England, operating with Paulhan. Motl ors are being ordered faster than they cai! he made and it is expected the U. S. Nav! will shortly have one of the new flyin! boats.

Donnet-Leveque Hydro-aeroplane

OME most interesting experiments with a new type of hydro-aeroplane invented and constructed by the French firm of Donnet-Leveque are being held on the river Seine, close to Juvisy.

This hydro-aeroplane, although a biplane, is exceeding speedy, and notwithstanding its comparatively small surface (183 sq. ft.) is able to '"plane" in a most remarkable wray. It does not resemble any other water-going machine built abroad up to the present, and one of its principal features (on which the patent is based) is its single central float. This float can be compared to a long motor-boat of the hydroplane type, and this graceful fish-shaped fuselage is placed underneath the lower wings. The engine (a 50-H. P. Gnome) is placed between the upper and lower planes and at the back so that the head resistance is reduced to a minimum, the propeller wash encountering no obstacles.

The pilot's seat is inside the float, just in front of the lower plane, while the passenger's seat is just behind him, with enough space all round to carry bombs or any other luggage. In front of the blunt nose of the float and just above the water-line is a horizontal fin-shaped rudder, which not only prevents the machine from diving and consequently overturning when touching the water, but as it moves concurrently with the rear elevator, it affords a useful indication to the pilot as to the inclination

of the machine. All the controls are worked through a central pillar and wheel on the Deperdussin lines, while lateral stability is obtained by ailerons.

Just above the water-line is fixed a movable axle which can, with its wheels, be entirely folded upwards when it is desired to start from the water. When the pilot wishes to land on terra firma, these are immediately released into their ordinary position by a most ingenious method.

The whole boat is divided into several watertight compartments and the flat keel is horizontal from the rudder up to a point corresponding to the middle of the planes, while from there to the front elevator it is gradually curved. The continuity of these two surfaces is divided by a step, as in the keel of hydroplanes.

As soon as the machine has attained a sufficient speed, the tail leaves the water, and only the sloping front glides on the surface. Then as soon as the pilot moves his elevator the whole "winged canoe" rises gracefully into the air, after having rushed through the water over a distance of about 50 yards. One of the most extraordinary features of this remarkable little machine is its common speed, which is well over 70 miles an hour.

Alighting on the water is effected without the least difficulty, and the swooping movement resembles nothing more than that of a gull's. It is a marvellous sight to see this big artificial bird plane down from 1.000 ft. or more on to the water with hardly a splash. This new type of hydroaeroplane, considering the short time it has

the donnet-léveque hydro-aeroplane

AERONAUTICS

î --------------- -

+ AVIATION DEPARTMENT +

I AEROPLANES, MOTORS, AND EQUIPMENT +

PAUL LACROIX AUTOMOBILE COMPANY, Inc.

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New York: 1780 Broadway. Telephone, Col. 1335

GNOME

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Paris: 63 Avenue Champs Elysees

In

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MORANE AND TRAIN MONOPLANES, ASTROL VARNISH, HELMETS, ETC., ETC.

Chicago Representative: A. L. S. McCurdy, CICERO FIELD

how to land a hydro

"The use of a standard speed, well within the critical limits, is desirable during hydroaeroplane flights in fickle winds and it should always be possible to increase the speed of the motor in turning," Says Captain W. Irving Chambers, head of aeronautics in the Navy. "The turns should not be made 100 sharp in high winds nor at a low altitude.''

"With the considerable head resistance and load of the hydroplane the acceleration of speed required for substantiation, on turning to run before a strong wind, requires an appreciable time during which, if too sharp an angle of descent is given for acceleration, the center of horizontal head resistance on the upper surface of the machine, which is

applied considerably below and usually forward of the center of pressure of the sustaining surfaces, may suddenly force the machine to dive quickly.

"On landing it is always desirable to take the water at a small rearing angle, to avoid sticking the bows of the hydroplane in the water first.

"The landing should always be made either before the wind or directly into the wind and with double hydroplanes, special care should be used to prevent 'side-swiping' and to have both boats touch the water at the same time.

"The speed should not be cut off until after touching the water.

66

GRAY EAGLE MOTORS"

have less working parts and are ac " curately machined and fit up from tlie best material obtainable, and doubly strong throughout. bosch magneto plugs, cables and schebler carburetors, standard equipment.

flying representatives wanted in all states and countries. special proposition. who wants to fly and represent us ? write today.

Model E-6 50 H. P. Model D-4 35 H. P.

KEMP MACHINE WORKS

Muncie, Ind.

been in existance, has created quite a stir in military and naval quarters in France, and several foreign missions have come to witness the trials. Should the forthcoming sea trials come up to expectations, it is to be hoped that the British Navy will send a representative to witness them, for the usefulness of this new water-plane for scouting purposes cannot be denied.

The only solution of the hyrdo-aeroplane problem seems to be in the central float, as the multi-float system will no doubt prove of little use in anything but fairly smooth weather, and the Donnet-Lévèque appears to have adapted that system in a most simple and efficacious way.

Two items of interest will serve to confirm the good opinion widely held as to the qualities of this hydro-aeroplane. In the first place, André Beaumont has be-

come the General Director of the Bonnet-Leveque firm. Next, and of greater interest to the English reader, there is a rumour, founded on a most substantial basis, that the British rights are about to be acquired by a British firm which occupies a foremost position in aviation and in many other branches of manufacturing industry. And finally, it would be well to be prepared for a startling achievement by the hydro-aeroplane within the next few weeks.

—From British AERONAUTICS. There is a curious similarity between this machine and the latest Curtiss. The boat has the same general lines, under the wings are the same air tanks, the engine is mounted high. It is not beyond possibility that the idea came from the pictures published of the former Curtiss flying boat in AERONAUTICS a year ago.

sturtevant engine in page's burgess

For the mounting of this engine the chain drive and transmission had to be reversed, new transmission and special engine bed ribs made. The speed of the aeroplane was slightly in excess of that with the Wright

motor. At the Boston meet, in one speed race around a mile course Phillips Ward Page made times of 1 min. 36 sec; 1 min., 36 sec; and 1 min, 37 sec, showing good consistency of running for these three laps. In this race he beat Farmum Fish with a standard Wright motor by something over

100 yards. "On the whole," says Mr. Page, "the Sturtevant has proven very satisfactory, and to date has given that oalance of power above the Wright's which we need for passenger work with the hydro."

new pilots

13S Carl T. Sjolander (Curtiss), San Calif., May lb.

139 Floyd E. Barlow (Curtiss), San Calif., May 18.

140 Lieut. Benj. P. Foulos (Wright), Park, Hid., June 5.

141 Cecil Peoli (Baldwin), Mineola, June 22.

142 George A. Gray (Burgess-Wright), Atwooil Paik, Mass., June 23.

143 Fred .1. Schuman (Curtiss), Los Angeles, Calif., June 27.

I >iego, Diego, College L. 1.

N

a. a. s. h. reduced prices

The American Aer. S. H. of Hempstead, L. 1., r\. V., reports that in view of the success achieved by their cross country types of "Bleriol monoplanes" and in order to facilitate for those interested the purchase of a reliable living machine, they ha\e reduced all juices of their Bleriot monoplanes for one month only, as f< 1-lows: Single Seater Monoplanes from $1,SCO to $900; Passenger (Jarring Monoplanes from $1,900 to $1,200; Racing Monoplanes from $2,000 to $1,300.

They further report having three machines on hand for immediate delivery.

In criticising an extravagant story on the dangers of Hying. which article appeared recently in a New York Sunday paper, a young aeronautical author writes as follows:

"As you know, 1 am deeply interested in aviation and am giving 17 hours each day to encourage its development. 1 lia\ e no financial interest in the matter and am doing all of it in the belief that I am helping a good cause. (If the story in the newspaper is true). 1 must be morally responsible for sending scores upon scores of young chaps to their death. You know 1 write and edit fully one-third of the aeronautical literature that appears in America."

E. Percy Noel, Alfred W. Lawscn and others, please note. We were wondering who wrote most of the aeronautical literature.

Burgess-Gill Twin Engine Aquaplane

HE first American machine to successfully fly with two power plants, each capable of flying the 'plane independently, or in combination, was produced by the Burgess Co. & Curtis and Howard W. Gill and flown as a hydroaeroplane during May and June at Marble-head. This was constructed for the Gould two-motor contest which prize proved unfortunately a will-o'-the-wisp.

As will be noted, the two engines wTere placed in line, each driving its own pair of propellers. One was a standard Wright and the other a Hall-Scott. The Wright motor was speeded up to over 1500 by making the gearing 10 (instead of 11) to 34. The apparatus was awkward to handle and proved to Gill's satisfaction the uselessness of such a contraption as a practical machine. Following is a detailed description. Main planes of standard Wright size and construction, Spread 39', chord G' 1%", the trailing edge on each end being slightly rounded off. Distance between planes 5' 5%", slightly less than the depth of the plane. Planes are separated by twelve 1" by 1%" uprights.

Planes themselves built up of 2 beams spaced apart by ribs built up from two strips of wood by 1%" wide spaced

apart by ten wooden blocks. While these ribs are very stiff, extra strong ones made from y2" by 1%" solid wood are placed between each fore and aft upright. Both top

and bottom planes are built in three sections, a center and two ends. The bottom center, which carries the weight of the engines, fuselage and passengers^ is made exceptionally strong with heavy built-up ribs and broad ash front and rear beams, the whole being braced by inch broad steel cross bands.

Each of the three sections made separately, and the cloth put on. The ends are then fastened to the center section at the two main beams by hinged joints and the surface cloths laced together both top and bottom.

The cloth before being cut out to shape is cut diagonally and sewed together so that, when on the finished plane, the main threads instead of going straight across run diagonally as a means of extra bracing for the wings. Where sewed together the overlap is arranged to present a smooth joint to the plane's passage through the air. Between the front and rear beams pockets are sewed to the bottom cloth and from the -ear beam back to the trailing edge to the top cloth. Through these pockets the ribs go, holding the cloth up in front and down in ihe rear so that the surface conforms to the shape of the ribs. The advantage of this construction is that in changes of weather it allows the cloth to give all over and therefore presents a more uniform surface than is possible where the cloth is tightly attached at each rib by braids and tacks.

Whenever it is necessary to drill a hole through the main beams, for attaching wires or stanchions, the beam is strength-

Two Years in the Lead on Aeronautic Supplies

The fact that the Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. has had two years more experience in making Aeroplane products than others largely explains our commanding position. For to be two years in the lead, in a new industry, means as much relative advantage as 25 years would in an old, established line.

The Fabric Used by Veteran Aviators

Ask any veteran aviator what fabric lie uses. Nine chances in ten he will say, "Goodyear." Ask any maker of Aeroplanes the same question. Nearly all will say, "We use Goodyem' and none other." Goodyear Fabric doesn't stretch, or loosen, or tear, or rot, or mildew. Made in various colors including metallized surface to match machines trimmed in aluminum or nickel. It is permanently iceather-proof. If you want to know just how this has been accomplished, drop us a postal for the latest Goodyear Aeronautic Catalog.

Aeroplane Tires That Lead

With 13 years automobile experience, with the most up-to-date factory in the world, with the most expert tire makers money can employ, we were well equipped to enter the aeroplane field.

Goodyear Aeroplane Tires, made under such conditions, could hardly have failed to lead.

We make Aeroplane Tires in 3 types—the Goodyear " No-Rim-Cut,'' the Goodyear Single Tube, the Goodyear Clincher. Each

type is the utmost achievement of men who perfected the No-Rim-Cut Auto tire.

The Goodyear Aeronautic Catalog pictures and describes these tires.

The Bleriot Type Shock Absorber

We are the sole American makers of the llleriot Type Shock Absorber. This Absorber possesses wonderful strength and elasticity. Made of a special construction of moulded rubber, thoroughly vulcanized. It is exceedingly tough and durable. Ovington, Rubel, Benoist and other American flyers and manufacturers use this Shock Absorber. (Complete ,\ description on page 17 of new ^ Goodyear Aeronautic Catalog.)

Balloons of All Types

It is no longer necessary to send to Kurope for balloons. Goodyear Balloons are unexcelled in quality and there's no import duty to pay. Our facilities for quick-delivery are unsurpassed. Any kind you want, completely equipped, if desired.

Dirigible Balloons, Spherical Balloons free or captive—large or small—for advertising use— for exhibition—for excursion service.

Please advise name and add?-ess and we irill jnail yon an attractive, illustrated new catalog that tells much ahont Aeroplane Fabrics, Tires and Springs; and about Balloons, Balloon Fabrics and Balloon Accessories.

Goodyear Pneumatic Tires are guaranteed when filled with air at the recommended pressure. WheD filled with any substitute for air, our guarantee ii withdrawn.

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ENGINE FOR SALE—Airship engine, 2 cyl., 4 cycle, S h.p.; also frame, shafting, propellers and net of airship "Comet." Electric Pianos for sale. Geo. E. Yager, Omaha, Neb.—Aug.

TENT—3-pole medium duck tent, in first class condition, 40xS0, original cost $350, for sale at $175 f.o.b., New York. Used for hydroaeroplane. Will house the biggest machine. Schill, c/o Aeronautics.—Aug.

WANTED.—Aviation apprentices to operate latest type racing monoplanes. Instructions free.

Aerial Co., c/o Aeronautics, 250 W. 54th St., New York.—TF_

RARE BOOKS—Occasionally it is possible to secure copies of Wise and Astra Castra. These are very scarce and are two of the absolutely necessary books for an aeronautical library.

ASTRA CASTRA, by Hatton Tumor. 4ro, cloth, London, 1S65, many fine plates. $10.

A SYSTEM OF AERONAUTICS, Comprehending its Earliest Investigations and Modern Practice ant! Art, Designed as a History for the Common Reader and Guide to the Student of the Art, bv John Wise. Svo., cloth, Phila., 1850. $10._

CAPITAL WANTED—$15,000 to form a new company to build a lately patented, high-speed monoplane, that is automatically balanced and acts as a parachute in case the motor stops while in the air. The machine itself acts as a parachute, and has absolutely no umbrella-like or auxiliary parachute attachment. Address, Monoplane, Post Office, Box 68, Station D, New Y'ork, N. y.—Aug.

CURTISS—Genuine 4 cyl. Curtiss biplane, present design, 4 cyl. Curtiss motors, has been flying. Perfect condition. $700 cash. Aeronautics, 250 W. 54th St.. New Y'ork.

FOR SALE—$750 Roberts 4x motor complete, New and in perfect condition. M. F. H. Gouverneur, Wilmington, N. C.—Aug._

FOR SALE—New eight cylinder Hall-Scott, Sixty h.p. motor with propeller. Guaranteed perfect, price $1,000.00. R. Trember, 167 Penn Str., Brooklyn, N. Y.—Aug._

FOR SALE—The following goods, perfectly new, less than half price. 1—30 h.p. El. Arco Radiator. 1—6ft. Requa Gibson propeller. 1— 30 h.p. Harriman motor. 1—7 h.p. Curtiss Motor. 1—Curtiss Type Frame. 1—7 gal. gasoline tank. 50 yards Naiad Aeronautical Cloth. 1—Bosch magneto. 3 steel wheels with tires. J. W. Roshon, Harrisburg, Pa.

BLUE PRINTS: Military type 6S-in. model monoplane. Three sheets in detail, 2S x 39 in., $1.00. Corporal Thos. O'Brien, Co. M, 3d Battalion Engineers, Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas.— Sept._m

WANTED—Capital to rebuild a large monoplane (1400 sq. ft. supporting surface) non-cap-sizable. Patent Applied for. Machine badly damaged, two days before completion when building enclosing machine was destroyed by wind storm. Arrange to call and investigate. Geo. H. Ellithorpe, Port Clinton, Ohio.

FOR SALE—50 h.p. Bradley Aeroplane Motor; 8 cylinders, Bosch Magneto, Perkins Carburetor. Guaranteed, J. O. Eberhard, Jr., Bulletin Bldg., Philadelphia.—Aug._______

FOR SALK:- "MAXIMOTOR" Aeroplane Motor, 1912, Model F, 75 H. P. six cylinders, iour cycle, vertical, water cooled, double spark system, weight 300 rbs., also new radiator and propeller. This motor is new—never been used, just tested, and was purchased for use in an extra large, two passenger Biplane which was never completed.

Best offer takes it. Guaranteed by the Factory.

For particulars, write "ORIGINALITY" 317 Erie Street, Canton, Ohio.

C. & A. Wittemann

Aeronautical Engineers

Manufacturers of

Biplanes Monoplanes

Hydro-Aeroplanes Gliders Propellers Parts

Special Machines and Parts Built to Specifications

Large stock of Steel Fittings, Laminated Ribs, and Struts of all sizes carried in stock.

Hall-Scott Motors, 40-60-80 H. P.

Your Oi'I'ortunitv—One single covered Biplane for immediate delivery. Slightly used, with 8 cyl. 60 H. P. Hall-Scott Power Plant.

FLYING AND TRAINING GROUNDS

Established 1906

Works: Ocean Terrace and Little Clove Road STATEN ISLAND, NEW YORK CITY Tel. 717 Tompkinsville

View On Wheels, Before Attaching Float

ened by several layers of heavy linen which is wrapped or soaked in hot glue forming an exceptionally strong joint.

These linen wrapped joints are lighter and they always fit snugly around the part to be reinforced. There is a certain elasticity to them that allows them to compensate for any future shrinkage of the wood.

The method 'of construction employed apparently represents the final ideal construction hit upon at the start, in that it allows of the utmost flexibility between the engine and propeller sprockets at the same time retaining the center of the sprockets at a constant distance apart. Adjustment for taking up chain slack is very easily made. The failure of other designers to secure satisfactory results with double propellers and chain drive has in practically every case been due to their failure to appreciate and provide for suitable flexi-

bility in their transmission which caused them to be either very wasteful of power, or the more serious result,—a broken transmission.

To drive the propellers in opposite directions and eliminate any centrifugal tendency, one of the chains is crossed, and this has been the source of considerable arguing and unfavorable comment. It is usually a source of worry to the flyer when he first starts out, but a curious point is the fact that the crossed chain gives less trouble than the straight one. The only cases of chain breakage on record have both occurred in the short chain.

It is customary to take both chains off and examine them often, approximately every twenty hours of flying, after which they are soaked in hot grease and graphite before being replaced. On these occasions, rollers are often found missing and in every

Plan-View of Gill Machine

case the straight chain has had over twice the number of missing rollers. These facts, and the tendency of the straight chain to stretch, soon made the flyers of double chain driven planes more careful to examine the straight chain than the long chain.

To brace the main planes, tail, etc., solid wires are used varying from 750 to over 2000 pounds tensile strength. Eyes are bent in the ends of these wires in a machine that gives a uniform bend to the eye. This machine rolls the wire as the eye is made, retaining in the wire, its full tensile strength. After the eye has been made, the end of the wire is joined by a double wrapping of thin tin, well soaked in solder. This makes not only a tight joint but an exceedingly neat one.

Repeated tests have proven that a joint made in this manner is stronger in the eye and joint than the wire itself. The usual practice of using a flattened piece of copper tubing, through which the end of the wire is slipped and then bent over has a decided tendency, when put to a strain, of creeping around and tightening up the eye, and tests of the two methods of fastening a wire have shown that where just the flattened copper tubing is used the eye is of variable strength;—but where the eye is made by a machine and the end is then fastened rigidly by a soldered joint the eye is invariably stronger than the wire.

These machine-made eyes are uniform in size and snugly fit the rivets to which they are fastened. Where the eye is too large the strain of usage elongates it, but where the wire is not provided with a turnbuckle, causes it to loosen up.

The biplane type of main planes used is undeniably the strongest known type of construction, and the ideal form for ;a weight-carrying safe machine. It has been used in connection with a so-called monoplane-type tail, which fuselage runs directly through the plane and in this fuselage is mounted both engines and the operator, one behind the other, greatly reducing the head resistance and allowing the motors to be coupled together in the simplest possible manner.

This tail extends 13', S" from the trailing edge of the main planes. The top edge extends back in a straight line so as to mount the elevator centrally between the two planes, the rear edge curves up, coming to a point in the rear, giving the tail a streamline form and plenty of ground clearance. On this tail the double horizontal rudders are mounted, each measuring 2', 3" by 2', 6". These rudders are separately mounted and individually connected up. On the extreme rear of the tail is mounted the elevator. This elevator is 15' broad by 3' deep in the center, the ends tapering to a point. The front 15 inches of this elevator are braced by wire guys at a central mark so

as to remain stationary. The ribs are of ash and the elevator is flexible.

The ability to warp this surface, coupled with its excessive breadth, gives to the plane a big range of vertical control. The full extent of this control can best be realized from the fact that in trying out the machine the center of gravity was moved forward 14 inches from that of the standard plane, and the vertical control was equally effective. The natural tendency of the machine was changed, as with the center of weight back, the tendency of the standard Wright-type to stick its nose up in the air and stall is quite noticeable.

When the motor accidentally stops, this tendency to sit up on its tail often results in a broken machine as the operator has to be quick in pushing forward his elevator to catch the machine before it stalls. With the center of weight further forward, and an accidentally stopped motor, the tendency of the machine is to point its head down, assuming a natural gliding angle. In the standard Wright type this center of gravity is 26 inches from the front edge of the main planes, or just slightly more than the generally accepted third of the chord. Actual experience in the air, with the same plane surface, gives a personal preference by Mr. Gill for a location of the center of gravity further forward than the accepted third of the chord length.

Both of the power plants are separate, and distinct, in every detail, the cooling water being supplied by separate radiators, and the gasoline from separate tanks. The forward or main power plant is the more powerful, being a HalbScott 60 h.p. S-cylinder motor which drives through sprockets and chains two forwardly mounted tractors S', 6" diam., variable pitch, which is 12', 4" at the tips. The rear, or auxiliary power plant, is a standard 4-cyLnder 30 h. p. Wright motor operating through sprockets and chains two propellers, S , 6" diam. by 12ft. pitch, mounted in line with the forward pair.

To connect these two motors together, the ends of their crank shafts are extended, and on the extension of the rear engine shaft is mounted a small diameter leather faced cone clutch, used to connect the two power plants together when they are to be driven in unison or as a means of starting either engine. This clutch is arranged so that it can be worked from the operator's seat through pulling back a long hand lever which, through a wire connection, engages the. clutch. A means is provided on the clutch operating lever, so that it can be locked in place when the two engines are to be run together. A foot pedal governed magneto on the Wright ana a hand lever, the carburetor on the Scott, as motor controls.

As a means of control the standard Wright system of levers is used. Separate gas tanks supply the motors, each holding 12 gallons.

j Monoplane Flyers I Are in Demand

SLOANE SCHOOL OF AVIATION

j /ttahere are more competent biplane flyers than there are positions + for their services. There are less good monoplane flyers than

% there are positions. This is the time to earn the big money in

j flying monoplanes. In exhibitions the monoplane commands from 70 to j

+ 100 per cent, more compensation than the biplane. In the +

4*

+ monoplane flying is taught on a genuine famous Deperdussin Machine. J

+ The course is an exact duplicate of the course as it is taught by the *

% Deperdussins at Rheims, France. *

JThe tuition <l*Or|r| for the full %

fee is yOUv course *

% If the pupil completes the course without breakage 10 percent, of +

£ the tuition fee is refunded. A guarantee of $250 for breakage is required. *

+ The pupil is made competent to comply with the most rigid license test. J

% No bond of any kind is required when the pupil flies for ?

J the license. %

+ Of the seven pupils who entered the school during the first *

2 month one was certified as proficient after three weeks of the course. +

J He finished without any breakage whatsoever. *

+ Visit the school. It is located on the famous Long Island flying +

4- field near New York.

* - t

t t

? Deperdussin Monoplanes are the safest and most

| ms^^i v*v*cfcf*»* i.Auiiu^iunvu efficient flying machines j

+ in the world. Hold 90 per cent, of the world's records. *

I Caudron Monoplanes TPu;k and tre™nd°usl*

i i

* An75)til 1Vlnfnt*q *10^0' t*ie ""''l116 record of giving tremendous *

t "UlCUII lflUlUI o speed, reliability, efficiency and safety. No *

j fatal accident during the year has occurred with an Anzani Motor. *

? _ *

j wire 'phone write *

! Sloane Aeroplane Co. 1733 Broadway, N. Y. City *

I !

I BenoistBiplanes j j NAIAD \

Aeronautical Cloth

Are in a class by themselves and do not cost much more than poor planes.

3 Models to pick from.

We conduct the Benoist School of Aviation.

Benoist Aircraft Company

|| 6628 DELMAR BLVD., ST.LOUIS, MO.

Manufactured Especially for + -— Aeroplanes- J£

Light, Strong J

Air-Tight and J

! +

Moisture Proof J

Sample Book A-6, Data and Prices on Request +

The C. E. Conover Co. %

MANUFACTURERS %

101 Franklin St., New York | OILING SYSTEM

pump; drive pod; pipe, to oil sight jacket; distributing pipes to cylinders.

WOULD NOT

Has Flown Wright (Genuine) Curtiss Bleriot Farman Train Antoinette Dirigibles

and

Speed Boats

USED THE WORLD OVER FOR YEARS

take chances with an engine you know to be poorly lubricated. Yet you know that at the high speeds of aviation engines the oil soon becomes boiling hot; as thin as water. That means inefficient lubricating and a big waste of steaming oil. By the MAXIMOTOR system the oil is pumped from the base reservoir, through the ice-cold oil jacket around the intake manifold and thence distributed to the cylinders.

- RESULTS -

1. oil always at a good working temperature.

2. intake warmed enough to prevent "carburetor freezing."

3. oil circulation in plain view above carburetor.

4. oil pump continually self-priming in bottom of reservoir.

Just a few more reasons for that wonderful record over every other quantity-produced aeromotor in the world.

EVER HAD A FATAL ACCIDENT

If you want a GOOD motor

WRITE

DETROIT

Dept. 7

ifafgfilfBJBIi EVERAL men of wealth have been |jj O jjj pointed to with pride by the clubs sfi ^ sfi to which they belong as great sfikkifiifiifi patrons of Aviation.

What a joke are they making of themselves!

Thousands of dollars spend on "Mustard plasters," "Merry Widows," "Umbrella Machines," "Multiplanes," "Flying Tenements," "Paraplanes," and the like—a laughing stock for the aeronautical world, an aero club side show, with the backer for the "come-on."

One chap knocks the bottom of a dish pan, stretches a rubber band across its larger diameter and flies it before Harold McMorgan, who promptly is induced to finance a full sized machine.

Somebody else thinks an aeroplane ought to fly sideways and he sees Willis Rocker-gould who as quickly "falls" for the novel freak. When the machine rolls over standing on the ground, a couple of monoplane wings are stuck on in the usual fashion to keep the machine from falling over when the engine is started. Another man has a machine with flapping valves, or a plurality of paddle wheels to beat on the air. That these inventors are not wholly innocent of all but practical knowledge is shown when E. Z. Mark pays $4,800 for Gnome engines which can be bought anywhere for $3,200 or less. Who made the difference?

The come-on, unfortunately, is blind on his pocketbook side and any suggestion from a friend that he is being taken-in is resented as an insult to his intelligence.

If one could see any fun to be obtained out of spending large sums for foolishness of this kind, there might be an excuse; but a Lick Observatory telescope would fail to discover anything humorous in the situation, where men of supposed business acumen are being bled by a group of wild-eyed inventive leeches.

What a world of good might have been done with the quarter of a million, or more, said to have been squandered in this manner by one man, if properly applied? What a lot of aeroplanes this would buy for himself and friends to fly? What a series of cross-country reliability races would this insure? What a start for an aerodynamical laboratory? What a result from this sum offered for research work?

This would bring a dozen Gordon Bennett racers into the field, wouid produce 24-hour American engines, would buy 50 aeroplanes for the Army and Navy and keep the manufacturers busy, for a year, would produce an American dirigible, or keep an aviator in fast automobiles for the rest of his natural life.

certificates of merit wsfisfiifilfik OLLOWING the suggestions and « "R S appeals in recent issues of AERO-w ffi NAUTICS, the Aero Club of

wsfiifisfilfitfi America announces its special certificate of merit plan. These certificates are to be given to those aviators (already "licensed") who meet the rigid requirements imposed. This will form a class of "expert" flyers who will honor the certificate as a measure of efficiency. This plan will also tend to dampen the exhibition activities of some well known men who are now "pilot aviators," and make the present international "license" of still less value, which fate it deserves.

This is a good step and the A. C. A. will, no doubt, profit in prestige therefrom.

"scientific american'' criticized

ssfisfiktfw T is most unfortunate that there jjj t jjj should have been a misunder-ij; ifi standing in regard to the rules, sfisfiifiifisfisfi which were drawn up by the Scientific American. "A prize of $15,000 has been offered ***** for the most perfect * * * * flying machine equipped with two or more complete power plants so connected that any power plant may be operated independently, or that they may be used together." * * * * "At least two machines must be entered in the contest or the prize will not be awarded," said the rules.

Mr. Gill and the Burgess company built their machine in the belief that if two entries were made, the contest would be held.

A council was held in the Burgess factory and it was unanimously decided that the two entries made an award certain. The 'plane was built and flown a month before June 1, the closing date. When Howard W. Gill made his formal entry, on June 1, he was imformed by the Scientific American that they interpreted their rules to mean that two "operative" machines must actually be on the field selected on July 4 in order that an award be made. This was a new turn to the situation. An investigation showed that there was no likelihood of their even being another machine on the ground—and there wasn't.^ This condition nullified the possibility of any one successful builder's going into the contest independently of another. The winning of the prize, therefore, depended not on the builder's own efforts but on those of some other contestant.

Had Mr. Gill known of this interpretation before starting to build, this "freak" machine would never have been produced.

Not only do the rules, as partially quoted above, at first glance allow the Scientific

American to have awarded the prize to Gill for having produced the most practicable of the machines entered (plans and descriptions of all machines entered having been filed with the entries), but it is clear that the intent of the donor was to provide a substantial reward for the performance of a feat which, at the time the prize was offered, appeared, to him at least, to be a desired step in the advancement of safety in flight.

It seems most probable that Gould wanted to encourage a contest of brains in the devising of a new type of aeroplane—a contest of gray matter for the accomplishment of a certain desired object.

There was a bona fide contest of brains. Eleven people formally made entry and furnished drawings and descriptions, to the best of their ability, of the machines they hoped to build. That one man did build and fly a machine which fulfilled the operating conditions makes no less a contest. He did produce the "most practicable" machine—• the only one that was proven practicable.

Not only has Gill lost his prize through the failure of others but has lost it just so completely through misinterpretation of the published rules.

Discussion from all sides has produced the statement "the prize was never intended to be awarded."

At any rate, the prize could be considered in that class which Joe "Weber would term "a good offer."

THE BOSTON MEET ******1THOUT doubt the Aero Club jjj \A/[{j "Put its foot in it" when it W Hi suspended eight aviators by ****** reason of their taking part in the unsanctioned Boston meet.

The situation might have been met in a manner thoroughly dignified from the (Tub's standpoint, in a way calculated to insure the sympathy and active co-operation of all "licensed" aviators, and to speed the time of bona fide sporting meets on a sport basis pure and simple.

The sanctioning of meets by some governing body, in which contests the granting of a sanction depends upon the deposit of the total prize money in the bank subject to the demand of properly authorized individuals and upon definite and guaranteed assurance of proper conduct thereof, is beyond all doubt or argument an act to be desired from many points of view; for the advancement of aviation, or aerostation, as a sport, for the protection of participants, for the benefit of the public in general. Sanctioning has, thus far, devolved upon the Aero Club of America.

Here was a ticklish situation. The Club had made errors through the individual advices of its officers, and by waiting too long before taking action. The aviators were between the devil and the d§ep sea. The management had failed to secure funds in advance and the Boston meet was perpetrated when it should have been forgot-

ten among the plans and prospects of the future.

The Club might have called the men together, had a heart-to-heart talk, with admittance of faults all the way 'round, and an understanding or agreement reached' (to be ratified in some form, later by all licensed pilots in the country) by which the Club would agree in the future to demand that the prize money be deposited in a proper way not less than, say, three weeks before the date of a proposed affair, or withhold sanction; and the aviators agree to make no contracts with any management of a competitive meet prior to three weeks before the date thereof, or otherwise without definite knowledge form the Club in writing or by telegraph confirming sanction. The Club, in the Boston matter, doing this, might have gently chided the aviators for flying after they were on the ground and to avoid the clutches of the law, and preserved its attitude of authority.

The results of such a conference are obvious. There is no need to point them out. It is enough to say that the present friction would have been avoided and the Club would have added to its advertised prestige instead of detracting therefrom.

PENN CLUB URGES NATIONAL BILL

****** HE Aero Club of Pennsylvania is ‘jji Hp Uj to be congratulated on its pro* * gressive step, taken in the best ****** iuterests of aviation without regard to club affiliation or private schemes for aggrandizement, when it passed and presented to Congress resolutions urging upon that body the necessity for the passage of a national statute for the regulation and control of aerial locomotion, and for the issuing of licenses under government supervision to competent aviators.

This national statute has been argued in AERONAUTICS many times. The advantages of such a law are obvious save to clubs who seek to keep in their own hands, no matter what the cost to progress or reason, what they are pleased to call ''control.*'

The motor boat owner finds the national regulations for traffic, for lights and anchorages of advantage. There is no red tape to unwind when he passes within the bounds of another state. The individual states examine chauffeurs for competency, railroad engineers are examined for physical fitness, the Army has rigid conditions for its aviators. Has the civilian driver of air craft any less need for physical capability?

The presentation of resolutions to Congress amounts to nothing. A bill must be framed, pushed in and out of committee, and passed before we received any benefit.

It will be interesting to note whether or not the other aero clubs of the country support such a bill. Their non-support or antagonism will be proof positive of motives not for the advancement of aeronautics.

^^^^^^^^^^^ *★★★★★★*★★★★★★*★★★★★★★**★★★★**

I frontier 1 ! EVER?0D₯ ff aY I

* c Learn how at the *

i aero motors i 1 Moisant Aviation School jf

I "Always in Front" I I At Hempstead Plains, L. I. J

g g j j

$ $ * Well-known Moisant School Graduates licensed *

>; £T In casting about for the best J J by The Aero Club of America. *

£• ^-U there is in a high class motor- p * j/ost of our Licensed Pilots Employed by us. *

>; one that has withstood every test—the S * Miss Mathilde Moisant Mr. S. S. Jerwaii *

>; discriminating- buyer will make no 5|? * Mr. Harold Kantner Mr. M. F. Bates *

S mistake ill adopting the "Frontier." '£ * Mr. F. E. DeMurias Mr. J. Heetor Wordcn *

£ y £ Capt. G. AV. MacKay Miss Harriet Quimby J

!♦! >! -fc Mr. Francisco Alvarez Mr. Jesse Selijfraan J

| The flights made by Beatty with £ t Mr" C,arenw! de °iers J

g tithe Frontier Model A-Motor are J; * MOISANT MONOPLANES USED j

^ familiar to all followers of "Aero- p * For Handsome Illustrated Booklet Address *

| nautics'"__ I t The Moisant jf

| g[ Our exhibit at the recent Aero | t International Aviators i

£ ^l,Sliow in New York created !♦{ * U. S. Rubber Building J

$ tremendous interest and a flood of >; £ Broadway and 58th St., New York City £

;j requests have since come to us for '$

K detailed information regarding this >J

»-i » y

superior power plant for aerial naviga- *++4>+*++4-++4^+*++++++++++4-4^++

£ tion—the final achievement of two £ 4. 4.

>! years spent in designing and experi- J jk ^1 t a J

I j $ A j JN A rs

I FRONTIER FACTS | % ' ' t

V + Your school needs real flying +

£ Abundant power. y 4. ^-L, machines, and monoplanes are +

Perfectly balanced. £ J the thing today. i can sell you two J

$ Imported ball bearings throughout. $ % well-known, first quality duplicate +

It; Huns without skipping with equal and | | BLERIOT MONOPLANES +

$ constant power. v * *

£ , . , i . , , . • v * with genuine An/.ani Motors, ready +

The highest grade materials obtain- £ * . fI a 1 1 • 3.

, , , . , a + for flight. Have flown regularlv m *

>; able are used in construction. + , , ., ... , v

>■ >: 4. prominent meets and exhibition work. +

>; Four-cycle, eight-cylinder, V'type, H + Complete with spare parts, all in %

£ water-cooled cylinders. £ 4. elegant new order. Really cheap for +

>' _ _ >: 4- cash. No experimenting—jump in 4.

>; = Catalogue on request = X * .,n(, t]y< \ chance you must not miss. J

>j # >1 + Also some excellent monoplane con- +

I FrOlltier IrOn Works S + stmction material all ready for 4.

>J- V J assembling. Inspection bv appoint- J

|j BUFFALO, N. Y. ^ J met. J

>; £. J. WILLIS CO., New York Agents >! t „-_irx.I^.„ / »

;J «scAam6e™Sf««« g J "MONO c/o Aeronautics j

S^^^^^^^-^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^S *++++++++++++++**++++++++****:*

Welles & Adams Motors

One of the few moderate-priced motors that has actually made good.

50 H. P. 4 CYCLE

LET US SEND YOU OUR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE SHOWING FRED EELLS-GREAT FLIGHTS OVER THE CITY OF ROCHESTER IN BIPLANE EQUIPPED WITH THIS MOTOR.

Weight 200 lbs. Valves in Head

Cylinders Cast Separate

iff' ftp

   
 

Every Moving

Part Oiled Automatically

you wish to do something better than "Grass-Cutting"

consult

WELLES & ADAMS

BATH, N. Y.

i Alumina Aeroplane | Fabric

'Beautiful as Day."

"Light as a Feather."

Finest Imported Linen, thoroughly Waterproofed, and then coated with Aluminum. Heat and moisture proof. Strong-J est and Most Durable Aero-| plane Cloth on the Market. J

OUR PRICES WILL SURPRISE YOU.

Send for samples and price list and be convinced.

THE

aerial navigation company ^america f

Girard, Kansas. {

El Arco Aeroplane Radiators

CARRIED IN STOCK

Some Manufacturers of Aero Motors who have adopted EL ARCO RADIATORS: Air Craft Boulevard (all Curtiss Dechesne Elbridge Fox

Maximotor Rinek Roberts White Head

Motor "Lightweight" Dimensions

H. P. Price Weight

*23 *30 *38 *45 (iO 75 90

$40.00 48.00 52.00 60.00 70.00 78.00 84.00

17 lbs.

21 " 24

27 "

34 "

40 "

4G "

A 8 In. 10 " 12 "

14 "

15 " 18 " 21 "

B 19 in. 19 " 19 "

i9

22 "

'Featherweight"

Weight Price

13 lbs. $50.00

17 " 60.00

20 " 68.00

23 " 75.00

30 " 88.00

35 " 98.00

38 " 106.00

* 4lso carried in stock, rightsandlefts, with fittings as shoivn dotted, for installing on either side of driver's seat.

There is no lighter radiator made than our Lightweight, except our Featherweight.

10 East 3I«t Street New York

El Arco Radiator Co.

New Benoist Tractor

HE new Benoist tractor machine, known as the type twelve, is the result of the last several months' application to the refinement of details, and close attention to accomplishing many small improvements over the preceding machine. While these improvements considered separately and alone would not have marked a very great difference from the two passenger school machine of 1911 and '12 style, all of them in an aggregate causes one at first to get an impression that the machine is a new type entirely. The drawings give one a good working impression of the construction of the machine, while the photographs will demonstrate its general appearance.

Like the older machine, it uses steel springs instead of rubber shock absorbers. These have not been changed at all, as they have been found to be very successful, in fact successful enough that the wide awake European manufacturers have copied these with certain variations several times in the last few months. The six cylinder Roberts motor is set clear out in front, and with the radiator mounted between the tractor and the engine, makes a very compact assemblage. The ailerons are very large, each one having twenty square feet of surface. The tail is non-lifting, and, like the rudder and ailerons, flex for control.

The running gear construction lends itself quite readily to the attaching of pontoons, and both pontoons and wheels can be furnished with the 'planes so that it can be used interchangeably as a hydro or land 'plane.

This machine is a two-place, and will carry enough gasoline for a two hours' flight with both seats occupied. Comfort has been considered in the seating of passengers, as both seats are wide and roomy, and the lower part of the body is protected from the wind because of the deep boxes. With all this, however, there is but very

little head-resistance as the radiator, engine, passenger and aviator are all mounted tandem in a stream line. The standard machine is equipped with twenty by four inch clincher tires, and covered all over with Goodyear No. 10. The standard gasoline tank holds fifteen gallons, and is mounted inside of the engine frame, earring an air pressure of two pounds. This assemblage eliminates a great amount of the danger from fires as a result of a smash up, in which the gasoline tank is hung above the engine, thereby breaking the gasoline lead, and setting fire to the wreckage.

The spread over all is 45 feet. Spread of main planes 35 feet. Chord 4 feet, 9 inches. Aspect ratio 7.3:1. Gap 5 feet. Spread of tail 10 feet and depth 32 inches. Seven sections in main planes, each 5 feet long. Skids each 7 feet long and project one and one-half feet in front of vertical line of advancing edge of main planes.

The ailerons and elevator are operated by a single lever in the right hand mounted universal. By pushing the lever to the right it will bring down the right side when high, and by pushing it left, it, of course, will bring down the left. By pushing it forward causes the machine to descend, and by pulling it backward toward the aviator, causes the machine to ascend. There is a double crank arm connected to the back part of ailerons, by the use of which the running of the control wires through pulleys is eliminated. The photograph shows this. This works the arm at No. 33 on the front view. The ailerons are constructed somewhat different from anything else used in this country or abroad, and as they were used in the old school machine of 1911 and '12, and have proved so successful, they were not changed in this new machine. The ribs of the ailerons are built up of pieces of steel spring, being reinforced on each side by oak strips. The steel springs furnishing strength, and the oak strips stiffness to the ribs, as these ailerons are not hinged but flexed. Great efficiency has been added to them by virtue of the fact that the oak strip stiffeners are much stiffer

(Continued on page CJ)

AERONAUTICS

Page 62

ELBRIDGE ENGINES

So simple anyone can operate them

So strong nobody breaks them

So cheap anyone can buy them

Made in a dozen sizes, to suit all types of machines.

The most generally successful engine known to aviation, for both amateur and professional work. Catalog or folder on request.

Elbridge Engine Company

10 Culver Rd. Rochester, N. Y.

Wright Hydroaeroplane School now open at Glen Head, L. I.

it:

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TTVTYRnQl Wright Flyers

XI X U XV" kJ * 1912 Models

Build Your Own Hydro - aeroplane

Over 100 complete drawings. Full Dimensions of every part. Only complete blue-prints ever sold. Standard type.

Scale 1 inch to foot; some full size. Blue-prints 28" by 36"

PRICE $8

In addition to those features which in the past have made Wright Flyers famous for efficiency and reliability, the new models can be furnished with Automatic Control, Silent Motors, and Hydroplanes. These special features make the 1912 machine unusually attractive to sportsmen.

Exhibition Machines

For exhibition work we have other models especially adapted to high winds and small fields. It was with a stock "EX" Model that Kodgers made his wonderful flight from Coast to Coast. Reliability means dollars to the exhibitor.

Wright Schools of Aviation

Training consists of actual hying, in which the pupil is accompanied by a competent teacher. No risk and no expense whatever from breakage. The most famous flyers in America are graduates of our school anil include such names as—

Aeronautics,

250 West 54th St. NEW YORK

Lieut. Arnold

Atwood

Brookins

Brindley

Bonney

Beatty

Burgess

Coffyn

Capt. Chandler

Drew Elton

Lieut. Foulois

Fowler

Gill

Lieut. Lahm Lieut. Milling Mitchell C P. Rodgers

Lieut. Rodgers

Parmalee

Page

Reynolds

Simmons

Turpin

Welsh

Webster

And a score of other*

Our Schools at Dayton and New Vork are now open and pupils may begin training at once if they wish, liy enrolling now you can reserve date most convenient to you for training.

1 Write for Particulars n^!^^^^^

THE WRIGHT COMPANY

DEPT. A DAYTON, OHIO

Felix Bischoff Steel Works J

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duisburg, germany.

The VITAL part of a Motor is the

Our HIGH GRADE CRANKSHAFTS are made from our Special CHROME-NICKEL AUTO STEEL zh. This steel has an elastic limit of 135-150,000 lbs. per sq. in., and enables you therefore to economize in weight and space. Put this in your motor and you need never fear a broken crankshaft.

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Send blue prints and all enquiries to our representative

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AERONAUTICS

The Leading British Monthly Journal Devoted to the Technique and Industry of Aeronautics.

(FOUNDED 1907) Yearly Subscription One Dollar, Post Free

Nr»fr*»*__A specimen copy will be mailed

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MAGNALIUM

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AND OVER TEN TIMES AS TOUGH AS THE BEST ALUMINUM CASTINGS. : : : :

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G. A. CRAYEN & CO. Metal Dept.

81 New Street MORRIS R. MACHOL N. Y. C.

THE AERO WHEEL CO.

Builds all Kinds of Wheels for Aeroplanes and Monoplanes Standard or Special Sizes at Very Low Prices

782 Eighth Avenue New York J. DELT0UR, Inc.

Special grades of Bamboo for Aeronautic Work. Reed, Rattan and Split Bamboo for models. Tonka Rattan for Skids lJ4 diameter and under any length.

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Seventy per cent, of record-breaking American flights with American Aeroplanes were made

with propellers bearing this name

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Ageoti: E«mei Tricycle Co., Sao Fraocisco and Los Angeles; National Aeroplane Co., Chicago ; W. E. BongMon. Washingtoo, D. C.

HAS WIRELESS STATION.

The Aeronautical Society.— William E. Russell, a member, who is an officer of various wireless organizations and Chief of Scouts of the N. Y. N. G., at the General meeting: on July 11th. delivered an intensely interesting lecture on the transmission of electrical energy by wireless.

Mr. Russell made a special feature of the application of wireless transmission to electrical energy to the various problems of aeronautics. He demonstrated by actual experiments how messages can be sent by wireless to and from aeroplanes and dirigible balloons, and how large mines of high explosives can be discharged by-wireless transmission from aircraft. It is his purpose to demonstrate that the wireless apparatus ran be utilized for many purposes not commonly known.

Tn order to illustrate his discourse he used a wireless plant that he has been good enough to set up in the Society's rooms. This plant is very complete. Its use has been donated to the Society by Mr. Russell. The equipment is capable of transmitting messages for more than 50* miles and it can receive messages from a radius of 500 miles. Mr. Russell will also set into operation a wireless telephone and will equip the new aerodrome at Staten Island with another plant.

The wireless plant is now in operation in the Society's quarters. Members who wish to communicate with the Society by wireless should call "\VR" which is the temporary call. Later

the station in the Society's quarters will be formally listed in the Government Blue Book under a call to be assigned by the authorities at Washington.

Aero Club of California. New Officers elected June 4. Prof. H. La "V. Twining, pres.; Jav Gage, v. p.; C. E. McClay, v. p.; Van M. Griffith, sec, Park Hyde, treas.

BOYS AERO CLUB IN OMAHA. The Boys' Aero Club of The Y. M. C. A. of

Omaha, Neb., has been organized with a membership of nineteen. The following officers were elected: Arthur Schrum, 2622 Charles Street, President; Edwin Greevy, 2914 Hickory Street, Secretary; Wilbur Bradley, 60S S. 27th Street, Treasurer. They have adopted the constitution and bylaws, which call for a meeting every second and fourth Friday of the month. The objects of the Club are: to promote model aeroplane meets, and to give general information to its members concerning aeronautics. The members themselves take part on the program, making talks or reading articles from magazines, and outside speakers are called in frequently. Major Carl P. Hartmann, commander of Fort Omaha, was the principal speaker at the meeting, July 26th. Model meets are to be held about every six weeks.

The Aero Club of Nebraska has offered a fine silver challenge cup as first prize. Second, third, and fourth prizes are usually offered. The next meeting will be some time in August.

New Benoist Tractor

{Continued from page 01)

in the rear, so in the rib, the deepest part of the curve will occur nearer to the advancing edge of the ailerons, thereby taking advantage of the properties of the usual curve, which, of course, has greater efficiency, when the deepest part of the cambre is nearer the front. This is an advantage original with the Benoist machine. Other ribs probably have been built up of steel springs and oak stiffeners, but in no case were they ever constructed so as to automatically take a cambre of the highest efficiency.

ARTICLES COMING

Symposium on Propeller Standardization, by Gibson

Heath, Charavay and others. Christmas Biplane with Scale Drawing. Simple Computations Relating to Aeroplane Design, by

W. S. Horton. Amateur Aeroplane Builders, by Earle Ovington. Construction of a Weather Bureau Kite, by Prof. A. J.

Henry.

Leonardo da Vinci and Flying, by Charles Beecher Bunnell.

Efficient Development, by Hugo C. Gibson. Columbia Monoplane, with Scale Drawings.

A. F. Speedometer. Sparman Teaching Machine. Fakes and Fakers of Aviation. Patents.

Pitot Tube Speedometer. Curtiss Turntable for Hydros. Kellogg Control. Lewis Aeroplane Gun.

Analysis and Comparison of Patents, by Lee S. Burridgc.

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Page 64

Eight Flyers Suspended at Boston

During the Boston "Meet," the following- letter was addressed to each of the "licensed" aviators participating, including; Martin, Beachey, Page, JTreeman, Peck, Terrill, Hamilton and Fish—

New York, July 2, 1912.

Dear Sir: -

f am directed by the Contest Committee to request that you appear before it, either in person of by writing, at 3 o'clock P. M., Julv 16, 1!H2, in Room 401, 39 Whitehall Street, New York City, and show cause why the provisions of Article

G3 of the regulations of the F. A. I. should not be applied to you for having violated Article 5 of said regulations. Very respectfully,

Samuel Reber, Chairman, Contest Committee.

There are no copies published of the F. A. I. rules in English, and copies in French are not in general circulation, so that the answering of this letter was an impossibility. The paragraph referred to forbids licensed aviators participating in unsanctioned meets.

I HE Boston affair, which resulted so i disastrously in every way, was just i such a "meet," as the others that I have been run, but worse. It was just as much an exhibition; as any one-day stand. The prizes alleged to be offered were a joke. There were some contests scheduled but aviators did not participate save to amuse the crowd. As a meet, it was a fraud.

The manager and organizer, Willard, made the regular contracts with the aviators. Willard assured all that the meet either was or would be sanctioned. Several read in "Aero" that the meet was a sanctioned one. Some of these contracts, made with the more experienced concerns, were on the usual out-and-out exhibition basis, i. e., those with Stevens for Miss Quimby, Hamilton; the Curtiss Company for Beachey, and Knabenshue for Martin and Scott. These contracted to give an exhibition flight daily for so much money for a certain period of time. There was no element of a contest in their agreements with the management. Both have been flying recognized exhibitions in the past; in their case, at least, the Boston "meet" was no less an "exhibition" than those in which they had previously flown without comment, let or hindrance on the part of the Aero Club. The other men got a guarantee of so much, and "prize money." Knabenshue, Curtiss and Stevens saw that the money for Glenn Martin and Blanche Scott, Beachey and Miss Quimby was in the bank subject to completing the flying part of the contract. The management took care of the "strongest" ones in this way and "jollied" the rest. Some got but two and three hundred dollars for the entire week's Hying.

The only "prize money" to be had was a pro rata share of the gate receipts. After the first three days, the gate receipts were turned over to Earle Ovington as an aviators* committee and were divided according to the value of the men as aviators, on a basis of the guarantee to each.

SANCTION SYSTEM COMMENDABLE

The Aero Club of America has undertaken to sanction "meets" after assuring itself that money equalling the total of the prize list is in the bank for payment as awards are made. This was planned as a protection to the aviator from the irresponsible promoter and is a most commendable scheme. Thus far, the plan has proved more a source of trouble than benefit:

In the case of Boston, the club made no public or general announcement one way or the other. Individual officers of the club notified several flyers "unoffiially" the day before the meet opened that it was not' sanctioned and the news spread. Leo Stevens received VvOrd from the Club the meet was sanctioned.

Many days before that, the last of the contracts between the management and the aviators had been signed; some by men who had perfectly good reason to suppose the meet to be sanctioned. Had the aviators not appeared, or had refused to fly as demanded by the club, each and every one of them might have been sued for breach of contract and their machines would have stayed in the State of Massachusetts for the next year. Admitting that a "meet" where various kinds of contracts are made with aviators, of purely exhibition nature or otherwise, is a real ".meet," on the same plane as a horse race where entrants pay en-

trance fees and all stand alike to win or lose, the Aero Club, if it has an ultimatum to deliver, and is in a position to enforce its mandates, should make such delivery far enough in advance to reach intending competitors before they sign their contracts and ship their machines. In this way only can this "sanction" be of any value whatever.

Besides that, if said sanction is to be an item of value to aviators, and of like value to legitimate meet promoters, aviators should combine in the refusal of signature to contracts until the sanction is obtained. If the promoter cannot meet the requirements of the sanction, he is better off, the aviators are saved expense, the public is protected from fiasco and flying sport gains strength if the planned meet is given up.

If the club cannot make its sanction worth anything save as an object of ridicule and a vehicle for its own entanglement, better is it that the club withdraw its efforts and let the aviators who have always managed to worry along on their own hook in the past, take their own chances in the future.

In the case of Boston, after all the aviators were on the field, the machines set up, and telegrams are alleged to have been sent to at least one manager by the club that the meet would be sanctioned, the day previous to the opening the club announced that the meet was not sanctioned and twenty minutes before the opening gun a representative of the club is said to have appeared on the field and advised the aviators they were liable to have their "licenses" cancelled if they flew. A pretty time to discover that the meet ought not to be "sanctioned!"

Martin had his contract to fulfill and went ahead and flew. The club would not guarantee him against a lawsuit. Beachey followed him into the air and the "meet" was on. The flyers all saw they were expected by contract to fly and they decided a Massachusetts sheriff was more to be feared than aero club resolutions.

At Oakland, recently, the aviators were notified by the club their licenses would be revoked if they flew. They flew and nothing happened. Their contracts were with an exhibition company.

At Los Angeles meet, each aviator received a telegram the day before it opened that it was not sanctiond. The following day the-management received a telegram that it was sanctioned; the aviators got no word but took that of the management.

CLUB CONSIDERS IT EXHIBITION

An officer of the A. C. A. is alleged to have made the statement that although the Boston meet was not sanctioned there was nothing to prevent aviators from filling exhibition contracts if they had such contracts; that the meet would have to be run as a pure exhibition since it was not sanctioned. This statement was made after the A. C. A. refused the sanction, and just before the show opened.

The following letters have been received from some of those concerned. It is a great hardship for these flyers, the best there are in America, to be "cut out" of the Chicago meet, for instance, by the hasty action of the Club. "Naturally we turn to the trade papers as a major source of assistance," writes Phillips Ward Page.

pat e nts SECURED OR fee returned

Send sketch or model for FREE Search of Patent Office records. Write for our Guide Books and What to Invent with valuable List of Inventions Wanted sent Free. Send for our special list of prizes offered for Aeroplanes.

$600,000 offered in prizes for airships

We are Experts in Aeronautics and have a special Aeronautical Department. Copies of patents in Airships, 10 cents each. Improvements in Airships should be protected without delay as this is a very active field of invention and is being rapidly developed.

VICTOR J. EVANS <&, COMPANY

Main Offices - 724-726 NINTH ST., N. W. - WASHINGTON, D. C.

ABLE IDEAS WANTED 'PATENTS

c. L. parker

Ex-member Ex.mining Corps, U. S. P.tent Office Attorney-at-Law and Solicitor of Patents

American and foreign patents secured promptly and with special regard to the complete legal protection of the invention. Handbook for inventors sent upon request. 30 McGiU BIdg. WASHINGTON. D. C.

patent

RICHARD B. OWEN,

Manufacturers are writing me for patents obtained through me. Send for three books with list of 200 inventions. A postal will bring them free. My clients' patents sold free. Personal services. Aeronautical expert. dept. 5 owen bldg.

Washington, D. C.

Must Sell:—FINE MONOPLANE

1911, cross-country type, two seater, Bleriot, 100 h. p. engine, full equipment

A. V. REYBURN, Jr.

5305 Delmar Boul. :: St. Louis, Mo.

! ! ATTENTION ! !

WE SELL AEROPLANE SUPPLIES at prices that make friends. Send 6 cents in stamps for 22 pige, illustrated catalogue. We have blue-prints of all machines. We also sell tlie regulation Roald Aviation helmets.

New York Aeronautical Supply Co. 50 Broadway - - New York

RIBS

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see our exhibit AT "AERONAUTICS'" office 115 Brown Street :: :: Syracuse, N. Y.

PEDERSEN OIL PUMPS

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636-644 First Avenue, New York, U. S. A.

GIBSON PROPELLERS

Did you read our "Bargain Day"ads. in June? If not you lost one chance to save money. But here is another. Not so many now. Only 53 in stock. It is up to you—we are doing our best for you and aviation.

LIST OF SIZES IN STOCK AND PRICES FOR ONE MONTH ONLY

dia.

pitch

rot.

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prick

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pneu

hot.

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price

9'

7' or 6'

R

Reg.

$50.00

8'6"

7'6"

R

P> ('.nome

$47.50

S'6"

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47.50

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Farinai)

45.00

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45.00

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35.00

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R & L

 

35.00

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35.00

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32.50

6'10"

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32.50

6'6"

4'6"

R

Keg.

30.00

6'6"

4'

R

Reg.

30.00

61

4'

R

 

30.00

Any other sizes to order, pick out your sizes and slate the rotation desired, send the money and propellers will be shipped the same day. We have proved our standing. Our propellers are the Acme of accuracy and strength. CASH OR MONEY ORDER GETS YOUR PROPELLER TO YOU QUICKER

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Page 65

By GLENN L. MARTIN

My contract was a pure exhibition matter. Leo Stevens stated that he had received a telegram from the Aero Club to the effect the meet was sanctioned. Some machines were ready for the first "race" when a representative of the A. C. A. notified Beachey and myself we would

be liable to disqualification if we Hew--this

twenty minutes before the opening gun. All the money 1 got was guaranteed. The aviators saw it was simply a case of where they were expected to fly, the A. C. A. had not notified them in time, and the only thing left to do was to fly. We could not refuse to fly as the machines might have been attached and put out of business for a couple of years.

By PAUL PECK

I saw in "Aero" of June 29th, that it was a sanctioned meet. I received from Mr. Willard a telegram stating that it was a sanctioned meet. 1 did not receive any notice whatever from the Aero Club that it was not a sanctioned meet, until I had stopped flying Thursday night and then I received a notification to appear before them July 16th.

Mr. Southworth told me that the Aero Club, of which he is secretary, had given Mr. Willard until forty-eight hours before the opening of the meet to raise the necessary money. That being the case then the Aero Club must admit that they allowed us to go to the expense of shipping our machines to Boston, which we had to do more than forty-eight hours before the opening of the meet, on the chance of Willard not making good to them and when Willard did not make good, then the Aero Club stepped aside and left us to hold the bag, with our expenses already heavy and too late to get an engagement for the Fourth of July.

I do not think that we were treated justly or fairly at all and 1 for one am willing to stand my proportion of the expenses to have the case taken up before the F. A. I.

If the Aero Club were doing what they were supposed to do—protect the aviator—then why-did not they have an understanding with Mi'. Willard two weeks or even one week before the opening of the meet and either issue the sanction or refuse it and we would not have gone to the expense of shipping our machines there. But I for one had to ship my machine more than forty-eight hours before the opening and had no idea that the meet was not sanctioned until after I arrived in Boston Sunday afternoon.

The least that the Aero Club could have done would have been to telegraph us as soon as the sanction was refused but they failed even to do that.

What are the officials of the Club for if not to attend to situations like this?

I believe of course that there should be a governing body in charge of aviation in America but the Aero Club certainly failed miserably in this case and then tried to throw the blame on the aviators.

1 can do without the Aero Club quite as easily as the Aero Club can do without me for so far as I know they have never done anything for me yet. but I am in this business to stay and am going to stay in it. Aero Club or no Aero Club.

By F. J. TERRILL

My contract at Boston was signed some two weeks before the so-called meet took place. It was made with the Atlantic Aviation Association, W. A. P. Willard, Mgr. I understand Beachey's contract was with W. A. P. Willard individually. My contract, like Beachey's, was for exhibition Hying only, both of us agreeing to fly an average of so many minutes daily for a certain sum. Precedent has established the custom of non-interference by the Aero Club with exhibition flying and I fail to see any legitimate reason for my suspension.

Considering |the Boston affair, outside of contracts like my own, as a bona fide meet, it is still unjust that the A. C. A. should deprive any flyer of his certificate.

Some time, approximately two weeks before the meet, and before my contract happened

to have been signed, I read in the "AERO" that the meet was or would be a sanctioned one. Mr. Willard told me the meet was sanctioned at the time I signed my contract. Not till about four o'clock the afternoon of June 29 after flying had been done, did I learn from the general talk on the field that it had not been sanctioned. 1 was shown a letter by air. Willard from the Aero Club to the effect that the presenting of my license card would admit me to the field, which, to my mind, is a recognition of the meet by the Club.

I had no communication from the A. C. A. at any time until I received a letter asking me to state my reasons why I should not be suspended. It is unfair to competitors in a meet that they were not notified the meet was not sanctioned. I have never seen onr heard of any copy in English of the international rules, which I believe should he published for the information of promoters of meets and aviators.

By LINCOLN BEACHEY

I arrived at Boston, Mass. on the morning of June 29th for the purpose of fulfilling a contract held by and between the Curtiss Exhibition Co., and W. A. P. Willard.

On the afternoon of .lune 29, 1912 at about two o'clock. I was surprised to be informed that if I took part in the meet that my pilot's license would be revoked. I had previously been advised that the meet had been sanctioned by the Aero Club of America. At about four o'clock on the same afternoon Mr. Jerome S. Fanciülli, representing the Curtiss Exhibition Co., was paid in advance by the management of the meet a sum which the contract called for to be paid at the conclusion of the day's flying. This compelled me to fly that afternoon as we could not afford to be sued for failure to fill our part of the contract. As our contract called for a minimum of twenty minutes of exhibition flying and did not compel me to compete for prizes, 1 flew merely to fill our part of the contract and not to accept any money for winning any prizes.

On July 1st and 2d i merely repeated what I did the first day. 1 did not receive a cent in prize money, but just received the guarantee for what our contract called for.

By PHILLIPS WARD PAGE

It is hard to believe that the Aero Club of America, in suspending the eight aviators who flew at the Boston aviation meet, acted with a full understanding of the situation of these aviators before and during the .meet. With a full appreciation of all the facts, the national body could hardly have worked such a hardship upon the fliers involved, entailing also an injury to aviation as a whole in this country at a time when support by all those interested in the science is so much needed.

The whole affair 1'rom the start, in fact, seems to me to be a complication of misunderstandings. For my part, I entered the meet under the misapprehension that the meet had the sanction of the Aero Club, and 1 believe that this was true also of the others who have been disqualified. To have broken the contract with the meet, made in this belief that it was properly sanctioned, by refusing to fly after three days of the meet had passed with no notification from the Aero Club that r should not lly, would naturally have subjected me to serious legal difficulties. This aspect of the situation was especially important, since at the time I heard that the trouble brewing between the Aero Club and the meet management was reaching a climax, and it behooved those Who were flying to live up to the letter of their contracts.

Had word from the Aero Club that the meet was not sanctioned reached me in time, 1 should not have had the confidence in the meet that led me to enter. In view of the final outcome of the meet it is extremely unfortunate that this notification was so long delayed.

As the representative of the Federation Aeronautique International. the Aero Club of America is naturally the parent body in this country, and such should, 1 believe, assume some responsibility for the welfare of those

holding' is licenses to fly. Its failure to warn the eight fliers disqualified in time for them to avoid becoming involved in a situation that has resulted in serious financial loss to these men does not seem to me to show a readiness to look after the best interests of the aviators. Adding to the many unfortunate features of the meet, so far as the aviators themselves are concerned, the severe punishment of disqualification during the remainder of the flying season is not, in my opinion, an indication of the manner in which the Aero Club accepts its responsibility that bears much encouragement to the men who fly.

By A. LEO STEVENS

I have no letters or any communication with the Aero Club of America, except that I 'phoned the secretary of the Club from Boston, on Monday, June 24th, and asked very plainly whether the meet, commencing on June 2i/th and continuing until July 7th, had been sanctioned and received word that "it had". I also inquired if the money had been put up to guarantee the prizes and the word I received was "it had". After receiving this word I asked Mr. South worth of the Aero Club of America to be sure he was right and look into the mat-

tioned, that the prizes had been deposited and then one day, before the meet to notify them that if they took part they would lose their pilot's certificates. The Aero Club of America, or its representative, telephoned to my home two days prior to the meet stating that the Aero Club of America had not sanctioned the meet and that there had been no money deposited. Just imagine what a beautiful time a day or two before a meet to announce to the aviators that if they should take part their pilot certificates would be rejected!

I do not blame a single one of the flyers for taking part in the meet; they had a perfect right to do so and I say it is up to the Aero Club of America to apologize to the aviators for the treatment they have handed them. If the Aero club of America would run their affairs on business lines and have the meets which have been sanctioned by them deposit their money at the time the sanction was given, it would secure the aviators and procure members for the Aero Club of America. This sort of business has been going on long enough: every meet that has taken place in this country seems to have been a grand

THE VIEWS OF THE CONTEST COMMITTEE

By Samuel Reber, Major, U. S. Army, Chairman

You ask me for a statement from myself as chairman, that you can use, representing the Aero Club of America's opinion of the recent suspension of aviators. I beg to call your attention to the, fact that tee action of suspending the aviators was not that of the Aero Club of America but of its Contest Committee, which, after having been appointed by the Aero Club of America, is not controlled by it with respect to any action the Contest Committee may take under the general regulations of the F. A. I. The Contest Committee (Commission Sportif) in each country is the agent of the F. A. 1. to see that its regulations are enforced. Articles 4 and 5 of the regulations read as follows:

Article 4. Every person organizing or taking part in a meet or any trial whatsoever is understood: 1st. To thoroughly understand the

present regulations. 2nd. To engage to submit himself without restriction to the consequences that can result therefrom.

Article 5. All meetings, trials for record, etc., which are not organized in accordance with these regulations shall be forbidden; all participants therein shall be disqualified.

The question of the sanction of a meet is always in the hands of the Contest Committee and unless certain provisions required by the regulations are complied with the committee cannot sanction the meet. The gentlemen organizing the recent Boston Meet failed to comply with these requirements and consequently the meet could not be sanctioned and under Article 5 of the regulations there was no course left to the Contest Committee but to suspend the aviators who participated in an unsanctioned meet.

It is to be observed that but one aviator, Mr. Coffyn, inquired of the Contest Committee if the Boston Meet had been sanctioned. He was informed that it had not and would not be sanctioned until the organizers met the requirements of the International Aeronautic Federation. Had any of the other abiators interested made inquiry they would have been likewise informed. It would appear that common business prudence ought to lead aviators to make inquiries at the proper source as to the character and standing of meets. Participation in an unsanctioned meet, whether by contract or entry, clearly comes within the interdiction of Article 5 and the penalty must perforce follow.

ter and telegraph me at my expense and on the same night of Monday, June 24th I received the following telegram: "Yes."

All I was trying to find out was whether or not a given amount of money had been deposited.

I have noticed in some of the papers an alleged statement by the Aero Club to the effect that if Miss Quimby had not been killed she would also have been disqualified. I want to mention right here in plain words that the Aero Club of America had absolutely nothing to do with any of my exhibition flyers and 1 assure you that if Miss Quimby were living they would never dare to reject her pilot certificate. My contract was for a flat sum for certain exhibitions and not prizes, that Miss Quimby was to give a performance each day, weather permitting.

In my mind the flyers that were disqualified should hold the Aero Club responsible, after making the statement to me, of which I notified Mr. Knabenshue, Chas. K. Hamilton, and Paul Peck, that the .meet had been sanctioned and the money had been deposited.

I say that it is unjust to have a club first notify aviators that a meet had been sanc-

kick for the want of funds or something else.

1 quite well remember the balloon race from St. Louis in which the first man, who was Mr. Alan R. Hawley with Augustus Post, was to receive $4500; with $1000 for the second prize, $1000 for the third prize and $500 for the fourth prize. At that time the people of St. Louis had appropriated $3,500 and it was suggested by the sports who were taking part in that event that it was not sufficient. It was suggested the last minute to cable to Gordon-Bennett, who immediately appropriated $3500 and the St. Louis crowd immediately withdrew their part of the money and used up the Gordon-Bennett prize by dividing it. Had this money been deposited in a bank as it should be, prior to granting the sanction every aeronaut and aviator would have received what was coming to him. In this case, as I stated before, Mr. Hawley received the small sum of $1000 for his great winnings. This is only one or two cases in comparison to what has been done.

I remember at Indianapolis, an expert, who had never seen a balloon before, measuring balloons, by measuring the shadow and during the St. Louis race, for the Gordon Bennett Cup not a single balloon was measured.

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On the Death of Miss Quimby

By A. LEO STEVENS

hihikhihihihe tragic death of Miss Harriet tn rr\ m Quimby and William A. P. Willard, hi i hi who fell in midair from Miss hi hi Quimby's Bleriot monoplane at

!*iHiHiHiHi3i Boston, July 1st, has aroused um\ ersal speculation on the cause of that most unfortunate mishap.

All sorts of theories have been advanced, but as in the case of every similar tragedy, theories alone have remained to accounc tor the happening.

Out of all the maze of conllicting opinions two or three seem to have gained preeminence over all others: that something "went wrong" with some factor in the monoplane contiol or machinery: that a sudden wind-puff whipped it out of Miss Quimby's control, or that Miss Quimby became a \ ictim of sudden mental panic, or even fainted.

Knowing as f do the machine's condition before the flight, I discard the first theory. Knowing Miss Quimby as I did, I emphatically reject the third theory. The second theoiy 1 consider so purely speculative that I cannot seriously entertain it.

1 saw the flight. It was one of the most beautiful performances I ever saw Miss Quimby or any other aviator make. At all times, until the accident occurred, she had the Bleriot under splendid control. It was a perfect day. We were awaiting Miss Quimby's return from Boston Light. In a little while a speck appeared in the sky. Miss Quimby must have been at least 7,000 ft. in the air when she circled the light, for on the outward flight she had been steadily rising. As the speck grew larger and larger until the dragonfly outline of the Bleriot again shaped itself against the blue sky, we could see that Miss Quimby was coming down, flying at a speed of about Ho miles an hour.

At about 2,500 ft. altitude, Miss Quimby passed over the field and a quarter of a mile beyond made a turn to come back.

Suddenly that "something" happened. The Bleriot made a sudden dip, nose pointed downward, tail thrust upward. The next instant we saw a body (Willard's), hurl itself upward out of the machine, apparently leaping fifty feet in the air, describe an arc, then come plunging downward well ahead of the monoplane. Instantly Miss Quimby righted the machine. But a moment later the Bleriot again dipped, stood in a perpendicular position with its nose down and the tail up, then turned completely over. Then Miss Quimby, flung from her seat, dropped, her body whirling over and over-. She was plunging downward even before Willard's body struck.

The Bleriot was made to carry two persons— an operator and one passenger. Without the passenger the operator must carry an equivalent weight of sand or other ballast placed at the point where the passenger is carried. This is imperative, as otherwise the machine is thrown out of balance and cannot be controlled. An appreciable movement of that weight forward is highly disastrous: its shifting backward has little or no consequence. This is because the Bleriot travels with the tail elevated at quite an angle. The weight when added forward of the point of balance, thrusts the monoplane's nose downward while the tail rises at a sharper angle. Then the machine plunges, and unless the weight is immediately replaced, dives downward and eventually upsets.

The hood of Miss Quimby's machine had been removed to permit of easy access to her seat. Between her seat and the passenger's had been laid a deck of matched boards. My last warning to Willard, before he entered the machine and even after be had climbed aboard was not to leave his seat under any circumstances. This warning I was very particular to sive because I knew him to he a man of sudden impulses. I was fearful lest under sud-

den impulse and effervescing enthusiasm he should suddenly lean from his seat to communicate with Miss Quimby. This 1 knew would be an exceedingly dangerous thing to do. But I received his assurance that lie would "sit tight."

Now then, this is what 1 believe leally happened. 1 believe that as the flight drew to its conclusion, Willard, enthusiastic over Miss Quimby's splendid performance, for a moment forgot the danger of moving, and suddenlv stretched forward over the deck to shout a word of congratulation.

Miss Quimby, unable to see what was going on behind her, had no warning of Willard's movement until his shifted weight caused the machine to dip and the tail to flip upward. That same (lip of the tail, I believe, threw Willard into the air. I noticed that as he came down, feet fiist, body rigid, his position was such as would be assumed Ijy one attempting to crouch over the deck of the machine.

That theoiy is based upon my knowledge of the machine and my close personal acquaintance with Miss Quimby and Willard and their personal characteristics.

That Miss Quimby even for an instant lost her head is disproven by her instantaneous attempt to right the machine. Not only as her manager but as a close personal friend, I knew her to be a woman of great coolness and judgment and an operator of extraordinary ability. With Willard's weight gone—a weight absolutely necessary to the control of the monoplane—she was pitted against a circumstance over which no aviator, no human ingenuity, or knowledge, or skill or practice could have control. Only for an instant could she right the machine. Us next plunge and subsequent overturning were a mechanical consequence that could not be obviated owing to the construction of the machine.

By Paul Peck

She was coming down with the power wide open and when she threw the tail up to "volplane" in, Willard was not expecting it and was thrown out and she followed about one or two hundred feet later. The machine struck the water at a perfect gliding angle, wheels first and I am positive from the way in which it came down and from my later examination that nothing went wrong with the controls.

Had they been strapped in it would have never happened.

By Earle L. Ovington

1 found that one of the two left-hand control wires (all of the Bleriot control wires are in duplicate) had caught over the lower end of the warping lever. Of course this is a defect in construction, as the rudder wires should either have been put further away from the warping lever, or else have been run through fleedes at this point so as to prevent them becoming entangled with it.

The reason this has not happened before in a Bleriot monoplane is because the warping lever as used in Miss Quimby's machine was not the conventional Bleriot "cloche" which was a feature of my seventy-horsepower monoplane, and all others 1 have seen. 1 noticed this departure from conventional Bleriot practise when 1 examined Miss Quimby's machine before the flight. I have also called this matter to Monsieur Bleriot's attention in a letter under this date.

It is some satisfaction to know definitely the cause of this accident and I assure you that 1 hardly think there is a chance of my being mistaken.

By Lincoln Beachey

In regard to the accident to Miss Quimby 1 would not like to express myself on what 1 thought was the exact cause. There are several things that mav have caused the accident. She may have fainted, and if this happened she

would naturally have gone forward, shoving the control forward and causing the machine to plunge downward and throw Willard and herself out.

The wires or their connections to the rear elevator may have broken or jammed.

She may have attempted to come down at a steeper angle than she -was coming down. This could have caused Willard to be thrown up. Relieved of his weight in the rear of the center of balance the machine would naturally want to come down at a steeper angle.

Before starting on her flight her mechanican gave her instructions in regard to pumping gasoline from the auxiliary tank to the main tank. She had to reach forward to do this as there was a two-or three-way valve she had to turn before starting to pump. She did not seem to be very familiar with the operation or the exact way to turn the valve before and after pumping. Her gasoline may have become low in the main tank and she may have attempted to pump some in from the auxiliary. She may have become confused, on which way to turn the valve to do this and realizing her engine was liable to stop, she may have attempted to come down at a steeper angle and land as she was in a very good position to do this nicely.

What caused this and other accidents similar no one will ever know.

By Glenn L. Martin

I was watching Miss Quimby's flight and saw the entire unfortunate occurrence. Miss Quimby was returning from the lighthouse at full speed, she had dropped from her previous elevation of 4000 feet with the wind to 1000 feet against the wind in a rather short time. She had crossed over the flying field, had made a half circle into the wind, over the bay. It was best to still make a complete circle before getting into the field and landing against the breeze.

1 was astonished at the speed she was making, with power on, gliding to a landing. On completing the half circle she lowered the elevator quickly, which slanted the machine to a steeper angle and causing a strong pressure on the upper side of the wings. The sudden

change in direction, however slight, was sudden enough to unseat both the pilot and passenger and throw both forward and out of the machine, Miss Quimby succeeding manager Willard by the fraction of a second. Her angle was not too great had the power been turned off. Aviators know that any quick movement of the elevator of a fast aeroplane will pitch one out of his seat unless strapped in. Miss Quimby increased the angle of her dive to avoid the complete circle previously referred to, or else; she was taken sick and felt compelled to make a quick landing or had even fainted at the time of the accident.

t watched the machine itself to see what would happen. Unoccupied, it glided down on a perfectly even keel, at an angle of not more than 30 degrees until the wheels hit the water, when it pitched forward and over on its back, doing not very great damage. If a warping wire had been caught in the control lever, as has been suggested, the machine would have done some fancy spiralling. Paul Peck, and others, examined the machine closely and found nothing wrong with the control wires.

The weather was good. I had been flying all the afternoon and there was no rough air whatever.

Had Miss Quimby and Willard been strapped in, the accident would not have occurred, in my opinion.

ON THE DEATH OF WELSH

Following is the findings of the Government board of inquiry.

"*****ln attempting to change the direction upward, while traveling at this high velocity, either the plane broke, due to the sudden strain when a short distance from the ground, or else the aviator misjudged the short time available while at this high speed, and struck the ground before the direction could be changed upward. The opinions on this point differ, but there is little doubt that the accident was caused by the aviator making the dip at a high speed, and not due in any way to improper construction of the aeroplane or weakness of the materials used. All of the control wires were found unbroken."

WRIGHT COMPANY STARTS CAMPAIGN

A campaign of education has been started by the Wright Company with a view to interesting the motor boat owners in the hydroaeroplane. A water machine station has been arranged at Glen Head, L. I., near the Glen-wood Country Club, where 800 feet of water frontage has been offered by the club. Demonstrations will be made at the various boat and yacht clubs along the Sound, passengers will be taken up, the regattas and cruises will be taken part in with the hydroaeroplane. The country club has appointed an aviation committee, in fact instigated the scheme with a view to encouraging its members to flight. By next Summer a row of sheds is expected to house members' machines. Students of flight, members or not, have the privileges of the Club and the golf grounds. The place may be reached by auto roads from New York, by railroad, water, or by ferry from Rye across the Sound.

Charles Wald will he the demonstrator and pilot. The machine, Model C, used will have stepless metal floats, with keels.

LACROIX TAKES A. M. & E. CO.

The Aeroplane Motors & Equipment Company, of 17S0 Broadway, have been, since July 8th, connected with the Paul Lacroix Automobile Company, Inc., which concern thus Jarmsan aviation dept. Messrs. McCurdy have severed their connections with the Equipment Company, which are importing Gnome. Renault and Anzani motors, which motors they will carry in stock. They are also sole American agents for the Salmson (Canton-Unne type), and Chenu motors, and for the Morane-Saulnier machine, which machine, in the latest circuit abroad, the Circuit Anjou, made the

fastest time. They are also the sole American agents for the Train monoplane, which obtained such large publicity in the European Circuit. They are importing all the standard aeronautical supplies, as Astrol Varnish, for which product they are the sole American agents, aviation helmets, etc.

10-HOUR TEST OF STURTEVANT MOTOR

A ten hour, non-stop test of a Sturtevant 6 cylinder 60 h.p. aeronautical motor was recently made for the buyers of the engine, a western aeroplane company. The engine was equipped with a Sturtevant propeller, sv2 ft. in diameter and was tested without the muffler and on a stand constructed for measuring the thrust of the propeller, described in the June number. The speed and thrust were observed at frequent intervals and the total oil and gasolene consumption measured. The mechanics in charge of the test were not allowed to touch the motor and during the entire run of ten hours, no adjusments were made. The motor ran perfectly without missing a single explosion. Oil was supplied every two hours by means of a hand pump.

A summary of the results of the test is given below:—

Motor started 9.20A.M. RPM 1237 Thrust 475 lbs.

At 7.10P.M. " 1203 " 440 -" stopped 7.20P.M. Total oil used = 4.75 gallons,

gasolene used = 65 gallons

How do you suppose I can get along in two months without it? AERONAUTICS always was the best and biggest aero magazine in America, and now that Mr. Sellers is writing articles of real technical value, it is the best in the world. C. B'., Chicago.

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entries for gordon bennett cup defense

Edson F. Gallaudet has offered his "Bullet" as a Gordon Bennett aviation Cup defender, under the conditions of the recent offer of the A. C. A., previously printed in "Aeronautics." Scale drawings of the machine and details were published in the June issue.

Jules Vedrines, the French aviator, was first on July 13, in the elimination trials.

He beat all records from 10 to 200 kilometers, making an average speed of 169 kilometers (about 105 miles) an hour. He covered the 200 kilometers (124 miles) in 1:10:50.

The Nieuport machine, which a while ago the A. C. A. announced had been given to the club for the use of members, is now under the control of the Chicago Aero Club, which body offers it to aviators for practice in preparation for the G-B race, September 9. The Chicago club has ordered a small surface 160 b.p. monoplane from the Burgess Co. & Curtis and is soliciting aviators to offer their free services in piloting it in the big event. The Nieuport is offered aspirants for this honor for practice work.

Incorporation papers have been issued for the "Defender Syndicate" of Chicago.

THE BOSTON MEET

Those who participated at Boston were: Glenn L. Martin (Martin biplane-Curtiss engine); Lincoln Beachey (Curtiss): Harriet Quimby (Bleriot-Gnome); Phillips W. Page (Burgess-Sturtevant engine); Arch Freeman (Burgess-Wright; Paul Peck (Columbia-Gyro); Chas. S. Niles (Thomas biplane-Kirkham engine); Frank Terrill (Curtiss); Farnura Fish (Wright); Chas. K. Hamilton (Curtiss); Blanche Scott (Martin-Hall Scott): George F. Gray (Burgess-Wright); 1). C. Patmore (Thomas-Kirkhamj.

Martin made the greatest total duration, although no records of any kind were kept, dying every day. Charles K. Hamilton took second place in total duration.

The Thomas biplane on its first public appearance at an affair of this kind, attracted much favorable attention. A Kirkham 70 b.p. 6 cyl. engine drove a geared down S' d. by 9' p. propeller and the machine developed great speed. An accident to the gear case necessitated a change of engine and direct drive, with smaller propeller.

The Martin biplane attracted a lot of attention both by reason of fine workmanship and speed, practically equalling Beachey in speed, with a larger spread. He uses a similar Curtiss 75 h.p. motor. A fixed vertical surface has been attached over the front wheel which helps in turning and banking and keeps from skidding in gusty weather. This has half the area of the rudder.

Hamilton used a front elevator Curtiss, while the other Curtiss machines were headless.

The Sturtevant motor a 4 cyl.. made its first public appearance at a meet in the Burgess 'plane of Page. This was used all during the meet and gave him greater speed. In his first flight, he made 5000 feet and expressed himself as pleased with the perfect working of the engine.

The Martin and Miss Scott contracts amounted to $4000, Hamilton $1100, Beachey $1200, Miss Quimby $2000. Some of the other flyers did not meet expenses.

army aero appropriation.

The Army Appropriation Bill was vetoed by the President and it has not yet been passed again by Congress, so no one knows positivelv how much will be appropriated for aeronautics this year.

Plans have been gotten up for a hangar and float at Governors Island for an Army hydroaeroplane Station but nothing can be done in the matter until after the passage of the Appropriation Bill, as until the Bill passes there is no money available for this purpose.

big circuit race off.

"Owing to the general lack of interest in aviation in the cities of the Middle West, designated as controls of the American Air Circuit if 1912, resulting in their failure to assure financial support sufficient to cover prizes large enough to attract aviators," states the Aero Club of America, "the Board of Governors have decided to call off the race."

Chicago, early in the movement, assured its portion of the money desired. Detroit, Dayton and Akron also responded well, but it was impossible to secure from the other controls the amount of money required.

army makes good total.

The flights at the U. S. Signal Corps Aviation School for the year ending June 30, resulted as follows:

Total flights, 1500,

Total duration. 259 hours, 16 mins. Flights made by aeroplanes before final acceptance by the Government are not included in this number, nor does it include practice "hops" across the field by beginners.

gordon bennett aviation race

The following countries have entered machines in the Gordon Bennett aviation race to take place at Chicago on September 9th: —

France, 3 machines: Belgium, 3 machines: England, 2 machines; Holland, 1 machine: Switzerland, 1 machine.

The individual entrants have not as yet been announced by the various countries.

g-b balloon race.

The countries that have entered the Gordon-Bennett Ballon Race to take place in Germans, are as follows:

America. 3 balloons; Belgium. 3 balhx ns; Cer-many, 3 balloons; France. 3 balloons; Austria, 3 balloons; Switzerland. 3 balloons; Italy. 2 balloons, Denmark. 1 balloon; England, 1 balloon: Russia, 1 balloon.

The pilots of the ballons have not as yet bc;>n announced.

imports and exports

Two foieign aeroplanes were imported during May at a value of $7,671. None in April. For the eleven months ending May 31, the total reaches 17, value $59,71:'-.

Domestic exports in May were 6 at $22,‘»10 and for eleven months totaled 27, value $1(12,705. In April 2 were exported at $9,000.

The total extorts of foreign built machines for these eleven months amounted to 11 at $35,831, none of these were exported in May or April.

Foreign machines in warehouses May 31. :. at $11,423.

balloon ascensions

Pittsfield, June 23. Wm. Van Sleet and Jay B. Benton in the '-Boston" to Springfield. Mass.

Pittsfield, July 4. 11. II. Clayton and .lay B. Benton in the "Boston" to Shutesbury.

Kansas City, .luly 12. Ca.pt. II. E Honeywell. John Watts and a guest in the "Kansas City 1U," landing two miles S. E. of llolliday. Ivans.

Indianapolis, May 31. Cart. G. L. Bumbuugh. Chas Stone, Col. A. B. Munn and Andrew Farrell in the "Dusstldorf I" 1» miles k. of Bridgeport.

Indianapolis, May 31. Dr. P. M. Crume and Dr. W. I. Jones in the "Dusseldorf II" to Green-castle. Alt. 17,000 ft.

Indianapolis, May 31. ——--in

the Luzerne; no detail available.

WRIGHT MEMORIAL

Over $2,000 has been raised by the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain., to establish an annual "Wilbur Wright Lecture" as a memorial to the late Mr. Wright. What has become of the "Chair" idea proposed in America?

DEATH LIST

Hamburg, June 4. Aviator Rost.

Dockeritz, Gev., June 22. Lieut, von Falkenhayn in landing, army aviator; Aviatik .monoplane.

Vesailks, June 25. Lieut. Etienne died from injuries received June 10.

Mülhausen, Germany, June 29. Schadt in a military Aviatik aeroplane, "made too sharp a curve."

Madrid, Spain, June 30. Capt. Don C. Bayo died of injuries received three days before. He was a military student flyer.

Altona, Prussia, July 1. Benno Koenig died of injuries received (previous day; machine said to have struck unseen obstacle; monoplane of own construction.

Bucharest, Roumania, July 4. Lieut. Cavanda of Roumanian army.

Salisbury Plain, Eng., July 5. Captain E. B. Loraine and Sergeant Major Wilson of the British Army Flying Corps, were killed flying over military encampment.

Mourmelon, July 2. A student named Pecker, killed on landing.

St. Cys, Fr., July 9. Rene Bedel, struck telegraph wires; hazy weather. Morane monoplane.

Palo Alto, Italy, July 13. Victor M. Smith, Jr., a student of Stanford University; struck by a gust of wind close to the ground.

Sebastopool, July 15. Lieut. Zekytski killed in military 'plane.

Paris. July 15. Gaston Olivers fell 150 metres with his biplane.

Leipsig, Ger., July IS. Lieut Prusser, flying for license in a monoplane.

The list now totals 1S6.

SCRIPPS BUYS AQUAPLANE

W. E. Scripps of Detroit. Mich., the well known fast motor boat man, has placed an order for prompt delivery of a Burgess hydroaeroplane equipped with a Sturtevant 4-cylinder motor. Scripps, who said he wouldn't fly for any amount of money, was converted by Brookins who finally got him up as a passenger this .month. The official testing of the War machine will probably be held at Marblehead and at Saugus, Lieutenants Kirtland and Arnold being there for the purpose.

NOTABLE WATER FLIGHT

William F. Cline, flying in a Welles hydroaeroplane of the type used by Fred Eells, on July S, broke Eells record at Cayuga Lake Park, near Rochester. His flight may be considered remarkable owing to the fact that the engine which he was using is considered small, being but a four-cylinder machine of 50 horse-power made by the Arm of Welles & Adams.

The new record is 1 hour 5S 3-4 minutes, made over a fifteen-mile course at the park and the distance traveled was 101 miles at an altitude of 2,100 feet. The flight was brought to a sudden close when the aviator noticed that

a bolt holding one of the rods had worked loose, and he shut off the ipower to prevent the ehancc of breaking his Charavay propeller. The distance and duration record is 13S miles in 2h. 27 min., by Lieuts. Ellyson and Towers, in a Curtiss.

FOREIGN ORDERS PLACED HERE

Representatives of the Russia and Roumanian governments have been negotiating with Maximotor makers for the equipment of army plane Maximotors. A 6-cylinder military type of 105 h. p. ordered by the Roumanians is well under way. The new military engine with their equipment of clutch, combination auxiliary exhaust and muffler, double ignition and self-starter are arousing a great deal of attention among army officials.

Aviation engines are not manufactured in Russia, or the Balkan States-Bulgaria, Servia and Roumania, though most of them have more army aeroplanes than the United States. Representatives of the Balkan powers state that they have for a long time been looking for reasonable priced four cycle, water cooled engines.

The Moisant Company has already delivered two aeroplanes to Mexico, one of them a two-man machine, 100 h. p. Gnome. Warden and Alvars accompanied the machines.

The Curtiss people have done a good business abroad, as told elsewhere in this issue, also see note on exports of domestic aeroplanes.

WISCONSIN'S AERO COURSE

Professor Charles S. Slichter is giving a course three hours weekly in aerodynamics to advanced students of mathematics, physics and engineering, during the summer term of the LTniversity of Wisconsin at Madison. The course includes lectures on general aerodynamical theory, the application to the problem of mechanical flight and the classical problems of stability and efficiency.

DYOTT'S SCHOOL DOING WELL

During the first month of its existence the Sloane School of aviation at Hempstead Plains, enrolled seven pupils. One of these, J. S. Herbert, graduated in three weeks after he began to take his lessons on the Deperdussin monoplane. The other pupils are W. Leonard Bonney, a farmer Wright flyers, J. G. Gilpatric, a very clever sixteen year old boy, T. E. Step-toe, Guy Morton, W. E. Roberts and W. I. Twombly. The price of $300.00 for the course proved exceedingly attractive. Unlike any other school, no charge whatever is made for the use of the machine when the pupil flies for his license. Nor is it required that the pupil put up the breakage guarantee in cash.

Two Anzani -motors recently were sold' by the Sloane Company in Philadelphia and one was sold in New York. Several have been ordered for delivery in various other parts of the country. The motor that carried the daud-ron 'plane from Paris to London crossing the Channel at a great altitude, is extraordinarily popular.

BOOKS RECEIVED

B'RAUNBECK'S SPORT LEXICON, 1912-1913, published by Gustav Braunbeck's Sport-Lexicon, G. M. B. H., Berlin, W. 35, at 15M. A monster book of 1,300 pages, in German, listing the aero and other sport clubs of the world, publications, prominent men identified with sports, aeroplanes and motor boats of the world, etc., a sporting "Who's Who."

G-B BALLOON RACE The Following List Comprises the Entries in the National Balloon Race Held at Kansas City, Mo., July 27th, 1912.

BALLOON

ENTERED BY Wm. F. Assmann

PILOT Wm. F. Assmann John Berry Paul McCullough G. L. Bumbaugh Albert Holz

AIDE

Albert von Hoffman John Hart

Chas. Trautman

Mil. Pop. Club No. 1 Mil. Pop. Club Mil. Pop. Club No. 2

--Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.

Drifter Albert Holz

Cole G. L. Bumbaugh

Kansas City Second Kansas City Aero Club -

LTncle Sam " " " ,, -

The best .men in the race are by precedent expected to represent America in the Gordon Bennett in Germany.

Coming Events!

Cast your shadow towards the

King of Attractions

HARRY BINGHAM BROWN, English Pilot

Elevating

FREDERICK RODMAN LAW

+

t

+ +

+

+

In his WRIGHT AEROPLANE to a height of 4,500 feet, disposing of his human freight at a dizzy height, who $ descends by the aid of a PARACHUTE.

Every click of the watch a "THRILLER," something worth going miles to see.

No other act like it in the WORLD.

+ +

+ + +

MANAGERS, Booking, will do well to address

A. LEO STEVENS

Box 181, Madison Square, New York

BALDWIN

Vulcanized Proof Material

For Aeroplanes, Airships, Balloons. First Rubberized Fabric on the market. Lightest and strongest material known. Dampness, Heat and Cold have no effect. Any Strength or Color.

"Red Devil" Aeroplanes

That anyone can fly. Free Demonstrations.

Hall-Scott Motors

Eastern distributor. 40 h. p., 4-cyl.; 60 and 80 h. p., 8-cyl., on exhibition at Wittemann's. All motors guaranteed. Immediate delivery.

Experting

Will install a Hall-Scott free of charge in anyone's aeroplane and demonstrate by expert flyer. Expert advice. 'Planes balanced.

CAPTAIN THOMAS S. BALDWIN

Box 78, Madison Sq. P. O. New York

AEROPLANES

Silk Dirigible, Complete, with Tent/ W Will Sell at Low Price ^| W

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Phillips W. Page Flying in Burge»s-Wright Machine Equipped with 40-H. P. Sturtevant Motor

The Latest and Best principles of gasoline motor construction, carefully tested and proved by the foremost builders of engines in this country and abroad, are found in the

Si urlav a ni' Aeronaulical Molor

A four cylinder 40 horsepower STURTEVANT motor was used by Mr. Page in a Burgess biplane flown by him during the Boston Aviation meet. Although used in every event during the entire meet, absolutely no adjustments or repairs were made on the motor, which operated perfectly, carrying the plane to altitudes of over 5,000 feet. Such absolute reliability is due to sound engineering principles in design and superior workmanship in construction.

Ask for Catalog No. 200 N

B. F. STURTEVANT COMPANY

hyde park. boston mass. and principal cities of the world.

HALL SCO

Complete Aviation Power Plants

Backed by the Hall-Scott guarantee of excellence, reliability, flexibility and power, to a greater degree than can be found in any other motors (with equal number of cylinders and size in bore and stroke).

& Total Entries 0 Los Angeles

50

International

75/0 Oakland Meet HALL-SCOTT EQUIPPED

Hall-Scotts purchased, used, and endorsed by the greater number of professional aviators

Send for new catalogue (now ready)

Address: Capt. THOS. S. BALDWIN

P. O. Box 78, Madison Square, New York

or write direct to

Hall-Scott Motor Car Co.

818 CROCKER BUILDING SAN FRANCISCO, CAL.

Vol. XI, No. 3 SEPTEMBER, 1912 Serial No. 61

COMING AND GOING

F. C. HILD, IN AMERICAN AEROPLANE SUPPLY HOUSE MONOPLANE

ROBERTS 4-x 50 H. P. MOTOR

Hempstead. L. I., New York, August Sth. 1912 THE ROBERTS MOTOR COMPANY, Sandusky. Ohio

Gentlemen:—Having recently installed one of your 50 H. P. Roberts Motors in one of our single seater lileriot-type monoplanes used as a School Machine, we have found the motor very efficient and satisfactory just as we have other Roberts Motors that we have installed in our crosscountry-type single seaters, and passenger-carrying monoplanes.

We are enclosing several photographs showing our monoplane in flight, the speed of which averages 65 miles per hour, which is far more than we had expected.

Very truly yours, AMERICAN AEROPLANE SUPPLY HOUSE. Per (F. C. Ilild)

OUR NEW 36-PAGE CATALOG FREE

b0bekk motor g>

September, 191I

KIRKHAM AVIATION MOTORS 1912 MODELS

Model B-6, 50 H.P., Weight. 235 lbs

IMMEDIATE DELIVERY

Model B-4, Model B-6, Model B-G-6, Model B-12,

35 H. P., 50 H.P., 70 H.P., 120 H.P.

Weight, 185 lbs. Weight, 235 lbs. Weight, 255 lbs. Weight, 400 lbs.

KIRKHAM Motors are used and endorsed by Thomas Bros.; Rex Monoplane Co.; Burgess Company and Curtis; Mills Aviators; Prowse Aeroplane Co.; Sparling-Craig Co.; Twin City Aviators ; American Aeroplane Mfg. Co.; Tarnopol Aviation Co., besides several individual owners, and are acknowledged to be the Best American Motor, regardless of price.

When you buy that new motor it is for your interest to investigate thoroughly before you buy any motor. There is a reason why the KIRKHAM has become so popular with those who know and buy on merit only.

- INVESTIGATE--

CHARLES B. KIRKHAM savo^e^ork

tittt:::tin::»n»n:t»;:»ntin»ttttttitt!tnn»ititMttt>M»itttttttturtittitttnttiititt»M»tMttinttititititntti

TRADE MARK

patented march 14. 1911; july 25 1911; october 17. 1911: other patents pending

TWENTY REASONS:

It is the only patented propeller on sale.

It is protected in every feature by numerous patents issued and others pending.

It is the only factory-made propeller made by a patented process and special machinery.

It is the only propeller in which the grain and texture of the wood is exactly duplicated in the blades.

It is the only propeller without "flat grain" wood, being all "edge grain" and therefore certain not to warp.

It is the only propeller that is doubly laminated at the hub and in the wide part of lhe blade.

It is lhe only propeller with tough and heavy wood where toughness is required and having light-weight interior of spruce or cherry.

It is the only propeller that is also a fly-wheel with heavy material in the rim. It eliminates vibration.

It is the only propeller with reinforcing in the blade ends.

It is the only propeller having curved dowels inserted edgewise through the blades.

It is the only propeller that cannot be split clear to the hub and beyond repair.

It is the only propeller that will cut grass, twigs, bushes, ice and water without being broken or badly worn.

It is lhe only propeller progressively improved—showing marked progress over the propellers of years gone by.

It is the only propeller built to a scientifically plotted and patented pitch curve.

It is the most efficient propeller in the world—Hie only propeller unqualifiedly endorsed by prominent French and American Aviators.

The only propeller furnished to the general trade and used by the U.S. Army and Navy and foreign governments.

It is the only propeller guaranteed to be perfectly suited to the power that is to turn it and lo the load that it is to drive—when we are given this information.

It is the only propeller insured against total loss by

accident and repaired free for Ihirty days.

It is the only propeller that a wise a viator can afford to use. Works better and lasts longer than any other kind.

It is the easiest lo buy and lhe hardest to find fault wilh.

It is thecheapest propeller in lhe world, built on honor and sold on merit, yet priced no higher than the old-fashioned, unpatented kind.

Can anything more be desired? We guarantee and furnish not the propeller alone but perfect satisfaction and highest results as well.

Write for prices, booklet and information sheet.

Send for the new list showing a wide range of styles, sizes and prices

AMERICAN PROPELLER COMPANY,

New Large Factory 243-249 East Hamburg Street

Baltimore, Md.

BURGESS SUMMER TRAINING SCHOOL NOW OPEN

The Hydro-aeroplane Has the Call for 1912

flier over

^Unequalled facilities are provided for instruction in the operation of the marine flu Marblehead Harbor and the bay adjoining. By giving training at our manufactuung header pupils an opportunity, at no extra cost, to become thoroughly familiar with g instruction and design, and ensure against delays. Course consists of FOUR O , „ . , • . •_. .:____ _________~~ ~n Kroa^po-e riKl.- We nrovide hydro-

quarters we offe the details of construct.-.

HOURS actual flying during which time we assume all breakage risk, aeroplane for license test.

Instructors: Howard W. Gill, Phillips W. Page, Clifford L. Webster—All licensed aviators

Booklet with full particulars furnished on request. CJ Aeroplanes and Hydro-aeroplanes for military, sporting and exhibition purposes ready for prompt delivery.

BURGESS COMPANY AND CURTIS, Marblehead, Mass.

WHY PARAGON LEADS

BOSCH

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Bosch-Equipped Engines are Reliable, Efficient Engines

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Simple Computations Relating to Aeroplane Design

WITH PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS By WINTHROP S. HORTON

1NCE the aeroplane has proved itself worthy of commercial development, there have been many who have endeavored to build their own machines, only to meet with failure through a lack of knowledge of the engineering principles involved.

The novice has at his disposal any number of good books treating the aerodynamic theories but the'question of design from a purely physical standpoint seems to have been neglected.

While the design of an aeroplane from the former standpoint is of paramount importance, the designer should also thoroughly understand the laws of forces and strengths of materials. The scope of the present article does not allow of more than a lew practical illustrations, but is written in the hope of pointing out the proper lines along which a more extensive study may be made.

In order to compute the actual sizes of the members of any structure it is necessary to carefully consider all possible, maximum loads which may be imposed on that part of the structure; bearing in mind that

checked glide or dip the load on the wing surfaces-may easily be found, for any given conditions. Assume for a fair hypothesis that the machine in flight weighs 1000 pounds, that due to a glide at 40° with the horizontal it attains, say, a speed of 120 miles per hour, or 17G feet per second; and, further, that it is brought to rest vertically, i.e., its entire vertical velocity is checked in two seconds. The load imposed on the wings is due to two forces; first, that required to produce the deceleration; and, second, that required to support the weight.

The force necessary to produce this deceleration, at any moment, is represented Ly the formula:

w

t

In which—w = weight in lbs. = 1000 g = 32.16 (constant) t = time in seconds — 2 Vj = Initial velocity in feet per second

Vo = Final velocity in feet per second

mechanical design of any kind is a compromise between theory and actual practical conditions; the success of such design depending to a large extent upon experience and what might be termed the "mechanical intuition" of the designer.

Perhaps the most important single member in an aeroplane is the main wingspar, a simple case being shown in Fig. 1. (Monoplane)

The length from tip to point of juncture with fuselage is 12 feet, while a single guy supports it at "la," a distance of 7 ft. from its inner end.

The first step is to compute the maximum strain to which the wing may be subjected and considering that this is due to a rapidly

no

nfi 1225

Since we are considering vertical velocity only, v, will equal the vertical component of the actual velocity of the machine; or 176 sin 40° and v, is o:

1000 17cx.643

whence f =- -

32.16 2

f = 17r.0

Hence, the total load on the wings Is 1750 -f 1000 or 27-">n pounds. The load on each wing is 137." lbs. and if the total area is iso sq. feet, the average pressure per foot is approximately 1"> pounds.

Actually, part of this load will be taken by the tail surface, but in the non-lifting type the percentage is negligible. Where a lifting type tail is used the method is simi

AERONAUTICS

Page 72

lar except that the wing and tail sections are computed separately, using in the formula the part of the weight supported by each.

The actual part of the load taken by the main spar will depend upon the spacing of the spars and somewhat upon the aero-curve. In the present case, assume 70% as a safe maximum. Therefore, in Fig. I, the total load on the spar is 137S X .7 or 960 lbs. (approx.) and the load per foot is 960 12 or SO pounds. This assumption that the load is uniformly distributed will not alter the results where the ribs are spaced as close as the usual practice.

The guy wire divides the member into two unit beams, the first 7 feet being of the simple type (supported at both ends) whil? the outer end forms a cantilever (supported at one end only). It will be necessary to determine in which section the bending moment is greater, and find the required cross section to safely withstand the stress produced by that moment if, as is usual, the spar is of uniform cross section throughout.

According to the laws of moments of forces, the maximum bending moment for a simple beam evenly loaded comes at the center and is represented by the equation:

WT Ms =-

S

while that for a cantilever evenly loaded comes at the point of support, the equation being:

wt

Mc =-

o

In both cases W = load per foot 1 = length in feet 80X49

Whence Ms =---= 490

8

80X25

and Mc =-=1000

2

Consequently, the greatest fiber stress comes at the juncture of the beam and guy wire, showing the importance of properly designing the fastening so as not to unnecessarily weaken the spar. Any holes should be as near the horizontal center line as possible and no holes should be made vertically nor near the bottom edge. It is also apparent that the lightest beam (of uniform cross section) is only possible when Ms equals Mc, a condition brought about by attaching the guy wire somewhat nearer the tip of the spar. Such an arrangement, however, lessens the angle of the wire (unless the top of tripod is carried well above the wings) and greatly increases the stress.

The pull in the avire is represented by the equation:

L

P =-

Sin© (Fig. 1)

in which P = pull on the wire in pounds

L = Total perpendicular load at

point of attachment. 0 = angle of wire with spar.

In order to determine L it is necessary to compute the combined perpendicular forces

ÔECTIOM-

ri

II

-ibi-

ribh3

-^bi-

j|(H-h3)

OÌDI

bAU- -ibi-

 

-mar

-ibh-b-i

(5n3-bh3)^*^hbh (h-tì)* ^l2(bh-bh)

' ers

.0^31 a*

 

.Ot-91 (D*-a*)

p

.(M-31 bd.3

 

.0-^-31 (AB-ab*)

Salues of moment of /r7erf/'<? for var/ovs secf/ons '

of the two sections of beams at point of attachment "A", Fig. I. These consist of the reaction Ps of the simple section and that Pc of the cantilever section. As the beams are considered to be uniformly loaded the formulae are ;

Wl SO X 7

Ps =-----= 2S0 lbs.

2 2

Pc = WI = SO X 5 = 400 lbs. Whence L = 280 + 400 = 6S0 lbs. and if 0 = 30° 6S0

P =--= 1360 lbs.

.5

As P is inversely proportional to Sin 0, the advantage of having 0 as great as possible is evident. To this stress must also be added the direct pull due to the turnbuckle, or wire tightener, this being merely enough to insure tautness. It must also be borne in mind that this figure is the actual estimated pull in the member and the wire used should be good for two to four times

September, 1912

this amount, depending upon the safety factor desired.

In the case of more than one guy wire supporting the spar the computations are similar, except that each section between the points of attachment must be considered as unit sections as before, each bending moment being found and the maximum used in further computations.

The pull in each guy wire is found as before, making L equal to the sum of the reactions of the unit sections adjoining the point of attachment.

In order to determine the actual cross section of the spar, the known quantities may be substituted in the general equation for any type of beam;

SI

M = -

(J

in which m the maximum bending moment, S the allowable fiber stress of material, I the moment of inertia of cross section and C = V2 depth of beam (if symmetrical.)

Where the beam is not sy metrical C equals the distance from the center of gravity of section to extreme fibers in stress.

In Fig. 1, M was found to be 1000, C equals iy2 inches and S may be taken as 800 lbs. for spruce. Transposing the above equation we may write:

MC 1000 X 1.5

I =--= - = 1.9 (Approx.)

S 800

The moment of inertia for a rectangular beam in terms of its cross section (see table) is,

bh3

I = -

12

in which b = width in inches and h = depth in inches.

As I and h are known the equation may be written,

12 I 12 X 1.9

b = - =---= .84 inches

h3 27

The beam may therefore be 1 inch in round numbers, a suitable safety factor having been allowed by taking S as 800 lbs., as the breaking stress of spruce is about 10,000 lbs.

Such an important member should be built up or laminated.

If the spar is to be of tubular metal section, the general computations are similar, all conditions being the same. Consider the steel to have an ultimate strength of 100,000 lbs. allowing a safe working stress of 20,000 lbs. per square inch. To find the moment of inertia in terms of the stress MC

I = - as before.

S

If the tube is 3 inches outside diameter 1000 X 1.5

I =---= .075

20000

The expression for the moment of inertia of a tube in terms of its cross section is, from the table:

I = .0491 (D4—d4)

Which may be transposed and written:

4 I— .0491D4 d = V--

.0491

from which d = 2.9S5 inches. As this gives a wall thickness of only .007 inches (34ga.) which is far too thin for structural reasons a tube of smaller diameter may be used.

The secondary spar is treated in like manner assuming that it carries the balance of the load.

The ribs or that section of them between the spars are treated as simple beams, the maximum bending moment occurring in this section as the overhanging enCs are usually short. If the rib is built up of two flat strips of wood with blocks or spacers between, the moment of inertia in terms of the cross b

section is — (H3—h3) see table. 12

The total load carried by any rib is that imposed on the rectangle of wing surface between the ribs and the two spars. If the spars are 3% feet apart and the ribs spaced 12 inches each rib will support the load carried by the area 3.5 X 1 or 3.5 sq. ft. and if the average maximum pressure is 15 lbs. per sq. ft. the total load will be 15 X 3.5 = 52.5 lbs. and the load per foot 15 lbs.

The rib will taper from the front to the rear spar and in figuring its section the term C will be one-half the depth at a point midway between the spar.», which may be determined after laying out the aerocurve.

The stresses on the running gear members are almost impossible to compute as they may be very severe, as where landing on rough ground, and at best may only be estimated.

In the design of the fuselage, the actual question of strength is not of such paramount importance, the problem being rather one of stiffness or rigidity, considering always a proper stream line form. That section immediately between the wings must be strong enough to withstand the shocks transmitted by the running gear, but, as explained it is impractical to get at the sizes by any accurate computations. The use of wire bracing should be limited as much as possible and gussett construction substituted, the trend in aeroplane design seeming to be toward simplified construction, made possible by experience and more careful attention to the problems involved.

In conclusion the author would advise those who wish to go more deeply into the subject to read such a book as "Merrlman's Strength of Materials" which is a cSnipre-hensive elementary treatise.

AERONAUTICS

Remarks on the Analysis and Comparison

of Patents

By LEE S. BURRIDGE

fiOW that about ten patents are issued weekly covering aeronautical apparati under the index headings of aeroplanes, airships and flying machines, it is incumbent on experimenters and other devotees to understand the reading of patents and their relation to each other. The alluring advertisement of some patent solicitors "no patent, no pay" also "patent guaranteed" creates misconception in that it gives the impression that a patent must have value whereas many patents are utterly worthless. Practically every construction of apparatus that is not a copy or reproduction in all respects may be patented, but the claims may be so limited in scope that they may have no value and consequently such patent may have no comparative standing among patents.

The real merit and value of a patent resides in its claims. The specification and drawings serve to disclose the invention and how it is applied, or so much of a machine as may be necessary to leave no doubt of invention, but the patent covers only what the claims recite.

Suppose a patent to be voluminous having many sheets of drawings and pages of description, yet only one or two claims appear. Such patent may be worthless because it is reasonably safe to presume that it was prepared under the assumption that there were many novel features of construction, and no doubt the claims as originally filed were as voluminous as the description, but probably the Patent Office Examiner cited patent after patent anticipating one claim after another until finally the inventor had to be satisfied with the one or two claims left.

The Patent Office makes searches by experienced assistants to Examiners and endeavors to allow to go to issue only those patents having claims for new and useful inventions. Therefore the grant of a 1T. S. patent is prima facie evidence of validity, but nevertheless many patents are held invalid by the Courts because of anticipations not cited by the Patent Office officials while the applications were pending.

To analyse a claim it should be divided into its component elements. Suppose there are 5 elements combined to bring about the new and useful result and out of the 5 there are 4 elements obviously old, because found on prior structures and in prior patents, then the novelty resides in the addition of the fifth element. Let us assume further

that this fifth element is not new in itself, but is common in mechanical structures of other arts; that does not indicate that the claim is not valid, but it is necessary that the addition of this fifth element produce a new and useful result which is absent without it, and which in the present combination was not known in any art.

It may aptly be asked here what constitutes invention if old features can be combined and a patent procured. The best answer that can be given is the exercise of the inventive faculty as distinguished from mere mechanical skill. The mere ingenuity of an ordinary mechanician is not sufficient, and if the combination was so obvious as not to require the use of the invent tive faculty, the patent or at any rate that claim may be adjudged invalid for want ofj novelty. The practice in the Patent Office] is to reject a claim when considered to ba a mere aggregation of well known elements) producing a result known in the art to which the application applies. It is required thitj either a new result be obtained or that a nevJ combination of elements accomplish a knowrl result in a useful manner.

Returning to the supposititious claim of 5 elements of which all but the fifth are old a si combined, and the fifth is common but does] produce a new effect or result, and you now! find that it is very similar to what you are] constructing only that you are applying a different fifth element from that found in this patent and you wonder if you infringe this patent claim. This depends upon several conditions; primarily the position the patent holds in the art, whether pioneer by disclosing an important improvement, no matter how simple, which entitles it to a broad interpretation and in which case almost any modification of the fifth element would still infringe the combination claim on the ground of equivalency. If, however, the structure disclosed by the patent does not differ materially in detail or result from other prior patents, then the claim under consideration is very limited in scope, and any material modification of the fifth element or of the combination recited by eliminating an element that may be essential to that combination, or by modifying the application of the 4 elements, would avoid infringement.

To illustrate a supposititious case, let us assume a pioneer invention for automatic stability operated by a pendulum so mounted that it is connected to the controls of the J aeroplane to set them in motion by similar connections as ordinarily done manually by the operator. The controls and connections are old and the pendulum is certainly old,

but assuming it had never been used for such a purpose before, the patent would be a pioneer one in this respect and the claims if properly drawn would cover broadly the use of a pendulum applied to aeroplanes to control automatic stability, and no matter how much the structure of the aeroplane or the controls may be modified in the endeavour to evade this patent, yet it would dominate all structures embodying a pendulum as the prime factor to accomplish the same result.

Supposing further that in a search for anticipations, in the hope of limiting the scope of this patent, that nothing be found in aeronautical patents thereby compelling a search of other arts and that a patent be found embodying a pendulum to control automatic stability of a ship's berth so mounted as to maintain stability by means of the pendulum during the rolling and tossing of the ship, the object being to overcome sea sickness. This would not. be a complete anticipation of the other (nor vice versa) because the structures to which the pendulums are applied as also the controls are different and require some use of the inventive faculty for application in either case, and consequently either patent might be pioneer.

It should be remembered however that neither the Patent Office nor the Courts grant more to the inventor than his claims recite, beyond a reasonably broad interpretation, and if he fails to incorporate claims to which he is entitled, the loss is his, even though the fault may be that of his solicitor, and there is no remedy except by re-issue if the omission or mistake is discovered in time and can be shown to be accidental and inadvertent. Therefore the importance of carefully prepared specification and drawings, and well drawn claims cannot be overestimated.

Taking up a different phase, let us suppose that you are the owner of a patent, whether issued to you or acquired is immaterial, and you propose to manufacture constructions in exact accordance therewith, do not take it for granted that you will not be infringing some earlier patents, notwithstanding that you are copying the structure described in your patent, because the specification and drawings give no indication of the non-infringement of the structure, and there may be a dozen earlier patents whose claims dominate that structure, so that it is incumbent upon you to make a thorough search before investing financially, and this search should be directed primarily towards the claims of prior patents, because the claims indicate the scope of said patents.

The circumstances when claims are of no interest are when searching for anticipations of a claim dominating a structure on which suit has been brought or infringement is feared. In such search the specification and drawings are all important because if a similar construction can be found described in a prior patent, even though not

identical, it will limit and perhaps invalidate the feared claim irrespective of what the anticipating patent may contain for claims.

In searching prior patents the date of issue is not controlling and the date of application should be noted also. This is always recited in the heading. For instance one patent may be issued long before another disclosing a similar invention, and the later one may have been filed long before the earlier patent was issued or before the application for it was filed. The delay may have been due to various causes, such as interference proceedings, purposely slow amendments, and so forth. It is quite possible also for the later patent to contain broader claims and even be a pioneer patent notwithstanding that patents disclosing similar inventions may have been issued months and even years earlier. What may have been the cause of delay can only be learned by obtaining the history of the application while pending, which is known in the Patent Office as the File Wrapper and Contents. This is furnished upon demand after a patent is issued, upon payment of the cost of copying. It includes a copy of the application as originally filed, also every action by the Examiner in charge reciting the objections and rejections upon citations named and the applicant's amendments; any interferences that may have been declared will also be referred to and the subject matter of the interference.

Interferences are declared when two or more applications contain one or more claims for the same invention. Interferences can be declared between a pending application and an unexpired patent, and while the Commissioner of Patents cannot invalidate a patent already granted, a second patent may be issued for the same invention including the same claims. The procedure is for each applicant to present proofs by sworn testimony before a notary or other official provided for by law, beginning with the junior applicant first (the one who filed his application last) to prove the earliest conception of the invention and its reduction to practice and the burden of proof rests on him to overcome the earlier date of application by his opponents. The interference is decided by the Examiner of Interferences but can be appealed to the Examiners in Chief, then to the Commissioner of Patents and finally to the tribunal of last resort, the Court of Appeals of the District of Columbia. Interferences are very expensive luxuries and the probable value of an invention should be carefully weighed before engaging in an interference. If the subject matter at issue is disclaimed by you, the interference is quashed but your opponent or opponents will then obtain patents that will dominate your invention, notwithstanding that you may obtain a patent containing claims net included in the interference.

In conclusion, a few words regarding reduction to practice may not be amiss. A (Continued on Page Si)

Aviation's Fakes and Fakirs

HE exhibition faker is another of Aviation's vampires. There are two classes: the man who can fly and won't, and the man who might but can't. There are aviators and aviators. We daily see men with a copy of some well known machine in course of construction, writing on extravagantly worded letterheads to fair managers offering guaranteed nights for a fraction of the price asked by men of note in the exhibition field. The machine fails of completion, or is smashed in preliminary flights by the builder who has never taken a lesson in flight. The public is swindled and the fair manager solemnly swears never again will he book an aeroplane flight.

Once in a while we hear of a real aviator who feels no compunction at cancelling a date. We have heard of the same man making contracts at two or more places for the same date, all of which it is obvious he can not fulfill, just to keep some competitor from making that money. Another man gets his pilot certificate with a 'plane of his own construction which has made a few short flights. He gets a "date." In to the town he goes, gets some advance money from the manager or promoter to "get the machine out of the express office." Before morning the machine and the aviator are on the way home. This fraud got the aviator his carfare, but at what a cost to his self respect and to his reputation expected to be made. Suffice it to say, that man has no reputation on the good side of the ledger now and, besides, is "down and out." "Honesty is the best policy" for financial success as well as in the interest of morality.

A favorite scheme with unknown aviators is to refer to foreign training, pupil at the Bleriot school, or the Farman school, or to claim he was an instructor at the Deperdussin school, etc. Perhaps he will take unto himself a pilot certificate number, as did one well-known and accomplished flyer now residing on the Pacific Coast. He thought No. 12, French, suited him, despite the fact that it had been allotted to Santos Dumont, and he even used it in his advertisements.

There was a flagrant case of fake down in the State of Texas last spring that shows the limits to which the unscrupulous aviator hangers-on will sometimes go. A business man of a certain town of ten thousand population engaged a so-called aviator, claiming to own a standard machine, but which turned out to be a mighty poor copy, to make two days' flights on the basis of a

percentage of the gate receipts. The "aviator" showed up all right, accompanied by a mechanic. The first thing he did after meeting the promoter was to spring a hard luck story.

"Listen," he began after buttonholing the unsuspecting promoter, "I gotta have $250.00 to get me motor outa hock at the express office. I had it repaired in a shop at Dallas and they sent it on c. o. d."

It was a case of no motor, no flights, and the promoter dug up the money. The next day the "aviator" came around with another hard luck tale.

"I gotta have $50.00 to get a new propeller out. I broke the only one I had yesterday and wired for a new one at Dallas. It's coming out c. 0. d."

The promoter again dug, hoping to get it all back the next day when the "aviator" was advertised to make "dare-devil flights into the clouds," and all that.

The morrow came and the crowd gathered. The "aviator" was busy around his machine, and there was a continual hum of the motor which kept the crowd on edge for two hours. The promoter got uneasy and besought the "aviator" to "make a flight."

Finally, after a three-hour wait the "aviator" climbed into the trap called an aeroplane, started his four-cylinder, 18 h.p. motor and scooted across the field, bringing up against the fence. There was no apparent damage to the machine, but the "aviator" declared it had been "strained" and he could not "fly any more today."

The crowd that paid got its money back at the gates, along with a lot of others who had climbed over the fence. The "aviator" packed up and got out of town and the promoter, out several hundred dollars, was left to hold the bag.

It developed later that the "aviator" had never flown; that his machine had never been in the air; that the motor was not strong enough to lift any sort of an aeroplane, and that the "aviator" had simply had it shipped out of Dallas c. o. d. in order to get the money from the promoter to pay for it.

And yet there are hundreds of these so-called "promoters" who will hire an "aviator," unheard of in all the history of aviation, and carrying about a trap that would not lift off the ground if tethered to a balloon, simplyt because the faker says he is a flyer and will "fly" cheap. Promoters may take this as a rule: Any man offering to take a contract to fly for $200.00 a day cannot deliver the goods. Two hundred dollars

AERONAUTICS Page 77 Septemb.

a day will not pay the expenses of a first class aviator, his mechanics, railroad transportation, hotel bills and numerous other necessary items.

The Aero Exhibition Co., in Chicago, started out with big advertisements, pictures of a special train full of pupils. Lawyers for creditors who obtained judgments find the promoters disappeared over night. This concern wanted "Aviators for Our Exhibition Teams. * * * * Our Special Train Leaves Chicago for our Training Camp on Jan. 1st. * - * * The Total Cost of Instruction, Including Railroad Fares, Pullman Berths, Board and Lodging in Training Camps, is $300." "Can you beat that," say we; that's what this company said in their advertisement. They also add: "You Can Readily See We Want Aviators, Not Your Money." Another start was made recently in Des Moines by one Eastman of this concern, but he left there suddenly, failing to meet some obligations.

One of Chicago's brand of flyers has just closed an exhibition contract and stated to the fair manager that he flew a "Curtiss military hydroaeroplane." It is pretty rough on Chicago, the city of perhaps the greatest aeronautic activity, that so many objectional concerns are located there.

Philadelphia is now having its insight into aviation. The Society of Aeronautic Engineers, the "school with a reputation behind it," is having troubles with the Post Office Inspectors, it is alleged in the Philadelphia daily press. It is said a fair number of pupils were obtained but some of these apparently had a change of heart for they now complain "they know no more about aviation than when they started and that Hutson (the manager and president) knows no more about it than they do." Various claims were alleged to have been made by Hutson, among them, that his concern was connected with Aero Club of Pennsylvania and that said individual was a licensed pilot. Through some clerical error, no doubt, his name is missing from the list of certified aviators.

Presuming that Raub & Longo at least cared enough for their own operations to keep faith with their bank, the propeller was shipped by express. Six days later the check came back to the payee. The check was deposited once more and the drawers were wired:

"For the sake of your self respect see your check is honored when again presented."

No attention was paid to this, the check came back protested with the bank's notation "not good," and on July oth the following complimentary expression was placed on the wire:

"For the neatest daylight robbery, commend me to your goodselves. Your worthless check is returned second time. Stung, but glad to know it."

It is not a criminal offense for one to overdraw on a bank where one is accustomed to keep a balance. However, it is criminal to obtain money or goods under false pretenses.

Another type of swindling concern is the Wood Waste Distilleries Co., of Wheeling, W. Va., which at present is using the official organ of the Aero Club of America for its field of operation, after having exhausted the aeronautical journals. The procedure is to get advertising rates, sign a contract for twelve months for a small space and then forget the bills for the advertising. When the account gets three months old the magazine turns it over to a lawyer or collection agency with the following result:

"Claim returned, no good. Party now in jail for using mails to defraud."

A new aeronautical engine is a good thing to graft with. A concern wires from Chicago for space, just as an issue is going to press, of which, of course, Lie expectant advertiser is aware. The magazine, having seen the advertisement of the concern in other aero journals may conclude "it's all right," and insert the advertisement. It does not know at the time that a suit has been brought by one of the other magazines to force payment. One such house just failed in "putting one over." It was late to insert an advertisement and the chance was not taken. Another journal was wired for credit information and the concern was reported "n.g." The advertiser was written that his wire was received too late but that there was plenty of time for the next issue and for the furnishing of references. No further correspondence was indulged in with this magazine but doubtless the concern succeeded with some other.

This is a sample of a growing number of similar concerns in aeronautics who, not only want to sell gold bricks through the magazines but who want to gold-brick the mediums themselves. That's carrying it to a fine finish, is it not?

RAUB & LONGO BALLOON BI-PLANE CO. Conductors of Scientific Balloon Ascensions and Aeroplane Flights

The Gibson Propeeler Co.,

New York City, N. Y. Dear Sirs: —

We have your letter enclosed find Ck. for $29.75 for a Bi-Plane Propeller iy2 feet, we use a maximotor round hub plate and the engine turns to the left., Give us the best you have, Express at once as we need it bad. Hoping to soon hear from you, Yours very Truly., RAUB & LONGO, BALLOON BI-PLANE CO.

Page 78

September, 1912

An Analysis of Flight*

BY GEORGE A. SPRATT, Jr.

Believing that the work of George A. Spratt, one of the pioneers in aerodynamics, will benefit experimenters and be of general interest, there are being published simultaneously in "AERONAUTICS" and "Fly" beginning with this issue, a series of articles introducing his theories on the center of pressure.

Mr. Spratt has been a student of air pressures for many years. He was a close friend of Octave Chanute, and was at Kitty Hawk with Mr. Chanute and the Wright brothers.

Since those early days Mr. Spratt has continued his work in seclusion among the Pennsylvania hills. He has studied pressures almost continuously and when the full extent

THE surfaces are both of the same dimensions, 7" x 12". They may be made of paper with stiffening ribs of wood, or of sheet metal. One is to be curved along its longer dimension to the same curvature as th circumference of the board, the other is to be a plane. They are to be supported upon the wire posts with their surfaces vertical and their longer edges horizontal. Midway along the longer edges of each a flange, or tongue, is turned perpendicular to the surface. The flange, or tongue, on the lower edge should have a hole that loosely admits the post, bored close to the surface; the one along the upper edge should have a depression to engage the pointed end of the post.

Slip the plane upon the post on the rider, and the curved surface upon the post on the board. Connect the rider to the board by a narrow tape passing along the circumference, so that when the rider is drawn along the guideway, the tape unwinds from the circumference as it turns the board about its centre.

The conditions, now, are these: The plane is delicately poised upon its post and, when the rider is drawn along the guideway, moves straight through still air. The arched surface is similarly poised over the circumference of the board and, when the rider is drawn along the guideway, moves through still air in an arched path, the curvature of which is of the same radius as that of the surface. Each move the same distance with the same speed. Each have the same area, dimensions, and weight, and each have the same area in front of, and to the rear of, the posts. When each is given the same slight angle of incidence to its respective path and the rider is drawn along the guideway, each rotates to an equal degree about its post. (See diagram 1.) The pressure must, therefore, be of equal distribution and of equal amount. This test holds good for a rotation of nearly 90 degrees, but as the chord of the arched surface approaches coincidence with the radius of its path; that is, the radius of the hoard, the similarity of the conditions under which both surfaces act becomes lost.

of his work is known it Will be seen that his scientific investigations are of a high order.

That this knowledge may be disseminated as widely as possible, Mr. Spratt has made a special arrangement with "AERONAUTICS" and "Fly," whereby the articles are to be published by them simultaneously.

The following article was given in condensed form before the Aero Club of Pennsylvania at the Bellevue-Stratford, March 10, 1912.

The matter published in March, 190S, AERONAUTICS will be included in the present articles but more condensed, more complete in its significance, and in better form.

a

A semicircular board A, carries arched surface b, upon post C. A rider d, upon guideway e, carries the plane f, upon post G. A tape h, passes around A and connects A with d. The? positions of b' and f' show an equal rotation of b and f about their posts when equally advanced as a result of drawing d along e.

Now exchange the surfaces, placing the arched surface upon the rider and the plane upon the board. Set the chord of the one parallel with the guideway, and the plane of the other tangent to the circumference or the board and repeat as before. In the previous test, it may be said that two like surfaces operate under like conditions, although one is a plane and one an arc. Tne results are alike. In this test, two like surfaces act under conditions that are dissimilar to an equal degree of dissimilarity. Here an arched surface engages a straight wind and a plane engages an arched wind with all the conditions equal in each. (See diagram 2.) The results, here, are dissimilar to an equal degree of dissimilarity; for, when drawn through the air, each surface rotates equally about its post, which again shows that the pressures are equal in amount and distribution, but now rotation is in opposite directions. (This phase of the experiment will be referred to later.)

The experiment shows that under like conditions like surfaces give like results and, therefore, if unlike results are obtained with like surfaces, the cause must be looked for in the conditions under which the results were obtained.

When the conditions under which the results are obtained in this experiment are considered, it shows, farther, that the dis-

*Begun in (he August munher.

     
   

a

 

f.cj. 2.

 
     

a

The surfaces, here, are transposed. They rotate equally about their posts when D is drawn along E, but in opposite directions.

tribution of the pressure is effected to a great degree by the relation of the curvature existing between the surface and the current, and cannot be fixed for all currents by any fixed curvature of the surface.

There are three sets of conditions under which a relation of curvature may exist between a surface and a current, each of which will be considered in turn. 1st, a curved surface may move straight through still air, or be fixed against a straight current. 2nd, a plane surface may move in a circular path through still air, or be fixed against a rotating current. 3rd, a plane surface may rotate about an axis within itself while moving through still air, or while fixed against a straight current.

From the experiment just described it is also evident that it is pressure with which the problem has to deal, and that neither the air nor the body are of importance excepting as their state of being effects the pressure.

If the air is considered as moving against the body, the manner in which the surfaces of the body are presented is all important to the results obtained, for the surface is the means through which the energy of motion is transferred from the fluid mass of air to the rigid body. The manner of transference has long been recognized and formulated in the law: "Frictionless pressures are normal to the surface at the points of their application," and although the pressures considered here are not entirely frictionless, they will at present be consmered so for the sake of analysis.

Every point of a surface, when immersed in a current, is in contact with matter that is in motion. Pressure, either greater or less in amount, and either positive or negative in direction, is communicated to every point upon the surface. For the present this pressure is to be considered frictionless, and therefore, normal to the surface at the point of its application.

In considering the first example, namely, a curved surface moving straight through still air or fixed against a straight current, the effects of the pressure will be compared with those obtained with a plane surface in a straight current, because of the more common familiarity with the latter. The circularly arched surface, however, is the simpler surface of the two in which to ac-

count for the results of pressure, and later the reasoning will be from the circularly arched surface to show a certain analogy of action with the plane, which cannot be arrived at by treating them independently, nor by reasoning from the plane to the arc, and which, when once seen, connects the various curves and the plane in a harmonious relation.

Before directly taking up the example, and as a review of the plane, let the following facts be brought to notice.

The pressure at each point in a plane surface is normal to the plane. Taken collectively at all points, they are parallel to each other in their direction, and therefore, their resultant is normal to the plane. The point at which the resultant intersects the surface is called the centre of pressure. A change in the angle of incidence causes a re-location of the point of intersection either forward or backward, which shows that the pressure is not equal at all points, and that its distribution is altered by a change in the angle of incidence. A force equal and contrary to the resultant, applied at any point along the resultant, will establish equilibrium. If such a force is applied at the surface, its point of application must vary forward or backward along the surface equally as the point of intersection of the resultant varies with the change in the angle of incidence, and if such a force is applied at any other point along the resultant, that is, at a point distant from the surface, an equal forward or backward variation is necessary, because for every angle of incidence, the resultant is normal to the plane.

This same line of reasoning, when applied to a circularly arched surface, leads to quite another conclusion. The pressure upon a circularly arched surface, in being normal to the surface at each point, is directed coincident with the radius at each point, and from all points, they are directed either positively or negatively through the common centre of the radii. Their resultant must, therefore, pass through this centre, although change in the angle of incidence may, to any degree alter the distribution of the pressure, or to any degree reverse the pressure. The change in the location of the point at which the resultant intersects the surface, that is, the so-called centre of pressure, is more pronounced than upon the plane, because a change in the angle of incidence causes a more pronounced re-distribution of the pressure, and consequently also a more pronounced change in the resultant pressure value. Since the point of intersection of the resultant varies with the change of the angle of incidence, and its passage through the common centre of the radii remains fixed, it is evident that a change in the angle of incidence causes also a change in the direction of the resultant. At some small angles of incidence the resultant of the pressure upon a shallow circularly arched surface fails to intersect

the surface, but passes to the rearward of it. There is then no centre of pressure upon the surface, simply a couple exists. A force equal and contrary to the resultant applied at the common centre of the radii establishes equilibrium for all possible angles of incidence, for this is a point common to all possible resultants.

Experimental verification of the foregoing can be obtained with the following simple apparatus.

A gentle even breeze is of the first importance and, probably is the most difficult requisite to obtain, a shallow dish full of water, a circular disc of sheet cork about four inches in diameter, a piece of very thin sheet metal about two inches by five inches, a pin and a piece of fine thread, are all that is required.

Give the metal sheet a circularly arched curvature along its short dimension of a slightly less radius than that of the cork disc. Erect it upon the disc with its centre of curvature coincident with that of the disc. (It may be pressed into a circular shallow incision.) Now, when the disc is placed upon the water, the metal sheet represents an arched surface and stands erect from the cork float like a sail. The thread is to be attached to the float at any desired point.

The breeze should flow across the water steadily and gently engage the surface without pressing it noticeably out of the vertical. Its pressure is to be resisted by the thread, and while retaining the surface against the breeze, the thread represents a force acting in a straight line equal and contrary to the resultant of the pressure upon the surface, and therefore lies coincident with the resultant.

See figure 1.

Figure 1.

A, shallow dish of water; B, cork float: C, circularly arched surface; D, air current duct; E, retaining thread.

By repeated experiments, in each of which the thread is attached at a different point upon the float, the fact will be noticed that whatever the direction of the thread, if its line is projected, it passes nearly * through the centre of curvature of the surface, which is here coincident with the centre of the cork float. This verifies the statement that the resultant, at any angle of incidence, passes through this point.

If the float be pivoted about a fixed point at its centre, the surface will appear to be almost * insensible to the pressure at whatever angle of incidence it may be placed to receive the current, which again shows that the pressure centres at the common centre of the radii.

The circularly arched surface is the only surface possessing a centre of pressure in this fuller sense, and this centre is a fixed point and outside of the surface.

In this lies the solution of the inherent stability possessed by Nature's flying creatures who have arched wings, and which is being sought for for improvement in aeroplanes. Its application and service will be considered further under the treatment of "Equilibrium."

Since the pressures coincide with the radii and centre at their common centre, it follows that, as the curvature of the surface is flattened, the centre of pressure, like the common centre of the radii, recedes with the increased length of the radii, and for the plane is infinity.

The pressure upon a surface having a parabolic curvature, in being normal to the surface and coincident with the radii, like the radii, are directed through a restricted area, but to no common centre. There is no one point that a force which is equal and contrary to the resultant can be applied to establish equilibrium for all angles of incidence, however, if such a force is applied at a certain distance from the concave side, it will need to be moved forward or backward a less distance when a change occurs in the angle of incidence, than if applied upon the surface.

The parabolic surface may be considered to be a succession of circularly arched surfaces of increasing radius lengths, or as a circularly arched surface connected with a following plane. A decrease in the angle of incidence from an already small angle of incidence causes the point of intersection of the resultant and the surface to move backward upon a circularly arched surface, but forward upon a plane. When the two surfaces are combined as in the parabolic surface, this opposite tendency reduces the actual distance of the change of the location of the point of intersection, and it may be a less distance upon either a plane or a circular arc of equal dimensions.

The second example of relative curvature, namely, "A plane surface may be moved in a circular path through still air, or be fixed against a rotating current," brings into notice a very interesting reversal of pressure. This reversal has been suggested by the opposite rotation of the surfaces shown in the diagram illustrating this example of relative curvatures, where the plane was carried in a curved path, and the arched surface in a straight path, with all conditions equal in each. As a result each revealed an equal amount of pressure, and an equal distribution of pressure, but a rotation about their central axes in opposite directions.

There is here a complete reversal in the

"The precision of this experiment has been limited by the words "nearly" and "almost," because the head resistance, the skin friction and mechanical imperfections, are disturbing factors; their effect, however, lessens with the amount of care taken in avoiding them.

pat e nts SECURED OR FEE RETURNED

#TT Send sketch or model for FREE Search of Patent Office records. ^JJ and What to Invent with valuable List of Inventions Wanted sent Free.

special list of prizes offered for Aeroplanes. $600,000 OFFERED IN

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PRIZES FOR AIRSHIPS

We are Experts in Aeronautics and have a special Aeronautical Department. Copies of patents in Airships, 10 cents each. Improvements in Airships should be protected without delay as this is a very active field of invention and is being rapidly developed.

VICTOR J. EVANS & COMPANY

Main Offices - 724-726 NINTH ST., N. W. - WASHINGTON, D. C.

+

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PATENTS

C. L. PARKER

Ex-member Examining Corps, U. S. Ptlenl Office Attorney-at-Law and Solicitor of Patenti

American and foreign patents secured promptly and with special regard to the complete legal protection of the invention. Handbook for inventors sent upon request. 30 McGill Bide. WASHINGTON. D. C

ABLE IDEAS WANTED

Manufacturers are writing me for patents obtained through me. Send for three books with list of 200 inventions. A postal will bring them free. My clients' patents sold free. Personal services. Aeronautical expert.

RICHARD R, OWEN, „°H\?m Washington, D. C,

AMERICAN MONOGLIDER SOR

** COMPLETE READY TO FLY ^

Wings 20'x 5'. Length 16'. Weight 50 lbs.

Immediate Delivery Flights Guaranteed

Plans and Specifications in. to 1 ft., $1.

AVIATION DIRECTORY, LAWRENCE, KAN.

Founded 1905

"Ideal" Plans and Drawings

are accurate and are accompanied by clear, concise building instructions, postpaid at the following prices: Wright 3-fl. Bipline, 25c. Bleriot 3-ft. Monoplane, 15c. "Cecil Peoli" Champion Racer, 25c. Curtiis Convertible Hydroaeroplane (new), 35c. "Ideal" three-foot Racer (new), 15c.

Complete Set of Five...............$1.00 Postpaid

Send tor our new 40 pp. "Ideal" 3Iorlel Aeroplane Supply

catalog, fully illustrated. 5c. brings it. (.None free). IDEAL AEROPLANE & SUPPLY CO., 82a West Broadway, New York

HYDRO - AEROPLANES

READY FOR POWER

-WILSON-

Port Jefferson

New York

SUPPLIES AT REDUCED PRICES

Goods of quality at less than the cheaper kind. Get our 40-page catalog "EVERYTHING AV1AT1C" and a small order will tell you why those who know send to us when they want the best at the right price. Let us give you a special figure on that supply list.

HAMILTON AERO MFG. CO.

208 30th Avenue Seattle, Wash.

>::♦>>: MONOPLANE

DRAWINGS, Bleriot XI Type. 3 Sheets.

Complicated Parts Full Size. Price <j|jj QQ

The three sheets constitute the best set of mono- ™ * plane working drawings now on the market. There is no need for the purchaser of a set of these drawings to guess at anything; since all dimensions of every part of the machine are given, together with the thickness, and gauge , of every piece of wood or steel used in the construction.

aeronautics, 250 w. 54th St., New York

SUPPLIES

at more than interesting prices. Bleriot and Curtiss K. D. outfits our specialty. "ROOLD" helmets in stock. Wheels with tires 20" x2M" 86.60, 20" x3" 89.50.

S2 page catalogue A sent upon receipt of 6 cents

New York Aeronautical Supply Co. 50 Broadway, New York

PEDERSEN OIL PUMPS

have positive action, are small and light, easily applied to any motor

Write for circular

PEDERSEN LUBRICATOR CO.

636-644 First Avenue, New York, u. S. A.

AEROPLANES MADE TO ORDER

Send Drawings for Estimates on all Special Machines My work is first clau, atk for litt of latisfied cuilomeri

W. C. DURGAN

115 Brown Street :: Syracuse, N. Y.

Special grades of Bamboo for Aeronautic Work. Reed, Rattan and Split Bamboo for models. Tonka Rattan for Skids 1J4 diameter and under any length.

J. DELTOUR, Inc. -fSJEZl*"

cAero cTHart

RATES: 15 cents a line, 7 words to the line-Payment iru advance required.

TENT—3-pole medium duck tent, in first class condition, 40x80, original cost $350, for sale at $175 f.o.b., New York. Used for hydroaeroplane. Will house the biggest machine. Schill, c/o Aeronautics.—Sept.

CURTISS—Genuine 4 cyl. Curtiss biplane, present design, 4 cyl. Curtiss motors, has been flying. Perfect condition. $700 cash. Aeronautics, 250 W. 54th St., New York.

BLUE PRINTS: Military type 6S-in. model monoplane. Three sheets in detail, 2S x 39 in., $1.00. Corporal Thos. O'Brien, Co. M, 3d Battalion Engineers, Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas.— Sept.

FOR SALE—New El bridge four. Bosch and G & A equipped. Perfect running order. $550 guaranteed. A. M. Williams, 1051 Eighth St., Douglas, Ariz.,—Sept.

WANTED—Capital to rebuild a large monoplane (1400 sq. ft. supporting surface) non-cap-sizable. Patent applied for. Machine badly damaged, two days before completion when building enclosing machine was destroyed by wind storm. Arrange to call and investigate. Geo. H. Ellithorpe, Port Clinton, Ohio.—Sept.

CURTISS aeroplane for sale without engine, $135. X. Y. Z., 95 West St., Maiden, Mass.

FOR SALE—Wolverine aero engine, little used. Performs good. 25 to 30 h.p. Cost $265. Sacrifice. L. B. Post, 1020 McBride, Syracuse, N. Y.

ENGINE—8 cyl. "V", list price $1500, new, never used. Thoroughly tested by maker who desires to sell last one in his shop. Complete with propeller, $1200. Easton, c/o AERONAUTICS.

FOR SALE—Tractor biplane equipped with 8 cylinder GO h. p. motor. Complete exhibition outfit. Owner going to Europe. Price $1800. Address Tractor, c/o AERONAUTICS.

LOST, STRAYED OR STOLEN—Interest and activity in AERONAUTICS. Finder will please communicate with the International Aeroplane Club, Dayton, O.

POSITION WANTED—Curtiss pilot-aviator, 6 months' exhibition experience. Can deliver the goods everywhere, dirigible balloon or aeroplane. Eugene Godet, c/o AERONAUTICS.— Sept.

WANTED—Licensed monoplane aviator, preferably one who has operated the Nieuport wheel and skid alighting gear type. Call c/o AERONAUTICS.—T. F.

FOR SALE OR TRADE—My 60 h.p., 7 passenger, late model, Thomas Flyer touring car— will trade for a good aeroplane. Address, S. C. Allen, 1—6 Chase Block, Saginaw, Mich.— Sept.

SPECIAL GOOD BARGAINS—I Gnome engine. 50 h.p., complete with mountings for biplane, everything ready to run. Can demonstrate Nearly new. Fine condition. $2,000.

Complete set of parts for Gnome 50, enough to essemble complete engine; all kinds socket wrenches and tools for same; mounting frames, controls, etc.

Bleriot type monoplane for Gnome engine Two Bleriot types with Anzani engines. Sets of parts.

All these from well known concern. Everything can be seen before purchase. Cheap for cash. Address MONO, c/o Aeronautics, 250 W. 54th Street, N. Y. City

ASSORTMENT of complete power plants, including: Curtiss 25 h. p., 4 cyl; Clement-B'ayard 30's; Kirkham GO; Hendee (Indian) 7 cyl. 50. Bargains at 50% below cost.

Immediate delivery of genuine Bleriot and several antiquated but successful aeroplanes of unexcelled workmanship "for a song." Address Assortment, c/o Aeronautics, 250 W. 54th Street, N. Y. City

AVIATOR, licensed by the Aero Club of France, flying Bleriot and Curtiss machines, constructoi of number of Bleriot machines, wishes engagement. Two years experience as aviator and mechanic.

Aviator c/o Aeronautics, 250 W. 54th street, New York. Sep.

WANTED—To borrow money in order to secure training in one of the leading aviation schools. Have had considerable Mechanical experience. Your terms are mine because 1 mean business. For particulars write L. E Clayburg, Route #3, Red Cloud, Nebraska. October.

ONE Roberts 4 by 50 H. P. Motor complete, new, in perfect condition, $675. M. F. H Gouverneur, Wilmington, N. C. Sept.

AVIATION PHOTOGRAPHS, select assortment, 6 for $1.00; send 20c. for sample Dhoto and complete list. C. E. Durso, 181 Worth St., N. Y. Sept.

ESTABLISHED manufacturer owning all the patents covering an indispensible part of all aeronautical equipment needs moderate capital to extend domestic and forein trade. Enormous profits last year but must expand to meet growth and changing conditions. Address Amerco, c/o Aeronautics. Sept.

Hawaii ought to be a good field for aeroplane and engine makers. G. Schaefer, a hotel man of Honolulu, has had 'a Curtiss type built and flown with a Maximotor. It is said others are becoming interested there. There ought to be a promising outlook there for flying machines. The crop of experimenters in America has become afflicted with the San Jose scale, dry rot or something like that, and aero club members are afraid to fly, apparently. Aviation in 1912 has struck a "hole in the air."

The aviators lately suspended by the "Aero Club of America" are still suspended—and no one is worrying about it outside of the Club.

GIBSON

PROPELLERS ARE STILL ON THE MARKET

WAITING FOR THE AWAKENING The "Worcester" Type Surpasses all Standard Propellers OUR STANDARD PROPELLER CLEARANCE SALE AT 1-4 LIST PRICES

Our Standard Propellers cannot be surpassed except by our "WORCESTER" type

GIBSON PROPELLER CO. - - Fort George Park, New York

general direction of the pressure. When the current is parallel to the chord of the arched surface, the general direction of the pressure is from the centre of curvature of the surface toward the surface, and when the plane is tangential to the rotating current, and with the centre of the plane normal to the radius of rotation, the general direction of the pressure is from the plane toward the centre of rotation of the current. (This will be illustrated in the experiment to be described under "Centrifugal and Centripetal Forces.") In the experiment referred to, the centre of pressure upon the plane, that is, the point of intersection with the resultant, is against the following half, normal to it, and in general direction is toward the centre of the board, and not, as might be thought from a first glance, against the leading half and away from the centre of the board.

B

c

IT

This reversal may, perhaps, be more clearly shown by the diagram figure 2.

In Fig. 2, A shows an arched surface in a straight current; B, a plane in a rotating current, the centre of which is above the surface; C, a plane in a rotating current, the centre of which is below the surface. In each, W shows the direction of the current; S, the surface; P, the direction of the resultant pressure and the half of the surface upon which it is found.

Whenever there is a change in the relation of curvature between a surface and a current there is a change in the amount of the pressure, and a change in the distribution of the pressure. The fact remains, however, that the surface establishes the direction of the pressure.

When a circularly arched surface is suddenly subjected to a rotating wind of a short radius, the resultant of the pressure, although it may be suddenly changed in its direction and in its amount, still passes through the centre of the radii. Under such conditions the resultant of the pressure upon a plane will be as suddenly changed in its

amount and in the location of its point of intersection with the surface, but in remaining normal to the plane, will act along a line that at no point crosses its former line of action.

The third set of conditions in which there is a relative curvature, namely, "A plane surface may rotate about an axis within itself while moving through still air, or while fixed against a current," is well illustrated in the path taken by a block of wood, about four inches by one inch by three-eighths inches, when thrown swiftly forward with a backward rotation. The block will soar with a whirring sound. The rotation, combined with the advance of the block, establishes a relative curvature that is more effective for the advancing lower surface than it is for the relatively retreating upper surface.

This test is easily accomplished by placing the thumb and finger along the edges of the block holding it horizontal and perpendicular to the course it is to pursue, throwing it overhand, and allowing the lower edge to slip off the thumb first, the rotation is then imparted to it as its upper edge leaves the fingers.

Analysis of Patents

(Continued from page 7o) constructive reduction to practice is the date when your application is filed in the Patent Office. You may have made a practical machine before then, but in case of an interference with an applicant who filed before you did, the burden of proof will rest on you to prove diligence and that you have not slept on your rights by giving your time and attention to other matters. The inventor showing the most diligence in perfecting his invention and who first reduces it to practice is entitled to prevail, but there are extenuating circumstances in many cases. As a rule, it is wise to apply for a patent as soon as possible, but first you should be sure of complete operativeness to perform the required functions because a patent describing an inoperative structure or reciting claims for combinations of elements that fail to cooperate as set forth, will be invalid. It is therefore wiser to perfect an invention by a genuine and practical reduction to practice before making application for patent.

It requires great experience and study to prepare good patent papers and successfully prosecute applications through the Patent Office, therefore to insure your obtaining a good and valid patent that will stand the analysis and dissection to which it may be subjected in Court, it is of paramount importance that you entrust your invention to a reliable and successful patent solicitor who will properly look after your interests.

The Burgess Cup Defender

FTER a number of unsuccessful attempts on the part of the local clubs to persuade American manufacturers to independently design and enter machines for the Gordon-Bennett race, a "Cup Defender's Syndicate" was formed in Chicago among the members of the Illinois Aero Club which raised money sufficient to produce a racer.

A canvas of motor manufacturers quickly resulted in the selection 'of the iGnome motor and the final purchase of one of the three 160 HP, 14-cylinder Gnomes which have been manufactured by that company was made.

It was not so easy to decide upon the designer and builder of the racer, but W. Starling Burgess, president and chief designer of the Burgess Company and Curtis was finally selected and early in June preliminary drawings were made up. In all the designing work Mr. Burgess was constantly assisted by Greely S. Curtis and when the motor arrived from France on August 3, the aeroplane was ready for the installation of the power plant.

It will be noticed that the racer is a monoplane with enclosed fuselage and a wing spread of 130 square feet. It weighs, including motor, net 775 pounds. The running gear was especially strong and adapted to the rougher fields of American tracts. The plane measures, fore and aft, about 22 feet and the spread of wing is 29 feet.

Very careful tests were made of all parts which went into the manufacture of the plane. The factory tests were corroborated by tests at the Boston Institute of Technology. The factor of safety in the air of five was figured on all wires and metal parts. As a final check as to its strength,

the day before shipment two men were placed in the cock pit and two on the skids. The machine was then raised on horses from the wings at the points of the wire supports without any apparent give or strain.

The Wright-type wheel trucks on which the plane is mounted in the pictures shown were installed for practice flights. These will be replaced by a single pair of covered wheels.

As specified by the syndicate the Wright control is employed. Not everything has been sacrificed to speed.—The-design is not so radical as the Paulhan-Tatin, nor so cutaway as the latest Deperdussin. The Burgess Company has constructed a strong, practical landing gear, and retained sufficient surface for manoeuvering; nevertheless the machine will be dangerous except in the hands of a skillful and accustomed pilot.

american fabric varnish

Aeroplane cloth, muslin or other, can now be treated by the builder himself if he seeks to save buying expensive standard fabric. Heretofore it has been necessary to purchase varnish from abroad. The C. E. Conover Co., 101 Franklin St., New York, has produced a varnish which is applied with a brush and dries in twenty minutes. Three coats are required to give a good finish. The film, it is stated, will not support combustion, is waterproof and on drying tightens up permanently the fabric, despite weather conditions. The tensile strength of the cloth is increased by twenty per cent. Coloring matter may be mixed in it to suit the user. It is being used by Mr. Gallandet and a sample board is on exhibition in "AERONAUTICS' "office.

AD AMS-FAR W ELL

REVOLVING MOTORS

HAVE BEEN IN

THE ADAMS

21 ATHOL STREET,

COMPANY

DUBUQUE, IOWA, U. S. A-

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lo foot: some full size Prinis 28"x36" <KM 1111 ONLY COMPLETE PRINTS

^°'UU EVERSOLO

AERONAUTICS. 250 West 54»h S'., New York

How would you like to win a Race?

BUY A

French—American Balloon They always Win. Records Prove It

Kansas City National, 1912—6 competitors,

1st for distance and endurance. Kansas City National, 1911—1st, 2nd & 3rd money.

Kansas City International, 1911—"K.C. II." non-contestant — whipped the entire field, World's best Balloons.

Chicago International Contest, 1908—9 competitors, 1st for distance and endurance.

Indianapolis National, 1909—1st & 3rd money

St. Louis Centennial, 1909—1 st, 2d & 4th money

Peoria Contest, 1909—1st & 2nd money.

Indianapolis National, 1910—2nd money.

Insist on Records before buying anywhere.

We arrange Contests, Qualify Pilots, etc.

French-American Balloon Co.

4460 Chouteau Ave. St. Lonis, Mo.

H.'E. Honeywell, Mgr.

AERONAUTICAL RADIATORS

Built in capacities and types for standard and special aviation motors

Write for prices on standard makes. Send your specifications for special designs

EL ARC0 RADIATOR COMPANY

Broadway and 57th St , New York City Also Manufacturers of Automobile Radiators of all types

THE AERO WHEEL CO.

Builds all Kinds of Wheels for Aeroplanes and Monoplanes Standard or Special Sizes at Very Low Prices 782 Eighth Avenue New York

zzzznr

J. C. (Bud) MARS, now booking season 1912.

Have never been connected with the American Aeroplane Mfg. Co. and School of Aviation.

15

66

gray eagle motors

??

Have less working parts and are accurately machined and fit up from the best material obtainable, and doubly strong throughout. Bosch Magneto Plugs, Cables and Schebler Carburetors, standard equipment.

Flying representatives wanted in all states and countries. Special proposition. Who wants to fly and represent us ? Write today.

Model E-6 50 H. P. Model D-4 35 H. P.

KEMP MACHINE WORKS

Muncie, IndL

< benoist «e

Plan*** were rnal irg geed while others were making claims

Cross Country Model, 3 passenger, 75 H.P. Land or Water Equipped

benoist aircraft co. 662ä^'

& a. wittemann

Aeronautical Engineers

Manufacturers of

Biplanes Monoplanes

Hydro-Aeroplanes Gliders Propellers Parts

Special Machines and Parts Built to Specifications

Large stock of Steel Fittings, Laminated Ribs, and Struts of all sizes carried in stock. Hall-Scott Motors, 40-60-80 H. P. Your Oitortunity—One single covered Biplane for immediate delivery. Slightly used, with 8 cyl. 60 H. P. Hall-Scott Power Plant.

FLYING AND TRAINING GROUNDS

Works: Ocean Terrace and Little Clove Road Established 1906 STATEN ISLAND, NEW YORK CITY Tel. 717 Tompkinsville

The Burgess Racer

a demountable rib

A demountable rib, which may be taken out of a surface or put in without harming the covering or taking it off, has been invented and patented, by W. C. Durgan, of 115 Brown St., Syracuse, N. Y., who has an enviable reputation for fine wood-workmanship. Nothing but a screw-driver is needed to replace a rib. The tacks in the cloth are removed for a short distance so

that the fabric can be loosened up Over the rib. The rib is made in two halves longitudinally, of course laminated, and of a "T" cross section. Small bolts with screw heads go vertically through the entire rib to hold the two halves together. Nuts in square slots in the vertical member of the rib act as lock nuts to keep the bolts from loosening.

smith tractor

Flying a tractor biplane of his own construction and with his wife as a passenger, Floyd Smith of San Diego, Cal. flew from Santa Ana to Griffith Aviation Park on the morning of July 20, 1912.

Leaving his starting point at 5.21 a. m. he arose to an altitude of nearly 1000 feet. On account of an inland fog he was compelled to fly low in order to keep his course. Upon arriving at the outskirts of the city of Los Angeles he elevated to 1500 feet, flying over

the business section as well as the County Court House. His destination was reached at 6:28 a. m. making the total time, 1 hour 7 minutes and thejmileage, 45. 7 gallons of gasoline am* legation of oil were consumed during the flight. The plane used by Smith was built with

the assistance of Charles Day. It is equipped with two seats and also a dual control system for operating. The seats are in tandem immediately in back of the motor. The power plant is composed of a 60 H. P. Hall-Scott motor driving a large tractor direct.

Although Mrs. Smith has had but little practice in operating her husband's plane she relieved him at intervals during the

flight and after landing expressed a strong desire for more.

After spending a few weeks at Griffith Aviation Park experimenting in gearing down a larger tractor, the couple will make a short tour of the Middle West, entering the exhibition field.

curtiss student control

This picture shows the device of Glenn H. Curtiss; Two complete steering wheels instead of one and is being used at his training school at San Diego, Cal. The pupil

is taken up with the inscructor aud allowed to steer the machine without the possibility of losing control, the aviator-instructor always having a steering wheel in his hand to counteract any false move on the part of the pupil.

cable clamp

A cable clamp for fastening wire cables is catalogued by the New York Aeronautical Supply Company. If the connection is a permanent one, the cables can be clamped tight by the screws and then a wiped solder joint may be made of the whole.

BLERIOT MONOPLANES

ARE THE BEST KNOWN AEROPLANES IN THE WORLD

A Few of Our Bleriot Monoplanes are Flown by—GEO. B. McNAMARA. Horton, Mass. J. ALBERT BRACKETT, Boston. Mass. E. J. MARLEY, Sumner, Miss. WILLIE HAUPT, Philadelphia. Pa. A. C. MERGES, Memphis, Tenn. CHAS. W. SPEHCER, Philadelphia, Pa.

OUR MONOPLANES FLY 3 Models Single Seater», Racing Monoplanes, Passenger Machines "LEARN TO FLY" "ENROLL NOW" "WE WILL TEACH YOU HOW." For prices and Particulars

AMERICAN AEROPLANE SUPPLY HOUSE^ 137-43 Jackson Str;et, Hempstead, N. Y., Phone 427 Hempstead

Felix Bischoff Steel Works

duisburg, germany.

The VITAL part of a Motor is the

!

Our HIGH GRADE CRANKSHAFTS are made from our Special CHROME-NICKEL AUTO-STEEL zhr This steel has an elastic limit of 135-150,000 lbs. per sq. in., and enables you therefore to economize in weight and space. Put this in your motor and you need never fear a broken crankshaft.

We are the MAKERS of the Steel, and our aim is to produce the BEST.

We furnish crankshafts drop-forged or finished complete to the most prominent manufacturers in Europe. Our Die Cost is Very Low. We can quote f.o.b. your city, free of duty. Send blue prints and all enquiries to our representative

♦ H. A. ELLIOTT, (majestic bloo DETROIT, MICH.

AERONAUTICS

The Leading British Monthly Journal Devoted to the Technique and Industry of Aeronautics.

(FOUNDED 1907) Yearly Subscription One Dollar, Post Free

Note:

A specimen copy will be mailed free on receipt of 10 centi.

-HEAD OFFICE:-

3 London Wall Buildings, London, England Amarican Office : 250 West 54th Street, New York

Detroit™ power plant

COMPLETE $300 READY TO RUN

INCL.PROPELLER-CARBURETOR-BOSH MAGNETO. OIL PUMP-CABLE-SWITCH-MOUNTINQ BOLTS,

: -s GUARANTIED to

210 LBS. MIN.STATIONARY THRUST 158 LBS MAX.WEIGHT(COMPLETE), 36 HOURS DELIVERY

LIFT AND FLY CURTIS BY PLANES BLERIOT IT MONOPLANES DEMOISELLE MONOPLANES OR CRAFTS OF SIMILAR MAKE

DETROIT/tROPLANE CO.

WIRE

We make an extra high grade plated finish wire for aviators' use.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ADDRESS

John A. Roebling's Sons Co.

. TRENTON, N. J.

- THOMAS AEROPLANES

Are Safe and Reliable

having been developed by Actual Performance

SCHOOL OF AVIATION

Write for full particulars

THOMAS BROTHERS

SHANNON BLDG. BATH, N. Y.

Seventy per cent, of record-breaking American flights with American Aeroplanes were made

with propellers bearing this name

CHARAYAY

We will tell-you why if you ask us SLOANE AEROPLANE CO. ; 1733 Broadway, NEW YORK CITY

AgenU: Eamea Tricycle Co., San Francisco and-Loi Angeles; National Aeroplane Co., Chicago ; W. E. Boughton, Washington, D. C.

T a time when everything in aeronautics is virtually new it seems inappropriate to refer to any particular machine as out of the ordinary, but the stereotyping influence of the popularity of one - or two leading make's ' has already had a marked tendency in fixing ideas in aeroplane construction so thatJt is, after all, a matter of necessity to say of the newest Etrich monoplane, that it is a nfachine of uncohamon design and exceptional fnterest.

The Etrich Limousine

By FRITZ EDELSTEIN

In the first place the body of the Etrich air limousine forms a very neat, fish shaped unit, whose frame is built up with wooden channel-section side members, which are covered with thin sheets of aluminum and fabric. This point in contruction is worthy of immediate reference as it serves to emphasize the completeness of the whole structure. The wing construction, and the other details, ie. control mechanism, power plant, etc., are the same as it was in the case of the predescribed "pigeon."

The most important feature is the body which contains, inside, four seats, for the driver and three passengers. These seats are arranged by twos, side by side. The right front seat is the place for the driver. The frame of the body consists of 12 wooden rings, which are held in position by long eliptical longitudinal members, which preserve the fish shape of the body. The spaces between the front rings are covered with wire gauze and celluloid in order to realize windows and to protect the occupants from weather and wind, and to get a good view of the ground. The 60 H.P. four cylinder Austro-Daimler engine is situated at the head of the body in order to acquire a strong cooling draught for the engine. This motor has the Bosch 2-spark magneto.

The new machine whose principal dimensions are the same as of the pigeon type has been successfully flown with three passengers at Josefstadt. Remarkable is a new patented speed-change-device which allows various speeds. The landing carriage carries three wheels, one of these wheels is mounted -under the forward part of the fuselage, in order to absorb the first great landing shocks and to prevent a turn over when the machine is landing on uneven ground.

The Etrich "Swallow"

By FRITZ EDELSTEIN

es a

SHORT time after the first great successful record flights of the Austrian Etrich monoplanes of the "pigeon"-type, a new monoplane was completed in the Etrich aeroplane factory at Oberaltstadt, near Traut-enau. The "swallow,"— this is the designation of the new machine,—differs in various points from the well known "pigeons" but her natural stability is so great that wing warping is not employed. The shape of the wings and of the horizontal tail plane is altered in order to realize exact swallow wings, but the proved "Zanonia" principle has been preserved in the negative angle of incidence of the wing tips. The wings and the balance of the "swallow" monoplane are the results of many experiments. The wings are characterized by a marked change of angle from shoulder to tip. Near the body they have very steep camber and an attitude represented by a positive angle of incidence of about 5°. At the extremities they are flat and their tips are upturned in such a way, that the attitude hereabouts presents a distinct negative angle.

Constructionally, the "swallow" is as interesting as it is in design, for almost the entire machine is built of steel tubes, with exception of the wooden wing ribs and wooden fuselage and body rings, which are covered with fabric. The machine is built for military use as a three-seater. The two passenger seats are arranged in tandem fashion and rearwards is the seat for the driver. At the right and left hand from the seats are arranged on each side in the sup-

porting surface, three little windows which are covered with celluloid. In the forward portion of the body is the 60 h. p. four cylinder Bosch equipped, Austro-Daimler engine, situated, which drives directly an "Intergrale" propeller of 6' 9" diam. at 1300 r. p. m. Behind the engine is a great honeycomb type radiator.

The controlling device consists of a vertical steering column, which actuates the elevator plane by warping and the rudder by rotation of the handwheel; warping mechanism for the wing tips not being employed. The lateral stability is obtained automatically by the flexion of the wings. The landing

chassis is also quite simplje in its design. It consists of two wheels, carrying a thin steel axle with a central curved ash skid. The skid is suspended to this, steel axle, supported on the two wire wheels by elastic springs. The tail also rests upon a curved ash skid. The body itself is mounted on an A-type carriage, of which the principal members are constructed of steel tubes and ash; its diagonals are also made of steel tubes.

Weighing 500 lbs., the machine has been designed for a speed of 70 miles per; hour

and to carry its triple human load for a non-stop flight of three hours.

In the matter of speed the intentions of the designer have been more than realized, for in practical tests, that have recently taken place, this 70 miles has been handsomely exceeded.

The monoplane "swallow" undoubtedly represents a considerable advance on the admittedly sound work of the Etrich establishment, and if sheer merit goes for anything these days, it should pave the way for an exceedingly prosperous business year.

Somerville Auto-Stable Biplane

HAT the inventor calls an automatically stable machine has been built by William E. Somerville, formerly mayor of Coal City, 111. Several previous machines have been built, more than a year ago, embodying his idea of upturned wings, and his experiments were described and illustrated in AERONAUTICS at the time.

Recently a tractor machine has been built along the same line and a manufacturing company is being organized. In writing of his machine he says: "The stability of the machine in the air was something of a revolution to my aeronautical friends who\saw tht test. The N aviator, Edward Konh, ex- , plained after hq landed that he was astonished at the hying qualities of the machine-. The machine, on being banked, would insist on always coming back to a level keel. There is no question but that inherent stability is possible without sacrificing efficiency."

The wings spread total 47 ft. There are five 7-foot sections, .the curved wing-ends making up the balance. The spacing between planes is 5-1/6".

The control system is of the Farman type. A Hall-Scott 80 h.p. and another 50 h.p. engine designed by Somerville himself are

being used. The ailerons offer a resistance on the high side as well as opening the surface; nothing is done to the low side in correcting lateral balance. Both the systems A and B have been tested. The B system is more efficient but slower in righting effect. "With properly designed plane in combination with upturned wing tips, ailerons are not necessary as the machine will automatically maintain lateral stability," says the inventor, "but we found that some mechanical system must be used when getting up, or landing especially, in a side wind, as the upturned wings act too slow. After j the machine is in the air it will take care of itself laterally, with an occasional touch from the rudder on the high side.

aeroplane surfaces

Invisible coverings for aeroplanes. Why not electroplated nickel and beat out all the coverings in use today in every quality. Hydroaeroplanes operating on salt water need a non-corrosive, non-rotting covering ^hich dampness will not stretcn.

Edison's prediction that nickel would substituted paper in the manufacturing of books suggests such a coating. Nickel when once applied would be permanent as regards weathering the elements. Breakages alone would necessitate removals. A 'plane whose framework is built of steel tubing and

(Continued on page 92)

Somerville Biplane

ALBATROSS ENGINES

Made in two sizes

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AERO WIRE WHEELS

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20nx2in Wheels........§4.00, with Tire........$6.00

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Don't fail to write for complete list of wheel* Terms: Cash or Deposit. Balance C. O. D.

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humiliation Allowed. Dept. A., 132 Wot 50th Street, New York

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Curtiss Steering Wheels - $9.00 FREE with Curtiss Seats - - - 5.50 5-Gallon Tanks - - 6.15 Aviator Caps - - - 1.25 Outrigger Fittings - - .29 Oval Post Sockets - - .17 Aluminum pulleys with brass bushings:

2" 25c, 2§" 30c, 3" 40c. Wheels and Tires complete, Eclipse Hub:

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ELBRIDGE ENGINES

So simple anyone can operate them

So strong nobody breaks them

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Made in a dozen sizes, to suit all types of machines.

The most generally successful engine known to aviation, for both amateur and professional work. Catalog or folder on request.

Elbridge Engine Company

10 Culver Rd. Rochester, N. Y.

The Thomas Tractor Biplane

i\HE Thomas Brothers, of Bath, N. Y., have recently successfully tried out a tractor biplane, which will be marketed as Model 10 ATH. This machine is equipped with a 50 h.p. Kirkham six cylinder motor . and is designed for either land or water work. The running gear consists of two skids, attached to the lower engine section by a strong, steel, tubular construction. Each skid carries a pair of wheels, mounted on a hollow steel axle, from which the aeroplane is suspended by means of rubber spri^rs. The wheels are built up with hubs for a plain axle and steel rims which are equipped with double tube detachable tires.

The planes are a standard set of Model 10 planes, which have proved to be very efficient and have shown high speed and glide at a very efficient angle.

The control system has been adopted with a view of establishing a universal control.

Every moving vehicle on the market at the present time is operated by a system of controls which has been universally adopted by manufacturers in this country and abroad. As examples, take the cycle, the motorcycle, the automobile, the locomotive, and all vessels. While the controlling levers, or the steering wheels, as the case may be, vary in detail in each of these different forms of locomotion, still they are the same in each type of vehicle.

The speed shown by this model is 50-55 miles an hour, and it is surprisingly stable in high winds.

The dimensions are as follows: Spread, 3V/2 ft.; chord, 5y2 ft.; camber of planes, 3

in.; length over-all, 25 ft. Net weight, 735 lbs.

The skids are suitably reinforced, so that uniform strength is kept throughout their length. The design of these skids permits the whole weight of the aeroplane to be carried on the upturned tips of these skids, with the machine standing in a vertical position.

Two radiators are used, as in all the other models, and are mounted integral with the fuselage. The fuselage is built in two halves, which facilitates shipping in exhibition work. The front half of the fuselage can be detached from the main planes by removing eight nuts, and it is packed in one crate for shipping purposes. The front half of the fuselage carries all the controls. The motor controls consist of hand and foot throttle, magneto control and short circuit switch. The controlling surfaces are operated by a universally mounted steering column, carrying a laminated wood wheel in a fork at its upper end. The rudders are operated by turning this wheel in a clockwise or anti-clockwise direction. The ailerons are operated by movement of this column to the right or to the left. The elevator is controlled by moving the whole column backwards or forwards.

When the machine is used for water work, the land running gear can be replaced by a pontoon and braces, in about ten minutes.

The rear half of the fuselage carries the control wire leaders and control wires, which aré provided with snaps, which disconnect a short distance behind the joint which the rear half of the fuselage makes with the front half. The rear elevator and rudders are the same combination of controls used on all standard Thomas machines. The foot operated brakes used on the previous models have been discarded and a

metal shoe attached to the front and rear ends of the skids, which allows either end to be used as a brake, according to circumstances.

Landings have been made with this machine in plowed fields, hay fields, grain fields, and in corn fields, without in any way injuring or straining the landing gear.

These models are built so stoutly throughout that it is almost impossible to have a smash even with a very poor landing.

Messrs. Thomas Brothers report that they have had machines of this model turn completely over on to the top plane without

in any way injuring the aviator or breaking a single portion of the machine.

Thomas aeroplanes have been very highly commended for their design and sound construction and are well considered among the best of American aeroplanes.

Aviator Walter E. Johnson, of the Thomas team, who has been flying one of the Model 10' AX hydroaeroplanes, has covered over 550 miles since July 8th in flights over the water without experiencing any trouble with pontoon or machine. Since January, 1910, one of the standard Model 10A Thomas aeroplanes has covered over 1500 miles in passenger and exhibition flights.

The Sopwith Tractor

$^S^}S^S^S^)RACTORS are all the rage now. Burgess, Benoist, Thomas, Martin, and scores of others have built tractors and abroad they have long been common. They possess many of the attractive and desirable features of the monoplane, with the added strength and capabilities of the biplane. Another tractor with Wright wings, along the lines of the recent Burgess army machine, but bigger, has been built by T. O. M. Sopwith, who took a Burgess-Wright back with him to England. The control of the new machine is similar to that put on the Burgess-Wright last year—a lever for elevator and warping, and foot yoke for rudder.

The dimensions are as follows: Spread, 44 ft.; chord, 6 ft.; camber, 3^ ins.; gap, 6 ft. 4 ins.; length over-all, 26 ft. 4 ins; supporting surface, 520 sq. ft.; elevator, 40 sq.

ft.; rudder, 12 sq. ft; weight, about 950 lbs.; motor, 70 h.p. Gnome, driving a 9' 6" Chau-viere.

The planes, as stated, are built roughly on the Wright model; the stanchions are of picked silver spruce, iy4 in. by 2% in. The leading edge of the planes is fastened to the ribs by aluminum strips. The ribs, also of silver spruce, are spaced 11 ins. to 1 ft. apart.

The main plane spars measure 1% in. by 2y4 in. for the back spar, and 1% iQ- by V/2 in. for the front spar. The body is 24 ft. long; in front it is particularly broad and deep, and, of course, covered in; but behind the planes the skeleton is left bare. It is fitted fairly high up between the planes, and the space between the body and the lower plane is covered in with fabric. The body spars are of iy& in. ash, tapering to % in- At tne nose ^ measures 3 ft. in width by 2 ft. in depth, tapering to 1 ft. 6 in. at the tail.

The chassis—silver spruce throughout— is of the new modified Wright type, but is likely to undergo a change before the next public appearance of the machine.

The pilot's seat is in the rear; the two passengers' seats are arranged in front, side by side.

NICKEL SURFACES (Continued from pape 89)

stamped aluminum ribs, along the Curtiss lines, in panels could very easily have the nickel supporting surface applied. A panel approximately five feet by five feet would not need a very large plating tank. Paraffine paper applied with a carbon graphite coating perforated at ribs and beams would give the plating its shape. The perforation would allow nickel to fasten to the framework.

By properly placing the anodes in plating tank nickel could be deposited thicker near ribs and beams where strength is needed most.

BLERIOT

Monoplanes

CNO CONNECTION WITH ANY FIRM OR INDIVIDUAL IN THE U.S.A. NO BLERIOT MONOPLANES ARE GENUINE UNLESS MADE IN OUR FACTORIES.

WINNERS OF ALL EUROPEAN CONTESTS IN 1911

In 1909:

The First Aerial Crossing of the

— Channel

In 1910: The First Circuit de l'Est

In 1911:

The Paris—Rome Race (ist and 2nd) The European Circuit (ist and 2nd) The English Circuit (Daily Mail Race) The Belgian Circuit The St. Petersburg—Moscow Race The Valencia—Alicante Race The London to Paris (Non-Stop) Race etc., etc.

WORKS AND OFFICES: 39, Route de la Revolte a Levallois-Paris

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AVIATION SCHOOLS: Etampes, near Paris, during summer Pau - - during winter Hendon, near London

SHNEIDER 'PLANES

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Instruction $250 Nassau Boulevard Aerodrome

C. Before buying any aeroplane, be sure the maker is not a novice himself. Get names of purchasers. Visit the plant and school.

C, Every Shneider machine flies—and flies well. All parts standardized. No freak construction.

C Amply powered (Roberts.)

C. Get a demonstration flight first. Then ask those who have flown Shneider machines:

Jos. Richter Wm. Kline Rollin H. Jennings

H. Binder J. P. Tarbox

C.The late Tony Castellane learned on Shneider 'planes.

Write Your Own Contract and Guarantee

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Established 1908

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Model E. 4 cylinder 50 H. P................... $1,200 V

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Complete with radiator and propeller FULLY GUARANTEED

CThe exhibition men admit there is lack of good aviators with good planes for the great number of country fairs, resort programs and reunions the next few months. fT We know of a number of good fliers who haven't quite enough of the "necessary" in pocket to get a good engine. And there are others in that position. This is their opportunity. A first class, reliable engine is all they need to "make good."

One new man cleared $10,000 with TMAftFDC Maximotored Curtiss at Spokane,

his MAXIMO TOR in 3 months. MAAIV^S^L^to Qne of many hundreds of Maxi-Why can't you? DEPT. 8 DETROIT motored flights the world over.

22'

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By buffing, skin friction would be reduced to a minimum and the plane would be made invisible at a reasonable height. In summarizing, a metallic covering of this sort would be positively airtight, very light, fric-tionless, easy to repair, impervious to the corrosive action of the sea water and as durable as any to date.

EDWIN J. BACHMANN, Jr.

The official Patent Office report, just published for 1911, gives a total of 360 aeronautical patents issued during that year. These are divided according to the odd classification employed, as follows:—balloons, 10; flying machines, 122; airships, 79; aeroplanes, 149. As is well known, aeroplanes may be found under "airships," etc.—a ridiculous method!

SCOTT WINS MICHELIN $5,000.

R. E. Scott, a former U. S. Army lieutenant has won the Michelin $5,000 prize for bomb dropping, which competition closed the 16th of August. He has been able to make 509o hits with his device, of which a full description was given sometime ago in AERONAUTICS. In his last trials abroad he put S out of 15 in ;i target from a height of 3.000 feet. During all the trials a French Wright wa« used, of huge spread, with Renault 70 h.p. engine, driven by Gaubert.

The English papers curiously enough have not discovered that the prize has been won— but one mentions the fact and does not give either Scott's name or his nationality. However, one remembers one or two Olympic games.

The French Club has not "officially confirmed" the award so it may yet be possible to find that the winner wore his cap backward or fractured some other technicality of the rules; if he were a German a lynching would more likely be the proper thing.

$24,000 PRIZES AT CHICAGO MEET

After the international race at Clearing, Ills., near Chicago, on September 9, the Chicago club has arranged for a meet from September 12 to 21, divided between Cicero field and Grant Park on the Lake front, where last year's meet was held. The Grant Park events are for hydroaeroplanes.

The total of prizes amounts to $24,000, divided as follows:

DURATION

For aeroplanes, 10 days....................$9,000

For hydroaeroplanes, 5 days............... 1,000

SPEED

Biplane Handicap, 1 day................... 575

Biplane Passenger Handicap, 1 day...... 575

Monoplane Handicap, 1 day.............. 575

Monoplane Passenger Handicap, 1 day____ 575

Biplanes Scratch, 1 day.................... 575

Monoplanes Scratch, 1 day................ 575

All types Handicap, 1 day................. 1,150

OTHER CONTESTS

Landing Motor Off, from 1000 Ft., 2 days.. 600

Flag Landing from 1000 Feet, 1 day...... 300

Mail Delivery in a Net, 2 days............ 600

Quickest Getaway, 1 day.................. 300

Bomb Dropping at Target, 2 days........ 600

Undivided Lake Front Prize .............. 1,000

Figures Eight for Hydros, 5 days ........ 1,500

Handicap Crib Race for Hydros, 5 days . . 2,000

Steeplechase for Hydros, 5 days.......... 1,750

Special Prizes ............................ 1,750

Total.......................... 124,000

The duration money is in general, divided daily on certain days pro rata for total number of minutes in the air during official flying hours. The hydroaeroplane pilots obtain their money pro rata on basis of number of events completed.

For the handicapping events, an entrant must first enter a trial to determine the relative speed of his machine with a certain standard set by the contest committee. In the actual contests, competitors will start in succession, according to the amount of the time handicap, and these contests will be run off in heats. These will be over a course of 20 kilometers, except the "All Types," which is over 40 kills.

In the "Flag Landing" contest, the observers approximate the altitude and signal thel aviator to stop his motor; the nearest to a mark! wins.

The hydroaeroplane events will be held aboutl "pylons" established in Lake Michigan between|l the shore and the "4-Mile Crib."

In the "Steeplechase," the hydros will havej to jump the hurdles, touching the water be-l tween each.

The special prizes cover the longest 2-manj flight during the meet, the longest 3-man flight,! and 4-man flight; the greatest number of pas-| sengers, all at least 125 lbs. weight.

GORDON BENNETT 'PLANE RACE

The actual entrants in the G-B race may not be completely known until 24 hours before thej race, as, according to the rules, the names ofl the pilots need not be announced before. Fol-I lowing are the entries of the countries, withl names of pilots so far as known:—

France—3 machines.

Jules Vedrines (Deperdussin) Maurice Prevost (Deperdussin)

André Frey (Hanriot)

Belgium—3 machines.

England—2 machines. Probably white andl

another. Holland—1 machine. Switzerland—1 machine. America—3 machines.

But one American machine will likely appear,, the Burgess monoplane. It is expected that Del Lloyd Thompson will be the pilot. Thompson is I a recently "breveted" pilot and thus far has not( even been in the Burgess machine. It is a feat for the expert to fly a pure racing model, let alone more or less of a novice. It would be the sheerest luck should America succeed in retain- ! ing the trophy. It is not unlikely that at least one of the French machines will break all speed records up to 200 kilometers in this race.

Edson F. Gallaudet sometime ago had the misfortune to smash his wonderfully fast "Bullet" and there has not been time to rebuild it. No other constructor has offered a machine under the Aero Club's proposition to pay $10,000 for each 100-.mile-an-hour machine produced in America.

Vedrines in his trials has made 106.4 miles an hour over the same distance of 200 kilometers.

The site for the G-B aviation race has been selected at Clearing, Ills. Thirty circuits of a 6.666 kilometer (4.142 miles) course will make up the required 200 kilometers. A strip 400 feet wide around the pylons has been prepared, it is claimed by the A. C. of Illinois, on which 'planes can alight anywhere.

The course is generally in th'e form of an ellipse, all the angles, 6 in number, being of 120 degrees. There will be no admission charged for the event.

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS

For the 12 months ending June 30, 17 foreign machines were imported into the U. S. A. at a valuation of $59,713. Of these, 11 were sent back again, valued at $35,S31. Domestic exports totaled 2 in June, $3,100; and 29 for the I entire 12 months, $105,S05. Three foreign ma- 1 chines remained in the warehouse or in bond on June 30, valued at $11,423. It will be noticed that domestic exports far exceeded imports of foreign aeroplanes. Patents are applied for in the U. S. A. and foreign countries.

8

FRONTIER Aero Motors I

"Always in Front

CIn casting about for the best there is in a high class motor— one that has withstood every test—the discriminating buyer will make no mistake in adopting the "Frontier."

See the flights being made by Beatty with the Frontier Model A-Motor at Mineola, L. I.

FRONTIER FACTS

Abundant power.

Perfectly balanced.

Imported ball bearings throughout.

Runs without skipping with equal and constant power.

The highest grade materials obtainable are used in construction.

Four-cycle, eight-cylinder, "V type, water-cooled cylinders.

Send for Catalogue

giving detailed information regarding this superior power plant for aerial navigation—the final achievement of two years spent in designing and experiments.

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~~ Veteran aviators, manufacturers and all having to do with navigating the air, acknowledge the superiority of products bearing the Goodyear Trade Mark.

Whether on Balloons, now built complete by us, or on Aeroplane fabric and accessories it stands for longest service-greatest safety. Because Goodyear quality is founded on years of experience.

Goodyear Bubberized Aeroplane fabric neither shrinks, stretches, mildews nor rots. It is the only fabric that is weather-proof in fact. This fabric, with Goodyear Aeroplane Tires and Springs, comprises the equipment adopted by practically all nationally known air-men and aeroplane makers.

Write for attractive booklet describing

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BALLOONS

AEROPLANE ACCESSORIES

Goodyear pneumatic tires ara guaranteed when filled with air at the recommended pressure. _ When filled with any substitute for air our guarantee is withdrawn.

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Branches and Agencies in 103 Principal Cities. We Make All Kinds of Rubber Tires, Tire Accessories and Repair Outfits. Main Canadian Office: Canadian Factory:

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EVERYBODY CAN

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Learn how at the

FLY I

* Moisant Aviation School *

At Hempstead Plains, L. I.

Well-known Moisant School Graduates licensed by The Aero Club of America.

Most of our Licensed Pilots Employed bp us.

Miss Mathilde Movant Mr. Harold Kantner Mr. F. E. DeMurias Capt. G. W. MacKay Mr. Francisco Alvarez

Mr. S. S. Jerwan Mr. M. F. Bates Mr. J. Hector Worden Miss Harriet Qiiimby Mr. Jesse Seligman

Mr. Clarence de Giers MOISANT MONOPLANES USED

.For Handsome Illustrated Booklet Address

The Moisant International Aviators

U. S. Rubber Building

Broadway and 58th St., New York City

September, 1912I

[ Monoplane Flyers ! Are in Demand

* /TNHERE are more competent biplane flyers than there are positions

* flying monoplanes. In exhibitions the monoplane commands from 70 to

there are positions. This is the time to earn the big money in j monoplanes. In exhibitions the monoplane commanc X 100 per cent, more compensation than the biplane. In the

SLOANE SCHOOL OF AVIATION

+ +

% monoplane flying is taught on a genuine famous Deperdussin Machine.

+ The course is an exact duplicate of the course as it is taught by the

+ Deperdussins at Rheims, France.

+ The tuition *OAA for the full

X fee is u)«3vJvJ course

+ If the pupil completes the course without breakage 10 per cent, of

X the tuition fee is refunded. A guarantee of $250 for breakage is required, X which also is returned at the completion of the course. The pupil is + made competent to comply with the most rigid license test and the X course is not considered completed until the pupil obtains his certificate.

No bond of any kind is required when the pupil flies for the license.

Of the seven pupils who entered the school during the first month one was certified as proficient after three weeks of the course. He finished without any breakage whatsoever. + Visit the school. It is located on the famous Long Island flying

X field near New York.

* -

I Deperdussin Monoplanes sflaS

4> in the world. Hold 90 per cent, of the world's records.

I Caudron Monoplanes a£edsyafe md

% An72)ni lVlnfftl*Q n°ld tne unique record of giving tremendous J rkUitOMU ITIUIUI O speed, reliability, efficiency and safety. No + fatal accident during the year has occurred with an Anzani Motor.

f WIRE 'PHONE WRITE

Sloane Aeroplane Co.

'Phone 5421 Columbus

1733 Broadway, N. Y. City

G-B BALLOON ELIMINATION.

Captain H. E. Honeywell, in the varnished cotton balloon "Uncle Sam" made by his own factory, the French-American Balloon Co., with Roy F. Donaldson as aide beat their nearest competitor by 264 miles in the elimination race to select the American G-B team. They landed at Manassas, Va„ after being in the air some 35 hours. The first three have been named to comprise this team.

Following is the Jirst publication of the official standing of the contestants.

"Uncle Sam," (S0,000) Capt. H. E. Honeywell and Roy F. Donaldson, to Manassas, Va., 914 miles, dur. 35 hrs.; 50 m.

"Kansas City II," (78,000), John Watts & Geo. E. Quisenberry, to Willis, Mich., 650 miles; dur. 23 h. 32 m.

"Drifter," (65,000), Albert Holz & Charles Trautman, to Calhoun, Wis., 449 miles; dur. 17 h. 43 m.

"Million Pop. Club II." (7S.000) Paul Mc-Cullough & John Hart, to

Spring Green, Wis., 377 miles; dur. 15 h. 16 m.

"Million Pop. Club I," (S0000), John Berry & Albert Von Hoffman, to Wadden Grove, Ills., 347 miles; dur. 10 h. 30 m.

"Goodyear," (7S000). G. L. Bumbaugh & Ralph H. Upson, to Polo, Ills., 342 miles; dur. 10 h. 47 m.

"Cole," (S0O0O), Dr. L. E. Custer & Andrew Farrell, to McGregor, la., 330 miles; dur. 9 h. 51 m.

The Uncle Sam landed not far from the old Bull Run battle field. Its occupants estimated they had covered an actual distance of about twelve hundred miles.

The balloonists landed here for fear they would continue on into the Atlantic Ocean.

Neither Captain Honeywell nor his aide had a wink of sleep during the thirty-five hours they were in the balloon. They had food to last many days and they left with the farmer, who was first to greet them on their descent, what remained of their provisions.

"Did you ever hear of using ice cream for ballast?" asked the captain. "Well, that is what we used; for we had several gallons when we left Kansas City and what was left next morning we threw overboard.

"We had plenty of good things to eat en route. As a stove to heat soup, we put lime between two buckets and then slacked the lime. While passing over Chicago at noon Sunday we had our midday meal, canteloupes, soup, boiled eggs, cold tongue, coffee and grape juice."

AERO SOCIETY LECTURE SERIES

The Entertainment Committee of the Aeronautical Society has mapped out the following program for the next three months:

September 12th—Technical Lecture, second in series of hydroaeroplane course: Capt. W. Irving Chambers, U. S. N., in charge of Navy Aeronautical Bureau, lecturer.

September 26th—Address and Reception. B.

F. Yoakum, chairman of the Santa Fe Railroad lines, or William McAdoo, the tunnel builder, will be the distinguished guests.

October 10—Technical Lecture, third and last in the hydroaeroplane course. Prof. A. A. Merrill, lecturer on aeronautics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, or Lieut. T.

G. Ellyson, U. S. Navy Aviator, will be the lecturer.

October 24—A general entertainment will be arranged for this evening.

Further features wil be announced when tin-Committee has formulated its plans.

DYOTT IMPORTS CAUDRON:

The first Caudron monoplane, one of France's miniature machines, to be seen in America is being brought over by George M. Dyot't, the Deperdussin flyer. His connection with the Sloane school has been served and it is probable he will start out for himself with the Caudron and a couple of Dep. copies he has made. The former will have one of the new three cylinder "Y" Anzani motors which gives

a speed of 65 m. p. h. As pilot of the Sloane school he graduated two pupils and started several others along. Among these is L. W. Bonney, a former Wright tlyer, who now is instructor for John E. Sloane.

BALLOON ASCENSIONS.

'.Vig. 26. A. Leo Stevens and Sirs. James Young, fle"w from Brighton Beach over Long Island to Northport, in a miniature hydrogen balloon of 8,500 cubic feet.

Aug. 21.—Five ascended in a balloon at Venice, Calif.

Fittsfield, Aug. 2.—J. J. Van Valkenburgh and William C. Hill to Mt. Adams, Rowe, Mass. Alt. 9840 feet.

St. Paul, Ind., Aug. 10.—D. L. Dennis made his eighth ascension during his home coming.

Kansas City, July 27.—H. W. Jacob piloted the "Kansas City III" with Dr. Milo E. Hart-man and Miss Violet Davis 22 miles to Smith-ville, Mo., after the two latter were married in the balloon.

Omaha, Neb., May S.—Lts. F. H. Bohen,

D. L. Roscoe, C. A. Rrafo, Karl Drushill, with Wm. F. Assmann as pilot in a government balloon. Hydrogen ascent.

DEATHS.

Brooklands, Eng., Aug. 3.—Charles L. Campbell (Bristol biplane); "stalled" his machine; "error of judgment."

Salisbury Plain, Eng. Aug. 13.—R. C. Fen-wick in a "Mersey" monoplane of his own construction, which, since his death, is alleged to have been faulty in construction.

Munich, Bavaria, July 27.—Fischer and his mechanic Kugler.

Bourg-en-Bresse, France, July 15.—Olivieres.

Lamar, Colo., Aug. 22.—George Thompson, of Denver, killed when machine struck tree.

Doeberitz, Germany, Aug. 6.—Sergeant Lachmann died from effect of fall on July 23.

INCORPORATIONS.

Benoist Aircraft Co., St. Louis, Mo., $50,000; Tom W. Benoist, J. C. Henning and A. Cassidy.

Aeronautical Aerodrome of Manhattan, New York; $10,000; L. S. Burridge, Louis R. Adams,

E. D. Anderson.

Empire Aerial Navigation Co., New York; $100,000. John C. McGreevy, Hornell, N. Y.; Wm. C. Clark, 90 Hamilton Place, and John A. Neville, 1 Greenwich Ave.. N. Y. City.

Atwood Park Aviation Co., Boston; $100,000. Albert C. Day, Henry P. Mason and Owen Goldsmith.

Blondin Safety Aeroplane Co., Los Angeles, Calif. Organized by Joseph A. Blondin, a veteran balloon man, formerly of Albuquerque, N. M.

Shreveport Aeroplane Co., Shreveport, La., $10,000; C. A. Rerian, J. B. Herold and P. A. Phelps.

Prowse Aeroplane Co., Hopkinsville, Ky.; $25,000; C. O. Prowse, Lee Ellis, G. E. Kolb, R. E. Cooper,. George Boddie, L. E. Fowler, and others.

Peekskill Hydroaeroplane Co., Peekskill, N. \ .; $12,000; Amos Purdv, Julius Brown, Alexander Brule, E. Y. Loomis, Albert Von Wittering.

ON MISS QUIMBY'S DEATH

In further support of Earle L. Ovington's fiindings in the wreck of Miss Quimoy's Bleriot, statements in affidavit form are made by two other witnesses who were with Mr. Ovington when he made his examination, agreeing that one of the control wires leading to the rudder was caught over the lower end of the lever which warps the wings and "that this wire was unhooked bv Mr. Hardy." the mechanic, in their presence. Miss Quimby's death has been ascribed bv T. B. Brooke, of Chicago, to the effect of gyroscopic action. None of the observers whose opinions were printed in AERONAUTICS ooincided with that view, and all were experienced flyers and were on the ground and ought to know.

Glenn H. Curtiss has gone to Europe—says there is a great field there for hydroaeroplanes.

WHAT HAPPENED TO VANIMAN.

The makers of the bag of the Vaniman airship, the Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., whose president, Mr. Seiberling, was the generous financial backer of Vaniman's experiments, have made an exhaustive inquiry into the causes of the fatal accident.

No definite cause can be determined. Out of all theories the most plausible is that the suspension ropes broke when the dirigible was 2500 feet high. The detailed report of the Goodyear Company says:

"This theory has not to our knowledge been advanced before, but it would explain all the observed tacts and has strong evidence to recommend it. The size rope used for supporting the car gave a nominal safety factor of about three, and they had been tightened up much beyond their proper allowance. We have it from two of the mechanics that these ropes had been breaking frequently when simply standing in the shed. If two or more happened to break at once, the others would speedily follow suit, thus throwing all the strain on the bottom fabric, tearing it open and ripping the whole bag from the car."

Other theories seem not so plausible. (1) No evidence of an explosion from tanks or engines: gas over S0% pure; no signs of fire on part of the bag. (2) No evidence of rupture of bag from inherent weakness or rot; fabric had a safety factor of S, built to stand pressure of 8 inches of water when but I inch was specified; all seams triple reinforced and no seams strained as near as could be found. (3) Propellers slow speed and their breakage inn-probable.

The wreckage was raised and every possible examination and test was made. The company Is enthusiastic on the dirigible subject and looks for development here equal, at least, to that abroad.

NEW PILOTS.

144 Victor Carlstrom, Los Angeles, Calif., December 31, 1911.

145 Oliver G. Simmons, Wiekatunk, N. J., April 1 and 5-18-12.

146 William H. Hemstrought, Hammonds-port, N. Y., July 13, 1912.

147 Henry L. Hattemer, Marblehead Bay, Mass., July 13, 1912.

14S Katherine Stinson, Chicago, III., July 19, 1912.

149 W. Irving Twombly, Hempstead, L. I., July 23, 1912.

150 John P. Gray, Marblehead Bay, Mass., July 7, 1912.

151 Lieut, Wm. C. Sherman, LT. S. A., College Park, McL, July 20, 1912.

152 Lieut. Harry Graham, U. S. A., College Park, Met, July 20, 1912.

153 Capt. Frederick B. Hennessy, U. S. A., College Park, Md., July 23, 1912.

154 Corporal Vernon S. Burge, TJ. S. A., Ft. McKinley, P. L, June 14, 1912.

155 Lt. Moss L. Love. U. S. A., Ft. McKinley, P. I., June 27, 1912.

156 Chauncy M. Vought, Cicero Flying Field, Chicago, August 6, 1912.

157 William Bouldin, 3rd, Garden City, L. I., N. Y., August 9, 1912.

Chicago, Aug. 30. 1912. Some of us who are members of the Illinois Aero Club appreciated your recent reference to a certain millionaiie who is wasting his money on freaks.

R. M. P.

Hurrah for your editorial on supported freaks! It is a shame that this is the case here in Chicago almost exclusively.

A. E. S., member A. C. I.

Published Monthly by Aeronautics Press, 250 West 54th Street, N. Y. Cable: Aeronautic. New York •Phone 4833 Columbus A. V. JONES, Pres't — — ERNEST L JONES, Treas'r-Sec'y ERNEST L. JONES, Editor — M. B. SELLERS, Technical Editor

subscription rates United States, $3.00 Foreign, $3.50

advertising representative: e. f. inoraham adv. co.. 116 nassau st.. new york

No. 61 SEPTEMBER—1 912 Vol. 11, No. 3

Entered as second-class matter September 22, 1908, at the Postottlce

New York, under the Act of March 3,1879. ^T AERONAUTICS is issued on the 30th of each month ^ All copy must be received by the 20th. Advertising pages close on the 25th. :: :: :: :: :: :: ^T Make all checks or money orders free of exchange and payable to AERONAUTICS. Do not send currency. No foreign stamps accepted. :: ::

AERONAUTICS is always glad to have articles reproduced, in whole or in part, provided credit is given. Among most newspapers and periodicals there exists a sense of propriety and honor. Where one paper originally prints articles of enough value to be republished with credit by competitors, the original publisher may feel flattered. The publisher who takes articles and prints them word for word is a thief. The Peoria Journal in one day printed two articles from AERONAUTICS verbatim. Not a line of credit can be discovered. This paper admits it was not "intended" that any copyright rights be violated and published the stolen items without being "aware" they "did" violate any rights.

Chicago, July 17, 1912. My Dear Colleague:

Permit me to congratulate you on the wonderful issue of Aeronautics dated Ju; On page 4, under the heading of "Aviator Factories and Their Methods," you have laid before your readers some very valuable information and gave them the truth in nude form. Tills is what the magazines pertaining to aeronautics should have published long ago, and thanks to you for the interest you have taken in the game in coming forward with it at the present time.

It lias taken several months of hard work to clean out of Chicago some of the Fly-by-Night and Wild Cat Aviation Concerns, although there are one or two srill in existence. It will be but a short time when we will have them entirely eliminated.

Under the head of honest advertising, there is something every reader, firm or corporation, aviator or otherwise, should co-operate with you in trying to eliminate the frauds who advertise and swindle the poor interested enthusiast cut of the small sum he may have to contribute.

H. B. W.

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Aviator starts motor from his seat if required

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jjj " Send for Catalogue "

THE GYRO MOTOR COMPANY

774 GIRARD STREET :: :: :: WASHINGTON, D. C.

t Sole Agents for SIMMONS Propellers Ì

Patents Gone to Issue

Copies of any of These Patents may be Secured by Sending Five Cents in Coin to the Commissioner of Patents, Washington, D. C.

Even in these enlightened clays, the crop of patents on absolutely worthless, or even questionable, devices increases rather than decreases.

It would take an entire issue of the magazine to abstract in a full and clear manner the claims of the majority of the patents issued. In a great many cases it is even impossible to give in a few lines what sort of an apparatus the patent relates to. In most instances we have used merely the word "aeroplane" or "helicopter" if such it is. Where it is impossible to indicate the class, even, in which the patent belongs, without printing the whole patent, we have used the word "Hying machine."

The patents starred (*) are those which may be found of particular interest; but it must be understood we do not pretend to pass judgment upon merits or demerits. Editor.

1,020,754, John R. Hendrickson, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, June 18, 1912. AEROPLANE.

1,030.312, Henry Laprise, Holyoke. Mass., June 25, 1912. SAFETY device comprising parachute and floats.

1.030,363, Floyd E. Whitlatch, Windsor. Ills.. June 25, 1912. Automatic STABILITY by pendulum actuation.

1,030,518, Joseph R. Machado, Vallejo, Cal., June 25, 1912. Combined AEROPLANE— HELICOPTER.

1,030,542, John T. Rydberg, Garwood, X. J., June 25, 1912. WARPING mechanism.

1.030.704, Louis F. Bancroft, Hartford. Conn., June 25, 1912. AILERON stability device.

*1,030,772, David Richard Davis, Eau Claire, Wise, June 25, 1912. Means of construction to allow extreme flexibility of surfaces for AUTOMATIC WARPING.

1,030,803, Svdnev Borman, Attelboro, Mass., June 25, 1912. STABILITY device.

1,030,826. Anton Mayer, Chicago, Ills., June 25, 1912. AEROPLANE.

1.030,942, John C. Telfer, Spokane, Wash., Julv 2. 1912. Tandem multi-surfaced HYDROAEROPLANE.

*1,030,968, Emile Bourdelles, Paris, France, July 2, 1912. Automatic STABILITY through change in the angle of incidence of either wing instantly and automatically as struck by wind gust; wings vertically oscillatable about axis in direction of flight.

1,030,994, Pasquale Giordano, Boston, Mass., Julv 2, 1912. AEROPLANE.

1,031,148, Attilio Ranza, Rome, Italy, July 2, 1912. Automatically—Deformable BALLOON.

1,031,230, John Weslev Batdorf, San Jose, Cal., July 2, 1912. FLYING MACHINE.

1,031,452, Georg Korf, Hamburg, Germany, July 2, 1912. WING; formed of feather-like sections.

1,031,401, James P. Olsen, Jr.. Salt Lake City, Utah, July 2, 1912. FLYING MACHINE.

1,031,569, Henrv Miller, Washington, Penn., July 2, 1912. AILERON system, in which ailerons are capable of being reefed or changed as to area.

1,031,597, Joel N. Thompson, New Madrid, Mo., July 2, 1912. FLYING MACHINE.

1,031,623, Maurice Ferdinand de Redon de Colombier, Paris, France, July 2, 1912. FLAPPING WING model.

1.031.705, William Friese-Greene. Brighton, England, July 9, 1912. Gyroscopically equilibrated DIRIGIBLE.

1,031,797, John M. Janesone, Richmond Hill, N. Y., July 9, 1912. FLYING MACHINE.

I,031,S07, Ernest Molnar, Cleveland, Ohio, July 9, 1912. FLYING MACHINE.

1,031,840, Albert I. Crenshaw, Chicago, Ills., July 9, 1912. AEROPLANE with fan-shaped main surface.

1.031.904, Bernard Montgomery Besknw. New York, N. Y., July !>, 1912. STABILITY device in which ailerons are automatically operated -by air pressures.

o 1i,i)i-v''30T(^>Ylph R' Essig' Canton, Ohio, July

1,032,050, Harry Houlette Elliott, Lawrence, Kails., July 'J, 1912. PROPELLER.

1,032,093, William Edward Joseph Vavasour, London, England, July 9, 1912. FLYING MACHINE.

1.032.1G2. Niles C. Sorensen, Chicago, Ills., July 9, 1912. PROPELLER.

1,032,233, Francis Nvilas. New York. N. Y July 9. 1912. STABILITY device which a pendulous weight hangs below the C. of P.

1.032,394, Bradley A. Fiske. The United States Navy, July 16, 1912. Method of and Apparatus for Delivering Submarine Torpedoes from aircraft.

1,032,587. Spencer M. Brown, Portland, Ore., July 1G, 1912. AEROPLANE.

1,032,651, Frederick Brackett, Washington, D. C, July 16, 1912. Apparatus for TESTING Flying Machines.

1,032,699, Charles J. Payne, Philadelphia, Pa.. July 1G. 1912. Means for universally mounting PROPELLERS each driven by self contained gas turbines.

1,032.729, Jesse W. Baker, Pittsburg, Pa.. July 16, 1912. PROPELLER BLADE weighted at ends and with concavity at ends at an angle to plane of rotation.

1,032,744. Lemuel S. Cunningham, Clinton, Wash., July 16, 1912. ORNITHOPTER.

1,032,812, John Oasap, New York, N. Y., July 16, 1912. FLYING MACHINE.

*1,032,852, Gottlieb U. MuIIer, Philadelphia, Pa., July, 16, 1912. STABILIZING apparatus using magnets and means for oscillating to energize simultaneously one fixed and one movable magnet, etc.

1,032,868, George E. Thompson, Pittsburg, Pa., July 16, 1912. FLYING MACHINE.

1.032.966, Michael Todisco, Brooklyn, N. Y., July 16, 1912. PARACHUTE safety attachment.

1.032.967, Leon Trixler. New Orleans, La., Julv 16, 1912. HELICOPTER-AEROPLANE.

1.032,976, Jens Wulff, Erwin, S. D., July 16, 1912. AILERON system.

1,033,148, William A. Bond, Lynn, Mass., July 23, 1912. LAUNCHING DEVICE for Flying Machines.

1,033.155, Bessie W. Compton, Raywood, Tex., Julv 23, 1912. PARACHUTE.

1,033,186, August Merckens, New York, N. Y.f July 23, 1912. AIRSHIP.

1,033.234, Charles Ehlers, West Hoboken, N. J., Julv 23, 1912. AIRSHIP.

1,(!33,2S7, Gustav Staib. Port Richmond, N. Y., Julv 23, 1912. AEROPLANE.

1,033,399, George Hevlman, North San Diego, Cal., July 23, 1912. AERIAL TOY.

1,033,452, Pehr A. Nilson, Philadelphia. Pa., Julv 23, 1912. FLYING MACHINE.

1,033,460, George T. Peay, Jr., Provo, Utah, Julv 23, 1912. HELICOPTER.

1,033,510, Robert Ross Zell. Birmingham, Ala., Julv 23, 1912. FLYING MACHINE.

1.033,646. John W. Wilson. Boston, Mass., July 23. 1912. In an AEROPLANE, means for flexing one or more tail elevators about an axis ohliciue to the perpendicular, independently or simultaneously; means for tilting main supporting planes about axes oblique to perpendicular and also about axes approximately parallel to longitudinal axis of machine.

1,033,710, John J. Lauer, Alturas, Cal., July 23, 1912. GYROSCOPIC device for changing angle of incidence or tilting planes around axis parallel to longitudinal axis of machine.

1,033,827, Thomas F. Pearson. B'illerica, Mass., Julv 30, 1912. HELICOPTER.

1,034,042. Isaac Henrv Storey, Ambleside, England, July 30, litis. SUPPORTING Surface of Annular shape.

Wright Hydroaeroplane School now open at Glen Head, L. I.

yers

1912 Models

In addition to those features which in the pa*t have made Wright Hyers famous for efficiency and reliability, the new models can be furnislvd with Automatic Control, Silent Motors, and Hydroplanes. These speci il features make the 1912 machine unusually attraclive to sportsmen.

Exhibition Machines

For exhibition work we have other models especially adapted to high winds and small fields. It was with a stock "EX" Model I hat Rodgers made his wonderful flight fmm Coast to Coast. Reliability means dollars to the exhibitor.

Wright Schools of Aviation

in which the pupil her. No risk and The most famous )f our school and

Training consists of actual flying, is accompanied by a competent tai no expense whatever from breakag flyers in America are graduates include such names as—

Lieut. Arnold

Atwood

Brookins

Brindley

Bonney

Beatty

Burgess

Cof'yn

Capt. Chandler

Drew Elton

Lieut. Foulois

Fowler

Gill

Lieut. Lnhm Lieut. Milling Mitchell C. P. Rodgers

Lieut. Rodgers

Parmalee

Page

Reynolds

Simmons

Turpin

Welsh

Webster

And a score of others

Our Schools at Dayton and New York are now open anil pupils may begin training at once if they wish. By enrolling now you can reserve date most convenient to you for training.

Write for Particular*

THE WRIGHT COMPANY

OEPT. A DAYTON, OHIO

AVIATION IN THE MANOEUVERS

During the extensive Regular Army and National Guard Manoeuvers in Connecticut and New York State. August 13-17, the Signal Corps' B'urgess and the Glenn Curtiss, two in all, were used in practical ways for the gaining of information. There was a second Curtiss, down by Beckwith Havens, a member of the N. G. Havens is a recent recruit and has had no military training, so that he was unable to furnish much information. The Corps' Curtiss was flown by Lieut. Milling twice on the one day it was used, flying 43 and 53 minutes respectively. Engine trouble was experienced. Milling and Lieut. Geiger tried a passenger flight but gave it hurriedly up.

The new Burgess tractor had been accepted by the Signal Corps and Lieutenants Arnold and Kirtland attempted to fly it from Marble-head to the general headquarters of the manoemers at Stratford, Conn., a distance of around 114 .miles via water route. Thirty miles were covered, landing at Duxbury. starting from here again on Aug. 13 a mishap occurred seven miles further, at Plymouth, and the machine was damaged and shipped back to the factory.

On August 12. 13 and 14 Foulois and his Burgess was attached to the Umpire's staff at general headquarters. On the first day he was given a triangle to reconnoiter, around New Haven, Derby and Stratford. He was up ] hr. 7 min., and attained an altitude of 3S0'J feet. A great mass of information was obtained as to the location and disposition of the up-posing forces, the Reds and Blues.

On the 13th he was up 1 hr. 32 min., recon-noitering the territory included in the triangle of Stiatford, Zoar Bridge and Sandy Hook lailroad station. Milling, in the Curtiss, was up 43 minutes and covered Stratford, Derby and Long Hill. Again Milling ascended and covered in 53 minutes approximately the same territory as Foulois. On the 14th the territory was Stratford, Derby and Redding Ridge. On this day Foulois had engine trouble and was forced into landing near Derby in one of New England's miniature fields. A broken skid was quickly repaired and the flight made back to Stratford. On the two following days the weather was bad.

Beginning the 17th, Foulois was assigned to the Blue army, which was on the move and reports had to be made to the commander along the roads. This was a busy day. He left camp 6:29 a. m. and Hew over into New York State landing at Brentin 7:20. Left 10 minutes later, reporting to Commanding General of the Blues a mile east of Bethel at ■i:55. Srouted arc und the Newtown ridge as far as Cold Spring from 8:35 to 9:15 a. m. At 10:3') made reconnaissance over both forces, landing 11:10; sent report to Commanding General by messenger who was on the spot when he landed. He found the Red army on his previous trip and was ordered up again, ps there was a heavy "fight" on for the holding of the Newtown ridge. He found the Blue forces heavilv involved and coming back took the only landing place that could be discovered, a tiny bit of a stony field.

Heie the officer waiting got the information ivst before the Reds ca.me up and captured the machine at 12:10. From here Foulois Hew hack to the camp at Stratford, arriving 12:35. The t< tal time in flight this day was 2 hrs. 50 min.

During all the flying, the minimum altitude allowed was 2300 feet. A recording barograph was a necessity. Over all this territory

there is scarcely to be found an acre of ground which is not built upon, heavily wooded, rough farms or swamps. The Dan bury, Naugatuck, Saugatuck and Housa tonic "rivers" are streams with high and rocky banks, running at times through deep ravines where a buzzard would find it hard to save hitting his wings. This whole country is hilly, rough and rugged, as far as furnishing aerodromes is concerned. On one occasion Foulois corkscrewed his way through a hole in the trees to a doll size field and to keep from annoying the Forestry Service, "pancaked." and then stuck his toes (skid tips) in the ground to stop further progress.

And Congress won't grant any monev for aeronautics, and has killed the bill to increase the pay of officer-aviators.

September, 1912

1.

BALDWIN

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"Red Devil" Aeroplanes

That anyone can fly. Free Demonstrations.

Hall-Scott Motors

Eastern distributor. 40 h. p., 4-cyl.; 60 and 80 h. p., 8-cyl., on exhibition at Wittemann's. All motors guaranteed. Immediate delivery.

Experting

Will install a Hall-Scott free of charge in anyone's aeroplane and demonstrate by expert flyer. Expert advice. 'Planes balanced.

CAPTAIN THOMAS S. BALDWIN

Box 78, Madison Sq. P.O. New York

AEROPLANES

Silk Dirigible, Complete, with Tent, Will Sell at Low Price

f

Coming Events!

Cast your shadow towards the

King of Attractions

HARRY BINGHAM BROWN, English Pilot

Elevating

FREDERICK RODMAN LAW J

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In his WRIGHT AEROPLANE to | a height of 4,500 feet, disposing of his J human freight at a dizzy height, who | descends by the aid of a PARACHUTE.

Every click of the watch a "THRILLER," something worth going miles to see.

No other act like it in the WORLD.

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MANAGERS, Booking, will do well to address

A. LEO STEVENS

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We GUARANTEE each ?

J machine to fly at least 1,000 ft. {

* in height and at least 10 Miles of * 4- cross-country flying before delivery. *

J We GUARANTEE our {

J workmanship, material, and fin- +

* ished machine to be superior to * all competitors. J

J To owners of REX MONOPLANES I

* we will replace wings, wheels, *

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J at COST PRICE I

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} SOUTH BEACH, S. I., N. Y. Í

Phillips W. Page Flying in Burgess-Wright Machine Equipped with 40-H. P. Sturtevant Motor

The Latest and Best principles of gasoline motor construction, carefully tested and proved by the foremost builders of engines in this country and abroad, are found in the

uriav a n Aeronautical Motor

A four cylinder 40 horsepower STURTEVANT motor was used by Mr. Page in a Burgess biplane flown by him during the Boston Aviation meet. Although used in every event during the entire meet, absolutely no adjustments or repairs were made on the motor, which operated perfectly, carrying the plane to altitudes of over 5,000 feet. Such absolute reliability is due to sound engineering principles in design and superior workmanship in construction.

Ask for Catalog No. 200 Q B. F. STURTEVANT COMPANY

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Hall-Scotts purchased, used, and endorsed by the greater number of professional aviators

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or write direct to

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818 CROCKER BUILDING

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL.

Vol. XI, No. 4 OCTOBER, 1912 Serial No. 62

$450.00 Per Minute

Aviator Jannus, winning $450.00 in one minute by carrying 3 in the Cicero Meet He uses a Benoist Tractor Biplane with a

ROBERTS 6-x 75-H. P. MOTOR

The total winnings of Roberts Powered 'Planes at Cicero and Grant Park were $4,915.58, excelling all other motors in this respect.

Not one user of a Roberts Motor had motor trouble. PROFESSIONALS LIKE THE ROBERTS BECAUSE IT GETS THE MONEY

EGBERTS MOTOR Cb

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October, 1912

Kirkham Motor Wins Again

W. t. Thomas, m. e., a. c. g. i.

president qualified aviators

guaranteed flights

pupils instructed

o. w. thomas, m. e.. a. c. g. i. vicepre6. and secy.

Thomas Brothers

Mechanical Engineers

Designers and Builders of Aeroplanes

aeroplanes

propellers

hydroaeroplanes

BATH, N. Y., September 17, 1912.

C. B. KIRKHAM,

Savona, N. Y.

Dear Sir:—

You will doubtless be interested in hearing of the latest success we have achieved with

your motor which we are using in one of our standard exhibition biplanes.

At the Aviation Meet, held at the New York State Fair, at Syracuse, New York,

September 9,;14th, our Mr. Walter E. Johnson, with one of your 65 horse power motors made a

clean sweep of the speed events, as the following official times indicate: 10-Mile Race. Monday, September 9th.

1st. W. B. Johnson, 65 H. P. Thomas Model 10AX. Total time, 10'42l"

2nd. B. Havens, 75 H. P. Curtiss. Total time, 14' 10"

3rd. W. B. Hemstrought, 60 H. P. Curtiss. Total time, 14' 15j". 15-Milc Race, Saturday, September 14th.

1st. W. E. Johnson, 65 H. P. Thomas Model 10AX. Total time, 16' 11 h"

2nd. C. H. Niles, 75 H. P. Curtiss. Total time, 16' 26i"

3rd. W. B. Hemstrought, 75 H. P. Curtiss. Total time,---4th. B. Havens, 75 H. P. Curtiss. Total Time,----From the above figures you will see that our machine, driven by your engine, proved

itself SECOND TO NONE.

We wish to express our complete satisfaction with the faultless manner in which the

engine ran throughout the races and the regular time with which the machine ticked off each lap

of the course.

It is worthy of notice that the Model 10AX, above mentioned, has been in active use throughout two whole seasons making exhibition flights, and the planes were in poor condition. FACTS ARE TRUER THAN FICTION. Wishing you continued success, we are,

Yours very truly,

THOMAS BROTHERS,

By O. W. Thomas.

YOU want this motor in YOUR plane if you expect to fill your contracts on time Better investigate to-day New Catalog sent on request

CHARLES B. KIRKHAM

MOTOR DEPT.

Savona, N. Y.

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AMERICAN PROPELLER COMPANY, 243-249 East Hamburg St., Baltimore, Md.

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FALL CLASSES

NOW TRAINING

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The Hydro-aeroplane Has the Call for 1912

<I Unequalled facilities are provided for instruction in the operation of the marine flier over Marblehead Haibor and the bay adjoining. By giving training at our manufactuiing headquarters we offer pupils an opportunity, at no extra cost, to become thoroughly familiar with the details of construction and design, and ensure against delays. Course consists of FOUR HOURS actual flying during which time we assume all breakage mlc. We provide hydroaeroplane for license test.

Chief Instructor: Phillips W. Page, Licensed aviator Booklet with full particulars furnished on request. <I Aeroplanes and Hydro-aeroplanes for military, sporting and exhibition purposes ready for prompt delivery.

BURGESS COMPANY AND CURTIS, Marblehead, Mass.

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The Relative Constancy of the Wind Above

Mount Weather

By PROFESSOR ALFRED J. HENRY

HE variability of the wind is proverbial. Even over the ocean in the region of the trades, absolute constancy in the direction or force of the wind is not assured. It is in the temperate zones, however, that the full measure of its variability is experienced. The writer has been much interested in the attempts that have been made in the United States, and elsewhere, to cover long distances in manned balloons by simply drifting with the air currents. Inasmuch as manned balloons are not well adapted to travel in altitudes much greater than one mile above the earth's surface, the air currents at that level become subjects worthy of very considerable attention. During the 12 months that ended June 30, 1912, 228 kite flights were made at the Mount Weather Observatory, each of which attained an altitude of one mile or more above the top of the mountain or substantially 7,000 feet above the sea level. Before remarking upon the results of these flights a word of caution is necessary.

Since kites cannot be flown except in winds of at least 10 or 12 miles per hour, the results which will be quoted later, especially as regards the force of the wind, apply only to those days on which there is some movement in the atmosphere. While the winds of winter are much stronger than those of summer, the success in kite flying is not greater in proportion to the increased strength of the wind. Probably the best months for kite flying are those in which the atmosphere is passing from the cold of winter to the warmth of summer or vice versa, when it begins to cool in autumn, as in October and November.

The direction of the prevailing winds at the mile level above Mount Weather is clearly from a westerly quarter as was previously indicated by observations on the motion of cirrus clouds which float at an average altitude of about G miles above sea level. It seems reasonable therefore to assume that the eastward moving stratum in the atmosphere approaches nearer to the surface of the earth than was hitherto believed.

An interesting fact in connection with the circulation of the wind above Mount Weather is the almost total absence of winds from any quarter but the west, thus there were observed from all quarters com-

*Published by permission of the Chief, U. S. Weather Bureau.

bined other than the west but 4 per cent, of the total.

The next point of interest in connection with the upper winds may be stated in the form of a question: How long do they persist without materially changing their direction? On this point the evidence of the kite flights all tends toward a variability of the winds at the mile level even greater than on the suface. If the direction of the wind aloft on two or more consecutive days is the same, it may be assumed that it has been constant for the time considered, although there is a possibility, of course, that it may have changed direction during the interval between two daily flights and then returned to the direction originally observed, but it is preferred to believe that such is not the case. An examination of the 228 flights available shows that in the 12 months considered there were but 25 periods of two days each when the winds, one mile above Mount Weather had the same direction on both days and that the longest period of similarly directed winds aloft was three days and that only two such periods were observed in 12 months. It is probable that with greater altitude greater constancy will be found—such is already indicated by the motions of the very high clouds. It seems, therefore, as if the wind a mile above the surface is less constant as to direction than at the surface. A similar count as to the prevailing direction at the surface for the same twelve months, gives forty-eight periods of two days each with similarly directed winds, twenty-four periods of three days each, and four periods of four days each, or more than twice the number of periods with identical winds.

The data of wind velocity afforded by the kite flights are far from being conclusive on any point. It has long been known, in a very general way, to be sure, that the velocity of the wind increases with altitude above the surface. While this is true in a majority of cases, there are numerous exceptions, and not infrequently, the velocity of the wind has been found to decrease with increase in altitude, so that some of the kite flights had to be brought to a close on account of failure of .the upper winds. Aside from the average velocities for the clays on which flights were made, given in tabular form below, few useful generalizations on the speed of the wind can be made. The very dangerous winds are evidently to be found in regions of "low pressure"—the "Low" of the daily weather map and the danger is probably directly proportional to the closeness of the isobars or the steep-

ness of the barometric gradient and this is especially true in the case of circular or closed isobars. It would he foolhardy in the extreme, to attempt to navigate the aii when the weather map shows that for the region in question the air conditions are dominated by what is known as a "Low". Very high winds are also found in the rear of the "Low". These two dangerous conditions, first near the centre of a "Low", and second immediately in its rear are always recognizable by one skilled in reading a weather map. There are, perhaps, othei conditions when dangerous winds aloft ma> be recognized by surface conditions, but their existence is not always clearly manifest.

In regard to the course to be taken by a manned balloon in the United States, in order to cover the greatest possible distance, it would seem that the west-east direction offers the greatest advantage in all sorts of weather conditions. There are times when practically continuous air currents prevail from the Gulf of Mexico to Canada, but one must wait for such conditions and take advantage of them when they appear. There are also times when a course from the Dakotas to Florida, or Texas, would be possible, especially in the cold season. For the reason that the lower winds which sweep from the Dakotas to Texas or Florida are generally strong with low temperature this course is not practicable. The direction southwest to northeast, or say from Texas to New England offers favorable conditions of weather, but the pressure distribution on which the winds depend is rarely favorable for such a journey. The north-south and the south-north winds will doubtless be found at elevations of one-half to three-quarters of a mile above the surface. The west-east winds have the greatest alti-

tude and the stratum is probably several miles in depth ■while both of the others named rarely exceed a mile in depth.

I have compiled, and give for what it is worth, a table showing the average velocity of the wind in English miles per hour at the three levels (1) the top of Mount Weather, whence the kite flights are made; (2) in the free air one mile above the top of Mount Weather or 7,000 feet --ove sea level, and (3) two miles above the top of Mount Weather, or 12,303 feet above sea level. All of these figures are based on a single year's work, and may be changed by the addition of more observations. The ratio of the speed of the surface winds to that of the winds at the mile level is as 1:1.9 and there are only small departures from this value in the seasonal averages but large departures in individual cases. It has been noticed that when the surface winds are strong the increase in velocity with increase of altitude is generally less than when the surface winds are weak.

Average Wind Velocities at Different Levels (in miles per hour)

 

Jan.

Feb.

March

April

May

June

At Surface

21

21

22

_

21

19

18

At one mile above

50

40

40

46

35

33

At two miles above

56

50

59

54

54

49

 
 

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

At Surface

16

18

18

20

24

21

At one mile above

31

32

30

35

44

38

At two miles above

52

54

45

41

51

47

types of aeroplanes for military service

It is until further notice, the intention of the U. S. Army aviation service to purchase and use only two types of aeroplanes.

One type will be known as "Speed Scout" aeroplane. This type is desired particularly for strategical reconnaissance, carrying only one aviator without passenger, and having a radius of operation of about 100 miles and a speed of not less than 65 miles per hour. With this type of aeroplane a military aviator is expected to locate and report large bodies of troops. This machine should be capable of ascending at the rate of about GOO feet per minute.

The second type will be known as "Scout" machine. It is desired for reconnaissance service when hostile armies are in contact or approaching contact. This service requires a weight-carrying-aeroplane, the crew consisting of two aviators, capable of

relieving one another as observers; the aeroplane should be provided with radio equipment. This type of aeroplane should remain in the air at least three hours to permit the observers to locate smaller bodies of troops accurately upon a map, make sketches, military photographs, etc. The Scout aeroplane should have a speed of not less than 45 miles an hour; the maximum speed must not exceed GO miles per hour. It should be capable of carrying a useful weight of 450 pounds, and with this weight ascend at least 2,000 feet in 10 minutes. The chassis must be designed so that it is capable of landing on and arising from soft ground, such as harrowed fields.

It is likely that the Signal Corps will give the consideration to any American aeroplane capable of fulfilling these conditions in practical service.

Amateur Aeroplane Builders

By EARLE L. OVINGTON

T is a peculiar fact, but nevertheless true, that a man seems to think that he is able, or competent rather, to design an aeroplane, whether he knows anything about the fundamental principles underlying aero-dynamics or not.

If a young fellow desires to become a doctor he goes to a medical school, spending four years or so studying what has been done before him. Even then he is not fitted to practice medicine, but must take an apprentice course in connection with some hospital or under a practicing physician. In other words, it is only after years of preparation that he is considered to be in a position to hang out his shingle as an "M.D.," and practice upon his fellowmen.

Likewise, if a man wishes to become an engineer, he either goes to college to learn the theory of the subject, and then takes an apprenticeship course, or else he starts in work with a practical manufacturing concern and begins at the bottom. In either case, years of preparation are necessary before he is in a position to do practical work.

Now what holds in medicine and engineering holds just as truly in aviation. As a matter of fact, aviation is a branch of engineering; and yet the average amateur aeroplane designer and builder of the present day in a great many cases has not the slightest idea of the fundamental principles underlying the subject, and has had no practical experience.

When I was in France, where I spent last winter to study aviation, there were a large number of such amateurs at the various aviation fields, principally at Issy les Moulineaux, where there were numerous hangars surrounding the field. Many of these were occupied by enthusiastic, but misguided, Frenchmen who were building all sorts of freak machines in the day-time and dreaming of wealth and fame which they would receive by means of them at night. I was not an expert by any means at that time, having obtained what I knew principally from books, but it was evident to me that most of these'misguided individuals were entirely on the wrong track.

I was also surprised to learn in conversing with them a short time that they had not read any of the splendid works on aviation.

I returned to America with a 70 H. P. Bleriot monoplane which I first installed at Belmont Park, Long Island. Here I found exactly the same conditions existing as I did in France. Many of the hangars were occupied by bright young fellows who were spending time and money "chasing rainbows" and attempting the impossible.

I remember two brothers who were building a small monoplane. A careful examination of their machine showed that they were going over all the old work which had been done many years before them. They had a low center of gravity and a sharp diehedral angle. Mechanically the machine was very bad. One could grasp the tail, and by quick movement cause the whole fuselage to bend. One day they asked my opinion about it, and I gave it to them frankly. I told them that possibly the thing might get off the ground, and they had it fitted with a 50 H. P. Gnome motor which had so much power for its weight that it would pull almost any old contraption up into the air. T told them, however, that the machine would never stay in the air for any length of time, for two reasons. In the first place, their surface was too small for their power, and in the second place the stability of the machine was bound to be very poor.

I questioned these young fellows more closely, and I found that they were practically putting every cent they could get hold of into this machine. I asked them if they had read certain books on aviation, naming over books of the most elementary character, but they frankly acknowledged they had never heard of them.

I thought it would be rather a thankless job, but I then endeavored to help them. I asked them if they would start in a ten mile race with a man if they knew he had an eight mile handicap, and in addition knew that he was a better runner. They acknowledged, of course, that they would not think of doing so. Then I explained to them that that was precisely what they were doing at the present time. I tried to make them see how very seriously they were handicapped in competition with such men as Bleriot. Farman, the Wright Brothers, Curtiss, etc., and how absolutely ignorant they were of the very fundamental principles of the science. T tried to point out that there was not any possibility whatever of their being able to succeed along the lines that they were following.

I have found by sad experience that when I talk to a young fellow in this manner he does either one of two things. Either he flares up at me, and says that I have a case of "swelled head" and think that T "know it all" or else he looks at me in a pitying sort of way as if to say "You don't appreciate the wonderful qualities of my machine." It is ever thus with "us pioneers."

But these young fellows, much to their credit, did nothing of the sort. They were truly ambitions to succeed at their chosen calling, and determined if they were on the wrong track to get on the right track as soon as possible. I then gave them the names of some books which I thought would

Page 102

October, 1912

be the ones for them to start reading, and the last I heard of them they were making rapid progress towards success.

Personally, I am of the opinion that sooner or later I will hear from those two young fellows, and that they will produce something worth looking at, for they were full of enthusiasm and determination, and only needed someone to put them on the right track.

There is no lack of enthusiasm and determination on the part of amateur aeroplane builders, but in ninety-nine cases out of a hundred their determination and enthusiasm are spent in the wrong direction.

Just because the development of the aeroplane is in its infancy, and aviation is a new science, do not labor under the delusion that there is nothing known upon the subject. The fundamental principles of aviation are far better known and understood than nine men out of ten who are working on the subject, appreciate. If you wish to become an aeronautic engineer you should go about it in just the same manner as you would if you were to become an electrical engineer, a mechanical engineer, or a mining engineer. In other icords, you should lay a firm foundation before you attempt to enter practical work. And the same rule applies to the study of aviation that applies to' the construction of a building, the broader the foundation, the more firmly the structure will stand.

If I remember correctly, the life insurance people prove that the span of life alloted to man is on an average about thirty years. Very few men do anything practically in this world until they have at least reached their twentieth year. In other words, we have on an average of ten years of practical work before each one of us. Of course I am speaking now of the whole average. Taking this into consideration why is it that civilization progresses? If man had to start in at the very beginning every time and work through all the early stages of development, our progress in this world would not be very rapid. The object of schools and other educational institutions, however, as well as books, apprenticeship courses, etc., is to serve as stepping-stones to permit the men of to-day to take advantage of all which has gone before. We learn from the mistakes and experiences of others. This is the progress of evolution, and it is evolution which has placed the human race where it is to-day.

Do not think for a moment that I am endeavoring to discourage the young inventor who has ideas in aviation but who has not the facilities of a Bleriot or a Curtiss.

Far from it. I believe thoroughly in the future of the aeroplane, and I believe that the young man who comes into the science in its early stages at the present time will reap a rich reward, provided he puts the same enthusiasm and careful thought into his ivork ichich would make him a success in any other line or endeavor. But what I do wish to discourage is the building of aeroplanes by amateurs all over the country who know nothing whatever about the fundamental principles of the science. Such effort is misplaced, and such enthusiasm is more than wasted. There are some magnificent books now on the market, and by a careful perusal of the available material an all around theoretical education can be obtained. Conversations with practical aviators and reading the aviation journals will also help a great deal. There is no excuse in the world, therefore, for a young man complaining that he hasn't the material with which to educate himself.

Nobody believes more firmly than I do in encouraging the enthusiastic beginner. I have simply written this article because my experience the past year has taught me that so many young men who otherwise might make a brilliant success in the field of aviation are doomed to bitter disappointment and failure simply because they are on the wrong track. If this article meets the eyes of any such, let them lay down their work and spend a few months in careful study and observation. // after this has been done they can come back and continue building their machine without any misgivings, the chances are they have something which may develop into a practical flying-machine. But if this course is followed, the chances are nine in ten that when the embryo aeroplane builder returns after obtaining his theoretical training, he will see so many weak points in his machine that he will give up its manufacture, and thus save valuable time and energy. If by writing this article I can save just one misguided inventor from the certain failure which is awaiting him, I will consider that my time has not been spent in vain.

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS

In July, one foreign aeroplane was imported at a value of $524. Domestic exports totaled-5, value $17,100. In warehouse July 31, three foreign machines, value $11423. These figures are according to the July issue of the Monthly Summary of the Department of Commerce and Labor.

The Navy Department sent Lt. A. A. Cuning-ham of the Advance Base School at Philadelphia to the Burgess School a short time ago and his training was completed in five days under the instruction of Clifford L. Webster. He is how flying alone very successfully, having re-

ceived 2 hrs. 59 min. training. This is but an example of the ease and quickness with which a man can be trained on the hydro-aeroplane. Lt. T. G. Kllyson, a Curtiss pilot, has taken special training on the Burgess machine.

Repairs on the new War machine have been completed and it will go forward shortly to College Park.

Sam Barton, in the Barton-Rippenbein hydro (00 Kirkham), made a 40-minute flight around South Amboy and Staten Island waterways on Sept. 22. The Rippen-Barton company has 3 machines at Seidler's Beach. Pioneers will recall the early trials of Rippenheim and Barton at Mineola and B'elmont,

An Analysis of Flight

By GEORGE A SPRATT, Jr.

CENTRIFUGAL AND CENTRIPETAL FORCES.

THE centrifugal and centripetal forces latent in a rotating mass of air are made active by contact with a surface. If a portion of a mass of rotating air is caused to flow in a straight line tangential to its former course, that portion is freed from the force that held it in rotation. The centrifugal force in the freed mass is spent against the established rotating current, and the equal centripetal force is spent against the% object that caused the deflection. A plane tangential to a rotating current, and with its centre normal to the radius of rotation, accomplishes this by intercepting an advancing column of air, equal in section to its projection into the current, and causing it to pass in a straight line. A force is exerted against the plane toward the centre of rotation.

It is equally true, that, if from an established straight course, a portion is caused to adopt a rotary course, the centripetal force is spent against the original current, and the centrifugal force acts against the object which caused the rotary course. A circularly arched surface with its chord parallel with a straight current accomplishes this by intercepting a column of advancing air, equal in section to its projection into the current, which is compelled to follow the arc of the surface. A force is exerted against the surface radially from the center of the curvature and perpendicular to the chord.

A simple experimental illustration is as follows: Into an ordinary pail with slanting sides, lower a straight wire of such length that it will engage the opposite sides and remain an inch or two above the bottom. Pour in water until the wire is covered. Place upon the water a sheet cork float, from the under side of each end of which, two pins extend astride the wire. The float, guided by the wire, can now traverse the diameter of the pail. Erect a plane near one end of the float, with its center directly over the guide wire, and with its surface perpendicular to the diameter of the pail. Its fore and aft measurement may be about one-fourth of the diameter of the pail, its

Fié. 3.

B.

C

height must be determined by the height of the pail.' By means of a paddle turning close to the under side of the cover of the pail, impart a gentle rotary motion to the air in the pail, and the centripetal force draws the plain to thé center.

The effect of relative curvature may be Vlustrated with this apparatus by mounting upon the float surfaces that have a curvature of a known relation to the curvature of the current at the point chosen for their location. If the radius of the surface is greater than the radius of the current, the surface will be carried toward the center. If the radius of the surface is less than that of the current, the surface will be carried toward the wall.

This centripetal pressure effect may be observed in the miniature whirlwinds common to the hot months, as they sort out and retain within their radius of action those light bodies whose surfaces present gliding qualities, but scatter those of spherical form.

It has long been recognized that curved wing surfaces develop a lifting pressure with their chord parallel with the current. This force is, very probably, a quantity that is fixed by the relative curvature, and constant in amount and direction regardless of the angle of incidence, acting always centri-fugally, and, in the circularly arched surface, along the bisecting radius. It increases the value of all positive angles of incidence, and lessens the value of all negative angles of incidence. It reaches a maximum value when about 90 degrees of curvature are included in the surface. With a farther increase in the curvature, it diminishes and is not present in an arc of ISO degrees. It develops again until about 270 degrees are included, and when 3G0 degrees are included in the surface, it is again absent. That is, a half cylinder with its chord parallel with the current, and a whole cylinder, show pressure only parallel with the current. A circularly arched surface including any other number of degrees, with its chord parallel with the current, shows a pressure which may be considered as acting from the common center of the radii along the bisecting radius.

Figure 3.

x, center of rotation of arm a, which carries h? from s toward x a.i i M * ith a. < and

the surface s. The direction of rotation is E show a ^'"^ejLw a ne-ativefy increased

shown bv the arrow. The dotted lines show dence. 1> and b show a neHati\ei> mciea

the current encountered. At B the pressure angle of incidence.

*Begun in the August number. . See AERONAUTICS for March, 1008 for previous article by Mr. Spratt

Centripetal force results from a fixed plane in a rotating current, or from a plane carried in an arched path. If the radius of the rotation is perpendicular at the center of the plane (see Figure 3, B, here the radius of rotation is represented by the arm, a), the centripetal force acts parallel with the radius of rotation from all points taken consecutively along the course. If the point of the attachment of the arm be moved toward the advancing edge of the plane (Figure 3, C), the effect is a positively increased angle of incidence. If moved toward the following edge (Figure 3, D), the effect is a negatively increased angle of incidence. Changing the angle the arm makes with the plane also changes the angle of incidence (Figure 3, E and F). By rotating the surface at the point of its attachment to the arm, the relation of the curvature is changed between the surface and the current. It is possible for the pressure from all points taken consecutively along the course to be made to center at the common center of the radii of the course, or at any desired point near this center.

In this, probably, lies the solution of the motion of the insect's wing and the flattened extremity of the bird's wing. The forward and the rear edges of the insect's wing may become alternately the leading edge, and intelligence may direct and utilize the pressure. This will be farther considered under "Applications."

If a sheet metal surface is rigidly attached at its center to the end of a perpendicular arm that is mounted like a walking beam, one end of which carries the surface, and the other end connected to a rapidly revolving wheel, so that the surface will rapidly and reciprocally describe an arc, a flow of air will be established from the center of the vibration. It denotes an equal reaction, a centripetal pressure against the surface.

AFORCE acting in a single line against a free body impresses the body with, or without, causing rotation, according as its direction does not, or does, pass through the centre of weight.

Every body that is free in the air is acted upon by gravity, and the reacting pressure of the resisting air, and each of these forces may be represented by their resultants. The poise and the course of the body must be considered in its relation to the direction and the location of each of these resultants, since the direction and location of the pressure resultant is peculiarly determined by the surface the body presents.

The resultant of gravity always acts from the centre of weight of the body toward the centre of the earth.

The principles underlying the location and direction of the pressure resultant has

been shown in the former papers. Briefly restated, this resultant is normal to the surface at the point of its intersection with the surface, which is the point upon the surface commonly accepted as the centre of pressure. In the circularly arched surface, it always passes through the common centre of the radii, and this point is the centre of frictionless pressure upon the circularly arched surface.

There is, probably, no better simple way of illustrating how the poise and the course are governed by the relative positions of the centre of weight, centre of pressure and the surface, than by releasing upon the air light bodies that are definitely proportioned, since each of these elementary parts are fixed structurally.

Model bodies for illustration may be made with surfaces of paper, and with a light wood shaft along which a lead weight is adjustable, and, with fine thread, outrigged so that the weight centre of the whole is brought to a desired point.

The surface presented by such models, however, is a longitudinal section of a cylinder, and its descent must be viewed accordingly, while the illustrations to be given here, preferably, represent sections of a sphere and a frictionless pressure. It also would be more desirable to consider only two opposing forces, but here, it must be borne in mind, that when a force acts in some other line than gravity, such as the inertia of rotation, inertia of glide or an encountered side current, or when a propelling thrust is purposely considered, the resultant of such force, or forces, taken with gravity, is obeyed as is gravity when acting alone. The results here recorded have been verified by another method of testing, in which all possibility of confusion with such complicating forces has been eliminated.

It might be noted here in passing that when a compound surface is considered, the resultant of the whole is to be taken as is the resultant of the single surface here used.

Let figure 1 represent any section of a sphere in which the centre of weight coincides with the centre of pressure. Equilibrium of poise is neutral in these bodies, for there is no couple possible. They will descend with the angle between the surface and the horizon unchanged from that given them when released. The model

Page 105

verifies this in so far as theory is meant in its construction.

At a and at b the surface is shown with Us chord parallel with the horizon. When in this poise the pressure resultant coincides with gravity, action and reaction are contrary, and the descent is vertical.

At C the direction of the pressure resultant is not contrary to gravity, and in consequence gravity is resolved into a vertical and horizontal component. The descent is a glide at such angle that the pressure, resisting horizontal advance will equal the horizontal component of gravity.

Let figure 2 represent any section of a sphere in which the centre of weight is at some point other than coincident with the centre of pressure.

At a the centre of weight o is shown between the centre of pressure x and the arc of the surface; at b, beyond the arc of the surface; at C, to that side of the pressure centre opposite from the arc; at d, so placed that a line passing through the cen tres does not pass perpendicularly through the centre of the surface, in which case the descent must be a glide. At a, b, C and d an unstable poise is shown. At a', b', C and d' the poise is shown when equilibrium has become established.

Figure 2 evidences the fact that the surface may precede the centre of weight, may lie between the centres, may follow the centre of pressure, or may lie outside of the line that passes through the centres. It may be noticed here also that if a line projected through the centres, when they do not coincide, passes perpendicularly through the centre of the surface, the descent will be vertical.

The foregoing should be true regardless

and figure 2 can serve to illustrate the plane as well as the arc by mentally altering the proportions.

Herein lies the greater advantage of the arc, net that it yields a lifting pressure that is absent in the plane, but that the pressures are brought to such a state of concentration that it is mechanically possible to form definite couples between the weight and pressure.

A plane in the shape of a circular disc, when released horizontally upon the air, presents a surface, a centre of weight located at the centre of the disc, and a centre of pressure located at a point infinitely beyond, and perpendicular to the centre of the surface presented. It is poised upon a frictionless bed and sensitive to a marvelous degree. The least disturbance in the distribution of the pressure causes a variation from the horizontal poise, a horizontal component of gravity and a glide. The f rst change in the pressure distribution produces a couple that throws the centre of pressure off from the vertical line that passes through the centre of weight. Readjustment is found in the glide, for as the speed of the glide increases, the angle of incidence lessens and at the point of intersection of the pressure resultant and surface moves toward the advancing edge, which causes a contrary couple. This rotates the body again toward the horizontal. When the horizontal is reached the poise is the same as at the time of release, but the body is now possessed by inertia originating from two distinct causes, and producing two distinct results. It is gliding and it is rotating. The inertia from gliding acts as a new force horizontally applied, the resultant of which taken with

of the length of the radius, and every test verifies such belief. The plane, when considered as a very small section of a very large sphere, yields to the same analysis,

gravity must now be obeyed as was gravity when acting alone, and the centre of pressure must lie with the centre of weight upon this resultant before the couple

which is causing the rotation ceases. The glide continues until the inertia of advance has been spent against a positive angle of incidence that is produced by the couple. The couple will continue the rotation until the surface is perpendicular to its course, for then only does it cease to be. Before it ceases to be the course of the disc may become horizontal, or even ascending.

If the inertia of advance has been speni against the positive angle of incidence before the couple has overturned the disc, a new glide starts in the opposite direction to the former. In this case the whole descent is a series of darting, rocking vibrations of about equal amplitude about a vertical line. The descent, though not straight, is vertical as a whole.

In the descent of a narrow strip of paper the rotation carries the plane of the surface past the vertical. The former upper side is presented to receive the current as a new glide starts. The pressures are, therefore, controlled from a new centre, which, as before, is located at a point infinitely beyond and perpendicular to the centre of the surface presented. The former conditions are, therefore, repeated ana the new glide and rotation are in the same direction. The descent is a progressive series of such dives, along which the paper moves with a backward rolling appearance.

In a structure designed to embody this theory the pressures are not frictionless, head resistance is present, and the curvature is not perfect. From each of these sources a retarding pressure arises, which acts parallel with the current at the points of its origin, which must be considered as a component part of the pressure upon the whole.

The effect of this force is illustrated in figure 3, which represents the model with its chord vertically disposed. The vertical

component of the frictionless pressure Is shown at x. The resultant of the friction pressure at a, and the resultant of these combined may be represented at o. An increase in the friction pressure a, causes the point o and also the centre of rotation n, to lie nearer to the surface. When the centre of weight coincides with the point o no couple exists.

It is quite evident that the force reprc sented by a constitutes a factor in estalir lishing the point of intersection of the resultant pressure with the surface, which is the point upon the surface commonly accepted to be the centre of pressure. Therefore, locating this point and its travel upon a rigid model surface, does not give absolute assurance that correspondence will be found in an enlarged copy of the form of the model when made of different material, especially if that material is flexible under the pressure to which it may be subjected.

Because of the complex origin of the force represented by a, its value varies with the angle of incidence, and may vary from other causes also. By proper construction, however, its effect upon an aeroplane can be kept easily within control.*

Pressure from a greater area of surface can be centred from a longitudinal section of a cylinder than is possible from a sphere.

Such a surface presents a plaue and an arc in perpendicular arrangement, or two arcs of greatly differing radius lengths may be likewise considered. The perpendicularity of the axes permits a free response to the pressure effects peculiar to each form of surface they represent, in that the axis of each is an axis of rotation to the other, and also in that one axis is much longer than the other, it becomes a controlling factor to the other, for the pressure causes, or tends to cause, the longest axis to advance perpendicular to the course. Pressure exerted upon the axis perpendicular to each of the other two affects the rotative value of the pressure upon one or both of the other axes.

*A few of the tests that have been made with a gilder were reported in the March, 1909, number of "Aeronautics," page 132. Motor-driven flights have since been made over a small field, which have given every promise of inherent stability, combined with a simple design and a simple control, for which broad claims for patent have been filed.

(To be Continued)

Walter Johnson, the Thomas flyer, defeated Havens and Hemstrought of the Curtiss group in a ten-mile speed race at a santioned exhibition at Syracuse State Fair, Sept. 9. He used a Thomas biplane with a Kirkham engine. His time was 10:42.2 or 56 miles an hour.

The meet lasted three days and Johnson won first in all events including two 10-mile, a 15-mile race and bomb contest.

The Caudron Monoplane

^JjIIE miniature flying machine, the Caudron, ought to appeal if anything does. It's small, racy looking, flies fast and may be purchased at a reasonable figure—($3500) — gf>j for Im'ported machines. Two of these have thus far been brought over by the ►1«!)^ Sloane Aeroplane Company, of New York, and more may be expected later. The builders also market a baby biplane. Visitors may see this latest type Caudron monoplane at its shed any day, at Hempstead aviation field, where one of the instructors, Mr. Gilpatric, is "on the job."

The fuselage is designed to reduce head resistance to a minimum, The framing is on the usual system, of ash spars and struts, guyed diagonally in sections. The cross pieces and vertical members are hollowed out on the sides to reduce weight. Two

small thin stays are tacked to outside of framing 'fore and aft, on all sides, to act as stiffening for the fabric.

The wings, set at a dihedral angle, are flexible. The forward portion of the ribs are laminated into one solid piece. At the rear of the rear steel tube the rib narrows down to about by y»" gently tapering to the end, after being split (see sketch). Two steel tubes are used in place of main spars, which go through the solid portion of the ribs, which are about H>" by 3" here. Washers are placed each side of the rib at junction with tube and riveted through. The front edge of the wing is sharp and covered with aluminum sheet strip, 6'' deep, screwed to ribs. The front spar is 3" back from the leading edge.

The ribs all have same curve to lateral extremity of wing.

At the extremity the wing tapers down to

a thin edge. The ribs are rectangular in cross section, of laminated hickory for the lower third portion. Above is solid white-wood. Where the wing supporting cables attach, the tube spars run through blocks of wood and secured by bolts. The fabric is linen, varnished and is very tight. What-

ever varnish is used, it contracts the fabric to a great extent. The eloth is folded back on the rear edge and sewed. The forward portion of the wings are double covered. Prom a point near the rear spar back, the cloth is single, on the lower side, with strips sewed over the top of the ribs. Flying, the angle of incidence seems to be close to 7 inches.

Lateral stability is obtained by warping. The elevator is one single flexible wing, (with one-inch camber) which warps, and is both single and double covered like the main wings. The rudder is mounted above the elevator and appears small, though no doubt amply large. This is pivoted about a mast.

The control is by a single lever mounted on a universal joint. Rocking sideways warps; forward and back elevates. Rudder is operated by foot yoke. Pushing out with left foot steers left, and vice versa. There is one pair of rocker arms at the universal joint, and one pair below on the tube which extends back from the axle. Between the ends of each pair are steel bars. The warping cables attach to a short upright projection on the rocker arms.

A six cylinder Anzani "forty-five" drives direct a 6'10" propeller clockwise. The engine is mounted in a steel frame at the head of the fuselage and braced to the fuselage by four steel tubes, one at each corner, and by another steel tube to the apex of the braces for the upper wing guy cables. Ignition is by a special magneto made for Anzani. This magneto is inside

(Continutd Opposite Page 123)

AERONAUTICS

Page 109

The Vlaicu Monoplane

By FRITZ EDELSTEIN

IXCE the first appearance of his product, which gave all those who were fortunate enough to be present at the first Aeronautical Exhibition in Vienna an impression of neatness in design and workmanlike construction, the Roumanian aviator-constructor Aurel Vlaicu, has characterized its existence in the aviation industry by its very original design. The machine has flown very successfully at the great International Meet which was held from June 23d to 30th, at Aspern.

This machine is constructed in a very uncommon manner. First, the Vlaicu monoplane is of the tail-first type, but carries triangular tail planes rearwards also. The most conspicious features are the planes and the drive with two propellors.

The principal dimensions are: span 30 feet, length 34' 8", height 12 feet. The plane is built of two ash cross members, one of which forms the tailing edge and the other forms the fore edge. The whole wing frame is covered with fabric in three sections, the greatest of which lies in the middle. The two other sections are divided from it laterally by a small split on each side. There are no wing ribs. The curve is therefore, not stiff, but variable. She arises in flight according to the load.

The seat of the driver lies very low under the plane, also the 50 h. p. Gnome engine which drives the two propellers in opposite directions by chain and gears. Although the fuselage is apparently primitive, the various experiments have proved that it is of a very great fitness indeed. The machine is a one-seater. The landing chassis consists of three wheels, the rear one of which is mounted with a strong elastic spring. The front wheels are directly mounted on a steel axle,

   
   
 

^^^^^^

WIS

^<i^>/ ULfllOJ-MONO

OTlTRQL-rlKfmiSd

which carries in the middle a long curved ash skid.

In front of the pilot's seat is situated 50 h. p. Gnome engine, Bosch magneto, mounted in a steel tube frame and overcovered with a thin sheet of brass. The engine drives by means of a strong chain and sprocket gear wheels mounted on either end of a second shaft which is lead below the plane. The gears at the front and rear ends of the lower shaft mesh also with second gears mounted on the shafts of the propellers. The two propellers rotate in opposite directions.

The fixed middle axle of the two propellers is built of a very strong tube of aluminum, of 31 feet 2 inches length and 3 inches in diameter. This aluminum tube carries the whole load. The front end of this tube carries the elevator plane on the double-faced rudder planes. This arrangement of the rudder enables the Vlaicu monoplane to make the smallest circles in the air with a great lateral stability. The rear tail consists of two fixed planes, a triangular shaped, horizontal damping plane and also a triangular vertical keel-plane.

The damping effect of such an arrangement is very great and the natural stability of this primitive machine is very wonderful. The arrangement of the two propellers supports the stability very much. In such a manner is a gyrostatic effect prevented.

All wire bracing underneath the plane is fastened to two bows of brass, mounted on each side of the central ash skid. Above the plane wire bracing is fastened to two wooden masts, situated in the longitudinal middle axis of the planes.

The control mechanism consists of a hori-zontical steering column which carries a vertical wheel. By depressing or raising this column the elevator plane will be actuated; rotating the handwheel actuates the double rudder planes. Wing warping is not employed. Dismounting is possible in a few minutes by reefing the fabric and curving the wing frames. It is a prominent advantage of this simple machine.

The Vlaicu monoplane is one of the cheapest and most naturally stable monoplanes.

His price with .r>0 H. P. Gnome engine is $2,000 approximately. Its speed is G5-70 k.p. h. This is surely low in consequence of the great resistance of the back edges of wings. Mr. Aurel Vlaicu, a young Roumanian engineer has made many successful flights with his monoplane in storms and turbulent weather without any accident.

At the great international meet at Vienna, which was held from June 23d to 30th, he won the first prize for the smallest circle,* with a radius of but 6 metres, a prize in the "contest of necessity" and a prize in the "Cible-Michelin" for bomb dropping from an aeroplane. The first one-seater Vlaicu monoplane was bought by the Roumanian army for military uses.

SLOANE

OUR CALIFORNIA SCHOOL

Opens on November 15th at the fatuous Dominqnez Field near Los Angeles. This ideal location for an Aeroplane School is adjacent to splendid living accommodations; a short ride from the ocean and twenty minutes from the heart of Los Angeles. All the most attractive and romantic points of interest of this storied region are in eye-shot from an Aeroplane over our Field. We are able to secure special rates for the accommodation of our pupils at hotels and in private homes. We will gladly make all reservations.

Four Deperdussin Monoplanes; Two Caudron Monoplanes; One Bleriot Monoplane and One Speedy Biplane Will Be Our School Equipment

W. LEONARD BONNEY, one of the pioneer American Aviators, assisted by two notable flyers will constitute the teaching faculty. We teach exactly according to the methods used on the Plains of Champaign near Rheims, France. We use the same kind of machines with which Vedrines, the Deperdussin Flyer, won the World's Championship at Chicago. We have the most perfect imported Aeroplanes, use the most perfect Field and Shop teaching methods and are located on the most ideal spot in America. Our faculty and our equipment are sufficient to handle almost any number of pupils with thoroughness and expedition. Our pupils on Long Island have become aviators of notable skill in an average of six weeks. The cost is

$300 For The Complete Course

The pupil in our school is not discharged from his class until he has secured his pilot's certificate. There are no extra charges for anything. The pupil is also obliged to put up a guarantee of $250 for breakage in addition to his tuition fee. This small bond covers his use of the machine when he flies for his certificate. When the pupil is discharged from the school the $250 guarantee is refunded and he is given a rebate of ten per cent, of his tuition fee if he completes without breakage.

There is a great demand for real monoplane flyers. We know it because we cannot secure enough efficient ariators for our own purposes. We guarantee no person a position because we are not able to judge ability until we hare seen the candidate fly. But ice aid every efficient pupil to secure profitable employment.

This is the time, the place and the school to secure the training that will equip you for the big work to be done ne.vt season. A monoplane won the Gordon'Bennett for France this year. A monoplane will win the Gordon-Bennett race for America next year. 1)7 are going to build the Monoplane and we are looking for the champion who icill drive it. Are you that man ?

We are arranging to carry passengers on a series of Aeroplane Cross-Country Tours over California. Bookings are now being made.

Make your arrangements for the School and the Cross-Country Tours as soon as possible. Only a limited number of persons will be accommodated in order that the work may be done right.

WIRE WRITE 'PHONE

SLOANE AEROPLANE CO.

210 Merchants Trust Bldg. 1733 Broadway

2nd & Main Sts., Los Angeles, Calif. New York City

•Phone Main 3674 'Phone Columbus 5421

National Aeroplane Co. 606 S. Michigan Ave. Chicago, 111.

W. E. Boughton, Washington, D. C.

J

Deperdussin Racer

THE Deperdussin aviators, Vedrines and Prevost brought with them two racing monoplanes. These machines were identical except for the motors, though the wing curves may have been slightly different. Vedrine's machine was equipped with a 140 Gnome engine, while that of Prevost had a 100 Gnome engine. In construction these machines are radically different from anything ever seen in this country. The square fuselage held together by wires, bolts and turnbuckles has been done away with and in its place has been substituted a built up body called by the Deperdussin Company "monocoque." In appearance, these machines look a good deal like a large carrot; the fuselage is shaped like a cornucopia. The forward end corresponds In diameter to that of a motor. It tapers to a point at the rear, where it takes the rudder post. The fuselage, which is built on a form, is composed of three layers of poplar veneer. When the work of putting on this veneer is completed and the form is taken out, we have a cone-shaped body without any wires or cross-ribs. There are two longitudinals running the length of the fuselage, and in the forward end there is bracing to take the rear motor-bracket, the "chandelles", as they call masts carrying the upper warping wires and the landing gear. When this fuselage is completed we have a practically empty cone with a hole cut in it for the pilot and several small doors on the sides forward so that one can get at the carburetor and oiling system of the motor. The landing gear is composed of five pieces and a pair of disk wheels. The main parts of the landing gear are two D shaped pieces made up of laminated wood which fit into sockets in the fuselage and take the axle in the round of the D. Then there are two tie-rods, one in front of and one behind the axle. The axle is attached

in the same way as in the regular Deperdussin landing gear, heretofore illustrated in AERONAUTICS. All these parts have wherever possible, a stream-line form. The landing-gear is held to the fuselage by four bolts and four wires. The lower front wing-support wires run from wing to wing across the landing gear where they are attached under a little metal hook to the D shaped parts of the gear. The motor has a forward Y shaped bracket in addition to the usual rear bracket. When the motor is mounted a metal shield is placed around it which has a slightly larger diameter than the fuselage. This shield curves around three or four inches at the forward end so that it will not form a pocket for the air.

The propeller is mounted on the motor with a shield attached to it. This shield is designed so that it covers most of the motor and yet allows enough air to reach the valve chambers to keep the motor cool. This shield is like an inverted bowl with the bottom forward. It revolves with the motor with its small end forward, and, undoubtedly, cuts down the head resistance considerably.

The rear of the fuselage is split and the one piece stabilizing plane fits in there and is bolted fast by eight or ten small bolts. Then the elevators are attached. There are no wires of any sort on the tail other than the control cables. Cables are used in all the controls and to support the wings; both the turn-buckles and the cables used are much larger than those seen on the usual machines in this country. The elevators and rudders on the other hand are exceedingly small, because on account of the high speed attained a large area of controlling surface is not necessary. The wings have a chord of about four and one-half feet and are not much more than ten feet long. (continued on page 12u)

October, 1912

Gordon=Bennett

TROPHY HISTORY Looking Backward

F^n3 Ball Bearings

A Three Time Winner: 1910-1911-1912

1912—Jules Vedrines, at Chicago, September 9th, with Deperdussin Monoplane, Gnome 14 cylinder rotative motor, 140 h. p. ; F. & S. Ball Bearings. Distance, 200 kilometer ; time, 1:10:56.80; average speed 169.14 k. p. h. (105.035 m.p.h.) fastest speed 171.11 k.p.h. (106.259 m.p.h.). Two other French competitors: Prevost with 100 h.p. Gnome— Deperdussin, and Frey with 100 h.p. Gnome-Hanriot.

There were no competitors of these three Frenchmen, although America and Belgium had entered three each, England two, Holland and Switzerland one each, making thirteen in all entered.

Vedrines fastest lap was the 24th, in which he covered 6.666 kilometers (4.142 miles) in 2:20.24, a speed of 171.11 kilometers per hour (106.259 miles p.h.).

The prize winning list of world's record holders in Aeroplaning, all made on machines equipped with Gnome motors reads like the directory list in " Who's Who in Aviation."

The Gnome fourteen cylinder air-cooled revolving motors use twenty-eight F. & S. Ball Bearings—Every revolving part is F. <Sr S. equipped including even the crank shafts and connecting rods, and which is really unique in gas motor practice, the only other gas motors using ball bearing connecting rods being the Merkel and Schickel Motorcycles—also F. it S. equipped.

Nearly every world's aeroplane record for Speed, Time, Distance, Duration, Height, Climbing Speed and Speed in Kilometers per hour was made on F. it S. Ball Bearings, the Dependable Kind, made in Germany.

oaT^RETZ^ (o m pany «Ώ7^ UlBall Bearings

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Long-Distance Ballooning

N 190S an effort was made by Darwin Lyon, of New York, to interest several members of the Aero Club in a plan to make a record balloon trip, employing liquified hydrogen. Nothing came of this, despite the fact that a full description of the plan, with the apparatus, was published in AERONAUTICS for March, April and May of that year.

The patent* just issued in the United States to a German employs a similar system. It will be apparently feasible, by a study of these articles and the patent, to make a trip lasting for days.

The invention provides means by which a body of liquefied hydrogen may be conveniently and safely carried by such a vessel and the gas obtained by the vaporization thereof admitted to the balloon as desired.

"Heretofore," says the inventor, "liquefied hydrogen has not been employed for the purpose stated because there were not known means by which it could be conveniently transported." The advantages obtained by being able to use this material will be readily appreciated. A kilogram of liquefied hydrogen will produce eleven cubic meters of hydrogen gas which is sufficient to support a load of fourteen kilo-

*U. S. Patent 1,035,560 filed Jan. 24, 1910, issued Aug. 13, 1912.

grams weight. Therefore it will be seen that in a vessel adapted to transport such material the load bearing capacity can be greatly increased as the liquid returns to gaseous form.

Referring to the accompanying drawing, which illustrates, more or less diagram-atically, an embodiment of the invention, a designates the car or body of an aerial vessel. This car is as usual suspended by suitable ropes from a ring-like frame b supported by an inflatable bag i. Suitably supported near the frame b is a container for liquid hydrogen comprising two concentric holders or receptacles c, e. These bag-like receptacles are formed of the same material as the supporting balloon i and the space separating them is filled with a suitable light weight material adapted to serve as heat insulation for the inner liquid receptacle c. Eider-down is particularly adapted for thus filling the space d separating the inner receptacle in which liquefied hydrogen f is placed from the outer casing c. A conduit h having a valve g therein leads from the interior liquid receptacle e to the balloon i and a branch k connects said conduit with the space d.

If desired the inner receptacle may be provided with a lining m of material, such as cotton adapted to absorb liquefied hydrogen, and the capacity of said receptacle is such that a sufficient quantity of liquefied hydrogen can be carried to replace the gas escaping from the balloon i during a long flight. For example, for a balloon having a capacity of 500 cubic meters the receptacle e would be of sufficient size to receive about 100 liters of. liquefied hydrogen having a weight of approximately 7 kilograms.

Whenever it is desired to increase the lifting capacity of or materially replenish the gas in the balloon i the valve g is opened when rapid gasification of the liquid body f will occur. The space d surrounding the receptacle e being in constant communication with the conduit h may receive a portion of the gas thus delivered through the conduit h and the conduit k provides for permitting such gas as may accumulate therein and any heated air within said space to pass to the balloon i so that the inner receptacle e is effectually insulated from heat and its contents can be maintained in liquid condition for a long period of time.

If it is desired to supply gas from the receptacle e more rapidly than is possible by manipulation of the valve g alone a current of air may be caused to pass through the space d about the receptacle e by opening suitable inlet and outlet valves q, r. The passage of air through the body of insulation material in the space d will raise the temperature of the liquefied hydrogen and thus increase the rapidity of the gasification thereof.

CURTTSSv MOTORS

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October, 1912

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New Developments in Aviation

LEWIS AEROPLANE GUN

The recent experiments at College Park with a special gun designed for use on aeroplanes, gives an idea of what may be expected from the aeroplane as a weapon of offense. The gun was invented by Lieut. Col. Isaac N. Lewis, of the U. S. Army Coast Artillery Corps. The shots were made by Captain Chandler, with Lieut Milling as pilot.

Captain C. De F. Chandler, Signal Corps, U. S .Army, reported on the gun as follows: "The gun is air cooled, weighs 25 lbs, 6 oz., and shoots the service small-arms ammunition. The rate of firing can be adjusted by controlling the gas used in the operation from about 300 to 700 per minute. Fifty cartridges are placed in a drum and this drum slipped over spindle on the gun. The firing at College Park was done with the gun adjusted for about 500 per minute, which, with continuous firing, would empty the drum in six seconds. On the 7th of June Colonel Lewis gave me instructions in operating the gun, and I fired one on the ground for practice. The control and operation of the gun appeared so simple that I had no hesitancy in trying it immediately from an aeroplane. The Wright Type B aeroplane was used, with Lieut. Milling as aviator.

"On account of my lack of experience with gun and possibly endangering the lives of the officers at the Aviation School, the first experiment was made from an altitude of only 250 feet The target used was a piece

of cloth about 6 feet by 7 feet. The speed of the aeroplane being about 42 miles per hour, the target was passed in about 1-10 of a second, therefore it was necessary to begin firing just before reaching the target and discontinuing as soon as it was passed. Three trips of this kind were made across the target. Upon examination five bullet holes were found in the target and there were other holes in the ground a short distance in front of the target, all within an area of about 4 yards by 20 yards. No sights were on a gun at this trial; sighting was accomplished by looking over the barrel of the gun. The second trial of the Lewis machine gun was made from an aeroplane on the 8th instant, the target having a size of 2 yards by 18 yards, and the firing was done from an altitude of about 550 feet by the same officers and aeroplane. Forty-four shots were fired at the target, five of which hit and the others fell a short distance beyond the target. The experiments on this date were witnessed by Colonel Scriven, Signal Corps, all officers of the Aviation School, and a number of newspaper representatives and other civilians who were interested."

As aluminum has six times the heat conductivity of steel and but one-third its weight, this very effective method of cooling the gun adds but a few pounds to the total weight carried. Another novel feature which differentiates the Lewis gun from all other gas-operated guns is the small inclosed operating spring which is located near the trigger-piece at the breech far removed from all injurious heat effects. The temper of this spring cannot be affected by either direct or transmitted heat no matter how rapid and long-continued the firing.

When firing at full speed it takes approximately four seconds to discharge a magazine of fifty cartridges, and the empty magazine may be replaced by a full one within two seconds. The drum magazine used with this gun is SV4 inches in diameter and 1V2 inches deep. It is stamped from sheet steel, has an aluminum center piece to hold the cartridges in place, and resembles, somewhat, a reel used for winding cinematograph films.

Colonel Lewis designed the gun primarily for infantry and cavalry use, but its nameless feature coupled with the absence of recoil and its light weight brought to mind the possibilities of the rifle for aeroplane use, and a test was decided upon with the success already notea.

Captain W. Irving- Chambers has incorporated in a handsome booklet the contents of his articles in AERONAUTICS and other publications on safety in flight and the use of instruments. This data will be found of great value and interest.

Copies of the June number of the Proceedings of the U. S. Naval Institute contain this data.

Page 116

October, 1912

stevens "life pack"

The "life pack" designed and built by A. Leo Stevens, 2S2 Ninth Ave., New York, has been tested out pretty thoroughly. Parachute drops have been made from a flying aeroplane a number of times with it. Harry Bingham Brown, Wright aviator, has been pilot on several occasions, and F. R. Law, who has been parachuting from the Liberty Statue, bridges and high buildings with a similar parachute to that used in the "life pack", has been the artist who has made the drops.

The parachute itself is wrapped in a square of cloth. As the jump is made the parachute opens up, the cloth cover remaining with the belts. A pin with spring affords release.

The Wright Machine used by Brown has been altered so that there are no guy wires to prevent his jumping out in case he so desires.

The cotton and linen, single layer cloth, with a diameter of 16 feet, is attached by 16 Italian hemp ropes to a steel tube spreader about 15 feet below the top of the parachute. Two short ropes go through the tube and the other sixteen are spliced into these, eight in each. Two additional ropes, 2 feet shorter than the ones which go to the circumferance of the 'chute, go direct to the twelve inch hole in the center. In dropping, the strain comes on these two ropes first and insures the 'chute's opening; then the strain is evenly divided between them all. F^'om the steel tube is an arrangement of two belts of leather, one of which goes under the jumper's arms and the other around his waist. The man can relieve the pull on the straps by putting his hands on the bar if he wishes. Three ropes are sewn in the fabric, one around the central hole, one midway and one on the

outer circumference. The lines from the steel bar run to the circumference and from there all the way to the inner ring of the rope. The leather straps are connected by short lengths of rope which are snapped to the guy ropes above.

HOW THE DROP IS MADE "When I reached an elevation of 4,000 feet," said Harry B. Brown, "I motioned to Law to prepare to give me a return motion of the hand, indicating that he was ready to go, 1 nodded my head and away he went. I saw no more of him until I reached the starting point some eight minutes later, when I was notified that he reached the earth two and one quarter minutes after making the jump. As he released his weight from the moving machine, I felt myself go up rapidly and the machine acted very much as if it were suspended by a (fable and was being pulled up rapidly in jerks, this lasted perhaps for about ten seconds. The machine all this time was on an even keel."

"In my mind, not as an exhibition stunt, but as a safety factor, it is the greatest move which has yet been made towards the aviator's safety. You can readily see if a machine were to get on fire or break in two how secure the aviator and his passenger would be; by merely rolling off or falling off, descend with perfect safety."

stream line tank.

At the recent Berlin aeronautical exposition, many accessories were shown. Among these was a stream-line gas and oil tank, of aluminum or brass; soldered, clinched and welded. Experiments with welded tanks, dropping them from good heights, show

that they suffered dents only and were not broken so as to leak. These tanks, made by the Rheinischen Aerowerke G. m. b. H., in Düsseldorf, have explosion-proof caps. After covering the outside of the tank with gasoline and setting it on Are, the contents were untouched. These tanks are made with lips at each end for attachment to the main beams.

Otto W. Brodie, license 133, now has charge of the "Standard" School at Clearing, 111.

Although fair France receives the cup, through Jules Verdines, the winner, The Aero Club of Uncle Sam still leads the world at dinner. E. N. F.

Dayton International Aeroplane Club refuses aeronautical magazine and Postmaster of that city returns it to thè publisher. Aero clubs must be getting fed up with aeronautics these days to not even worry about periodicals for their libraries.

George Dyott, Semeniouk and Boyd are out on exhibition work with the Rex monoplane which attracted considerable attention at the show. Dyott is filling dates for the Morok Aeroplane Company. This little machine is a low priced all-Ameriean monoplane with speed and sells at $2,500, guaranteed, with repairs at cost price.

Co pou tofjo apparently tfjfnfe " aeronautics;" a philanthropic institution,

(greeting!

Qtfje follotoing letter stfjoulb bt an inspiration. &eab it!

(Efje original fjas been frameb anb fjttng in a conspicuous place.

-----, Missouri,

Sept. 10, 1912

Aeronautics,

New York. Dear Sirs:-

I am enclosing check for $6.50 in payment of my subscription for this year and last. Though the rate is only $3 per year, the uniformly courteous treatment I have received

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test of the sturtevant motor.

'The accompanying table shows the results of three tests recently made at the B. F. Sturtevant Company's works on a Sturtevant six cylinder aeronautical motor. The first was a fuel consumption test, lasting thirty minutes and showing a fuel consumption per horse power hour of .C4 pounds of gasolene. The second was a brake horse power test, lasting four hours and showing an average actual developed horse power of G3.85 at 1304 (average) R. P. M. The third was a maximum horse power test in which the motor developed S6.3 actual horse power at 2037 R. P. M.

B/?a#£ 7~£3 r or Srv* revsrrr D~é>A£fHi Afore* No. // OttrtcrCoHMCcrco ro ABSo*f>rtt>* W*rc* Ovhamomctcx Lexer* or Btr*#r A** J Fccr At/ousr 23./9/£.

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It is interesting to note that the six cylinder motor upon which these tests were made is rated by the makers at sixty horse power at 1300 R.P.M.

During these tests, no adjustment was made and no one was allowed to touch the motor except to supply the oil necessary. As can be seen in the table which has been photographed from the original and reproduced here, the tests were made in the presence ofi witnesses. Lieutenant Cunningham of the Navy Aviation Corps witnessed the tests unofficially.

patterson demountable socket.

R. F. Patterson, the scale drawings of whose steel hydro were published in AERONAUTICS recently, has, for this machine, employed a novel strut socket. The fish-

shaped steel struts are, of course, filled with spruce. Allowance is made at the ends of the wood filling for the projection of the steel casting. The steel plate to which guy wires attach by turnbuckles is bolted to the main beams.

DEMOUNTABLE

The special casting has a shoulder top and bottom. The lower end of casting fits in hole made in the plate; the other end fits in the end of strut. A steel sleeve fits over the strut and the casting and prevents strut from moving out of place. For removal of strut, the cotter pin through sleeve and strut is pulled out and the sleeve slid up until the casting is exposed when the strut can readily be slipped out. "When all are out, the wing sections lie flat against each other, ready for crating, with all wires attached ready for insertion of struts again.

More than 100 drawings comprise the complete set of blueprints which are sold by AERONAUTICS at Eight Dollars. For the amateur builder, nothing could be more complete. From these every single part of the machine may be built, or in part, purchased from supply houses ready made.

rubber boat.

Joseph Pastorel, of Asbury Park, N. J., has patented the construction of boats having ribs of hard rubber covered with sheet rubber or cloth, capable of being moulded in sections if desired, with arrangement for inflation of air pockets.

Not So Very Bad! The technical articles by Air. Sellers, and the one by Winthrop S. Hoi ton are unquestionably of great value to the experimenter ami designer. ***** The scale drawings arc neat and clear and a valuable asset to the reader. You are to bo congratulated for your unceasing efrorts in editing a magazine of such a generally considered pioneer subject.

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Keep right on the way you are now going. You are running the little magazine just the way I should want to if I were doing it. That's saying a good deal.

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Details of Scott's Winning

Note:—The following is the first and only complete and authortative report that has appeared in any journal anywhere.

THE contests for the Michelin prize for dropping bombs from aeroplanes were closed on August 16th. As has been noted in these columns before, the Michelin prizes were donated by the famous French rubber manufacturers in August, 1911, and consist of the sum of 150,000 fr. ($30,000), one-half of which was made available for the year lbl2 and the other half for 1913. In addition, Messrs. Michelin later offered a special prize of 10,000 fr. ($2,000), to be given to the inventor of the most scientific and practical apparatus entered in competition for the other prizes. Therefore, there was 85,000 fr. available in 1912, which sum was divided as follows:

(1). A prize of 50,000 fr. ($10,000) to the contestant placing the greatest number of bombs, each weighins 15'i> lbs., in a circular ta'get of 10 metres [32.8 ft.] radius from a heisrht of 200 metres [656 ft.I or more, each contestant being required to carry and drop 15 bombs, one at a time, and being given 50 minutes for the purpose.

(2). A prize of 25,000 fr. ($5,000) to the contestant placing the greatest number of bombs, as above described, in a rectangular target 40 x 120 metres, [131 by 394 ft.] representing the hangar of a dirigible balloon, from a height of 890 metres [2624 ft.] or more, each contestant being required to carry and drop 16 bombs, one or more at a time, and being given one hour in which to do it.

(3). A prize of 10,000 fr. ($2,000) to the inventor of the most meritorious apparatus. This prize could be divided among two or more inventors, in case the jury considered the apparatuses equally meritorious.

SCOTT'S LATEST DEVICE USED IN TRIALS.

The contests for these prizes commenced in February and continued at intervals until August 15th, there being about 12 periods of "fire" in all. Altogether, there were 12 entries, nine military and three civilian aviators. Each period of "fire" consisted of two days, so that all contestants were enabled to "fire" at least once and usually two or three times each period. This naturally added to the chances of those having inferior apparatuses, as in so many trials, the chances of accidentally making a good score were increased.

The contests closed on August 15th with a complete victory for Lieut. Scott, an American and the only foreigner taking part. The apparatus of Lieut. Scott was mounted on a Wright biplane with the French aviator, Gaubert, as pilot. It will be remembered that Scott was the first man in the world to make tests In

scientific "bomb"-dropping from an aeroplane, having carried out a successful series of tests at College Park last October on a Wright aeroplane piloted by Lieut. Milling.*

It was with an almost identical equipment, but entirely constructed in France, that the Michelin prize was won. On August 11th, Scott and Gaubert won the prizj of 25,000 fr. by placing S out of 15 bombs in the target from a height of S20 metres (just v2 mile). On August 15th they ran the second prize of 50,000 fr. by placing 12 out of 15 bombs in the target from a height of 230 metres (765 ft.). Also, the special prize of 10,000 fr. was awarded to Lieut. Scott for having invented the most scientific and practical apparatus. Altogether, the victory was conclusive in every way, although there seems to have been considerable feeling displayed by some of the contestants. In fact, to judge from an aricle in one of he Parisian sporting weeklies, one would conclude that anything but a sporting spirit was displayed in th« matter. We quote the following extracts from an farticle which appeared in "l'Echo des S>ports" under date of August 21, 1912:

FRENCH SPORTSMANSHIP.

"The competition was very severe, too much so in fact because certain incidents occurred that can only be regretted.

"It should be proclaimed from the house tops, first of all, that the victory of the GaubertScott combination was due primarily to the intrinsic value of the apparatus invented by the American lieutenant, and that the victory was entirely justifiable. The device of Scott was the only one embodying a definite scientific method and founded on serious lines; the others contained only haphazard means leaving altogether too much to chance.

"Towards the end of the contest when the combination Gaubert-Scott was at the head, due to the excellent firing and by right depended upon the impartiality of all those in charge of the competition, there were some clumsy efforts on the part of friends of French competitors to modify the results. It would not do to cite names for the guilty ones will surely be the first to regret their hasty action, impelled by n spirit of friendliness towards other competitions which it is firmly believed will never recur again.

"It is truly deporable that intelligent men of good standing and education, for the sake of friendship, should endeavour to rob one another of the fruits of their labor.

"It happened that some of the projectiles fired by Scott which fell within the target, were rolled aside: as though a strange error in calculation gave the benefit to some French competitors. Luckilv some of those present, not blinded by friendship, brought order and justice out of chaos, together with the indignant intervenion of some spectators who yelled at the attempted injustice."

We certainly hope that the assertions above quoted are not strictly true and that the lamentable spirit of exaggeration, of which our own press is not free has colored this article too strongly. We cannot too strongly insist that the officials of our own Aero Club exercise the greatest care in all contests, especially of an inernational nature, in order that no taint of favoritism or injustice may be attached to their acts and decisions. Unfortunately, we cannot assert that the decisions of our national body have always been above reproach.

*A complete description of the Scott device, with method of calculation of time for launching and speed over the ground while in the air, have previously been printed in AERONAUTICS.

66

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THE CRUDE FR 1.—Arrangement of Lieutenant Terrisse:.. H is device consists of an automatic lever scheme operated by the aviator himself permitting the cartridges to fall as seen in the illustration. 2.—Arrangement of Lieutenant Bousquet: A simple box placed under the seat...A connecting lever under control of the aviator allows the projectile to drop through the opening in the extension of the box...3.—Scott's Apparatus.

International Race

The fourth contest for the international aviation trophy offered by J. G. Bennett, proprietor of a New York newspaper, was won by Jules Vedrines, Deperdussin-140 Gnome-monoplane, at Chicago on September 9. His only competitors were Maurice Prevost (100-Gnome-Dep) and Andre Frey (100-Gnome-Hanriot monoplane); the latter did not finish. All three represented France. No other country was represented in the race, although 10 oher entries were made by Belgium, England, Holland, Switzerland and America.

The 6.(‘60 kilometer course, which was made the most perfect ever seen by the progressive Chicago club, was circled 30 times by Vedrines and Prevost. Vedrines' time for from 5 to 200 kilometers would have established new American records, naturally, if it had been possible to time over a 5 kilometer course. He failed to exceed his international speed records for this distance established in his elimination trials to pick the French team.

Vedrines' total time for 200 kils. was 1:10:56.-S5, an average speed of 169.139 k. p. h. (105.035 m.p.h.); fastest speed 171.11 k.p.h. (106.259 m.p.h.) in 21th lap which he made in 2:20.24.

Prevost's time was 1:13:10.}>2 an average speed of 163.97 k.p.h. (101.i>2 m.p.h.), a difference between that of Vedrines' extra 40 h.p. speed, of 5.169 m.p.h. Frey covered 23 laps in 1:02:13.70 and dropped out of the contest. His average speed was 147.827, k.p.h. (91.70 m.p.h.).

ENCH apparat1:—

4.—Arrangement of Ensign Lafont: On each side of the seat of the operator is found a row of bombs which the inventor throws as well as he can.. 5.—Arrangement of Lieutenant Maille-fert:..The procjectiles are placed in a box at the side of the seat and the observer, who is placed behind the aviator launches them through a hole between the box and the seat. Note the shield protecting the marksman.

PREVIOUS G-B RACES.

The following new records were made by Vedrines:— American speed for 2U0 kiloms. American speed for 20 kiloms. World sipeed for 20 kiloms. A special flight was made for three laps of the course and officially timed in 6:55.95, which gives a speed of 173.09 k.p.h. (107.IS m.p.h.).

Trophy valued at $2,500 for international competition, goes to winning club. Cash .$5,000 donated by Bennett to winner for each of first three years. In addition, entrance fees and forfeits are divided among competitors. The first contest, and prize offered, in France. Each international club may enter 3 machines, with native born pilots, fee $100 each entry. A club must win trophy three times consecutively to become permanent holder. Plaques have been given winners yearly. Distances down and other conditions have changed yearly. For 1912 the prize in cash was not offered. Won two times for America. First llown in 1909.

1909—Won by Glenn 11. Curtiss, at Hheims. France, with Curtiss biplane, Curtiss S cyl. 50 h.p. V motor, Dist. 20 kil.; time 15:50.60; average speed 73.6 k.p.h. (17.06 m.p.h.); fastest speed 76.7. k.p.h. Three starters from France and 1 from England.

1910—Won by C. G. White, with Bleriot, monoplane, at Belmont Park, 100 h.p. Gnome motor. Dist. 100 kil.; time 1:01:01.74; average speed 9S.23 k.p.h. (61 m.p.h.) fastest speed 102.4 k.p.h. (63.59 m.p.h.). Five other starters —America 2, England 1, France 2.

1911—Chas. T. Weymann, at Eastchurch, England, July I, with JMieuport monoplane, Gnome 100 h.p. motor. Dist. 150 kil., time 1:11:36.20; average speed 125.69 k.p.h. (78.05 m.p.h.); fastest speed 83.5 m.p.h. Three French and 2 English were other starters.

THE AMERICAN CUP DEFENDER.

Early in July Norman Prince, representing the "Cup Defender Syndicate" in Chicago, visited Marblehead for the purpose of finally closing an order with the Burgess company for the design and construction of a cup defender. For more than four months preceding overtures were made in various forms by the Aero Club of America and individual clubs and members looking towards interesting American manufacturers in the construction of a racing machine.

Pressure, however, was brought to bear upon the Burgess company and Curtiss, to design and build an aeroplane suitable for the 160 horsepower Gnome power plant which had been purchased. Finally the Burgess company agreed to design and build the aeioplane in six weeks, but at the same time took no responsibility whatever with regard to the furnishing of the aviator either for the test flights or for the race.

When the machine arrived, there was at once a question as to who should drive it. No definite arrangements seem to have been made and conditions were aggravated by the fact that contrary to the company's advice the Wright system of control had been installed. After a number of days' delay it was finally decided that Mr. Glenn L. Martin of Los Angeles would undertake to drive the machine. A number of local people criticized certain details of design and construction. The use of single wires with a factor of safety of over six was criticized, and at the same time the large wing surface, 130 square feet, with a camber of 2 inches, was said to be too large for the horse power. Some did not like the landing gear and others thought the tail was incorrectly designed and so on.

When the request was made that smaller wings be furnished, the company believed that this was contrary to good judgment and was reluctant to aid in any changes made by those who perhaps lack the experience and skill which has been evident in the Burgess products. Small wings were hastily put together in Chicago even though the large wings had never previously been tested out. If it had been possible to thoroughly train a man with large wings the question of smaller wings would have been, of course, in order, but with the horse power furnished the original design was by no means excessive in amount of surface, and limited time naturally prevented the highest possible development which can only be reached by experiment.

In the meantime day after day passed in Chicago without any real work being accomplished, other than racing back and forth between Chicago and Clearing and the exchange of endless dissertations.

The aeioplane arrived on August 20 and from that until the day of the race was not actually tried out. The Burgess company finally built a small set of wings, extra propellers and shipped sufficient spare parts there to build an entirely duplicate machine should it have been necessary. The small set had 120 sq. ft., with a camber of but \y2 inches.

The real difficulty in the whole episode boils down to the principal criticism: the construction of an aeroplane at the eleventh hour without any arrangements for the training of the aviator in the two weeks which remained between the date of delivery and the race.

A description, with drawings, of the "Defender" was published in the last issue of AERONAUTICS.

SLOANE OFFERS AID.

One man in the trade, at last, now realizes the advantage of having America represented by an American machine as well as an Ameri-

can pilot. John E. Sloane wants to raise a fund to build a challenger for 1913 along lines to be adopted by a conference of American designers, and offers to subsrcibe $1,000 toward a syndicate and offers any facilities his plant may afford. In arguing his point, his letter to the Aero Club of Illnois, he says:—

'Let us call a meeting next month in Chicago of the most notable Aeronautical Engineers in America. This group should include Orvilie Wright, Capt. W. I. Chambers of the U. & Na\y Aeronautical Bureau, Frederick Chara-\ay, E. R. Armstrong, Matthew B. Sellers Charles M. Manly and any other serious, competent Aeronautical Engineer, who can be induced to participate. These men are practical and brilliant workers in the activity. Let us ask them to pool their talents to devise for us the swiftest, staunchest, most efficient aircraft the world has ever seen. Engineer Moore of the Gyro Motor fame is prepared to build the most perfect engine his factory has produced. All the resources of my factories, shops, fields and the services of my staff arj at the disposal of the group who will build the challenger.

"It will take about $15,000 to build a challenger and send it to France. To get this money I suggest this: Let us open a subscription list and ask sportsmen and clubs in all parts of America to pledge themselves for a small proportion of the sum total to defray the cost. The machine will in this way be thoroughly representative of the enthusiasm of all American Aeronautical Sportsmen. The burden of its cost will not fail heavily on any individual or group of individuals. I am perfectly willing by all the means at any disposal to organize a national syndicate to plan, devise and finance the challenger. In order to start the subscription list I herewith pledge myself to contribute one thousand dollars."

Bennett Balloon Race

America will be represented by two baloons in the international race at Stuttgart on Oco-ber 27, the "Uncle Sam," Capt. H. E. Honeywell pilot, and the "Kansas City II," John Watts, pilot. The aides are not yet selected. The "Uncle Sam" and K. C. II" finished one-two in the elimination race from Kansas City July 27. The contestants will leave New York on the Princess Louise, sailing October 10.

Three balloons each are expected from Belgium, Germany, Austria, Switzerland and France; two from Italy and one each from Denmark, England and Russia. In all twenty-two are looked for as starters.

"UNCLE SAM'S" RUN IN NATIONAL ELIMINATION RACE. By Capt. H. Eugene Honeywell, Pilot.

From the first we were beset with an innumerable lot of difficulties, some of which floored some of our competitors early in the game. Storm first night.

In drawing for places, order of start, we drew first off, making a pretty getaway at 5:11 p.m. July 27, just one hour and three minutes earlier than our last competitor, who had a decided advantage,—a balloon full of contracted gas.

At 5:40 our good ship "Uncle Sam of K. C." passed over the pilot balloon with marriage party which landed near a farm house. Our altitude 1,500 ft., course N. N. E. Sighted electrical storm approaching from N. W. 10:30 dropped down and trailed heavy for 12 miles, retarding speed. Changed course to North to avoid storm, where response to a question proved that we were near Parnell, Iowa, at 4 a.m. over Waterloo, storm passed and we picked up our trail rope and followed in the storm's wake.

Passing over the Mississippi river at 6 a. m., we sighted Peoria far to the south, altitude 7,000 ft., course East. Sighted Chicago and Lake Michigan at 11.30 a.m., and passed over southern portion of lower edge of lake. Lost sight

Curtiss Hydro -Aeroplanes

as a sporting proposition, are infinitely more desirable than automobiles and motor boats. Nothing that you can imagine is more thrilling or more exciting than speeding over the water faster than the fastest motor-boats, or making air flights with safety better than sixty miles per hour.

You, too, can become a successful aviator. You do not heed a knowledge of practical mechanics—the Curtiss Hydro-Aeroplane has made this possible.

The Curtiss Hydro-Aeroplane seats two and is as easy to operate as a motor car. The new model, designed by Mr. Curtiss, is a thoroughly practical and efficient water and air craft.

Leam with little practice and no cost, as tuition applies on purchase price.

Write for full information. Training grounds in New York and California.

Curtiss Aeroplane Co., Dept. B., Hammondsport, N. Y.

FOR SALE

ONE 50 H. P. Roberts 4-cylinder ———^——^— motor with 8-ft. Paragon Propellers, weight 165 lbs., list $1,500.00 good as new will sell for $500.

D. C. DORM AN, Minot, N. D.

new world altitude record

Paris, France, Sept. 17.—George Legagneux made a new height record of 5720 metres (IS,701 ft.) in a climb of 45 minutes. He used oxygen to facilitate breathing after reaching 5000 metres. This record exceeds that made by Garros on Sept. 6. Legagneux i sed a Morane-Sanlnier monoplane, Gnome motor, Boscli magneto.

GIBSON

GI2SON PROPELLER CO.

PROPELLERS ARE STILL ON THE MARKET

WAITING FOR THE AWAKENING The "Worcester" Type Surpasses all Standard Propellers OUR STANDARD PROPELLER CLEARANCE SALE AT 1-4 LIST PRICES

our standard propellers cannot be turpaued except by our "worcester" type

Fort George Park, New York

Wright Hydroaeroplane School now open at Glen Head, L. I.

Wright Flyers

1912 Models

In addition to those features which in the past have made Wright Flyers famous for efficiency and reliability, the new models can be furnished with Automatic Control, Silent Motors, and Hydroplanes. These special features make the 1912 machine unusually attractive to sportsmen.

Exhibition Machines

For exhibition work we have othermodels especially adapted to high winds and small fields. It was with a stock "EX" Model that Rodgers made his wonderful flight from Coast to Coast. Reliability means dollars to the exhibitor.

Wright Schools of Aviation

Training consists of actual flying, in which the pupil is accompanied by a competent t. aclier. No risk and no expense whatever from breakage. The most famous flyers in America are graduates of our school and include such names as—

Lieut. Arnold

Atwood

Brookins

Brindley

Bonney

Beatty

Burgess

Coffyn

Capt. Chandler

Drew Elton

Lieut. Fouloib

Fowler

Gill

Lieut. Lahm Lieut. Milling Mitchell C. P. Rodgers

Lieut. Rodgers

Parmalee

Page

Reynolds

Simmons

Turpin

Welsh

W-bster

And a score of others

Our Schools at Dayton and New York are now open anil pupils may begin training at once if they wish. By enrolling now you can reserve date most convenient to yuu for training.

' WWfe for Particular! '.

THE WRIGHT COMPANY

DEPT. A DAYTON. OHIO

Hotel Cumberland

NEW YORK Broadway at 54th Street

' Broadway" cars from Grand Central Depot in 10 minutes, al.-o7lli Avenue cars from Pennsylvania Station

Headquarters for Aviators and Auto-mobilists.

New and Fireproof

Strictly first class. Rates reasonable.

$2.50

With Bath

Send for booklet Ten Minutes' Walk to Thirty Theatres

H. P. STIMSON

Formerly with Hotel Imperial

I NAIAD I Aeronautical Cloth

Manufactured Especially for

Aeroplanes

Light, Strong

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Sample Book A-6, Data and Prices on Request

The C. E. Conover Co.

MANUFACTURERS

101 Franklin St., New York

Page 12!

October, 1912

The Start of the National Race

of the city at 12:30, altitude 10,000 ft., course E. S. S. E., storm clouds on every side.

Passed over Ft. Wayne, Ind. 6 p.m., 5,000 ft. course East at 9:30, two storms gathered in the rear, with lightning at 11.30, it was very dark, with occasional moon hreaks through clouds, we were very tired, as there Mas no sleep for either of us save "cat naps" Aide Donaldson at the wheel—reports mountains ahead, balloon behaving beautifully, altitude 4,000 ft. I ordered him to make it 7,000 to avoid eddy currents. About 3 a.m. a heavenly sight greeted our eyes. The cloud formations rapidly changed, with a big wall of storm clouds in rear and lightning playing through them—loud thunder claps. Imagine if you can a beautiful garden, foliage of all sizes and kind with walks leading through them—thus grew the flimsy clouds in the foreground, with a luminous wall of fire for a background. It was surely a garden of Eden—beautiful, grand, magnificent!

Daylight came at 4:30. The Alleghany and Blue Ridge mountains are passed with Chesapeake B'ay about 30 miles in plain view ahead. Storm almost upon us, 5,000 ft. altitude—few drops of rain.

Feeling sure that we had outdistanced all our competitors, there was only one of two things to do, and we must decide quickly: either—buffet the storm for the remaining thirty miles with a chance of being forced out to sea and becoming disqualified; or land. We chose the latter, making a hasty descent. The big red sun smiled on us from the horizon—as we made a beautiful landing on the old historic, battlefield of Bull Run. Seven sacks of ballast on board and much other junk.

The actual distance covered being about twelve hundred miles by air line and credited for 914, the longest trip ever made wholly on American soil and only exceeded by A. R. Haw-ley who landed in the wilds of Canada.

I wish to comment on the excellent quality of gas. The well arranged and policed grounds for which we must thank Mr. Geo. M. Myers and his staff; also. Mr. Myers made it financially possible for "Uncle Sam" to reach Washington.

Mr. A. B. Lambert being trie starter, all got a fair deal with no favors shown.

new pilots.

15S Osmond T. Belcher, (Gage biplane) Los Angeles, Calif., Aug. 7.

159 Clifford B. Prodgers, (Wright) Hempstead, L. I., Aug. 14.

160 Peter Colovon, (Wright) Chicago, Aug. IS.

161 Nels J. Nelson, (Curtiss) Chicago, Aug. 18.

162 W. C. Robinson, (Wright) Chicago, Aug. IS.

1P3 E. Norman Hunt, (Moisant monoplane)

Hempstead. L. I., Aug. 20. 164 Walter E. Johnson, (Thomas biplane)

Kingston, N. Y., Aug. 12.

165 Lt. Lewis C. Rockwell, U. S. A. (Burgess biplane) College Park, Md., Aug. 22.

166 Lt. Harold Geiger, V. S. A. (Curtiss) College Park, Aug. 29.

167 Taras Weiner, * (Wright) Chicago, Sept. 1.

16S Alexander C. Beech, * (Wright) Chicago, Sept. 1.

169 Grover C. Bergdoll, (Wright-" Manoa, Pa., Sept. 9.

170 Alberto Salinas, (Moisant monoplane) Hempstead, L. 1., Sept. 12.

171 John Guy Gilpatrick, (Deperdussin) Hempstead. L. 1., Sept. 12.

172 Gustavo Salinas, (Moisant) Hempstead, L. I., Sept. 13.

173 Bernetta Adams Miller (Moisant) Hempstead, L. I., Sept. 14.

Note: *These two men ha\ e been granted licenses subject to the approval of the foreign clubs of their respective nationalities.

pilots reinstated.

A notice to the papers sent out by the Aero Club of America on August 31, stated:—

"In view of the exceptional circumstances and at the urgent request of the Aero Club of Illinois, the Contest Committee of the Aero Club of America has removed the suspension against aviation pilots:—Charles K. Hamilton, Lincoln Beachy. Glenn L. Martin, Phillips W. Page, Farnum T. Fish, Paul Peck, Arch Freeman, F. J. Terrill."

In Memoriam

gill and peck meet death.

Aviation has suffered severe losses by the untimely deaths of two of America's most prominent flyers, Howard W. Gill and Paul Peck. Of the pioneer flyers, but one or two are left. When those are taken whose friendship has been ours, whose work lias been materially aiding the backward progress in this country, the blow is especially severe.

Gill was killed on September 14th, at the Chicago meet where he was flying an EX Wright, with Hall-Scott engine. George Mestach. another comnetitor in the race, flyinc: a Morane with 50 Gnome, caught up with Gill and Mes-tach's running gear caught in the tail of the Wright and Gill had, therefore, no control over his machine. Both mac.nes struck the ground, the Morane fairlv safe and Mestach was not badly injured. Gill's back was broken and he di^d on the way to the hospital. Hugh Robinson states that Mestach made no attempt to either swing out and pass Gill or to go above or below, that both machines were flying straight ahead; that the running gear of the monoplane seemed to catch and tear the tall completely from the bi-plane at the same time turning it completely over and giving it a half turn around the left. In this position it struck the ground and threw Gill out.

DEATH OF PECK.

Paul Peck lost his life three days previously, on the 11th, in trying out a fast "Columbia" Biplane.

Peck was trying out his small span, small surfaced biplane in a wind. Peck started into a spiral dhe, and kept making the spiral shorter and shorter until it appeared he could not bring it out. There seemed to be a force holding his inside wing which he could not counteract.

Careful examination of his machine after the crash re\ealed the following:

For ailerons he used trailing flaps like the Farman and, like the latter machine, connected the two with a strut. This strut was of hollow oval tubing about 22 gauge, approximately % x %". The strut on that wing which appeared to have been retarded was found bent, bringing the two ailerons together.

It is the belief of many that in trying to bring the machine out of the spiral dive Peck placed an unusual strain on that strut which caused it to buckle up, and thereafter that wing was retarded beyond his power to straighten it up.

Peck was fatally injured and died in the hospital several hours later. Peck learned in record time on a Rex Smith machine in 1911, later flying the Columbia monoplane and biplane.

Gill was a former holder of the American duration record, and Peck was the holder at the time of his death. All holders of this record have met death flying. Readers will remember Gill's work in the construction and flying of the double power plant Gould prize machine, described in a previous issue.

An officer of the Illinois Aero Club has stated to AERONAUTICS:—•

"The official time sheet bears out the statement of judges that Mestach started to climb above Gill on his last completed lap. The accident occurred on the back stretch.

As near as can be learned Mestach had not climbed the 150 feet provided in the rules to pass Gill, nor was he 75 feet to one side. It also appears that Gill, contrary to rule, worked out from his position at the pole and also raised up a trifle.

It is apparent that just before the crash Gill looked back and saw Mestach upon him and tried to dive to get out of the way. To dive, he raised his elevator which hooked on one of Mestach's skids. Gill was thrown out of the biplane and his death was caused by his fall upon the ground. Mestach, strapped in, shoved his elevator control ahead. His machine struck the ground nose on, se\eral feet farther. Mestach was cut and bruised a trifle, but not seriously hurt.

It seems apparent to us that the accident followed a violation of the international code of the air, of which both flyers were in a measure guilty.

Hitchin, England, Sept. 6.—Captain Patrick Hamilton and Lieut. Wyness Stewart were killed near here flying cross country on the Army's Deperdussin monoplane which won second prize at the trials and was purchased for $5,000. He was flying under orders at the time. Captain Hamilton flew at Nassau Boulevard last season and was flying with Dyott in Mexico. He was an experienced "Dep" flyer. His death is deeply mourned by all who had the pleasure of knowing him. The cause of the accident is ascribed to part of the engine coming off and hitting the bonnet, breaking a guy wire, allowing the wings to double up.

Berlin, Sept. 6.—Lieut. Steger was killed flying a German biplane. He was reconnoitering in local maneouvres.

Dresden, Saxony, Sept. 11.—Lieut. Siebert killed scouting in maneouvres. Companion seriously injured.

Oxford, England, Sept. 11.—Lieut. C. A. Bet-tlngton and Lieut. E. H. Hotchkiss killed In Army .maneouvres.

Greene, N. Y., Sept. 11.—William B. Chambers died from injuries received in an exhibition flight on Sept. 6 at this place. It is reported the propeller of his biplane broke in the air.

Belfast, Ireland, Sept. 21.—H. G. D. Astley. a well-known English aviator, was killed in a race with James "Valentine. He used a Blerlot monoplane.

Freiburg, Germany, Sept. 21.—Lieut. Berger and Lieut. Junghans were killed in a monoplane in a flight from Chemnitz to Berlin.

Turin, Italy, Sept. 25.—Lieut. Raggazoni, Army aviator, killed in Chiribiri monoplane.

DEATH U. S. ARMY FLYERS

Washington, D. C, Sept. 28.—Lieut. Lewis C. Rockwell and Corporal Frank Scott, both of the S:gnal Corns were killed in landing the old original Wright with which these officers have been flying.

Descending within 40 feet of the ground for some, as yet, unascertained cause, the machine failed to "straighten out" and struck the earth at a steep angle. An investigation is being made.

Hemrstead, L. I., Sept. 20.—Lieut. J. L. Long-staffe was killed flying a Farman-type biplane. Coming down to within 25 feet of the ground, the aviator headed it steeply down and the skids caught and turned the machine completely over, Lieut. Longstaffe and his passenger, a mechanic, being thrown out. The mechanic escaped with minor injuries, but the lieutenant was crushed by the machine which came to rest on top of him.

Tannenberg, Germany, Sept. 30.—Lieut. Wi'ly Hefer collided with a tree in Army manoeuvres and was killed.

Canton, China, Aug. 25.—Fung Puy, a pioneer Chinese aviator, reported killed with a biplane.

Douai, France, Aug. 28.—Lieut. Louis F. M. Chandenier killed flying for his Army pilot license. The 'plane caught fire on reaching the ground and the officer was burned fatally.

The list of fatalities in power machines totals 212 with the above.

C. P. WALSH KILLED

Trenton, N. J., Oct. 3.—One of our pioneer flyers, Charles F. Walsh, was killed giving an exhibition at the Trenton Fair. His early flying in California we recorded in AERONAUTICS. He obtained a national reputation and last year joined with Curtiss and has become a second Beachey in his sensational flights.

He was spiralling' in a thrillingly sensitio' al flight when his left wing collapsed, according to witnes>es.

Shenandoah, la., Sept. 20.—Russell Blair of Kansas City, killed in a fall from 30 feet in leaving the ground; he had just made one flight and had started on another. Blair was a novice and had attempted exhibition flying.

Bevier, Mo., Sept. 20.—George Underwood died as result of injuries in a flight at Catao Fair. He used a Curtiss-type built by G. N. Sparling.

Corinth, Greece, Sept. —Alex. Casamanlaki was drowned when his Bleriot fell into the sea.

CLEVELAND CLUB NO MORE

The Postmaster at Cleveland, Ohio, reports the Cleveland Aero Club "disbanded."

NEW CONCERNS

Kenosha School of Aviation, Kenosha, Wis.

Central Aviation Company; $2,400; building airships and other mechanical apparatus; Lewis F. Jacobsen, Daniel L. Madden, A. I. Jacobsen.

United States Aircraft Company, Chicago; name changed to Imperial Aero Service; capital stock increased from $25,000 to $75,000.

The Safety Aviation Company of Manhattan; $10,000; John Casap, Alexander A. Mayper, Mihaly Bobovnik.

Shreveport, La.—The Dorian Aeroplane Com-panv. Capital $10,000; Incorporators: Tom Flournoy, Charles A. Dorian, R. D. Webb and others.

Maria Sartori and Domenico Sartori of the Bellanca Aeroplane Company of New York City. Capital $100,000.

calero c7Wart

RATES: 15 cents a line, 7 words to the line Payment in advance required.

TENT—3-pole medium duck tent, in first class condition, 40x80, original cost $350, for sale at $175 f. o. b., New York. Used for hydroaeroplane. Will house the biggest machine. Schill, c/o Aeronautics—Sept.

WANTED—To borrow money in order to secure training in one of the leading aviation schools. Have had considerable mechanical experience. Your terms are mine because I mean business. For particulars write L. E. Clayburg, Route #3, Red Cloud, Nebraska. October.

ONE Roberts 4 by 50 H. P. Motor complete, new, in perfect condition, $675. M. F. 11. Gouverneur, Wilmington, N. C. Sept.

curtissi—Genuine 4 cyl. Curtiss biplane, present design, 4 cyl. Curtiss motors, has been flying. Perfect condition. $700 cash. Aeronautics, 250 W. 54th St., New York.

ASSORTMENT of complete power plants, including: Curtiss 25 h.p., 4 cyl; Clement-Bayard 30's; Kirkham 60; Hendee (Indian) 7 cyl. 50. Bargains at 50% below cost.

Immediate delivery of genuine Bleriot and several antiquated but successful aeroplanes of unexcelled workmanship "for a song." Address Assortment, c/o Aeronautics, 250 W. 54th Street, N. Y. City

ENGINE—S cyl. "V", list price $1500, new, never used. Thoroughly tested by maker who desires to sell last one in his shop. Complete with propeller, $1200. Easton, c/o AERONAUTICS.

WANTED—Licensed monoplane aviator, preferably one who has operated the Nieuport wheel and skid alighting gear type. Call c/o AERONAUTICS.—T. F.

SPECIAL GOOD BARGAINS—1 Gnome engine, 50 h. p., complete with mountings for biplane, everything ready to run. Can demonstrate. Nearly new. Fine condition. $2,000.

Complete set of parts for Gnome 50, enough to assemble complete engine; all kinds socket wrenches and tools for same; mounting frames, controls, etc.

Bleriot type monoplane for Gnome engine. Two Bleriot types with Anzani engines. Sets of parts.

All these from well known concerns. Everything can be seen before purchase. Cheap for cash. Address MONO, c/o Aeronautics, 250 W. 54th Street, N. Y. City.

FOR SALE—SO yards Naiad 2 C. unopened from factory—sold to first order. Price 30c. per yard delivered. J. H. J. c/o Aeronautics.

MOTOR WANTED—New or second-hand 4 cycle, 50 h. p. or thereabouts. Aero motor wanted. Send full details of condition, age, service and lowest cash price. Address, LAKE, c/o Aeronautics, 250 W. 54th St., New York. Oct.

FOR SALE. 50 H. P. French Gnome Motor, cost $2,600, in Paris and 45</e. Duty, $1,170. The machine it was purchased for was not a success so will take $2,000 cash for the motor, R. V. Jones, Hotel Nelson, Seattle, Wash.,—Oct.

MOTOR FOR SALE—Must sell at once my 4 cyl. 50 h.p. aeroplane motor outfit. Send for price and specifications. J. J. Parker, Fulton, N. Y.—Oct.

FOR SALE, MOTORS—One fifty horse power "Kirkham." One fifty horse power "Indian Rotary." AEROPLANES—One seventy "Kirkham seventy horse power" Tractor passenger biplane"—has made several flights with passenger —Must sell immediately therefore exceptional bargains each—Everything offered guaranteed in perfect condition. Write Prowse Aeroplane Co., Hopkinsville, Ky.

AVIATOR, licensed by the Aero Club of France, flying Bleriot and Curtiss machines, constructor of a number of Bleriot machines wishes engagement. Two years' experience as aviator and mechanic.

Aviator c/o Aeronautics, 250 W. 54th street, Vew York.

ARTISTIC AVIATION PHOTOGRAPHS, large assortment, 6 for $1; beautiful sample and complete list 20 cents. Chas. E. Durso, 25 Mulberry St., N. Y.—Oct.

TRACTOR BIPLANE, S Cylinder 60 h. p. motor, for sale. Everything in first-class condition. Will sell separately or exchange for touring car. Apply F. Robinson, 191 Caledonia Ave., Rochester, N. Y.

BLERIOT,—with 70 Gnome, extra pair of wings and other new parts. Two-place machine, latest type. Cost, with dpty, over $6,000. For a very few hundred dollars, broken propeller and rudder can be replaced. Any reasonable offer accepted. Property of the late Miss Harriet Quimby. Address Estate of Miss Quimby, c/o Aeronautics, 250 West 54th St., New York.

AEROPLANE—Must sell at once. New and in perfect order. My latest type 'plane. With revolving motor, shipping crates and all. Complete outfit. Cost $2500.00. Will sell for $1500.00. Photos and details on request. Address— J. J. Parker, Lock Box 190, Fulton, N. Y.

FINANCIAL BACKING—wanted to build and exploit aeroplane fitjted With an automatic stabilizer. Something entirely practical; nothing freakish. Machine may be kept automatically in any position desired while in motion. Edwin H. Godfrey. 5222 Ventnor Ave., Atlantic City, N. J.

RARE BOOKS—Occasionally it is possible to secure copies of Wise and Astra Castra. These are very scarce and are two of the absolutely necessary books for an aeronautical library.

ASTRA CASTRA, by Hatton Turnor. Cloth, London, 1S65, many fine plates. $10.

A SYSTEM OF AERONAUTICS, Comprehending its Earliest Investigations and Modern Practice and Art, Designed as a History for the Common Reader and Guide to the Student of the Art, by John Wise. Svo., cloth, Phila., 1S50. $10. Aeronautics, 250 W. 54th St., New York.

Double Hydro Floats, weight. 55 lbs. each, pair, $250. i Running Gears, Farman or Wright, complete. $42.50. i Hub«, knock-out axle or to tit. 1". IV, I'l". or IV- |

AEROPLANE WHEELS

J. A. WEAVER, Jr., Mfr., 132 West 50th Street, N. Y. Wheels, 20" X2M". complete. $6.00 - 20" x 3". $8.25, with Curtiss or Farman type slock Hub, 6" wide. We make any size or type of wheel. .SVn<7 for list. Compare my prices with all others.

WELLES & ADAMS MOTORS

One of the few moderate-priced motors that has actually~made good.

50 H. P.

Weight 200 lbs. Valves in Head

Cylinders Cast Separate

4 CYCLE

LET US SEND YOU OUR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE SHOWING FRED EELLS' GREAT FLIGHTS OVER THE

CITY OF ROCHESTER IN BIPLANE EQUIPPED WITH THIS MOTOR. If you wish to do something better than "Grass-Cutting"

Every Moving

Part Oiled Automatically

Consult

WELLES & ADAMS

Bath, N. Y.

ALBATROSS ENGINES

Made in two sizes

50 H. P. 6-cyl. Air-cooled, 2w0eifbhs!

PRICE, $650.00 Complete

100 H.P. 6-cyl. Water-cooled, 3w0eiit!

PRICE, $850.00 Complete Catalog Free Agents Wanted

ALBATROSS COMPANY

DETROIT, MICH.

Modèles d'aéroplanes, leur construction, par A. Fieux, ingénieur. Un volume de 150 pages,

abondamment illustré. Prix...... 2 francs.

Librairie Aéronautique, 40, rue de Seine, Paris.

Les jeunes gens passionnes d'aviation, aussi bien que les chercheurs, liront avec fruit l'ouvrage de M. Fieux.

Divisé en trois parties: historique, description et construction, il est remarquable par la quantité de renseignements précieux qui s'y trouvent contenus. Les inveneturs y consulteront avec profit la nomenclature des fournitures généralement employées dans la construction légère et solide des modèles; ils trouveront aussi l'histoire très détailée des appareils antérieurement construits, ainsi que des schémas, descriptions et dessins permettant de les reproduire.

Le texte est clair et précis, les figures sont d'une simplicité sans égale, ce qui permettra à tous de construire des aéroplanes en réduction, à très peu de frais et sans aucune connaissance spéciale.

The Caudron Monoplane

(Continued from Page 107

the fuselage. At the left hand of the operator, who sits in a cockpit in the fuselage, are air and throttle levers. The G & A carburetors used with Anzani engines have auxiliary air device. At the right hand is a magneto cut-out. Of course, there are sight feed oilers. An aluminum shield protects the aviator from oil thrown out of the exhaust pipes of the engine. The gasoline tank itself forms a wiud shield. The sides of the fuselage near the engine have aluminum sheeting fastened on in the same manner as storm curtains on automobiles.

The landing gear is simple and strong. The details of this are shown in the drawings. The rear skid is mounted with a swivel joint as well as with rubber shock absorbers. This scheme is fully shown in the sketch. Brazing is a feature all over the machine, wherever tubing is used.

The wheels are very large and strong, and triple spoked.

The taking down of the machine may be done in 10 minutes and is easily crated. With the 45—50 Anzani a speed of over 80 miles an hour. The weight of the machine alone is 385 lbs. and can carry a load of 275 lbs.

new york's tournament

The Aeronautical Society opens formally its new field at Oakwood Heights, Staten Island, on October 12th. The aviator-tenants and a number of others will participate in a meet or exhibition which will be open to the public at an admission fee of 25 cents.

Hydro-aeroplanes are expected to fly up the Hudson and maneouver over and about the great fleet of warships which will be anchored for four or five miles up the river's course.

Among those who will surely fly or expect to be on hand are: Captain Thomas S. Baldwin with a new hydro, George W. Beatty (Wright), Geo ge \V. Dvott (Caudron), II. B. Brown (Wright) Chis. K. Hamilton (Curtiss), Nicholas Rippenbein (Cur tiss-tN pe hydro), l. W. Bonney (Caudron or Dep), Mis Lan (Burgess). O. E. Williams of Scranton, Theodore Windell and O. G. Simmons.

R. L. Law will make parachute drops from Brown's aeroplane with the Steven's "life pack."

Imitations have been sent to officers of the fleet and it is expected that Captain Chambers will send one of the Navy Hydros to take part.

There are more than four square miles of flying field at oakwood Heights, which is within New York City limits and can be reached for 40 cents fare round trip from the Battery. Admission ticket can be secured with transportation ticket.

HOW TO GET THERE Take Staten Island Ferry at the Battery and Staten Island Rapid Transit R. R. to Oakwood Heights. By automobile after leaving St. George turn to left passing through Stapleton to fingerboard Road, follow latter until just before second R. R. crossing when turn to left to Southfield Ave. (Boulevard) follow latter to Guyon Ave. then to left where Aviation Field is located.

The new field of the Society is bounded on one side by the Kill von Kull, which affords an ideal waterway for hydro flying.

chicago meet

Glenn Martin with his own machine (Curtiss-motor) and Anthony Jannus in a Roberts-engined Benoist about divided honors for the biggest purse and Martin received $4S54 and Jannus $4003 from the land bound meet at Cicero and the hydro and land events at Grant Park.

Jannus made an American duration four-man record of 1 minute.

Jannus, Martin and Havens flew their hydros consistently. Jannus had to remove his floats for land flying and vice versa which gave him lots of work. The Brooks hydro met with an accident to its float. On the last day Beachey was an added attraction. The other flyers were: Lillie (Wright), DeLloyd Thompson (Wright), W. C. Robinson (National), Maurice Prevost (Dep.), "Bud" Mars (Curtiss-type), Howard Gill (Wright), M. Tournier (Nieuport), J. R. Montero (Bleriot), Earl Dougherty (Somerville), Horace Kearney (Curtiss), A. c. Beech (National), C. J. Sjolander (Curtiss-type), George Mestach (Borel), C. L. Wiggins (Wright), Far-num Fish (Wright), A. C. Engle. In all $24,000 was divided.

wright-curtiss suit tried

The Wright-Curtiss case was to havlT come to trial at Buffalo on the 16th of October, but the Curtiss lawyers asked the Court for a postponement of the case in order to allow them to take some more testimony, so that the case now comes to trial at Buffalo on the 31st of this month.

army aero news

There are now at the Aviation School at College Park ten officers as pilots or under instruction; thirty enlisted soldiers of the Signal Corps, who handle the aeroplanes on the ground and make repairs; and one civilian machinist.

The other aviation station is in the Philippine Islands, near Manila, where Lieut. Frank P. Lahm has a type B Wright aeroplane, and he has instructed several officers in flying.

The Army has ordered three Wright scout aeroplanes and two Wright speed scout machines. These are being tested at College Park by Mr. Kabitzke, aviator for the company. One of the scout machines completed the test several weeks ago and is now in use as a hydro at the Washington B'arracks branch of the Aviation School. The other Wright machines are now' undergoing official trials at College Park. All but one of the Wright machines have been delivered.

aerial sightseeing tours

The Sloane Aeroplane Co., of 1731-1737 Broadway, New York City, will embark upon the most ambitious aeroplane work that has ever been planned in this country, out in Southern California this winter. It has secured the use of famous Dominquez Field, near Los Angeles, from November 1st to May 1st. Four Deperdus-sin monoplanes, two Caudron monoplanes, one school B'leriot monoplane and one 80 horsepower Curtiss-type biplane will form the nucleus or the equipment which will be shipped West. Other craft will be forwarded later.

The Deperdussin machines include 35 h.p. and 60 h.p. craft and the Caudron complement have the 35 h.p. and 45 h.p. motor equipment. Messrs. W. Leonard Bonney, John Guy Gilpatric, Charles Baysdorfer and one other aviator will be on the school staff as well as a thoroughly trained corps of mechanical experts.

Field is composed of 16,000 acres of ideal California flying territory and is but 20 minutes from Los Angeles.

Additional to the school activities, the passenger-carrying Deperdussion monoplane will be put into operation on a regular schedule of aerial tours within a radius of 50 miles around Los Angeles. These tours will start from Dominguez Field and will include flights over practically all the famous scenic spots of lower California and the terminal points of these tours will be fixed at the celebrated towns and resorts. There will be regular landing harbors and stations. It will be the first time that such aerial excursion service has ever been inaugurated with aeroplanes. Placards have been distributed at all hotels and tourists headquarters, where passengers can book their flights.

The flying course costs $300. A pupil is not discharged from the school until he or she has secured a pilot's certificate. The pupil is encouraged to be careful by the inducement of a ten per cent rebate of the tuition fee if the course is completed without breakage.

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future international races.

The Scientific American wants to know editorially "Why should not the rules stipulate that each country shall be represented not only by one of its citizens, but by a citizen seated in a machine made in that country?"

This same observation was made editorially in AERONAUTICS a couple of years ago, and last year the Aero Club of America proposed embodying this condition in future G-B rules but the international convention, which is a French institution in practice, thought otherwise.

Deperdussin Racer

(Continued from Page 112) The wings which they used in Chicago had a chamber of about one inch but they had a considerable heavier curve on the upper side. The cables and warping wires were attached in the usual Deperdussin style. Hickory spars are used; the ribs are of "I" cross section, made of fir wood. The angle of incidence is judged to be 5°. In finish, these machines are very similar to the passenger Deperdussin which the Sloane Aeroplane Company has recently received from abroad. Both the body and the surfaces are highly polished. When the pilot is in the seat only about half his face is exposed to the wind and there is a cushion for him to rest his head against. In flight these machines carry their tail slightly higher than the head. Under the tail is a small skid with rubber shock absorber out of sight in the fuselage. Side steering is by foot lever. "Bosch equipped of course."

FROM Mr. THOMAS PRESTON BROOKE.

Chicago, Ills., Sept. 6, 1912.

To the Editor:

In sending you the inclosed proof sheet of my new article on the danger of gyroscopic force, I do not presume that you could possibly see any good in it and so far forget yourself as to publish something that might be of material benefit to aviation and to humanity in general; I merely send it to you that you may file it with other articles (Some from Mr. T. P. B.) that would have assisted in the advancement of the art and that you have undoutedly shelved to give space to a lot of utterly impossible rot that has appeared from time to time in your magazine. When the world has learned all the aviation truths, in spite of you and your magazine, you will have a fine lot of good things on file that you can read over and you will then wonder how you happened to pick out so many "bum guesses" to publish and missed out on so many others that would have helped advance the flying game in the United States.*****

Anything that is beyond your comprehension, that is a little too far advanced for your narrow, Diaseci mirid, you nnmertiateiv nrand as - ineoiy" and refer to the authors as "Bugs."***** Otherwise you would class among the "gyroscopic Bugs" such noted scientists and Engineers as:—M. Bouchard-l'raceig, Society of Engineers of France—Prof. A. E. P»'erriman, H. H. Turner, Dr. Shaw, Sir William White, members of the British Society of Engineers, and Albert Kapteyn, President of the Dutch Aero Club. (And t. P. B.)

Published Monthly by Amronautics Prass, 250 Wett 54th Street, N. Y. Cable: Aeronautic. New York •Phone 4833 Columbus A. V. JONES, Pres'i — — ERNEST L. JONES, Treas'r-Sec'y ERNEST L. JONES, Editor — M. B. SELLERS, Technical Editor

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Nl. 62 OCTOBER—19 12 Vol. 11, No. 4

Entered as second-class matter September 22, 1908, at the Postottlce

New York, under the Act of March 3, 1879. rfT AERONAUTICS is issued on the 30th of each month ^ All copy must be received by the 20th. Advertising pages close on the 25th. :: :: :: ^T Make all checks or money orders free of exchangt ^ and payable to AERONAUTICS. Do not send currency. No foreign stamps accepted. ::

It is extremely unfortunate for America that a man as biased and short-sighted as you appear to be should have been in charge of one of our aeronautical magazines. No wonder we lag behind other countries. (Isn't it an awful shame?) Of course, you are the boss of your own magazine and are at perfect liberty to publish or turn down anything that comes to you, according to the degree that it soaks into you, but you must not overlook the fact that all these men on whom you heap ridicule are sincere in their efforts and cannot but object to being called "crazy" or "Bugs" or "crazy Bugs." ***** My advice to you is, don't roast these men, simply because their ideas may be a little beyond your understanding, so that when the world has finally recognized them as benefactors you won't have so much "crawfishing" to do.

(Signed) Thomas Preston Brooke. (The editor is duly chastened and accepts the apology of Mr. Thomas P-r-e-s-t-o-n Brooke in the manner in which it is intended.. The Bold Face is ours).

BOOKS RECEIVED.

HIKE AND THE AEROPLANE. By Tom Graham. With four illustrations in two colois by Arthur Hutchins. Cloth 12mo, $1.00 net; postpaid, $1-10.

This aeroplane story is not only full of action but is one of the few ever written by a man who is personally acquainted with aviators and the technicalities of the various makes of machines. It is a book written expressly for boys by one who understands them, and it will be highly appreciated.

Hike Griffin discovered an inventor with an aeroplane which had the greatest stability and speed ever known.

How he flew it across the Continent, rescued refugees, fought moonshiners, escaped from kidnappers with the help of his chum, Poodle Darby, and the War Department, saved a ranch from Mexican desperadoes, underwent hazing for his exploits when he went hack )o school in the Fall and won the foot-ball game— Tom Graham tells most graphically, and in a real technically correct way.

FLIES 13 HOURS

Etampcs,' France, Sept. 11.—Fonrny broke world distance and the duration record by fling, non-stop, 13 hrs. 22 min. and covered 1017 kiloms. (631 miles). He used Maurice Farman biplane, Renault engine, Bosch ignition.

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U. S. Patents Gone to Issue

Copies of any of These Patents may be Secured by Sending Five Cents in Coin to the Commissioner of Patents, Washington, D. C.

Even in these enlightened days, the crop of patents on absolutely worthless, or even questionable, devices increases rather than decreases.

It would take an entire issue of the magazine to abstract in a full and clear .manner the claims of the majority of the patents issued. Tn a great many cases it is even impossible to give in a few lines what sort of an apparatus the patent relates to. In most instances we have used merely the word aeroplane" or "helicopter" if such it is. Where it is impossible to indicate the class, even, in which the patent belongs, without printing the whole patent, we have used the word "flying machine."

The patents starred (*) are those which may be found of particular interest; but it must be understood we do not pretend to pass judgment up on merits or demerits.

Where patent seems to have particular interest, the date of filing will be given. Editor.

TSSUED JULY 30. 1,034,120, Joseph J. V. Kaulynskas, Philadelphia,

Pa., July 30, 1912. FLYING MACHINE. 1,034,142, John J. Rechtenwald, Mount Oliver

Borough, Pa., July 30, 1912. INFLATABLE

FLOATS for aeroplanes. 1,034,242, Carl V. Johnson, Goldfield, Nev., July

30, 1912. Multiple power plants for aeroplanes,

with means for starting, clutch, etc. 1,034,245, Oliver W. Johnson, Geneva, Ohio, July

30, 1012. Man-power aeroplane. 1,034,257, Victor H. Latendorf, Bayonne, N. J.,

July 30, 1912. AEROPLANE.

ISSUED AUGUST 6.

1.034.429, Thomas A. Dring, Trowbridge, England, August 6, 1912. HELICOPTER.

1.034.430, Thomas A. Dring, Trowbridcre, England, August 5, 1912. HELICOPTER.

1,034,544, Maurice H. Webster, Evanston. Ills., August 6, 1912. Filed Aug. 7, VC9. AILERONS hinged to rear beam with means for operating them simultaneously in opposite directions.

1,034,556, Michael J. Zmuidzinowiez, Cleveland, Ohio, Ah gust 6. 1912. FLYING MACHINE.

1,034,578, Julius Brown, Peeksklll, N. Y., August 6, 1912. FLYING MACHINE.

1,034,638, George F. Mentz, Attica, N. Y., August 6, 1912. FLYING MACHINE.

1,034,655, Putnam D. Smith, Oakland, Cal.. August 6, 1912. RECIPROCATING PLANES.

1,034,700, Francesco Filiasi, Naples, Italy, August 6, 1912. Device for facilitating the alighting of aeroplanes on moving warships.

1.034.95S, Reuben L. Bernard, Mountain View, Cal., August 6, 1912. FLYTNG MACHINE.

1,035,017. Gus M. Kaiser, and Alfred S. He^ht, New York, N. Y., August 6, 1912. TOY AEROPLANE.

1,035,103, Gerhardt Rasmussen, New York, N. Y., August 6, 1912. FLYING MACHTNE.

AUGUST 13.

1,035,396, Frank W. Stodder, Somerville, Mass. AEROPLANE.

1,035,479, Anselm Shaeffer, Elizabeth, N. J. PROPELLING Device.

*1,035,560, Hugo Erdmann, Charlottenburg, Germany. BALLOON, .method of refilling during a flight hv using liquid hvdrogen.

1,035,583. Charles Albert Hamilton, New- York, N. Y. HELICOPTER.

1,035,660, Dickran G. Terzian, Washington, D. C. AEROPLANE.

1.035.6S7, Thomas Wm. Carey, Jr., New Orleans, La. STABILTY system. Combination of usual ailerons with "equilibrium planes," each of latter pivotally mounted on axis at right angle to axis of ailerons; means for simultaneously operating same so that the equilibrium planes slope toward each other forming a dihedral angle, etc.

•1,035,701, C. A. B. P. Hawkins & Bertram Ogilvie. Napier, New Zealand. STABILITY, automatic: planes are hinged at forward edge and so, connected that pressure moving one wing upward moves other correspondingly downward. Filed Aug. 31, 1909.

1.035.794, George Herbert Kellogg, Syracuse, N. Y.. STABILITY; tilting wings, etc.," as below, operated by pendulum: fluid means, piston, etc., not claimed. Filed Jan. 27, 1909.

1.035.795, Ceorge Herbert Kellogg, Syracuse, N. Y., STABILITY; "tiltable wings," or pivoted wing sections at lateral extremities of supporting plane operated automatically by a pendulum and swinging support; fluid operated piston, valves, etc.

august 20.

1,035,858, Willard B. Clements, Veedum, Wis., FLYING MACHINE.

1,036,033, Harry La V. Twining, Los Angeles, Cal.. OPNITHOPTER; pair of wings, 2 post levels, rigid links from foot levers to wings, two hard levers and rigid links.

1,036,044, Roy 1). Wheeler, New South Wales, and Betrand L. Wheeler Melbourne. Victoria, Australia, ROTATABLE PLANE.

•1,036,178, Joseph A. Blondin, Los Angeles, Cal. DIFFERENTIALLY constructed ailerons and elevators having plurality of members. An elevator in which the upper and lower embraces move to an unequal extent, by means of special belt crank. Ailerons are/ likewise made for actuation differentially to exert' equal stabilizing effects. Filed August S, 1910.

1,036,249, Carl V. Johnson, Goldfield, Nevada, AEROPLANE.

1.036,2S7, John Maljkovich, New York, N. Y., AEROPLANE Machine.

1,036,431, James Bowie, Edinburgh, Scotland., PROPELLER; similar to a worm.

AUGUST 27.

♦1.036,532, Richard Alexander-Katz, Berlin, Germany. Shelter for Dirigibles and Balloons.

1.036;667, Charles T. Matson, Chicago, 111., FLYING machine of reciprocating type.

1,036,732, David Segal, Washington, D. C, STABILITY; moveable weight, beneath machine, sliding on shaft, etc.

1,036,780, John g. Bauer, Cleveland, Ohio. ORN1THOPTER.

1.036.7S1, John g. Bauer, Cleveland, Ohio, means for changing lifting, screws to propelling one's by gears, etc.

1.036,834, Charles R. Haas, B'rightwater, B. C, Canada, PROPELLER; flexible rotatable blades attached to arm at right angle to shaft.

1,036,964, James a. Conterio, Santa Barbara, Cal., FLYING machtne.

1,037,050, Jules Raclot & Camille Enderlin, St. Mauer-des-Fosses, France, FLYING MACHINE.

1,037,136, John G. E. Danielson, Omaha, Neb., AEROPLANE, surfaces tandem and stepped.

SEPTEMBER 3. 1,037,214, Anthelme Desaye, Clifton, N. J., Sept. 3, 1912. MONOPLANE .

1,037,278, John R. Martin. St. Louis, Mo.,

heliCopter aeroplane.

1,037,353, Abram B. Springstead, Kalamazoo, Mich., FLYING MACHINE.

1,037,411, James H. S. Bartholomew, Occidental, and Eugene F. Heath, Santa Rosa, Cal.. STABILITY: ailerons operated by swinging body portion. Filed Aug. s, 1911.

1,037,450, Johann J. Daniels, Nev Rochelle, N. Y., AIRSHIP with plurality of gas bags; covering used as parachute-.

1,037,651, Robert McMullen, Fremantle, Western Australia, Australia, AEROPLANE in which wings tilt laterally and fore and aft; ailerons at ends of wings operated in conjunc-

tlOl',037,657, Albert E. Petrucci, New York, N. Y., AEROPLANE, in which upper surface is bowed downward toward lateral extremities; operating in center top plane for release of "trapped air;" lift propeller in o\ ening ana thrust propeller besides.

1,037,65s, James Aloysius Rabbitt, Yokohama, Japan, AEROPLANE.

»1,037,704, Samuel S. Yarrinyton, Del., AEROPLANE with hydroplanes, so connected to levers as to be capable of being raised or lowered, auxiliary levers for aileron control. Filed Nov. 4, 1911.

1,037,749, Alexy Feall, Los Angeles, Cal., PARACHUTE, normally part of main surface of an aeroplane.

1,0.'!7,SOO, Fred Louis Schaufler, Mattoon, III., EQUILIBRIUM planes and manner of arrangement and operation.

•1,037,804, Traugotte A. Tanner, Flint, Mich., AUTOMATIC STABILITY: ailerons operated by gyroscope which does not affect longtitudinal balance. Filed Dec. 21, 1910.

SEPTEMBER 10.

1,037,S53, Erastus S. Bennett, New York, N. Y., AEROPLANE.

1,037,943, Wade II. Lowry, Jacksonville, Fla., PARACHUTE device to be attached to aeroplane.

»1,037,959, Lee Miller, Chicago, III., PARACHUTE device in which parachute is folded in an envelope which is disposed about the head

and shoulders of an aviator; harness for the body. Filed Dec. 7, 1911. This is apparently similar to the Stevens device illustrated in the October number.

1,038,073, S. H. Benoist, Deceased., Los Angeles, Cal., HELICOPTER.

1,038,106, Edward F. Fisher, San Diego, Cal., AEROPLANE in which the "car" is located close to upper plane and is pivoted to swing in a space provided in lower planes.

1,03S,16S, James E. Marshall, New York, N. Y., HELICOPTER—AEROPLANE.

John G. Quigg, Pittsburg, Pa., PARACHUTE attachment for aeroplanes.

1.03S.306, Dorsette A. Davison, Richmond, Va., WINGS turned laterally and longitudinally.

1.03S,317, Frederick G. Donner, Pittsburg, Pa., PLANE provided with 'plurality sections connected together and inclined so as to cause air to pass downward through the surface.

•1,038,435, Bert J. Pressey, Newport News, Va., claims of STABILITY patents 45S234 and 463460. Filed Oct. 17 and Nov. 19, 190S. The object in this patent is to lessen the influence of the rear member of a plane and maintain c. of p. as nearly as possible coincident with transverse pivoted axis of the plane. Filed Oct. 25, 1909.

SEPTEMBER 17.

1,038,602, Charles A. Kuenzel, Buena Vista, Colo., GAS BAG.

1,038,633, Gory O'Bryan, Louisville, Ky., AUTOMATIC STABILITY: ailerons operated by swinging "car."

1,038,964, Charles T. Rogers, Newton, Ala., HELICOPTER AEROPLANE.

•1,038,507, G. A. Crocco & O. Ricaldoni, Rome, Italy, LONGITUDINAL STABILITY. Filed Mach 27, 1909.

A self acting steadying device comprising: movable planes provided at the tail of the moving body; elastic connections between the movable planes and the moving body conveniently

disposed to counteract the action of the fluid impinging obliquely on the plane and to stop the latter in a position in which its angle of deviation is greater than the angle of deviation of the axis of the moving body; and means whereby the points to which the elastic connections are secured to the moving body can be shifted in order to cause the movable planes to act as ordinary rudders.

In the sketch the main planes, etc., are omitted.

SEPTEMBER 24.

1,039,092. Frederick Brackett, Washington, D. C, AEROPLANE.

1.039.115, Russell H. Froelich, St. Louis, Mo. In an AEROPLANE, the combination with a body frame, of wing plane sections arranged in series extending upwardly and outwardly from said body frame, said sections being spaced vertically and offset from each other in a direction transverse to the line of flight with the outside lateral edge of each section approximately beneath the inside lateral edge of the section next above it.

1.039.116, Charles A. Furtaw, Philadelphia, Pa., NOVEL AEROPLANE. There are 32 claims in this patent.

1.039.117, Emanuel Gerber, Kansas City, Mo., AEROPLANE which may be quickly folded into a tent.

1,039.160. Ernest H. Mattson Chicago, 111., FLYING MACHINE.

BRITAIN FORBIDS MONOS

The British Army has forbidden, at least for the present, the use of monoplanes by it's officers on official flying. In the recent manoeuvres the planes were so successful in scouting duty that each side knew all the movements and strength of the opposition.

BALLOON ASCENSIONS

COLORADO SPRINGS, Aug. 2S.—Colorado Springs was the scene on August 2S, of the first balloon race ever held in the Rocky Mountain Region. Three of the big gas-fllled bags participated, and with the exception of the "X," the same men who had piloted the entries in the Kansas City elimination race were at the helm.

Captain H. E. Honeywell, who won the elimination race and will represent the United States at the International contest in Germany this fall, piloted the "Uncle Sam," with Bruce A. Gustin, a Colorado Springs newspaper man, as his aide. "The Kansas City II" had as its pilot, John Watts of Kansas City, with Frank P. Blair as aide. Balloon "X," a rubber bag, was under the direction of Paul J. McCullough of St. Louis and R. A. D. Preston of Akron, Ohio.

The balloons left Washburn field at Colorado Springs late in the afternoon, "Kansas City II" being the first to get away, at 5:45 o'clock: followed shortly afterwards by the. "Uncle Sam" and "X". They took a northerly direction. The "X" was the first to land, coming down at Palmer Lake, about 23 miles north of Colorado Springs. The "Uncle Sam" traveled a little farther, landing six miles west of Larkspur and 25 miles from Colorado Springs.

The race was won by Watts, "Kansas City II," which alighted on a hillside six miles south of Castle Rock and 42 miles north of Colorado Springs, at 7:45 o'clock, two hours after leaving.

Pittsfield, Mass., Sept. 2S.—Jay B. Benton, H. H. Clavton, and J. L. Peltret in the "Boston to Bar're, Vt.

il 9 il «i

PAT E NTS SECURED or fee re™

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victor j. evans &, company

♦ Main Offices

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Washington, D. G.

AMERICAN MONOGLIDER $9R

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at more than interesting prices. Bleriot and Curtiss K. D. outfits our specialty. "ROOLD" helmets in stock. Wheels with tires 20" x 21/4n $6.60, 20" x 3" >'9.50. 22 pane catalogue A sent upon receipt of G cents

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AEROPLANES MADE TO ORDER

Send Drawings for Estimates on all Special Machines My work is first class, ask (or list of satisfied customers

W. C. DURGAN

115 Brown Street :: Syracuse, N. Y.

PATENTS

c. L. parker

Ex-member Ex.mining Corps, U. S. Pitent Olliee Attorney-at-Law and Solicitor of Patents

American and foreign patents secured promptly and with special regard to the complete legal protection of the invention. Handbook for inventors sent upon request. 30 McGill Bide. WASHINGTON, D. C.

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are accurate and are accompanied by clear, concise building instructions, postpaid at the following prices: Wright 3-ft. Biplace, 25c. Bleriot 3-lt. Monoplane 15c. "Cecil Peoli" Champion Racer, 25c. Curtiss Convertible Hydroaeroplane (new), 35c. "Ideal" three-foot Racer (oew), 15c.

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The three sheets constitute the best set of mono- ™ plane working drawings now on the market. There is no need for the purchaser of a set of these drawings to guess at anything: since all dimensions of every part of the machine are given, together with the thickness, and gauge of everv piece of wood or steel used in the construction. :♦»::♦: AERONAUTICS, 250 W. 54th St., New York

PEDERSEN OIL PUMPS

have positive action, are small and light, easily applied to any motor

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Special grades of Bamboo for Aeronautic Work. Reed, Rattan and Split Bamboo for models. Tonka Rattan for Skids lki diameter and under any length.

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57

Coming Events

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kNTAINS ALL THE NEWS AERIAL

November, 1912

»nmnniimwmmmm«

Kirkham Motor Wins Again

w. t. thomas. m. e.. a. c. g. i. president qualified aviators

guaranteed flights

o. w. thomas. m. e.. a. c. g. vice-pre8. and secy.

Thomas Brothers

Mechanical Engineers Designers and Builders of Aeroplanes

aeroplanes

propellers

hydroaeroplanes

pupils instructed

C. B. KIRKHAM. BATH, N. Y., September 17, 1912.

Savona, N. Y. Dear Sir:—

You will doubtless be interested in hearing of the latest success we have achieved with

your motor which we are using in one of our standard exhibition biplanes.

At the Aviation Meet, held at the New York State Fair, at Syracuse, New York,

September 9-14th, our Mr. Walter E. Johnson, with one of your 65 horse power motors made a

clean sweep of the speed events, as the following official times indicate: 10-Mile Race. Monday, September 9th.

1st. W. E. Johnson. 65 H. P. Thomas Model 10AX. Total time, 10'42l"

2nd. B. Havens, 75 H. P. Curtiss. Total time. 14' 10"

3rd. W. B. Hemstrought. 60 H. P. Curtiss. Total time. 14' 15i". 15-Mile Race, Saturday, September 14th.

1st. W. E. Johnson. 65 H. P. Thomas Model 10AX. Total time, 16' 111"

2nd. C. H. Niles. 75 H. P. Curtiss. Total time. 16' 26i"

3rd. \V. B. Hemstrought, 75 H. P. Curtiss. Total time,--4th. B. Havens. 75 H. P. Curtiss. Total Time.---From the above figures you will see that our machine, driven by your engine, proved

itself SECOND TO NONE.

We wish to express our complete satisfaction with the faultless manner in which the

engine ran throughout the races and the regular time with which the machine ticked off each lap

of the course.

It is worthy of notice that the Model 10AX, above mentioned, has been in active use throughout two whole seasons making exhibition flights, and the planes were in poor condition. FACTS ARE TRUER THAN FICTION. Wishing yon continued success, we are,

Yours very truly,

THOMAS BROTHERS,

By O. W. Thomas.

YOU want this motor in YOUR plane if you expect to fill your contracts on time Better investigate to-day New Catalog sent on request

CHARLES B. KIRKHAM

MOTOR DEPT.

Savona, N. Y.

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November, 1912

The Only

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patented march 14. 1911; july 25 »011: october 17. 1911: other patents pending

PARAGONS hold a special grip on all who strive for the highest and best—those who appreciate the maximum of strength, safety, service and efficiency as exemplified by the modern, highly developed and improved propellers known as Paragons.

Paragons are made and carried in stock in three grades:

Grades A and B are the strongest, most perfect, most beautiful and most efficient propellers in the world Their durability is so great we can afford to insure Grade A against all accidents of any kind while on the machine,—even at these prices—§45 to §58, according to pitch, for the 7| ft. size. Other sizes accordingly. Grade B has all the strength of Grade A and nearly the toughness at a cheaper price. Grade C is made of beautiful hard Cherry throughout. In strength, durability and efficiency there is no other propeller equal to them (excepting our Grades A and B) either in the United States or abroad. Only $31 to §41 for the 1\ ft. size. Other sizes accordingly.

FOR HYDRO-AEROPLANES we are furnishing many Three-Bladed Paragons at only one and one-half times above prices. For hard service Paragons are pre-eminent, they never split.

Get our Information Blank, our Descriptive Matter and our Suggestions gratis, and be wise about PARAGONS. Visit our new factory. Inspect our goods, our specially designed machinery and other equipment. Seeing is believing.

With every Paragon, furnished upon full information as to the engine and machine, as provided on our printed form, we. give an absolute and unqualified guarantee not only that the propeller trill be perfect in itself but that it will be perfectly adapted to the requirements of the machine that it is to drive.

AMERICAN PROPELLER COMPANY, 243-249 East Hamburg St., Baltimore, Md.

BURGESS HYDRO TRAINING IS

PRACTICAL

^[Unequalled facilities are provided for instruction in the operation of the marine flyer over Marblehead Harbor. <]The proximity of our manufacturing plant offers pupils an opportunity at no extra cost to become thoroughly familiar with the construction and design of the very latest types of air and water craft. We are now building hydro-aeroplanes, aeroplanes and flying boats for the U. S. Army and Navy. <]jWe assume all risk of breakage and provide hydro-aeroplane for license test. CjBoth the U. S. Army and Navy send their officers to the Burgess school for training.

Chief Instructor: Phillips W. Page, Licensed aviator ^Aeroplanes and hydro-aeroplanes for sporting and exhibition purposes ready for prompt delivery. Booklet with full particulars on request. Flying at Marblehead until January. Winter school announcement later.

BURGESS COMPANY AND CURTIS, Marblehead, Mass.

5 Licensees under the Wright Patents

BOSCH

Records—Of Course

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THESE new records are only a few of the long list evidencing Bosch superiority in the various phases of aeronautics. No aviator could hardly expect to accomplish maximum results without a perfect ignition system.

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Gyroscopic Force and Aeroplanes

By MATTHEW B. SELLERS

ERONAUTICS has received a number of letters ascribing some recent aeroplane accidents to gyroscopic force, and it may therefore be in order, to say a few words about it for the benefit of the lay reader. Gyroscopic action is well understood, and the force exerted can be calculated by means of a simple equation.

When the axle of a rotating wheel is tipped in any direction, so as to change the plane of the wheel's rotation, then a force is generated which presses the end of the axle at right angles to the direction of tip, i. e. causes the wheel to twist round in that direction. This force is known as the deflecting or precessional force and continues only as long as the direction of the wheel's axis is being changed. This statement while incomplete is sufficient for the present purpose. Precessional force is directly proportional to the moment of inertia of the rotating body, to the rate of rotation and rate of inclination of the axis.

If the top of an aeroplane's propeller, looked at from behind turns to the right, then when the plane is turned to the right, the precessional force will tend to make the machine dive, and if turned to the left will tend to make it rear. If the head of the machine is turned downward it will tend to make the machine turn to the left.

The Seguin Bros, found that a fifty-horsepower Gnome, mounted on a platform which made one complete horizontal revolution in 12 seconds, tended to turn in a vertical plane with a force of 58 lbs. at 39" radius. This means that if an aeroplane makes a complete circle in 12 seconds, or any turn at that rate, say 30° in one second, then this much force will be exerted to make it dive or rear. An aeroplane might be tipped

suddenly downward or upward 30° in y2 second, in which case the force due to the motor would be 116 lbs. at 39", or about 20 lbs. on the rudder (monoplane). The speed of the Gnome tested has not been given out, save that it was normal, or about 1200 r.p.m.

It must however be remembered that the propeller also, exerts gyroscopic force, which, for a large heavy propeller may be greater than that of the engine referred to. In Dr. Zahm's interesting article on gyroscopic force, published in the Scientific American Supplement of March 2nd, 1912, the moment of a Gnome engine is given as 52.6 lbs., while that of an 8 ft. 17 lb. propeller was 74.5 lbs. Therefore, for the same speeds, the gyroscopic force of the engine would be seven-tenths that of the propeller. It is important to provide for the effect of gyroscopic force on the framework, engine mounting, etc. It seems to be the general experience of aviators that gyroscopic force while noticeable is not troublesome; and if it be as dangerous as some people would have us believe, it seems, that, under ordinary conditions, it would be more noticeable and give more trouble than it does. It may however, together with other causes, have contributed its part in bringing about some accidents, which, without it, would have been avoided.

If, therefore, it is desired to eliminate or decrease gyroscopic force, I propose to drive the propeller from the Gnome engine by spur (or other) gear. The engine and propeller will then rotate in opposite directions, and with proper proportioning of weight the gyroscopic force can be neutralized. (The engine frame can extend around in front of the engine to form bearing for the engine and propeller shafts.)

(Editor's Note:—The proposal of Mr. Sellers is not patented and the idea is given to the public.)

By ORVILLE WRIGHT

[I F motors could be entirely noni gyroscopic, it would be an advan-i tage. Gyroscopic effect of the heavy rotating motors is no doubt quite troublesome, as it effects the balance of a flying machine. Every time the course of the machine is changed either upward or downward, the gyroscopic effect of the motor causes one wing to be raised and the other wing to be depressed and every time the machine is struck by a wind gust which lifts one wing, the gyroscopic effect of a motor causes the machine to either turn upward or downward, according to the di-

rection of the rotation of the motor. However, the gyroscopic effect of the fly-wheel on our motor is so slight that only an expert can ever notice it at all. No accident that has ever occured on our machines has been due to this cause. I do not believe that many of the accidents on the other machines can be accounted for in this way. If motors could be made non-gyroscopic without adding to their complication, they would be desirable, but the trouble from this source is so slight in all motors excepting those having revolving cylinders that it is not worth bothering with,

From Earle L. Ovington

SfiKSfiffiSiR SEE in your October issue that jfi T jfi Mr- Thomas Preston Brooke has jjj a * favored you with a select line of iftftftftftfi abuse. This is no doubt due to the fact that you have failed to publish the various articles which he has sent you advertising his motor.

Mr. Brooke has written articles damning the rotary motor such as ordinarily used, claiming that the terrible gyroscopic force generated is what killed most of the aviators. Mr. Brooke has not only flooded the American aeronautic press with his self-advertising literature, but has also sent a liberal supply of it to the English aeronautic journals.

Probably owing to the fact that there are no prominent manufacturers of rotary aeronautic motors in this country, Mr. Brooke's nonsense has been allowed to pass without criticism so far, but it seems to me high time that some one took steps to counteract the effects of these false statements which he has made regarding the rotary aero motor.

I first met Mr. Brooke at Chicago during the aviation meet there. He told me, as he did most of the other aviators on the field, that they would sooner or later get killed if they persisted in flying with rotary motors. He had a little- model with which he endeavored to demonstrate his theories. This model was a series-wound electric motor with the shaft extending on either end. To the ends of the shaft were attached comparatively large fly wheels with most of their weight in the periphery. Mr. Brooke then ran this motor at a speed which I estimated to be between 4000 and 5000 revolutions per second and invited you to hold the arrangement in your hand and try and change the plane of rotation of the revolving flywheels rapidly. Of course if you did this, there was an enormous gyroscopic effect. Therefore, you would get killed if you used a rotary motor in an aeroplane.

But Mr. Brooke's model did not in any way illustrate the conditions in practice. In the first place, any one acquainted with a series-wound electric motor knows that its tendency is to go faster and faster with practically no speed limit as you feed it electric current. In other words, the more current you feed it, the faster it will go until something breaks if you feed it enough electricity. Now the speed of a rotary engine, such as used in aeroplanes, is nor-maly about 1200 revolutions per minute, and Mr. Brooke's model revolved at about four times that speed. The gyroscopic effect is proportional to the sciuare of the SDeed of rotation and, hence, Mr. Brooke had in his little model on account of the increased speed alone no less than sixteen times as

much gyroscopic effect as you get at a speed of 1200 revolutions per minute.

But he was not satisfied with this. He used two fly wheels which were very much heavier in proportion to the total weight of the entire mechanism than any rotary engine is compared with the entire weight of the aeroplane in which it is used. Roughly estimating, I should say that his fly wheels weighed twice as much as his motor and the base upon which it was mounted. This of course would result in a very much greater gyroscopic effect in proportion than you get in actual practise.

Still not satisfied, (such a greediness!) Mr. Brooke had no damping means on his mechanism. Now a rotary motor mounted in an aeroplane has its gyroscopic effect reduced on account of the damping action of the wings of the machine as well as the other canvas covered surfaces, such as the tail, elevator, and rudder.

Even allowing Mr. Brooke all the handicap which he gave himself, I grasped his model running at full speed and moved it at about the same relative speed through the air as one would make in a "vol plane" in an aeroplane, and changed the plane of rotation of the revolving fly wheels at about the same speed one would in practise when flying. The gyroscopic effect was almost negligible. The only time when you got a •pronounced effect was when you jerked his model around at- a speed which no man could possibly turn an aeroplane were he fool enough to try it.

There are enough impediments in the path of the development of the heavier-than-air flying machine without looking for a lot of imaginary bug-a-boos, and I claim that this gyroscopic bug-a-boo is one of the greatest with which aviation has been troubled. "Rocking chair aviators" have written lengthy letters to editors of aeronautic papers expounding their theories upon the danger of gyroscopic force in rotary aeroplane motors. And yet you haven't found a single aviator who has had any extensive experience with rotary motors complaining of the gyroscopic effect. If you will pardon me for mentioning my own flying career, I will say that I believe I covered more miles in a monoplane driven by a rotary motor, during the season of 1911, than any other American aviator, or I might go further and say than any other aviator in America, whatever his natiomlity. I made one hundred and seven flights in my Gnome driven Bleriot and I had a seventy horsepower, seven cylinder, rotating engine. If any one was going to be troubled with gyroscopic effect, I certainly should hive been, and yet I can swear that in all of my flying career I have never noticed

any gyroscopic effect in the air. And I

doubt whether you can get any aviator of experience who will acknowledge that this gyroscopic effect has troubled him in the slightest.

Mr. Brooke acknowledges in his letter that Paul Peck found no difficulty from gyroscopic effect in his aeroplane, although he used a motor of the rotating type. Mr. Brooke further claims that Mr. Peck's death was due to the gyroscopic effect of his motor. Now it is a very easy matter to blame the rotary motor for Peck's death, particularly when poor little Peck is not here to say anything about it one way or the other. Mr. Brooke tells us all about the deadly gyroscopic effect in rotary motors driven by aviators who have been killed, but I notice he doesn't attack very vigorously the aviators who are still in the land of the living.

Now gyroscopic force, so-called, (for it is really not a force at all), follows certain well-defined and comparatively simple laws in spite of the fact that some people try to shroud the action of the gyroscope in mystery. If the gyroscopic effect is present in one case, it is present in another under exactly similar circumstances. In other words, if it has killed so many aviators, it certainly should trouble the aviators who are living at the present time and flying machines driven by rotary engines. And yet I have never found a practical aviator who has been willing to acknowledge that Mr. Brooke knew what he was talking about.

It is hardly necessary for me to say that I am not interested in one way or the other in rotary motors, nor connected in any way commercially with aviation. My opinion is not biased one way or the other. Mr. Brooke's opinion on the other hand, is decidedly biased, since he manufactures a motor in which he claims to do away with the gyroscopic effect. Brooke had one of these motors on exhibition at the Chicago meet in

1911. That was some time ago, and yet I notice that aviators, in any quantity at least, are not using Mr. Brooke's motor; in fact, I never heard of any flight of any importance being made with his motor.

It seems to me-that it would be far better policy on Mr. Brooke's part to get busy and prove to the world that his motor was what he claimed it to be, instead of wasting time throwing mud at the manufacturers of rotary motors which now hold practically all of the world's records. His attack upon you, it seems to me, is also uncalled for. You, as editor of your paper, do not care probably one way or the other whether the rotary motor or the motor having stationary cylinders proves to be the most efficient for aeronautic use. Your idea is to simply present to your readers subjects which will be of interest to those following the development of the aeroplane. And personally I do not see how any one can blame you for not publishing the articles written by a man whose sole purpose is to advertise his own product.

Our friend, Darwin, a few years ago expounded a theory which he called, "the survival of the fittest". If Mr. Brooke's motor is the most wonderful motor that ever was invented for aeronautic use, aviators will not be long in finding it out, but until he has been able to do what other manufacturers of engines have done it seems to me it would be better for him to conserve his energy and extend a little more of it on the development of his engine rather than in throwing mud upon a type of motor, which in practise at least has proved itself far superior to anything which he has ever evolved.

To the Editor: —

Very truly yours, (Signed) Earle L. Ovington, Newton Highlands, Mass., October 18, 1912.

BOOKS RECEIVED.

DIE DEUTCHEN PATENTE UBER FLUGAPPARATE By Dr. Alexander Katz

This brochure, large octavo, 750 pages, 924 illustrations, covers all Germain aero patents from 1S79 to June 30, 1911, classified under 10 different headings. Published at 25 M. by M. Kryan, Kurfurstenstrasse 11. Berlin, TV. 57, Germany.

BRITISH MILITARY AEROPLANE TRIALS By A. E. Berriman

This is a valuable little pamphlet, with the results of the competition analyzed and tabulated; being a reprint of the matter previously published in "Flight." Dr. Berrlman's new coefficient "x" is explained and applied. Obtainable at "Flight," 44 St. Martin's Lane, London, W. C., at 14 cents postpaid.

GASOLINE ENGINES, THEIR OPERATION, USE AND CARE, by A. Hyatt Verrill. 320 pp. 150 illustrations. Published at $1.50 by Norman YV. Henly Publishing Co., 132 Nassau St., New York. Describing what the Gasoline Engine Is; its construction and operation; how to install it; how to select it; how to use it anu how to remedy troubles encountered. Intended for Owners, Operators, and Users of Gasoline Motors of all kinds.

This work fully describes and illustrates tht> various types of Gasoline Engines used In Motor Boats, Motor Vehicles and Stationary Work. The parts, accessories and appliances are described, with chapters on ignition, fuel, lubrication, operation and engine troubles. Special attention is given to the care, operation and repair of motors with useful hints and sug gestions on emergency repairs and make-shifts.

November, 1912

A New System of Supporting Surfaces For Flying Machines

RD. Andrews, at a meeting of the Boston Aeronautical Society on April 6, 1911, • showed gliding models embodying the principles of his system of surfaces and outlined a theory of their behavior. Some nine months later, early in 1912, there appeared in print an account of laboratory tests by the celebrated French engineer, M. Gustave Eiffel, on surfaces similar in essentials to those reported on by Mr. Andrews, and lately the B. A. S. issued a bulletin on Mr. Andrews' work.

In its simplest form the new system consists of two surfaces of equal size placed tandem and slightly inclined downward towards each other. "From this arrangement of two surfaces, properly adjusted, is obtained a degree of fore and aft stability not found by any other arrangement," states the bulletin, "and an efficiency, at certain flying angles, greater than the efficiency of either surface alone."

 

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"To make a flying machine stable it must he designed so that any rotation about auj axis will be opposed by a constantly increasing righting force which will come into existence with the disturbing force a.nd will increase while the disturbing force decreases, Just this condition appears to exist with the Andrews system with regard to fore, and aft stability, that is, rotation about the lateral axis. Any force tending to make the

machine dive, is opposed by a strong downward pressure upon the rear surface which brings the machine back to a safe position, and any force tending to raise the front surface is opposed by the sudden and great increase of lift on the rear surface which occurs under these conditions. The result of this would appear to be that the Andrews system will maintain an angle between its fore and aft axis and the surrounding air stream, which is approximately constant. This is shown by the gliding models which make a flight path which is straight and not undulating like the flight paths of other systems. It would also appear to be impossible to move the fore and aft axis away a safe position by a wrong movement of the control surfaces, because the righting force produced by the rear surface will always be greater than any force introduced by the Tecessarily smaller horizontal rudder.

"Mr. Andrews has shown that it is possible t.o maintain a glide having a fall of one in }ight. He has shown that if dropped from a height the glider will right itself and take a safe gliding angle to the ground, and he has also shown that the effect of a gust of wind on the glider is to move it bodily without disturbing, to any dangerous extent, its position relative to the horizon. All of these characteristics are inherent in the Andrews system and not dependent upon conscious control. This system must not be confused with the systems of tandem surfaces used by flargraves, Langley or Montgomery.

"These latter systems have no inherent fore and aft stability, as the experiments of Eiffel show. What stability was obtained by Langley and Montgomery was due to the large tail surface at a negative angle, and the stability of the Hargraves kite is due to the side planes and its large angle of incidence.

"Turning now to the experiments of M. Eiffel* we find they show the same results claimed by Andrews, so far as fore and aft stability is concerned.

"From these experiments we learn that at angles of seven degrees and higher the second system is more efficient than either of the others or than one surface alone. Also, with the second and third systems the center of pressure moves forward and continuously as the angle decreases, so long as the press-' ure is upward. When tin pressure becomes downward it jumps bacft to the rear edge and so it still exerts a righting force. This condition makes for inherent fore and aft stability, and is not found in any system of surfaces in use on machines now flying. The fact about existing systems now in use, which makes them dangerous, is that as the flying angle decreases, say from fifteen to

*<a synopsis of these experiments will be found in AERONAUTICS for March and April.

(Continued on Page 182)

Experiments on the Fiesse Surface

[HE experiments have been made, on the electric chariot,

TK at speeds comprised between jKfft 17 and 23 meters per second, p=3 at the Institute Aerotechnique of the University of Paris.

In the following table, P represents the lift or vertical pressure or action of the air on the total surface formed of the two elements in tandem; T the drift or horizontal action of the air on the same double surface. These two forces are given in kilograms, the air being considered at a temperature of 15° and a pressure of 760 millimeters. V represents the spe^d in meters per second.

Ky and Kx represent the "unitaires" coefficients as related to the square meter, which

P T

means that they are the quotients of — or —

by the total surface cf the two elements, which is 9.5 square meters.

p represents the lift on the first suiface alone on the installation, and Ky represents the corresponding coefficient "unitaire," that is the P

quotient cf — by the surface cf the element. Vs

that is 4.75 square meters.

Accordingly, the lift or vertical action, or the drift or horizontal action of the air on the double suiface at a speed V are given by

Ky X 9.5 X V2

= (^)VS = K*X 9.5 X V2

and T

and the lift or vertical action cn the first surface alrne is given by

4.75 V2

I ">l ~v —„'— —L l

TABLE

 

TOTAL SURFACE FORMED

BY THE TWO ELEMENTS

The First EU

ment Alone

i

P

T

   

T Kx

Angle

P

 
     

K

K"

 

of the result-

 

K'y

       

X

P Kr

ant with

 
     

y

the vertical

   

0,273

0,0282

0,0287

0.00296

0,103

5° 53'

0,190

0,0400

0,330

0,0280

0,0347

0,00294

0,085

4n 52'

0,220

0.0464

0,386

0,0292

0,0406

0,00307

0,0755

4° 20'

0,249

0.0522

0,443

0,0336

0,0466

0,00353

0,076

4^ 21'

0,275

0.0579

0,505

0,0412

0,0531

0,00433

0,0815

4 40'

0,305

0.0641

10°

0,568

0,0536

0,0597

0,00564

0,094

5° 23'

0,333

0,0700

12°

0,633

0.0720

0,0666

0,00757

0,114

6° 30'

0,357

0,0752

14°

0,700

0.0963

0,0736

0,01013

0,138

7° 52'

0,377

0,0795

16°

0.760

0,130

0,0800

0,0136

0,171

9° 42'

0,388

0,0817

18°

0,800

0,170

0,0842

0,0178

0,213

12°

0.352

0,0741

20°

 

0,348 !

0,0733

The angles i indicated are those of the plane part AB which supports the installation of the surfaces with the horizontal; the chord of the elements forms with AB an angle of 2° 50'. A

to the first element alone shows that the first element sustains moie than the second. This is shown by the position of the centre of pressure.

POSITION OF THE CENTER OF PRESSURE ON THE SURFACE FORMED OF THE TWO ELEMENTS. The centre of pressure, that is the point where the resultant of the actions of the air cuts the surface, is on the first element; its distance from the front edge of that element passes by a minimum equal to 53 centimeters for i=8 or 9°, and increases very slowly for lesser incidences, a few centimeters only till Ώ'=0°, and a little more rapidly for greater incidences till 66 centimeters for Ώ=18°. The displacement of the centre of pressure in function of inclination is therefore very small.

REMARKS ON THE RESULTS. The comparison of the coefficients "unitaires" Ky and K'y relative to the complete surface and

a new system of supporting surfaces for flying machines

(Continued from Page 130)

three degrees, and while the pressure is still upward, the center of pressure moves towards the rear, whereas, to produce a righting force, it should move forwards. With regard to lateral stability Eiffel has nothing

to say concerning this system; but Mr. Andrews states that his experience with a great variety of models of this type leads him to believe that this system has a very large measure of lateral stability also, much more than exists in the present flying machine, and he thinks that with this design lateral stability attends fore and aft stability. It is, of course, difficult to test in the laboratory

P

The inflection of the values of — or K'y above

V2

16° has been verified in repeating the mesures for those inclinations, that inflection is, however, without importance from a practical point of view, for it corresponds to inclinations notably greater than the inclination in flying.

note by matthew b. sellers

Mr. Fiesse proposes to use this arrangement of planes in the construction of a hydro which is now under way and a side elevation of which is here shown.

While the efficiency of the two surfaces tested is gratifying it does not necessarily follow that a larger number of surfaces so arranged will show the same efficiency.

for lateral stability, and the only way this can be tested satisfactorily is by the flight of a full-sized machine. Mr. Andrews, of course, intends to use horizontal and lateral controls in connection with his system, but the advantage of his system over all others seems to be safety in handling, as a false move or a gust could not stall the machine easily or cause it to dive. The illustration represents the Andrews system as applied to the fusilage of a monoplane."

note by matthew b. sellers

Many years ago it was proposed that a rear plane at a negative angle to front plane (i. e., forming a dihedral angle opening upward), promoted stability. But it was thought that this disposition reduced efficiency and the rear plane was made small, acting chiefly as stabilizer. It remained for M. Eiffel to show that at large angles the efficiency of this arrangement was greater than that of a single plane. It would seem, however, that Mr. Andrews is the first to use a rear plane as large as the front one disposed in this way.

These experiments were made for Chas. Fiesse, of 702 G. St.t/ Washington, N. E. Mr. Fiesse has been long an experimentor in aerodynamics.

An Analysis of Flight*

By GEORGE A. SPRATT, Jr.

APPLICATIONS

Under this heading the theory advanced is briefly applied to the construction and flight of the bird and the díptera in order that attention may be directed to those points where conformity is to be looked for.

The bird and its wing is far more than a flying mechanism just as a quadruped is far more than a locomotive. The wild horse upon the prairie, in a unit, represents the producing plant, the repair shops, the surveying forces, track construction forces, the watchmen and engine crew, and the vast office and field force that sees to obtaining fuel and water and all other materials for maintaining the organization; in fact, the whole system and its management with the added great convenience that, if business is dull, a new region can be occupied at the speed rate of the rolling stock. On the other hand, the locomotive represents an exceedingly small part of the anatomy of the horse, a few principles that, after acceptance, are again divested of much in order that concentration to the purposes of man may be gained. In order that he may possess the jewel, as ever, he has excavated and washed away tons of less desirable material, and then with labor and patience refined and polished.

The fundamental principles of flight lie within the wing, as does the lever in the leg, but the wing is not that principle. To take the form of the wing and apply it to the aeroplane is as crude logic to follow as to take the form of the leg and apply it to the locomotive. To excel nature in so doing could hardly be expected. The wing embraces so much more than a perfect application of the principles that those principles are obscured unless the observer has a clear conception of them.

Let figure 4 represent a gull. At a the section of the curved portion of the wing is shown with its relative position to the

A B

centre of weight. At b is shown the double curve so well marked in the long-winged sea birds. In all birds, and in bats, the arched portion of the wing is carried high. It is so with the elytra of the beetle. The friction pressure represented by a, figure 3, is great in the wing, for bone and muscle are housed within, and consequently the height of the arc of the wing above the centre of weight is less than the radius of

*Begun in the August number. See also. AEKOXAUTICS for March, 1908, for previous article by Mr, Spratt

the curvature. The points o and n, figure 3, lie proportionately near the wing surface.

By lowering this portion of the wings the centre of pressure o is lowered relatively to the centre of weight, and a couple results which causes rotation forward, likewise raising the wings causes rotation backward. By such adjustment the course is deflected downward or upward without invoking any additional surface pressure or resistance.

The flattened extremity of the wing partakes much of the nature of a thickened plane. In gliding the extremities are brought low in order that no couple may result from the pressure against them, and when the wings are raised or lowered this pressure increases the value of the couple. Let it be noticed that, when a couple is formed either for the purpose of directing the course or otherwise, it should be, and is, formed upon the line representing the resistance to advance, and, therefore, the motion of the wings, under ordinary conditions, is upward and forward, or downward or backward. These adjustments are very apparent in the gull, as he leisurely wanders over the water in search of food, especially so if the breeze is fitful.

By extending one wing and shortening the other, which in effect is to draw or swing the body, and therefore the centre of weight toward the other wing extremity, see figure 5A, a couple results which rotates the whole, causing the shortened wing to descend and the extended wing to rise. Gravity is resolved as a result of this poise, see figure 5B; a horizontal force propels toward the lowered wing and the course deflects in response. The resultant of the head resistance, which formerly was perpendicular to the forward margin of the wings and passed through the centre of weight, has now moved on to the lowered wing, since the course has become deflected with the lowered wing more or less in the advance. A couple results, which ro-

tates the whole about the vertical. See figure 5C. Therefore, again, the bird directs its course to right or left, Avithout presenting any surface or resistance, for that purpose.

The pressure always tends to place the longest axis perpendicular to the course, and always does so when the centre of weight and centre of the surface coincides, or when a line passing through the centres of weight and pressure passes perpendicularly through the centre of the surface.

A surface circularly arched to include the proper number of degrees develops a greater lifting pressure than a surface of any other form. It is the most stable form when properly used. Very wisely that portion of the wing' nearest the weight centre of the bird, and anatomically the most firmly braced to the body, is the most nearly circularly arched, and the most deeply curved. As the distance from the body increases the wing has increasing freedom of motion, and the curvature uniformly merges into a flattened extremity that, in some wings more than in others, is capable of presenting a concave, plane or convex surface.

The effect peculiar to that curvature near the body is obtainable, however, throughout the whole extent of the wing by establishing the same relation of curvature in the path through which the wing is struck, as has been shown experimentally in a former paper, or, in this same manner, the effect peculiar to the circular arc may be obtained in the stroke throughout the wing.

The amount of pressure upon a surface is determined by its velocity relative to the air. It is the velocity of the wing in contra-distinction to the velocity of the body that sustains and propels. The stroke of the wing must be observed, not only in its relations to the air, but also in its relations to the centre of weight.

The stroke of thp pigeon's wing, as the bird changes its place in the flock while feeding, is a downward forward curve, the chord of which is almost horizontal. The velocity of the bird is not sufficient for support, the curved portion of the wing, because of its fixed attachment to the body is of little value, but support is obtainable , from such stroke of the extremity. Excepting that the wing is brought back flexed the extremity describes a flattened ellipse. As the velocity of the body increases, and the curved portions increasingly yield support, the stroke changes to a circular path about the centre of weight in the reverse direction to that of a carriage wheel, gradually becoming vertical as the pressure from the flattened extremity is increasingly utilized for thrust. When that velocity is attained at which the desired amount of weight is carried by the curved portion, the stroke becomes cir-

cular in direction as the carriage wheel revolves and gives to the bird the appearance of rowing. The wing extremity now yields thrust sufficient to maintain that desired velocity.

The path described through the air by the wing extremity is such as will produce the desired relation of curvature. If the path is a straight line, there is rotation of fehe wing extremity; if the path is arched, the resultant pressure of the stroke bisects the arc and its chord and passes through the centre of weight.

This is more clearly illustrated in figure 6, in which this theory is applied to the flight of the dyptera. Here the dotted line represents the arc described by the extremity of a wing of this type. The arrow shows the direction of its movement along the arc. At A the advance stroke is shown, and at b the return stroke. The plane is set at a slight positive angle to its path and the perpendicular lines from its leading half represent the convergence of the resultant pressure to a common centre x from consecutive points along its path. The forward edge of the wing is shown leading in the advance stroke A; the rear edge as leading in the return stroke.

In the two figures A and b, the centre of convergence x, which is the centre of pressure for the stroke, occurs at opposite sides of the centre of the arc (x1) described by the path. If the advance and the return stroke are to have a common pressure centre, the path of the advance stroke must be in advance of the path of the return stroke. In so making them they describe a figure eight, as shown at C, d, and e.

It is possible, therefore, that from such wing motion the fly can present a centre of pressure and a centre of weight whose relative positions can control the poise and the course of flight. At C a position of hovering is shown. Here the centre of weight is below the centre of pressure, and both are on the same line of gravity; therefore there is no couple. If the pressure is greater than the weight, the body rises vertically; if less, the body descends vertically: if they are equal, the body hovers. Inertia absorbs the effects of the

November, 1912

variation in the direction of the resultant pressure from the consecutive points along the path of the rapidly vibrating wings, and the arc of the stroke can be considered in the same light as is the arched surface, except that the pressure direction is reversed and is here centripetal. At d the position of advancing flight is shown. Here the chord of the arc is inclined forward. Gravity is resolved against the arc of the stroke and a horizontal component propels. At e a similarly produced backward movement is illustrated. In like manner a horizontal component of gravity can be formed by operating one wing in a higher plane than the other, which will act to force the body sidewise.

* * *

Much of the foregoing may be summed up and its purpose, perhaps, made clearer in a comparison between watercraft and the aeroplane.

The watercraft is suspended between two fluids of different densities. The hull is so disposed that this difference in the density is preserved, the lighter above and the denser beneath the surface the hull presents. A pressure against the under side, which is equal to the weight of the craft, results.

The aeroplane is immersed in but one fluid, but which offers a resistance to motion, and whose density is disturbed by motion. At a certain speed a pressure equal to the weight is produced, which is preserved against tne under side, and

which acts much the same as the differ-erence in the densities of the fluids of the watercraft.

In watercraft originally equilibrium might have been obtained by outrigged floats, but with the recognition of the meta-centre, a form evolved that is more stable, stauncher, more serviceable and more economically operated than is possible of attainment with outrigged floats.

In the aeroplane, at the present time, equilibrium is obtained by outrigged vanes, but when the point herein described as the centre of pressure is recognized a form will evolve that will be more stable, stauncher, more serviceable and more economically operated than is possible of attainment with outrigged vanes.

The foregoing covers but briefly the main points of a theory that has gradually developed from laboratory experiments and observations, that has for several years withstood close search for contrary evidence and has fulfilled actual application in so far as I have been able to carry such tests.

It is here offered in the hope that it may find an influence in advancing the development of the perfect aeroplane. For this device, with the locomotive and the steamship, will take its place as a force of civilization. A far greater place, for its pathway is the ever present boundless air; the greatest force yet entrusted to man and destined to both invite and compel lives worthy of the common brotherhood of man. (Concluded)

GOOD MARKET FOR AEROPLANES IN NORWAY

A splendid market in Norway for the sale of aeroplanes, especially hydroplanes, is overlooked by American mamufacturers. Aeroplanes were introduced into Norway only six or eight months ago, when the army officials purchased two Maurice Farmam biplanes of the military type, with 70-h'Orseipower Renault motors, and the navy officials bought a "Rumpler-Taube" with a lUO-horsepower N. A. G. motor. Besides these machines a civil engineer in Christiania has purchased a "Grade" aeroplane and the Norsk. Flyveselskab (Norwegian Aero Club) has bought a "Deperdussim" monoplane with 70-horsepower Gnome motor.

In the near future, it is stated, both the army amd navy will be in the market for additional aeroplanes, as their value for war purposes is recognized by the department chiefs of the Norwegian army and navy. The general public a'so affords a splendid opportunity for the sale of aeroplanes, as their use as a sport particularly appeals to Norwegians, who are a sport-loving people, and with their "skiing" are used to performing feats of balancing and flying through the air. Many people in Christiania can afford the sport of flying aeroplanes and hydroplanes; the latter might supplant, in part at least, the large number of small yachts constantly used on the harbors and fjords

Many yachtsman and others who devote much time to sports state that a reliable hydroplane, not too expensive, would find ready sale here if properly demonstrated. No manufacturer has as yet considered it worth while to demonstrate a machine in Christiania and the first who does so should find an excellent mar-

ket. Names of members of the local aeroplane club may be obtained by addressing the secretary of the Norsk Flyveselskab. Ilerr Drifts-bestyrer Barth, Christiania Elektriske Sporvei, Christiania.

[From Consul General, Chailes A. Hidden, Christiana].

TRADE OPENING IN ARGENTINE

Manufacturers ought to be able to contest French trade in the Argentine Republic. j military school has recently been created with 4 monoplanes, 3 biplanes and 7 .balloons at Buenos Ayres. The Aero Club of Argentine, at B'uenos Ayres, is alive and has presented the .Government the balloons and 3 of the aeio-planes. The technical instruction remains under the Aero Club which has supplied the pilot instructors, instruments, et cetra, free of cost. There are 3 'plane pilots and 4 instructors in aerostatics. There are no hydroaeroplanes in the coumtry.

The number of European aeroplane buildeis who specialize in both monoplanes and biplanes or at any rate in more than cne type, is steadily increasing. The following is a fairly complete list, hut even so mav not be exhaustive: —

AUSTRIAN: Etrich. BRITISH: Aeronautical Syndicate ("Valkyrie" mono and "viking" biplane'), Avro, British and Colonial Aeroplane Co. (Bristol, Dunne, Howard Wright, number. Neale, Short Bros., PRENCH: Astra (biplanes and triplanes), Caudron. II. Faitnan, Paullian (monoplanes and triplanes).—Biplane apparently abandoned, Summer, GERMAN: Aviatik (German Farman) Euler (biplanes and triplanes1), Rumpler (German made Etrich), ITALIAN: Bossi.

Symposium on Screw Standardization

Editor's Note:—

Some time ago the Aeronautical Society's committee, E. V. Lalliers, Chairman, obtained the views of several propeller makers on the subject of standardization. To an abstract of these, we have added two other opinions.

It would be desirable if engine builders would, in conjunction with propeller builders, arrive at a means to allow different makes of propellers to be quickly placed on the shafts. It is obvious that good would result to both sides. This is a matter which is also being considered by the Aeronautical Manufacturers Association.

gibson propeller co.

HE entire science of aerial propellers has mainly been evolved by the cut and try method because of the absence of any effective means for testing propellers of more than model dimensions and the term efficiency is now a very vague expression; but, after all, efficiency in flight is the vital desideratum in aerial propellers.

Therefore: Specify that propellers shall be rated in terms of the lbs. thrust delivered per h.p. at 30, 45, 60, and 75 miles per hour; thus in the case of one typical propeller it would be rated 7, 6, 5, 4, as representing that it develops seven lbs. thrust per h.p. at 30 miles per hour, six lbs. at 45 m.p.h., five lbs. at GO m.p.h. and four lbs. at 75 m.p.h.

Thus an aeroplane manufacturer would choose the above propeller for use with a machine designed to fly at 45 m.p.h. having 300 lbs. head resistance at that speed and equipped with a 50 h.p. engine; unless he could find another propeller which would give more, in which case so much the better for the business and everybody concerned.

In any case, if such standardization were adopted an aeroplane manufacturer would have something definite to work upon, and if he were assured of the propeller performance he would in the case of poor success of the whole machine, eliminate any doubts thereon from his mind and immediately attack the real root of the trouble.

The effect of such a standardization would be to call the attention of every manufacturer and user to this vital point, that all tests of propellers made by means of a scale or thrust reading device holding the machine anchored to the ground are deceptive and absolutely misleading. I make this statement without fear of contradiction by those who know the subject.

Further, propellers may be designed to be more effective at any desired speed and it is that consideration which concerns the user, and he should be so informed as to enable him to choose that which suits the circumstances best.

Coming back to the term "efficiency," I think it will be seen that the practical efficiency of a propeller is the work that it will do for the work that is done upon it, and that efficiency has nothing to do

with the ability of the propeller to travel axially through the air as fast as its pitcn angle would provide or at any less or greater speed.

One propeller may be of maximum effectiveness at 40 m.p.h. and another equally effective at 60 m.p.h. and still each be of the same pitch.

It is very misleading for a user to have a propeller which is not marked as to its pitch, this feature of the propeller being more or less difficult of measurement by the average user with the ordinary methods at his command, and I, therefore, suggest that all propellers should be marked accurately as to diameter, pitch and direction of rotation.

Hubs might be standardized as to diameter but not as to length, and 1 suggest 6" dia. for 30 h.p., 7" dia. for 50 h.p., 8" dia. for 100 h.p., when run at engine speeds of say 1100 or 1200.

Flanges might also be standardized and considering the present high position of the Gnome engine I suggest the adoption of the Gnome flange as standard. It is made to metric sizes but involves a center hole of 2%" dia. and eight bolt holes of %" dia.

american propeller co.

WE think it would be a most excellent plan to standardize such features of the propeller as do not depend for their excellence upon the special skill in design or mode of construction, upon which the efficiency and general excellence of the propeller depends. To standardize these would be to put all propellers on a level as regards their excellence, and further development and improvement could only be made by departing from such standards as might be established.

Regarding the features which we think might be standardized to advantage, we would suggest that standard templets for hub boring be adopted by propeller makers in conjunction with engine builders, so that propellers of different manufacturers would be interchangeable on the same engine. !A series of, perhaps, three templets could be established, based upon the A. L. A. M. rating of the engine. Speaking off-hand, we would say that for less than 25 horsepower, a bolt-circle of 3V& inches might be adopted, using six % inch, or 5/16 inch bolts; for 25 to 75 horsepower, the circle might be 4 inches or 4*4 inches with six % inch bolts. For greater than 75 horse-

power, a circle of about 4y2 inches, or 5 inches might be adopted with eight % inch bolts, or possibly six 7/16 inch bolts. The center hole might also be standardized, if the engine manufacturers can be gotten together on this. We do not think the center hole should ever be more than 2y2 inches if it can be avoided.

The length of hub might also be standardized, and we would suggest 4y2 inches to 4% inches as a suitable hub length for 25 to 75 horsepower; for less power a length of Zy2 inches to 4 inches would probably be good.

The diameter of the propeller in relation to the size and weight of the entire machine, might also be a proper subject of standardization.

Many builders do not provide for a sufficient propeller diameter, not realizing that the efficiency depends very much upon the amount of traction obtained, and that this varies approximately as the square of the propeller diameter, hence the diameter should always be as large as possible (within reasonable limits) regardless of the power of the engine (the difference fn pitch taking account of the available power and consequent flying speed).

With the advances that are being made in an experimental way to determine the flying head-resistance of different kinds and sizes of machines, at different speeds, it should be possible in the near future to lay down definite rules as to the number of square feet of area of propeller sweep per unit of head-resistance of the machine.

A most inviting field of calculation is opened up in this direction, which should be productive of the most useful engineering results leading, as it does, to the tabulating and diagraming of the necessary propeller diameters required for different percentages of efficiency as worked out from the flying thrust, or head-resistance at different speeds. As soon as this information becomes generally available, standards of propeller diameters will doubtless be definitely established.

Regarding competitive tests of propellers this, of course, to be of any value, would have to be carried on under practical flying conditions.

sloane aeroplane co.

S FAR as we can see, from our varied experience with propellers, it will always be impossible to standardize the diameter and pitch of all makes. The same diameter and pitch in two different makes of propellers will give entirely different results. For example, our regular Charavay type propeller for a 50 h.p. Gnome is 8 ft. diameter by 4% ft. pitch, while the propeller for the same engine of the Charavay Normale type has the same diameter with a 5 ft.

pitch. We have a propeller for the same engine for passenger-carrying, which has the same pitch as the first and a greater diameter. For speed work with that same engine you would use a smaller diameter and a greater pitch, depending upon the head-resistance to be overcome, and the speed desired. The diameter and pitch, and design of a propeller depend upon so many variables that it seems to me that it will be impossible to standardize these.

There is an opportunity, now, to standardize the hubs. There is no reason why we should not have a standard bolt circle for 20 to 35 h.p.; a larger sized bolt circle for 35 to 60 h.p.; and a larger one still for GO to 100 h.p., and so on. The size of propeller bolts can also be standardized, a certain sized bolt for each sized holt circle.

If possible, it would be a very good thing to standardize the central shaft-hole of the propeller. However, that depends on the size of the crank shaft of the engine, and it is probable that the manufacturers of engines will not come to a uniform size in cranks. It would be a very good thing if we could get the engine manufacturers to adopt a uniform size of crank shaft for the propeller.

Another thing which could be standardized and should be is the style of the hub itself. This should be made as simple and strong as possible and should be uniform in design for all sizes.

r. o. rubel, jr... & co.

IN THE standardization of propellers will say that we are hardly in favor of this movement.

I hardlv believe that it is practical to have all propellers, regardless of diameter and pitch, to be of one standard size; but there is no doubt but \\hat it would give the manufacturers of propellers an opportunity to find out their weak points if we can get the motor builders to standardize their propeller shafts.

The only objectional feature which I can see at this time is that it will require at least one year to bring the manufacturers of power plants to anything like a standard size hub as it would require the change of their specifications and no doubt some of these manufacturers have already contracted for the necessary material to be used on the motors they will build this season.

theodore i. camp

The only attainable standard at present would be in the hub diameters, and, providing the engine makers could agree on it, the shaft hole diameter. For that matter, they could, as well as not, agree on the standard five hole flange such as we know has been used on the majority of the propellers iu the country today.

U. S. Army Aeroplane Specifications

HE Chief Signal Officer, U. S. Army, Brigadier General James Allen, has issued specifications for the two types of aeroplanes tne Army has decided are most serviceable. 'i hese requirements follow: A SPEED SCOUT MILITARY AEROPLANE (1) Carry one person with the seat located to permit of the largest possible field of observation; (2). Ascend at the rate of 1500 feet in three minutes while carrying fuel for one hour's flight; (3). Carry fuel for a three hour's flight; (4). Must be easily transportable by road, rail, etc,, and easily and rapidly assembled and adjusted; (5). The starting and landing devices must be part of the machine itself and it must be able to start without outside assistance; (6). The engine must be capable of throttling; (7). The engine will be subject to endurance test in the air of two hour's continuous flight; (S). Speed in the air of at least 65 miles an hour; (9). Capable of landing on and arising from plowed fields; (10). The supporting surfaces must be of sufficient size to insure safe gliding in case the engine stops; (11). The efficiency and reliability of the system of control must have been demonstrated before the purchase order is Dlaced. The aeroDlane must be capable of executing a figure eight within a rectangle 500 yards by 250 yards, and without decreasing its altitude more than 100 feet at the completion of the figure eight. This test to be made by aviator alone without carrying extra weight; (12). The extreme

BRICKBATS AN

Urbana, O., Oct. 20th, 1912. E. L. Jones, Editor, New York City. Dear Sir:

I don't think "Aeronautics" is a "philanthropic institution", the object of philanthropy is doing good and I can see nothing in your publication but obituary notices, advertisments and chronicles of foreign triumphs. Your attitude and the position of others like you have made American Aeronautics a joke and a byword the world over.

Not a single American machine dared enter the G.-B. race at Chicago—why, because we ar^ forced to contemplate the things of yesterday— we have no eye for to-morrow.

J. B. Sloane proposes to do something for next year by calling a consultation of prominent builders of American machines—but don't you see that these men are all interested in their own inventions and that no harmomious action can be expected from them.

For more than three years I have been offering to build a plame that can cover the distance between New York and Chicago in ten hours or less of continuous ilight but no one wants such a craft. If it were built it would establish a new world's record, but if we wait much longer the Fiench will have that offer capped, they stand 631 miles in 13 hours and 22 minutes but of course it would be very improper to let in a little mew gray matter and apply a few me-

width of the aeroplane supporting surfaces must not exceed forty feet.

FOR SCOUT MILITARY AEROPLANE (1). The aeroplane must carry two persons with seats located to permit of the largest possible held of observation for both; (2). The control must be capable of use by either c-perator trom either seat; (3). The machine must be able to ascend at least 2UU0 feet in ten minutes while carrying ,a weight of 600 pounds, including the aviator and passenger, it»u pounds oi gasoline and extra weight to make 600 pounds. All of the extra weight must be carried on the engine section and not distributed over iho wings; (4). The fuel and oil capacity must be sufficient lor at least tour hours of continuous flight. This will be determined by a trial flight of at least one half hour, measuring the consumption of gasoline, wniie carrying the passenger and weight stated in paragraph 3; (5). Same as No. 4, above; (6). Same as No. 5, auove; (t). The engine must be of American manufacture ana capable of throttling to run at reduced speed; (8). Same as No. 7, above. This test will be made with aviator and passenger, extra weight and fuel enumerated in paragraphs 3 and 4; (9). The aeroplane must develop a speed in the air of at least forty miles an hour. This test will be made with aviator and passenger, extra weight and fuel enumerated in paragraphs 3 and 4. The maximum speed must not exceed 65 miles an hour; (10). Same as No. 9, above. This test will be made with aviator, passenger, extra weight and fuel enumerated in paragraphs 3 and 4; (11). Same as No. 10, above; (12). Same at No. 11, above; (13). Same as No. 12, above.

d bouquets

chanical ideas in the United States—so you can continue your jokes about amatures and let the progress go across the Atlantic.

Last spring I wrote you, when you asked for money, that if you would print an article written ,by me and touching of the future of Aeronautics that I would continue to take your paper, otherwise not—your negative was so abrupt that it was almost profane and I supposed your paper would stop, in fact it did stop once or twice but a few days ago it bobbed up with a bad smell and the usual obituaries and second hand notices.

Now if you would not help advance the art in America for God's sake don't devote your time to obstructing the way for those that would.

I can not build the craft described in the enclosed folder for less than $25,000 and I can't afford to put that much in it unless I can see my way out at once—this machine would not do to cut papers around a racetrack, it would cross the continent with not more than 3 stops and at 100 m. p. h. this is all based on work all ready done by others, and surely you won't deny me the right to study the performances of other planes.

Unless you change your plan and look to the future you will soon be without a clientele, for Americans soon lose interest in defeats.

Now if you want to poke fun at my name It is, Charles Michael Wanzer.

The Two-passenger Deperdussin

^|K|^^l^HE Deperdussin Monoplane is the creation of an original and highly capable mind. The "Dep." bears the name of its financial godfather; but its real parent is M. Bechereau, one of the most eminent designers and engineers who have turned their hand to aeroplane work. The Deperdussin first came into prominence and gained a reputation extending beyond the frontiers of France during the European circuit when Vidart and James Valentine achieved some brilliant performances. Vedrines has now become the chief racing pilot of the French parent firm, and at the time holds the principal world's speed records and the Gordon-Bennett Aviation Cup. To achieve a speed of 107 miles an hour constitutes no mean triumph of engineering skill, whatever its practical utility.

It is of interest to note that the "Dep." of today is not such a materially changed machine from the early type at the 1910 Paris show. Its many distinctive features place it in the very front of modern aeroplanes. Readers will find it of value to refer to the October 1911 number which contained a detailed description, with drawings, of the two place Dep. of that year.

The Sloane Aeroplane Company now has two Deps, a single and a double-seater. both of which have gone to Los Angeles for winter school work. It is of the latter that the following information relates.

Perhaps the most noteworthy, as being the most distinctive feature of the standard Deperdussin type, is the fact that the fuselage and the chassis form two wholly separate entities, connected by the most slender means and yet in the most effective fashion. The chassis, in other words, forms no part of the main structure The details of the

arrangement whereby this is effected will be referred to hereafter.

The wings are pronouncedly rectangular in shape, of distinctly small aspect ratio; they are cut away both at the entering and trailing edges in the centre where they abut on the fuselage in order to increase the downward field of view of the passenger, who is seated in front, and of the pilot in the rear. The wing structure is exceptionally strong. The front znd main wing spar is built up in I section, the top layer being ash, the center spruce, and the lower layer Columbia pine, the reason for this method of assembly being that the under surface is in compression and tns upper one in tension. This spar measures 3 ins. by ins. The rear spar is similarly built up, with the exception that both top and bottom layers are of ash, since, owing to the warp, both are in tension, but is of smaller dimensions, only measuring 2 ins. by iy3 ins. Alternate ribs are built up with an ash strip both top and bottom and solidly filled in, thus forming air-tight compartments.

The staying of the wings—always a vital point—is well carried out. Each main spar is stayed by three cables overhead (these being carried to the top of the characteristic double pylone) and three cables underneath running down to the front of chassis. In addition a cable runs from the rear of the cnassis to the outer cable attachment on the main spar. The former three cables therefore act as drift and lift wires, the latter as a lift wire pure and simple. The stays to the rear spar consist in effect of the three warping-cables to the upper surface and a similar number to the lower surface; these cables are joined into one thick cable which passes over the pulley in the pylone overhead.

The stay attachments to the spars are solid and designed specially so as not to weaken the spars by piercing. At the point

of attachment solid wooden blocks are let into each side of the spar; the attachment bolts go through these blocks, leaving the ppar itself unimpaired. An aluminum plate is interposed between the wing fabric and the steel plates to which the cables are fastened, the whole being strongly bolted together.

The front spars run through the fuselage and are solidly joined together, the rear spars, however, are only bolted onto the fuselage members. The pylone, as many of the other members, consists of Columbia pine bound round with canvas.

The entering edge is an oval strip of wood against which the rib-ends butt. A preparation called "Emaillite" renders the fabric moisture proof and nearly oil proof. The trailing edge of the cloth is laced to each rib-end through eyelets in the fabric. A strip of wood runs along about an inch from the rear edge between the upper and lower chords of the ribs.

The chord of the wing is C'7" at the tips and 6'8" near the body. The cambre is 3% inches, 24 inches back. There is a small dihedral angle to the wings.

The control is of the familiar Deperdussin type. The warping wheel is mounted on the framework constituting the elevator; the two elevators are connected up by rigid rods. The pilot's warping cable passes straight onto the bell crank lever actuating the warp. The rudder is controlled by a footbar. Pushing forward on the "U"-shaped yoke steers down through crossed cables to the elevator. These cables are inside the body for a short distance. Turning a hand-wheel, mounted on this yoke, to the high side lifts the low side and vice versa. From the foot lever the cables run straight, i.e., without crossing.

The fuselage is square in section and built up on the usual lines. From the engine the longitudinals run back perfectly parallel until the fixed tail is reached. There is a "step" here in the upper longitudinals into which the tail is fitted; so that the cambered upper surface of the tail forms a stream-line continuation of the fuselage which also tapers off from the same point to the rudder. All joints are tightly bound with canvas.

The fuselage comes apart just back of the pilot's seat. The longitudinal spars butt together in an open-sided square steel socket about 8 inches long. At this point these spars are close to 1 inch square. They taper from l1^ inch square at front end of the fuselage to % inch square at the rear end. Fabric is used on all four sides of the rectangular (cross-section) fuselage; tacked on the bottom and lower edge of sides. Top edges of sides have grommets inserted and lace over the longitudinal spars to the panel on the top side of the fuselage. The diagonal stay-wiring of the fuselage is similar to Blcriot's method. The passenger sits in front of the pilot, just forward of the rear lateral wing spar. Both are protected from oil and wind by a high aluminum windshield, just aft of the gravity gasoline tank. The sides

of the front end of the fuselage are covered with aluminum sheeting, fitted with doors to give access to the magneto, oil pump, piping, etc.

To the top of the fuselage is affixed a covering, made of three-ply wood in the ordinary manner with the openings for the two cock-pits. The lower part of the fuselage, forming the bottom of the well, also consists of a shaped wooden cover, also built up of three-ply wood but applied in strips crossing each other diagonally, both sides being further covered with canvas; a method of construction combining strength with lightness to an exceptional degree.

The chassis consists of a pair of A struts forward running vertically downward, and of another pair behind directed forwards; in addition a pair of struts run diagonally from the tops of the rear pair to the bottom of the front pair. A steel tube crossmember connects the lower ends of these struts in front and another in the rear. Each pair of struts is braced by two diagonal 10-gauge steel wires, which incidentally, are the only uncovered wires in the whole aeroplane. The landing arrangements consist of two short tusk skids and rubber-spring disc wheels of o ft. diameter—an exceptionally large size— giving a 4 ft. 6 in. wheel base.

As has already been stated, the chassis suspension is highly original and ingenious. A heavy endless wire is slung beneath the fuselage and received in a nick in the head of each strut, which is only prevented from shifting along the fuselage in a fore and aft direction by being received in a slot. The landing stress therefore is thrown onto the whole fuselage instead of being taken up— as is usually the case—by a single member.

Every one of the chassis struts is made of stout Columbia pine, bound round with several thicknesses of canvas and varnished over. The main object of this substitution of Columbia pine for the more generally employed ash is that the members all work under compression. In such a case ash often shows an unpleasant tendency to whip which is absent from the Deperdussin chassis.

The power plant consists of a 6 cylinder Anzani motor driving anti-clockwise (facing it) Charavay propeller 8'3" diam. by 4' pitch. The ignition is Giboud, G & A carburetor, a revolution counter. The combined gas and oil tank, gravity, is mounted in front of the passenger's seat ahead of the two masts and supply. Another reserve gas tank, is attached just under the pilot's seat from which gas may be forced up into the gravity tank by a hand pump at the passenger's right, fastened to the fuselage spar. The front end of the fuselage is covered with a steel cap, or plate, to which is bolted the crankcase of the motor. The mixture is drawn from the carburetor into the rear compartment of the crankcase, from which it is distributed to the different cylinders by short lengths of tubing. This compartment thus acts as a manifold and reservoir for gasoline vapor.

Weight, without operator, gas or oil 900 pounds. Speed is 65 m.p.h.

Two-place Deperdussin

Burkhart Biplane

OH'N C. Burkhart, of Portland, Ore., has been flying for some time now a biplane of his own construction. It is along standard lines and "was built for actual flying and exhibition work rather than in the attempt to evolve something new. The builder is well known to a great many in aviation, having taken engineering at Cornell with special reference to aviation. During the 190S Kitty Hawk experiments of Messers. Wright he was the only stranger present to view the flights. He spent the following years in experimenting and studying the present types of machines.

This machine was made with the object in mind of producing a substantial and simple machine, both as to construction and operation. Two men have learned to fly this machine in a small race track where the only smooth place is a stretch 50 feet by 1000 feet, without any accidents save those caused by the engine quitting.

All surfaces are double covered. The main planes spread 35 ft. by 5 1/2 ft. chord, giving an area of 364 sq. ft. These are built in 3 sections: to ends of 14 ft. and a center one of 7 ft. Spruce spars are used, save in the lower center section where ash is employed. Ribs are constructed of two strips of spruce, with spacing blocks between, the curve being 1 in 20; deepest camber, 2/5 from leading edge. Ribs spaced 12 ins. on lower plane and 14 ins. on upper end sections. Small skids, not shown in photos, have been placed under the wing tips. These have saved harm to the wings many times and are of value. A combination of glue and formalin is applied hot with a brush. This is not absolutely waterproof but makes the surface tight. The fabric is ordinary cambric sheeting.

The elevator and rudders are hinged from the fixed surfaces. The elevator helms were made of tubing and were used as rudder pivots as well, doing away with considerable trouble. These operate as in the Cur-tiss system of control. The elevator has a large area and requires but little movement, so the cables are hooked close to the pivot in steering post. The machine is not oversensitive but has ample movement of elevator for emergencies. Roebling 5/32 inch, cable, with wire core, is used for control wires.

The ailerons are operated by a shoulder brace, using the single wiring system as employed on the earlier Curtiss machines.

The running gear is after the Wright system, using four 2 by 20 inch Weaver wheels, with Goodyear tires and rubber shock absorbers. The skids are of ash, iy2 by 2 inch.

An S cylinder "V" engine of 60 horsepower drives direct anti-clockwise in the breeze, a 7 by 4Vl>-foot propeller of builder's own make.

The speed of the machine is about 45 miles an hour; weight empty 750 pounds. The angle in flight is 3 degrees.

It may be of interest to some readers, who are not altogether blind to the aeronautical situation in America, to note that some aero clubs are so little interested in progress that even standard aeronautical periodicals are not to be found on the library table by members who are interested in advancement of aeronautics; of course, presuming that some aero club members do actually, strange as it may seem, have more or less slight interest in aerial locomotion. The Postmaster of Dayton, Ohio, the birthplace of flight, has notified one publisher that his periodical is "refused" by the secretary of the "International Aeroplane Club," of that city.

flurl eva n T Aeronautical Motor

The First Aeronautical Motor to successfully fly a passenger carrying Hydro-Aeroplane, when equipped with starting crank and effective muffler.

The first Sturtevant Motor made private fl'ghts two years ago.

Perfected and placed on market just previously to the New York Aero Show, May, 1912. At this show conceded to be the best constructed motor on exhibit.

Used by Phillips Ward Page in a Burgess-Wright biplane at Boston Aviation Meet, July, 1912, in every event without adjustment or repair to the motor.

Adopted as standard equipment by Burgess Company and Curtis and used in their school daily for two-passenger flights.

Favorably commented on by Army Engineers, after having witnessed rigid lefts.

Backed by the guarantee of the largest builders of air moving machinery in the world.

If you want such a motor that shows ten hours continuous runs at full load, send for catalog 200-U, and ask for copies of test sheets and power curves. Catalog shows construction features and gives complete specifications.

b. f. sturtevant company

HYDE PARK, BOSTON, MASS. And All Principal Cities of the World

Mimic Battle in Air on Goodyear Fabric

One man in a Wright-Burgess Biplane, towering in thesky until 4,000 feet high, put to naught all the plans of more than 1,000 men marching to attack New York in the mimic battle between the Beds and Blues. The man was Lieut. Foulois, of the U. S. Signal Corps.

The fabric vas

QoodJyear

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Rubberized Aeroplane Fabric

Used by the United States Government and by all who want to get results.

Tesls prove this the stroiisre^t, most durable aeroplane fabric made. It is so made that it's irea her-proof. Can't rot nor mildew because moisture can't sot to the fibre ol the fabiic. Won't shrink nor stretch because unaflVeled by beat and cold. It stays tight—hence is speediest, steadiest, most reliable. The recognized standard of quality.

WRITE FOR OUR CIRCULAR

Fully describes Goodyear Aeroplane Fabric. Springs, and No-Kim Cut Aeroplane Tires. Address

The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.

AKRON, OHIO

MOISANT

AVIATION

U.s. ARMY SCHOOL

Winler Headquarters

FIELD

AUGUSTA, GA.

W h i 1 e our contracts with Foreign Governments may require I he entrance of a considerable number of Army Officers, we have increased our facilities so as to afford ample accommodation to our regular pupils. Enrollments should however, be made as promptly as possible.

Write/or beautiful fne booklet and address all communications to

Moisant International Aviators

U. S. RUBBER BUILDING Broadway and 58th Street, New York, N. Y.

Scale Drawing of Burkhart Machine.

hugh robinson

Hugh Robinson, who has been with the Cur-tiss Company, at Hammondsiport, for the last two years, has bought an interest in the Benoist Aircraft Company, at St. Louis. While Mr. Rob-imson has been identified with the aeroplane, business for many years as experimenter, builder and flyer, he is best known to the aero fraternity as the "veteran hydro man" as he was the first man in the world to make a success of flying a hydroaeroplane.

He first came into prominence as a hydro flyer in the wimter of 1910-11 when, in connection with Glenn H. Curtiss at San Diego. Cnrtiss developed the first successful hydroaeroplane. Robinson flew this plane all through the season of

joins benoist,

1911 at exhibitions, having the only hydro shown at the international aero meet held at Chicago in 1911.

Early in 1912 Robinson was sent to Europe to demonstrate the capabilities of the hydroaero plane, taking part in several meets, and showing up the plaine to such good advantage that a goodly number of these machines were ordered before his return, many being ordered by foreign governments.

The Benoist company by adding Robinson to their designing staff, already consisting of Tom Benoist and Tony Jaronus, seem to have so strengthened their organization, that bigger things will be expected of them im 1913 than were even accomplished in 1912.

New Developments in Aeronautics

start your own motor

It is naturally expected that some day all aeroplane engines will be started otherwise than by the propeller. The private owner will demand reasonable improvements which will do away with the actual necessity for a "chauffeur."

With the Sturtevant motor fitted with a starting crank, as installed in Burgess' planes, it is possible for the aviator to start his own engine without leaving his seat. Seated beside the motor, the aviator grasps the starting crank, which, as can be seen in the illustration, is similiar to the automobile starting crank, and pressing it inward against a spring until it engages with the crank-shaft, he pulls it toward him giving the motor a half turn in a clockwise direction, thus starting the motor.

The use of the Mea magneto, which is so constructed as to give as hot a spark when retarded as when fully advanced, makes it possible to start the motor with the magneto and with certainly as much ease as the ordinary automobile motor is started with batteries.

The exhaust pipes leading from the engine to the muffler, pass through an aluminum panel in the lower plane. This is made by replacing the covering on the plane by a strip of sheet aluminum on both sides of the plane.

The muffler is made so effective in this position that the only noticeable noise is that made by the chains driving the propellers, so that the aviator and the passenger may converse easily. As you can see, this is a great advantage, especially in school machines, as instruction can be given the student and he is not distracted by the roar of the exhaust.

The motor runs from the front, clockwise; the same as an auto engine. The Burgess

hydro flies regularly with the Sturtevant four with starter and muffler, carrying pasenger, oars, life preservers, etc. The muffler does not reduce the power of the motor more than four or five per cent. A magneto cut out switch is located on the steering lever.

There is a valve-lifting mechanism, which lifts the exhaust valves from their seats, remaining raised until released.

"v" motor in wright

The proposition of putting a high powered motor in a model B Wright copy has been watched with interest. This has been successfully accomplished by the Frontier Iron Works. One of their 60-70 8 cyl. "V" type motors has been flying in the 'plane of a well known aviator at the Hempstead field and the flyer states he has had his speed accurately measured as 54 miles an hour and this with the throttle but partly open. The photograph shows the method of installation.

This engine has been mounted on spruce spars 2" thick in order to bring the center of the crankshaft in the same position as that of the Wright motor. A change of but one link in each chain was made and the gearing is 15 on the engine sprocket to 34 teeth on the propeller sprockets. The propellers turn in the same direction as usual. A pair of Charavay propellers, same pitch and diameter as the Wright, is being

November, 1912

fitted; in these ash laminations are used to strengthen same to enable higher speed. Under the engine hickory ribs have been placed to withstand the heavier weight of the big engine. The aviator sits between the gas tank and the engine now. The standard radiator has also been replaced by a larger one. The Mea magneto is gear driven and the engine starts easily with the spark retarded and throttle closed. Once in the air the spark is kept advanced and the control is by the throttle. The engine has compression releasing means which enables the same stoppage as in the case of the Wright motor. On the ground the Frontier engine throttles to a "pussy cat's purr" and at 200 feet altitude the engine can scarcely be heard by spectators. A starting crank is provided for in case of hydroaeroplane work. The machine has been fitted with duplicate and entirely independent sets of control wires. General praise has been acccrded the flights that have been made with the big motor.

HORSEPOWER RATING.

The A.L.A.M. formula in general use in this country oftentimes is said to underrate as it does not directly take into account the stroke. That it does, will be seen later. It is:

da n

H.P. =--2.5

(where d = diam. in inches; n = number of cylinders).

Example:— S cyl. motor, 4x5.

4 X 4 X 8

H.P. =------=50.1.

2.5

There is a British formula, called the Dendy-Marshall, which directly uses the length of stroke. This is as follows: — d2 s n H.P. =---12

(where d = diam. in inches, s = stroke, and n = number of cylinders).

The Royal Automobile Club formula is the same as the A.L.A.M., which is based on horsepower delivered at 1,000 feet per minute piston speed. This, therefore, does take into account stroke. Another way of putting this formula is: 4 ds n. The British Institution of Automobile Engineers uses the following:

.45 (d + s) (d — l.lS)n (where d = diam. and s = stroke in inches and n = number of cyls.)

The Technical Committee of the French automobile club has recommended the following formula to the government for the purpose of taxation of touring cars in that country where piston speed does not exceed 6 meters per second. This is based on a mean effective pressure in the cylinder of

about 75 lbs. per sq. in. With this you can figure horsepower at any speed. This is:

n r H. P. = -(ds 1)--2 10s

where d=bore in millimeters l=stroke in millimeters, r=r. p. m. and n=number of cylinders.

The French club suggested in all four different formulae for different classes of motors. The one for aeronautic motors reads: —

n r

H.l\=-(d- 1) —

1.6 10s

Where n=uumber of cylinders, d=di-ameter in millimeters, l=stroke in millimeters and r=r. p. m.)

The above is based on a mean effective pressure of 02.3 lbs. per sq. inch. Translated into English measures, this formula becomes:—

n(d2 l)r H.P. =---10.900

In this case d and 1 values are in inches. Using the example first above given, the H. P. would figure as follows at 1200 r. p. m., without consideration of limit on piston speed.

SX4X4X5X1200

H.P. =--•--- - 70.45

10,900

CONTROL CHECKS

The suggestion is made by Albert Adams Merrill in a letter to the Aeronautical Society, in New York, that all machines should have checks on controls to prevent a man from taking a dive altogether too steep, as Beachey often does. "Unfortunately, all men have not his skill," Mr. Merrill says, "and therefore some of them are dead. Every accident tliat has occurred must have been preceded by some move that placed the machine in a dangrous condition, either by the wind or the aviator. It ought not to be possible for the aviator to place his machine in a dangerous position. * * * * With a check Welch could not have made the fatal dive which caused his death. 1 suggest spring checks."

Checks on control are worth considering hut is must be remembered that there are times when we have to use all the control available to fight the gusts. If you limit the control, you limit the machine's ability to fly in gusty winds.

I have no "kick" about the magazine, in fact it far outclasses************ in that it is neat and snappy and has original pictures and accounts. It is certainly the only magazine over here that can class with the continental magazines. O. J. H.

You are certainly deserving of hearty support for your splendid magazine. It. E. A.

ROBERTS MOTOR

WEARING QUALITIES ARE UNSURPASSED

THE ROBERTS MOTOR CO.

Read This Letter

New Haven, Conn., October 21st, 1912

Gentlemen:—I have delayed answering your letter of September I4th, in order that I might report fully the latest tryout of the 4-X Roberts motor that I purchased from the Tarbox Safety Aircraft Co., of Washington, D. C. in May, 1912.

Upon my return from the White Mountains I took the motor out of the Shneider biplane which I was flying there and installed it in my new Curtiss type with results that both surprised and pleased me. With a 7l2 x 4.58 ft. Paragon propeller the motor developed 340 lbs. thrust and flew the plane in fine shape.

I have made over fifty flights with my new pla le under variable weather conditions, flying one day for forty minutes in the rain. The motor has given me entire satisfaction, never as yet failing to run smoothly and deliver its power.

I consider this worthy of note for the reason that this is the second motor built by your Company and on which, up to the present time but ten (10) cents have been spent on repairs.

Will send you some pictures of plane, motor, etc. in a few days, meanwhile will you kindly advise me as to the latest developments in your product, as I am coming out with a Hydro in the spring and can see nothing but a six Roberts now.

Very truly yours.

RAYMUND V. MORRIS.

SEND FOR CATALOG TODAY

143OC0KJMBWAy:

=^ohio.v: S. a.

Wright Hydroaeroplane School now open at Glen Head, L. I.

Lieut. Arnold

Atwood

Brookins

Brindley

Bonney

Beatty

Burgess

Coffyn

Capt. Chandler

Drew Elton

Lieut. Foulois

Fowler

Gill

Lieut. Lahm Lieut. Milling Mitchell C. P. Rodgers

Lieut. Rodgers

Parmalee

Page

Reynolds

Simmons

Turpin

Welsh

Webster

and a score of others

Our Schools at Dayton and Now York are now open and pupils may begin training at once if they wish. By enrolling now you can reserve date most convenient to you for training.

^zzr=r^i^z Write for Particulars ^^^^^^

Hotel Cumberland

NEW YORK Broadway at 54th Street

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and up

Wright Flyers f

1912 Models

In addition to those features which in the past have made Wright Flyers famous for efficiency and reliability, the new models can be furnished with Automatic Control, Silent Motors, and Hydroplanes. These special features make the 1912 machine unusually attractive to sportsmen.

Exhibition Machines

For exhibition work we have other models especially adapted to high winds and small fields. It was with a stock "EX" Model that Rodgers made his wonderful flight from Coast to Coast. Reliability means dollars to the exhibitor.

Wright Schools of Aviation

Training consists of actual flying, in which the pupil is accompanied by a competent teacher. No risk and no expense whatever from breakage. The most famous flyers in America are graduates of our school and include such names as—

Send for booklet Ten Minutes' Walk to Thirty Theatres

H. P. STIMSON

Formerly with Hotel Impeiial

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Manufactured Especially for --—- Aeroplanes-

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The C. E. Conover Co.

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160 ? pounds weight

DESIGN

Revolving cylinders Mechanical intake valves Variable compression Double exhaust system

Large ball bearings throughout

Positive lubrication

Positive gasoline feed

Standard Magneto, tachometer, etc.

Easy starting device Aviator starts motor from his seat if required

"GYRO" ENDURANCE RECORD TO DATE

pT" 4 Hours, 23 Minutes "9i at 60 Miles an Hour

Stopped on account of Severe Thunder Storm

Built of Nickel Steel and Vanadium Steel throughout

j Sizes 3, 5 and 7 cylinders representing 22, 35 and 50 horsepower Under Construction: 7-cylinders, 80 H. P., 5-cylinders, 60 H.P.

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military aviation in france

During July C. McK. Saltzman, Major, Signal Corps, U. S. Army, visited the French military aviation center at Saint Cyr. Some of the facts which he presents in his report to the Adjutant General will be found of interest.

The aeronautical work of the French Army is regarded as confidential, Major Saltzman was informed by the military attache of the United States Army. It appears that it is very difficult for foreign Army officers to obtain permission to inspect or visit any of the aviation centers of the French army. It is currently reported by French officers that France, realizing the supremacy of England on the sea and the great strength of the German Army, has determined to have supremacy in the air and to have the strongest aerial fleet in the world.

The aviation field at Saint Cyr is rough and some portions covered with high grass and shrubbery, but the French authorities have not desired to clear and level the field, believing that a field covered with grass and small shrubs will more nearly conform to the conditions to be encountered by aviators in actual service.

The station includes 11 large hangars. These hangars are of a portable type made of wooden frame-work covered with canvas. They can he taken down, packed up, and carried to the field in motor trucks. The enlisted men on duty at this aviation center were quartered in portable houses which can be taken apart and transported in motor trucks.

The machines at Saint Cyr are all biplanes, 11 being of the M. Farman type, and all of the officers there were adherents of the Farman school of aviation, and believe his biplanes to be very satisfactory. Each machine was equipped with a map case and a compass, located in front of the pilot's position; and were also provided with apparatus for sketching. There was also being tried out a new type of French aeroplane known as the Zodiac.

As to how many aeroplanes were owned and operated by the French army, no one was able to tell definitely, but it is believed that they have over 200 aeroplanes of various types. The aviators are all commissioned officers of the French army. The mechanicians and assistants who care for the machines and repair them are enlisted men of the French army.

The following questions were asked of officers and mechanics connected with the aeronautical service of the French army, and also of officials of the Aero Club of France.

1. Do you consider the monoplane or the bipane the most satisfactory for general military service? The answer depended entirely on whether the officer interrogated

had been trained in a biplane or a monoplane, each insisting that his type of machine was the most suitable.

2. Which type of aeroplane, the monoplane or biplane, do yon consider the safest for military use? From the replies received I am of the belief that the biplane is the safest.

3. Are aeroplane accidents most generally caused by defects in the aeroplane, or mistakes of the aviator? The answer was invariably that they were caused by the mistakes of aviators.

4. What is most generally the cause of aeroplane accidents? (a) Lack of experience on the part of the aviator; (b) Over-confidence, which breeds carelessness.

5. Are enlisted men suitable for aviators of military aeroplanes? The answer was always "No." The duty is one involving a high degree of intelligence and judgment. The duty is important and should be performed by officers. The French are of the opinion that the aeroplane is of great value in reconnaissance and scouting and that good results can only be obtained by having pilots who are trained officers and appreciate military situations.

6. What type cf motor do you consider the best for aeroplanes? The Gnome motor.

7. What type of an officer makes the best aviator? A young, athletic man who- is keen and alert and has good judgment. It is generally believed that an aviator should be younger than 38 years of age.

8. Do you consider that there should be any organization in the aeronautical service, or is each machine a unit by itself? All persons of whom I asked this question were surprised that I should ask such a question, it being their belief that the aeronautical machines and personnel must be organized into large and small units for administrative purposes, etc., just as the field artillery is organized into batteries, battalions, regiments, etc.

As a result of his investigation. Major Saltzman recommends that an officer of the aviation service in the United States Army be sent to France to learn to operate one of the best types of French machines, preferably a Breguet or a Nieuport.

It is also recommended that the United States Army purchase a Nieuport monoplane and a Breguet biplane, the former to be equipped with a 70 H. P. Gnome motor and the latter with the type of motor recommended by that company.

In case only one foreign machine is purchased, it is recommende.. that it be a Nieuport machine.

There is not one page from cover to cover that any air man could not want. You could not improve it one whit for the price.

J. II. J., Alabama.

elevator action of the rudder

When is an elevator a rudder—and vice versa? Expert aviators discuss this but, until a note appeared in Flight, no public mention has been made of transposition, to any extent, of the functions of the elevator and the rudder. This may have a bearing on the unfortunate death of Paul Peck.

In turning, the outer wing speeds up and the machine automatically banks. When this occurs, the rudder is tilted sideways, and there is a small vertical component of the air pressure on its face. The rudder has actually begun to be ah elevator.

Assuming that the condition is exaggerated to the point at which the machine is hanked to 45°. The lateral and vertical components of the pressure are now equal, and the rudder plane is just as much an elevator as it is a rudder.

"The consequence of the combined effect is to make the tail swing upwards and outwards, thus promoting a dive. It is, therefore, reasonable to suppose that the elevator itself will now be put up to check the dive, in which case, the elevator bein? likewise tilted at 45° from its normal position, acts as much as a rudder as it does as eu elevator. So, although it may neutralize the elevating effect of the rudder, it is only by the difference in their respective areas that it will be able to actually depress the tail. If the bank is less than 45", as it would be of course in practice, the disparity of its influence is less marked, but, in any case, it augments the ruddering effect and so tends to lock the machine in its spiral path, which if the speed increases, will augment the natural bank until it may in fact approach to the value of 45°. On a steep spiral p?th, it is by no means easy to say exactly how much the machine is really banked, but it would appear as if it may easily introduce conditions analogous to an excessive amount, so far as they influence the action of the tail in the manner above described."

It is at any rate clear that the rudder must no longer be maintained in the same position once the machine has assumed a high velocity downwards. By throwing the rudder over to the outer side, i. e., ruddering outwards from the spiral, both the ruddering and the elevating effects produced by the rudder plane are immediately reversed, that is to say, the rudder not only tends to straighten the flight path, but to reduce the steepness of the descent. This influence, although perhaps comparatively small in itself, is augmented by the action of the elevator proper, which is already in position for depressing the tail, it is not surprising, therefore, if an instantaneous flattening out of the machine follows this operation of the control. Any tendency to straighten the flight path likewise tends to obliterate the bank, which in turn tends to restore the elevator to the full exercise of its normal function.

german motor construction.

The motor makers, "Rotor-Werke G. m. b. H.. Frankfort, Germany, have produced two types of rotating motors, a 70 and a 90 horsepower. In these the removal of the cylinders is done in a very short time. The intake valve arrangement is interesting. A

rocker arm pivcts on the wrist pin. The valve is placed to one side of the center of the piston head. i. e.. the side towards that to which the motor rotates. It is claimed for this position that less oil enters through the valve into the explosion chamber.

to determine the pitch of model propellers

This can be applied only when the pitch is small. Supposing we have a 9-in. propeller with a tip angle say of 50°, first draw to any desired scale a line equal to 2 n that, is to the path traced out by the tip during one revolution, which in this case is 22/7 X 9, that is 28 2/7 in. Call this line AB. From A draw a line AC making an angle of 50° with AB, and from B draw a straight line vertically upwards to meet AC in C. BC is the pitch. This is obviously the case; take a full-size drawing. If we wrap the paper on which figure is drawn round a cylinder 9 in. in diameter, point C will come vertically above point A and will therefore represent the distance between two consecutive threads.

If P=pitch we have by Trigonometry I'=2 7T r tan a; a being the angle, in this case 50°. The latter is a very convenient method if one possesses a table of Natural Tangents.

Applying these two methods to the above we find by the first method the pitch to be 33.5 inches and by second 33.G6.

If BC=BA then the pitch is evidently equal to 3 1/7 times the diameter. In this case a=45° and tan a we know equals 1.

Conversely a pitch of 2H> times the diameter gives an angle at the tip of about 38°, and times the diameter an angle of 25°.—Flight.

j9

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CURTISS MOTOR EQUIPPED

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THE CURTISS MOTOR CO. ïmftn

491759�1

AERONAUTICS

surface testing device

The accompanying illustration shows the device used by the Curtiss aeroplane company in testing out the efficiency of sur-

face panels. The experiments have been carried on for some time past with excellent results. Heretofore, all experiments of the kind have been made in a wind tunnel where the conditions are not quite the same as in actual flight.

The panel is supported on a system of float levers in such a way that the lift and drift are each shown on an independent set of scales. This was mounted on a standard hydroaeroplane and flown over Lake Keuka, and in this way the results obtained were under true flying conditions. The test plane can be set at various angles. The readings resulting serve for comparative data only, the figures obtained not being absolute for any single surface; they do show relative efficiency of the various planes tested.

FLYING BOATS FOR NAVY.

' The makers of hydroaeroplanes should find it profitable to endeavor to meet the ideas ol the Navy in the matter of evolving a suitable military flying boat. The Navy has a certain amount of money which it can spend without calling on Congress.

Under Captain W. Irving Chambers, the Navy is now experimenting on its own account at Annapolis with the boat portion of the 'plane and Ensign Victor Herbster, with a passenger, has already made flights in the new Wright 6 cylinder machine fitted with Navy leatheroid hydroplane which is of a modified Curtiss tyipe. The machine was constructed by the Navy aviators and their mechanics from spare parts.

A new Curtiss hyrdoaeroplane has been delivered at the Washington Navy Yard and Lieut. Ellyson has been flying it. This is being held there for use in the experiments Captain Chambers is making. The Navy's own design hydroplane will be tried on it. The Navy's .new Curtiss flying boat should be ready in December and can be looked forward to with interest.

Both the Army and Navy are active to a greater extent than ever before, and it should

be possible for makers to produce machines available for military use and acceptable to the authorities.

the gage tractor

Robert G. Fowler, the "coast-to-coast" aviator, is one of the latest professionals to adopt the headless tractor, his new model being a Gage biplane built by the Gage-McClay Co., of Griffith Aviation Park, Los Angeles, California.

Fowler made his initial flight with the 'plane on October 19th, flying from the aviation park to the Cawston Ostrich Farm in South Pasadena and return. This flight was of 31 minutes and was repeated the next day

The design of the machine follows close ly to that of the 'planes manufactured by the same company for aviators Roy Francis, Phil O. Parmalee and Clifford Turpin— all being of the single tractor type.

The upper plane has a spread of 41 feet while the lower surface measures 30 feet. The 5 foot extensions can be readily detached thus increasing the speed of the machine. With the extensions the 'plane flies at a speed of GO miles per hour.

Power is derived from a 60 h.p. Hall-Scott motor which drives a 7-foot blade direct. The motor is equipped with an extra oil pump which has a capacity of about 5 gallons. A 25 gallon gasoline tank

is located in the fuselage over the center of pressure. The 'plane is operated similar to the Farman type with an exceptionally heavy control wiring system.

the thomas biplane

The illustration shows the Thomas headless biplane, Kirkham motor, used by Walter Johnson in making the new 2-man endurance record and by Niles in his 4-hour flight for the single endurance record. In Johnson's flight there was no windshield and the pas-

senger sat cn the lower surface. Note the location of the gasoline tanks holding 60 gallons. The upper plane overhangs and spreads 37' 6". The tail is dismounted by removal of one bolt. The vertical rudders are attached to elevators and the same post acts as king post for elevator. Stability is by large ailerons attached to top plane only.

best strut shape

The bar shape found to offer the least resistance is the one illustrated. This is according to a communication made to the Aeronautical Society o. Great Britain, by A. P. Thurston, B. Sc., after tests made at the University of London for the Society.

A large number of bars having sections of various geometrical constructions and all inch thick had been obtained. They were all made % inch thick because this thickness is well within the limits of the tunnel.

Templets of the various shapes had been prepared and supplied to the carpenters. The bars which they made showed grave departure from dimensions supplied anil in some cases want of symmetry. Three different carpenters and pattern makers of the highest skill were tried with no better results. It was therefore evident that the bars for the purposes of experiments such as these should be machine cut. The author suggests that this should be done in

future experiments since it has proved that apparently trivial differences of shape may, in some cases, greatly alter the resistance obtained. Each particular section was represented by bars of 12 inches, IS inches and 30 inches in length, and in some cases by additional lengths of 6 inches and 24 inches. The resistances of all these specimens reduced to the standard velocity of 20 miles per hour were determined, in some cases by many experiments, and the results were plotted.

It was found that in most cases the resistance of a bar is less with the thin end to the wind than with the blunt or thick end. This appears to be contrary to general belief which is to the effect that all bars have least resistance with the blunt end to the wind. The author, hesitating to publish which appears to be so contrary to existing knowledge, has delayed the publication of this fact for twelve months and has, in the meantime, further investigated the point. All the weight of evidence and proof being in support of these results it was felt that publication should not be delayed further.

It may therefore be stated as a general fact that resistance of most bars is least with the thin end to the wind with the exception of a few shapes which are the forms for minimum resistance.

In these exceptional cases the resistance is least with the blunt end to the wind.

A curve in one of the figures in the report shows the value of K for bars each % inch thick and 2'/, inches deep, the section being-formed by arcs of circles struck from a line perpendicular to the long axis and passing through one apex tangents being drawn from the other apex to touch these arcs. The position of the line from which the arcs are struck is varied. The limiting case is the circular based triangle 2y2 inches deep. The position of the maximum thickness was \aried from % inch through the values 1/3, 1/2. 2/3. 3/4 to 7/8 of the depth from the front edge.

The resistance of the type of bar shown is less with the blunt end to the wind and is least when the maximum thickness is % the depth from the front edge. The bar shown in the illustration appears to have the least resistance of all the bars tested.

The author states, however, that it is obvious there are shapes having a smaller resistance than this bar.

Nove über, 1912

BLERlOT MONOPLAN ES

SPECIAL PRICES-THREE MONTHS ONLY — IMMEDIATE DELIVERIES. Single Seater Bleriot Monoplanes equipped with 50 H. P. Roberts Motor, $1,800.00. TUITION FREE to purchasers—Illustrated Catalog Free. Send for it today. SPECIAL MACHINES Built to order. Send drawings for estimate.

AMERICAN AEROPLANE SUPPLY HOUSE

Hempstead, L. I., N. Y.

Farman Running Gears Complete, as above - $47.50

AERONAUTICAL SUPPLIES

Everything to build any type flying machine.

New Catalogue with working drawings of Curtiss, Farman and Bleriot-type machines in course of construction and will be maiied free upon request to all parties as soon as received from the printer. Write for quotations.

a few immediate delivery prices

Curtiss Steering Wheels - $9.00 FREE with

Curtiss Seats - 5.50

5-Gallon Tanks - - 6.15

Aviator Caps - - - 1.25

Outrigger Fittings - - .29

Oval Post Sockets - - .17

every $50.00

order for Aeronautical Supplies FLEECE-LINED AVIATOR CAP.

Aluminum pulleys with brass bushings:

2" 25c, 2*" 30c, 3n 40c. Wheels and Tires complete, Eclipse Hub:

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WIRE

We make an extra high grade plated finish wire for aviators' use.

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john a. roebling's sons co.

TRENTON, N. J.

AERONAUTICS

The Leading British Monthly Journal Devoted to the Technique and Industry of Aeronautics.

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with propellers bearing this name

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SLOANE AEROPLANE CO. 1733 Broadway, NEW YORK CITY

Agenti : Eames Tricycle Co., Sao Francisco and Los Angeles ; National Aeroplane Co., Chicago ; W. E. Boughton, Washington, D. C.

Free Instruction in the Operation of the

CURTISS FLYING BOAT

WILL BE GIVEN To Those Taking a Regular Course of Training at the

Curtiss School of Aviation

SAN DIEGO, CAL.

FINISH OF HYDROAEROPLANE RACES AT HAMMONDSPORT, N. Y. David McCulloh in his "Flying Boat" leads; he is accompanied by Mr. Curtiss, Lincoln Beachey is second, accompanied by Lansing Callan, while Francis Wildman, instructor at Hammondsport School, is third with the Standard Hydroaeroplane.

Among the men who have learned aviation at Curtiss Schools are:

Lieut. T. C. ELLYSON, now in charge of the aeroplanes of the U. S. Navy.

Lieut. J. H. TOWERS, who just established a new World's Hydroaeroplane Record of 6 hrs., 10 min., 38 sec.

H. ROBINSON, who recently introduced the Hydroaeroplane in Europe and is now instructor in a Curtiss School.

C. C. WITMER, now in St. Petersburg demonstrating Hydroaeroplanes to the Russian Navy and Army.

Lieut. J. W. McCLASKEY. instructor in a Curtiss School.

LINCOLN BEACHEY. "The World's Greatest Aviator."

S. C. LEWIS, now instructor in the Morane School in France.

J. LANSING CALLAN, now an instructor in a Curtiss School.

FRANCIS WILDMAN, now an instructor in a Curtiss School.

BECKWITH HAVENS, now a demonstrator.

W. B. ATWATER. now demonstrating to the Japanese Government.

Resides, a score of men who own their own machines and fly in contests and exhibitions and a dozen others have taken positions with either manufacturers or exhibition concerns.

OUR SAN DIEGO, CAL.. AVIATION TRAINING GROUNDS, situated on North Island, in San Diego Harbor, are the finest in America, if not in the world. North Island is leased by us exclusively for Aviation purposes, and comprises one thousand acres of flat, level sand, unobstructed by rock, tree or building, thus offering every advantage as a flying course. The island is entirely private, yet within a few minutes of San Diego, one of the most progressive and attractive cities on the Pacific Coast.

THE FIRST CLASS BEGINS INSTRUCTION DECEMBER 1st. THE SECOND CLASS WILL START JANUARY 1st, 1913.

A $100 00 deposit will reserve a place for you in this class. Mail or wire it to-day. Our Booklet "TRAINING" mailed upon request.

THE CURTISS AEROPLANE CO.

HAMMONDSPORT, N. Y.

pitot tube speed meter

0. E. Williams, of 1703 Madison Ave., Scranton Pa., has combined in his new biplane, several interesting features of which he has proven the value.

The engine is centrally located with braces extending down a short skid. The driver's seat is to the left of the engine and his weight is counterbalanced by an iron brace on the end of the right wing, and by the torque of the engine and propeller.

Tensual form F ailerons provide lateral stability. These have one-ninth the area of the lifting surface.

A speed indicator, geared by a cord drive running over grooved pulleys, from the camshaft, and so calibrated as to read in revolutions per minute, assures him that the engine is up to speed before any flight is attempted.

Attached to the strut at the driver's left, is a Pitot tube for reading the speed of flight.

turntable for hydros

The water shed at the Curtiss school has been fitted with a turntable for convenience

This consists of a U-shaped glass tube having a forward extension, and partly filled with water colored slightly with red ink. The wind blowing into the extension raises the level of the water in the opposite side of the tube, and this is read on a scale placed beside it. To calibrate the tube the following formula is used: S=i4000X H, where S is the speed in feet per minute, and H is the head, or diffierence in height of water in the two arms of the tube. In other words, the speed in feet per minute in still air equals 4000X the square root of the head in inches. By using a slide rule for obtaining square roots of various valves of H, the velocity in feet per minute can be read instantly.

A sufficient number of flights have been made by Mr. Williams to satisfy him that he has a satisfactory machine. The test flights have been from 25 to 300 feet in height and from one half mile to two and one-half miles in length, in the hilly country of Northeastern Pennsylvania.

in turning the hydro-aeroplane around when it comes in from a flight.

kellogg control

Herbert Kellogg, 130 W. Mill St., Kewanee, Ills., has built a monoplane with a friction gear capable of a wide range of speed on the ground. An adjustable steel propeller with ribs is used, which weighs but IS lbs. The pilot and engine are close to the ground under the wings; of course, the drive is by chain. His control column is novel. The pillar "A" is mounted as a universal joint. From the axis of the wheel is another tube "B" about at right angle to the former, plso universally mounted where it joins a strut "D." Swinging the wheel-column operates

ailerons; turning wheel, the rudder; and pushing or pulling on the tube "C" in tube "B" operates the elevator.

new duration record

A new American one-man duration record was luaue on Oct. G by Lit. john M. Towers, L. S. Aa.y, using Curtiss hydroaeroplane, Curtiss motor with Bosch ignition, at Annapolis, lvid. lie llew continuously tor b hrs. l\j mins. 3d sees., beating the late Paul l'eck's lecoru of 4 hrs. 33 mins. 15 sees, made tm May 2-ith last.

new 2-man endurance record

Walter E. Johnson, Hying a Thomas biplane, maae a mew ..mentan eiiuinance record, carrying one passenger, horn the held of Thomas A.iation bchool, at Bath, N. 1\, Thuisday, Uct. 01st. his time was thiee hours, htty-one minutes, fit teen seconds. The record previous to tins was made by ^eorge Beatty, at Chicago august 19, lbll. The time was three hours, 43 minutes, 22 y2 seconds.

Johnson earned as a passenger Arthur Blasair, who w eigns 16o pounds, a mechanic of the Thomas School. The flight was one of endurance, not only tor the machine, but for the men themselves. A strong, cold wind was blowing throughout the flight, and both aviator and passenger suhertd intensely; they were assisted from their seais on landing.

The machine was equipped with a 6t> H. P. Ivirkliam six-cylinder motor. A special tank, holding thirty gallons of gasoline, was hung from tne upper plane, on the opposite side from the passenger. Enough remained in the tank alter the landing to have carried them far over the four-hour mark. Two and a half gals, of oil were used.

on the machine used, no provision was made for accommodating a passenger with seat, and B'lasair was forced to sit on a board tied to the lower plane. The record was remarkable for the fact that it was made under such unfavor-ao.e weather conditions and at such a late time in the season. But for the intense cold, there is no doubt but that Johnson would have bettered the record by a full hour. The aviator kept to a le\ el of about 350 feet and traveled in a circle of about two miles in circumference. At on time did he throttle the motor, but tiaveled at full speed for the entire time, covering a distance of about 235 miles.

Referring to this flight, Mr. Johnson stated: "The last 12 minutes were a nightmare. When i had broken the record, I expected to make it at least four hours, but mothing in the world could have kept me in the air longer with light clothing and in the intense cold."

new american 2- man altitude record

Harry Bingham Brown, with Miss Isabella Patterson, of Vancouver, B. C, made a new American altitude record for aviator and passenger, going up to 5300 feet at the Aeronautical Society's flying festival at their new grounds at Oakwood Heights, Staten Island, on Election fay, Nov. 5. The previous record was made by White, in a Nieuport, at Nassau, Sept. 30th, 11111, 3347 feet. Brown's flight lasted 46 minutes.

more american records

The following new American speed records made by Vedrines at Clering, Illinois, September ! th, 1912, in a 1 >eperdussin monoplane with in 11. P. Gnome engine have been officially passed.

5 kiloms. in 1:44.21; 10 kiloms. in 3:27.60; 20 kiloms. in 6:55.95; 30 kiloms. in 10:45.71; 10 kiloms. in 11:19.15; 50 kiloms. in 17:51.SO;

100 kiloms. in 35:40.20; 150 kiloms. in 53:18.70; 200 kiloms. in 70:56.85.

The speed record for 20 kilometers has already been certified as a world's record.

niles flies nearly 5 hours

Charles P. Niles, in a Thomas biplane, was forced to land with dead motor, from VuOO tt. altitude, at Bath, N. Y., November 4th, after Hying 4 hrs. 45 mini. 10 sec, in an attempt to urea.! the American Duration Kecord for aviator aione; oiricially observed.

!\nes used the same machine and motor used by Waiter E. Johnson in securing the American Duiation Carrying Passenger.

Trouuie developed 111 motor wnen a bearing gripped, and finally burned out. Niles kept the macnine in the air 45 minutes after he first noticed kocking in motor—result, all bearings uunned out and connecting lod plunged through cranK shatt casing.

aeronautical society exhibitions

The Aeronautical Society formally started the Hying at the new grounds at Oakwood Heights 011 October 12, when Harry B. Brown, (Wright), Horace ivemmerle (Baldwin), E. Weeks (Williams), Miss. Ruth Law (Wright) and George b'eatty (Wright), all flew. Onion Hoffman snot toy balloons from Brown's 'plane and the latter took up Rodman Law, the parachute jumper, to a height of 5500 feet before the jump was maue, a reoord height tor America in passenger alutude flying, as well as for 'plame-parachute jumping. This was the first time Law had been witnessed in public aftans around i\ew York and his jump was the sensation of the day. A description of his apparatus was printed in the October number of this Journal.

The plane flown by Weeks was one made by O. E. Williams of bcranton, .fa., and is of a modified Curtiss type with Curtiss motor. In this machine the aviator sits beside the engine, on the lower surface. Weeks' flying was very last and won general commendation.

The Election Day exhibition brought a still greater crowd and the flying was incessant ano. interesting. It was on this day that Harry B. Blown, with Miss. Isabella Patterson, made a new American altitude record for aviator and passenger, going up 53J0 feet. Other flyers weie Charles K. Hamilton, Miss Ruth Law, Cecil Peoli and George B'eatty. A shooting competition was held with Charles L. Calder, marksman, shooting toy balloons fro.m Beatty's Wright and Dillon Hoffman from Brown's. Wright; the match was won by Calder. Homing pigeons released during flight was another feature. Peoli flew the Baldwin "Red Devil", and Hamilton a Curtits.

Peoli took up his mother after adding surface to the "Red Devil" in the endeavor to beat the record of Brown but owing to darkness the attempt had to be abandoned after rising 1000 feet.

George M. Dyott had promised to come with his Rex Bleriot monop.ane but the Fennsylvani R. R. lost track of the car in a wreck between Macon, Ga. and this city.

At the last minute Chas. K. Hamilton agreed to take his place and his 'plane was shipped at 10 P. M. Monday from New Britain, Ct. and arrived at 12.30 Tuesday and was then set up in 2 hours.

R. G. Sharrotts, Private, U, S. Signal Corps, was taken up by Brown and observations made

November, 1912

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AERONAUTICS

Coming Events

Cast your shadow towards the

King of Attractions

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Elevating

FREDERICK RODMAN LAW

In his WRIGHT AEROPLANE to |

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and notes written by Sharotts during flight were dropped im tubes attached to miniature parachutes.

aeronautical society moves

The Aeronautical Society now has new quarters in the Engineering Societies Building, 29 West 39th Street, New York, where a large lecture hall is available for the public meetings. The great library of the Engineers Club is also open to members of the Society for reading and research work.

deaths in america

Savona, N. Y., Oct. 6. Motohisa Kondo, a graduate of the Curtiss school of aviation at San Diego, Cat, where he secured his pilots license in May of this year, was killed in falling with his machine from an altitude of 200 feet. He was flying at an altitude of 200 feet when he turned to the right which took him over the highway and over a farm house and buildings, and had made the turn, when, for some unknown reason, he pushed his control forward, sending his machine straight down over a barn. He came down until within 30 feet of the ground when he changed his control and righted the machine but struck the frame of a steel windmill about 10 feet from the ground.

Kondo was thrown from the machine and instantly killed. His head struck on one of the steel uprights of the windmill and crushed the skull on the entire left side. His neck was broken and his jaw was fractured in two places. The impact was terrific and the windmill which was of steel angle-iron construction, was nearly broken in two halves, and buckled over the aeroplane wreckage. Mr. Kondo was a native of Osaka, Japan, and came to this country im June, 1903. He was born in December, 1SS5. He was flying a Kirkham tractor biplane with a 70 horse power Kirkham motor, which was a different type of machine than Mr. Kondo had been using.

Birmingham, Ala., Oct. S.—"Joe" Stevenson died from injuries received from a fall October 7, in an exhibition flight, using a headless "Curtis-type" of his own make. Stevenson was well known in New York and was the butt of many a joke on his experiences in the air, for nearly every "flight" of a mile or so ended in a wreck. Flying certainly was not a natural art with him. A national registration and license law would have avoided this fatal accident. George M. Dyott, who was flying a Rex mono at the same place, states that the the day was windy, bad eddies and downward air currents, machine did not climb rapidly, got into bad eddy, sideslipped and crashed to ground, rose first about fifty feet up.

Montgomery, Ala., Oct. 23.—Louis Mitchell was killed making a spiral dive in his Wright. Mitchell was known as the "heaviest aviator," weighing about 225 pounds.

official findings on army deaths

1. The Board of Officers appointed to investigate the cause of the accident to Lt. Rockwell and Corp. Frank Scott reported as follows:

Immediately after the accident, the Board proceeded to examine the wrecked machine, and upon this examination found that the control wires were all intact. From the testimony of eye-witnesses, the Board is of the opinion that the accident was caused by the aviator misjudging his height from the ground and his failure to bring the machine out of the glide in sufficient time to clear the ground.

new companies

Harry N. Atwood Private School of Aviation, Inc., Boston, $10,000. Harry N. Atwood, L». R. Soule, S. S. Atwood.

Batson Air Navigation Co. and the Batson Aircraft Co., of Springfield, Mass., inc. under laws of N. J., cap. stock of each $500,000. B. S. Mantz, S. A. Anderson and C. H. Jarvis.

American Aviators Promoters Ass'n, Okla-

homa City, Okla., $10,000; C. E. Bishop, Howard Pendleton and James S. Watson.

The Flying Machine Improvement & Parcel Post Delivery Co., of America, Kittery, Maine; $500,000; H. Mitchell, H. A. Paul.

aero club adopts "aeronautics"' plea

Seven flyers successfully passed the 1912 requirements for the Aero Club's "expert aviators' " certificate. These are as follows:

1 Max Lillie

2 Glenn L. Martin

3 2nd Lieut. T. de W. Milling, 15th Cavalry

4 2nd Lieut. H. H. Arnold, 29th Infantry

5 Capt. C. de F. Chandler, Signal Corps.

6 Capt. P. \V. Beck, 17th Infantry.

7 1st Lieut. B. D. Foulois 7th Infantry Expert certificates are granted without trials

to U. S. A. aviators who have passed the special army requirements and have been certified by the Secretary of War as entitled to the grade of "Army Aviators."

The army requirements differ somewhat from those of the Club but are fully as difficult, and in some respects more so. The tests for army aviators have been printed in AERONAUTICS.

The plan of giving superior certificates to real flyers to distinguish them from any old grasshopper who fulfills international conditions was first urged by AERONAUTICS. The Club is to be complimented on this most sensible step.

new pilots

The following are the international licenses which have been granted since the issuance of the October number:—

174—H. C. Richardson, at Hammondsport, N. y. Aug. 20, 1912 (Curtiss hydro); 175—Charles L. Wiggins, at Cicero, 111., Sept. 12, 1912 (Wright); 17 6—Cord Meyer, at Hempstead, L. i., Sept. 28, 1j12 (Wright); 177—John S. Schaefer, ai Cicero, 111., Sept. 1 and Oct. 1, 1912, (w right); 17S—Robert Elliott, at Cicero, 111., Oct. 1, 19U (Wright); 179—P. H. Reid, at Hempstead, L. 1., Oct. IS, 1912, (Deperdussin); (Mr. Reid's license has been granted him subject to approval of the Royal Aero Club of the United Kingdom). ISO—John S. Sverkerson, at Cicero, 111., Oct. 15, 1912 (Wright).

177 John S. Schaefer, Cicero, 111., (Wright), Oct. 23, 1912.

17S Robert Elliott, Cicero, 111., (Wright), Oct. 23, 1912.

179 P. H. Reid, Hempstead, (Deperdussin), Oct. 23, 1912.

150 John S. Sverkerson, Cicero, 111., (Wright), Oct. 23, 1912.

151 Charles F. Niles, Syracuse, N. Y., (Curtiss), Nov. 6th, 1912.

152 Horacio Ruiz, Hempstead, (Moisant), Nov. 6th, 1912.

153 William Anthony Lamkey, Hempstead, (Moisant), Nov. 6th, 1912.

154 Glen M. Tait, Bath, N. Y., (Thomas), Nov. 6th, 1912.

155 Ralph Myron Brown, Bath, N. Y., (Thomas), Nov. 6th, 1912.

beachey and fish suspended

On October 29th, 1912, the Contest Committee of the Aero Club of America suspended the licenses of Mr. Lincoln Beachey, aviation pilot No. 27, until 12 o'clock moon, July 1st, 191.,, for violation Of Rtsolution passed by the Board of Governors on Aiarch 27th, 1912, when he flew over Michigan Avenue, Chicago, at the time of the Chicago Meet and Mr. Farnum T. Fish, aviation pilot No. So, until 12 o'clock moon. July 1st, 1913, for violation of Resolution passed by the Board on November 13th, 1911 when he flew over the Vanderbilt Cup Race at Milwaukee, Wis.

wright-curtiss suit

The Wright-Curtiss suit has again been postponed to Nov. ISth, when lawyers for both parties will argue before the Court at Buffalo.

Aviation is rapidly getting to be a poor man's sport, .lust because this sport has made a lot of poor men. or a lot of men poor, is no reason for calling the sport poor. Even the poor mam can now learn to fly. The Thomas Brothers are cataloging their course at $250, using two-man machines with duplicate control.

Your cooperation has been of great value to us, which is very much appreciated. Success to your truly aeronautic journal.

—An advertiser

An eight cylinder 72-horsepower "V" type air cooled motor will shortly be placed on the market by the Kemp Machine Co., of Mu.ncie, Tnd., the makers of the Gray Eagle. A club has been started in Muncie. with a field, and the Kemp people offer free use of their motors to experimenters at that field, subject to purchase if motors prove successful in their machine.

The Chicago meet was a very satisfactory one for the Hall Scott Company, as they sold eight motors within three weeks in Chicago. H. F. Kearnv was a big attraction up to the arrival of Lincoln Beachey, and then Kearnv and Beachey gave some demonstrations of fanov flying whi"h were wonderful from a snec-tacular point of view. Kearny used a Hall Scott 10 If. P. motor, flying throughout the meet with it. and used it for something over nine hours, getting second place in endurance.

Arnold Kruekman. formerly Secretary of the Aeronautical Society, has become affiliated with the Sloane Aeroplane Co., of New York, and was elected its Secretary. Mr. Kruekman will be in charge of the Los Aneeles activities of the Sloane Aeroplane Co. The Service Bureau which he instituted is one of the most successful departments of the Aeronautical Society. It has enabled many persons to avoid falling into the clutches of fraudulent school promoters and fake exhibition promoters. It has also brought many aviators and mechanicians in contact with erood positions.

Harry B. Wise, on the staff of the Sloane Aeroplane Co., has been appointed Superintendent of Equipment and Construction, in connection with the activities of the Company at Los Angeles. Mr. Wise is am expert aeronautical architect, engineer and motor specialist. He was for many years in charge of the activities of the Cliristv Motor Co. When Charles K. Hamilton began to tour me country with his aeroplane Wisp was in charge of the mechanical end. Later he was in charffe of the aeroplanes and motors when the Moisant Company sent the Internaticmal Aviators on their tour around the United States and Mexico.

The Burgess Military 1912 machine has been entirely rebuilt by the U. S. Signal Corps and equipped with a Sturtevant motor, completely muffled. The navy has placed an order for a Sturtevant muffled motor to go on their Wright machine, the installation to be done by the Burgess Company. The new military hvdro-aeroplane under order from the Signal Corps, U. S. A. is now being assembled. It will be equipped with two hydroplane boats of a new type built of a combination of materials mot heretofore used.

It contains many new features in detail construction looking towards quickness in assembling and dissembling, accessibility of all metal parts as well as the exposure of vital members to easy inspection.

Lieutenants Ellyson amd Cunningham of the United States Navy completed their training last month. Among the men now training at

Marblehead are found Lieutenant L. H. Call of the U. S. Army, Mr. Frazier Curtis of Los Angeles, Calif., and Mr. H. L. Brownback of Nor-ristowm, Pa. Lt. Ellington of the U. S. Army is expected immediately on his return from a furlough.

The new flying boat type with the Renault motor for the U. S. Navy is now in the designing room.

The Italian, Japanese and Russian governments have been supplied direct with Curtiss flying boats, or will be supplied when completed. The German government has been sold through an agent. In England, the big engineering firm of Vickers Sons has the agency; this concern will in the future build Curtiss 'planes on royalty and buy the Curtiss motors. Louis Paulhan, who obtained some notoriety in America a couple of years ago, is building the machines on royalty in France and will shortly manufacture the motors as well.

At the Tamise, Belgium, hydro meet, Barn won first with a Curtiss; also obtaining the first prize for best starting device.

The Gyro Motor Co. promises a 7-cylinder motor of SO H. P. and a 5-cylinder of 60 H. 1'. The latter may be on the market at such a figure as to compete in prices with any other aeronautical motor on the market and be superior im performance." The company reports that the German Government tested a 7 cylinder Gyro motor in a 5 hour's block test and reported a steady reading of 46 H. P. "Inasmuch as a revolving cylinder motor never shows up as well in a block test as when in the air, we thimk that the result of the German Government test has been highly complimentary."

The Washington Aeroplane Company is now building a new "Columbia" racing and flying boat which will be equipped with an SO H. 1. self-starting Gyro motor and a three-bladed Simmons propeller, and will have all the latest wrinkles and frills knowin in aeronautics. The same Company has retained aviator Oscar Allen B'rindley for testing their aeroplanes. Brindley is now flying the "Columbia." The flying boat, when finished, has already been spoken for ani> practically bought by a well known aviator.

The new altitude record made by Legagneaux on the I7th of September was made with a Moraine monoplane, powered with a Gnome motor, and Bosch equipped "of course." The altitude record of 4950 meters, which was made by Garros and was superseded by the above mentioned record, was made with a Bleriot monoplane, powered with a Gnome motor and Bosch equipped. It also is worthy of note that Ved-rines' Deoerdussin monoplane, which won the Gordon Bennett Trophy, was Bosch-equipped. Practically world records are held by Bosch magnetos.

"T am going to build the best 'plane that can be built, and I am going to stand behind this 'plane, and the buyer; so that when the big business comes our product will be so good, and our name so well known that you will have confidence in us because of work well done." —Tom W. Benoist.

This paragraph appears in the new Benoist catalogue. It is a good paragraph! Benoist is already well and favorably known and his promise only bears out what is already known. Tony Jannus started November 6 on a trip down the Mississippi River from Omaha to Its outlet, using Roberts-motored Benoist hydroaeroplane. The distance is over a thousand miles.

With the Trade

cy4ero cTHart

RATES : 15 cents a line, 7 words to the line Payment in advance required.

GNOME FIFTY—who wants it? Has been used by Charles F. Willard. Perfect condition. Make offer. Address, "GNOME," c/o Aeronautics.

MOTOR WANTED—New or second-hand 4 cycle, 50 h. p. or thereabouts. Aero motor wanted. Send full details of condition, age, service and lowest cash price. Address, LAKE, c'o Aeronautics, 250 W. 54th St., New York.

FOR SALE. 50 H. P. French Gnome Motor, ccst $2,GOO, im Paris and 45%. Duty, $1,170. The machine it was purchased for was not a success so will take $2,000 cash for the motor, R. V. Jones, Hotel Nelson. Seattle, Wash.

FOR SALE—Fox 1 >e Luxe, 80 h. p. motor, brand new, with radiator and propeller. Complete, ready for investigation, bargain. Wm. Sylvester, Oakwood Heights. S. I., N. Y.

RARE B'oOKS—Occasionally it is possible to secure copies of Wise and Astra Castra. These are very scarce and are two of the absolutely necessary books for an aeronautical library.

ASTRA CASTRA. bv Hatton Turnor. Cloth, London. 1S65, mamy fine plates. $10.

A SYSTEM OF AERONAUTICS, Comprehending its Earliest Investigations and Modern Practice and Art. Designed as a History for the commoti Reader and Guide to the Student of the Art, by John Wise. Svo., cloth, Phila., IS50. $10. Aeronautics, 250 W. 54th St., New York.

ASSORTMENT of complete power plants, including: Curtiss 25 h. p., I cyl: Clement-Bayard 30's: Kirk ham 60: Hendee (Indian) 7 cyl. 50. Bargains at 50% below cost

Immediate delivery of genuine Bleriot and several antiquated but successful aeroplanes of unexcelled workmanship "for a song." Address, Assortment, c o Aeronautics, 250 W. 54th St., N. Y. City.

BLERIOT—with 70 Gnome, extra, pair of wings and other mew part's. Two-place machine, latest type. Cost, with duty, over $6,000. For a very few hundred dollars, broken propeller and rudder can be replaced. Any reasonable offer accepted. Property of the late Miss Harriet Quimby. Address. Estate of Miss Quimby, c o Aeronautics, 250 West 54th St., New York.

FOR SALIC—Bleriot Monoplane, without power plant, in first class condition. Would be a bargain at $600.00. First check for $400. takes it. 30 H. P. Detroit aero motor guaranteed im first class condition, $125. one 6y„ft. dia. bv 4y2ft. pitch, Detroit propeller $20.00. One 7ft. rlia. by 5ft pitch, Gibson propeller, $30.00. The above are bargains and you will have to act nu.ok to get them. J. norat, S27 Main St., Lafayette, Ind.

SPECIAL GOOD HA KG A INS—1 Gnome engine, 50 h. p., complete with mountings for biplane, everything ready to run. Can demonstrate. Nearly mew. Fine condition. $2,000.

Complete set of parts for Gnome 50, enough to assemble complete engine; all kinds socket wrenches and tools for same; mounting frames, controls, etc.

Bleriot type monoplane for Gnome engine, Two Bleriot types with Anzani engines. Sets of parts.

All these from well known concerns. Even-thing can he seen before purchase. Cheap for cash. Address MONO, c/o Aeronautics, 250 W. 54th Street, N. Y. City.

ENGINE FOR SALE— S-cyl. "V," list price, SI,500, new, never used. The one who buys this motor gets one of those few real bargains that aren't picked up every day. Thoroughly tested by maker who desires to sell the last one in his shop. Complete with propeller, $800. Address. "Eight Cy..nder," c/o Aeronautics, 250 W. 54th St., New York.

WANTED—Magneto for S-cyl. motor, Bosch preferred. C. Ford, 164 Oak St., Binghamton, N. Y.

WANTED TO BUY—Curtiss biplane complete except motor. Must he cheap. What have you to offer. George Schermerhorn, Eyota, Minn.

FOR SALE—1 Roberts 4-X Motor 50 H. P. new. Guaranteed to be in perfect condition. Price, $550.00. M. F. IL. Gouverneur, Wilmington. N. C.

balloon ascensions

Pittston, Me., Oct. 30.—Jay B. Benton amd William Van Sleet in the "Springfield" from Pittsfield, leaving there midnight. Duration 7 hrs. 30 min. Hist. 225 miles.

Indianapolis, Oct. 27.—Capt. G. L. Bumbaugh, passemger Andrew Farrell, in the "Cole" U Lynn, Ind. Duration IS hrs. 42 min. Dist. 65 miles. A circular tour of the state was made before the balloon finally landed.

For records, add also the 3 trips made by Americans in the International race at Stuttgart.

aviator wins prize for flight without a motor.

The prize offered by M. Bernard .1. Dubos to the first aviator who, without the aid of a motor, should succeed in flying a distance of more than one metre at a height of not less than ten centimetres, .was won Oct. 1!), at the Parc des Princess, by M. Sigmar Rettich. The successful experiment was made in the presence of M. Dubos and M. Emmanuel Aimé the first named acting as official time-keeper of the Aero-Club de France.

After a number of failures, M. Sigmar Rettich finally flew a distance of three metres, on two occasions, in opposite directions, as required by th» conditions under which the prize is awarded. His machine was an ordinary bicycle with two 'planes, each a metre and a half long, attached to the handle bars,

imports and exports

Imports and exports of aeroplanes and parts for the month of August, are as follows: Imports, 5 valued at $31,116. For S months previous, 10 at $42,720. Exports of domestic. 4 at $13.630. For S months previous. 22 at $S2,795. Exports of foreign make, none. For s months previous. 9 at J2S.753. In warehouse August 31, S at $41,296.

Double Hydro Floati, weight. 55 lbs. each. pair. $250- I Running G»ars, F.irman or Wright, complete. $42.50. I Hub., knock out axle or to fit, 1". l's". Pi", or IV- |

AEROPLANE WHEELS

J. \. WEAVER, Jr., Mfr.. 132 West 50th Street, N Y " Wb«ls, 20" x2V. complete. $6.00 - 20" x 3". $8.25, " with Curtiss or Fannan type stock Hub. 6" wide. We make any size or type of wheel. Send for lifl. Compare my prices with all others.

elbridge engines

So simple anyone can operate them

So strong nobody breaks them

So cheap anyone can buy them

Made in a dozen sizes, to suit all types of machines.

The most generally successful engine known to aviation, for both amateur and professional work. Catalog or folder on request.

Elbridge Engine Company

10 Culver Rd. Rochester, N. Y.

WELLES & ADAMS —MOTORS—=

One of the few moderate-priced motors that has actually

made good.

50 H. P. 4 Cycle

Weight 200 lbs.—Valves in head—Cylinders cast separate—Every moving part oiled automatically.

Let us send you our illustrated catalogue showing Fred. Eells' great flight over the city of Rochester in biplane equipped with this motor.

If you wish to do something better than "Grass-Cutting" ■———^——— Consult ^——————————~

WELLES & ADAMS, Bath, N. Y.

SLOANE

Our California School

Opened November 15th at the famous Dominguez Field near Los Angeles. This ideal location for an Aeroplane School is adjacent to splendid living accommodations ; a short ride from the ocean and twenty minutes from the heart of Los Angeles. All the most attractive and romantic points of interest of this storied region are in eye-shot from an Aeroplane over our Field. We are able to secure special rates for the accommodation of our pupils at hotels and in private homes. We will gladly make all reservations.

Four Deperdussin Monoplanes, Two Caudron Monoplanes, One Sloane-BIeriot Monoplane and One Speedy Biplane Will Be Our School Equipment

W. LEONARD BONNEV, one of the pioneer American Aviators, assisted by two notable flyers will constitute the teaching faculty. We teach exactly according to the methods used on the Plains of Clvimpaign near Klieims, Fiance. We use the »ame kind of machines with which Vedrines, the Deperdussin Flyer, won the World's Championship at Chicago. We have the most perfect imported Aeroplanes, use 1 he most perfect Field and Shop teaching methods and are located on the most ideal spot in America. Our faculty and oui equipment are sufficient to handle almost any number of pupils with thoroughness and expedition. Our pupils on Long Island have become aviators of notable skill in an average of six weeks. The cost is

$300 For The Complete Course

The pupil in our school is not discharged from the class until he lias secured his pilot's certificate. There are noextra charges fur anything. The pupil is also obliged to put up a guarantee of S'-'")0 for breakage in addition to his tuition fee. This small bond covers his use of the machine when he flics for his certificate. When the pupil is discharged from the school the S2S0 guarantee is refunded and he is given a rebate of 10 per cent, of his tuition fee if he completed without breakage.

We arc arranging to carry passengers on a series of Aeroplane Cross-Country Tours o^er California. Bookings are now being made.

Make your arrangements for the School and the Crosscountry Toms as soon as possible. Only a limited number of persons will be accommodated in order that the work may be done right.

WIRE WRITE 'PHONE

SLOANE AEROPLANE CO.

210 Merchants Trust Bldg. 1733 Broadway

Broadway & 2d St.. Los Angeles, Cal. New York City

'Phone Main 3674 'Phone Columbus 5421

National Aeroplane Co.

60fi S. Michigan Ave. Chicago, III. IV. K. Bough ton, Washington,, D C.

that national law

T~~~~ HE death of Joe Stevenson is another example of the need for a national registration and license — law. Had there been such a statute in force, Stevenson would not have been permitted to contract to give exhibition flights to his own danger and that of thousands of spectators. Stevenson, despite two years of attempting to fly, never succeeded in becoming an accomplished aviator. A law with almost any old conditions for license would have barred him from public flying. If the clubs of this country would spend some of their energy now devoted to the "control" of aeronautics, in the encouragement of regulation of the movement along obvious lines, what might not result?

front cover

THE cover illustration shows two of the aeroplane in the first race of the kind new Curtiss flying boats and a hydro-ever held. The race was arranged for the students and visitors at the Curtiss aviation school at Hammondsport on the afternoon of October 28. All who witnessed the race are unanimous in the opinion that yachting with the flying boat is destined to be the greatest of sports.

The sight of three machines jockeying for position was inspiring, while the close finish of the return trip would stir the blood of any sportsman. The 'three machines were all fitted with the same engine power, but the flying boats proved speedier in the air and faster in making turns on the water, a rule of the contest being that the machines must round the buoy on the water and could fly only between the starting and finishing points, excepting on the third lap, which was the finish.

VOLAMEKUM, Handbuch für Luftahervon Ansbert "Vorreiter und Hans Boykow; published l>y J. F. Lehmann's Verlag, München, Germany, at 4 M. S rao, cloth, 16S pp., illustrated, tables and Charts.

Das vorliegende Taschenbuch soll die Luftfahrer namentlich bei der Navigation unterstützen. Daher sind alle neuen Methoden besprochen und die notwendigen Instrumente kurz beschrieben. Ferner soll das Buch dem Luftfahrer bei der Landung in fremden Ländern als Sprachführer dienen.

Da neben dem Ballon jetzt auch Luftschiffe und Flugzeuge in Bewegung sind, ist auf die Verhältnisse dieser Luftfahrzeuge Rücksicht genommen. Die erste Ausgabe wird sicher noch Mängel aufweisen; um diese zu beseitigen, bitten wir erfahrene Luftfahrer, die dieses Taschenbuch benutzen, uns ihre Erfahrungen mitzuteilen und Verbesserungsvorschläge zu machen.

Mr. George H. Arnold is at the present time in College Park, Md., demonsirating the Mnisant monoplane, ard has made splendid nights there. Miss Mary C. Sims has recently sisned a contract to enter our school and has already started her tuition at Garden fit v. Mr. J. H. Worden is now flying for the Mexican Government for scouting purposes. Reports state he made a beautiful flierht over the rebels fnr 120 miles without stopping-, returning to the headquarters of General Huerta with valuable information. One more officer, Mr. Salazar. of the Mexican Government, arrived a few davs ago at the Moisant Aviation School, at Hempstead, L. I„ for the purpose of taking a course there.

Published Monthly by Aeronautics Press, 250 West 54th Street, N. Y. Cable: Aeronautic. New York "Phone 4833 Columbus A. V. JONES, Pres'l - - ERNEST L. JONES. Treas'r-Sec'y ERNEST t. JONES, Editor - M. B. SELLERS, Technical Editor

SUBSCRIPTION RATES

United States, S3.00 Foreign. S3.50

advertising representative: e. f. Ingraham adv. Co.. 116 Nassau St.. New York

NO. 63

NOVEMBER—1 9 12

Vol. XI, No. 5

Entered as second-class matter September 22, 1908, at the Postofflci

New York, under the Ac! of March 3, 1879, #T AERONAUTICS is issued on the 30th of each month ^» All copy must be received by the 20th. Advertising pages close on the 25th. :: :: :: :: :: :: ^T Make all checks or money orders free of exchange ^ and payable to AERONAUTICS. Do not tend currency. No foreign stamps accepted. :: ::

STATEMENT OF OWNERSHIP

In compliance with Postal Order 6531, the following statement is furnished the Postmaster General by AERONAUTICS: EDITOR, Ernest L. Jones; MANAGING EDITOR, Ernest L. Jones; .BUSINESS MANAGER, Ernest L. Jones: PUBLISHER. Aeronautics Press, a corporation, more than 1 per cent, of the stock in which is owned by Ernest L. Jones. There are no security holders save as above—no bonds or mortgages.

ERNEST L. JONES, Editor. Sworn to and subscribed before me this 26th day of October, 1012.

CHARLES NETTER, Notary Public (N. 3031).

WHAT HAS BECOME OF -?

Glidden's New York-Boston airship line? Flying by A. C. A. members of the Club's Nieu-port?

The Auto Club of America's thousand dollar

motor competition? That Christmas flight to Washington? The A. C. A.'s hydroaeroplane race to Boston? That transatlantic aeroplane prize? New York's municipal aviation field? Ditto "Isles of Safety?" The Aero Exhibition Co.. of Chicago? Fowler's Flight to New York? The Hendee rotary motor? The Curtiss cup defender?

The Parseval airship that was to sail nightly

over New York? Amherst's aerial signs for bnlloonists? The great Springfield aero park? Tillinghast?

Many of the aero clubs which have been formed and of which nothing more was beard?

The Wright aeroplane to have been purchased by the A. C. A. for members' use?

The Baldwin airship that went to Germany?

Brucker's transatlantic airship voyage?

Ditto, Martin's across-the-ocean flight?

The Aeronautical Reserve.

That aerodynamic laboratory?

The Wright memorial?

The Queen Aeroplane Co.?

The Lamson-Wrlght suit? For that matter, the

Wright-Curtiss suit? The Walden-Dyott Co.—and dentist Walden,

too?

The "Popular Aeronaut," and the other two aero magazines whose name we have forgotten.

U. S. Patents Gone to Issue

Copias of any of These Patents may be Secured by Sending Five Cents in Coin to the Commissioner of Patents, Washington, D. C.

Even in these enlightened days, the crop of patents on absolutely worthless, or even questionable, devices increases rather than decreases.

It would take an entire Issue of the magazine to abstract in a full and clear manner the claims of the majority of the patents issued. In a great many cases it is even impossible to gi\e in a few lines what sort of an apparatus the patent relates to. In most instances we ha\ e used merely the word "aeroplane" or "helicopter" if such it is. Where it is impossible to indicate the class, even, in which the patent belongs, without printing the whole patent, we have used the word "flying machine."

The patents starred (*) are those which may be found of particular interest; but it must be understood we do not pretend to pass judgment upon merits or demerits.

Where patent seems to have particular interest, the date of filing will be given. -Editor.

ISSUED SEPTEMBER 24

•1,039,181, Roy M. Palmer, Washington, D. C, AUTOMATIC STABILITY: ailerons are operated electrically, using magnets and a shifting fluid column, etc. Filed June 16, 1011.

*I,039,228, Jesse S. Vogt., Long Green, Md., AUTOMATIC STABILITY: Warping or ailerons operated by compressed air. Swinging of a pendulum opens main valve to cylinder with pistons, etc., Feh. 14, 1912.

1,039,240, Bruno Zobel, Chicago, 111., HELICOPTER.

1,039,251, Frederick Brackett, Washington, D.

C, AIRSHIP.

1,039,295, John Kratofill, Chicago, 111., PARACHUTE attachment for aeroplanes.

1,039,345, Claes Eric Winterros, Takoma Park,

D. C, AEROPLANE.

1,039,384. William L. Green, Monroe City Mo., FLYING MACHINE.

1,039,456, George Percv Bragg Smith, Mit-cham, England., AEROPLANE, with top plane at a dihedral angle and bottom plane curved up to meet ends of upper plane.

•1,039,457, Thomas Noah Smith, San Angelo, Texas. AEROPLANE: rear edge of wing supported in both directions by springs to impart resiliencv in wind, etc.

1,039.530, Aubrey C. Harry, Portsmouth, Ohio, FLYING MACHINE.

1,039,625, Frank D. Willis, Burlington, Vermont., STABILITY: means for increasing angle of incidence in flight when the machine strikes a "hole in the air."

1,039,679, Harry Hardgrave, Dalhart, Texas, FLYING MACHINE of the heating wing type.

ISSUED OCTOBER 1

1,039,716, George H. Feller, Beach City, Ohio, FLYING MACHINE.

»1,039,889, Lucien Brianne, Paris, France. A device for supplying power from the ground to experimental machines, or models.

*1,040,089, Eugene Yeamans, Collegeport, xexas. AUTOMATIC STABILIZER, employing the gyroscope as the actuating means.

1,040,136, Nat Elmer Brown, Grand Haven, Mich. HELICOPTER, comprising extending arms supporting lifting planes, the whole rotating about a stationary axis; a "gyroplane."

♦1,040.241, Louis J. Rouchleau, Arlington, Cal. PARACHUTE for use in connection with aeroplanes, 'ihe device is attached to aviator or passenger. The parachute, is forced into an open state by using compressed air from a tank. This, with the other patent mentioned last issue, may be found of interest in view of the jumps now being made with parachutes from aeroplanes.

ISSUED OCTOBER S

1,040.434, Laurence O. Schopp, St. Louis, Mo. STABILITY; planes capable of moving about central longitudinal axis; body with motor hung below.

*1,040,533, Robert Esnault-Pelterie. Billancourt, France. AEROPLANE, in which the wings are rotatably mounted on a transverse shaft located at the entering edge. The rear of the surface is. spring connected so that sudden gusts of wind automatically decrease the angle of incidence. Forward end rear elevators interconnected with rocking main wings.

1,040,600, Valentine Wojciechowski, Brockton, Mass. AEROPLANE capable of being disposed in a parachute form.

1.040,608, Horace G. Baker", Harlan, Iowa. Automatically tilting SUPPORTING SURFACE, operatable by wind currents (or manually) to an ascending position.

1.040,695, Julius Koiw, Port Arthur, Texas. PROPELLER; feathering blade paddle wheel arrangement.

1,040,7N5, August Seaver, MorJtague, Mich. STABILITY; pendulum system for lateral balance.

1,040.01^, Ernest H. Anclrae, Oallas, Texas, STABILITY; sliding surface increases lift on low side.

ISSUED OCTOBER 15

1,041,131, Robert E. McBride, Mullen, Nebr. AEROPLANE; wing ends curve upward; fixed tail set at dihedral angle.

1,041,136, Lawrence P. McKeone, New York, N. Y. STABILITY; multiple resistance Vanes hinged under the main surface.

1,041,620, Thomas D. Greer, Norton, Kans. STABILITY; pendulum device.

1,041,630. Marie Jasccgne, Paris. France. SURFACE curved laterally with convex face downward; oscillate about extreme front edge.

ISSUED OCTOBER 22

1,011,759, Edward J. Elsas, Kansas City, Mo. AER( "PLANE.

1,041,779, Felix Grégoire, St. Jean Baptiste, Man., Canada., Oct. 22, 1912. Combination Autoboat and Aeroplane.

1,041,781, David Hacker, New York, N. Y., FLYING MACHINE.

1,041,825, Charles J. Low, Chelan, Wash. PR( ) PELLER.

1,041.876, William S. Romme, New Y'ork, N. Y. AEROPLANE; circular in plan, with opening in center.

1,041,942, Franz H. Albert, Lodi, Cal. FLYING MACHINE.

1.042,082, Joseph Canty, Concord, N. H. BALANCING mechanism using a suspended weight.

1,042,311, Paul B'ehrens, Tacnma, Wash. STEERING means; shif table body position; movable propellers; eliminating rudders.

1,042,327, Joseph .1. Costanzo, Alexandria, Egvpt. Life-Saving GARMENT for aviators, composed of plurality of inflatable spiring suspended chambers.

1,042,338, Frederick W. Goyette, San Francisco, Cal. FLYING MACHINE.

1,042,349. Leslie L. Hill, Los Ange'es. Cal. "Airship LIFE-PRESERVER;" parachute device.

WRIGHT ESTATE $279,298

An accounting of the estate of Wilbur Wright by Orville Wright, Executor, showed a total value in personal property and real estate of $2?9.2rS. In the distribution of the estate that remained after the payment of all just debts, Reuohlin, Katherine and worin Wright each received $50,000. Milton Wright, the father, was given $1,000.

BALDWIN

Vulcanized Proof Material

For Aeroplanes, Airships, Balloons. First Rubberized Fabric on the market. Lightest and strongest material known. Dampness, Heat and Cold have no effect. Any Strength or Color.

"Red Devil" Aeroplanes

That anyone can fly. Free Demonstrations.

Hall-Scott Motors

Eastern distributor. 40 h. p., 4-cyl.; 60 and 80 h. p., 8-cyl., on exhibition at Wittemann's. All motors guaranteed. Immediate delivery.

| Experting

Will install a Hall-Scott free of charge in anyone's aeroplane and demonstrate by expert flyer. Expert advice. 'Planes balanced.

CAPTAIN THOMAS S. BALDWIN

Box 78, Madison Sq. P.O. New York

AEROPLANES

6t

GRAY EAGLE MOTORS

KEMP MACHINE WORKS

f|[Liberal three months terms to test □Jout and pay for a Gray Eagle Motor. The proof of the motor is the actual Hying test. Is this not a fair proposition? Full particulars and terms on request.

Model E-6 50 H. P. Model D-4 35 H. P.

Muncie, Ind.

***** •

BENOIST AIRCRAFT CO.,

< benoist ^

CH y d r o p 1 a n e was biggest winner at the Chicago Hydro Meet. The Benoist Tractor Biplane made the only record during the complete meet. Carrying aviator and 3 passengers. The Benoist gets results and costs no more than other 'planes.

6628 Delmar Blvd.

ST. LOUIS, U. S. A.

LEARN on a THOMAS — T u 1T' ° N, $ 2 5 0

Write to-day

No Additional Charge for Breakage

c.A THOMAS WON all speed events at the N. Y. State Fair.—A THOMAS will win next year. We have more speed. The result of 4 years' experience. c.THOMAS PLANES have proved that their design was correct from

the first. Write for description of our new model

$1800 complete

THOMAS BROS., Bath, N. Y.

GIBSON

GIBSON PROPELLER CO.

PROPELLERS ARE STILL ON THE MARKET

WAITING FOR THE AWAKENING The "Worcester" Type Surpasses all Standard Propellers OUR STANDARD PROPELLER CLEARANCE SALE AT 1-4 LIST PRICES

Our Standard Propellers cannot be surpassed except by our "WORCESTER" type

Fort George Park, New York

£♦+++++++++++++**++++*+++*+**+

* C. & A. Wittemann f

AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERS *

Manufacturers of x

Biplanes

Monoplanes

Hydro-Aeroplanes Gliders Propellers Parts

Special Machines and Parts Built to Specifications

Large stock of Steel Fittings, Laminated Ribs, and Struts of all sizes carried in stock.

Hall-Scott Motors, 40-60-SO H. P.

Your Opporttnitv—One single covered Biplane for immediate delivery. Slightly n>ed, with 8 cyl. 60 11.1'. Hall-Scott Power Plant.

FLYING AND TRAINING GROUNDS

Works: Ocean Terrace and Little Clove Road STATEN ISLAND, NEW YORK CITY

Established 1906

Tel. 717 Tompkinsville X

$+4^+4.4.4.+4.++++++++++++++++++Ì

★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★■i

I FLIGHTS I

Aerial Sight-seeing Tours Arranged on Demand

Piloted by

FAMOUS AVIATORS

Instruction and Licenses Used Material, Motors, 'Planes, etc.

"AERONAUTICS" 250 West 54th St., New York

Phone, Columbus 4833

ITOURSi

FRONTIER MOTORS

8 Cylinder-60-70 H.P.

This is the advertisement of a real motor

THE EIGHT CYLINDER MOTOR IS THE LOGICAL AEROPLANE MOTOR

IT is non-gyroscopic ; it does not use power to rotate a heavy mass ; it can be kept in shape by any automobile mechanic; it is most easily adapted to streamline bodies. All this, and more, is susceptible of proof.

OUR motor has a conscience and we merely ask the opportunity to prove to you our claims. If yon are in the market for a good motor, you owe it to yourself to give us a chance to make good our statements. The intending purchaser owes us an investigation.

GEORGE \V. BEATTV is (lying his Wright with our motor at Hempstead field, and is prepared to demonstrate same on request.

WRITE us and make appointment for flight and inspection. If you purchase an engine from us, we will refuml your transportation within a radius of 250 miles. Give us an opportunity to show you what we have.

FRONTIER IRON WORKS

BUFFALO :: :: NEW YORK

In answering advertisements please mentÌ0n this magasine.

H -A. 11* L* SCO

Aviation Power Plants

Roy Francis in his HALL-SCOTT powered, tractor biplane

HALL-SCOTT:

The equipment for altitude work

Douglas, Wyoming,

September 28th, 1912.

Hall-Scott Motor Car Co., San Francisco, Cal.

Gentlemen:

Have had grand success in this high altitude, filling dates in Loveland, Colo., Ft. Morgan, Colo., Sidney, Nebr., and here.

My next flight will be in Denver, where I fly with Beachey, from the Fifteenth to the Seventeenth of October.

Yours truly, (Signed) Roy N. FRANCIS, Aviator.

Backed by the HALL-SCOTT guarantee of EXCELLENCE, RELIABILITY, FLEXIBILITY and POWER, to a greater degree that can be found in any other motors (with equal number of cylinders and size in bore and stroke).

Francis and Bryant made a record for altitude flying at Goldfield, Nevada, last 4th of July. 5,000 feet altitude to start from. All flights successful. $4,000.00 paid them in full for three days flying. Hall-Scott Type A-2 Equipment used.

"SURE SHOT" KEARNY, who never disappoints, never fails to fill flying dates as contracted for, who is doing more flying than any other aviator in the country. SECOND in endurance at Chicago Meet with HALL-SCOTT 80 h.p. equipment. HALL-SCOTT IS THE ANSWER.

If you want the best write for catalogue today

Hall-Scott Motor Car Company,

SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA

Price 25 Lents

iRISTMAS GREETINGS

PublUhed by AERONAUTICS PRESS, 250 West 54th Street, New York

nT|MmilllMI..I.IIMI.Ml..»»»»Hm^^

Kirkham Motor Wins Again

w. t. thomas. m e.. a. c. g. president qualified aviators

guaranteed flights

pupils instructed

o. w. thomas. m. e., a. c. g. vice-pres. and secy.

Thomas Brothers

Mechanical Engineers

Designers and Builders of Aeroplanes

aeroplanes

propellers hydroaeroplanes

BATH, N. Y., September 17, 1912.

C. B. KIRKHAM,

Savona, N. Y. Dear Sir:—

You will doubtless be interested in hearing of the latest success we have achieved with

your motor which we are using in one of our standard exhibition biplanes.

At the Aviation Meet, held at the New York State Fair, at Syracuse, New York,

September 9-14th, our Mr. Walter E. Johnson, with one of your 65 horse power motors made a

clean sweep of the speed events, as the following official times indicate: 10-Mile Race. Monday, September 9th.

1st. W. E. Johnson, 65 H. P.Thomas Model 10AX. Total time; 10'i2i"

2nd. B. Havens, 75 H. P. Curtiss. Total time, 14' 10"

3rd. W. B. Hemstrought, 60 II. P. Curtiss. Total time, 14' 15i". 15-Mile Race, Saturday, September 14th.

1st. W. E. Johnson, 65 H. P. Thomas Model 10AX. Total time, 16'11|"

2nd. C. H. Nilcs, 75 H. P. Curtiss. Total time, 16' 26i"

3rd. W. B. Hemstrought, 75 H. P. Curtiss. Total time,--4th. B. Havens, 75 II. P. Curtiss. Total Time,---From the above figures you will see that our machine, driven by your engine, proved

itself SECOND TO NONE.

We wish to express our complete satisfaction with the faultless manner in which the

engine ran throughout the races and the regular time with which the machine ticked off each lap

of the course.

It is worthy of notice that the Model 10AX, above "mentioned, has been in active use throughout two whole seasons making exhibition flights, and the planes were in poor condition. FACTS ARE TRUER THAN FICTION. Wishing you continued success, we are,

Yours very truly,

THOMAS BROTHERS,

By O. W. Thomas.

YOU want this motor in YOUR plane if you expect to fill your contracts on time Better investigate to-day New Catalog sent on request

CHARLES B. KIRKHAM

MOTOR DEPT.

Savona, N. Y.

The Only

IMPROVED

Propeller

The Only PATENTED Propeller

TRADE MARK

patented march 14. 1911; july 25 1011; october 17. 1911: other patents pending

PARAGONS hold a special grip on all who strive for the highest and best—those who appreciate the maximum of strength, safety, service and efficiency as exemplified by the modern, highly developed and improved propellers known as Paragons.

Paragons are made and carried in stock in three grades:

Grades A and B are the strongest, most perfect, most beautiful and most efficient propellers in the world. Their durability is so great we can afford to insure Grade A against all accidents of any kind while on the machine,—even at these prices—§45 to §58, according to pitch, for the ft. size. Other sizes accordingly. Grade B has all the strength of Grade A and nearly the toughness at a cheaper price. Grade C is made of beautiful hard Cherry throughout. In strength, durability and efficiency there is no other propeller equal to them (excepting our Grades A and B) either in the United States or abroad. Only $31 to §41 for the 7£ ft. size. Other sizes accordingly.

We are furnishing many Three-Bladed Paragons for Naval and Military Machines at one and one-half times above prices. For hard service Paragons are pre-eminent, they never split.

Get our Information Blank, our Descriptive Matter and our Suggestions gratis, and be wise about PARAGONS. Visit our new factory. Inspect our goods, our specially designed machinery and other equipment. Seeing is believing.

With every Paragon, furnished upon full information as to the engine and machine, as provided on our printed form, we give an absolute and unqualified guarantee not only that the propeller will be perfect in itself but that it w'dl be perfectly adapted to the requirements of the machine that it is to drive.

AMERICAN PROPELLER COMPANY, 243-249 East Hamburg St., Baltimore, Md.

I

i

BURGESS HYDRO TRAINING IS

PRACTICAL

5

^ ^Unequalled facilities are provided for instruction in the operation of the marine flyer over d Marblehead Harbor. <jjThe proximity of our manufacturing plant offers pupils an opportunity ^ at no extra cost to become thoroughly familiar with the construction and design of the very ^ latest types of air and water craft. We are now building hydro-aeroplanes, aeroplanes and flying boats for the U. S. Army and Navy. <jWe assume all risk of breakage and provide hydro-aeroplane for license test. IjBoth the U. S. Army and Navy send their officers to the Burgess school for training.

Chief Instructor : Frank T. Coffyn, Licensed aviator ^Aeroplanes and hydro-aeroplanes for sporting and exhibition purposes ready for prompt delivery. Booklet with full particulars on request. Flying at Marblehead until January. Winter school located at Palm Beach, Fla., where training of U. S. Army officers will be continued. Applications for instruction should be made out at once for dating.

BURGESS COMPANY AND CURTIS, Marblehead, Mass.

Licensees under the Wright Patents

BOSCH

Magneto & Plu[gs

SUCCESSFUL manufacturers, those that discriminate, are aware that the efficiency and reliability of their engines depend on the quality of the accessories. No other ignition system has ever reached the degree of perfection, has ever been constructed of such excellent material as Bosch Magnetos and Plugs.

Specify Bosch and insist upon having it— the excellence of the system has been proven by its tremendously extensive use, over A Million and a Half satisfying their owners.

Write for

"Locating the Spark Plug"

an interesting and instructive booklet Be Satisfied—Specify Bosch

Bosch Magneto Company

223-225 W. 46th STREET, NEW YORK

Aviation Today and A National Aerodynamic Laboratory

By CAPTAIN W. IRVING CHAMBERS, U. S. Navy

The status of aviation in the world today may be summarized as follows:

The work of established Aerodynamic Laboratories has transported Aeronautics generally into the domain of Engineering, in consequence of which Aviation has reached a stage of development wherein the methods of scientific engineers have replaced the crude efforts of the pioneer inventors.

The development of Aviation for marine or naval purposes has naturally been somewhat delayed, but, inspired by the early demonstrations of our Navy, the naval powers of the world are now devoting large sums of money to this phase of development. It may be asserted that although the aeroplane has not yet arrived at the state of perfection required by all the work contemplated for it in naval warfare, yet it is sufficiently advanced to be of great service in many ways, should it be required for use in emergency, and its satisfactory development for extensive use is fairly in sight.

Those who are engaged in the development of aviation for war purposes do not pretend that it is going to revolutionize warfare, but it has been fully demonstrated that of two opposing forces, the one which possesses superiority in aerial equipment and skill will surely hold a very great advantage.

What is Being Done Abroad

France leads the world in aviation ana all that she does is worth noting. A short time ago in response to an inquiry by the Minister of War over 3000 officers signified their desire to learn aerial navigation. Germany leads in aerostation, but is making great progress in aviation also. France has eight dirigibles, Germany thirty. The number of aeroplanes actually possessed by each is a rapidly increasing quantity, but France will probably possess about 350 before the end of the year, the ultimate aim being to possess 1,000 as soon as the requisite number of pilots can be taught to use them.

It is significant of German foresight that one of the first steps undertaken, when it was decided to construct a large aeroplane fleet, was to found an Aerodynamic Laboratory. This is at Gottingen, where the best known course of instruction in aeronautics is ably conducted by Professor Prandtl.

The following statement, while it does not include all large sums that are being spent, will suffice to compare our own activity with that of some of the principal powers:

France................; $6,400,000 $1,000,000 S7.400.000

Germany............I 1,500,000 750.000 2,250.000

Russia...... 5,000.000 ? 5.000,000

Great Britain...... 2,100,000 , ? ,1 2,100,000

Italy................... 2 000,000 ' 100.000 I 2.100,000

Japan.................. 600,000 ? 600,000

United States...... 140.000 1 i 140.000

Exact details are lacking of the progress in many other countries, but all progressive powers are bent on keeping abreast of the times, especially the British Colonies, Russia, Japan and Austria. The latter country has produced one of the very best aeroplanes in existence, the Etrich, and is also developing the hydroaeroplane.

Development in the United States Navy

When Congress appropriated $25,000 for the development of Naval Aviation last year, three officers had been ordered to aeroplane factories for instruction, in anticipation of three machines which were finally purchased, two Curtiss and one Wright.

At that time a land aerodrome was necessary for practice and a hangar was accordingly built on Greenbury Point, Annapolis, .Aid., where a sufficient area of flat land was prepared for an aerodrome by the leveling of some trees and the partial filling of a swamp. This served its purpose until the Navy machines had all been provided with hydroplanes and we had demonstrated the practicability of carrying on instruction entirely over water. The aerodrome is now held in reserve for the housing of spare machines, for the exercise of the land attachment of the hydroaeroplanes and for any other emergency use.

It was originally contemplated to establish an Aviation School in conjunction with the Naval Engineering Experiment Station, where experiments could be expedited, but it soon became apparent that the desired number of officers and men could not be spared away from their regular duties for a sufficient period and that the progress of instruction would be seriously delayed until the machines had been suitably developed and equipped for issuing to ships of the Fleet, where practical instruction could proceed, with ample resources, in a systematic routine way. Incidentally, it was recognized that to get good service from these machines in the Fleet constant practice would be required and the personnel be made as

familiar with them as with other articles of equipment.

This was the first object in favoring the hydroaeroplane attachment.

Today it is recognized the world over that hydro-aviation offers one of the most promising fields of development, for the reason that a water aerodrome is nearly always available, is safer in landing, is less obstructed and the aerial currents over water are less treacherous than over land. A ship provided with aeroplanes will thus become the hangar and will he surrounded usually by an ideal aerodrome, i.e., by water sufficiently smooth for practice.

Last December the three machines with their aviators were transferred to San Diego, Cal., where a camp was formed.* * * *

After a season of winter work at San Diego, the camp was transferred again to Annapolis and located nearer the Engineering Experiment Station on the north shore of the Severn River. ******

INSTRUCTIONS AND TESTS

Many officers, interested in this work, have applied for instruction, hut, as before mentioned, it has not been possiblle to detach from their regular duties, even temporarily, all who desire the experience. Eight officers have qualified.

At the end of August, 1912, a total of 59b flights had been made by the four instruction aviators in the three machines. The record stands as follows:

Lieutenants Ellyson and Towers made 402 flights, carried 211 passengers, flew 4,262 miles, with duration figured at 77 hours, 32 minutes, using Curtiss machines; with the Wright machine Lieutenant Rodgers and Ensign Herbster made 191 flights, carried Gl passengers, flew 21G0 miles, with time in air of 4S hours, 48 minutes.

During flights over water the aviator can usually count on a safe place to land. For this reason most of our hydro-flying has been done at an altitude of about 500 feet. But, as scouting and reconnaisance work will require flying at an altitude of about 3000 feet, Lieut. Ellyson has demonstrated that there will be no difficulty in flying the hydroaeroplane at 3000 feet or over. On one occasion he ascended to 2850 feet in 23 minutes and 25 seconds. On another occasion, in testing a lower grade of gasoline, he ascended 3200 feet, but it required 44 minutes to reach the first 2500 feet. Investigation of the different grades of gasoline shows that the difference in efficiency is considerable.

The longest flight yet made with passengers anywhere, in the hydroaeroplane, is that made by Lieutenants Ellyson and Towers jointly, from Annapolis, Md., to Hampton Roads, Va., and return, and this flight simply demonstrated three things, (1) the suitability of the "hydro" as a type for

long flights, (2) the practicability and utility of the dual system of control, and (3) the necessity for greater improvement in motors. The return flight was enlivened, in very cold weather, by a series of minor mishaps to the motor. In making such flights it is still advisable to follow a shore line convenient for landing in case of motor trouble.

Lieut. J. H. Towers, U. S. N., has recently made a flight of 6 hours, 10 minutes and 20 seconds, with the standard Navy Curtiss hydroaeroplane. This was made in due course of regular work but it stands as a world's record for flight in a hydroaeroplane. And any American endurance record in any kind of a machine. A performance of five hours only would have been satisfactory.

As a part of the instruction and a fruitful means of informing us concerning necessary improvements, many repairs have been made by the aviators themselves and the enlisted mechanics detailed for the purpose have received instruction in this way. A new Wright machine has also been built in this way from spare parts purchased from the Company.

It has not been possible, under the circumstances of a meagre appropriation and few officers, combining instruction with experimental work, to establish a thoroughly satisfactory system of instruction as yet. The idea would require each aviator student to obtain a course of study in aerodynamics and meteorology up to date, of about four months, such as that recently established at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the theory preceding the practical work, if possible. Such a course would be best attained by the establishment of a school for aviators in connection with the lectures at a National Aerodynamic Laboratory.

Experimental Work. The work of instruction has been handicapped by a practically continuous series of experiments, with the result that long delays in repairing have rendered work in both particulars slower than was anticipated. On the whole, this method of experimentation for the solution of problems other than the improvement of minor structural details and the test of navigating instruments is very unsatisfactory. Important experiments involving physical research should be relegated to an aerodynamic laboratory and its aerodrome annex. Other important experiments, such as the development of wireless, requiring frequent changes, should be made at an aircraft factory where extensive repairs and reconstruction are facilitated. Special facilities already exist for doing such work at the Washington Navy Yard.

Some experimental work has been done on different methods of installing the wireless plant, but intermittently, owing to the absence of the expert officer whose suggestions were being followed. Although the

work is unfinished, it has given promise of realizing a range of 50 miles at a sacrifice of 50 lbs. only in weight.

Most of the experiments have been devoted to improving mechanical details of the motors and to trying different models of hydroplanes, the result of laboratory investigation at the Model Basin.

Much useful information has been gained thus about hydroplanes and many uncertain but alluring ideas have been eliminated. There are seven different types of hydroaeroplanes now in France, but our efforts have been confined chiefly to two distinct American types, the single boat with balancing pontoons and the catamaran type with two pontoons. Both types have given great satisfaction, but the single boat, which has been used on both the Wright and the Curtiss machines, seems best for our purpose. It is superior in rough water and it is the father of the flying boat, towards which our ideas have always been inclined.

The Flying Boat was discussed in the early days, about 1905, between Mr. Glenn H. Curtiss and representatives of the Bureau of Equipment. The first real flying boat was made and tested at Hammondsport, N. Y., a year ago last summer, and flown last winter at San Diego, Cal. After several alterations in the location of the motive power, the Curtiss flying boat tested this summer, with great satisfaction, by Lieutenants Ellyson and Towers, is regarded as a decided advance in hydroaeroplane design and gives promise of extended usefulness in rough water.

Catapult. Tentative experiments with a compressed air catapult for sending aeroplanes in flight over the shortest possible track have been made and their early completion is expected to avoid requiring a ship to carry a demountable platform. ****** Lieutenant Ellyson has successfully performed the daring experiment of showing the possibility and facility with which a hydroaeroplane can be sent in flight from a ship in smooth water over an improvised single wire cable, but I would not recommend the use of this device on a ship with rolling motion. Lieut. Ellyson also eagerly subjected himself in a hydroaeroplane to the extreme shock of the catapult device in order to test the effect of such a shock, not only on the aviator but on the motor attachments and other fittings. This crucial test was entirely satisfactory in its revelations, although the aviator and machine got a ducking, and it will probably never be required again. *********

A simple and convenient self starter is a practical necessity to the hydroaeroplane before issuing it for ship use. Several me-ichanical devices have been tried with varying success, but other more promising devices are about to be tried and there is reason to believe that the very best will soon be in use on all of our machines.

Instruments. Aviators and manufacturers have been slow in making use of instruments which not only make flying safer, but which may be made to relieve the aviator of much of the nervous tension and strain of long flights and flying in uncertain weather. A constant increase in the number of disasters has disturbed the people of France for some time, with the result that special attention has been given to the problem of safety; special efforts have been made not only to improve inherent stability and structural strength, but to provide means for controlling the equilibrium automatically. * * * Simple and reliable automatic control devices which may be added without sacrifice of too much Aveight are now being eagerly sought and some that may be rigged to work automatically, semi-automatically or not at all, at the will of the aviator, are being made.

The Air Compass. Much important work for which the aeroplane will be useful in the Navy will not necessarily require the air pilot to navigate in a fog or at night or out of sight of his base, but in sea scouting, which I think is destined to be one of his principal spheres of usefulness, the pilot may be caught in a fog, he may be obliged to navigate at night and will have to lose sight of his base frequently. It must be possible, therefore, to navigate as accurately in air as it is to navigate a ship by dead reckoning at sea.

Motors. Improvements have been confined principally to the correction of small defects which have been made as soon as discovered. Much more could be said about what is still needed. When anything goes wrong or when trouble begins in a flight that promises well, some trifling detail of the motor is usually at fault, a small pin here, a pump connection there, but nearly always something new and unexpected. It was so with the early motors of automobiles and this thought inspires confidence in the perfection of aviation motors, although the demand is still greater for increased power or speed rather than reliability and durability.

A weight carrying aeroplane such as a hydroaeroplane necessarily needs a motor with considerable range of speed and the same kind of motor is needed to reduce the danger of alighting. This is not the kind of a motor and combination of motor and surfaces that now wins the speed contests such as that for the Gordon Bennett Cup. 1 think aviation would be improved if the terms of future speed contests were arranged so as to require each contestant to go over the course twice, the second time at an average speed 20 per cent, lower than his highest average.

Requirements. A year ago our manufacturers requested specific information as to the conditions to be satisfied in adapting the aeroplane for naval use. The answers at

that time were necessarily indefinite, but with the benefit of a year's experience we have been able to issue a set of "general requirements" sufficiently broad in scope to permit a wide latitude for ingenuity and improvement.

These requirements cover not only the peculiar conditions to be satisfied in Naval Aviation, but, for the first time, require our builders to show that their machines are designed in accordance with up-to-date practice. Builders are required to provide technical data which will eliminate from competition all who depend on haphazard methods. Complete stress diagrams under different conditions of load and all the fundamental characteristics, a knowledge of which is indispensible to an intelligent comparison of designs are demanded. The stamp of approval is given to the introduction of improved methods for the automatic control of equilibrium and our builders are encouraged to attain a high degree of efficiency, to improve the factors which govern safety and nothing is demanded that may not be readily accomplished under the limitations of the art as it is generally understood at present. **********

Influence of Foreign Laboratories

Little more than a year ago our knowledge of the effect of air currents upon aeroplane surfaces was almost entirely a matter of theory. The exact information available was so meagre that aeroplanes were built either as copies, slightly modified of other machines, or else by way of haphazard experiment. This state of affairs obtains to some extent in the United States to-day although in Europe aeroplane construction is now largely based on scientific data obtained at notable aerodynamic laboratories.

The intuitive, hasty and crude methods of the pioneer can not succeed in competition with the accurate and systematic methods of the Scientific Engineer, and it is beginning to dawn upon our perceptions that through lack of preparation for the work of the scientific engineer, i.e. through delay in establishing an aerodynamic laboratory, a waste of time and money, a decline of prestige and an unnecessary sacrifice of human life has already resulted.

Students of aviation do not need to be informed of the practical necessity for aerodynamic laboratories. They have repeatedly pointed out, in aeronautical publications, the immense commercial advantages to be anticipated from the establishment of at least one in this country and they have naturally expected that some philanthropic patriot of wealth and scientific interest would come to the rescue with a suitable endowment fund that would enable such work to be started in short order without government aid. The fact that no patriot has responded is disappointing, in view of the large private donations that have done

so much for aviation in France, but in my opinion, it simply indicates something lacking in the manner of disseminating information concerning the importance of the subject. 1 am not willing to believe that our people will refuse to establish one when they are fully acquainted with the advantages to humanity and to sane industrial progress and when a reasonable concrete proposition is advanced for their consideration. I have submitted such a proposition which follows in general outline, the ideas advanced in an address to the Fifth International Aeronautic Congress by one of the greatest authorities in the world, the Commandant Paul Renard, President of the International Aeronautic Commission.

A National Aerodynamic Laboratory

Before considering the character of the work to be done and some details of the needed plant, it will facilitate matters to show what should not be done at such a laboratory.

There are those who dream of supplying the laboratory Avith all the instruments known to mechanics, to physics and even to chemistry, in order to have a creditable and complete national institution. They would concentrate in one locality all the scientific instruments and acumen available with the false idea that economy would result. This would be a grave error.

The financial resources, however great, are sure to be limited and a too ambitious or a superfluous installation would squander the sources of power and indirectly menace the initiative of other industries. The Bureau of Standards and Measures and other Government branches in Washington (and various civil bodies) also offer facilities which it would not be wise to duplicate in such a laboratory. * * * *

TWO DISTINCT GLASSES OF WORK

An aerodynamic laboratory should be devoted to (1) experimental verification, (2) experimental research. The first is concerned with testing the qualities of existing appliances, propellers, sustaining surfaces, control mechanism, etc. Usually these tests are made at the request of interested parties (as is now the case with water models at the Navy Yard Model Basin). A constructor or a designer will bring, for example, a propeller and will wish to know its power or thrust at a given speed on the block or on a moving appliance under the conditions of flight, or he may bring several propellers to compare their performances and to ascertain what power they absorb at different speeds.

One of the very successful appliances devoted to this work at St. Cyr is a movable car in which an aeroplane may be mounted and tested at speeds, in perfect safety, as to its strength, its efficiency and the suita-.

bility of its control mechanism. This device is specially adapted to make actual service tests of sustaining surfaces—in other words, to try out, in perfect safety, the relath e efficiencies of finished aeroplanes. It is a most important adjunct, as it supplements and rounds out the important research work on models in the closed laboratory.

Tests of this character, i.e., verification tests, constitute, so to speak, standard work. They are performed at the request of manufacturers, clubs, independent investigators and other interested parties on condition of payment for the actual cost of the work. They, therefore, contribute to the support of the establishment. * * * * * * * The research work, which prosecutes continuously and patiently systematic, thorough and precise investigation of new ideas, or of old ideas with new applications, with the specific intention of discovering laws and formulae for advancing the progress of aerial navigation, is of greater importance, because it is the short cut to substantial efficiency, economy, improvement and prestige.

This work is concerned with developing adequate methods of research in all branches of aerial navigation and in furnishing reliable information to all students, engineers, inventors, manufacturers, pilots, navigators, strategists and statesmen. The knowledge thus gained should be disseminated regularly through publications, lectures, open-air demonstrations and by exhibitions of apparatus, instruments, materials and models—in fact, by all the facilities of the aerodrome, the showroom, the library and the lecture room.

An exact knowledge of aerodynamics can best be acquired in such a laboratory by experimentation with standard scale models in air tunnels such as those used by M. Eiffel and others. In this way reliable data is obtained of the air resistance to be encountered and the efficiency at various velocities, the amount of lift, the effect of varying impact at different angles of attack on the stability, in fact all the exact data which, reduced to curves and diagrams, enables the engineer to design a machine in a scientific manner. From such data the performance of a new machine can be closely predicated. The performance of the finished product can be verified, later, as before described.

Alnch of the research work will be prosecuted at the request of technical men outside of the institution to whom the laboratory should offer, gratuitously as far as possible, its material and personal resources. *****

THE COUNCIL AND ORGANIZATION To obtain benefit from those researches it will be necessary to know that they are worth the time and expense, and a body of men—a "Council" or a "Board of Governors" —should be authorized to accept or reject requests for this work. This will be a delicate task, but the principal duty of the

council should be to establish and correct, from time to time, a program of the research work to be executed by the Director and his Staff and to co-ordinate the work to the best advantages within the limits of the money available. *****

ENDOWMENTS, PRIZES AND REWARDS

If the laboratory should obtain, in addition to the funds required for prosecuting researches by its staff, any endowments of financial aid in excess of immediate needs (and 1 am confident it will eventually), it would accomplish useful work by offering prizes and granting rewards for important results achieved outside of the institution.

The complete role of an ideal aerodynamic laboratory can be summed up in a few words in the natural order of establishment: (1) Execution of verification tests by means of nominal fees; (2) Facilities to technical men for prosecuting original researches (3) Execution of researches in accordance with a program arranged by the Council; and (4) Reward of commendable results accomplished outside of the laboratory.

NATURE OF THE PLANT

Researches and tests can be made on either a large or a small scale, preferably on both. The use of small models can be made prolific in results because of the comparatively small cost, provided we understand the laws governing transformation into the full sized products.

Certain classes of tests with large models, such for example as the block test of propellers, do not require much space. But the conditions are altered when such tests are made on a machine in motion. These more difficult tests are absolutely indispensable and very important to the usefulness of an official laboratory.

Experiments and tests with small models being comparatively inexpensive, private establishments often undertake their execution, but when we attempt to draw conclusions from results we are obliged to admit that the laws of comparison with full sized machines are debatable the world over. Comparisons are sensibly true between small surfaces and larger surfaces that have been extended proportionately to the square of the linear dimensions, even to surfaces five or ten times larger, but when we pass to much larger surfaces, as we are obliged to, we are forced to adopt formulae with empirical coefficients about which there is indefinite dispute. * *

The laboratory should comprise, therefore, two distinct parts, one devoted to exper-ments on small scale models and the other to experiments on surfaces of larger dimensions.

When we have studied separately each element, of an aeroplane, for example, it will be necessary to test the complete apparatus. An aerodrome annex is therefore,

necessary, or, at least, the laboratory should be located in proximity to an aerodrome of which it can make use. In order that the observations may not only be qualitative but quantitative, it will be necessary to follow all the movements of the complete machine, to know at each instant the speed, the inclination, the thrust of the propellers, the effective horsepower, and, in fact, to conduct a true open air laboratory for aircraft, after the manner of certain tests that have been prolific of results in France.

The English have established close relations between the Royal Aircraft Factory and their Laboratory, the function of the former being that of the reconstruction and repair of aeroplanes, the test of motors and the instruction of mechanics.

LOCATION OF THE LABORATORY.

The location of the model testing plant, the headquarters of the Administration Staff requires comparatively small space and there is no reason why it should be remote from a city or from intellectual and material resources. Tt is advantageous to have it easy of access to many interested people who are not attached to it.

The location of the open-air laboratory should obviously be at an aerodrome, as near as may be convenient to the model testing plant or headquarters. Close proximity of the two parts is desirable but not necessary. * * * We are fortunate in having here, at Washington, ideal conditions for the location of both parts. The model laboratory should obviously be located on the site of Langley's notable work at the Smithsonian Institution where the nucleus, an extensive library of records and certain collection of instruments, are still available. The National Museum is also an ideal location for the historical collection of models that will result.

No more ideal location for the annex, the open-air laboratory or aerodrome, exists in all the world than that afforded by the as yet undeveloped extension of Potomac Park. This is government property which is of doubtful utility as a park only, but which would be of immense utility and interest as a park combined with a scientific plant of the character under consideration. * * * One of the most attractive features of this location is the advantage it offers as an ideal aerodrome for both the Army and the Navy, for both land and water flying, and the opportunity it affords for co-operation in all branches of the work of instruction and experimentation. Furthermore, it is near to the shop facilities of the Navy Yard, the accomodations of the Washington Barracks, the conveniences of the various government hospitals, and it would doubtless add to the information and interest of the nearby War College Staff and the

General Board of the Navy. Its location would enable our statesmen in Congress and a great number of officials in all departments to keep touch at first hand with the progress of aeronautics, with the quality of the work done and with the manner in which the money appropriated was being expended. The educational facilities afforded by the work and by the lectures would be invaluable to the course of instruction for Army, Navy and civil students of aeronautics. * * * *

THE APPARATUS NEEDED.

It is useless to discuss here the various instruments and methods which have been subjects of some dispute abroad. All have some good feature, but time has shown where some of the cumbersome and unnecessary installations may be eliminated to advantage and where others may be improved. The new plant of M. Eiffel at An-teuil may be regarded as a model for the wind tunnel and the aerodynamic balance. A duplicate of that plant alone would be of inestimable value. ********

The moving-car previously referred to for tests of verification would be the most useful open-air plant and would soon repay the outlay required by the value of the information obtained from its use. A miniature duplicate of this method for preliminary tests on models with a wire trolley would be of value in a hall of large dimensions. It would be useful in winter work but not invaluable. ***********

An ideal endless track may readily be arranged at the Potomac Park extension, preferably of rectangular form with rounded corners. A railway track would be preferable, but excellent results could be obtained from auto trucks run on macadamized road beds. Good results could be obtained by the use of suitable hydroaeroplanes or flying boats suitably equipped with instruments.**

A COMMISSION RECOMMENDED.

Inasmuch as more definite information regarding the actual cost of a dignified and creditable but modest and sufficient installa-sion should be obtained and as the details of the plan, the scope, the organization and the location of such an important undertaking should not be left to the recommendations of one man, a Commission or Board should be appointed to consider and report to the President, for recommendation to Congress, on the necessity or desirablity for the establishment of a National Aerodynamic Laboratory and on its scope, its organization, the most suitable location for it and the cost of its installation.

Editokial Note: On December 19th, President Taft appointed a commission to report to Congress on the subject of a laboratory.

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Page 164

My Voyage in the International Balloon Race

By H. EUGENE HONEYWELL

®$88S8§SiS8lPON "earing God's country and our own shores on board the "Amerika", I will try to give you a brief description of the pleasures and hardships we experienced in the "Uncle Sam" during the Gordon-Bennett balloon race starting from Stuttgart, Germany, October 27th, 1912. An elaborate social program was arranged for our entertainment and preparations for the start of the great race were most complete. Our number was 22 the last contestant to leave the earth, in the strongest contested race ever put up; there were by far the most competitors of any of the international races.

We had a good opportunity to observe the movements and the course of the balloons. The first ten or twelve balloons seemed to get away at a fairly good speed and direction, but the balance of them hung around the starting vicinity. We left terra finnii at 5.22 p.m. in fine shape. Ascending to an altitude of 500 meters, we gradually pulled away from Stuttgart with eight of our competitors on my favored course, northeast, with Russia as the destination. About 10 o'clock that evening we passed over three more of our competitors and spoke one immediately below us, his course being north, while ours was still northeast. The pilot answered in French "Number ten," which proved to be "Isle de France". Shortly after midnight a. heavy blankets of clouds obscured our view of the earth. We were traveling very fast then, to the north and I knew what that meant—a storm was brewing in that direction. We ascended to 700 meters which bore us more to the east. We could hear sweet music and singing a good deal of the time, and caught occasional glimpses of lights of cities through the breaks in the low clouds. We had a beautiful moon above the great masses of ever-changing clouds which resembled huge snow banks,—a perfect night in cloudland. At 7 a.m. we crossed the River Elba. Good old Sol came out bright and warm, chasing the clouds away and affording a magnificent view of German farms, with every foot under cultivation. We noticed no farm houses, as in our country, but dozens of well kept villages a few kilometers apart dotted the earth. On looking about, we discovered only one of our competitors, high up and far to the East. Mr. Lang, my faithful aid, failing to get response to his call to ascertain our whereabouts, turned his attention to the lime stove and breakfast,

About 2 p.m., we crossed into Russia, a God-forsaken country. Immediately over one of the garrisons could see Cossacks drilling within the enclosure. 1 made a pic-

ture of this scene, as 1 did of many interesting German subjects earlier, our altitude being 2,000 meters.

The second evening we dropped down to 300 or 400 meters and at S o'clock passed over the only city we saw from the balloon in all Russia. We took this to be Warsaw on the River Weichsel, course northeast. Howling dogs and wolves made music and song that night. At 2 a.m. clouds shut out the beautiful moon aud soon after that it began to rain. "Hell," 1 said, and began throwing sand until daylight. We were running between two cloud stratas. At about G a.m. we decided to slide down on expansion and ascertain, if possible, our position and direction; no sooner had we passed through the lower clouds when it began to sleet and snow. It was very cold and our gas bag resembled an iceberg. The gas contracted causing us to descend rapidly, and we both began throwing sand by the sack. This was in vain; all we had went overboard, but this was not enough. The balloon crashed into some dead trees with a great noise, tearing many large holes and the hurricane finished it in short order. The bag was a total wreck.

Despite the early hour hundreds of peasants, some with guns and axes, gathered. None could read their own language, much less talk ours. We drew a picture of a horse and wagon. They shook their heads. We then rubbed our stomachs, chewed our thumbs and pointed up and down the railroad track. One long haired fellow pointed west, holding up five fingers, by which we understood "five verstes to town." We gave him some luggage and motioned him to lead the way. We floundered through the deep ice and snow after him, bringing up at the station two hours later, about 9 a.m.

There we met an English-spoken lady, who proved to be a good Samaritan. Learning our location, Sapadsen-Dwina, we secured breakfast and a place to sleep in her house; no hotels or the likes in that country. About noon we secured a hand car and plenty of willing help went after what was left of the balloon. Most everything was stolen from the basket and the foot ropes cut off from the netting, we picked up what was left, leaving the balloon, and headed back for the station. That evening at 7:30 we boarded a train for Eydtkuhnen, a German border town. At 2:30 in the morning we were dragged off the train at Rieschitsa and locked up until 7 a.m., when we were placed on an east-bound train and taken back to Weliki Luki, near where we landed, and hauled before the Prefect of Police who stripped us of most of our clothing, searched us for maps, etc., which were confiscated, together with our films. We were even refused the privilege of wiring our Consul at St. Petersburg. We were

(Continued on Page 17'')

Resumé of the 1912 Aero Show at Paris

By LIEUT. RILEY E. SCOTT

point of decoration, arrangement and completeness, the 1912 Aeronautical Salon was far ahead of any of its predecessors. The immense hall of the Grand Palais, draped with thousands of vari-colored streamers mingled with stands of the tri-colored flags of France, beneath which reposed scores of various types of aeroplanes —affectionately called "les oiseaux de France"—with glittering motors and immaculately finished parts, made a picture long to be remembered.

Yet, to one reasonably familiar with the basic principles of the aeroplane, it was scarcely necessary to make more than one tour of the stands to realize that, so far as principles are concerned, the aeroplane stands to-day virtually where it stood when Wilbur Wright made his memorable flights at Le Mans in 1908. Aeroplanes are safer and faster to-day because motors are more reliable and more powerful and because of structural refinements, hut, beyond that, improvements have been "nil." This assertion scarcely needs argument when we stop to consider that the most successful makes of the present depend, for their stability and direction in the air, upon the wing-warping (or ailerons) and the vertical and horizontal rudders of the primitive aeroplane. In fact, it may be truthfully said that the improvement of the internal combustion motor— the invention and development of the Gnome motor, in particular—has been a greater-factor than any other in the development of the aeroplane. Much has been said and written about automatic stability, but the writer has seen nothing in Europe that leads him to believe thatt this all-important problem has been practically solved.

In completeness of exhibits, the 1912 Salon led its predecessors by a wide margin. All the standard makes of France were well represented—and there are more than a score of them—as well as several newcomers and a few foreign makes. Of motors, propellers and accessories, there was a confusing variety, not to mention free balloons, toy aeroplanes, demountable hangers, field tents and the annual Michelin exhibit. The old timers, such as the Farmans, Bleriot, Astra, Sommer, Nieuport, Deperdussin, Breguet, Morane-Saulnier, Borel, Hanriot REP, Savary and Voisin, occupied one or more stands each and, in most instances, exhibited a machine which had performed some remarkable feat during the year. For example, I noticed the Maurice Farman with which Fourny flew 13 hours IS minutes

without landing; the monocoque Deperdussin with which Vedrines won the Gordon-Bennett Cup the Nieuport hydro with which Weymann won the race from St. Malo to the island of Jersey and return; the Bleriot with which Garres broke the world's altitude record, and several others.

Most of the old constructors have remained faithful to their classic types, with few changes and variations. The use of steel, however, has greatly increased, several constructors showing practically all-steel machines, the most striking of these being an all-steel Hanriot monoplane. This machine is coustruced entirely to steel tubing, even the entire wing structure and landing chassis. A novelty is also the hinged fuselage, the rear portion of which folds over framework is also detachable.

Among biplanes, the Maurice Farman seems to be better designed and constructed than any other French biplane, and unquestionably leads all other in performance and records. It is of robust construction, carefully put together, beautifully finished, and, mounted with the reliable 70 H.P. renault motor, stands a model of aeronautical design and construction. Among monoplanes, there seems to be little to choose between several makes, especially the Nieuport, the Deperdussin and the Hanriot. These machines resen ble one another in their main features, are equally well construced, are all Gnome motored and have many enviable records to their credit. The monocoque Deperdussin holds, for the moment, the world's speed record and was easily the most popular machine exhibited, on account of its having brought to France the long-coveted Gordon-Bennett Cup. We should not forget, how-over, that it was the Nieuport that took the Cup from England to America, and while no special speed machine was built this year, I have been told by one high in the councils of the Nieuport company that this machine will not be missing next year in the defense of the Cup. The Hanriot. a later machine, shows most excellent design and construction and excited much interest among French and foreign military officers during the Show. In fact, the little escadrille of Hanriots made a remarkably good showng during the recent French man-euvres, having covered several thousand kilometres without a single breakage. This monoplane will undoubtedly make a name for itself during the coming year.

Of course, the Bleriot stand was complete and popular, the "piece de resistance" being a new military two seat monoplane, pro-

tected with light armor and mounted with a machine gun. There was also exhibited the famous one seat type with which Garros won the Grand Prix of the Aero Club this year. While the workmanship on these machines was excellent, the writer hesitates to put them in the same class with the three monoplanes above mentioned, on account of the great number of accidents that have happened to this make and, particularly, on account of specific cases of bad construction that the writer has examined personally. However, out of some seventy aeroplanes that took part in the recent maneuvres, twenty-three are said to have been Blériots, which indicates that this maker is still in favor with the military authorities.

Among the less well-known machines, there is one, the Moreau monoplane, that deserves particular mention. This machine can be pronounced by far and away the most ingenious and original in the Show. In general construction, it is somewhat on the Train principle, in so far as the pilot's seat is placed immediately under the wings, whilst the motor—a 70 h.p. Gnome—is placed in front on a level with the latter. The noteworthy point, however, is the automatic longitudinal stability device, which from the results obtained, constitutes the greatest progress yet made in this direction. Briefly, the invention comprises an oscillating seat, on which the pilot and passenger are placed, and which, when in flight and only when so desired, is mobile in the longitudinal direction, thus forming a pendulum. This pendulum remains, under every condition of flight, perpendicular to the ground, and by its weight automatically actuates, through a connection of jointed steel tubes, an immense tail surface of some seventeen square metres, either depressing or elevating the same without the pilot's intervention. This does not affect lateral stability, which is obtained by ailerons in the usual way. Monsieur Moreau states that he has flown by ailerons twenty minutes without touching the controls, and, in calm weather, can rise or move about without affecting the stability of the machine.

One of the most interesting features of the Show was the appearance for the first time of the hydro-aeroplane, which has been introduced into Europe during the past year. America stole a march on France in the development of the hydro and, in my opinion, still leads in this important branch of aviation. The principal water planes exhibited were the Farman, Nieuport, Sanchez-Besa, Astra, and Donnet-Levéque. All of these consist of standard types with floats attached, with the exception of the Donnet-Levéque, which, like the latest Curtiss, is built directly upon a boat-like float. The hydro-aeroplane is being taken up by practically all the principal French constructors, but the St. Malo races, with their many accidents and numerous repairs to floats, plainly

showed that the hydro is not yet an everyday, rough-weather machine.

Several new motors were exhibited this year, namely, the Burlot, Favata, Esselbe, Laviator, Le Rhone, mostly radial and rotary. However, a general survey of the machines on exhibit showed that the Gnome rotary, the Salmson radial water-cooled and the Renault V-shaped air-cooled motors reign supreme. The Anzani firm, which was among the first to put aviation motors on the market, also exhibited several very interesting new types, all radial.

To a military man, the most interesting and instructive exhibit was that of the French War Department. In the military stands could be seen over a score of machines of various types, some having made famous raids, others new, the gifts of various persons, business houses and cities during the recent national subscription for military aviation. But the most interesting of all was the exhibit of military automobile trucks for the transportation and repair of aeroplanes in the field. Over a dozen such trucks, dust covered from participation in the recent maneuvres, were on exhibition, showing the automobile adapted to various uses, such as a travelling store house for motors and spare parts, commissary and mess trucks, complete repair shops, etc. The most striking of these, however, was the "camion-atelier Crochat" (Crochat's workshop truck). This consists of an immense automobile truck with electrical transmission, equipped with a Brasier motor of 90-140 h.p., capable of transporting 4^ tons of useful load. It really affords a roomy workshop, with several machine tools and a complete outfit of ordinary tools, vices, anvils, a forge, etc. It is well lighted by electricity, which also supplies the power for the machine tools. In completeness and practical arrangement, I have seen nothing approaching this field workshop. Its serviceable qualities are proven by the fact that it went through the hard service of the maneuvres, was then sent to take station on the eastern frontier and was afterwards recalled to Paris for the Aero Show. It is only one of the features, however, of the wonderful equipment and organization by means of which France has attained and maintains supremacy in the air. Many official delegations and hundreds of individual officers of foreign armies swarmed around these military exhibits, studying and profiting by the progress that France has made in military aviation, but, among them all, the United States seemed to be unrepresented, at least officially. It has often been said that the Civil War would have lasted less than a year had the government been prepared for war, and everybody knows that, at the beginning of the war with Spain, we were fortunate rather than formidable. The neglect of Congress with respect to military aviation, upon which other nations are spending millions

{Continued on page 175)

The Harlan Military Monoplane

published even

^jSS^KSHE up-to-dateness of German constructors is exemplified in the Harlan factory (Harlan Werke G. m. b. H., Johannisthal, near Berlin, Germany). It is next to impossible to secure detailed drawings, lor the data for same, from any manufacturer. Makers object, as a rule, to having plan and elevation drawings of their machines with general dimensions only. Such data must, naturally, be obtained either from the makers themselves, or by magazines and individuals from the machines themselves in the hands of good-natured private owners. The Harlan company is more broad-minded and has sent, on request, three sheets of scale drawings printed from plates at rather great expense. These are reproduced in this issue.

This machine holds the four—and five— world endurance records and has won many prizes, one has been used about Constantinople.

The general construction oil the. apparatus may be seen from these drawings. The body is of trapezoid cross-section using selected wood. The struts and cross-pieces are fish-shaped.

The machine is furnished as desired, either with or without covered body, or with a windshield in front of passenger, which hardly interferes with the observer's view below. With the latter arrangement the radiator is furnished in extra small size leaving enough room to right and left of it for unobstructed downward view. It is this arrangement that is particularly recommended for military purposes; while the completely covered body is adapted for sports on account of its elegant appearance and less head resistance.

By mounting 4 wheels instead of 2 on one axle, the apparatus is able to land on verv

rough ground. The added wheels also increase the running surface, so that the apparatus sinks less deep in plowed ground and needs less starting spa^o

Into tubular steel fastenings, welded to the connections of the body, are fastened four running gear supports made out of fish-shaped ash. The two front supports slant towards the front so as to receive landing shocks perpendicularly and are connected through laminated springs with the steel armored ash skids. The latter are curved up so as to protect the propeller in landing. These laminated springs mitigate partly any very hard shocks resulting from an awkward landing on rough landing place. The wheels are movable to the right or left. The axle itself is provided with rubber rings.

In the duplicate steering gear double control wires are all conducted over pulleys. A patent on a connecting device through which the two can be instantly disconnected by a touch of the pilot in the rear, has been applied for. Through this device the pilot is enabled to disconnect his passenger in front of him from the steering apparatus if they disagree in a perilous situation, or his pupil, if he makes any grave mistakes. This device is so constructed that any steering system can be connected in this manner. This is of importance to those pilots who have been trained to a different system of steering.

The carrying ability of the wings has been considerably added to through experiments with an extensive number of wing shapes. At the same time in spite ot their proven solidity the wings 0' ail models have been considerably strengthened. The wings which span 13.8 meters, are open in the rear. This aperture is for the purpose of letting out, though the rear edge of the wing, any air which may be found between the coverings through some

Page 168

hole in same, which might cause unequal pressures on the wings.

The fabric is rubberized cloth, treated in addition for strength, insusceptibility to climatic changes and to make cleaning of the surface possible.

The blocks between the ribs of the wings are not solid Avood, as in common practice, but consist of three layers of wood glued together crosswise. This results in obtaining extraordinary strength and permits the screws which connect blocks and ribs to be screwed into the wood against the grain instead of with the grain where they hold poorly. A big proportion of the wood fibre of the block runs parallel with the rib which permits a strong gluing together.

The flexible wing has great advantages over the stiff type, because it acts as a stabilizer. It is common practice to construct the elastic wing ends of bamboo. The Harlan company use double spruce strips,

laid over one another, which when they have obtained a certain limit of elasticity become stiffened against each other and thus preventing a strip from becoming strained past the breaking point. This is accomplished through a thin plate on one strip with a slot through which a pin glides. This pin moves in the opposite slot within the limits prescribed by the length of the slot, thus preventing the bending of the rib to the breaking point.

Defects in the materials of important parts of flying machines have resulted in falls. To avoid this the wires, bolts and connections which transfer the pull of the wings to the body are, therefore, arranged in such manner that even with a defect in material and resulting break of a wire, connection or bolt, an accident is out of the question because of the double construction. Each of two wires running from point to point along side of each other is fastened in two eyebars. Each wire, or other part has a multiple factor of safety and has been retained at this strength although two may be used where formerly one only was deemed ample.

The main "frame piece of the wing being of such dimensions in the new machines of big carrying capacity that it is impossible to prove its faultless quality, is cut apart. The resulting pieces, each of which is computed of sufficient strength to carry the entire load alone, are shifted and then glued together, so that here too any defect in the material would not mean danger to the occupants of the machine."

All connections are fashioned out of forged steel. Steel has even been used where a break seemed to be excluded; while all other parts, on account of effecting repairs under Avarlike conditions, are made of wood.

The skids as well as the motor-bridge, consist of wood armored with steel. Through the wood on one side and steel bands on the other a high elasticity of these much used parts is obtained.

A large gasoline tank is provided wltn a pressure gauge. The machine is also provided with a tachometer, ignition and carburetor le\rers, a barometer and a rolling map device. The gasoline pipes are of flexible tubing in places exposed to vibration. To prevent unnecessary running of the apparatus on unfavorable ground a brake is provided.

The stabilizing planes as well as the rudder are not curved and do not form any angle with the line of flight.

By pushing forward on a lever, the machine is headed dOAvn, and vice versa. The lever can be locked in position, leaving the hands free. By pushing a foot lever down on the high side, low side is lifted and the high side depressed, and vice versa. The vertical rudder is operated by a wheel in the same way as in an automobile.

An Argus, Bosch-equipped, 100 h.p. 4 cyl. motor drives a 2-bladed tractor of 2.7 meters diameter.

The engine shaft, exactly balanced, is made out of high grade chrome nickle steel, hollowed out by boring, and provided with ball bearings to take up the aerial thrust of the propeller. The connecting rods are made "I" shape out oi chrome nickle steel.

The carburetor is regulated automatically. The consumption of gasoline and oil is abnormally Ioav in the Argus motor, because it consumes at its highest efficiency of from 102 to 106 h.p. only 21.5 kg. of gasoline and ?> to 4 of oil. With a working load of 250 kg. the machine climbs about 100 meters per minute. The area of main wings is about 30 sq. meters. It has been assembled in 63 minutes and dismounted in 24 minutes by unskilled men. In setting up, the wings are mounted correctly avoiding necessity of measuring. The speed is measured at 112.5 km. per hour.

New Developments in Aeronautics

navy aeroplane catapult

The Navy Aeroplane Catapult is a simple device for getting aeroplanes away from a ship in the quickest manner and over the shortest track, the object being to avoid carrying on board ship any more paraphernalia than necessary to accomplish the object.

It has been demonstrated several times that an aeroplane can leave a ship by its own power over a suitable platform that is long enough and can even alight on such a platform, under favorable circumstances, but it is desired to avoid the encumbrance of a platform.

The Catapult is so small that it occupies little space, it can even be mounted for use

on top of a turret, it can be transported to any location on the ship and it can be readily dismounted and stowed away clear of the guns.

Compressed air is used for the power, as all ships carrying torpedoes are supplied with air compressors. When preparing the apparatus for use the air is pumped, to a suitable pressure, into a receiver which is connected with a small cylinder conveniently located on deck. The piston of the cylinder has a stroke of about 40 inches and the piston rod is connected with a small wooden car by means of a wire rope purchase which multiplies the travel of the piston to any desired extent or to any limit fixed by the travel of the car on its tracks.

Fig. 2

aeronautical engineers

Manufacturers of

Biplanes

Monoplanes

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Hydro-Aeroplanes Gliders Propellers Parts

Special Machines and Parts Built \ Z.to Specifications

Large stock of Steel Fittings, Laminated Ribs, and Struts of all .sizes carried in stock.

Hall-Seott Motors, 40-60-80 H. P.

Your Opportunity—One single covered Biplane for immediate delivery. Slightly used, with 8 cyl. 60 H.P. Hall-Seott Power Plant.

FLYING AND TRAINING GROUNDS

works: ocean terrace and little clove road staten island, new york city

x Established 1906 Tel. 717 Tompkinsville 4.

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ADAMS-FARWELL

REVOLVING MOTORS

HAVE BEEN IN

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HYDROS

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Over 100 complete drawings. Scale 1" to foot; some full size Prints 281x36:

ONLY COMPLETE PRINTS EVER SOLO

aeronautics. 250 west 54lh st.. new york

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Aerial Sight-seeing Tours Arranged on Demand

Piloted by

FAMOUS AVIATORS

Instruction and Licenses Used Material, Motors, 'Planes, etc.

"AERONAUTICS" 250 West 54th St., New York

Phone, Columbus 4833

TOURS

AERONAUTICAL RADIATORS

Built in capacities and types for standard and special aviation motors

Write for prices on standard makes. Send your specifications for special designs

EL ARC0 RADIATOR COMPANY

Broadway and 57th St., New York City also manufacturers of automobile radiators of all types

THE AERO WHEEL CO.

Builds all Kinds of Wheels for Aeroplanes and Monoplanes

Standard or Special Sizes at Very Low Prices

782 Eighth Avenue New York

_-, „',■.....•„■,'-,

-77T

J. C. (Bud) MARS, now booking season 1912.

Have never been connected with the American Aeroplane Mfg. Co. and School of Aviation.

17 North La Salle Street, Chicago, Ills.

Aero

RATES: 15 cents a line, 7 words to the line Payment in advance required.

GNOME FIFTY—who wants it? Has been used by Charles F. Willard. Perfect condition. Make offer. Address, "GNOME," c/o Aeronautics.

RARE BOOKS—Occasionally it is possible to secure copies of Wise and Astra Castra. These are very scarce and are two of the absolutely necessary books for an aeronautical library-

ASTRA CASTRA, by Hatton Turnor, Cloth, London, 1S65, many fine plates. $10.

A SYSTEM OF AERONAUTICS, Comprehending its Earliest Investigations and Modern Practice and Art, Designed as a History for the Common Reader and Guide to the Student of the Art, by John Wise, Svo., cloth, Phila., 1S50. $10. Aeronautics, 250 W. 54th St., New York.

ASSORTMENT of complete power plants, including; Curtiss 25 h. p., 4 cyl.; Clement-Bayard 30's; Kirkham 60; Hendee (Indian) 7 cyl., 50. Bargains at 50% below cost.

Immediate delivery of genuine Bleriot and several antiquated but successful aeroplanes of unexcelled workmanship "for a song." Address, Assortment, c/o Aeronautics, 250 W. 54th St., N. Y. City.

SPECIAL GOOD BARGAINS—1 Gnome engine, 50 h. p., complete with mountings for biplane, everything ready to run. Can demonstrate. Nearly new. Fine condition. $2,000.

Complete set of parts for Gnome 50, enough to assemble complete engine; all kinds socket wrenches and tools for same; mounting frames, controls, etc.

Bleriot type monoplane for Gnome engine, two Bleriot types with Anzani engines. Sets of parts.

All these from well known concerns. Everything can be seen before purchase. Cheap for cash. Address Mono, c/o Aeronautics, 250 W. 54th Street, N. Y. City.

ENGINE FOR SALE—8-cyl. "V," list price, $1,500, new, never used. The one who buys this motor gets one of those few real bargains that aren't picked up every day. Thoroughly tested by maker who desires to sell the last one in his shop. Complete with propeller, $SO0. Address. "Eight Cylinder", c/o Aeronautics, 250 W. 54th St., New York.

LATERAL STABILIZER—Wish $300 to complete lateral stabilizer. Have experimented successfully in actual flight with crude mechanism. Entirely eliminates periodic oscillation. Address "Stabilizer," care Aeronautics, 250 W. 54, New York.

AN UNUSUAL OPPORTUNITY for big profits in Aviation School connected with established aeroplane factory. Well located. Fine prospects. Investment of $5,000 admits investor as director of corporation with brilliant future. Investigate. Address, J. B. c/o Aeronautics.

FOR EXCHANGE—Wanted to exchange one 5-passenger EMF - 30 automobile, in fine shape, for an aeroplane motor or complete aeroplane. Theo. Brode, Plaquemine, La.

THIS MONTH—Ford "22", will fly light 'plane, only $60. Six cyl. high tension magneto, A-l, $20. Radiators, $25. Model supplies.—H. Gleason, 16 Bellevue St., Worcester, Mass.

Mart

WANTED an aviator with some experience that can furnish a motor to help me fly my machine for an interest in my patents. I have a machine complete ready for the .motor that will interest you and it will cost you little to write me for cuts and descriptions of my invention, which is covered with patents and then if you can't see anything in it, you needn't go any further, for if I can't convince any thinking man that I have the completest aeroplane that has been patented, to date, I don't expect him to take any interest in it whatsoever; but if you feel that an interest in the best machine patented, to date, would interest you, write to G. W. Thompson, Kingston, Okla.

FOR EXCHANGE—Will exchange 22 H. H., Buick automobile, in good running: order, for aeroplane motor. II. Vosatko, Box 38, Uvalde, Texas.

U. S. Patents

(Continuedfrom Page 170) issued december 3

1,045,S50, John Jirasek, Newark, N. J., AEROPLANE and means for tilting main planes and ailerons.

1,046,023, Francois Rilleau, Los Angeles, Cal., PARACHUTE capable of sustaining, sufficient for the purpose, aeroplane and passengers.

*1,046,02S, Ludwig Schmidl, or W. Neustadt, Austria Hungary, AEROPLANE in which the lateral extremities of the wings may be "reefed" or folded.

1,046,219, William Phillips, Chicago, 111., FLYING MACHINE.

1,046,372, Linton T. Bassett, Newburgh, N. Y., PROPELLER.

1,046,3S5, Herbert E. Hawes, New York, N. Y., PROPELLER.

issued december 10

1,046,0S2, Otto Trossin, Hamburg, Germany. FLYING MACHINE.

1,046,721, James H. S. Bartholomew, Occidental, Cal., and Eugene F. Heath, Santa Rosa, Cal., BOAT, for aeroplanes.

1,046,S20, Davis L. Marry, Idabel, Okla., FLYING MACHINE.

1,046,S95, Bernard B. Stubblefleld, Nashville, Tenn., FLYING MACHINE.

1,047,010, Gustave F. Eklund, Dracut, Mass., FLYING MACHINE.

1,047,03S, John R. Gammeter, Akron, Ohio, AEROSTAT in which the envelope is composed of a fabric of woven metallic ribbons, etc.

1,047,098, Walter G. Madison, Ames, Iowa, FLYING MACHINE.

IDouble Hydro Floats, weight, 55 lbs. each, pair. $250- I Running Gears, Farman or Wright, complete, $42.50. I Hubt, knock-out axle or to fit, I", I}4", 1j4", or l1/-*". I

AEROPLANE WHEELS

J. A. WEAVER, Jr., Mfr., 132 West 50th Street, N. y Wheels, 20" x 214", complete, $6.00 — 20" x 3", $8.25, with Curtiss or Farman type stock Hub, 6" wide. We make any size or type of wheel. Send for list. Compare my prices with all others.

The aeroplane of course rests upon the car and, when a flight takes place, both are projected from the tracks together in about iy2 seconds, the pressure being automatically and gradually accelerated throughout the stroke. The car drops into the water when free from the tracks and is hauled on board by a rope attached to it.

The device, as used at the Washington Navy Yard, Nov. 12, 1912, was mounted on

a float (see Fig. 1) so that the bottom of the the aeroplane, were made before the final test of Nov. 12th and curves of speed and pressure were obtained in each case. These curves are reassuring and demonstrate the possibility of getting, by this method, the curve of velocity to follow any trajectory desirable within practicable limits.

Figure 3 represents the car weighted with sandbags for a test at the Navy Yard and

Figs. 3 and 4

hydroplane was not more than two feet above the water. When discharged the hydroaeroplane gradually arose in a steady beautiful flight, as soon as it left the tracks, without any tendency to seek the water, (see Fig. 2 in which the car is seen just dropping clear of the hydroplane.)

During a previous trial, at Annapolis, the device was mounted rigidly on a wharf. The car and machine were both free to lift from the tracks during any part of the stroke and after the aeroplane motor had been started full speed, the full pressure of 290 lbs. was turned on at once. Ou this occasion the machine reared at about mid-stroke and, as a cross wind was blowing, the right wing was thrown up and a corkscrew dive into the water resulted. Lieut. Ellyson, the aviator who managed the machine on both occasions and whose iron nerves were relied on to stand the shock, was fully satisfied, by this extreme test, that the shock ought not to deter any good aviator. It was also gratifying to note that no part of the machinery or fittings was ruptured or showed any signs of weakness.

When tried at the Washington Navy Yard, November 12th, the float enabled the apparatus to be pointed towards the wind, which, however, was nearly calm at the time. The car was held down to the tracks by reverse flanges and extra wheels and the balanced valve of the cylinder was arranged to be gradually opened to full power by a simple wedge shaped cam attached to the travelling block on the piston head. The aeroplane was also held down to the car by an iron strap, the ends of which were tripped automatically at the end of the stroke by studs on the tracks.

Several preliminary tests of the device, with sand bags to represent the weight of

Figure 4 shows the car with its sandbag burden just leaving the tracks. It is interesting to note in this picture some of the heavy sandbags and the block to which the holding down strap was attached suspended in midair, while the comparatively light car is dropping away from them.

The picture Fig. 4 also shows the airflask, the cylinder, the piston rod and the cam.

flyers' eye shield

The eye and nose shield recently marketed by the Sanitary Sales Co., of Bradford, Pa., ought to appeal to air motorists. The

shield is very light and gives clear vision on all sides, which is not accomplished by the usual goggles. A bit of gauze protects the nostrils from flying dust. Harry B. Brown has been flying with it and announces it a success.

blondin lateral control

The description of a new system of lateral control designed to obviate the use of warping or ailerons has been sent to AERONAUTICS by Joseph A. Blondin, of Los Angeles, Calif. He wishes to have this system of his invention given publicity in order to forestall any attempts to monopolize it in any way.

The system carries vertical "keel-rudders," adapted to the skid frame design, the rudder portions of which normally form part of the keel. These rudder portions are restrained from swinging inward and operate, one at a time, only in an outward direction.

Considering that comparatively widely separated skids be used, Air. Blondin says: "Losing lateral balance, the machine begins to 'toboggan' in the directions of the low side (See Fig. 2). This action is resisted by a resulting air pressure against the keel (1') covering the skid. Gravity then acting inside the point of resistance will tend to lower the high wing and will be aided by the operation, outward, of the keel rudder on the high-wing side, (2'). This rudder will decompose the air pressure then acting against it in two forces: one, tending to 'right' the machine through a side pressure exerted under the center of gravity of the machine, and the other (3') tending to turn the machine toward the high side, by reason of the rudder's drift-resistance on that side; which later action is, in reality, the sole power at the disposal of aviators flying all existing types of aeroplanes. So, in addition to this last named power, the 'Blondin system' supplies two others; one of which is automatic and, the writer believes, capable, in itself, of restoring balance under most ordinary conditions of flight. * * * The system comprises the use of the usual vertical steering rudder, although it is conceivable that the latter might very well be eliminated following a series of development of the system in question."

capdevila control system A locking control device has been invented, (and patents are pending in the United States), by F. Capdevila, of 24S West 45th Street, New York. In a general way, the arrangement resembles the Curtiss type of control, pillar and wheel. In use, all operations are normally locked. Pressing one

small lever on the wheel releases the rudder control; another releases the elevator for operation, and a third, the stability. A foot pedal releases all but the warping (or aileron control. Having reached the desired

elevation and direction, the controls may be locked to save the pilot from fatigue, or they may be locked for the purpose of making notes or taking photographs.

The elevator is operated by moving the pillar and wheel toward or away from the pilot. Direction is obtained by turning the the pillar about its vertical axis, and the stability is secured by turning the wheel only. The outfit, which is placed on the market, lists at $150. Its weight is 28 pounds, seat included. The device has all-ready been tried in flight by aviator Fitz-simmons.

You ask me if I am satisfied. I should say, "Yes". Your paper is all right in every way, and I am waiting for every one of your magazines that comes out.—P. H. S., New Jersey.

I like the magazine very much and think it is worth the monev. Wishing you success,— M. D. C, Mississippi.

I hate to miss any number of your excellent magazine, which is the best of its kind that I know of.—S. B., Penna.

Another Record for the

charavay propeller

American Passenger Altitude:—5,006 feet — 1 hour, 6 minutes SLOANE AEROPLANE CO. 1733 Broadway, NEW YORK CITY

Agent» :— Eime» Tricycle Co., San Francisco ; National Aeroplane Co., Chicago ; W. E. Boughton, Washington, D. C.

Farman Running Gears Complete, as above - $47.50

AERONAUTICAL SUPPLIES

Everything to build any type flying machine.

New Catalogue with working drawings of Curtiss, Farman and Bleriot-type machines in course of construction and will be mailed free upon request to all parties as soon as received from the printer. Write for quotations.

A FEW IMMEDIATE DELIVERY PRICES

Curtiss Steering Wheels - $9.00 FREE with

every $50.00 order for Aeronautical Supplies FLEECE-LINED AVIATOR CAP.

5.50 6.15 1.25 .29 .17

Curtiss Seats -5-Gallon Tanks Aviator Caps -Outrigger Fittings -Oval Post Sockets -Aluminum pulleys with brass bushings:

2" 25c, 24" 30c, 3" 40c. Wheels and Tires complete, Eclipse Hub:

20x2i" $6.75 20x3" $9.50 E. J. WILLIS COMPANY, New York City

85 Chambers Street (Telephone 3624 Worlh) 67 Read* Street

DETROIT A.R0 POWER PLANT

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WIRE

We make an extra high grade plated finish wire for aviators' use.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ADDRESS

John A. Roebling's Sons Co.

TRENTON, N. J.

albatross engines

Made in two sizes

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100 H.P. 6-cyl. Water-cooled, 3^0eifbhs!

PRICE, $850.00 Complete Catalog Free Agents Wanted

ALBATROSS COMPANY

DETROIT, MICH.

AERONAUTICS

New and Enlarged Edition, Commencing January, 1913

The Leading British Monthly-Journal Devoted to the Technique and Industry of Aeronautics.

(FOUNDED 1907) Yearly Subscription One Dollar, Eighty-Five Cents Post Free

^J_i._.__A specimen copy will be mailed

i'ulc* free on receipt of 15 cents.

-HEAD OFFICE:-

3 London Wall Buildings, London, England American Office : 250 West 54th Street, New York

Free Instruction in the Operation of the

CURTISS FLYING BOAT

WILL BE GIVEN To Those Taking a Regular Course of Training at the

Curtiss School of Aviation

SAN DIEGO, CAL.

FINISH OF HYDROAEROPLANE RACES AT HAMMONDSPORT, N. Y. David McCullah in his "Flying Boat" leads; he is accompanied by Mr. Curtiss, Lincoln Beachey is second, accompanied by Lansing Callan, while Francis Wildman, instructor at Hammondsport School, is third with the Standard Hydroaeroplane.

Among the men who have learned aviation at Curtiss Schools are:

Lieut. T. C. ELLYSON, now in charge of the aeroplanes of the U. S. Navy.

Lieut. J. H. TOWERS, who just established a new World's Hydroaeroplane Record of 6 hrs., 10 min., 38 sec.

H. ROBINSON, who recently introduced the Hydroaeroplane in Europe and is now instructor in a Curtiss School.

C. C. WITMER, now in St. Petersburg demonstrating Hydroaeroplanes to the Russian Navy and Army.

Lieut. J. W. McCLASKEY, instructor in a Curtiss School.

LINCOLN BEACHEY, "The World's Greatest Aviator."

S. C. LEWIS, now instructor in the Morane School in France.

J. LANSING CALLAN, now an instructor in a Curtiss School.

FRANCIS WILDMAN, now an instructor in a Curtiss School.

BECKWITH HAVENS, now a demonstrator.

W. B. ATWATER, now demonstrating- to the Japanese Government.

Besides, a score of men who own their own machines and fly in contests and exhibitions and a dozen others have taken positions with either manufacturers or exhibition concerns.

OUR SAN DIEGO, CAL., AVIATION TRAINING GROUNDS, situated on North Island, in San Diego Harbor, are the finest in America, if not in the world. North Island is leased by us exclusively for Aviation purposes, and comprises one thousand acres of flat, level sand, unobstructed by rock, tree or building, thus offering every advantage as a flying course. The island is entirely private, yet within a few minutes of San Diego, one of the most progressive and attractive cities on the Pacific Coast.

THE FIRST CLASS BEGINS INSTRUCTION DECEMBER 1st. THE SECOND CLASS WILL START JANUARY 1st, 1913.

A $100 00 deposit will reserve a place for you in this class. Mail or wire it to-day. Our Booklet "TRAINING" mailed upon request.

THE CURTISS AEROPLANE CO.

HAMMONDSPORT, N. Y.

testing motors and propellors

An interesting engine and propeller testing device has been described in a German periodical by a Herr Scheit. The aeroplane is pivoted on a stand, Fig. 1, the pivots being located on an elongation of the motor axis, so that the torque or turning effort, which rotates the propeller, strives to turn the machine around the axis, much as a

pendulum would swing. This torque is equal to the torque of the motor and is measured by putting a weight, W, on the scale pan so that the balance keeps even and the aeroplane remains horizontal laterally. To calculate the horsepower delivered, let R equal the length of beam to the axis, N the observed r.p.m. of the motor, W the weight in pounds. The effective power can be found by applying the formula—-

W X 2ti-R X N H. P. =----33000

The principle used here is the same as is frequently adopted in automobile factories in this country for testing engines for power

F,a 2

and endurance. It has an advantage, in that no cooling devices are necessary on the brake or power absorbing device.

To test the tractive power of a propeller the base of the stand may be mounted on pivots F. The wire M is connected with a weight Gj which is placed on the scales. If the motor is running, the propeller will raise the weight Gr The tractive power is measured by putting on the scale-pan N another weight, G2, until it balances. The formula then is—

G, — G2 = Tractive Power With the same apparatus, one could substitute a spring balance for the weights Gx and G2 and read the tractive power direct.

single burgess float

A single float or pontoon has been attached to a converted Wright biplane for the Navy by the Burgess Co. & Curtis. A 4-cylinder Sturtevant muffled engine is used and no sound can be heard at a height of 250 feet.

The single boat is a new Burgess type hydroplane having two steps, center step located at. about the longitudinal center of pressure and having bottom lines extending at a distinct angle upwards, concave in form at the step running aft to a flat surface. The step is ventilated.

Extensive experiments justified the design. At rest the boat is practically horizontal with the water. As the speed increases it climbs on the forward step until it planes on this step alone.

The slightest inclination of the elevator then throws the weight back onto the rear step and at the same time presents the wings to the wind at a satisfactory cllniD-ing angle enabling the boat to leave the water easily and without suction.

The landing is easier and effected with less splash than with the older type hydroplanes. The material used for the sides is the best Spanish cedar planking, reinforced by trusses; the bottoms are of copper reinforced with small longitudinal keels and the tops are copper. Air tanks are attached under each wing-end.

the andrews surface system

INCE the publication, in the November issue, of the article on a system of surfaces experimented with in models by Mr. R. D. Andrews, readers have contributed many interesting remarks.

Writing from San Francisco, Mr. Allan F. Bonnah says that for years he has been constructing models with automatic stability as the objective, working through the placing of the surfaces. "Mr. Andrews has reached a result very similar to those of my experiments but entirely different in form," states Mr. Bonnah, and he says further—

"Mr. Andrews uses tandem planes of equal surface but placed at a fore and aft dihedral angle. My system has a tail plane having a negative angle to the line of flight and a negative camber. Models having this fitted to them have flown with perfect longitudinal stability." Later Mr. Bonnah is to try out his ideas in a tractor biplane now building. During a visit at Mr. Andrews' home Mr. Earle u Ovington saw flying model examples of the Andrews system and is convinced that the latter "has hit upon an arrangement which will be of the greatest practical value to the science of aeronautics." He concludes by expressing that "it would be of advantage to manufacturers of aeroplanes to experiment along the lines which Mr. Andrews has laid down."

William A. Brewer, N. E., of Pittsburgh, another of the many who are interested, has been issued a patent on a system which he says is closely comparable with Mr. Andrews' own description.

gyroscopic action

DN the letter of Earle L. Ovington, published last issue, replying to the Theories of Thomas P. Brooke, a typographical error was made regarding the speed of the Brooke model gyroscope, stating it erroneously as 4,000 feet a second. Obviously, "minute" should be read for "second."

The article also states in the fifth paragraph, "The gyroscopic effect is proportional to the square of the speed of rotation." This should be. "The gyroscopic effect is proportional to the square of the radius of gyration."

self starters

i HE advent of the hydroaeroplane k I 1 i and the flying boat will create, in x i the interests of safety, a demand i for engine starting devices. It is obviously impossible for an aviator to restart by the present method after being forced to descend into the water for some minor adjustments. It is unquestionally dangerous for the mechanic, or the inexperienced bystander, to "crank" an engine by the turning of the propeller. With magneto ignition only, as is the general custom, it is no fun trying to start a cold motor.

Published Monthly by Aeronautics Press, 250 West 54th Street, N. Y. Cable: Aeronautic, New York 'Phone 4833 Columbus a, v. jones, pres't — — ernest l. jones, treas'r-see'y ernest l. jones, editor — m. b. sellers, technical editor

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NO. 64

D E C E M B E R—1 9 1 2 Vol. XI, No. 6

entered as second-class matter september 22, 1908, at the postottlci new york, under the act of march 3,1879.

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The necessity for an aeroplane engine starter of some 100% efficient type is apparent. Captain W. Irving Chamlbers has not overlooked this feature in his report on the needs of aviation.

aviation in the united states army

AJOR SALTZMAN of the Signal Corps, U. S. Army has recently reported to the Adjutant General that in his opinion the Government should purchase certain French built aeroplanes in preference to American aeroplanes. In other words Major Saltzman recommends that because the Government has in the past failed to encourage American manufacturers of aeroplanes as it might have it should now withdraw support completely from such manufacturers and by its patronage assist in developing further the aeroplanes built by our possible opponents in Europe. Such a policy would seriously throttle the aviation industry in this country.

French military aeroplanes are built on distinctly different lines from the commercial aeroplanes. The military type can be constructed only for Government service. Without generous support from the Government such a type would not have been developed in France and will not be developed in the United States. Consequently if the United States is to remain abreast of its European rivals it must be prepared to provide generous support for those American aeroplane manufacturers who are both willing and competent to build aeroplanes equalling, if not surpassing, the best now to be found in the European market.

a young man of cornell

YOUNG man of Cornell has the preposterous idea that AERONAUTICS is a philanth