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American Magazine of Aeronautics: Jahrgang 1911/1912 als digitaler Volltext

Die Zeitschrift Aeronautics war in den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika (USA) das Gegenstück zur vergleichsweise deutschen Zeitschrift Flugsport. Im American Magazine of Aeronautics wurde allerdings nicht nur über die US-amerikanische Entwicklung der Luftfahrt berichtet, sondern auch über den internationalen Luftverkehr, über Erfindungen, über Patente sowie über Flugwettbewerbe und Veranstaltungen. Als die Zeitschrift erstmals im Jahre 1907 erschien, hieß sie "American Magazine of Aeronautics"; der Name wurde mit der Ausgabe Februar 1908 in "American Magazine of Aerial Navigation" geändert. Abermals wurde der Name mit der Ausgabe September 1909 in "American Magazine of Aerial Locomotion" geändert. In den folgenden Jahren wurde die Zeitschrift nur noch als "Aeronautics" herausgegeben. Nachstehend kann der komplette Jahrgang 1911/1912 als digitaler Volltext eingesehen werden. Alternativ kann der komplette Jahrgang 1911/1912 frei und kostenlos als PDF Dokument (58,6 MB) heruntergeladen werden. Weitere Jahrgänge des American Magazine of Aeronautics stehen in der Übersicht zur Verfügung.


By Professor David Gallup, M.E.,

OF WORCESTER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE.

REALIZING the importance of aviation in the development of engineering and appreciating its special privileges for investigation, the Worcester Polytechnic Institute has taken definite steps toward the solution of the problems confronting the designers of aeroplanes and their engines. On account of the unusual lack of authentic data concerning experiments with aeroplane surfaces and propellers, most of the attention so far has been given to these two, leaving the engine development for separate consideration. Probably little is known concerning the experiments which have been going on, so that a brief description will be given:

The purpose of the investigation is to determine if possible the proper design of a propeller to give most efficient results, taking into consideration the varying factors, such as speed, pitch and diameter. Since whatever tests have been made up to the present have been of the "stationary" kind, our own experiments are to include this method, so that a comparison may be made between such tests and those made under "moving" conditions.

By stationary is meant operating the propeller on a stationary stand. The moving tests consist of placing the propeller on the end of a long arm or boom which rotates about a center in a relatively quiet atmosphere. The arm may be rotated at various speeds from 0 up to any number of miles per hour desired. The propeller at the same time may also be operated at various speeds of revolution and sufficient drag offered to the arm so that various pulls may be obtained. It must not be understood by the above that the stationary type of test is considered of much value, for it is very evident that the conditions existing, such as circulating over and over a given quantity of atmosphere, are very different from those met with by a propeller on an aeroplane which is going through the air. It is merely for the sake of comparison with the proper method of testing an aeroplane propeller—the moving test—that the stationary test is to be made. In the tests which have so far been made, the horse-power input to the propeller is determined, also the effective thrust and the

speed, from which curves may be obtained showing these relations. Some very interesting results have been obtained in these tests, as would naturally be indicated by the use of smoke, ribbons and Pitot tubes for showing the quality and direction of the various air currents set up by the different portions of the propeller. Since details of these observations are to be left for a special paper to be given before the engineering societies, it is not deemed necessary to give them here. It is sufficient to say, however, that the results as obtained are somewhat disconcerting to the average designer of the present.

In the moving tests which are to be made of the propellers, a 75-horse-power railway motor is used in driving the propellers. These will be mounted on the end of the boom, turning in a hundred foot circle about the center of a small lake which is the property of the Institute. Tests will be run and observations taken early in the morning to obviate the existence of air currents which would be present later in the day. The thrust and speed are to be measured by delicate mechanisms, so that there will be no measurable error. It is anticipated that the results of these tests will show a very interesting relation to those tests made under the stationary conditions.

The moving tests are to be made during the month of July, 1911, and many engineers and others interested in aviation are to be preseni as observers. It is expected that the results of these experiments will give valuable data concerning the proper relations between pitch, rotation, speed and propeller diameter, something which at present is very indefinite, as will be readily appreciated by an examination of the various types of propellers used by the present aviators. The two propellers, large, diameter, slow speed, and moderately high pitch used by the "Wright Bros., are a direct contradiction to the high speed, small pitch propellers used by the various other aviators. While it may be admitted that each has its particular field, let us hope that this field will be more definitely outlined when the results of these tests at the Worcester Polytechnic Institute are completed. A very important line

f work is to be taken up in the near future •ith reference to the proper shape of aero-lane surfaces determined by means of special pparatus, the lifting power and resistance of-Bred by various shape surfaces. Pitot tubes nil be applied at every available spot in the urface of the plane to determine the above ata.

It is hoped that any interested in the devel-pment of the aeroplane will take advantage f the opportunity to visit the testing plant ny time, and especially during the time of hese tests, which will undoubtedly be con-inued throughout the summer.

CHARACTERISTICS OF PliOPELLEUS.

lumber. Uiam. Pitch.

1........7 ft. 0 in. 1 ft. 0 in.

2........7 ft. 0 in. 8 ft. 0 in.

3........7 ft. 0 in. 4 ft. 0 in.

4........7 ft. 0 in. 4 ft. 0 in.

5........7 ft. 0 in. 4 ft. 0 in.

6........G ft. 0 in. 5 ft. 0 in.

7........G ft. 6 in. 44 in.

S........G ft. 0 in. 4 y2 ft. to 5 ft. (at diam.)

9........6 ft. 3 in. 3 ft. 5 in. to 5 ft. 6 in.

From the beginning of successful experiments in operating aeroplanes, it has suggested tself to many people that some adaptation of he parachute could be used to protect avia-ors in case of accident. A recent adaptation ind successful experiment with a parachute ittached to an aeroplane framework has ex-lit ed considerable interest.

The parachute was carefully folded up. ashed to a section of framework of an aero-jlane, and a life-size dummy fastened in tiie iviator's seat and the apparatus launched from i section of the Eiffel Tower. In spite of ap-jarently numerous mechanical difficulties, the sarachute opened quickly, reducing the speed

of fall to that found by experience to afford a safe landing for a human being, and the whole experiment was a great success. The parachute measured 8 metres in diameter, giving a surface of 50 square metres, and weighed 10 kilograms, although this could be reduced to 10 kilograms by using silk instead of cotton. The parachute was enclosed in an envelope 1 6-10 metres long by S centrimetres high and 50 centimetres wide.

The Queen Aeroplane Co., of Fort George, New York City, has under construction four biplanes equipped with Gnome motors for the McCurdy-YVillard Co. One of tiiese biplanes is to have a 100-h.p. Gnome, and is expected to render an excellent account in tiie speed contests in the Chicago meet for which it is being especially built.

A racing monoplane, costing $10.000, designed by Willis McCornick, has been equipped with two 50-h.p. Gnome motors and two 8-ft. propellers, one pushing and the other pulling on tiie central longitudinal axis of the monoplane, and is now at the grounds of the Aero flub of New York at Nassau Boulevard. The trials are being watched with great interest ])y experts who are especially interested in the question as to whether two rotary motors revolving in the opposite direction will do away with the gyroscopic action of a single rotary inotoi-. Mr. ilcCornick is the newly-elected president of the Aeronautical Society of New York and the treasurer of the Queen Aeroplane Co. He is one of the Arm of McCornick Bros., bankers and brokers, members of the New York Stock Exchange, the owner of the Norman, a 100-ft. steam yacht, and an all-around sportsman, and is devoting the best of his skill and business knowledge to aviation.

TESTS OF WOODEN STRUTS MADE FOR THE LABORATORY COMMITTEE OF THE AERONAUTICAL SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN

By Professor D. A. Low.

THE Aeronautical Society of Great Britain, the first organization of its kind in the world, founded in 1866, has rendered lasting services to aeronautics through the researches of its members and committees.

Builders of aeroplanes have longed for data on strengths of woods. Professor Low has conducted at the University of London an exhaustive series of tests for the Society's Laboratory Committee with the object of determining the strengths of comparatively slender wood struts and to find, if possible, the most suitable kind of wood to use for struts in aeroplanes, having regard to strength and lightness.

Each strut tested was of uniform cross section throughout its length, the section being rectangular, about 2 in. wide and about 1 in. thick. Seven of the struts were about 32 in. long, one was about 30 in. long, and the remaining 15 were 24 in. long. The exact dimensions are given in Table I.

The struts were tested in a 50-ton Wick-steed testing machine. The ends were rounded and fitted into grooves in iron blocks. Each strut was placed truly vertical and the load, applied vertically, was put on gradually until the strut buckled or crippled. The crippling load was quite definite in every case and was the maximum load which the strut would carry, any pushing of the ends of the strut nearer to one another by working the pump simply bent the strut more and more without any increase in the load.

It was assumed that the Euler formula for struts with hinged ends was the most suitable for these struts. The formula is P= (3.1416)2E I

l2

where P is the crippling load, E the modulus of elasticity of the material, I the least moment of inertia of the cross section, and 1 the length of the strut.

The crippling loads P are given in Table I. The values of E were calculated by the Euler formula already given. But the values of E calculated in this way were, in almost every case, high, and were in fact, on the average, about double the values which were obtained by direct experiment on the elastic deflection of the struts tested as beams.

It would seem, therefore, that the resistance to buckling due to the friction at the ends of the strut had the effect of fixing the ends to a certain extent, so that using the actual value of E from the elastic deflection experiments the formula would be P = 2 (3.1416)2E I

l2

which is the Euler formula for a strut fixed at one end and free at the other, but guided in the direction of the load. The formula P= 2 (3.1416)2E I

l2

will therefore be used as applying to these tests.

The following notes refer to the condition of the various specimens when the crippling load was reached.

Specimens 1, 2, 4, 5, 11, 12, 13, 15, 18 and 23 were bent but not fractured.

In 3 there were signs of fracture on the compression side. In 7, 10 and 14, fracture started on the compression side. In 16, 17 and 1!) there was decided fracture on the compression side. In 6 fracture took place on the tension side after the load was continued. In 20 and 21 fracture took place on the tension side. In 8 and 9 fracture took place

in tension and in compression. In 22 fracture! started in tension and in compression.

Crushing tests were made on pieces about 2 in. long cut from the ends of certain om the specimens after they had been tested foil the crippling load. The pieces so tested wer« in no way injured by the previous test for thm crippling load. The crushing load was applietl in the direction of the grain of the woodl The results are given in Table II. The numl ber of the specimens given in column 1 oil Table II are the same as the numbers oil the specimens in Table I from which thejl were cut. The crushing load in each case waJ quite definite.

The various struts were carefully weighed! and their volumes computed, and from thesa the density or weight W in pounds per cubic! inch was calculated. The results are given lrl Table III.

In order to compare the suitability of th« various kinds of wood tested for struts foil aeroplanes, the results of the tests have] been used to calculate the dimensions foil struts of each kind of wood 30 in. long tdl carry a crippling load of three tons. The] results are given in Table IV. The struts] are placed in order of their weights W in| pounds. The cross sections of the struts hava been made symmetrical, of breadth b and] thickness d, b being equal to 2d in each easel The last column gives the number of test struts upon which the results are based,] the values of E and w being the means from] that number of specimens.

The foregoing tests seem to indicate than whitewood (American poplar), basswoodl spruce and mahogany are the most suitable] woods for the struts of aeroplanes. Hickory is a very tough wood and may be bent to a] considerable extent without fracturing, bun it will be noted that it is the heaviest of all] the woods tested.

It would, of course, be more satisfactory! if a larger number of tests could be made] with specimens of the kinds of wood which on account of their strength and lightness are obviously most suitable.

Table V gives the Euler formula in its simplified form for use in designing struts of the more suitable of the materials tested, the constants being derived from the results of the tests made. It must be understood, however, that the formulas here given are for struts loaded as in the tests here described. As has been indicated the conditions of the tests seem to be equivalent to that of a strut fixed at one end and free at the other, but guided in the direction of the load. The Euler formula for this case being P = 2(3.1416)2E I

l2

In an aeroplane the condition of a strut is probably that of one fixed at one end and free at the other, but not guided In the direction of the load. For this case the Kuler formula is (3.1416)2E I

4 xl2

Hence, for aeroplane struts the expressions given for P in Table V should be divided by 8.

If n is the factor of safety then the safe working load will be P

n

The cross section of an aeroplane strut will, of course, not generally be a rectangle, but whatever its form its least moment of inertia T must be computed and substituted in the formula for determining the crippling load.

TABLE I.

N—number of specimen 1 — length of strut in indies.

b = width of strut in inches. d =: thickness of strut in inches.

1

I =: least moment of inertia of section in inch units = — bd\

12

P=: crippling load in tons.

E = modulus of elasticity in tons per square inch, calculated from the Euler formula. 2(3.1416)2EI

P —-

l2

X.

Material.**

1

b

d

I

P

E

].

American

   

2.024

1.073

0.209

2.44

604

2.

American

 

............... 24.0

2.038

0.843

0.102

2.14

612

3.

Basswood

 

............... 29.87

1.8G2

0.S66

0.101

1.8S

S43

4.

Hickory .

   

1.975

0.938

0.136

3.63

780

5.

Hickory

 

............... 24.0

1.956

0.980

0.154

4.29

S18

6.

Hickory .

 

............... 24.0

1.96C

0.997

0.163

5.19

918

7.

Honduras

 

............... 32.0

2.025

1.042

0.191

2.78

756

S.

Honduras

mahogany.....

............... 24.0

2.062

1.002

0.173

3.85

650

&.

Honduras

 

............... 24.0

2.073

0.971

0.159

3.69

682

10.

Parang*

 

............... 32.0

2.060

0.919

0.133

3.19

1,242

11.

Parang* .

   

2.192

0.780

0.087

2.4S

832

12.

Parang* .

 

................ 24.0

2.180

0.765

0.081

2.80

1,009

13.

   

............... 31.9

1.950

1.104

0.219

2.95

696

14.

   

............... 32.0

1.992

0.955

0.145

2.62

904

15.

   

............... 32.0

1.897

0.990

0.154

1.85

1,073

1G.

   

............... 24.0

1.965

1.208

0.289

4.81

486

17.

   

............... 24.0

1.957

1.206

0.286

4.S3

493

18.

   

............... 24.0

1.967

0.925

0.130

2.06

463

19.

Spruce ..

 

............... 24.0

1.969

0.972

0.151

2.24

433

20.

American

 

............... 24.0

1.S61

1.060

0.185

4.61

727

21.

American

 

............... 24.0

1.S1S

0.92S

0.121

3.21

775

22.

Walnut .

 

............... 24.0

1.S82

1.0.26

0.169

3.96

6S4

23!

 

............... 31.9

1.866

0.S42

0.093

1.66

922

 

*Parang is

a hybrid wood

from Eastern Asia. In

appearance it resembles

mahogany.

 

fAmerican poplar.

**There were three kinds of spruce amongst the samples Nos. 13 to 19. No. 13 is best Quebec spruce, but this is ruled out for aeroplanes, as it cannot now be obtained perfect in sufficient lengths. Nos. 14. 16 and 17 are silver spruce. This wood cannot be obtained perfect in very long lengths, but it is fairly constant in quality. Nos. 15, IS and 19 come from different parts of America. This wood differs considerably, and only a few planks out of a big parcel are perfect. Planks often have a large number of small knots.

We are not sure that the Parang was perfectly seasoned.

Basswood is often confused with American whitewood (No. 23).

TABLE II.

f=zcrushiug stress in tons per square iuch.

V. Material. f

1 Ash ............................... 2.92

2 Ash (American) .................... 1-75

.'J Basswood .......................... 2.98

4 Hickory ............................ 3.33

7 Honduras mahogany................. 2.53

Honduras mahogany................. 2.41

Parang ............................ 4.12

Parang ............................ 2.97

Spruce ............................. 2.41

Spruce ............................. 2.46

Spruce ............................. 2.24

Spruce ............................. 2.62

Spruce ............................. 2.08

AValnut (American) ................. 4.15

Whitewood ......................... 2.65

Specimens S. Ki, 14. 1(1 and IS gave way by crushing. Specimens 1. 2. 3. 4, 7. In, 11. 15, 20 and 23 gave way by shearing.

TABLE III.

N. Material. w.

1 Ash .............................. 0.020

2 American ash ..................... 0.020

3 Basswood ......................... 0.018

4 llickorv ........................... 0.028

5 Hickory ........................... 0.026

6 Hickory ........................... 0.02S

7 Honduras mahogany ............... 0.01S

S Honduras mahogany ............... 0-01Z

9 Honduras mahogany . . .■............ 0.017

10 Parang ........................... 0.024

11 Parang ........................... 0.022

12 Parang ........................... 0.022

13 Spruce ............................ 0.016

14 Spruce ............................ 0.015

15 Spruce ............................ 0.014

16 Spruce ............................ 0.018

17 Spruce ............................ 0.017

18 Spruce ............................ 0.015

l'J Spruce ............................ 0.015

20 American walnut................... 0.022

21 American walnut................... 0.023

22 American walnut................... 0.020

23 Whitewood ........................ 0.01S

TABLE IV. No. Of

Material.

b

d

E

w

w

Tests.

 

............ 1.94

0.97

9°°

0.0 IS

1.02

1

   

0.99

si 3

0.O1S

1.06

1

   

1.06

050

0.016

1.08

7

   

1.04

096

0.017

1.10

3

   

0.95

1.02S

0.023

1.25

3

 

1.03

729

O.021

1.34

CO

   

1.0S

60S

0.020

1.40

0

   

0.99

S39

0.027

1.59

3

{Continued on page 2G)

THE first official test of an aeroplane engine in this country was made by the Technical Committee of the Automobile Club of America on May 11, 1911. The motor tested was a Leigh ton two-cycle 4-cylinder motor. This test was not made as a part of the Automobile Club's competition, but was a private test for the Motor Sales & Engineering Co., of 250 West 54th street, agents for this motor.

The results of the test are given below.

NO ENTRIES FOR $1,000 PRIZE.

Up to the time of going to press, no aeronautical motor manufacturer has entered tlie lists in the club's $1,000 prize competition, and entries close July 1.

This is a rather remarkable situation and one must admit it does not reflect very creditably on the enthusiasm of the motor makers.

Here was not only the chance of winning the prize, but of also showing that America

can produce as good an aeronautical motor as any foreign country.

The Automobile Club lias given makers an opportunity of publishing to the world their genius at motor building, and this opportunity, it is possible, will not be seized. "Opportunity knocks once at every man's door," but it is nowhere stated that she carries a repeating alarm clock.

DETAILS OF LE1GHTON TEST.

The motor ran continuously for a period of three hours at an average speed of 1,117 revolutions per minute, developing an average torque (at 3 ft. radius) of 57.3 pounds, with a resultant average brake-horsepower of 36.4. I Hiring this interval the total amount of gasoline used was 104.8 pounds, making an average consumption of 0.96 pounds per brake-horsepower-hour. The variations occurring in these factors are shown in the accompanying table. No excessive heating was evident during or at the end of the test.

Temperature

Time from

Revolutions

Torque

Brake

Range

Start

Per

at

Horse

Coolin

Minutes

Minute.

3. ft. Radius.

Power.

Water.

4

1114

56.0

35-6

32

 

1118

. 55-9

35-6

32

17

1105

55-9

35-2

32

22

1112

56.0

35-5

32

27

1098

56.0

35-o

34

32

1092

55-9

34-8

33

37

1100

56.3

35-3

32

42

1099

56.5

35-4

31

47

1123

56.6

36.2

32

52

1113

56.8

36.0

31

57

1122

56.5

36.2

32

60

1112

57-0

36.2

32

67

1111

56.9

36.1

32

72

 

57-i

36-3

31

77

1119

57-3

06.5

31

82

1129

57-4

36-9

31

87

1132

57-4

37.0

32

97

1131

57-9

37-3

30

102

111S

57-9

36-9

31

107

1104

57-9

36-4

33

112

1097

58.6

36.7

32

122

11 IO

58.4

36.9

32

127

1118

58.1

37-Ö

31

132

1117

58. r

37-0

31

137

1109

58.6

37-o

31

142

1123

57-6

36-9

30

147

1123

57-8

37-o

30

152

1128

58.0

37-2

31

157

1126

58.0

37-2

32

162

1113

58.2

36-9

30

167

1117

57-9

36.8

30

172

1131

57-2

36-9

30

177

1130

57.6

37-i

29

180

1154

57-7

37-9

29

Average

1117

57-3

36-4

31

Rate of Fuel Consumption per Brake Horse Power Hour. Pounds. Pints.

0.91 1.21

0.89

0.89

0.92 0.93

0.91

0.99

0.96

1.04 1.07

0.96

1.18

1.18

1.22 1.24

1.21

1.32

i'Ì8

1-34

i".3S 1.42

1.27

Headings Taken During Test. 6

THE TESTING OF AEROPLANE ENGINES

Lubrication of the motor during the test was accomplished by mixing the oil with the gasoline Ln the proportion of I part oil to 14.5 parts gasoline, by weight. 7.2 pounds of oil were- added to the gasoline during the three-hour run. Beside this, approximately O.S pounds were added from a hand-operated mechanical oiler.

The throttles were kept wide open during the run, the position of the spark being varied slightly from time to time. Near the end of the second hour the mixture was richened slightly by opening the needle valves. The only other adjustment was the replacement of a cotter pin which held the inlet valve spring washer in position. During this replacement the speed of the motor fell momentarily three times to 850 r. p. m., but no stop was made.

The motor is of the two-cycle type, having four cylinders of 5-inch bore. The stroke is

4 5 inches. Automatic inlet valves are used between the carburetor and crank-case, and a third port also between the carburetor and crank-case is opened by the piston when same is at the top of the stroke. The compression rf the charge is effected in the crank-case as in conventional two-cycle motors. The transfer ports register with ports in the piston walls, through which the charge leaves the crank-case in passing to the cylinders.

The weight of the motor with two carburetors, timers and its operating levers, plugs ancl their wires, water pump and connections thereto, and balancing counter weight (no flywheel) was 276 pounds. A flywheel (weight 88.5 pounds), an exhaust header (weight 24.5 pounds), and an auxiliary hand operated oiler (weight with piping and brackets 5.5 pounds) were used during the test, but are not a part of the standard equipment.

ARMY AND NAVY AVIATION

THE Curtiss aeroplane lately attached to the Manoeuvre Division at San Antonio has been shipped to College Park, aid., where it was shipped the latter part of June. There will he on duty here five officers and a detachment of fifteen enlisted men of the Signal Corps. A summer's course of instruction in aeronautical work is being entered upon. Within a short time it is expected to have three machines at this field with two officers assigned to each machine.

A new Wright machine arrived on June 19. Capt. Chas. DeF. Chandler has charge of the College Park field.

The Army aeroplanes now total as follows: Two Wright machines, one at San Antonio in charge of Lieut. B. D. Foulois. and one to be delivered shortly at College Park, Md.

One Burgess biplane, to be delivered at College Park in charge of Capt. Chas. DeF. Chandler, Lieuts. Milling, Arnold and Kirtland. One Curtiss at College Park under the di-

rection of Lieut. Paul W. Beck and Lieut. John C. Walker, Jr.

The Wright machine, loaned the Government by Robert J. Collier, has been returned. The first Wright machine sold the Government, in 190S, is to go to Smithsonian Institute.

NEWS OF THE NAVY.

The United States Navy has now contracted for three machines.

One of these will he a Wright machine of standard type, the others a Curtiss water machine called the "Triad," and a Curtiss 4-cylinder machine for instruction purposes only. On July 1st the naval appropriation becomes available, but delivery will not actually he made until the aerodrome at Annapolis is ready. Preliminary work has been somewhat de'ayed by the absence of Capt. W. Irving Chambers, who has charge of all aeronautical work in the Navy.

TABLE OF AMERICAN AERONAUTIC MOTORS

Compiled by E. L. Jones and S. Y. Beach.

THE accompanying schedule covers, it is firmly believed, every motor made in America, with the exception of the Brooke, a notice of which appears in this issue. Details of this were not obtainable at the time the motor table was compiled.

Several of the motors in this schedule cannot claim actual presence on the market, as but two or three motors have been made to date and they are still in the experimental stage. Some even are still on paper. It was decided to include every motor known in America expected to be eventually on the market.

In the blanks sent manufacturers, request was made to state the weight as including "all essential parts, including carburetor, ignition system, lubricator, radiator, ready for fuel and oil to start. Proofs of the schedule were sent each maker and many additions ancl corrections were made, but it may be said that the weights in many cases are obviously erroneous; evidently the bare engine weight has been given in the first instance and left uncorrected on the proofs.

The figures printed are those given us under this condition.

Blanks—Dotted lines are used where information has been requested and not supplied.

A. L. A. M. Rating—The A. L. A. M. formula is bore squared, times the number of cylinders, divided by 2.5. The result times 1% gives one rating, used above, for 2-cycle engines.

'Rotating motors. fThe Elbridge Company maki s siv sizes as does the General Machinery Company, makers of the Smalley. ttThis is also made in 50, 70 and 100 horsepower sizes. IMade also in 50, 70, 100 and 150 horsepower sizes.

{{Other sizes are 40 and 60 horsepower. The same sizes are also made in four-cycle engines.

At the last moment it has been found the Goblin motor has been omitted. Following are the details: 4^vx5, manufacturers rating 50 h.p., A. L. A. M. rating 51 h.p., 6 cylinders, radial, automatic intake valves, variable compression, ball-bearing connecting rods and crankshaft, Church carburetor, air cooled (rotary), 4-cycle, oiling by oil in the gas, Bosch, magneto, cast-iron pistons and cylinders, 18" lbs. weight.

C. P. Rodgers & Co., i:\ Cambridge Building, Cincinnati, O., have entered the exhibition business with a Wright headless, the first Wright machine to give exhibitions by owners other than the Wright Company itself. C P. Rodgers, who will be the aviator, learned at Dayton. His cousin, Lieut. Rodgers, U. S. Navy, hur-also learned to operate a Wright machine ana will undoubtedly fly the one just purchased bj the Navy Department,

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AERONAUTICS juiy>

THE VALKYRIE MONOPLANE

THE "Valkyrie" machines, as built by the Aeronautical Syndicate, Ltd., are of more than usual interest, as they are of distinctive design and have many well-worked-out details of construction. Three types are put out by this company: Type "A" being a single passenger machine, Type "B" a cross country racing model, and Type "C" the passenger-carrying machine. The Type "B" machine, which is the one illustrated, is fitted with a "Gnome" engine, driving an 8-foot propeller. '.

In order to impart a certain amount of automatic stability the main planes have been given a pronounced diliedral angle. There is also a longitudinal dihedral angle between the main planes and the forward fixed plane the former being set at an angle of nine degrees and the latter at an angle of thirteen degrees.

The main planes are in three sections, the center one having a shorter chord than those at the ends to allow room to swing the propeller. The planes are single surfaced and are built up in the same way as the Henry Farman.

The front fixed plane is situated 11 ft. 9 in. in front of the main planes. The angle of this plane may be changed in order to correct for any change in the loading.

The elevator, which is below and to the rear of the front surface, is on this machine characterized by a slightly upturned trailing edge.

Lateral stability is secured by the use of flaps at the extremities of the wings, but wing warping can be used.

The rudders are situated some three feet from the rear of the main planes. It has been found necessary to fit blinkers at the front of the skids, as without them when making a short turn the machine was likely to turn completely about its radius of gyration and come down in a heap.

The details of construction have been carried out in a most thorough and workmanlike manner. A great number of special castings are used. Sketch Xo. 1 illustrates the neat way in which the stay wires are attached to the front and rear wing spars. By means of the small oblique lug, all bends in the wire are obviated. Special long nuts and the fine cut thread on the wire result in the strength of the wire being unimpaired. Fig. 2 shows the joint used at the junction of the longitudinal and vertical members of the fuselage. The stay wires are accommodated in a similar manner to that of the wing stays, the wire passing through the castings both top and bottom. Fig. 3 shows the device for altering the angle of the front fixed plane. It also shows the position of the blinker, which simply consists in covering in the nose of the fuselage with fabric. The elevator is operated in a novel manner, as illustrated in Fig. 4. All danger of slipping of the lower crank is obviated by the coupling up to the front edge of the plane.

In Fig. 5. the adoption of the Farman running-gear is shown. Instead of the rigid radius rods being employed, flexible steel ropes are used. This allows the wheels to act as true casters, relieving the axles of a good .measure of strain. Fig. 6 shows the arrangement of the seat and control gear. These [are arranged as on the Henry Farman machines, the fore and aft movement operating Ithe elevator and sidewise the ailerons. Fig. 7 shows the arrangement of the joint of the Imain planes and fuselage, and the employment of special castings. Fig. S illustrates the cane fender under the rear end of the skid.

A considerable business has been worked tup at the English flying grounds taking up passengers. The Valkyrie people will take up

Mm

Type B Fitted

Cross with

Country Valkyrie Racer, Gnome Engine.

1006

Viti™

passengers at $iu a head for a short flight of about 214 miles; "a longer and higher flight $¿5; an extended flight, considerably higher and finishing with the famous 'volplane,' or descent with engine stopped, $50; cross country flights by arrangement." This is the only

10.,corn known that has thus far attempted passenger carrying on this basis.

The Aeronautical Syndicate has been established since 1909 and was among the first in England to take up practical work. The summer of 1910 saw their first really successful flights with the present type of machine.

BALLOON ASCENSIONS Wireless Received in Balloon

FORT OMAHA, Neb., May 24.—Captain Chas. DeF. Chandler and four other officers to Woodbine, Iowa, 35 miles. Duration 50 minutes. The balloon cont.nually received wireless messages from the Fort Omaha station during the trip. Balloon wireless is not new, as the Signal Corps used it during the summer of 190S on a trip from Washington, D. C.

To Church by Balloon

LOWELL, Mass., May 28.—Charles J. Glid-den and J. J. Van Valkenburg in the "Boston 11" to Topsfield, Mass., landing near a church, where they attended the services.

ST. LOUIS, Mo., June 10.—J. M. O'Reilly, Lieut. John D. Hart and Corp. L. Schmidt made a night ascent, landing 314 hours later at Springfield, 111.

HAMILTON, O., June 15.—Albert Holz, pilot; Charles Troutman and E. Ouggenheimer in "The Drifter." Duration 1 h., 25 min.; distance about 5 miles.

LOWELL, Mass., June 17.—H. H. Clayton, pilot, with J. F. Haworth and Harold H. Brown in the "Boston II" to Hamilton, Mass. Duration 1 h., 45 min.

PHILADELPHIA, Pa., May 19.—A. T. Ath-erholt, Clarence Wynne and Wm. Shedwick in the "Penn. I" to Haverford, Pa. For three hours the balloon followed a circuitous course over and around the environs of the city.

STOCKTON, Cai., May 13.—Dr. B. F. Walker, Bernard Glick, John Morrissey and Thomas Cook to near Bellota.

FORT OMAHA, Neb., May 7.—Lieut. Hart and two other officers in an Army balloon to Springfield, 111. Duration 7% hours.

PHILADELPHIA, Pa., June 3.—Dr. T. E. Eldridge, Edw. Pyle, R. L. Barrett and D. H Simmermann, a four-year-old boy, in the "Philadelphia II."

INTERCOLLEGIATE BALLOON RACE.

Three colleges were represented in the first intercollegiate balloon race, starting from North Adams on the afternoon of June 3rd. The Universitv of Pennsylvania entered the balloon "Philadelphia II," with A. T. Atberholt, pilot, and Geo. A. Richardson, aid.

Dartmouth entered the balloon "Boston," with J. B. Barton, pilot, and J. W. Pearson, aid. Williams entered the "Stevens 27," with H. P. Shearman, pilot, and K. T. Price as aid.

The balloon "Pliiladelphia IT" covered 115 miles in about 7 hours, landing near West Peabody, Mass., winning the cups for duration and distance. The "Stevens 27" landed at Paxton, Mass., after having covered 66 miles in 4 hrs. 40 min. The "Boston" landed at West Pelham, Mass., after being in the air 3 hrs. 25 min., and covering 41 miles.

These figures are only approximate, as the A. C. A. had received no report up to the time of going to press.

AERONAUTICS J "h, rçn

FRENCH COURT FAVORS WRIGHTS

THE recent decision of the French court holds the Wrights have made good their claim, not only so far as the use of wing-warping in conjunction with the vertical rudder, but to the use of either of these svstems separately. The latter is the crucial 'point contested by other manufacturers.

HISTORY OF THE SUIT.

In France the Compagnie Générale de Navigation Aérienne, the sole French concessionnaires of the Wright patents, brought actions against the following manufacturers: Santos-Dumont, Blériot, Farman, Antoinette, Esnault-Pelterie, Koechlin, Clément-Bayard, Fernandez, and the Ateliers Vosgiens. Judgment in these actions has been delivered by the Tribunal Civil de la Seine (April 29). Santos-Dumont alone withdrew all defence and, curiously enough, he is the only defendant in whose favor judgment was given, on the score that his aeroplane' was not built for purposes of trade or private gain. In all the other cases judgment was practically given in favor of the Compagnie Générale.

At the same time the court appointed a committee consisting of M. Léauté, .Major Paul Renard, and M. Marcel 1 >eprez to determine whether the Wright patent (March 22, 1904) had been anticipated, etc. (See last paragraph).

Although the case is not, therefore, finally settled, it is evident, nevertheless, that the French courts are prepared to recognize the whole extent of the Wright Company's claims.

TYPES INVOLVED

The types of aeroplanes involved in the litigation were the Antoinette and Blériot monoplanes with wai'ping wings, the Farman with ailerons, or "flaps," at the rear lateral margins of tlig planes, and the Hautier-Vendome with ailerons at the front of the wings. A large part of the decision relates to matters in the French law which render patents invalid under certain circumstances, such as failure to work an invention within three years of the time of applying for the patent, and the revelation of an invention before patenting it. Following are the main particulars of the case.

CLAIMS OF THE PLAINTIFF.

The decision sets forth the claims of the plaintiff as follows: "The Compagnie Générale de Navigation Aérienne, licensees of the Wright patents, lays claim that the patent of March 22, 1904, gives them the right to claim as being its personal property not only the joint and separate action of the mechanism of the rear direction rudder and the variation of tlie angles of incidence (to wit, the combination), but separately each of the elements of this combination in so far as it is employed for the result provided for; that is to say, for the reestablishment of the lateral equilibrium and maintaining the direction."

POINTS OF THE DEFENSE.

The main points of defense presented to the Court by the defendants in the case were: (I) That the Wright patent of March 22, 1904, was not valid because (a) the Wrights had revealed their invention before applying for patent; (b) they had not worked their invention in France within three years after taking the patent; (c) the invention was known in the art prior to the time of the patent; (2) that the French manufacturers did not infringe the Wright patent, which gives the Compagnie Générale de Navigation Aérienne the property of the combination employed by the Wrights and not the distinct elements which are employed (separately and Independently to permit obtaining the reestablishment of equilibrium elements which they assert are public; property."

The claims of forfeiture were rejected by the court.

ARGUMENTS PRESENTED.

After the evidence on both sides had been presented and the case argued, M. Piede-lievre, a substitute judge, sitting as advisor on technical matters, advised the Court (1) that the combination claimed in the Wright patent of March 22, 1904, was patentable; (2) that in an invention of this nature it would be impossible to entirely keep the invention secret, and that the descriptions and photographs published of the machine were not sufficient to render the patent invalid; (3) that the Wrights were the first to fly (Some of the defendants had claimed that a flight had been made in France in 189S), and that they had invented the system of control that had made it possible for man to fly; (4) that the patent had been worked in France as soon as was possible under the circumstances; (5) that the patent was valid; (6) that the independent operation of the wings and rudder, as used by the French, was not sufficiently claimed in the Wright patent, and that therefore the French machines were not infringments of the patent.

One month later, on the 29th day of April, the Court, composed of three other judges, rendered its decision. It held (1) that the combination described in the patent of March 22, 1904, was patentable; (4) that the patent had been worked within a reasonable time; (2) that the photographs and descriptions of the machine prior to the application for patent were not sufficient to invalidate the patent; (6) that, while the independent operation of the wings and rudder were not specifically claimed in the words of the patent, yet the independent operation of the parts could not be considered as a new invention, but simply as an improvement of detail of the original invention, and that the patentees of the original invention were entitled to the benefits to be derived from it.

The words of the opinion follow:

"Considering the point once established that the separation of the two elements claimed is a type of improvement, this separation ought to be considered as an appurtenance of the patent of 1904, that the improvement is a natural development of the primitive invention from which it can not be separated, and that proceeding from the master idea which is the generator of it, the patentees should have the right to profit by it. Of what little importance, then, is it, that in 1907 the Wright brothers took out two other patents in which the independence of the warping and of the directing rudder was expressly provided, except that the combination of the two elements could be, if desired, effected by the hand; admitting that these two patents of 1907 repeat in certain parts the things which can be found in the patent of 1904 and that even these improvements in detail which were then meant to be patented were without importance, they would not have in them, to say the least, any utility as patents of extension."

It will be noted that the Court reversed the opinion of the "substitute" on the only point on which he found in favor of the defendants. In reversing this point, that the independent operation of the wings and rudder circumvented the patent, the Court said:

"In the patent of 1904 the connection of the warping device with the rudder is so minutely described that it can be understood and applied by engineers and constructors of aeroplanes; there is no reason to believe that the Wright brothers should have made a more general claim and should have claimed each of the elements,

taken separately, but they should be confined to the limits which they have described in the patent.

"After the patent of 1904 the invention consisted in a method of maintaining or reestablishing the equilibrium of the aeronautic apparatus and of guiding the machine in a vertical or horizontal direction. Among other elements the patent provides (I) the existence of two horizontal surfaces or wings, consisting of a frame on which fabric is spread, and connected one to the other by means of posts and articulations, which permit of movements of tortion and flection of the ends of the wings in opposite directions; (2) of a vertical rear rudder, connected to the cables that produce the tortion of the ends of the wings.

"The combination of the two elements is well within the scope of the patent. It says in lines 14 to 19, page three:

'"By this means of attachment the .same movement of the cables which actuate the entls of the wings also presents to the wind that side of the vertical rudder which is turned toward the end having the smaller angle of incidence.'

"In vain the suing company cites two other passages of the description. The passage from the 34th line to the 43rd line of the third page does not say that the rudder can be independent; nor is the passage from the 45th line to the 57th line more explicit:

"'This invention is not limited to the construction and attachment of the rear rudder herein described, nor to this particular construction of surfaces or wings, for one can employ this combination in the use of any moveable rear rudder operated in covju iction with any icings capable of being presented at different angles of incidence at their opposite ends, for the purpose of restoring the lateral balance of a Hying machine and of guiding the machine to right or left.'

"The words, 'actuate at the same time,' about which so much has been argued, can be interpreted only in the sense that there is a device which permits of the movement of the two commands at the same time. This point once established, the disaasociation of the elements claimed is a type of improvement.

"This disassociation must in principle be considered as a dependent of the patent of 1904, since this improvement is a natural development of the primitive invention, proceeding from the master idea in which it had its origin, and from which it can not be separated. The patentees alone have the right to profit by it."

The Court, before pronouncing final judgment, has given the defendants another opportunity to look for a machine that prior to the time of the Wright invention contained the same combination of parts. In the opinion of the "substitute" the defendants failed to produce anything that could be considered an anticipation of the Wright patent. The Court has also given to the defendants an opportunity of demonstrating before the Commission of Experts appointed by the Court that the combination of parts used in the French machines is used for a different purpose from that of the combination of the patent of 1904.

The Tribunal evidently did not wish to pass final judgment and declare the defendants infringing, for they expressed in the following terms the desire to have a knothole through which they might later find it expedient, or otherwise, to crawl:

"The science of aviation which, since the superb flight of the great white bird above the camp of Auvours makes each day some necessary progress and does not cease to astonish the entire world by the prowess and the audacity of aviators who, at the risk of their lives, search for the definite formula for the conquest of the air, it is a science still so new that it should be unwise not to turn for the solution of the two questions in litigation to men whose judgment is not to be questioned.

"If the action in pursuit of a claim is established in principle, it is subordinated to tlie double question of knowing if there has not been one or more priorities of all the parts opposed to the patent of 1904, and if, on the other hand, it will not be found void as against certain of the defendants as they may have made an entirely new adaptation of the mechanical means pointed out by the Wrights for the reestablishment of the lateral equilibrium, and of which they shall have conceived a structural means constituting in connection with the patented invention an invention entirely new and original." "The mission given to the experts is singularly limited, and does not allow the defendants any hope of emerging victorious from the contest. So one should not be astonished that many of th e defendants are already expressing an intention of appealing from a judgment which they consider disastrous to them."

This is the opinion of M. J. Imbreco as given in the official organ of the Aero Club «-.f France.

U. S. CALENDAR

June 24-25—Flying at Kin loch Park, St. Louis.

•lune 29-July 4—Detroit, Moisant aviators. July 1—Gordon Bennett aviation race, England.

July 10—Gordon Bennett balloon elimination, Kansas City.

July 12-21—Winnipeg, Man., Wright exhibition.

July 20-22—Saratoga Springs, X. V., Wright exhibition.

July -Uochester, X. Y., Moisant aviators, Captain Baldwin, and Curtiss aviators.

July 25-29—Grand Forks. X. D., Wright exhibition.

August 2-4- -Colorado Springs, Col., Wright exhibition.

August 12-20—Grant Park, Chicago, International ileot.

August 26-September 4—Boston, meet of Harvard A. S.

September 29-October 7—Springfield, 111., Wright exhibition.

October 5 Gordon Bennett balloon race, Kansas City.

October ■-Macon, Ga., Wright exhibition.

January 10-20, 1912—Los Angeles, aviation and arrangements not certain.

--Lincoln, Xeb., Wright exhibition.

■-Des Moines, la., Wright exhibition.

July 3-4 — Battle Creek, Mich., Wright exhibition.

July 1—Zanesville, O., Curtiss aviators. September 30-October S—St. Louis, Mo., meet.

July 3-1—Corpus Christi, Tex., Wright exhibition.

July 3-4—Clearfield, Pa., Wright exhibition. July 3-4—Meridian, Miss.. Wright exhibition. July 3-4—Troy, X. Y., Wright exhibition. July 3-4—Princeton, 111., Wright exhibition.

Frank W. Goodale sailed his dirigible from Palisade Park down over Xew York as far as Forty-second street the night of June 9 and back without mishap.

LATEST CURTISS "TRIAD."

Glenn H. Curtiss has been experimenting at Hammondsport with a still further improved type of water machine. It will be noted from the photograph that some changes have been made. The elevator is placed very low; in fact, just above the bow end of the pontoons. There is also a small hydro-surface just forward and below the bow end. A standard eight-cylinder, 50 H. P. motor is installed, and the speed obtained is between 45 and 50 miles an hour over the water. Lieutenant Ellyson, United States Navy, has been a passenger.

Tt will also be seen from the photograph that there are but two wheels, the front wheel having been done away with. These rear wheels are pulled up out of the way after the machine is in the water by means of a hinged brace which runs from the wheel hub to the front beam.

SMALL MACHINE CARRIES PASSENGERS.

A four-cylinder machine is being used as a teacher in which the surface has been increased by about 50 sq. ft. It has been possible to carry a passenger with this on account of the increased surface. It will be noted that the planes are not cut out for the propeller, which is mounted on a long shaft. At the rear end of the engine bed is a Hess-Bright ball bearing. This supports the long shaft. Four by twenty inch Pennsvlvania tires are being used in the rear and 2^4-in. in the front.

The school is in operation right along, the pupils flying about five days out of the week. The location is very favorable for a school, as the weather is calm in the morning and evening. The pupils at present are: Lieutenant Ellyson, United States Navy; Roland B. Middleton, Beckwith Havens; Charles Russell, Frank Paine and two men from Ohio.

FLYING AT SQUANTUM, MASS.

The Burgess Company and Curtis Flying School opened formally Tuesday, May 30, at Sfiuantum, Instructor 1 Tarry N. Atwood giving his first lessons on that date. Previous to the formal opening, Mr. YV. Starling Burgess, president of the company, had made trial flights with the first school Burgess-Wright and two other Burgess-Wright aeroplanes sold to Mr. Charles K. Hamilton and others. The preliminary flights by Mr. Burgess had covered about 42 miles, on one-third of which he had taken Mr. Hamilton as pupil, and on two of which he had carried John W. Meyers, another pupil.

On May 30 Instructor Atwood made 16 flights, covering a distance of 104 miles, while Mr. Burgess in three flights flew 13 miles. On this date Messrs. Albert Adams Merrill, of Brookline; Eugene Heth, of Memphis, and Doctor Percy L. Reynolds, of Amherst, began their lessons, the pupils being carried a total of 60 miles. In addition five guests were taken no as passengers for a distance aggregating 29 miles.

Curtiss and Lt. Ellyson Leaving the "Water. 15

PROPELLER ^=^s-^ PERFECTION |

*

PATENTED MARCH

1911

""a/gton. dc

OTHER PATENTS PENDING

Douglas, Arizona, April 30, 1911

Maroh 21, 1911.

African Propeller Company, Washington, D. C.

"•entleroen:

Beg to adviae you that I reoeivod the 7' 9" propeller which you sent me and that the r«3ults obtained with the same are moat gratifying.

To anyone contemplating the purchase of a propeller you may quote me as saying that I consider "Paragon" in propellers the synonym of perfection in propeller construction at this date. You may rest assured that I will give you the order for the two propellers on the passengsr machine which I am now building.

Thanking you again for the courteous attention and promptness with whioh you have made deliveries, I beg to remain.

American Propellor Co..

Washington, D.C..

Dear Sirs:

In regard to the propoller you medo for me,a week ago I mounted It on my machine, Elbrldge four, fe took the thrust and apsed of engine accurate; at 940 r. p. n. developed thrust of 500 lbo. I flew at first attempt, ae clipping will show.(1^ mllos at about 50 mileo psr hr.) On 07 fourth attempt I got caught In a gust and fall about eighty foot, smashed up the machine a little and shattered the hlado. Rush me another eame pitch and diameter, all spruce. I guess you havs a copy of blade you furnished me. Dldlsr Uasson was here with a machine but could not leave ground In thle altitude equipped with .««•-•..<• Engine and Blade,thrust at 1100 r.p.m. 340 lbs. I hope ycur new blade Bill bs as good as ths last. Yourc truly,

Sincerely woura

Mr. Williams has since purchased another Parapoi Propeller and reports that it gives even better results. H has ordered a third.

Mr, G. Van Arsdalen, Vice-President of the Mathewson Aeroplane Co., of Denver, Colorado, wrote tis as follows:

"Sometime ago yon advised us to use a Paragon Propeller similar to that which you furnished Mr. C. F. Willard. In the the meantime we were talked into getting a propeller of another make. Now then we are ,>,L2S0 ft. above sea level. Altogether, we have had ten propellers of this other make, some of which are quite freakish no two of them measuring up the same or developing the same thrust at the same engine speed. We are only getting ¿30 from our best propeller the rest falling down to 180. I believe your propeller will fly this machine, if our engine can handle it, and you know whether it can or not. My success lies in what you can do for me."

On June liltli, Mr. Van Arsdalen sent the following telegram:

"The seven foot nine inch Paragon Propeller which you furnished us is giving entire satisfaction. At nine hundred fifty turns we received three hundred pounds thrust with Elbridge 10-(>0 Aero Special. On May !)th, Thompson made his first cross-country flight of twenty-two miles using a Paragon".

Mr. Van Arsdalen's case is typical of many others who have written us.

MR. WILLARD TELEGRAPHS—"Standing thrust 390 pounds at 1100 revolutions, hard wood screw on Gnome engine (7$ feet diameter by 5.70 foot pitch)".

The ROBERTS MOTOR CO. TELEGRAPHS—"The eight foot Paragon Propeller with five foot pitch gave a thrust of four hundred pounds on our forty horsepower motor when running at only nine hundred revolutions per minute. We consider this a remarkable showing."

The GYRO MOTOR CO. obtained a thrust of 140 pounds on several tests with one of our eight-foot propellers 1.4. ft. piteli at 1100 r.p. m. on their 7-cylinder revolving motor.

Using a Paragon Propeller, Mr. Glenn H. Curtiss won the great speed contest at Los Angeles in 1910, defeating Radley (Bleriot), Ely (Curtiss), Parmelee (Wright), and Latham (Antoinette).

We have sold thousands of dollars worth of propellers with the remarkable record of not a single dissatisfied customer, and only one exchange for a different size or pitch ever being required.

The most successful aviators in America use and recommend PARAGON PROPELLERS.

We will send price list and printed form for information about your machine so we can advise you just what propeller to use.

american propeller co.

washington, d. c.

In answering advertisements please mention this magasine.

50 Horse Power

170 Pounds Weight

design

Revolving cylinders Mechanical intake valves Variable compression Double exhaust system

Large ball bearings throughout | Positive lubrication j Gyro fuel inspirator I Standard Magneto, tachometer, etc. .Easy starting device

Aviator starts motor from his seat without priming

materials

Cylinders, Connecting Rods, Gears, etc.—31 per cent, forged nickel steel Cranks—Chrome nickel steel, treated. Crank-cases—Vanadium steel Valves 30 per cent, nickel steel

performance

400 to 450 pounds thrust with 8 ft. Paragon Propeller All motors furnished with PARAGON PROPELLERS to suit the aeroplane

THE GYRO MOTOR COMPANY

774 GIRARD STREET :: WASHINGTON, D. C.

77ie original pioneers in light-weight revolving cylinder motors

In answering advertisements please mention this magazine.

High winds interfered with the progress of lessons during the remainder of the week, only 60 miles being flown by the pupils, though Instructor Atwood succeeded in Hying 122 miles, including two or three nights for altitude, while two guests were each given five-mile (lights. Mr. Burgess covered 11 miles.

In the course of the week ending June 10, flying was practicable upon every day except Tuesday. During the week Instructor Atwood fiew 3*5 miles; Mr. Burgess, IS miles, and five pupils covered a total of 310 miles, in addition to five guests who were carried 63 miles.

In the course of the week Instructor Atwood took Charles K. Hamilton, first on Wednesday, on a flight to Xantasket Beach and return, followed the same evening by an over-sea and cross-country trip crossing several promontories of Boston, flying lengthwise of East Boston and Revere, crossing inside of Xahant while skirting Lynn, and on to the Tedesco Club at the further boundary of Swampscott. The next day, after an exhibition of skiifull flying by Mr. Atwood at the Tedesco Club, he carried Mr. Hamilton back to Squantum in a wind which gave them a speed considerably faster than a mile a minute. Two days later Aviator Atwood carried Mr. Heth, another pupil, across country to Franklin Field, in Dorcliester, where his exhibition of fancy flying added to the celebration of Dorchester Day. Owing to the uncontrollable crowds, Ml". -Atwood was obliged to leave his passenger on the field, returning with a special message from the mayor by a fast flight to the Squantum field.

On the same date Mr. Hamilton, having familiarized himself with the new type of control, took charge for tlie first time of another Burgess-Wright biplane, carrying passengers on flights about the field.

Thus in the last 12 flying days the four Burgess-Wright biplanes used for school purposes at Squantum have been flown by Instructors Atwood and Burgess 611 and 81 miles, respectively, while the five pupils and guests have covered the following distances:

Miles.

Charles K. Hamilton......................200

Albert Adams Merrill..................... 47

Dr. Percy L. Reynolds................... 67

John W. Meyers.......................... 28

Eugene Heth .............................105

Guests ..................................102

Mr. J. V. Martin at the Waltham meet flew the " Grahame-White Baby," designed and built by Burgess Company and Curtis, while Mrs. Martin has been provided with a full size Burgess- Farman delivered from the Marble-head factory. Earl Ovington, the third aviator of note at Waltham, is negotiating ^.with the Burgess Company for a Gnome motor to replace his own motor which was recently disabled.

WRIGHT SCHOOL NOW AT BELMONT.

A. L. Welch, aviator, arrived at Belmont the middle of June with three Wright headless machines, one of which is a regular exhibition

Wright Flexible Running Gear.

machine, while the other two are highly finished aeroplanes for delivery to customers. Three purchasers are taking lessons now under the instruction of Mr. Welch. These are supposed to be William C. Beers, of Xew Haven, and Richard Gallagher and William Crosby.

Turnbuckles are now being used on some of the wires in the center section. All metal parts are nickel plated, even the guy wires. The cloth which has been used on all Wright machines is now especially treated by the Goodyear Rubber Company. Even the Goodyear tires have "Wright Flyer" moulded in the rubber. Each link of the nickel-plated chains which go over the control pulleys is now composed of three-cheek pieces instead of two as in ordinary chains.

The Goodyear rubber springs as used on the Wright machines measure 2% in. outside diam. by 1 Vj in. inside diam., 2-in. face. These have a strength of 500 lbs. and an ultimate stretch of 10 in., and the cost is but 75 cents each. Goodyear single-tube tires 20 by 2-in. are used. The Wright running gear is very flexible and there is no danger of tearing off tires or wheels by "side swipes," the rubber bands taking all (he strain.

One of the two new machines belongs to Alexander S. Cochran, the yachtsman, who is now in Europe.

LEWKOWICZ FLIES HOUR.

The Aero Club of Xew York's grounds at XTassau Boulevard, L. I., saw on Saturday, June 24, the greatest amount of flying yet seen in one afternoon in the East outside of meets and exhibitions. More than a thousand people were present, by invitation, to see Tom Sopwith carry passengers in his Howard Wright. His were the only promised flights, and he kept busy all the afternoon.

Lewkowicz, who has started a school here, flew his 5-cylinder Anzani-engined Bleriot for an hour, and was so high during the whole of his flight that he could be made out with difficulty bv the naked eye. He estimated his own height at 5,000 to 6,000 feet. Hammond, a student of Captain Baldwin, made several fine circles of the field on his ninth flight. Mars and McCurdy, as well as Captain Baldwin, all made flights in the Baldwin machine. A. L. Welch flew his Wright over from Belmont with a young man by the name of Beattie, who is about to purchase a Wright, and after making some short circles and swoops landed on the field. At the close of the afternoon Welch and Lis passenger flew back and Hammond took the Baldwin machine over to Min-eola to its shed.

HAMILTON FLEW OVER NEW BRITAIN.

Charles K. Hamilton made his debut in his new Burgess-Wright biplane last month, and after a half hour's practice had the new control well in hand. He said lie did not find it very hard to change off from the Curtiss machine to the Wright. He made his practice flights at Squantum, Mass. There, with AU wood, one of the most latest gradual ?s from the Wright school, Hamilton made a great many cross-country flights; the longest was when the two aviators flew from Squantum to the Tedesco Club, about 30 miles away.

On June 14, Hamilton towed his big biplane from Boston to Xew Britain, Conn., behind hif automobile. He had to have his aeroplane in Xew Britain on June 15 and could not trust to the trains, so hauled it down himself. On June 15, Hamilton made a splendid flight with his Wright over his home town, circling around the church steeples and landing, after twenty minutes in the air, at Walnut Hill Park. Again on June 19, he flew from Xew Britain to Hartford, circled over the buildings and started to Ily towards Springfield, Conn., but had to return because his gasoline supply was exhausted.

$200,000 FOR CHICAGO MEET.

Two hundred thousand dollars will be available to carry out the plans of the Aero Club of Illinois for its meet at Grant Park, in the heart of Chicago, August 12-20.

A new system of awarding money is to be inaugurated. Each aviator will receive $2 for every minute he flies during flying hours. If the total due each aviator under this basis is bigger than the amount of prizes he has earned, he will receive the larger amount. The prizes total $S0,000, and $100,000 has been raised already. The only arrangement in the way of a guarantee is an offer of $500 to each entrant, which would merely cover about the actual cost of transportation.

The Wright Company is being ignored in the arrangements for the meet, no license fee having been paid them nor any arrangement made for entry of any of their machines. Moisant and Curtiss have been practically signed.

NEW UNOFFICIAL SPEED RECORD BY BALDWIN.

Captain Baldwin took the Morsehouse-Mar-tens Cup at the Columbus flight exhibition, May 29-June 3, for the fastest 5 miles around the track, which he made in 5:32. one lap of a mile was done in 59 seconds, representing a speed of 61 miles per hour, which is a big advertisement for his Hall-Scott motor. This was around a course with no watchers at the corners.

Parmalee and Sopwith contested in a slow race which was for 3 miles, Parmalee winning by going it as slow as 5:51, while Sopwith took but 5:49, quite a shave at that. Parmalee's slowest lap was 2:02, an average of 29 miles per hour. Parmalee also secured Governor Harmon's and ex-Governor Herrick's silver cups for excellency in bomb dropping and quick start contests, which were held on all four days of the meet.

Parmalee's Wright was equipped with a Horton wireless outfit, and successful messages were sent from the aeroplane.

AT THE MOISANT SCHOOL.

There are now. or will be, rather, about th< end of June six Moisant monoplanes in use at the school at Hempstead Plains, four of them of 30-h.p. and two of them of 50-h.p. Of the four 30-h.p. machines one is made heavy and is intended only for the use of beginners, so that they cannot possibly get off the ground with it. The other three 30-h.p. machines are lighter and all of them fly. The five fireproof concrete hangars, which are being erected, will be completed by the 10th of July, and it is hoped to start immediately thereafter on the construction of a concrete club house for the use of the school pupils, and of a grandstand for the school aerodome, so that exhibitions and meets may be held there. The grounds have been rolled and are thoroughly prepared for flying now, with both a 2 V-> and a 5-kilometer course surveyed and laid out. It is expected that before the I5th of July at least three of the present Moisant pupils will he prepared to qualify for their pilot's licenses. Included in this list is Miss Harriet Quimby, the dramatic editor of Leslie's "Weekly, the first American woman aviator.

The Moisant aviators have entered in the open Detroit aviation tournament, which starts on June 29 and closes on July 4—Rene Simon, Rene Barrier, John J. Frisbie, St. Croix Johnstone, A. Raygorodsky, a Russian biplane flyer, and another aviator. It is the Moisant policy to compete for prizes rather than for guarantees, and to place aviation in the United States on a competitive sporting basis rather than a series of circus performances.

"Unless this method is adopted by every aviator in the business, everyone in the United States will tire of hippodrome performances with the splendid vehicle which cannot possibly take its place among accepted conveyances unless its merits are established by competi-

tion and clean sportsmanship," says A. S. Be Vino, press representative.

Koland Garros and Bdmond Audemars may return to the United States at the end of the present Paris-London tour, provided crosscountry prizes sufficient to warrant their coming here at that time are posted. In the event that no prizes are put up in this country before July 15, Garros and Audemars will stay abroad to fly under the Moisant management in Moisant machines for the rich prizes that are posted in Europe. The Moisant Company is prepared to bring Garros to the United Suites as soon as a cross-country prize commensurate with the distance to be flown is posted, and it is suggested that a long cross-country race of 1,000 or 1.500 miles for prizes aggregating $100,000 be arranged. For such a race at least two Moisant aviators are promised, one of them to be Roland G. Garros. Unless the foreign competitions keep him too busy, Garros will be here to fly in the Chicago tournament in August.

GOULD PRIZE EXTENDED.

As only one machine was promised to be ready on July 4 for the contest for the $15,00(1 Edwin Gould prize, offered "for the most perfect and practicable heavier-than-air flying machine, designed and demonstrated in this country, and equipped with two or more complete power plants (separate motors and propellers), so constructed that any power plant may be operated independently, or that they may be used together," the offer has been repeated for another year.

FLY OVER BOSTON.

The Waltham aviation meet was opened on June 15 with flights by Earle L. Ovington and Harry N. Atwood over the city of Boston. Ovington dropped a message to the Boston "Journal" from an elevation of 3,000 feet during a sensational flight over the city from the Waltham field, lasting more than half an hour.

Less than an hour after Ovington's flight, Atwood left the field on the Squantum marshes, passing over South Boston and Dorchester, he circled the State House and continued to the Held at Waltham.

James A". Martin, vice-president of the Harvard Aeronautical Society, and hailed about the sheds as "the man who came back," also flew in this meet, flying a Grahame-White biplane built by the Burgess Co. & Curtis.

Early in the day Atwood made a cross-country flight with Dr. Percy L. Reynolds from the Squantum field, covering a distance of 45 miles. Dr. Reynolds is one of the pupils at the Burgess school in which Mr. Atwood is instructor.

Charles K. Hamilton and Harry X. Atwood made a cross-country flight on June 7 in the Burgess-Wright machine owned by Hamilton from the field at Squantum to the Todesco Country Club. The distance covered was approximately 30 miles. As the machine is fitted with duplicate control both aviators took turns in handling the machine. The flight was filled with many stunts, racing with trains, etc.

The new Mathewson headless biplane at Denver was given a very successful trial on June 13. With George Thomson as aviator, the machine was sent out in a stiff breeze and at once demonstrated its ability to negotiate a high wind better than any machine heretofore tried out at this altitude. Thomson flew for 22 minutes, attaining an altitude of several hundred feet. The machine proved so successful that (his type will be used in future1 in all the exhibition flights of the Mathewson aviators. The headless machine is equipped with an El-bridge Aero Special, 10-00 h.p.

The Kansas City Aviation School has a real French aviator for instructor at the training camp at Overland Park. They have secured Henri De la Roche, formerly of the Bleriot school, to teach the students how to My and how to land safely.

NOT a shed is to be had at any of the grounds near New York. Mineola, the home of the Aero Club of America and the Aeronautical Society, Nassau Boulevard, where is situated the new Aero Club of New York, and Belmont Park, where the twenty sheds erected for the meet last fall are filled, are seeing daily flying by experienced aviators as well as by amateurs.

Next to Belmont, Nassau Boulevard has the biggest aggregation in its ten sheds, and ten more sheds have already been started. The field, while a little small in one direction for learners, has been rolled very smooth, and the cafe in the club house, to which the members of the Aero Club of New York and their friends have access, is a great boon to would-be and "is" aviators who find flying dry sport.

On June 10 the club had a formal "opening," with flying by Baldwin, Shriver, Russell and Bewkowicz.

AT NASSAU BOULEVARD

Badis Bewkowicz, who is conducting a school with a Bleriot machine, has been making short flights, tuning up his new 5-cylinder Anzani.

A 4-cylinder Curtiss is in the next shed, belonging to George Russell. A novice, Mr. Moore, has a Curtiss-type machine with which he has made some excellent short flights. The third time out he made a circle, flying over the sheds. Alexander Williams has a machine and engine of his own make. A sort of gate control operates his stability device. The elevators, similar to that of a Bleriot NI, may be moved either in conjunction or in opposite direction.

Harry M. Norton now owns the old Wilcox 'plane, which is being rebuilt and fitted with an SO-horsepower Hall-Scott motor. A new Farman-type landing scar is to be put under it, with 4 by 20 in. Goodyear tires.

Sopwith, "Tom," comes after Norton, with a Howard Wright, which ho wrecked at the Columbus affair, lie has made no flights here as yet.

The Aerial Exhibition Co.. of 1 777 Broadway, New York, has a Curtiss-type fitted with a C-cylinder Kirkham nearly completed.

A new monoplane, of beautiful construction, along the general lines of a Bleriot, with a modified landing gear, fitted with a 7-cylinder rotary engine of his own make, is being assembled for its designer, W. Irving Twombly, of 220 East 41st street, New York.

The Church Aeroplane Co. has just completed

a Curtiss-type for A. N. Ridgely. This follows the late Curtiss, with shortened front outriggers, single elevator and fan tail, fitted with a 6-cylinder Kirkham.

Howard Dietz, of Mill Road, Hempstead, R. I., has a monoplane over which is fitted a hollow mast containing a parachute.

A Bleriot copy, built by the Queen Aeroplane Co., is laid up with a broken gear in the 3-cylinder Anzani.

A new stunt in running gear has been brought out by the Aerial Exhibition Co. and A. Williams. Instead of two wheels each side of a skid, as in the usual Farman device, there are two skids and a single wheel is placed between, with the ordinary rubber shock absorbers employed in the usual fashion.

THE MINEOLA FIELDS

Hadley & Blood have been cutting down their big Farman-type with the Roberts motor.

A number of students have been taking lessons from Capt. Baldwin, who returned from Columbus on June S with his smashed machine. It was put in shape in one day by the Wittemann Brothers, who made the 'plane, and on the 10th he flew over to Nassau Boulevard, along with Tod Shriver, who has just returned from the Orient, and both made flights on that day before a thousand invited guests and members of the Aero Club of New York who came down to see the grounds and some flying on this, the opening day. Bewkowicz got his 5-cylinder Anzani-engined Bleriot going after a while, but did not get a quarter mile before his motor stopped and he made a very flat glide to earth in a nearby street newly cut through. Russell also entertained the crowd with a flight or two. Both Baldwin and Shriver flew back to their Mineola sheds after the affair was concluded. The Shriver machine is the ordinary Curtiss type with Hall-Scott GO-horsepower motor, with which the Baldwin machine is also equipped.

<>ne of Baldwin's students, Hammond, has already made some fine flights.

Dr. 11. W. Walden is building another monoplane of the same type, with a 4-cylinder Hall-Scott motor.

The Ourliss-type built by students of (he Aeronautic School of Engineers is still being repaired.

Walter B. Fairchild has made some changes in the monoplane, bringing the bottom of the frame closer to the ground. No flights have yet been made this month.

Two Antoinettes of Harry S. Harkness are now reposing peacefully in their shed. I St. Croix Johnstone has been making great flights and has acquired a whole lot of experience since he attached himself to the Moisant company. During the international polo game he flew over the field at Westbury and dropped some carnations during an Intermission in the game. Teaching is going on early every morning at the Moisant school.

BELMONT FLYERS

Arthur Stone has been doing good flying with the Bleriot copies made by the Queen Aeroplane Co., of Fort George, N. Y. On the 18th he made a 26-minute flight with an Anzani engine—an American duration record for this motor.

Barle Ovington, who has a shed here, has been away flying some dates.

Elevator on Salliger Headless Biplane.

W. J. Diefenbach and Harry Bachand have a well-built Farman copy, with a 6-cyUnder Kirkham. The tail is a single surface, with the rear part acting as an elevator in connection with the front one. Bachand spent two weeks at the Kirkham factory to rush along his motor, with which he is greatly pleased.

John H. Davis, agent for the Hall-Scott engine, has a monoplane of novel construction. Everything about the fuselage is triangulated.

A large passenger-carrying Farman copy is in course of construction by Dr. William Greene.

Another shed is occupied by Joseph Novo-selsky.

Horton Turnbuckle Lock.

Romaine Berger is still at work on a Bleriot-type, and a man named Charles Silversteine, of 70 East Fourth street. New York, has a curious machine, resembling nothing else so much as a turtle. Another experimenter has a monoplane shaped like a triangle as to the plan view.-

A. B. Salliger has a big headless biplane, with a 100-horsepower Emerson engine, spreading 36 ft. by 6y2 ft. by 6 ft. between planes. The engine, with Mea magneto, pulls to the limit of the scale, which is 500 pounds. The tail is a biplane, with the elevator hinged to the rear thereof. Steering and operating ailerons is done by one universally mounted lever. The fittings are of light cast bronze. The landing gear is unique and very heavy.

A nicely built miniature Farman type has been built by the Morok Aeroplane Co., of 303 Fifth avenue, New York, with a 4-cylinder water-cooled Y-shaped Anzani 30-horsepower motor, G. and A. carburetor. Ailerons are fitted to upper wings only. All struts are of Honduras mahogany, the planes are covered one side only with Naiad fabric, while Goodyear wheels and shock absorbers are used. Chrome leather is used for hinges for ailerons and rudder instead of metal.

Fred Shneider has two Curtiss-types, with Elbridge engines. One of these has been doing short flights with Tony Castellano as aviator, who has purchased the machine. Twin El Arco radiators are noted on one of these and the usual Curtiss style landing gear has been changed for a shock absorbing arrangement very similar to the Farman. Hartford tires are standard, with Gibson propellers and Bosch magneto.

Morok Uses Leather for Hinges.

A beautiful little monoplane has been built by the Johnson brothers, who came to Belmont from San Francisco. The fuselage resembles that of the Bleriot XI closely, while the landing gear is like that in the TIanriot, with 4 by 20 in. Pennsylvania wheels. The wings are single covered, with a varnished linen. The power plant is a 3-cylinder Anzani with G. and A. carburetor.

The tail-less biplane of Wilbur R. Kimball, twin propellers, is ready for trial. The vertical rudders are placed between the planes at the end, hinged to the front strut. They can swing inward toward the center of the machine by pulling the control wires or by the force of the air if a change in direction is made during flight. They can not swing outward for they are prevented by the cross guying between the outer front and roar struts The steering gear for these vertical rudders is unique. Two-foot levers are pivoted at a central point. To turn to right, one pushes outward on the left foot, and vice versa. A coiled spring attaching the cable to the rudder pulls it back into stream lines after the foot pressure is taken off. The ailerons are positively operated downward only, the air pressure lifting them, as in the Farman. A stop Is arranged, however, to prevent their pulling down too far or hitting the ground. Goodyear tires and shock absorbers are fitted.

ABOUND ST. LOUIS.

The Benoist school at Kinloch Park, Mo., is as busy as a bee. An ever-increasing number of pupils are being enrolled and many are making successful (lights. One of the students is a Denver woman. Two sheds are occupied by the Aeronautic Supply Co. with Mr. Ben-oist's machines, with American-British and Roberts motors.

The Goodricli Brothers, of St. Louis, have a Farman-type and has shown itself to be a successful flyer. Charles Kuhno lias his seventh machine at the same place, a Farman-type, witli a 4-cylinder Hall-Scott motor. C. I. Sweinhardt has a Curtiss-type with a Maxl-motor. H. A. Robinson lias the Curtiss machine he bought, with the S-cylinder Curtiss motor. L. L. Prince has the Bleriot copy he built, with Boulevard engine. A monoplane has been built by C. O. Prouse, with Elbridge engine.

On June 19 the first circular flight of Charles A. Zorne's new Elbridge-engined biplane was made in public by Hugh Robinson. Mr. Robinson made a couple of straightaway flights to test the machine, and then circled the field a couple of times. The machine is equipped witli an Elbridge "Featherweight" engine, taken from Zorne's last year's machine.

Other machines here include a Demoiselle-lype and two disassembled machines.

At East St. Louis, 111., are located J. N. Sparling with his school, and J. W. Curzon, who was the first American to bring a Farman to this country, the Michelin winner of 1909. Both machines have been doing flying during the month past.

CHICAGO PLYING.

The permanent aviation field located in Cicero, neaf Chicago, is now open and in full swing. Every shed is filled and there is but one machine on tbe ground that has not been in the air. Cicero, although not yet a part of Chicago, is almost surrounded by the city and (he new field is but a short distance from the old llawthornc race track, where the Chicago novices practiced most of the winter. Several short (lights have been made at the new field lately and there was also a notable crosscountry (light by (Tarry Cowling, instructor in (he Chicago School of Aviation.

Cowling was invited to dinner in Cicero on .lune 9 and Hew the 7 miles over from Hawthorne with his Elbridge-engined biplane. On .lune IS he made another flight of nearly 15 miles over the. city of Benton Harbor, M'ich., and surrounding towns.

Lenard, the builder of a baby headless biplane and a l-cylinder air-cooled motor used in driving it, had the first accident since the

The Johnson Brothers' Control and Skid.

field opening while trying to fly in a high wind a day or so ago. The outrigging and a Paragon propeller were smashed, but the driver was uninjured. Otto W. Brodie was out the same day for several flights in his Gnome-equipped Farman.

The following men are at the new field: Harold McCormick. monoplane, Gnome engine, Paragon propellers; Young-Hearne biplane, Hall-Scott engine. Young propellers: Franco-American Aviation Company, Otto XV. Brodie, aviator, Gnome-engined Farman, Taragon and Requa-Gibson propellers; Lenard, headless baby biplane, with Lenard air-cooled motor. Paragon propellers; Aeronautical League monoplane, Valkyrie type, no engine: D. Kreamer, Curtiss-type biplane, 50-h.p. Harriman engine and propeller; D. Kreamer, Curtiss-type, Boulevard motor, Paragon propeller: International Aeroplane Manufacturing Company, Curtiss-type, Roberts engine, Paragon propeller; Aeronautical League, biplane, no engine; William Mattery, Curtiss-type, Harroun engine, Paragon propeller.

The Modern School of Aviation and the International Aeroplane Manufacturing Company have merged and are now known as the Modern and International Schools of Aviation, Combined.

IN AND ABOUT SAN FBANCISCO.

Activity in aviation has been more or less hindered in the near vicinity of San Francisco by reason of the lack of suitable grounds or practice fields, such as Mirco'a or Domínguez.

• A Locking' Wire Tightener made by Wittemann Bros, for Capt. Baldwin and others,

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Selfridge Field, used for the San Francisco meet, was chosen by persons who knew nothing of aviation and could not be told. This unfortunate selection was the cause of the numerous accidents to both professionals and novices. With very few exceptions, experimenters have had to go some little distance out of the city for suitable grounds.

Fred. Wiseman, the best known of local dying men, served his apprenticeship at Petaluma and Santa Posa; Clarence Walker at Palo Alto; Ivy Baldwin at Alameda. Prof. J. J. Montgomery, of Santa Clara College, who has international fame as one of the pioneers in aviation, is expected to resume experimentation in aeronautics shortly. Eugene Ely, the aviator, is a well-known San Franciscan.

Among the novices who have had some degree of success might be mentioned Young, Smith, Fortney, Case, Free, O'Brien, Crosby, Clarke, Loose, Hagen of San Francisco, Peters of Santa Rosa, Meyerhoffer of Oroville, Kerns of Chico, Hall of Fresno, Brewer and Guey of Oakland, Timothy of San Mateo, Gordon of Bostonia, St. Henry of San Diego. A note on the machines used by the above appears below.

Clarence Walker, a professional aviator, is touring Australia with an S-cylinder Curtiss machine.

Fred. Wiseman, using a Farman-type machine of his own make, with a Hall-Scott S-cylinder motor, is touring the Northwest.

Touring California is Ivy Baldwin, professional aviator, with a Curtiss-type machine of his own make.

Camasco" All-Steel Strut and Beam Connector.

Frank Johnson, who flew a 4-cylinder Curtiss, has retired from the profession.

R. St. Henry is on an exhibition tour with a genuine Curtiss machine. Rex Young is practicing short flights with a 4-cylinder Curtiss. S. Smith has made some short nights with a Curtiss, equipped with 4-cylinder Curtiss motor and Gibson propeller.

J. Clarke has made some short flights with a Farman-type machine of his own, fitted with a 4-cylinder Elbridge engine and Gibson propeller. Orver Meyerhoffer is making short flights with an original triplane made by the "Camasco" people and fitted with a 6-cylinder Elbridge engine, Gibson propeller. G. H. Loose, while making some short flights recently, wrecked his Farman-type machine.

The Farman-type of C. O'Brien, equipped with an S-cylinder motor, has been wrecked. T. Kerns lias been practicing short flights and turns with his home-made Curtiss-type machine, using a 4-cylinder Elbridge motor and Gibson propeller.

Roy Brewer damaged his Farman-type machine, which had an automobile motor and propeller of his own design, while making some short flights.

The Farman-type machine of C. E. Hagen, fitted with an automobile engine and propeller of own design, was wrecked while some short flights were being attempted. The short flights of Fung Joe Guey. in his Curtiss-type machine, have not been publicly observed. Louis Fort-

ney wrecked his Antoinette-type machine, equipped with an automobile motor and propeller of own design, trying to make some short tlights. S. R. Timothy is practicing short tlights with his Antoinette-type machine of local make, equipped with an S-cylinder Curtiss air-cooled motor.

Several short flights have been made by E>. H. Gordon in his Curtiss-type machine, fitted with 4-cylinder Curtiss engine and own propeller. On account of lack of power, W. C. Wheeler has not been able to fly with his Bleriot-type machine, which has an automobile engine and propeller of own design. J. W. Hudson is building, a new engine for his Bleriot-type machine, and will use a Gibson propeller. T. R. Goth has an original hydroaeroplane which is equipped with a local engine and will be fitted with his own propeller.

The Berjrer Monoplane Has a Brake and a New Turnbuckle.

The original multiplane of C. E. Lambreuth, which has an automobile motor and local propeller, has been poorly designed.

George Wagner is now building an original multiplane which will have two Adams-Far-well revolving motors and Paragon propellers. A machine of the Demoiselle type is now being built by M. P. Desmet, and is to have a Detroit "aeromotor" and propeller.

The Bleriot-type machine of John W. Hamilton, which has an Elbridge "Aero Special" of 4 cylinders and Gibson propeller, shows every possibility of proving a success. P. L. Criblet is building a Curtiss-type machine and will use a 4-cylinder Elbridge engine and Gibson propeller. A Curtiss-type machine is now being built by the Diamond Aeroplane Co.. and will be fitted with a 4-cylinder Elbridge engine and Gibson propeller. Ed. Dony is building an original monoplane and will use an automobile engine. An original monoplane is being built by S. Doi which will be equipped with a 3-cyI-inder Elbridge engine and Gibson propeller.

.1. A. Froberg is building an original monoplane. W. A. Merralls is constructing an original biplane and will use his own propeller, as is E. H. Morton. E. L. Reidling is constructing an original monoplane. Mr. Stewart is another who lias an original biplane, not yet tried. Leever's original biplane, fitted with a Holmes rotary motor, has not yet been put to a test.

The Curtiss machine of P. .1. Butler, the Demoiselle of Siefert & Rybitoki, fitted with an automobile emrgine and Gibson propeller, the Bleriot-type of P. F. Gillette, the Demoiselle of Sullivan & Erickson, the original biplane of Frederickson, which will have a power plant of own design, and (he original monoplane of the California Aero Manufacturing & Supply Co., which will have an Aero Special motor anil Gibson propeller, to be used for experimental work only, have not yet been tried out.

Knieling & Pillsbury are building an original biplane to be fitted with power plant of own

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CHAS. F. WALSH, Los Angeles

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Back View 4 Cyl. "Aero Special"

GEORGE SCHMITT, Mineóla, N. Y.

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ELBRIDGE

10 Culver I

Jas. M. Wait Co. Chicago

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Cai. Aero Supply & Mfg.i San Francisco

in answering advertisements picase mention tins magazine.

IGHTS

IMS FOR ENGINES

A

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MATHEWSON BIPLANE, Denver

Id flight. "Elbridge Featherweight" and "Aero Special" lights, in the United States, than any other, and these lade in practi-" iry, in all al-:ier conditions.

front view 4 cyl.

II JI.'LlliiL Jl

• of these ì, standard , of proper

jerican Amateur

COMPANY

ter, N. Y.

e engine supply co. los angeles

arman & bowes philadelphia

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In answering advertisements please mention this magazine.

design. P. Takahashi is constructing an original biplane.

A "dirigible helicopter-aeroplane" of own design is being built by one Murray, and will have three auto engines and three propellers.

A Wright-type machine Is being built by Sutro & Kierulf which will be fitted with an automobile engine.

A Curtiss-type machine is being built by the California Aero Manufacturing & Supply Co. which will have an Elbridge "Aero Special" motor and Gibson propeller, and used for professional work. In this machine a change in metal strut socket and beam connection has been evolved. The piece of steel "A" in sketch is bent double and inserted in a slot in the strut. A ferrule keeps the end of the strut from splitting. The "insert" being rectangular in section, the strut is prevented from turning round as it would if it were a round pin, This does away with cast sock< t is neater in appearance and saves the i:-3 of a bolt through the beam.

Sprague & Lekas, of San Francisco, are building a Bleriot-type machine, spread 30 ft. fore and aft, 27 ft, 3 in. The machine is of somewhat crude construction and parts will undoubtedly have to be changed, as they are con-structionally weak. The square fuselage is very rigid and strongly built, but is probably too narrow for the aviator's comfort or engine setting.

Kimball Rudder System.

The planes: chord 7 ft. G in., camber 6% in., 37In. back from entering edge. Have five wing bars or beams, the first being %x2% in-I second, %x2%; third, 2y8x%; fourth, y8xl%; fifth, %xl%. The planes, unlike most of the rest of the machine, as can be seen from the foregoing, are quite strong enough. Ribs about 15 in. apart. The rear construction, or em-penage, differs from the Bleriot in that it is much larger and that the center section is movable and constitutes the elevator, while the ends are used for lateral balance, moving in opposite directions. This scheme, to the writer, Is very doubtful even if the frame were wider and properly cross-braced. The torsion would be very perceptible and would cause excessive twisting stresses on the fuselage, and, aside from this, it is improbable that it would work properly.

An odd feature in the running gear is the use of solid iron connections to the wheels, which are 20 in. in diameter. The size, %x%, Is very heavy, and it is doubtful if it has the strength of the usual tubing.

John W. Hamilton, of San Francisco, is putting the finishing touches to his Bleriot-type machine in the shop of the California Aero Manufacturing & Supply Co., the machine being practically a duplicate of the original Bleriot cross-channel type. An Klbridge Aero Special Is installed.

S. R. Timothy, of Palo Alto, made a short flight on his big monoplane, purchased from the California Aero Manufacturing & Supply Co. recently. He rose to a height of about 15 feet and flew steadily for about 600 feet. This was Mr. Timothy's first attempt at flight.

Charles W. Walsh is flying in Portland, Orel Mr. Walsh has been doing some very fine fly-I ing and is making a hit. He has left for Vic-I toria, B. C, for a two days' exhibition, thencel to Seattle.

Jack De Pries, who is connected with thel Manning Bros., is now practicing, and as soon] as proficient will start on the road with Mr. Walsh. Mr. Walsh stays up for 15 minutes at| a time, and makes very good landings. He isl not particular about the country he flies over, as he is doing a lot over mountains and forests. In one flight his rudder cable slipped off the pulley and got jammed, making steering impossible with the rudder. He was able to pull it enough to one side to enable him to make a very large turn, which took him several miles out of his way, and by using his ailerons as a help in steering, lie managed to return to the enclosure and land safely.

LOS ANGELES BOOMING.

Aviation is booming in the neighborhood of Los Angeles. Great progress has been made since the meet last December. There are at present more than a dozen amateurs who have made successful flights.

Chas. F. Walsh has graduated to the professional ranks and is now touring Oregon. Beryl Williams and Edward Loudinclos have a splendidly-built Curtiss-type machine of their own construction, with which Williams has been making some very good flights. Earle Remington has Radley's Bleriot. He has had several smashes in trying to learn its tricks. William Stevens has a steel monoplane of his own construction which will be tried out in the near future. Remington has another small monoplane somewhat on the order of the Bleriot, fitted with a 5-cylinder motor, built by C. H. Day, a local man. This machine is used for short practice flights.

C. M. Crosson is making successful flights with a large Farman-type machine, and hopes to try for his pilot license in the near future. Harry Holmes has been flying a monoplane of unique design which was constructed by Charles Skoglund for Harry V. Schiller. Bob Greer has a monoplane equipped with a 40-h.p. automobile engine. So far only short flights have been made. J. Gage has ordered a more powerful engine for his machine, as the old one was too small. This machine is very well and solidly built, and it is Mr. Gage's intention to start an aeronautical school. Bernard Bir-nie, of Long Beach, has a machine of his own design and construction. The most noticeable feature is the employment of metal ribs.

J. J. Slavin's machine has made several short flights. This machine is equipped with an automatic lateral stability control, which has not as yet been thoroughly tested on account of the motor being too small to keep the machine up on the turns.

The death of Mattie Hartle was the first tragedy in the local colony.

The Aerial Construction Co., of New York is another instance of an automobile concern launching out into the field of aeronautics.

F. T. Sanford, the president of the F. T. San-ford Automobile Company, is the leading spirit in the new Aerial Construction Co., which has taken a lease upon an additional building in West Forty-third street to be devoted exclusively to aeronautical work.

For the past six months Mr. Sanford has been turning out propellers which have shown up well in comparative tests for design, construction and finish.

From a visit to the works the new concern evidently means business, and with well-established reputation for thoroughness and attention to details, one may predict a prosperous future for the company.

NEW COMPANIES ORGANIZED.

Molsant Company $1,000,000 Concern.

The Moisant International Aviators was incorporated under the laws of the State of New York in November, 1910, as the International Aviators. Its capital stock at that time was $250,000. all paid in. Permission has been secured from the secretary of state, of New York, to change the name of that corporation from the International Aviators to the Moisant International Aviators, and to increase the capitalization to $1,000,000, of which $500,000 is 7 per cent cumulative preferred and $500,000 common stock. The increased capital is to be used for the erection of a thoroughly up-to-the-minute factory, wherein they can make their aeroplanes from propeller to tail, including propellers, motors and everything that goes into an aeroplane except the fabric. It is quite possible that they will manufacture the wing and tail fabric as well. Manufacturing rights of several aeroplane power plants have been acquired, and the best of these will be developed and manufactured by the Moisant factory. It is planned also to increase the number of aviation schools to ten, exactly similar in appointment, course of instruction, etc., to the present school at Hempstead Plains.

The board of directors of the Moisant International Aviators has been increased from three to seven as follows:

Alfred J. Moisant, president and treasurer; Adolph E. Wupperman, secretary and general manager; W. J. Taylor, capitalist, Xo. 3 Broad street, New York City; H. W. Jacobs, assistant superintendent of motive power, Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway, Topeka, Kans.; Edwin E. Bush, assistant general traffic manager, American Express Company, No. 65 Broadway, New York City; James S. Herrman. trustee of the Union Dime & Savings Bank, No. 407 West Fourteenth street, New Y/ork City; Christopher J. Bake, vice-president of the Bake Torpedo Boat Company, Bridgeport, Conn.

At a meeting of the directors, held June 16, it was unanimously decided to increase the manufacturing and school facilities of the company, and to devote their energy to the manufacturing and sale of Moisant aeroplanes, the directors . authorizing a progressive program for the next 12 months.

McCurdy-Willard Partnership.

J. A. D. McCurdy, one of the original members of the Aerial Experiment Association, who, at its dissolution, took up exhibition flying for Glenn H. Curtiss for the purpose of securing greater experience on the actual operation of machines, has joined hands with Charles F. Willard, the first man in this country to give exhibitions of flying, and they have formed a company called the McCurdy-Willard Aeroplane Company, at No. 1780 Broadway, New York City.

This company will conduct exhibitions for a while on a large scale, making them more in the nature of real meets, and will have associated with them four other aviators of reputation who are now flying exhibitions.

C. F. Willard & Co. and the McCurdy Aeroplane Company have also been formed to manufacture aeroplanes from designs of Messrs. Willard and McCurdy. The McCurdy machine will be of the headless biplane type, with a direct connected propeller in the rear. The elevator will be placed just forward of

the rudder, and there will be no fixed tail surface. The machine will spread 25*4 ft. The first machine is promised for the middle of July, and is now being built in the shops of the Queen Aeroplane Company, at Fort George. No ailerons or plane warping will be used for stability, but the ribs will extend back of the rear beams considerably and will be warped.

The Willard company will build a biplane designed by Willard of the headless type with two shaft and gear-driven propellers in front. There will be no shoulder control on this, all stability and control movement being obtained by a universally mounted steering post. This machine will be ready July 1. They will be built in two sizes for one and three men, respectively. Both machines will be fitted with Gnome engines,

OTHER NEW CONCERNS.

Eagle Aeroplane Company, Brunswick, Ga.; $100,000. Incorporators, John M. Biggs, P. J. B. Morris, C. A. Bincoln, J. H. Worden and Bieut. Edward Shelnutt.

International Aviation Meet Association, No. 64 East Congress street, Chicago, 111.; for the purpose of conducting an international meet on August 12-20, 1911.

Aerial Construction Company, No. 44 West Forty-third street, New York City. F. T. San-ford, proprietor.

Brooke-Kuh nert Company, No. 321 South Wabash avenue, Chicago, III.; motor manufacturers.

American Motors and Aviation Company, 206 McPhee building, Denver, Colo.; $100,000; to make aeroplanes, motors, etc. Incorporators, M. F. Murray, W. J. Aujand, M. C. Dolan, E. B. Aujand, Joe Murray, H. V. Kennedy and P. Devault.

IT. Angus Conners Aviation Company, Boston, Mass.; $50,000. Incorporators, Frank S. Corlew and H. A. Conners.

Morok Aeroplane Company, No. 303 Fifth avenue, New York City.

The Mercury Aviation Exhibition Company, $20,000, Brooklyn, N. Y. Directors: R. A. MacGregor, of Brooklyn; James E. O'Brien and William A. Wan row, of Manhattan.

Wildwood Aero Company, Wildwood, N. J., to promote the building of a compound biplane invented by Aviator Bowman. Officers include J. Thompson Baker, president; Robert Kay, secretary; Wilbur Y/oung, treasurer; O. 1. Blackwell, solicitor.

The Bachelder Aeroplane Company, Cleveland, Ohio, $20,000. J. E. Bachelder, B. J. Guthery. W. C. Malin, G. E. Mann and E. R. White.

Kavs Exhibition Aviators Company, 149 Broadway, New York City, $100,000.

Pacific Aeroplane Company, San Francisco, Cal., $50,000. Incorporators include F. H. Howard, A. Knieling, E. C. Fabe and R. G. Reylard.

VANIMAN TO CROSS THE OCEAN.

It has been definitely announced that Melvin Vaniman, chief engineer of the "America," in which Walter Wellman first essayed to reach the North Pole, and which later lost when he attempted to cross the Atlantic Ocean in It. will again attempt to sail across the ocean, and this time in a .ship which is being built according to his own ideas. The total expense of the venture will be approximately $150,000.

His non-rigid dirigible, the parts of which are already being built, will be equipped with two 105-h.p. sleeve-valve Knight engines, and

S3

will measure 268 ft. long by 4 7 ft. wide, approximately the size of "America," which was abandoned in midocean by the members of the Wellman expedition last October. Its gas capacity will be 350,000 cu. ft., and it will be capable of lifting 25,000 lbs.

"The crew will include myself," said Mr. Vaniman, "a wireless operator, a navigator, two mechanics, a cook and the cat which accompanied us on the previous attempt. The balloon will be completed on August 1, after which time several trial trips will be made at Atlantic City. The real start will be made in October."

The Vaniman expedition, which is to cross the Atlantic Ocean in a dirigible balloon, is being financed by Frank A. Seiberling, president of the Chamber of Commerce of Akron, O., and of the Goodyear Rubber Company. Besides being a capitalist and philanthropist he is himself an inventor of distinction and has long taken an interest in aeronautics.

Mr. Seiberling early became interested in the rubber industry and he invented and patented the quick-detachable rim for pneumatic tires which has done so much to make automobiling pleasant and popular. Ever since aviation became a practical reality instead of a theory he has closely followed the development of both the aeroplane and the dirigible. He imported special machines for the manufacture of rubberized fabric especially for the Vaniman dirigible and suitable for the wings of gasless machines and for the envelopes of balloons.

Naturally, Goodyear cloth is to be used in the new Vaniman dirigible; of two different kinds of fabric—one for the balonette, and the other for the outer envelope. The balonette cloth will be two-ply, and the other three-

piy.

BOOKS RECEIVED

NOTE—Anv of these books may be obtained directly from AERONAUTICS, 250 West Fifty-fourth street, New York.

THE AEROPLANE, by Claude Grahame-White and Harry Harper; rtvo., cloth, 819 pages, fully illustrated, published at $8.50 by the J. 15. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, Pa. To the man who knows nothing about aeronautics from a technical standpoint but, at the same time, has heard of Wbite as one of the world-famous aviators, this book will be extremely interesting, both on account of its text and the beautiful illustrations, and will, in addition, not have his mind at all disabused of the greatness of "Grimy" White. The S7 illustrations are the finest that have appeared in any recent book, and of these more than one-third are of Mr. White, of his machine, or of both. "Why the book should have White as author is not readily apparent, as all the articles but three are by other men such as Col. J. E. Capper, Louis Bleriot, Henry Farman, Howard Wright, Holt Thomas, Louis Paulhan, C. G. Grey and C. G. Grunhold.

What would have been a valuable section of the book is a more or less complete list of aviators, but apparently no serious attempt whatever has been made to have this accurate. One learns from this that £,ieut. Paul Beck flies a Wright aeroplane, and that some "Mr. Humphry" recently took up Colonel Roosevelt. A man named "Kimball" is another Wright pilot, while "S. J." Moisant flies a Bleriot. The fame of Ralph Johnstone, Cant. Thomas S. Baldwin, \V. Starling Bursress, William Billiard. F.arle Ovington and others has apparently not reached Messrs. White and Harper.

WHITE MOTLEY, by Max Pemberton; 8vo., cloth, 311 pages. Published bv Sturgis & Walton Co., 3) East Twenty-seventh street. New York City, at $1.30 net. An absorbing novel, with an aeroplane of 1913 type, the vehicle of the hero in a hair-raising flight over the Alps.

ROTATIONS FLUGMOTOREN, by Friedrich Hansen. Pamphlet of 30 pages, with 27 pictures, bound in paper; published at 40 cents by C. J. E. Volckmann Nachf. G.m.b.H., Berlin W. 62, Germany. Special attention is given the Gnome, of which photographs are shown of every part. Other (principally German) rotating motors are mentioned.

TEUT-OX VOLAR SANS AILES, par Paul Colliard. Eight vol., paper, 10S pages, with diagrams. Published at 3 francs by Librairie Aéronautique, 32 rue Madame, Paris.

Les accidents d'aviation si nombreux, et souvent mortels, qui viennent d'assombrir la fin de l'année, appellent l'attention du public et surtout des spécialistes de l'aviation sur le nouvel ouvrage qui vient de paraître: "Peut-on voler sans ailes?"

L'auteur étudie les différents modes de sustentation d'un corps pesant dans l'air et démontre la possibilité de réaliser ce qu'il appelle: La sustentation en vitesse.

Cet ouvrage donne lieu a un débat scientifique intéressant, et tous ceux qui s'occupent d'aviation voudront le lire, pour prendre parti pour ou contre la théorie de l'Aerolet,

FLYING APPARATUS OF THE BLOWFLY, by Dr. Wolfgang Ritter. Published by the Smithsonian Institute, Washington, D. C, from the Hodgkins Fund. This is the latest of the many free publications on aeronautical matters issued by the Institution; that is, a contribution to the morphology and physiology of the organs of flight in insects. It is illustrated with many diagrams and plates.

BIRDFL1GHT AS THE BASIS OF AVIATION, compiled from the experiments of Otto Lilienthal, by Gustav Lilienthal. Large Svo., cloth, illustrations and plates; $2.50 net, from Longmans, Green & Co., Fourth avenue and Thirtieth street, New York City, . or from AERONAUTICS. Contents include: Evolution, introduction, the fundamental principles of free flight, the art of flight and dynamics, the force which lifts the bird in flight, general remarks on air resistance, the wings considered as levers, the energy required for wing motion, the actual path of the wings and the sensible wing velocity, apparent effort of birds, the over-estimation of the energy requisite for flight, the work required for various kinds of flight, the foundations of flight technique, the air pressure on a plane surface moved perpendicularly and uniformly, air pressure on a plane rotating surface, the center of pressure on the wing during the down stroke, increasing the air resistance by beating movements, economy in energy dxie to accelerated wing lift, the expenditure of energy for flight without locomotion (hovering), the resistance of the oblique movement of a plane surface, the energy required in forward flight with plane wings, the superiority of natural wings over plane wing surfaces, the determination of the wing shapes, the most favorable wing section, the advantages of curved wings over plane surfaces, the difference between plane and curved surfaces as regards air resistance, the influence of wing outlines, the determination of the air pressure on birds' wing surfaces, the air pressure on birds' wings determined on rotating surfaces, comparison of the direction of the air pressures, the work necessary for forward flight with curved wings, birds and wind, the air pressure on a bird's wing measured in the wind, the increase of lifting effect due to wind, air pressure on the bird's wing in calm air deduced from measurements in wind, the energy required for flight on calm air as deduced from the wind experiments, surprising phenomena observed when experimenting with curved surfaces in the wind, the possibility of sailing flight, the bird as our model, the balloon as an obstacle, calculations of the work required for flight, the construction of flying apparatus, concluding remarks, addendum and index.

250 West 54th Street New York City

Cable: Aeronautic, New York "Phone 4833 Columbus Published by AERONAUTICS PRESS, Inc. A. V. JONES, Pres't E. L. JONES, Treas'r-Sec'y

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No. 48 J U L Y , 1 9 1 1 Vol. 9, No. 1

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Entered as second-class matter September 22, 1906, at the Posloffice New York, under the Act ot March 3, 1879. AERONAUTICS is issued on the 30th of each month ^* All copy must be received by the 20th. Advertising pages close on the 25th. :: :: :: :: :: :: rfT Make all checks or money orders free of exchange ^ and payable to AERONAUTICS. Do not send currency. No foreign stamps accepted. :: :: ::

AGENTS FOR "AERONAUTICS."

NEW YORK—American News Co., 15 Park PI.; Brentano's, 5th Ave. and 27th St.

ST. LOUIS—Aeronautic Supply Co., 3932 Olive St.; H. F. Mardorf, 4068 Olive St.

JERSEY CITY—A. W. Castellanos, 231 Virginia Ave.

BOSTON—I. N. Chappell, 26 Court St.; J. F.

Murphy, South Terminal Station. SAN FRANCISCO—Foster & Orear, Ferry

Bldg.; San Francisco Stationery Co., 20

Geary St.; California Aero Mfg. & Supply

Co., 441 Goldengate Ave. CINCINNATI—J. R. Hawley News Co., 11 Ar-

MEMPHIS—R. M. Mansford, 26 S. Main St. CHICAGO—P. O. News Co., 178 Dearborn St.;

H. S. Renton, 49 Wabash Ave. BOISE—Rawl's, 917 Main St.

PORTLAND, ORE.—S. S. Rich, 267 Morrison St.

SALT LAKE CITY—Sheppard, the Magazine Man.

DALLAS—S. W. Aeronautic Supply Co., 214 Main St.

LOS ANGELES—Whalen's News Agency, 233

S. Spring St. WASHINGTON—Brentano's.

BÖRLIN—W. H. Kuhl, 82 Koniggratzerstr., S.W.

PARIS—Brentano's, Place de l'Opera. LONDON—Aeronautics, 27 Chancery Lane; Ceo.

H. Scragg, 12 Xewgiite St., London, F.. C. BERNE—A. Francke's Sortiment.

Frank A. Krause, 21 years old, of 4325 East Eighteenth avenue, Denver, Col., is building a big machine, similar to the Wright, he saj.-s, with a a wing spread of 32 ft. The planes will be 6 ft. the other way. It will be equipped with a 40-60-h.p. Elbridge engine.

Frank Fitzsimons, who has been flying with an Elbridge '"Featherweight" at Mineola during the past month, has two new machine. Both are biplanes of the Curtiss type, equipped with Elbridge Aero Special engines.

WHAT is the matter with aviation in A merica? That there is something seriously the matter no one who will take the trouble to compare the indifferent state of affairs here with the brilliant achievements in Europe can deny. Americans returning from abroad have expressed themselves as astounded at the progress and activity there; while foreigners, coming here, can scarcely understand our lukewarm interest and lack of progress. In 1908, the epoch-making flights of the Wright brothers in France and at Fort Myer electrified the world, but, in the short space of three years, we have changed places from the head to the foot of the procession. In the present year of grace, 1911, progress seems to be at a standstill in this country and not one first-class event is scheduled for the present summer. What is the matter?

A diagnosis of this interesting case would seem to point to one of three ailments, or, possibly, a complication of these.

The first symptom that attracts our attention is that of a frigid condition of the pedal extremities, commonly called "cold feet."

"What!" you say, "impossible that America, the mother of the aeroplane and foster-mother of the automobile, should suffer from such a malady!"

Well, let's see. Of course, you, hot-blooded young would-be aviator, who have just spent your last two bits for a copy of this invaluable magazine, cannot understand such a condition, hut let's put it to the test. Drop in at your aero club or aeronautical society tonight, being careful to wear a wrist watch, propeller scarf pin or any other article that will indicate that you are a "bug." If your club is of the "common, or garden variety," there will probably be, among the assembled "enthusiasts," several men of means; maybe one or more millionaires. Do not "butt in" on any of the learned discussions on "centers of pressure" or "cyclonic swirls," but, biding your time, innocently ask one of the aforesaid gentlemen of means what style of plane he drives. Do not show your surprise when he tells you that he considers aeroplaning altogether too dangerous at the present time, but that he expects to "get into the game when aeroplanes are a little bit safer."

After having satisfied your curiosity by further questions, quietly slip out and blow yourself to a beer. While pensively sipping the same, you will begin to wonder why these gentlemen who take no active interest in aviation belong to aero clubs at all. Do not rush back to the club, but wait until to-morrow morning, buy a copy of the morning paper, read about the club meeting, observe the names that are mentioned and your question will be answered.

The second symptom that we notice is an extremely nervous condition of the trousers pocket. In other words, aviation, outside of the exhibition business, does not seem to be sufficiently profitable to attract the attention and interest of men of capital. They do not see in it a sufficient future, from a business point of view, to warrant their encouragement by offering prizes and inaugurating contests. As a sport—well, as a sport, aviation must rise to the high level of other sports in this country—automobile racing, for instance—and show substantial returns in the form of gate receipts, otherwise it may be neglected, lias anyone noticed any strenuous efforts being made in this country to build a machine that will give us a ghost of a show to win this year's Coupe Internationale <VAviationt

In fact, the interest shown was so slight that the elimination contests had to be dispensed with. Why? Surely not because our sportsmen and men of wealth have had to

WHAT IS THE MATTER WITH AMERICA?

spend too much for fizz water and furbelows at the coronation, doncherknow! Surely not because aviators and builders over here could not spare the time from exhibitions at county fairs to take part in this contest of pure sport! Oh, dear, no!

The third and probably most pronounced symptom seems to be a species of kleptomania. It is a known fact that America did not take hold of the automobile seriously until it had been developed in Europe, and then we appropriated what we needed. It is barely possible that the same high purpose has had some effect in producing the deplorable state of affairs that now obtains in this country with respect to aviation. Our army, or Congress, at least, seems to hold this view, for the opinion has frequently been expressed by high officials that it is advisable to wait and see what foreign nations do before "wasting money on aeroplanes." A very economical, if rather unsafe, policy, indeed; but suppose that we get caught napping sometime? Suppose that one of our diplomatic toes—the Monroe Doctrine, the Philippines, Panama—and they all have corns on them—gets badly trodden upon? What are we going to do? "Oh," you say, "we have Fifteen Thousand (capitals, please) soldiers down in Texas and—three aeroplanes!" Ahem! So we have! I had quite forgotten them for the moment.

Well, these are the symptoms. What shall the remedy be? What shall those who are genuinely interested in aeronautics do to put America abreast of the times? Surely the

relatively few recent disasters in Europe have not given us "cold feet"; neither are we such poor sportsmen that the almighty dollar will be allowed to overshadow this new sport! Then let's wake up and do something!

There are several dozen aero clubs in this country whose members number several thousand. These clubs have been formed for the advancement of aeronautics—at least their constitutions and by-laws say so. Cannot these clubs, working separately or together, organize cross country and inter-city flights with prizes sufficiently large to induce keen competition? Are we so poor or parsimonious that we can't get up fifty or a hundred thousand dollars in prizes for a race between New York and Chicago, New York and St. Louis, New York and Atlanta, New York and Washington, or even between New York and Atlantic City? Or, better still, a circuit including several large cities?

Tell us not in mournful numbers that the Summer and Fall are to pass without some big aviation event in America! Let our public-spirited citizens, backed by our public-spirited newspaper and aero clubs, get together and show the world that America is not "taking the count," aeronautically speaking, but intends to wear the championship belt again.

As the country woman said when she saw her husband hugging the hired girl, "Something must be did!"

R. E. SCOTT.

DETROIT CLUB'S MEMBERS TOURNAMENT

THE first aero club in America to take an active part in arousing interest among its members, is the Aero Club of Michigan, located at Detroit. In a most practical way this club took a definite step in advance when it obtained a Wright aeroplane for the use of its members during the three days of June 19-21, with Frank Coffyn as pilot. The machine has been purchased by a syndicate headed by Russell A. Alger, and two other combinations of the same nature are now organizing to purchase two other Wright machines for purely sporting purposes.

45 Plights Without Incident.

Mr. Coffyn made 45 flights, ranging from 21 to 5 minutes each, and took up 41 passengers. Many nationally prominent men and women had trips at this first club flying tournament, among whom were, naturally, Mr. and Mrs. Russell A. Alger, Mr. and Mrs. Fred M. Alger, S. D. Waldon, officer of the Packard Motor Co., Mary Mannering Wadsworth, her husband and their three children, aged 5, 12 and 15, and C. H. Taylor, a well-known automobile engineer. C. B. DuCharme, secretary of the club, E. W. Lewis, secretary of the Timken-Detroit Axle Co., R. D. Chapin, a famous automobile designer; Wm. 10. Metzger and Howard E. Coffyn, motor car manufacturers, were some of the others who enjoyed flights from the golf grounds of the Grosse Pointe Country Club. A most beautiful flight was made out over the lake in front of the club by Aviator Coffyn alone, a demonstration of the capabilities of the machine in spectacular Hying.

Offers were made some time ago by the Wright Company to various aero clubs throughout the land offering them the use of a Wright machine and the services of an aviator for the taking up of club members in the hope of arousing a greater interest among the people who have the means to buy aeroplanes for sporting purposes only, but outside of the Aero Club of Michigan not a single club took

advantage of the offer or saw its way clear to attempting anything similar under club auspices.

The aero clubs of the country, it is regrettable, though unnecessary, to mention, have been quite too fond of parlor aviation, and that condition still obtains. It is barely possible, however, that the experience of the Detroit club will result in a mild sort of enthusiasm here and there. Nothing very startling, however, may be looked for.

The congratulations of Aeronautics are extended to the Aero Club of Michigan and its members and guests who were privileged to

fly.

TESTS OF WOOD STRUTS

(Continuedfrom page 5) TABLE V.

. No. of

Material. Formula. Tests.

I

Whitewood .............. V — 1S.209 — 1

l2 I

Basswood .............. I" = 1G.S64 — 1

I2 I

Spruce.................. r = 12.S32 — 7

I2 I

Honduras mahogany...... P = 13,S4S — 3

I2 I

raranor ................. P = 20.350 — 3

l2 I

Walnut ................. r = 14,303 — 3

I2 I

Ash .................... V — 11,007 — 2

l2 I

Hickory ................ I' = 10,S04 — 3

12

HOW TO BUILD A CURTISS-TYPE BIPLANE

By G. H. Godlsy.

(.Continued from May number)

NOTE. An error has been noticed in I lie fl rawing oil page 101 of the March, 1911, number of a cross section of the struts. The front of the strut is marked 1 inch "radius." This should read 1 inch "diameter.''

However, as air is so unsubstantial an element, a propeller work in it has considerable "slip"; that is, it does not actually advance its full rated pitch at each turn, but only a more or less great per cent, of it. The better the propeller, the less the slip.

SOME advice on the selection of a motor was given in the first article, which appeared in the February number. It was there stated that any fairly light automobile motor which would actually develop 30-horsepower at 1,000 revolutions per minute would fly the machine, and that the total weight of the power plant should not exceed 400 pounds. Considerable weight may be saved on an automobile engine by removing the exhaust manifold and tne fly wheel, the propeller taking the place of the latter. A lightweight aeronautic radiator should be used in preference to the automobile type.

When placing the engine in position, it should be remembered that the complete machine, with operator on board, should balance on a point about 1% feet back of the front edge of the plane. As the operator and motor represent much the larger part of the total weight, the balance may easily be regulated by moving them forward or back slightly, as the case may require. Of course, the engine should be far enough back to let the propeller swing clear of the planes.

The installation of the engine should have no difficulties for anyone who has had experience in automobile work. The engine rests on the two engine beams, just as on the frame of an automobile; the propeller takes the place of the fly wheel. Just in front of the engine is the best place for the gasoline tank, which is often cylindrical in shape and should hold about ten gallons. A cigar-shaped motorcycle tank might be used, suspended from the upper plane. Be sure there is a fair amount of drop to the pine before it reaches the carburetor. In front of the tank is the radiator. The El Areo people make a twin radiator, each half being placed on either side of the operator to assist in cooling.

Controls can be arranged to suit the preferences of the operator. Usually the magneto or battery switch is on the steering column, just below the wheel; there may be also an additional one of the "knife" variety placed on the seat. The throttle and spark advance may be by pedals or by levers at the side of the seat. Another pedal should work a brake on the front wheel. The brake shoe is a strip of sheet steel, hinged or pivoted at one end to the front end of the skid, and pressed aeainst the wheel by a bamboo rod running direct to pedal. An emergency brake can also be made by loosely bolting a stout bar of steel on the skid near the rear end; one end of the bar is connected to a lever near the seat, so that when this lever is pulled back the other end of the bar is forced to dig into the ground.

DESIGNING THE PROPELLER. The propeller deserves careful consideration; it Is as important in an aeroplane as in a high speed boat. The terms used to describe aeroplane propellers are the same as those for boat propellers. The pitch is the distance the propeller theoretically forces the aeroplane ahead at each revolution. The propeller cuts through the air just as a screw cuts through wood. At each turn a screw advances the distances between adjacent threads, called the pitch. The pitch of a propeller is harder to measure, as the propeller blades are only narrow sectors of the complete screw thread; but it is still a ^ ery definite quantity.

The aeroplane should have a sneed of 35 to 40 miles an hour, at say, 1,200 revolutions; with these figures it is easy to work out the proper pitch for the propeller.

40x5,280x100 • . ,

60xl,200x 85=3/s approximately.

Explanation: 40 (miles an hour) times 5.2S0 (feet in one mile) divided by 60 (minutes in one hour) gives the speed of the aeroplane in feet per minute, dividing this by 1,200 (revolutions per minute) gives the number of feet advance for each revolution. The 100/85 allows for 15 per cent. slip. The result, for this particular case, is a pitch of about 3*4 feet. Forty miles an hour is the maximum speed to be expected; the number of revolutions of the engine should be that at which it works to the best advantage.

For a machine of this size and power the propeller should be 6 feet in diameter. There are a number of makes of propellers on the market, but as the prices average $50. many amateurs will prefer to make their own.

FINDING THE PITCH ANGLE.

Obviously a point near the tip of a propeller moves faster than a point nearer the hub—■ just as in rounding a curve, the outer wheel of an automobile goes farther than the inner wheel. Therefore, if these two parts of the blade are to advance through the air equally, the inner part must be set-at a greater angle than the outer "art.

Each part of the blade must be set at such an angle that at each revolution it will move forward through the air a distance equal to the pitch. The pitch divided by the circumference of the circle described by any part of the blade will give a quantity known as the "tangent" of an angle for that particular pari. The angle corresponding to that tangent can be found in a book of trigonometrical tables.

For example, take.that part of the blade of a 3 Mi-foot pitch propeller, which is 6 inches from the center of the hub.

3 y, x 1 2

I- -,„.=1.1141, tangent of 4S°5'

D X JlrM

Here, %xl2 reduces the pitch to inches; 6x2 Pi. <Pi=3.1416) is the circumference of the circle described by the point 6 inches from the center of the hub..

However, in order to give the propeller blade a grip on the air, it must be set at an angle slightly greater than these figures would indicate; that is, it is given an "angle of incidence," just like the main planes of the machine. This additional angle runs from 2°30' to 4°, depending on the speed at which that part of the blade travels; the greater the speed the less the angle.

Here is the complete set of figures for a blade of 3%-foot pitch, the angles being worked out for sections of the blade 3 inches

apart:

       

Pad.,

Tan-

Pitch

 

Final

ins.

gent.

angle.

Add.

angle.

6

1.1141

4S°5'

4S°

9

.7427

36°36'

37°

12

.5571

2 9 ° 7'

3°13'

32°20'

15

.1457

24° 1'

3°9'

27°10'

. IS

.3719

20°24'

3° 6'

23°30'

. 21.

.31S3

17°4(V

3°0'

20°40'

24

.27S5

15°40'

2°50'

1S°30'

27

.2476

13°54'

2°4fi'

16°10'

30

.2228

12°40'

2°45'

15°25'

33

.2025

11°27'

2°43'

14°10'

These angles are used in the accompanying drawing, showing one blade of the propeller and its cross-sections.

It should be understood that these calculations apply only to that type of propeller known as the "true" pilch, as distinguished from the "variable" pitch. The variable pitch nropeller has advantages when properly made, but there are only about three men in the Fnited States who know how to make them properly. Their design is a matter of personal skill and experience, hardly capable of .exnression in a formula.

The laminated blocks of wood from which the propeller is carved is built up of eight boards, four of them of spruce y?-inch thick, and four of maple 14-inch thick, other woods are frequently used.

Spruce is the strongest wood known in proportion of its weight, but is soft and cracks easily. Maple is tough and hard;.the two outer layers make a good backing for tne steel Manges at the hub. and the rear layer extends the full length of the thin rear edges of the blades.

The boards should be 6 inches wide and 6 feet 1 inch long. They must be glued together with great care. The glue must be of even consistency and smoothly applied, and the boards must then be clamped under great pressure to a solid block of wood, so that they cannot assume a curve. For this purpose the rib press described in a former issue will come in

handy. The blocks are laid together and used as a base, and the boards clamped down on top of them. After the glue is thoroughly dried the laminated block may be cut out to the outline of the propeller on a power saw.

ACCURACY BY USE OF TEMPLATES.

The rest of the work must be done by hand, with spokeshave, plane and gouge. For finishing, pieces of broken glass ^re often used to scrape the wood to a smooth surface, followed by sandpaper. Templates should be made from the drawings to use in finishing the work accurately. Draw the sections out full size on sheets of cardboard or tin and cut out along the curves, finally dividing the sheet into two parts, one for the upper side and one for the lower side. Care should be. taken to get the sides of the templates square, and when the templates are used the propeller should be laid 011 a perfectly flat and true block. Each template should be carefully marked to indicate what part of the blade it fits.

The hub should be of the same diameter as the flange on the engine crank shaft to which the fly wheel was bolted, and should have its bolt holes drilled to correspond. In case the fly wheel of the engine is keyed to the shaft, some other expedient must be found. It may be possible to cut out the hub of the fly wheel and bolt the propeller to its web or spokes.

The drawing shows the rear (concave) side of the propeller. From the viewpoint of a man standing in its wind and facing forward, it turns to the left, or anti-clockwise. On many of the propellers on the market the curved edges goes first; this type may have advantages, but the straight front edge is easier for the amateur to make.

The engine is started by swinging the propeller, and this is an operation requiring far more caution than ordinary cranking. The man who is doing the cranking should be careful to keep both hands on the same blade and always to pull the blades downward—never upward. With the switch off, first turn the propeller over several times to fill the cylinders with gas, leaving it just ahead of dead center of one of the cylinders and with one blade extending upward and to the left at about 45°. After the switch has been put on, take the left blade with both hands and swing it downward, getting out of the way of the following blade as quickly as possible with dual or battery ignition alone it is possible to start by merely "cranking" and then closing the switch.

TESTING FOR SPEED AND THRUST.

The first tiling to be done after the propeller is finished and mounted on the engine is to test the combination for speed and thrust. From these two quantities can be figured the power that the engine is delivering. The instruments necessary are a spring balance that will read to 300 pounds or over; a revolution counter, such as may be had for a dollar or so, and a watch. One end of the spring balance is fastened to the front end of the skid and the other to a stake firmly driven in the ground a couple of feet back. The wheels should be set on boards so that they will not offer any resistance to the forward thrust. When the engine is started the spring balance will show the forward thrust of the propeller.

At the same time the thrust is being read another man should be counting the number of revolutions the engine is turning per minute. A small hole should have previously been countersunk in the center of the propeller hub, to receive the rubber lip of the revolution counter. The observer stands behind the propeller, watch 'in one hand and wiili the other firmly pressing the counter again*! the propeller.

The horsepower delivered is tigured as follows assuming for the example a thrust of >M pounds at l,»00 revolut ions:

>:>0 x 1.200 x;ii x 100

3:5,000 x s.j ' '

As before I he 100/8.) makes allowance for I he slip of the propeller. The ;1:1.00( is the number of foot-pounds per minute equal to one horsepower, and the 3-V is the pitch of the propeller.

AERONAUTICS My, ich

FLOCK OF BIRDMEN CIRCLE EUROPE

900 MILES FOR $90,000.

AS the magazine goes to press more than a dozen daring men are speeding against ktime around a 917-mile circuit over the whole of Europe in the biggest of the five wonderful cross-country contests that have been held this year from France and Germany.

Imagine fifty actual starters, leaving one after the other like homing pigeons, biplanes and monoplanes, piloted by the world's best flyers, on a tour comparable to an automobile road race from New York to Chicago, with "controls" at various points along the way!

There are nine stages to the circuit, besides a number of compulsory stops, as follows: Paris-Liege, Belgium, 212 miles. Biege-Spa-Biege, 37% miles. Spa-Utrecht, Holland, 112% miles. Utrecht-Brussels, Belgium, 93% miles. Brussels-Roubaix, France, 56 V4 miles. Roubaix-Calai-s, France, 62% miles. Calais-Bondon, England, 93 V-i miles. Bondon-Calais, 93% miles. Calais to Paris, 156% miles. The total of prizes in the race, organized by the Paris Journal, London Standard and Brussels Petit Bleu, and for which these papers offer munificent prizes, as well as do municipalities along the route, is more than $91,000.

On June IS the race started and seven reached Liege the same day, despite the furious winds. Many dropped by the wayside to come on later or to return disconsolate to that dear Paris. Eleven arrived the following day.

On the 21st fifteen flew the Spa-Liege stage and seven got to Utrecht on the next day, where they rested and made exhibition flights until the 26th, when they started for Brussels, where seven arrived safely by the time the control closed. The best time was made by Naval Lieut. Jean Conneau (Bleriot), 37 hours, 21 minutes. This is not the actual time, but the elapsed time figured, since the official start and considering the controls.

Fatalities Mark the Start.

Three fatalities and a number of other aviators were injured the first day in landing at various points.

THE DEAD.

CAPTAIN' l'HINCKTAU — Planes caught fire just as he got in the air. Before he could unstrap himself he was burned and fell d< ad to the ground. He was one of 12 officers in the race.

THEODORE BE MARTIN—Fell in the high wind at the very start and dropped in a clump of trees. The steering gear of his • Bleriot was blamed.

LANDRON—His Pischoff machine caught firo in the air and the gasoline tank exploded. Enveloped in flames, the aviator jumped and was burned to death on the ground below.

MANY OTHER AVIATORS KILLED.

HAVANA, Cuba, June 5.—Marcel Penot died of injuries received in making a landing with his Curtiss-copy biplane at San Antonio de los Banos, near Havana, a few days before. He apparently was gliding all right, but the machine struck on the front elevator and one of Penot's ribs punctured his lung. Only the front outriggers and elevator were broken. He was filling an exhibition contract for P. Brauner & Company. Louis Rosenbaum took his place after repairing the machine. The Hall-Scott engine was not damaged.

JOHANNISTHAL, Germany, June 9.—Georg Schendel and his passenger, Chief Mechanic Voss, of the Dorner factory, were killed by losing control, consensus of opinion by experts states, of the Dorner monoplane in a high wind while up after the 2-man altitude record. His barograph showed he had broken the record with 5.S00 feet.

ST. PETERSBURG, May 17.—An aviator named Vladimir Smith died in a hospital from injuries received in a fall from a height of 120 feet in giving an exhibition with a Sommer biplane.

VOGHERA, Italy, May 2S.—Ciro Cirri, an Italian aviator, died from injuries received during a flight.

STRASBURG, Germany, May 23. — Carl Laemmlin was killed by falling from his aeroplane when it hit the tree tops after he made a turn over the crowd to avoid another machine.

ROME, Italy, June 8.—Marra was killed by striking a high power electric wire in making a turn and was killed by shock, one report has it. Another is to the effect that a strong wind overturned the machine.

WIENER - NEUSTADT, Austria. — Vincenz Wiesenbach was killed by his own built monoplane, which doubled up at a height of 50 feet.

NICE, France, June 5.—Lieut. Bague, the French aviator, who holds the over-sea flight record, left Nice on a flight to Corsica. No news has ever been received of the airman, and it is feared that he may have fallen into the sea.

Torpedo boats have been sent out from Nice and Corsica to search for him. The distance from the French mainland to the island of Corsica is about 130 miles.

He expected to continue from here and fly across the Mediterranean to Tunis.

1,166-MILE GERMAN CIRCUIT.

An aeroplane race, 1,166 miles, around Germany for $25,000 prize, offered by a Berlin newspaper, and other prizes aggregating $106,250, was interesting enough to have 25 entries.

Seven actually started on June 11 from Berlin, five of which carried passengers.

Lindpaintner (Farman) was only one to get through the first stage, to Magdeburg, 140 kil., in 2 h., 11 m., the same day, though the second and third days saw two more reach here.

The following day four more started from Berlin, all with passengers, and these reached Magdeburg. One man who started on the 11th got to Magdeburg on the I2th, though not in time to start with the four. Another got there on the 13th.

On the 13th five left for Schwerin, all of whom reached this place, IS2 kil.

The remaining stages were to Hamburg (120 kil.), Kiel (HO kil.), Lüneburg (153 kil), Hanover (115 kil.), Munster (ISO kil.), Cologne (16S kil.), Dortmund (140 kil.), Cassel (153 kil.), Nordhausen (102 kil.), Halberstadt (112 kil.), back to Berlin (203 kil.).

Various stops of several days having intervened at each place, in June 26 six aviators left Hanover for Munster, though two of these only have made all the scheduled flights, each stage to this point having totaled 396 miles.

If some aero club should get up a race like this in America the surprise would be so great that a large number would succumb to the shock.

NINE HUNDRED MILES IN POUR DAYS.

The Paris-Rome-Turin Race.

This race was organized by the "Petit Parisien," of Paris, and was for prizes amounting to $100,000. The aviators were permitted to land as often as they pleased, they having from May 2S to .lune 15 in which to cover the distance of 1,300 miles. The race was in three stages, the first from Paris to Nice being a distance of 53S miles with recording stations established at Dijon, Lyons and Avignon. The second stage, Nice to Rome, was 372 miles, the recording stations being at Genoa and Pisa, In the last stage the aviators expected to retrace part of their course and reach Turin by way of Florence and Bologna, the distance of this stage being 391 miles.

Of the twenty-one entrants only twelve faced the line. Vedrines, the winner of the Paris-Madrid race, had not returned in time for the start.

The Race.

The first stage of the race began at 6 A. M. on the morning of Sunday, Way 28, when Garros (Bleriot, 50 Gnome) crossed the line closely followed by Lieut. Conneau (Bleriot, 50 Gnome). Lieut. Conneau flew under the name of Beaumont in the Paris-Madrid race. They were followed in the following order by the other ten starters: Vidart, (Deperdus-sin, 50 Gnome); Kimmerling, (Sommer, 50 Gnome); Manissero, (Bleriot, 50 Gnome); Frey, (Moräne, 50 Gnome); Weymann, (Nieuport, 70 Gnome); Level, (Savary, 70 Labor); Gaget, (Morane, 50 Gnome); Bathait (Sommer, 50 Gnome); Bielovucic, (Voisin, 70 Gnome) and Molla, (Sommer, 50 Gnome).

Lieut. Conneau and Garros alternated in the lead all the way. They were the only ones to reach Avignon the first day, Conneau taking 12 hrs, 43 min., 51 sec. and Garros 13 hr., 38 min., 32 sec.

Of the twelve starters four reached Nice (538 miles), the rest abandoning the race as the results of accidents. Lieut. Conneau was first in 37 hr., 19 min., 51 sec; Garros second in 37 hr., 57 min., 50 sec; Frey third in 50 hr., 2 min., 19 sec, and Vidart fourth in 76 hr., 9 min., 36 sec. Only Conneau and Garros arrived the following day, the 29th. The other two followed later.

Lieut. Conneau increased his lead in the stage from Nice to Rome (372 miles), arriving there May 31, after changing his motor. His total time was 82 hr., 5 min.; Garros was second, 106 hr., 16 min.; Frey third, 132 hr., 41 min.; and Vidart fourth in 171 hr., 13 min.

Bad weather kept the aviators in Borne for some time; finally Frey started out on Monday morning, June 12, but returned on account of the fog. The next day he started again in spite of warnings. After landing at Castiglione to inquire his way, he was not heard of for some time until he was found in the woods where he had fallen, near Ronciglione. Both his arms and legs were broken. The other aviators were forced to abandon the idea of completing the circuit.

FLIES 80 MILES AN HOUR.

Gordon Bennett Entries.

Flying in the French elimination trials to select the Gordon Bennett team, Alfred Leblanc, with a 100-h.p. Bleriot, called the "Bleriot 23," beat all speed records up to 150 kiloms. Five kiloms. were covered in 2 min., 24 sec, a speed of 125 k.p.h., the speed record for the world. This was on June 12, at Etampes.

Maximotor makers, Detroit, have tripled their capacity in the last two months and are putting on more men every week. Their present program calls for the building of 300 motors this season.

They are now specializing on their 40-50-h.p. 4-cylinder, 5-in. bore by 5-in. stroke, and their 60-75-h.p., 6-cylinder, 5-in. bore by 5-in. stroke.

Their present quarters are too small for the work, in spite of the fact that they have given up building marine speed engines to devotc4| themselves to aerial motors. Plans are now being arranged for the building of a new factory. -

While Louisville may not be the actual center of the aeroplane manufacturing industry in the United States, it by no means is on the extreme outer rim, for already the enterprising young firm of R. O. Rubel, Jr., & Co., scarcely three years old, has had to enlarge its quarters, to accommodate the rapidly increasing business that is coming Its way. This firm, which has been manufacturing aeroplanes and aeronautical supplies since its birth, has just leased another three-story building two doors north of Its present location which will be used exclusively for the assembling of aeroplanes.

The supporting surface totals but 9 sq. meters; weight ready to fly, 315 kilos.; spread, 9 meters. The propeller is 2.3 meters pitch by 2.5 meters diam., turning at 1,100.

The new records are as follows:

5 kiloms............ 2 m. 24 s.

10 kiloms............ 4 m. 51 s.

20 kiloms............ 9 m. 46.2 s.

30 kiloms............ 14 m. 42 s.

40 kiloms. . .'......... 19 m. 37 s.

50 kiloms............ 24 m. 30.8 s.

100 kiloms............ 4S m. 5S.2 s.

150 kiloms............1 h. 13 in. 35 s.

Fastest speed, 125 k.p.h. [77.6 m.p.h.]

It is expected that there will be thirteen aeroplanes in the Gordon Bennett aviation race to be held July 1 at Eastehurch, on the Isle of Sheppey. These are as follows: France—■

Alfred Leblanc (100-h.p. Bleriot).

E. Nieuport (70-h.p. Nieuport).

L. Chevalier (70-h.p. Nieuport).

Emile Aubrun is substitute with a Deper-dussin. Nieuport, on June 16, flew a distance of 145 kilometers at the rate of 80 miles an hour. Leblanc's best speed in the 1910 Gordon Bennett was 67.8 m.p.h.

Germany—The names of the German entries have not been given out. Lindpaintner is possibly the best man, and he has been flying a Sommer monoplane, as well as Farman biplanes. England—■

Alec Ogilvie (30-h.p. "Baby" Wright).

G. Hamel (100-h.p. Bleriot).

A third representative is to be named yet.

Austria—But one man has been selected out of the three, Yosef Flesch.

New 2-Man Record.

On June 12 Nieuport, and a friend, beat his own world's passenger speed records at Chalons, as follows:

5 kil................ 2 m. 52.S s.

10 kil................ 5 m. 44.8 s.

20 kil................ 11 m. 23.2 s.

30 kil................ 17 m. 2.4 s.

40 kil................ 22 m. 35.S s.

50 kil................ 2S m. 9.S s.

100 kil................1 h. 6 m. 47.S s.

150 kil................1 h. 2S m. 24.S s.

Fastest speed, 10S k.p.h. [67 m.p.h.] New 2-Man Altitude Record.

Helmut Hirth, in a Rumpler-Etrich monoplane, established on June 6 the new 2-man world altitude record of 1,600 meters. This is the third time he has made a world passenger height record. His machine has a Bosch-equipped Daimler motor of 65 horsepower, 4 cylinders, vertically arranged.

The new addition increases their floor space to more than 20,000 square feet, all of which is badly needed, as orders are coming in rapidly for their machine, the Gray Eagle.

This firm also lately has leased a smooth tract of land embracing 93 acres for an aviation camp. Three purchasers of Gray Eagle biplanes are now being taught to operate their machines there and several other builders of aeroplanes are expecting to bring their craft for trials at an early date.

Everything from a nut to a complete power plant, or a complete machine, is listed in the catalogue of the E. J. Willis Co., S5 Chambers street. New York. This was the first eastern concern to carry a line of aeronautical supplies, to which they have kept adding as the state of the art advanced, so that now they are in a position to fill orders for anything one could imagine in their line.

That this has been no little task is well understood by those who have followed the rapid progress in the art of aviation closely. To those who have not, it will be a revelation to see this progress so clearly indicated as it is in this catalogue.

AERO CLUB HAS OWN HOME.

Aero Club of America—The formal opening of the new Aero Club of America's home occurred on June 14, attended by more than 100 members and guests.

This was the first occasion that most of the members had had to see the new clubhouse, and it was very seriously inspected from cellar to garret. A collation was served, and there was music by an orchestra. In the absence of the president and first vice-president of the club, Dave Hennen Morris, second vice-president, acted as toastmaster and called upon T. O. M. Sopwith, Clifford \i. Harmon, Thomas A. Hill, James K. Duffy and Alan R. Hawley to reply. Everyone, including the speechmakers, made public acknowledgment and complimented highly the committee which has certainly labored very industriously in outfitting the club. The success of the committee was due to no small extent to the strenuous efforts of James A. Blair, Jr., who, on this evening, turned over the building to the club.

This is the only aero club, so far as known, which has an entire clubhouse of its own. It was recently realized that to a large extent the future success of the club depended upon having suitable quarters, and a number interested themselves actively in looking around for the right kind of a building. A private house at 297 Madison avenue, corner of Forty-first street, owned by a wealthy New York man, was leased for a period of two years. Little change was necessary, principally in the furnishings. The house shows a lavish display on the part of the original owner in the

way of elaborate wood mantels, carved leather wall hangings, stained-glass windows and chandeliers. On the first floor is the grillroom and main reception hall. Here it is possible to have simple meals, and members can arrange dinner parties. Out-of-town visitors may secure lodging. On the second floor is found the reading room, library and secretary's office. On the floors above are card, lounging rooms and bedrooms.

The Intercolleg-iate Aeronautical Association cf America has been incorporated with George Atwell Richardson, University of Pennsylvania, nresident; Cyrus McCormiek, Princeton; R. N. Bird, University of Virginia; Elmer Rae, Cornell; Prof. David Todd, Amherst; James R. McConnell, James K. Duffy and Fred J. Dollinger.

The Nashville Aero Club has been organized at Nashville, Tenn., with Charles H. Dezevallos as president. It conducted an exhibition by Curtiss aviators on April 27-29.

The Aero Club of California has appointed the following standing committees through its president, George B. Harrison, for the ensuing 12 months:

Membership—Raymond I. Blakeslee, Los Angeles; E. Roger Stearns, Los Angeles; Ed. R. Maier, Los Angeles; Leon Eseallier, Los Angeles; William Stevens, Los Angeles: Glenn L. Martin, Santa Ana; Frank T. Searight, San Diego; E. H. Earle, Pomona; James R. Ricketts, Long Beach; Harvey H. Hinde, Riverside; Louis Mortimer, Los Angeles; James R. Townsend, Los Angeles, and E. J. Campbell, Pasadena.

House—Charles F. Walsh, M. C. Tunison, Mrs. H. La V. Twining, R. S. Stratton and Charles Forman.

Entertainment—L. P. Barrett, Earle Remington, C. H. Temple, L. K. Freeman and F. G. Calkins.

Technical and Contest—H. La V. Twining, H. S. Dosh, W. S. Eaton, Charles Rilliet and Buel H. Green.

Financial and Auditing—.1. J. Slavin, W. H. Leonard, M. H. Gallagher, Chas. Skoglund.

Investigating—R. C. Hamlin, C. H. Dav, W. B. Cannon, W. H. B. Kilner, Alfred Solano.

Member National Council of Aero Clubs of America—Earle Remington; alternate member, Ernest L. Jones.

Xew York Representative Committee—E. L. Jones, T. A. Hill and F. 10. Moskovics.

Foreign Representatives—London, R. J. II. Hope; Paris, Louis Paulhan.

The Illinois Aeroplane Club, 2852 North Clark street, Chicago, is endeavoring to sell a $1.00 stock certificate to 50,000 lllinoisans for the purpose of building a dirigible balloon.

The Aeronautical Society's annual election, which should have been held in April, and which was somewhat belated owing to the amount of work required in the preparation of the banquet, took place on June 8 at the club rooms, 250 West Fifty-fourth street, Xew York. The following officers and directors were elected through the votes cast by those present, there having been no proxies used;

President, Willis .AleCornick; past presidents, Lee S .Burridge and Hudson Maxim; vice-presidents, Thomas A. Hill, .lames M. Beck, Dr. John Henrv McCrackcn, Roger B. Whitman. Capt. W. I. Chambers; Board of Directors. Willis Jlo-Cornick, Lieut. F. W. Humphries, Senator J. F. Duhamel, Col. E. A. Havers. Geo. F. Cairmbell Wood, Francis T. Sanford, Carlos deZafra,

Thomas A. Hill, Hiram P. Maxim, James M. Beck, Capt. Thos. S. Baldwin, John H. Mccracken, Lee S. Burridge, Hudson Maxim, Roger B. Whitman, Arnold Kruckman, W. Irving Twombly, William J. Hammer, Hugo C. Gibson, Bonis R. Adams, C. Wesley Howell, Geo. S. Bradt, Wilbur R. Kimball, H. A. Wise Wood, Capt. W. I. Chambers: treasurer, Geo. S. Bradt; general secretary, Arnold Kruckman; recording secretary. Raymond Beck; technical board, Hugo C. Gibson, chairman; William J. Hammer, Prof. A. Lawrence Rotch, Prof. Dwight W. Hering, Prof. David Todd, A. Leo Stevens, Earl Atkinson, W. L. Fairchild, Prof. John J. Montgomery, Greely S. Curtis, Capt. W. I. Chambers, Prof. Herschel C. Parker, J. Bernard Walker, M. B. Sellers, W. Irving Twombly, Carlos de Zafra, Ernest V. Lallier, Prof. C. P. Bliss, Prof. D. L. Gallup, Prof. Wm. Ilallock, Wilbur R. Kimball, Lewis R. Compton, Harry R. Burt, Earle L. Ovington.

Many committees were also elected.

The plan of voting for members of committees was done with a view of putting some responsibility on these various committees and particularly the chairmen, and was intended as a recommendation for the coming president, who duly confirmed all the committees at a following meeting on June 15, when a meeting of the new directorate was held and new plans of activity were formulated, and the committees are now meeting to make recommendations in every department so as to increase the usefulness of the organization.

While the election was going on, Col. E. A. Havers, the noted lecturer, gave the most enlivening talk on his impressions of the possibilities of the art and described a fanciful trip to Europe in a vivid manner.

Mr. Thomas A. Hill moved the following resolutions concerning the bill going through the Legislature at Albany, which were adopted. The bill provides for the establishment of a State "Aviation License Board":

Whereas, Many serious accidents from flying machines can be prevented if badly constructed machines are not permitted to be flown and if incompetent persons are prevented from Hying machines in public places, and

Whereas, Those attending aeronautical meets, exhibitions, shows or contests will have better protection if due provision is made for proper safeguards,

Therefore be it resolved. That the bill before the New York State Legislature entitled "An act to amend the State Boards and Commissions Baw, in relation to establishing an Aviation Bicense Board" is fop the best interests of the science of aeronautics and is essential for safeguarding life and property within this State, and

Be it further resolved, That the Secretary of the Aeronautical Society forthwith

send a copy of these resolutions to the members of the Senate and Assembly of the State of New York. At the regular meeting of the society, June 22 (general meetings being held on the second and fourth Thursday of each month), a small attendance was present owing to the heavy storm. Mr. John B. Maus, of the Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., spoke of the advisability of the members using extreme care in the selection of their cloth and the danger of what could happen should it shrink or stretch with dampness as some cloth does, and the great care used at their factory to make all the manufactured product impervious to weather changes. A great deal of money was being spent to make their cloth now fireproof, which was the next great desideratum in view of thb recent unfortunate accidents in France in which the aviators lost their lives through the planes catching fire. Mr. Maus also referred to the president of the company, Mr. Seiberling, who was magnanimously financing a new expedition of Mr. Melvin Vaniman to cross the Atlantic this fall in a dirigible airship to be built on new lines from the "America," which failed last year. This would cost from $150,000 to $250,000, and was to be expended by Mr. Seiberling purely through public spirit to keep the United States in the fore of world aeronautic efforts.

Mr. Wilson S. Howell, Jr., Mr. J. Marschucci, and Mr. William File each described new inventions of their own, illustrated by working models, which were examined with much care and interest.

Mr. Hugo C. Gibson related his experiences in hydroplaning at the Polytechnic Institute in 'Worcester, Mass., where a rotating boom is employed to test propellers through electric current, and his experiments were made in a flat bottom dory attached to the end of the boom which he was carried at the rate of 40 miles an hour, and could lean to one side to have the boat skim over the water very successfully till he was Anally thrown unceremoniously into the water.

Detroit Club Has Plights.

The Aero Club of Michigan is active in Detroit. Frank Coffyn was here June 19-21 and made 45 flights, on 41 of which passengers were carried. Among these were many club members and their wives and female friends. On the 23 Augustus Post lectured before the club. Beo Stevens will be on hand July 20 for some balloon trips. From June 29 to July 5 an aviation meet is to be held for prizes in the neighborhood of $25,000. This club is the first to arrange aeroplane flights for members in this country.

The Aero Club of California at its annual meeting elected the following: President, Geo. B. Harrison; first vice-president, B. P. Barrettj second vice-president, H. S. Dosh; secretary, Van M. Griffith; treasurer. II. BaV. Twining; directors, Chas. E. Rilliet, W. S. Eaton.

NATIONAL BALLOON RACE.

Seven balloons are expected to be in the race July 10 to select the Gordon Bennett balloon team. The last two are still but tenative entries.

Kansas City Aero Club—"Kansas City," II. E. Honeywell, pilot.

--—"Million Population Club," with John

Berry, pilot, and Paul McCullough.

--"Buckeye," J. II. Wade, Jr.

Aero Club of St. Louis—"St. Louis IV," Lieut, F P. Lahm, pilot, and Lieut. J. P. Hart.

Aero Club of St. Louis—"Miss Sophia," Wm. F. Assmanii.

Aero Club, of America—"New York," Clifford B. Harmon.

Western Aero Association—"Topeka II," by a Mr, Jacobs.

The German entrants in the Gordon Bennett balloon race have been selected by an elimination race, as follows: Hans Gericke, Lieut. Vogt and Baron de Polt. The two former were contestants in 1910.

The American Aeroplane Supply House, 2G6 Franklin street, Hempstead, B. I., has just completed a duplicate of the 1911 cross-country Bleriot 70, similar to the one Earle B. Ovington has been flying. This duplicate is for William Ilaupl, who has been flying the Wana-maker Bleriot XI, and a Roberts motor has been installed. A two-seated machine is also being built, with the same engine, for J. Albert Brackett, of Boston, and a one-seater for A. C. Mengis, of Memphis. This will have a Gnome 70 engine. The concern now has facilities for turning out a machine a week in the new quarters.

Assembling" Eoom of Calif. Aero Mfg. ana Snpply Co.

New Pedersen Lubricator.

The accompanying drawing shows a new multiple feed rotary pump lubricator brought out by the Pedersen Lubricator Co., 644 First avenue, New York. A novel feature of this lubricator is its extreme simplicity. Another feature is that it allows for a wide range of attachment to a motor.

This pump comprises a casing and cover, the casing having a cylindrical end bore with inlet and discharge openings. Within the casing there is a rotating shaft, with head and stem fitting the bore of same, and with the end of the head wearing against the under surface of the cover. This head is recessed in its outer face and transversely slotted, with a sliding piston fitting in same, this piston being also recessed, forming at one end a head and at the middle a pin or stud. Fastened in and projecting from the under side of the cover are one or more studs, according to the number of feeds required. Equally spaced between the fixed studs in the cover and passing through same are adjusting screws having tapered ends. These act upon the neck

of the piston, which is of a corresponding taper. This action takes place when the piston is in line with the outlet port. The amount of discharge can be varied by means of the taper ended screw, as when same is at its extreme inward position it gives the piston its greatest movement, consequently discharging more oil. and vice versa when at its outward position.

In the face of the casing is a circular recess having openings leading to the circular bore, forming inlet or suction ports. Equally spaced between these are the discharge ports, communicating direct from the bore to the outlet connections. The operation of the pump is as follows: Ily rotating the shaft the piston is given a transverse movement opposite the inlet port. This draws in the oil which is confined between the casing and the piston until opposite the outlet, when the piston is again acted upon by the tapered screw and the oil discharged.

The Brooke "Non-Gyro" Motor.

The principal feature of the Brooke "non-gyro" motor, as manufactured by the Brooke-Kuhnert Company, 320 South Wabash avenue, Chicago, 111., is the absence of any gyroscopic effect. This effect is claimed by the builders of this engine to be a very serious menace to the safety of aviators. In the Brooke motor

Brooke Motor on Testing Frame.

this force has been entirely eliminated, the motor may be sustained by a single chain and operated at top speed, and may be turned in any direction by a slight touch of the finger. The style "E" motor, which sells for $2,500, is

No Vibration Can be Noticed.

of 10 cylinders arranged in two sets of fives, which may be run either independently or together. The cylinders, which are 414 by 4l/J bore and stroke, are offset slightly. The makers' rating is 75-85 II.P. The feature of operating either one or both sections is very desirable in long cross-country flights, as, in case of acci-

dent to one set, the other can be easily and quickly brought Into action. The lubrication is positive, a nine-tube forced feed oiler being ised. Two Stromberg carburettors are used, one for each unit. Bearings are of phosph or bronze, of liberal proportions. The intake valve is situated in the piston head, the exhaust head being in the cylinder head. The cylinders are air cooled, as is usual with all rotary engines. There are no springs in operation to weaken or break. This should be an advantageous point, as the best of springs will break. There are a set of light springs employed to hold the valves in place while the motor is at rest, but these are not necessary when it is running. A Bosch 2-cylinder magneto is used with only 12 inches of high-tensioned cable in the entire motor, there being no contact between the stationary and revolving parts. This makes a very simple and positive electric system, which is a point that will be appreciated by all who have had trouble with complicated wiring systems.

The G & A. Carburettor.

The great object in the design of carburettors is to obtain a perfect mixture at all engine speeds under all atmospheric conditions. That this is hard of attainment can readily be seen by the number of carburettors on the market. Most of them require more or less complicated adjustments for difference in altitude as well as for differences in atmospheric conditions.

Hot Water Jacket . to Insure Even.Proper Temperature Hot Water Outlet Hot Water Inlet

Gas Enters at.. Passes Needle Valve B Then Up Through Spray Nozzle O

Into theVenluri Tube D1 " ^ >

Where ¡1 is Picked Up by the InrusbinS Air From the Main Air Take E"* 1 The Mixture of Air and Gas Then Passes Through the Upper J End of the Venturi Tube Into the Mixing Chamber T* y

Grouvelle and Argnembourg have spent 25 years in the study of the problem of obtaining a carburettor which would positively make all the changes for different conditions automatically. The result of this labor is shown in the present G & A carburettor. This is made so there are no adjustments for the operator to make. Every carburettor is fitted to its particular engine, and is so calculated that it will deliver the proper mixture to the engine at all times. The three features of construction which enable the G & A carburettor to perform these functions are, first, the location of the spray nozzle in the Venturi tube. The second point is the uniform temperature maintained in the mixing chamber, resulting In the supplying of the mixture at the right temperature. The third feature is

the use of a cage of balls of varying sizes and weights to automatically regulate the auxiliary air intake. It is this feature that allows the carburettor to meet all the varying conditions of temperature, moisture and speed. That these carburettors do meet all requirements is shown by their employment by Panhard. Le-vassor, Delauney-Belleville, Otto Gas Engine Company, Humber, of England, and other well-known automobile firms. They are also fitted to the Clement-Bayard engine, the well-known Anzani, the Gnome and other aeronautical engines.

R. O. Rubel, Jr., & Co., importers, jobbers and makers, of Louisville, Ky., have put out a catalogue which can be studied with profit by those who are contemplating the construction of a machine. In it are listed not only the usual assortment of parts and accessories, hut a large line of motors, including their own make, "Gray Eagle." Sets of complete parts for machines are listed for those who wish to build their own 'plane. These parts are cut out and semi-finished and are accompanied with complete sets of blue prints, thus enabling the novice to do the work himself and save the greatest item of expense.

The ten cents asked for this catalogue will be well expended, as there are a great number of cuts and line drawings which give a much better idea of the articles than mere description.

The new six-cylinder Kirkham motor is being used with success by Aviator Howard LeVan in the Chas. J. Strobel's biplane. The motor used in this 'plane is the very first one of the new Kirkham motors to be built, ard Strobel lias placed his order for two more, to be delivered just as soon as possible.

Chas. B. Kirkham is now located in a new plant at Savona, N. Y.. where a large force is working day and night and the size of the factory is being increased.

Many sales have been made of the new Roberts engine to the International Aeroplane Mfg. Co., of Chicago; Aeronautic Supply Co., of St. Louis; J. N. Sparling, of E. St. Louis, and John C. Kirby. of Houston, Tex., all for Curtiss-type machines. There was one sold in Chicago which has already been installed and flown a machine.

The International Aeroplane Mfg. Company is conducting a school of aviation at 2025 Michigan avenue, Chicago. L. M. Driver is instructor on construction. Associated with him is S. D. Dixon. Lester W. Bratton is their mechanical engineer. S. D. Dixon has been making successful flights with one of their aeroplanes in which they have one of the Roberts motors. They speak very highly of the motor and say that it will do even more than the Roberts Co. claim for it.

The Bosch Magneto Co. has added to its facilities by taking the building at 154 West 54th street, New York, for use as a garage and for its publicity office. Mr. Alfred H. Bartsch, advertising manager, is now located at the new address.

It is possible that C. F. Willard will attempt a new American duration record for the purpose of testing out the new "Gyro" motor made by the Gyro Motor Co., 774 Girard street, Washington, D. C. He has been to Washington to inspect the engine and just as soon as one or two arrangements are made it is probable that he will make the attempt.

W. .1. Jackman, author of the hook, "Flying Machines," has withdrawn his connection from the Chicago School of Aviation. His address at present is 633 Plvmouth Court, Chicago, 111.

NOTICES

ENGINES FOR SALE.

ENGINE FOR SALE—A. Harriman, 30-1I.P. engine; Eisemann magneto; late model; bargain at $400. Address Harriman, care AERONAUTICS.

RINEK ENGINE FOR SALE—A Rinek 8-cylinder engine, 1010 model; just completely overhauled by factorj'; in perfect condition; complete with El Arco radiator, magneto and gasoline tanks; $600. Address Rinek, care AERONAUTICS.

FOR SALE—One 50-H.P., J-cylinder, 4-cycIe, Harriman engine. We bought this engine for a monoplane, hut the plane was a failure and was never completed, the reason we are selling. Harriman Co. is selling this engine for $1,650; our price with propeller, $700. LeBron Adams Aeroplane Co., Omaha, Nebr.

FOR SALE—50-h.p. H. F. or Harriman aviation engine; new; $500. This is the same size engine that the Harriman Motor Works are charging $1,675 for. Address "Box 3, Girard, Kans." TF

Aeroplanes for Sale.

AMATEUR AIRMEN— Full size monoplane ready for power; $75 one-passenger; fine flyer; 2-cent stamp for particulars; send now. E. C. Minert Aero Co., 1122 W. Locust St., Davenport, la.

FOR SALE—Hydro-aeroplane, guaranteed to fly from land or water; the finest construction of any machine in the world. Intending purchasers must call in person or send representative, and will teach you to fly from water first, as it is the only safe method. We only have one machine for delivery. You had better telegraph me you are coming. The price is $5,000 complete, with Emerson 4-cyl.. 2-cycle motor. The Brown Aeroplane Co., 3SI3 Roland Ave., Baltimore, Md.

Aeroplanes Wanted.

BIPLANE, new or second-hand: send description and best price; with or without engine. Breeze, care AERONAUTICS.

Capital Wanted.

MONOPLANE—Experienced man wants $3,500 to build machine in quiet way; $10.000 can be made this season: exceptional machine; endorsed bv leading engineers. Address S, care AERONAUTICS.

Business Cards.

J. ED. SHERIFF, MECHANICAL ENGINEER AND INVENTOR. ORIGINAL DESIGNS A SPECIALTY. 125 WATTS ST., NEW YORK.

Positions Wanted.

YOUNG man desires position as aeroplane

operator; has had seven years' experience at steam and electrical engineering; 28 years old;

can give best of references as to character,

etc. Address J. P. Allison, care AERONAUTICS.

EQUILIBRIST, SLACK WIRE WALKER, well educated, good business training in office, experienced in shop work, four seasons operating own automobiles, wishes to associate with manufacturer to give Hying exhibitions, train others and prosecute business generally. Excellent reputation. Address "Equilibrist," care "AERONAUTICS." Sep.

Back Numbers Wanted.

JANUARY, 1911, wanted by J. J. Long, Brown University, Providence, R. I,

Jpan M. Alleas, Boston. Mass., 001,GSG. May 'J, 1011, filed Oct. 21, 1900. HELICOPTER.

Max Dingfelder, Detroit. Mich., 091,770, May 0. 1011. filed Dec. 2, 1000. Novelty in PLANE ('(INSTRUCTION, Stability and steering rudders.

Daniel P. McLaughlin, Chicago, 111., 001,794, May 0, 1911, filed June 30, 1009. HELICOPTER.

Se\vall A. Witherspoon. St. Louis. Mo., 091.811, May 0. 1911, filed Jan. 2(3, 1910. Flying-machine especially designed to act as a parachute in case of fall.

Otto 1-IaseIau, New York, N. Y.. 901,S4G, May 0, 1011, filed May 3, 1000, renewed Oct. 21. 1010. Inlying-machine wilh special arrangements for automatic stability.

Charles Lakeman Tweedale, Weston, near Otley, England. 092,086, May 0, 1011, filed Oct. 30, 1000. BOX KITE with propeller actuated by means of a string.

.lohn Zimmerli, Providence, R. I., 992,000, May 0. 1011, filed April 23, 1010. Combined HELICOPTER and AEROPLANE.

Edward J. Elsas, Kansas City, Mo., 092,410, May 16. 1911, filed Oct. 5, 1910. AEROPLANE in which there are two motors, to run separately or together.

Edward L. Ault, Iola, Kans, 992,470, May 16, 1011, filed Dec. 23. 1910. Biplane with ailerons hinged to horizontal bars connecting front struts, to act as resistance means for turning or to preserve transverse STABILITY. In front of eacl» of these two ailerons is a propeller. A third propeller is at the rear of the machine, in usual position. Engine placed below lower plane.

Cliarles N. Newcomb, West Palm Beach, Fla., 902.570, Mav 16. 1011, filed Aug. 5, 1008. OR-N1THOPTER of which the wings are capable of change in conformation.

Valentime M. Kutscha, Scotch Plains, N. Y., 002.678. May 16, 1011, filed .Ian. 0, 1911. Monoplane in which the SUPPORTING PLANE is pivotally suspended from vertical masts, with means for restoring the plane automatically to normal position.

Edwin Lvman Madden, Ingersoll. Okla., 992.726, Mav 16, 1911, filed May 19, 1910. HELICOPTER.

Willi -n F. Smith, Roodhouse, 111., 992,816, Mav 23,,1911. Filed Aug. 22. 1910. Aeroplane, with means for TILTING SUPPORTING SURFACE.

Frank W. Jatunn, Los Angeles, Cal., 992,S74, May 23, 1911. Filed Feb. 21, 1910. Plurality of FEATHERING PADDLE WHEELS.

Johann Schutte, Langfuhr, near Danzig, Germany, 992,909. Mav 23, 1911. Filed Dec. 29, 1910. Means for STIFFENING AIRSHIP FRAMES.

Robert Ernest Heath, Yorkville, S. C, 993,0G3, May 23, 1911. Filed Feb. 3, 1910. Triplane with lower PLANES capable of being TILTED on axes transversely as well as parallel to the line of flight.

Thomas Rhoades, Hanna, Utah, 993,108 May 23, 1911. Filed May 7, 1910. Aeroplane with pivotally suspended frame, propeller capable of being turned through an arc of ISO degrees, automatically operated stabilizing planes.

Timothy Henry Konrad, San Mateo, Pal , 993,256. May 23. 1911. Filed April 20, 1910. STEERING DEVICE and tubular body for dying machines.

Robert P. Hall. Searchlight. Nov., 993.297, May 23, 1911. Filed April 9, 1910. AIRSHIT with series of gas tanks.

Henry Bernegger, West New York, N. J., 993,948, May 30, 1911. Filed Feb. 25, 1910. BALLOON.

John T. Rydberg, Garwood, N. J., 993,623, May 30, 1911. Filed March 22, 1909. FLYING-MACHINE combination of fixed and adjustable propellers and tiltable supporting surface.

Oliver G. Simmons, Washington, D. C, assignor of one-half to Kenneth L. Kintzel, Tamaqua, Pa., 993,724, May 30, 1911. Filed Aug. 13, 1910. AILERONS operated by shafts and gears by sideways movement of operator's seat.

William Kriedter and William Henry Bourdon, New York, N. Y., 993,842, May 30, 1911. Filed Feb. 23, 1910. WING SURFACE with a box or cell at outer extremities.

John W. Harrison, St. Louis, Mo., 993,987, May 30, 1911. Filed Nov. 12, 1910. Aeroplane.

■ Victor P. Fleiss, Lakewood, N. J., 994.072, May 30, 1911. Filed April 27, 1910. Aeroplane with plurality of superimposed supporting surfaces, which increase in length from the bottom one to the topmast.

William Charles Hurst, New York, N. Y., 99 1,104, May 30. 1911. Filed Dec. 1, 1909. MOVABLE GROUPED AILERONS.

William Boyd Alexander, Montreal, Que., Can., 994,106, June 6, 1911. Filed Feb. 10, 1911. Aeroplane in which FRAME (fuselage) is triangular in cross section, inverted, with baffle flanges" extending on either side laterally from the top edges thereof.

Henry P. Rhett, Hempstead, N. Y., 994,197, June 6, 1911. Filed June 11, 1910. Triangular supporting planes pivotally mounted at entering edge, for purposes of AUTOMATIC STABILITY.

Henry P. Rhett, Hempstead, N. Y., 994,19S, June 6, 1911. Filed June 11, 1910. Rectangular planes, pivotally mounted at entering edge, one operating opposite to the other, by action of unequal pressure, for purposes of AUTOMATIC STABILITY. The previous patent is the same in operation.

Gustav Scheel, New York, N. Y., 994,202, June G, 1911. Filed June 17, 1910. AIRSHIP.

Paul Seiler, San Francisco, Cal., 994,339, June 6, 1911. Filed June 13, 1910. OSCILLATING WINGS.

Nathaniel L. Mahew, Beaumont Tex., 994,417, June G, 1911. Filed July 15, 1910. Helicopter with plane surface, composed of flaps, capable of being used to lessen speed of descent in case of failure of propellers.

Maurice E. Wright, San Diego, Cal.. 994.490, June G, 1911. Filed April 5, 1911. TOY PARACHUTE.

George Kunicke. New York. N. Y., 994,757, June 13, 1911. Filed Nov. I, 1910. Flying machine, with plurality of propellers pivotally mounted for purpose of STEERING.

Robert Paton, Carrington, N. D., assignor of one-third to Lucas K. Silvertson and one-third to Thomas N. Putnam, both of Carrington, X. D., 994,7S2, June 13, 1911. Filed Dec. 14. 1910. Pendulum device for STABILITY.

David A. Albright, Gainesville, Fla., 994,897, June 13, 1911. Filed Jan. 22, 1910. Combined aeroplane, helicopter and ornithopter.

James W. Woodington, Folcroft, Pa.. 994,966, June 13, 1911. Filed Nov. 14, 1910. Helicopter.

Georges Barbaudy, Marseilles, France, 994,96S, June 13, 1911. Filed June 4, 1910. SUPPORTING SURFACE in which lateral extremities form a more or less complete cone.

John A. Hoffman, San Francisco, Cal., 995,-nni, June 13, 1911. Filed Nov. 21, 1910. Means for tilting the supporting plane fore and aft, at the same time tilting it transversely.

Earl M. Ralls, Sacramento, Cal., 995,033, June 13, 1911. Filed Feb. 12, 1910. AIRSHIP, rectangular in cross section, with plurality of gas bag units, laterally extending planes at the sides.

Emile Losse, Villeneuve-St.-Georges, France, 995,361, June 13, 1911. Filed March 22, 1910. AEROPLANE with semi-cylindrical body, two lateral surfaces consisting of revoluble discs having blades.

UNITED STATES PATENTS ABSTRACTED

AERONAUTICS

August, ion

I

HUGH L. WILLOUGHBY

N the lonely Southern beaches He has sailed beneath the ocean,

Where the frigate-bird is seen, He has raced in auto cars.

He has studied out perfection But it's now his pet ambition

In a gas-propelled machine To explore the distant stars;

There the buzzaids told their secrets And if something like a comet

To the aeroplanist wise, Shoots along at close of day,

And he learned from them the action 'Twill be Willoughby the fearless,

Of their pinions in the skies. Spinning down the Milky Way.

BEACHLY'S PERILOUS DIP. OVER NIAGARA FALLS, UNDER THE SUSPENSION BRIDGE AND DOWN THE GORGE-BOSCH-EQUIPPED OF COURSE JUNE 2.VU1 1911

In answering advertisements please mention this magazine.

THE great number of bomb-throwing experiments made by aviators at contests and exhibitions has shown the utter impossibility of hitting a target from considerable altitudes without the employment of some scientific method. The hand-and-eye method, without instruments of any sort, has given indifferent results at heights of a few hundred feet, and the consensus of opinion of aviators who have made experiments along this line is, that from a safe height of, say ¿¡.000 ft. or more, it would he foolish to attempt to drop bombs in this manner with any expectation of hitting a target. An occasional hit migVt be scored, but such hits would be without method and the result of accident.

Despite the thought put upon the subject by military men all over the world since it became evident that the aeroplane would be used for military purposes, it has remained for an American, Lieut. Riley E. Scott, a graduate of West Point, to evolve a scientific method for launching bombs from aeroplanes. This method is based upon the laws of mechanics, and takes into consideration the velocity of flight of the aeroplane with reference to the ground, the acceleration due to gravity, and makes corrections for atmospheric resistance and wind-drift.

In an illustrated lecture before the Aeronautical Society, on the evening of July 13. Lieut. Scott described in detail the principles of his device and his method of accurately determining the speed of an aeroplane with respect to the ground. Until worked out by Lieut. Scott, there has been no known method by which an aviator, or his passenger, could determine the velocity of an aeroplane except by the use of the anemometer, which, at best, is an inaccurate instrument and only measures speed through the air and not with respect to the ground. The method employed by the inventor is so remarkably simple that it seems almost incredible that it was not developed before.

1 óBCEÍa-BBEEJl

FIG. 1

The device employed by Lieut. Scott, which has beea patented in this country aud for which patents have been applied for in foreign countries, consists essentially of a series of movable rings, universally mounted (that is. mounted on gimbals .placed at right angles to each other), in such a manner that the center of gravity being below the plane of mounting, the inuer ring assumes a horizontal position in the same way that the iompass of a ship retains a horizontal position.

At the centeC of this inner ring is mounted a suitable telescope in such manner that the line of collimation describes a plane at right angles to the plane of the inner ring when the telescope is revolved. The telescope is provided with a graduated arc and vernier so that the telescope may be set at any angle in the vertical plane containing the line of flight. This inner horizontal ring, also, usually bears the projectiles, in order that they may be carried in a fixed position with respect to the ground. Figure 1 is a certain modification of this device suitable for dirigibles, showing the universal mountings, the telescope and the projectiles carried by the inner ring.

FIG. 2.

Figure li shows the condition of fall of a body dropped from a moving air craft. Considered in vacuo, the path, or trajectory, of such a body would be a parabola, the form of which is determined entirely by the height of fall and the velocity of the aeroplane with respect to the ground. The line of sight in this figure is the prolonged axis of the telescope, and it is evident that if this axis be in a vertical plane containing the target and be set at a suitable angle, the projectile will strike the target if launched at the moment that the line of sight intersects the target. In order to determine the trajectory and, consequently, the angle at which the telescope must be set, it is necessary to know the height and the speed of the aeroplane with respect to

AB * AC when angle ¿ •

AB- BD - DC * AC

the

tili:

earth. <peed

understood from Figure

Lieut. Scott's method of simple and ingenious

determining and may be

SCIENTIFIC DEVICE FOR BOMB-DROPPING FROM AEROPLANES

To find the speed relative to the ground, the aeroplane is headed for some prominent object and is maintained at a fixed height during the time of calculation. With the aid of the device the machine may also be kept in a vertical plane containing the object sighted. The telescope is set at 45 degrees, and, consulting Figure 3, it is evident that the horizontal distance in front of the object is equal to the height above the ground, since the legs AB and AC of the triangle BAC are equal. When the image of the object is intersected by the cross wires, a stop watch is started and the telescope is changed to zero reading; that is, vertical. A straight line of flight being maintained, the intake of the object will again be intersected by the cross wires, at which instant the watch is stopped. Jt is evident that, by dividing the height above the ground in metres by the number of seconds recorded by the watch, a

practical combinations of height and speed. Therefore, knowing height and speed, it is only necessary to look in the table and find the angle at which the telescope must be set in order to release the projectiles at the proper moment. In addition, there are correction tables for atmospheric resistance and winds.

AN KXAMl'l.K WORKED OUT. Flying at a height of 500 metres, it is found that it takes 21> seconds to describe the 45 degree triangle, as shown in Figure 3. Consulting Table 1, it is seen that the speed is 17.2 metres per second. Now. consulting Table II for that speed at a height of 50O metres, it is seen that the angle at which the telescope must be set. in order that the projectile may be released at the proper instant, is 18° 57'. In this table, speed is shown in full metres per second. An auxiliary table of differences will be used so that fractions of metres

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

Altitudes in Metres

25

23.1

21.4

20

18.7

17.6

16.7

15.8

15

14.3 13.6

27

25

23.3

21.8

20.6

19.4

18.4

17.5

IS.6

16

15.2

14.6

14

13.4 12.9 12.5 12.1

400

26.6 25

23.5

22.2

21

20

19

18.2 17.4 16.6 16

15.4 14.8 14.3 13.8 13.3 12.9

450

26.5

25

23.7

22.5

21.4

20.4

19.6

18.7

18

17.3 16.7 16.1 15.5 15

14.5 12.8

500

26.3

25

23.8

22.7

2i.8

2o.i.

20

19.2 18.5 17.8 17.2 16.7 16.1

14.3

12.8

22.9

22

21.2 20.4 19.6 19

in.3

17.8 15.7 14.1

27.2

26.1

25

24

23.1

22.2

21.4

20.6

20

19

17.1 15.4

The altitudes con be continued indefinitely, as nell as the seconds column, depending up— on the ppeed of the aeroplane employed.__

m intra

300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750

12

17" 22' 16* 9' 15" 12' 14" 19' 13° 38' 13° 03' 12° 30' 11° 59' 11° 33' 11° 1Ï

Speed in meter3 per second

13

18° 42' 17° 24' 16° 23' 15" 27' 14* 43' 14° 06' 13° 30* 12" 58" 12° 30' 12° 06'

14

20* 06' 10° 40" 17° 33* 16° 35" 15° 47" 15° OB' 14° 30' 13° 56,' 13" 26 13°

15

21° 22' 19° 54' 18° 44' 17° 4l' 16° 51' 16° 10' 15° 30' 14° 54' 14° 2Ï 13° 53'

16

17

18

22° 40'

23° 58'

25° 10'

21° U6'

22* 18'

23" 28'

19° 53'

21° ul'

22° 07'

18° 47

19° 53'

20° 56'

17° 55'

18° 57'

19° 59'

17° 11'

18° 11'

19e 11'

16° 29'

17*

18e 24'

15° 51'

16° 47'

ir 42'

15° 16'.

16° IO'

17° 04'

14° 47*

15" 39'

16° 32'

These readings are angles of sight in degrees and minutes. The upper horizontal column gives velocity in metres per second. The altitude and velocity columns are to be continued indefinitely.

In Table I, the figures in the columns represent speed in metres per second. The distance traversed in a given time is eaual to the altitude at which the machine is flying. If the height ia 400 meters and the time taken is 18 seconds, the machine obviously has traveled 400 metres nith respect to the ground in that time. Reference to ttie table shows a speed over the ground of 22.2 metres per second. Metres per second is used ae a standard value throughout the calculation

TA BLEI

T ABLE II

/0 30

speed iu metres per second will bo found. For convenience, all possible speeds are tabulated, as shown in Table I.

Another table, here shown as Table II, gives the angles at which the telescope must be set for all

will be taken care of. From Figure 2 it is evi-l dent that the telescope being set at 1S° 57', if I the projectile were released when the image of tliel target is intersected by the cross wires of the! telescope, the projectile will strike the target.

Now t ho county fair officials in the Middle West have begun to get busy with their premium books and advertising for the greatest and only county fair in that part of the State, and they want aeroplanes this year. Balloons, automobile races or a calf with six logs will not attract the patrons this year. What they want is an aeroplane exhibition, and lots of thorn. Since the international aviators came through the Middle West and gave exhibitions at the larger cities, all the smaller cities want to soo the bird men fly. There ai'o in tho States of Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska and Oklahoma over SO county fair associations of financial standing that can afford nr will put up $1.500 each for an aeroplane exhibition (luring their county fair dates. Mr. (!. S. Bennett, secretary of the Kansas City Aviation School, stated that from the inquiries ho had received it would need 50 outfits to fill (ho requests for exhibition tlights from the county fair managers of the .Middle West. What the people of the West want is to get up close and see a real biplane or monoplane. They want to sro how it is built, how tho power is produced and bow tho aviator gets started. They want to see how the darned thing is worked and thoy have money enough to spare (his year to buy one or two if thoy wanted them. Out in Missouri thoy say "Show mo" ; in Kansas. "Let me fool of it"'; in Oklahoma they say "1'ut it in my hand"; in

Arkansas. "Let mo bite it." .T. G. Uompel has! completed his third biplane. This last one is orJ Curtiss type linos, and is now installing a ncwl typo of engine, which was made for him at] Chicago. Mr. Uompel will make his tryout about] Aug. 1.

It is reported here that Cuy Morgan, a well-] known automobile salesman of this city, has purl chased the "Banshee" of Charles Willard and will bring tho "plane to this city.

Miss Katharine Stinson of Hot Springs. Ark.j is one of the newest enrollments at the Kansas] City Aviation School.

Gliders and biplanes are now being built for thJ trade at Olathe. Kan. 1.. C. Herman has hiJ machinery installed and will build a stock glidoJ and biplane to order.

The Payne A: Neighbors Co. of Sodalia. MoJ report business is «rood for propellers, especially orders from the East.

The novice aviator frequently wants to make his own propeller, in order to exercise perspnal ingenuity. AEItOXAUTICS has previously had articles on propeller design and the laying out of propellers from known figures of diameter and pitch. In the following notes it is attempted to show the amateur how to make a propeller of uniform pitch (P) of a eiven diameter (Di. He perhaps has been flying with a certain propeller and wants to make another of his own style; using the same area, but shaping the blade differently, or even increasing or diminishing the a rea.

as B, C, etc., set off the blade widths from the corresponding section of the development on to the pitch lines as at EF. Then the vertical projections of E and F would srive O and II, which are points on blade outline in sidp elevation. Other points are obtained in like manner. There being six laminations : they will show in side elevation in six parallel divisions.

To obtain the outline of the blade in end elevation at any sections, as GH, take the horizontal projection of EF, which is EG plus I IF, shown in end elevation as ef.

DEVELOPED /iffEH

SIDE ELEVATION

Lay-out of a Propeller Blade.

END £LEV/1 Ti'ON

Thp sketch showing "developed area" illustrates the shape of a propeller blade which would be obtained !ry laying a sheet of paper on a propeller blade, cutting it out and theu laying the paper flat on a drawing board and marking around the pattern thus made. In other words, this sketch shows the true widths of the blade at any point laid in the plane of the paper without the helicoidal twist.

THE METHOD OF SETTING OUT THE DRAWING.

Lay out to any convenient scale the developed surface of the blade, which shall contain the required area, and be of the desired shape. Set off the line AD, equal to one-half the diameter D, and DX at right angles to AD and equal to P 2 x 3.14. The angle XAD is the pitch angle at the circumference, and the pitch angle for any other point upon the line AD may he determined by drawing a line from that point to the point X.

We will suppose, as an example, that the blade is to be formed of six strips. From any points.

To obtain the lines 1. 2. 3, 4. 5 in end elevation, take the horizontal projections of IJ and IL, which are JK and I.M respectively. These set off in end elevation as the distances ik and im. Connect these points with the center of the hub as shown.

The sections of the blade at any point may he obtained by marking off the distance IX and'CO, etc., from their corresponding points on the end elevation. Any shape or form of blade may be set up in like manner.

GLUING UP.

This is rather a simple process, but should he carefully done, as a poorly glued propeller Is dangerous, to say the least. The hard glue as used by cabinet makers is usually used, and this is applied hot. The boards should also be hot. to prevent the glue from chilling before the press can be tightened up properly. Heating the boards is rather troublesome to the amateur, as it is best done in a cabinet heated by steam coils.

THE MAKING OF A PROPELLER

However, the boards may be set around a good hot stove, where by frequent turning they may be well warmed. The cooler the boards are, the faster one must work to prevent the glue from chillinsr. The press should be very stiff and rigid and the screws should be heavy and strong enough to stand all the pressure one can put on.

The sketch shows one of the frames for a press. If these are spaced about a foot apart and well set up and the glue and boards are hot to start with, the joints in the resulting job will show as a very fine line, which is as it should be. The block should be allowed to set about 4S hours before being removed from the press.

SHAPING THE BLOCK

Lay off the end elevation on the block and cut it out. Then turn the block on edge and at the various sections lay off the distances fromi the face to obtain the outline of the side elevation. These distances may be obtained from the drawing of the side elevation. We now have the leading and following edges of the face of the blade and can work it down with gouge and plane. After the faces of both blades are finished alike, finish off the back, using a caliper to determine when the required thickness has been reached at the different sections.

After both blades have been worked down and well sandpapered, the propeller should be balanced. This is a very delicate operation and great care should be exercised to get both blades exactly the same. A hole is drilled in the center of the hub and the propeller mounted on a mandrel, which should be suspended between centers. The blades are then touched up until the propeller will remain in any position, showing that the weights of the blades are the same.

roLi SUING.

After the propeller has been balanced and well smoothed and sandpapered, it may be given several coats of thin shellac, each coat being rubbed down with steel wool. Then a coat or two of varnish may be added to give a finish and make the blade waterproof.

TO FIND THE HORSEPOWER OF AN ENGINE.

THE formula for finding the horsepower of an engine in use most extensively in this country at the present time is known as the A. L. A. M. formula, and is as follows:

D x D x N _l_ 2.5.

I) is the diameter of the. cylinder in inches.

N is the number of cylinders.

2.5 is a constant based on the average performance of four-cycle motors at one thousand feet per minute piston speed.

If, however, one wishes to determine the actual horsepower of an engine, the only way is to run a brake test. The sketch shows a simple way to make and apply a prony brake.

The weight W is used as shown in order to balance the weight of the arm. 2 x 3.14 x I x It x T

1LP.=

3 3(100

■—in which

I is the radius of the brake arm.

T is the pull at the end of the brake arm in pounds.

R is the It. P. M.

Example: Suppose the engine speed is 1,200 II. P. IU., and the pull on the spring is 50 pounds, the radius I being taken as 4 feet; then,

= 15 H.P.

2 x 3.11 x 4 x 12Q0 x 50

H.P.—

33000

For long runs it is desirable to cool the brake in some manner. This is most easily done by employing a special fly wheel, as

Press for Gluing Laminations.

shown in the sketch in cross section. A pipe can be arranged to deliver a small stream of water to the trough, and another so as to scoop it out. The feed water can be regulated so as to keep the trough nearly full.

Prony Brake

tt rrji -Tj

Section ■>/ Fly Wheel.

The formula for gasoline engines, given below, will serve to approximate the power which may be expected from an engine: DSN

HP— C

D = diameter of cylinder in inches. S = stroke in inches.

N = total number of explosions per minute.

C= 10,000 to 13,000 for 2-cycle engines and 7.D00 to S.OOOi for 4-cycle. depending on circumstances. Fair average values would be 12,0(K) and 7,500.

GLIDING AS A SPORT AND AS AN AID TO FLIGHT

By T. W. K. Clarke.

THE motions and sensations of gliding are, in the opinion of those who have operated machines with and without power, very similar to those in the power-driven machine, except that in the former, owing to the smaller weight in proportion to the surface, and also to the fact that it keeps closer to the ground, the motions are more exaggerated than

In Full Gliding night—Note Wing Warp

in the latter, so that after practice in a glider the power machine is an easier matter and the possibility of damage due to inexperience with its attendant expense is greatly reduced.

The kind of glider to get depends on the ultimate object in view. If one wishes to learn to operate a specific power machine, then the larger machine will give more nearly the actual conditions and practice required, but if for general experience or sport, the smaller machines will bo found very useful and cheaper. The choice lies between a comparatively small machine of about 20-ft. span with no chassis, and by various stages up to one of 30-ft. span or over, on which one is seated and started by means of a rail, tower and weight.

Whatever type or kind is selected it should be well made, of good materials, and by someone who knows how; these points add to the expense, but it will be cheapest in the end. A glider has to stand a great deal of rough usage and weathering and these will soon pick out the weak points.

Gliding is a side of flight that is a little apt to be neglected in the present rush to achieve the higher art : but it is a useful side nevertheless.

Experimenters have, it is true, shown that the stepping-stone used by the Brothers Wright is not necessary in all

cases, but, all the same, we are not at all sure that gliding may not teach a lot even to the flying man.

The glider which Messrs. Ogilvie and Searight had built for them is to all intents and purposes a copy of the machine used by the Wrights in 1002, and the work has been admirably executed. It is, of course, a biplane, and has an elevator in front with a vertical tail behind. The elevator, however, is constructed according to the design shown in the Wright patent, having flexible planes instead of simple pivoted planes. The tail at the rear consists of a single vertical plane, in which respect it is in agreement with the Wright glider, but differs fronr the Wright flyer, which has a double rudder. On the other hand, the main decks

are double surfaced on the machines which Messrs. Clarke have constructed, whereas the gliders used by the Wright Brothers were, we believe, invariably only single surfaced.

The material from which the glider was constructed' is for the most part silver spruce. In one or two places, where bent woodwork is required, American elm is used. The decks are double surfaced with a special fabric rendered waterproof by a celluloid treatment. The weight of this fabric is one pound to otj sq. ft. The seams in the complete covering are diagonal, and each half of a deck, from an extremity to the center, is practically enclosed in a kind of fabric bag ; the edges of adjacent hags are laced together in the center, while at intervals the fabric is tacked down to the supporting ribs. In order to prevent the fabric being torn, a thin strip of wood is placed between the fabric and the heads of the nails.

The framework on which the fabric is stretched consists of a pair of transverse spars, 1 in. by 1V2 in., of spruce. At the ends these spars are joined together by a piece of bent elm. a scarf being made between the two timbers. The ribs, which are spaced every foot, arc of spruce, the solid ones being t in. by § in., the ordinary ones being § in. by 3/Hi in. and are built up of these strips separated by distance pieces at intervals. The camber is 3 in. at the maximum versine. The method of fastening the ribs to the front spar by screws so that it virtually belongs to that member and. as it were, forms a supporting tongue for the bottom and top members of the rib proper.

Considered as a unit, the framework of the two

Just Leaving the Bail at Start.

decks, taken together, forms an example of the usual lattice girder work which lias been commonly adopted on biplanes. In accordance with the Wright system, the machine belongs to the flexible type: non-rigid joints are employed as fastenings between the main spars which separate them.

These joints are carried out the manner devised by the Wrights, but a steel plate lias been substituted for the wire eye in the Wright machine. The struts have a saw-cut taken down their extremities for an inch or so, and into this is let the steel plate which is pegged and hound in place. The projecting end of the steel is drilled to receive a hook, which

and the struts

■somewhat after steel used

in this case consists of a steel U-bolt which passes through the main spar and is secured on both sides by nuts. The same steel plate also provides an anchorage for the wire ties.

The elevator is constructed according to the Wright patent. The two planes are so mounted that they flex or warp instead of merely pivoting when a change is made in their angle of incidence. The framework of each plane of the elevator is built up on a single transverse spar, situated about 9 in. from the leading edge, the full chord being 1! ft. 0 in. The method of operation will be understood by a glance at the sketch.

The tail, which is controlled by a fore and aft movement of the right hand lever, consists of a single plane mounted between two outriggers as shown. These spars are hinged to the rear transverse spars and the diagonal tie wire is fitted with a length of strong elastic so the rudder may swing up and not be broken should it hit the ground.

The machine as a whole is mounted upon two runners which commence a short distance behind the main decks and extend forward with a gradual curve which is ultimately increased in a sharp bend where they join on the upright supports for the elevator. The runners are stayed to the front spar of the upper main deck by a set of oblique struts. The lower deck is supported a little above the rudders by a lattice work bracing.

The pilot is accommodated in an extremely light but fairly comfortable chair—in which respect the machine differs from the original Wright gliders, where the operator took the air lying prone on the lower deck.

On each side of the pilot is a vertical lever. That on the left moves to and fro only, and works the elevator in the manner already described. That on the right can move either to and fro or sideways. The to and fro movement works the rudderj and the sideways motion warps the main decks. This warping of the main decks is carried out by means of wires, which pass through short lengths of Rowden wire. It may here be mentioned while on the subject of wire bracing, that the main wire diagonals are not fitted with any tightening device, being merely drawn hand-tight and fastened by simple brass bands, the ends of the wire being turned back over the bands to prevent them from slipping.

The lateral control of a Wright glider, or flying machine, by a single lever which warps the wings and moves the rudder, is the most interesting and characteristic feature of the Wright system, but its action is apt to be a little difficult to grasp unless each movement is taken in sequence. The lever is situated on the pilot's right : it normally stands in a vertical position when the machine moves straight ahead on an even keel. The connections are such that—

(1) If the lever is moved forward, the rudder puts the prow (o the left.

(2) If the lever is moved to the right, the left hand extremities of the main decks have their rear edges warped downwards so as to increase the angle of incidence.

The next point to take into consideration is the primary result which accompanies each of the above movements made independently.

(11 From steering to the left, the increased relative velocity of the right wing tip will cant the machiup so that the right wing rises.

(2) The first effect of increasing the angle of incidence of the left-hand extremities of the main deck is to increase the resistance of flight on that side of the machine, which consequently tends to slow up, or in other words tends to put the prow cf the machine to the left.

If. nn the other hand, the course is kept straight by using the rudder, then the effect of increasing the angle on that side of the machine is to raise the left extremity of the main decks and so cant the machine over while it proceeds straight ahead. This manœuvre may either be performed for the purpose of restoring equilibrium from an accidentally canted position or to establish a cant artificially for the purpose of banking when taking a sharp turn.

It will be observed from the foregoing brief description that the to and fro and sideways movements of the lever have results which are closely [related to one another and from which it is a simple matter to deduce that—

(1 ) It it is desired to restore equilibrium from an accidental cant which has depressed the right hand extremity of the main decks, then the lever must be drawn towards the pilot—i. e., to the left —in order to increase the angle of incidence of the right hand extremities of the main decks which it is desired to lift and at the xttmc time the lever must be pushed forward so as to steer to the left in order that the initial effect of warping described above shall not turn the machine from its straight course.

The result of making, or rather trying to make, simultaneous movements of the lever along axes at right angles to each other is to follow a diagonal path : from this fact may be deduced the following very important fact :

(1 ) Equilibrium and a straight course with thr Wright flyer are maintained by a diagonal movement of the lever, in which

((M It is moved obliquely forward and towards the pilot, in order to rectify an accidental canting of the right-hand extremities of the main decks downwards, or

I6i The lever is moved obliquely backwards away from the pilot, in order to check a cant which has depressed the left wing.

This oblique neutral line, represented in one of our diagrams, is the normal path of travel for the pilot's right hand, while be keeps the machine on a straight course. Any movement of the hand away from this line must result in a curved course, because the rudder or the warping effect preponderates.

The preeise nature of the movement which the pilot would perform in order to steer, say. to the left, depends on the manner in which he wishes is to carry out the operation, which in turn is governed by the sharpness of the curve, his speed of flight and other considerations. In general, however, it may be said that the pilot's hand for such a manoeuvre moves through an oval path starting and finishing in the neutral vertical position : this oval path is the result of a perfectly performed sequence of very short straight movements each of which has resulting in a combination of warping and rudder action. Needless to say, such perfection is not immediately within reach of the novice, the movements of whose hand would be more than likely to show up the straight line components of the curve.

It should perhaps be mentioned here that the reason why the rudder and the warping of the planes has' to take place simultaneously is primarily due to the fact that the Wrights warp the main decks of the machine instead of employing independent balancing planes. When the main decks of a glider or flier are wanted it is not possible to warp one extremity up and the other extremity down to an eoual extent considered from the point of view of effectiveness. To all intents and purposes only that extremity which has its trailing edge warped downwards need be taken into consideration, because while that undoubtedly does exert a powerful lift, the corresponding warping of the other extremity does not result in an emial amount of depressing action because the resultant curvature of the decks at that end of (lie machine is such that their angle of incidence is diminished but not effectively reversed. On the one side of the machine, therefore, an active force is in operation, whilst at the oilier extremity the conditions are rather of the passive order. The resistance of that extremity which has an increased angle of incidence given to it makes itself felt, and there is no corresponding resistance at the opposite end of the flying machine to neutralize the swerving effect which it induces: on the contrary, the resistance there is less than in the normal condition of straight line flight, so that the swerving effect is outside. Hence the need for using the rudder.

From the side elevation it will be seen that the starting rail itself is about PO ft. long, while the derri'k is I." ft. high. The actual arrangement shown was that constructed for Mr. Ogilvie's glider at Camber, and there the derrick was made from such timber as was available on the spot, and the starting weight originally consisted of a b:tg containing the earth excavated from below the derrick. Later this was changed to a number of metal discs un to a total weight of 2."i> pounds. The rail itself, consisting of "T" iron in 15-ft. lengths mounted on long wooden blocks, was laid

Ira a slope of about one in ten. and to compensate ■or the irregularity of the hillside a clearance of ■V4 in. was allowed at the joints. Owing to the long grass present in this particular case, it was pound necessary to put additional wood blocks 6 ■ns. deep under the sleepers. The actual details tpt construction are clearly shown in the three ■mall sketches, while the precise arrangement of Bhe starting rope can be followed from the side ■elevation.

I In launching, the glider is placed in position Klose up to the derrick (as shown in the drawing), ivith its two small grooved trolley wheels resting Ira the "T" iron rail ; the 250 pounds weight is Bheu raised by hauling on the free end of the rope, ■vhich terminates in an iron ring : this is then flipped over a downwards-pointing iron hook, car-tied on the end of a wooden bar fixed in front |>etween the skids of the machine. At first a llanila rope, about 1^4 ins. circumference, was employed, but a wire cable has since been substituted. [ The glider is balanced laterally on the monorail by hand on each side (when in motion this lis effected by the action of the wing-warping llever). and is held hack by hand against the pull [of the rope. As soon as the pilot is ready the Imachine is released, the weight falls, and the Iglider is shot forward along the starting rail.

When there is a good wind, the machine usually Irises into the air after traversing only about 30 ft. of the rail.

By gradually closing up the points of support Ito a single point, both the above motions can be practised together. When sufficiently proficient try some short free glides from a part of the hill [about one in six. If it is a large machine about four helpers will take hold of the bottom spar by a short end of rope if necessary, and run you and the machine down hill facing the wind, when the speed is sufficient the machine will be completely air-borne and the helpers should then let go simultaneously and dodge away ; a few such trials, and then if there is a starting rail, this may be used and will be found a great help.

Always face the wind direct ; never leave the machine by itself on a windy day or it will be struck by*a gust and overturned. One man is enough to hold it if the elevator is kept depressed and he be ready to "sit on its head." If the machine should be overturned don't pull it over against the wind but manœuvre it so that the wind returns it back.

If a side gust strikes a machine, unless the machine can give with it, it will up-end sideways ; this is a danger with long chutes methods of launching and certain forms of captive gliders, and also necessitates a very heavv weight when using a launching rail.

It is better to have the center of gravity too far ahead than too far back.

Don't let the bracing of a machine get flabby.

If a hill has a very steep slope suddenly changing to a gentle one, the wind is apt to flow over this and leave a calm pocket near the change of slope.

WHERE AND HOW TO GLIDE

Choose a hill with slopes in as many directions as possible. The hill should, if possible, have a long slope of about, say, 1 in S, rising to 1 in 4 or 5, at the steepest part, and be free from obstructions, such as trees, ditches, etc., as well as other hills in front. Such hills are best found by studying a contour map of the locality.

Having found a suitable shed, or erected a tent in a sheltered and convenient spot, it will be well to start by practicing each coutrol (longitudinal and transverse) separately. For this purpose it will be best to enlist the services of two friends (for a small machine), or four if it is a large one (a few more will be useful if they are of the right sort). Choose a day with the wind blowing up one of the slopes (or this can be done on the level) with a velocity sufficient to take the major part of the weight, say, about 12 to 13 miles per hour. Keep the machine facing the wind, take your place in the machine and let the two friends hold the ends of the wings on a line about a foot or less in advance of the center of gravity of the machine when loaded. In the case of most biplanes this will mean holding the machine at the front edge, then lift up the machine and pilot; the machine is now capable of a pitching motion, but not of sideways rolling, and the pilot can devote his whole energies to mastering the movements of the elevating lever in order to keep the machine on a level keel ; when this is mastered, the machine should be placed on a plank or planks placed across other planks edge up, so that it can see-saw sideways (in the case where a starting rail is used, balance the machine on the rail), transverse balance (by warping or other means) can then be practiced until it becomes instinctive.

Diagram 2, of which the small rectangle at the centre represents the right-hand control-lever, shows in plan how the two movements capable of being given to this lever result in a third oblique line of movement, along which the aviator's hand passes to and fro to preserve the bilateral equilibrium during flight. Figure 2 shows the central portion of lower plane, with aviator's seat and the lever-control system of the glider. It will be observed that the right-hand lever can be moved sideways as well as forwards and backwards. Figure 3 illustrates the flexible elevator Figure 4 is a

side elevation of starting derrick and rail for full-size glider. Details of mounting the rails and joining the sleepers are shown in Figure 5.

Scale Drawings of Wright-Clarke glider, with sketch of the flexible-joint connecting the vertical struts to the main decks. A slight notch is made at the lower end of the IT bolt to keep the eye of the strut central. The other sketch shows that instead of pulleys where the warp-ing-wires leave the decks, short lengths of Bowden wire sheath are used clamped to the rear spars, as shown above.

TO SPLICE SHORT BAMBOOS

H. C. Cooke, of 128 West 65th street. New York, who has been flying last summer at Mineola, has advised us of his method of joining short lengths of bamboos. Often while of same outside diameter, the hole inside one bamboo is larger than that in the other. Drill both holes exact size of dowel sticks on the market. Bore 4 in. deep each end. Cut dowels not over 8 in., and measure depths of holes so that bamboos will come together. Use steel sleeve 6 in. long and bolt it on one bamboo 3 [in. Tighten up the two nuts on that end of the sleeve. Then glue dowel and push in—do [not drive or bamboo will split. Then take k>ther bamboo and slip on over protruding

dowel and tighten up second two bolts on the other side. Drill notes through sleeve and bamboo on each end, fasten with stove bolts. If guy wires are used, the turnbuckles can be fastened to the stove bolts.

J. G. Stewart of Cincinnati has purchased a Grav Eagle biplane, equipped with a Roberts motor, and has contracted with a Curtiss flyer to exhibit the machine. The Ruhel company has sold Gray Eagle motors the past week to R. C. Jennings. Unionport. Pa. : Kyle Smith of Wheeling, W. Ya.. and II. 11. Klein. Jr.. Hartford, Conn. The Rubel concern has adopted the policy of taking back all Gray Eagle motors where customers are dissatisfied.

THE WILLARD HEADLESS BIPLANI

CE. WILLARD has completed the construction of a biplane with the propeller in . front, and all steering surfaces in the rear. This will be taken to Canada, where future work will be conducted. His partner in the McCurdv-Willard Aeroplane Co.. J. A. D. McCurdv. is also having machines built to his design in New York City. Whatever machines are marketed bv Messrs. Willard and McCurdy will be as individuals, while ithe MeCurdy-Willard Aeroplane Co. wili confine itself solely to exhibitions.

Results of flights will be watched with interest, as but one or two biplanes, like the Breguet and the Roe, have ever successfully flown with the propeller in front, and none but these has ever made any big name for itself. This may not be due to the placing of the propeller alone, but to defects in the design. The principle is theoretically less efficient, particularly with a biplane, than the placing of the propeller in the rear of the main planes. Following is a description of Mr. Willard's novel machine :

Main Planes. These are each in five demountable sections, the lateral beams being joined by steel plates, top and bottom of beams, and bolted through. The main beams have three laminations, spruce and ash. The guy wires are Roebling flexible cable. 7/64 and 3/32 in., and are tightened by turnbuckles. each with a locking device to keep the wire from loosening up through vibration. The struts are fish shaped, solid spruce, and fit in steel tube sockets. On the end of the strut is a brass ferrule to keep the strut from swelling in the socket. Continental cloth is used both sides and tacked on with copper tacks.

Boihi. A novelty has been introduced in the construction of the rear half of the machine. Instead of outriggers, as usual with biplanes, a triangular body is employed, made of bamboo entirely, even to the diagonal braces, with the base of the triangle at the top. At the rear end is

the elevator and rudder. The manner of attacB ment of the diagonal bamboos to the main membefl is by steel tubing. This fuselage is divided in two sections, midway the length, the after one beiM capable of being slipped" inside the forward oil for purposes of shipment. The fuselage will be entirely enclosed with fabric.

Running Gear. A central skid is used in con* bination with four wheels. The two center. 20 in. by 3 in. wheels, support the machine and are flexibly mounted with Goodyear rubber sprint in the usual manner. Fore and aft respectively is a lG-in. wheel, which normally is 2 in. off the ground. In landing, the two center wheels talB the first shock, letting the machine down casiB on the remaining ones. The 'skid does not come in contact with the ground at all.

I'oircr Plant. Not settled upon. Two GnomB are already owned by him and it is possible he will take delivery of a couple of rotary IndianB on which he has a call. The placing of the gas« line tank depends on what engine is used. A G-cylinder Anzani is also a prospect. In any casS a shield will be built up at the rear of the motcH to protect the operator from oil. which the GnomiM particularly have a habit of throwing in oneB face without any discretion whatever. The spaiB advance and throttle are located on the steerinH post and are controlled by Bowden wire. witB copper tubing wherever there are bends.

Stability. Ailerons are used, fastened with oil dinary brass hinges to the rear beams, but ail positively operated in both up and down direB tions in such a manner as to give equal resistance on both sides of the machine to avoid any tnrninH tendency from the operation of the ailerons.

Controls. All steering and operating of aileron! are by one steering post and wheel. universallB mounted. Pushing forward steers down, and vifl versa. Turning the wheel steers right or lefB while swinging the whole affair to left or rigliH operates the ailerons.

A PRESSURE EQUALIZER FOR AILERONi

THE accompanying sketch shows two views of a differential device for securing and maintaining at all times an equal pressure on the ailerons on the opposite sides of a

Referring to Fig. 1 it will be seen that the geam A and B are secured to shafts on which are thB pulleys G and II, around which are wound thH cables that operate the ailerons. Gears A and B ii gaye the gear C. which is mounted in the ring 11

ERONAUTICS

August, ipn

\villard Headless Biplane.

Fig. 2 is a cross section on the line XX. It ill be seen that if the control lever is held tationary the wheel F and the gear C, which are oth secured to the same cross shaft, cannot re-olve, but should there be any difference of presit re on the ailerons, the ring E will revolve in he mounting D.

The operation of the control lever will revolve he gear C, which will operate the ailerons in pposite directions, but the ring E will be free at i\\ times to revolve and equalize the pressure.

Many sales have been made of the Roberts motor "iu the short time it has been on the market. T. \V. Benoist, of St. Louis, has been making flights in one of his Curtiss-types with it at Kinloch Park and S. 1). Dixon and 11. \V. Powers are flying at Chicago. Ilaupt has it in his P.leriot-copy and Ralph Cole, of Xorwalk. O.. has been "making some sensational novice flights in a machine of his own design.

Aviation fans now may have a new sensation, everyone wants to know how high the aero-fT|ane is. Just sight along a special walking ;tick and look at a table in your vest pocket, and fou know, provided you know what machine it s that's flying, and one isn't a "fan" unless he ^nows thern all afar off. The Metroscope Manufacturing Co. of Springfield, O., has produced in cane the homely but characteristic altitude neasuring device of the Wright Brothers, de-Hribed some time since in AERONAUTICS.

/ have found a great many interesting thint/s in your magazine and am sure it in jceU worth the price.—Gko. J. Ferguson.

/ found your magazine very satisfactory and instructive and the best on the market.—Allan \V. Carpenter.

/ would like to praise Aeronautics through its editor for its noble irork, which no doubt has improved to the delight of its subscribers, mid those who perchance come across a strut/ coin/.— R. P. Davies.

STEEL construction is beginning to come more and more into favor. Several steel machines have been built in this country, and judging from the way they withstand the wear and tear and tumbles' it would seem as if the steel construction were superior to wood in a good many ways.

The machine illustrated was designed and constructed by William Kirkbride. of Detroit, Mich. Steel tubing has been used almost exclusively, the only wood being in the skids and the engine and seat foundations and control levers.

Main Planes. The upper plane has a span of 30 ft., being two feet longer than the bottom one. The lateral main beams, both front and rear, are of 1%-in. 20 gauge tubing, reinforced in the center by slipping another tubing inside. This gives more strength where it is needed and does not increase the size of the spars. The ribs are also of tubing, the light ones being % in. 20 gauge and the heavy ones in way of uprights % in. : they are all joined to the spars by brazing, the joints being flush. Contrary to usual practice, the ribs do not pass either over or under the rear spars, but butt against it and are brazed. Quarter inch tubing forms the rear edge of the planes, to which is brazed the ends of the ribs.

A novel feature of the construction is the doing away with all strut sockets, guy wires and turn-buckles in the main plane. This is done by brazing the struts to the main spars, and by using %-in. 20 gauge tubing in place of wire. The small tubing is cut about 1/1G in. sliort and heated and brazed in place ; when the tubing cools it comes to a good tension. If it were not for heating these diagonals they would be slack after the brazing. They are also brazed where they cross. The struts are 1-in. 20 gauge tubing and are round instead of oval. The cloth is stitched by hand and covers both sides.

Steering. The outriggers are of %-in. 20 gauge tubing. They can be detached from the planes by taking out four bolts ; the main spars having clips brazed on and the outrigger spars are fitted with an eye, making a very simple and strong

joint. The elevators and rudder are constructed in the same manner as the main planes.

Controls. The control is of the Farman type, fore and aft movement of the lever manipulates the elevator and sideways the ailerons. The rudder is controlled by a foot lever.

The power plant consists of a Model 2 Maximotor, weighing 225 pounds.

This is equipped with a Detroit radiator, Mea magneto and Schebler carburettor. The propeller is of 7-ft. diameter by 4%-ft pitch and gives from 275 to 315 pounds thrust at from 1,000 to 1,200 R. T. M.

Running Gear. The running gear consists of two skids and wheels. The wheels, which ara 2 in. by 20 in. Hartford, are mounted on a long axle, which is suspended by rubber springs.

All the control wires are .°,/32-in. Roebling flexible cable, running over pulleys wherever it is required to turn corners with the wire.

The weight of the complete machine, without the operator, is 505 pounds.

Gray Eagle aero motors have recently been supplied to the following parties :

P. J. Butler, Vallejo. Cai.; IL II. Hoover, Memphis. Tenn. ; D. D. Iluddleston, Salem, Ore.

D. L. Dennis, of Franklin, Ind.. has been making daily flights with his Curtiss type biplane equipped with a Gray Eagle motor, and Earl Slaick of Indianapolis, Ind.. has been making many flights with his Curtiss biplane equipped with'a Gray Eagle motor.

Hoover is also making daily flights with his Gray Eagle biplane at the Louisville aviation field.

R. O. Rubel, Jr., & Co., since Mr. Rubel purchased his partners interest in the business, is devoting most of its energies to the sales of Gray Eagle motors and propellers, though a new model biplane will be brought out for 1912. A six-cylinder, 00 h. p. V-motor. two-cycle type, with open crankcase and no carburetor, is being developed. The first motor has already been satisfactorily tested out on the block.

KIRKBRIDE BUILDS ALL STEEL BIPLANI!

Xirkbride All-steel Biplane.

NEW YORK-CHICAGO FLIGHT

Urbana, O., July 10, 1011.

Editor of AERONAUTICS.

Dear Sir : I have just read the article by R. E. Scott, "What's the Matter With America." and 1 am impressed with his view of the case.

The "Scientific American" in a recent number asks, "Why is Europe ahead of America?" in primary inventions, and answers much in the same way.

If mechanical flight is to stop where it is as to development and usefulness, then it may as well stop at once: but all thinking people arc agreed that it will not stop ; then let us on this side have a hand in the development.

I propose to post this challenge—that I will build a 'plane that will cover the distance between New York and Chicago in the light of a single day carrying two persons, and without a stop, for $25,000, 40 per cent down with contract, balance when the machine is accepted, and

If it fails to do as claimed I will at once refund the advance payment. Or I will organize a company and sell .fUOO.OOO worth of stock for .$25,000 and guarantee to make it worth par in one year or refund the money paid by subscribers.

It seems to me that there should be someone Interested in the advancement of the gentle art of flying that would be willing to stake the v»c of the money long enough to prove this claim and I hat is all that would be lost, for you can refer to any of the banks named on my card and find that I am able to do as I offer.

The offer of largo prizes is not a very satisfactory way of advancing the cause, as the contestants are compelled to build cheaply for fear of failure.

If yon will post my challenge In your next number yon will be helping the advancement of American aeronautics.

Respectfully,

(Signed) C. M. WANZER.

AERONAUTICS August, 1911

construction AIDS XIX

on W righi Blplifie

Hi®

FLIES FROM BOSTON TO WASHINGTON

Atwood's Time Table.

Miles.

BOSTON ....................... O.dO

NEW LONDON ................. 0:5.00

NEW YOKE .................... 112.40

ASBURY BARK ................ 32.45

ATLANTIC CITY ............... 05.15

BALTIMORE ................... 122.40

WASHINGTON ................. 35.20

Total ...................... 401.20

ATWOOD MAKES EIVE CENTURY PLIGHT.

THE biggest flight ever made in this country, more than four times as long as any previous attempt, was successfully accomplished by Harry X. Atwood after not more than six weeks of aviation experience, lie learned to fly at the Wright camp at Dayton and then went with the Burgess Company and Curtis, flying their Burgess-Wright machines.

On June 30. while at breakfast, the suggestion was evolved in his mind that he fly to Xew London and see the Yale-Harvard: boat races from aloft. He did it. When he arrived there a newspaper man asked him why he didn't fly to Xew York. He did. Then he thought he might as well go on to Washington and demonstrate there the new Burgess army aeroplane which had been sent by train. And he did that, too. All this without any prize or profit, save a cup given by a local newspaper after he started and a small purse raised by Atlantic City. The Chamber of Commerce in Washington was expected to reward the flight in a financial way, but. after it was made, the seeming necessity for a prize diminished daily, and the purse was finally not made up.

The Aero Club of Washington, however, did give him its gold medal and he was introduced to President Taft, who made the presentation. This was on July 14. lie flew into Washington, landing in Potomac Park, and had luncheon and then flew right into the White House grounds. This was a very ticklish job, as well as the getting out, for he had to dodge trees, shrubbery, fences and walks. After the presentation, he turned his machine and flewr out of the grounds and back to College rork.

The Burgess-Wright machine is made by the Burgess Company and Curtis, of Marblehead, Mass., licensees under the Wright patents. The power plant is made by the Wright Company itself, at Dayton ; the woodwork, other construction aud assembling is Burgess-Curtis. Products of other manufacturers entering into the whole are : wheels, shock absorbers and cloth, of Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co., Diamond Chain Co., Mea magneto.

Atwood flying Around the Singer Building

Courtesy iY. Y. World

THE FLIGHT DAY BY DAY.

June 30. Flew from Sqnantum field, near Boston, with his mechanic, James Fleet, as passenger, at T a. m., to a field near Xew London, arriving at 9:10. The mayor quickly came to the spot with police and flew with Atwood over the course while the college crews were racing. The flight took 2 hours and 10 minutes to Xew London.

July 1. Flew alone from Xew London. 7 :0i\ a. m., to Xew York City, stopping 3S minutes,for gas just across the East River, at Astoria, L. 1.. directly over the East River bridges and across the skyscraper district of Xew York around the Singer Building and down to Governor's Island,

Atwood's Long riijht Mapped.

in the hay. 10:20 a. m. lie followed the New Haven railroad tracks all the way down the Connecticut shore to the upper end of Manhattan Island, where he swung out over the Fast River to Astoria.

July .*'.. Flew around Governor's Island and the hay, and took Lieut. Fickel around the Statue of Liberty. A hundred miles in all were flown here, it was figured. While up over Brooklyn at a height of 2,200 ft. his gas ran forward in the tank away from the feed pipe to the engine and he glided down to the Island.

.Inly 4. Started at 8 :.r>0 a. m. and arrived at Atlantic City alone, at 2 :'.V2 p. m., after stopping at Asbury Park, and at Sea Girt on the way for oil. and at Tuckerton for gas. This stage took a long time for he had to buck hcnil winds all the way. Asbury Park was mistaken for Atlantic City and-he had to go twice the distance again to reach the latter place.

July r»-t». Made passenger (lights at Atlantic City, taking up Chus. K. Hamilton and various local people, llere Hamilton was Invited to tly with Atwood to Washington, and accented.

July 7. Hamilton and Atwood started, but a dog got in the way of a propeller and was neatly

dissected. A second start was unfortunate forB the machine did not raise well and they had to I land in water. The waves broke the planes and I got in the engine.

July 8. Hamilton had his own Burgess-Wright I towed behind an automobile all the way from I New Britain, Conn., taking 20 hours on the road I without sleep, and this way used the rest of the I day.

July 9. Made a start but had to land a quarter I of a mile away on Captain Hugh L. Willoughby's I grounds and injured the machine, which did not! seem to lift.

July 10. At 5 :04 in the morning another startl was made and a landing made then at Farnhurst, I Del., at 0:45, where gas was obtained. Start-1 iug again at 7 :30, another landing was againl made at Stemmer's Run, lid., at 0 :25. All alongl the machine was flying close to the ground audi it seemed impossible to get it to lift. The ex-1 treme heat was charged with this. Just beforel reaching Stemmer's Run they passed close over a I moving train and the hot air and smoke from I the engine boosted them up in the air enough I to clear the telegraph wires and make a landingl in a nearby field.

July 11. Despite the very long grass, a startl was made, still with Hamilton, at 4 :40 a. m..l landing at 5 :50 a. m. at College Park, which At-I wood thought was really in the city of Washing-I ton instead of nine miles away. As he plannedl to fly to Washington itself he was still not satis-l tied until he completed his journey to the Capitol.I After going into town for breakfast he took out! the Rurgess-Wright government machine for its I demonstration but broke it up.

July 12. Meets the President and announces an I early flight from Chicago to New York.

July 13. He buys Hamilton's machine, which has been used from Atlantic City, and flies over] the city of Washington for half an hour, circling I the dome of the Capitol itself, landing back atl College Park.

July 14. Flies to the White House grounds and is presented with the gold medal.

July 21. A bad wind storm took the machine, which was out of the shed at College Park, blew it up in the air and dropped it back to earth, I completely wrecking it.

JOHNSTONE BREAKS DURATION RECORD

St'. Croix Johnstone, of the Moisant Company, flying a Moisant-BIeriot, broke the American duration and distance records over a measured course on July 27 at Mineola, L. I., in a flight lasting 4 hours 1 minute 53 4/5 seconds, circling the course 39 times and a fraction for a distance of 170 miles, 1,254 feet, officially observed by representatives of the Aero Club.

He started1 very early in the morning, just as the sun was coming up over the eastern horizon and finished his flight over a four-mile 2.099-foot course shortly after 9 :00 o'clock. The machine was loaded down with 2.r> gallons of gas and 11 gallons of castor oil. A small leak in tut- extra gas tank prevented a- longer flight.

The new figures to be added to the list of American records are as follows:

2 recoups broken. 0 established.

Duration, 4 hr. 1 min. 5."» 4/." sec.

Distance, 170 m. 1,254 ft.

150 kil. in 2 hrs. S min. 1 /."> sec.

200 kil. in 2 hrs. 49 min. .r>2 1 /."> sec.

250 kil. in 3 hrs. 32 min. 50 3/5 sec.

Two hours. SS m. 1,139 ft.

Three hours, 133 in. 1,729 ft.

Four hours, 170 ni. 1,254 ft.

The records that were beaten follow :—

Duration. 3 hr. .".9 min. 49.5 sec, P. O. Parmo-lee (Wright). San Francisco. Jan. 22. 1911.

Distance, to I m. .".SO ft., Ralph Johnstone (Wright), Roston, Sept. 19, 1910.

BEACHEY'S PLIGHT OVER NIAGARA.

For spectacular daring and accomplished Hying, no one has "anything on" Lincoln IJeachey. IIis flight of June 27 back and forth over the Niagara River and down the (Jorge will be remembered for some time.

Beachey was the principal feature of an international carnival under the auspices of the twin cities Niagara Falls, N. Y., and Niagara Falls, Can. The start of his flight was from a baseball park on the American side of the river. From here he circled round and flew across the Niagara Kiver and Coat Island and back of the Horseshoe Falls to the Canadian side. Without stopping he turned in below the Falls at the beginning of the Gorge and flew along its course and over the big steel bridge. Then he turned again and flew back up the Canadian side nearly to the Kalis. At this point he repeated his flight down the Gorge but made it more sensational. Dropping close to the boiling Kapids, he shot along, this time passing under the central arch of the bridge.

On previous days he had made a series of spectacular flights over the Niagara Kiver in the wind and rain with his Curtiss machine which he now flies without a front elevator. Just a few days before, P.eaehey, llcCurdy and Wittmer gave an exhibition at the famous Fort Erie race track, across the lake from Buffalo. Here a number of sensational flights were made by all three and on one day. in a stiff wind. Beaehoy flew across the river and over the business district of Buffalo.

FLIGHT OVER NEW YORK.

Following the sensational flight of Atwood over the peaks and canyons of lower Manhattan, hadis Lewkowiez, in his five-cylinder Anzani-engined Bleriot on July S left Nassau Boulevard and flew high over the other end of Manhattan Island, attaining an altitude of over 0.000 ft. As he crossed East Kiver and was about over East Uloth Street he noticed his oil giving out and he deliberately shut his engine off and began to glide the long distance across the Hudson Kiver and the Palisades to Leonia, N. J., a distance of at least three or four miles in an air line. In landing he caught his wheels in the long tough grass of the salt meadows and turned the machine over, breaking its back.

DOUBLE ENGINE MONOPLANE FAILS.

The Queen Aeroplane Company's double Gnome-engined monoplane eame to grief and the aviator, Stone, had a narrow escape.

This company, which is building fine copies of the Bleriot 'at Fort George, New York City, built a speed machine with two engines, mounted one in front as usual and one directly behind the aviator, turning in opposite directions. Instead of the usual rectangular body in Bleriot machines, three hollow outriggers, s°parated at

the front far enough for the rear propeller to swing, extended back to a point where a rather small vertical rudder was hinged. A four-wheeled chassis was used to support the whole. It was expected that the machine would develop phenomenal speed but it did not fly far enough to get much of an idea as to what it might do. It jumped off the ground like a scared rabbit and almost immediately keeled over on one side and Stone was unable to right it. If it had been higher that might have been possible but it was acknowledged that the vertical rudder was entirely too small.

NEW McCURDY MACHINE.

The new MeCurdy aeroplane has started on the road before anyone had a chance to see it. It was taken to Nassau for one short hop to try the balance and shipped to Hamilton, Ont.. where an exhibition is to be given. From here it goes to Toronto and on to Chicago for the meet.

II. F. Kearney is making flights at Creve Coeur and is to try ont pontoons on his biplane. Several other novices are about to move over from Kinloch, as the former is a more favored flying ground.

NAVAL MACHINE HAS NEW FEATURES.

Lieut. Theodore G. Ellyson. the navy's qualified aviator, has been flying all the month at 11am-mondsport with the hydroaeroplane bought by the Navy Department of the United States Government. On many of his flights he has carried passengers, among "whom was Capt. W. I. Chambers, head of the aeronautical work of the navy, who was taken up Keuka Lake to its end and back, a distance of about 40 miles.

The naval student. Lieut. J. II. Towers, has also been a passenger to IVnn Yan and back. Penn Yan is at one end of the. lake and llammondsport at the other. Over a measured course the machine covered 10 miles in IS minutes, carrying the two officers. »>n the return trip froini Penn Yan the machine circled the little steamer that plies between the two towns for the express benefit of Lieut. Paul W. P.eek, the army aviator, who was known to be a passenger, and the navy took this occasion to show the army what a naval aeroplane was like.

The end of July, Lieutenant Beek was taken as a passenger in the machine.

At the present time four military officers are training at the Curtiss factory—Lieutenants Beck. Ellyson. Towers and J. W. MeClaskey, the latter of the United States marine corps. Beek and Ellyson are qualified pilots.

The other navy machine is a four-cylinder land aeroplane, of the usual Curtiss type.

The Navy's Hydro-aero-plane

0 NAUTI CS

August, ipil

INNOVATIONS IN HYDROAEROPLANE.

The naval hydroaeroplane is two-seated, each being equipped with an individual shoulder brace for the operating of the ailerons. These can be connected together or disconnected at will. The passenger must, if they are connected, allow himself to sway with any movement of the braces caused by the aviator. The passenger is free to draw or make notes, or can at once take over the control of the entire machine.

The steering post is hinged on an axis fore and aft, so that the wheel can be taken by either of the occupants and full control of the machine instantly shifted from one to the other of the people. In case of accident to the driver, the passenger can grasp control without chance of losing balance of the machine. The possible danger of two men trying to operate the machine at the same time is avoided. The elevator is tilted by a horizontal rod running forward from tiie lower end of the steering post. A patent has been applied for on this hinged steering column.

The diagonal stay wires in the three center sections of the machine are doubled and the motor is one of the new TO-h.p. eight-cylinder motors, just completed.

The aileron-operating cables run from the shoulder brace over the two large pulleys on the front struts, as shown in the. photograph, crossing above the aviator to pulleys at the extremities of the upper plane and down to the ailerons. From each aileron a cable runs over a pulley at the outer extremity of the lower plant in to the shoulder brace again.

NEW WRIGHT MODEL.

A new model Wright machine has been produced, of ;-J2-ft. spread, a one-man machine, designed particularly for use in restricted grounds. It flies faster than the two-man model B, is a fast climber, but not so speedy as the Baby Wright.

The navy's machine, a model B, the third Wright machine purchased by the government, was delivered on July 1!>, after an hour's demonstration by Orville Wright. After this flight he took up ('apt. W. 1. Chambers, head of aeronautics in the navy, for 2.*J minutes. While he was aboard, Mr. Wright made a beautiful glide of about three miles at reduced power, and as he approached the earth lie started up the engine and immediately ascended.

II. II. Brown of Boston lias received a model B and he will complete his training at Nassau boulevard. George Frederick Norton and Professor Reynolds are the latest students at the last place, while Mr. George W. Beatty is rapidly becoming proficient in the machine bought by Walter B. Davis.

At Dayton, O. G. Simmons is learning to drive for Robert J. Collier. Messrs. H. V. Hills of Milwaukee, and J. 0. llenning, who is learning to flv to give exhibitions in a machine bought foiMiim b'v a syndicate, are now students here. Mr. Hill's will place himself at the disposal of any firm that needs a man to demonstrate machines. Louis Mitchell, who owns a Burgess-Wright, has also bought a Wright model B and is learning to flv it. Twenty-four men have been trained this year,"and 10 machines have been delivered. Other pupils trained by the Wright company are awaiting deliveries, five of which are promised by Aug. 10.

A new aileron scheme has been employed by James B. Slinn. of Cbillicotbe, 111., in bis monoplane. The ailerons are situated on the upper rear edge of the main planes and are operated by a shoulder brace, in one direction only.

The trailing edge of the elevator, 15 ft. by 2Vi ft., is directly above the leading edge of the main plane. This is operated through the bell crank and link by tilting the steering column fore and aft. The cross-bar operates the rudder. The main plane is 27 ft. spread and 5 ft. chord.

Clarence II. Walker of Salt Lake City, who purchased a Curtiss machine last year, is now giving exhibitions in Australia. Masson and Addosides are also there with a Bleriot.

Charles K. Hamilton will soon be flying for the Curtiss Exhibition Co. again, his financial differences with the company evidently having been patched up. _

The race to be flown Aug. 5 between New York and Philadelphia by the Curtiss aviators, Hamilton, who lias just joined with Curtiss again, Beaciiey and Robinson, has aroused no little comment, Robinson is coming East after making numerous hydroaeroplane flights at Seattle. The Moisant management has written to Gimbel Brothers suggesting making of the race an open affair, in order that Moisant flyers. Johnstone. Barrier, Simion or any one or all of them, or more, can take part. A. Leo Stevens, who is booking Henry N. Atwood, is anxious that he be given a chance at the $5.000 prize. There are still others, independent aviators, who are anxious to try. The Curtiss office looks upon it as a business proposition, and one which anyone else had the same privilege of arranging.

With over a quarter million ignition outfits in use in the United States, the Bosch Magneto Co. is now introducing throughout the country an extensive service system through which users of their apparatus wherever they may be located will be able to secure prompt and skilled assistance in case of need.

The scheme adopted is very far reaching and should prove of great value and assistance to those employing Bosch products. The plan includes the appointment throughout the country of official distributers, who will have a complete stock of repair and spare parts for Bosch apparatus, as well as a completely equipped repair shop in charge of a mechanic especially trained for the work.

Tiie distributers will furthermore be in a position to handle sales of Bosch products to the local trade. Close co-operation is planned between the Bosch Magneto Co. and the distributers, which will give the latter the benefit of special publicity, circularizing, etc., as well as the necessary technical assistance.

Each distributer as appointed will be furnished with an enameled sign featuring the Bosch magneto, reserved entirely for official Bosch distributers, and arc to be displayed by the establishments designated in this way.

Distributers aie now being appointed, and it is expected before many months have passed they will be operating in all of the localities of the United States and Canada where automobiles, motorboats, motorcycles, etc., are in sufficient use to v.ir''"'il (be appointment.

Slinn Aileron Scheme.

WRIGHT COMPANY TO START WHOLESALE SUITS.

Within the next 30 days infringement suits will be started by the Wright company against manufacturers and aviators in this country who are manufacturing and exhibiting alleged infringing aeroplanes.

This is not the legal procedure originally intended by the company, but one that has been more or less forced upon it by public censure. The plan was to bring infringement suits against manufacturers or users of the main types of machines, such as Curtiss, Farman and Bleriot only, and to obtain as early an adjudication as possible for the benefit of the art and industry, for not until final confirmation or dismissal of the Wright claims would capital be likely to invest in aviation, nor would the public buy machines of types in suit.

Suits were brought against Paulhau, using the Farman ; against Curtiss, and against White, using a Bleriot and Farman, and injunctions asked for. In the first two cases, that of Curtiss and Paulhau, the injunctions granted by the Circuit Court were set aside on an appeal, and the next step wTas to wait for the trial of the infringement suit. White's lawyers obtained a delay and advised him that the makers of his machines should defray at least a part of the suits, but White could not induce cither Farman or Bleriot to even pay a share of the costs of fighting, as they had their own cases to fight in France. The White suit is up for trial in October, as is the t'aulhan. It is possible that judgments may be obtained by the Wright company against both, but it is not at all certain that damages can be collected so long as both defendants stay abroad, at least not in France. It is quite probable that English courts would review favorable judgment in this country and make White pay up.

Curtiss must have his evidence in in September for the trial of the action in October. Both the Wrights and Curtiss have been collecting evidence and taking testimony during the past six months.

THE WHOLESALE SUITS.

Criticism was quite general of the action of the Wrights in the alleged selection of these few to be the "goats." and people wondered why the Moisant aviators were not prosecuted, why Sop-with was allowed to come over without molestation, why Ovington, Baldwin, Willard and the large number of lesser lights who are killing the chances for future meets or exhibitions all over the country by failing to satisfy the public or even fly at all in many cases, were left to fly as they pleased.

Now suits are to be started against all who are doing anything at all in the way of manufacturing, exhibition or contest flying where there is financial reward. No doubt the public will criticise this move also, and not without reason, for consistency was never a virtue with the dear public.

Sopwith has already been served with legal documents, as has Barrier. Simon, Audemars, Frisbie and two managers of the recent Moisant n.eet at Detroit.

F. 11. Uussell, manager of the Wright company, has stated : "Our first desire was not to bother the general public until it could be informed as to the legal status of the Wright patent, but with such rapid developments in this country, and with the coming over of foreigners who are not interested in development, excepting in so far as they would make money to take away from the country, we were becomiing criticised for the very-policy which we considered most broad and: liberal." Then, too, by refraining from these further suits, we might he considered as acquiescing, to the detriment of our legal position.

"Another reason, quite as important as the popular feeling (.above expressed I which has altered our policy, is the fact that manufacturers and licensees in these exhibitions who have recognized our patents and paid our royalties arc very rightly requesting the protection in their business which they feel the patents should insure, and which they have paid for."

WEIGHT SUITS IN OTHER COUNTRIES.

In France the court rendered the opinion, printed in the July number, which opinion acknowledged the validity of the Wright patent as a combination, and the present system as sufficiently described in the patent specifications, but which allowed the commission appointed opportunity within the next year to discover prior claims.

The German company, which owns the German rights, won its first case against infringers.

AUTOMOBILE CLUB MOTOR PRIZE.

It is much satisfaction to note that 15 entries have been received for the Automobile Club of America's $1,000 motor prize, of which full particulars have previously been published in AERONAUTICS, just before the closing of the entries on July 1, when it seemed likely that not a single entry would be received.

When the July issue went to press two days before we were informed that none had been received.

The time for closing has now been extended to Sept. 1 to give certain manufacturers more time to enter or prepare their product for the test.

The 15 entries are as follows :

Albatross (six-cylinder), entered by Albatross Engine Corporation.

Albatross (two-cylinder), entered by Albatross Engine Corporation.

Anzani. entered by Aerial Equipment Co.

Cooke Revolving, entered by W. C. Cooke.

Gnome, entered by Aeromotion Co. of America.

Ilarriman Aero, entered by ITarriman Motor Co.

Ithaca, entered by Tthaca Motor Co.

Kirkham, entered by Charles B. Kirkharn1.

Maximotor, entered by Maximotor Co.

Renault, entered by Aerial Equipment Co.

Requa, entered by Requa Motor Co.

Roberts, entered by Roberts Motor Co.

Springfield Aviation, entered by Springfield Gas Engine -Co.

Willard, entered by II. J. Willard.

Wright Aero Motor, entered by the Wright Co.

OBJECTS TO ENTENSIOX.

C. B. Kirkham writes as follows :

In your last issue you stated that up to the time you went to press there were no entries to the aeronautical motor competition to be held by the Automobile Club of America, and as you evidently went to press after the 1st of July, 1 will have to take issue with you on this noint, as the Kirkham motor was entered previous to this time, and 1 have since learned that the date of entry of this competition has been postponed to Sept. 1. It seems to me very strange that the time of entry should be extended in order to favor manufacturers who had not confidence enough in their motors to get in at the time originally set. It looks very unsportsmanlike to me, and it should not be. for 'if they have not confidence enough in their motor to make entry at the date originally specified, especially after the competition had been advertised as long as it has, then it seems to mo that they should have been left out, and had I not gotten my entry in. I would most certainly have expected to stay out entirely. My entry and specifications are in and they will not lie changed, for if I cannot win this competition with a stock motor, I would rather not win it at all."

RACE FROM NEW YORK TO PHILIY.

Through the $5.<iOO prize of Gimbel Brothers, a large depart mien t store tirm of New York and Philadelphia, the first American cross-country aeroplane race will be tlown from New York to Philadelphia on Saturday, Aug. 5, and the aviators competing will be Lincoln Beachey, the California n who a few weeks ago made his daring flight in a Curtiss aeroplane over Niagara Palls and through the gorge; Chas. K. Hamilton and 11. A. Robinson, expert and experienced fliers.

The contestants will start from Governor's Island. New York Ray. and fly up the Hudson River to the Gimbel store, Broadway and Thirty-third St.. each aviator passing over the store, which will be considered the official starting point of the race.

After being officially timed for the start, the aeroplanes will set out on a course from New York to Philadelphia. T4 miles, following in a general way the tracks of the Pennsylvania Railroad as far as Trenton, where they may take up the course of the Delaware River to Market St.. Philadelphia. Bach aeroplane will pass over the Gimbel store in that city, thus completing the official time of the race. The aviators will then tly up the Schuylkill River to a landing place in Kairmwunt Park.

THE AEROPLANE IN POLAR EXPLORATION.

For the first time a newspaper man has obtained an interview while flying as a passenger. During the last month the British representative of the American journal of aerial locomotion, AERONAUTICS, George II. Scraggs. flew for an hour with Lieut. Hugh E. Watkins at l'.rooklands motordrome in the lieutenant's Howard Wright biplane. The arrangement of the exhaust in this machine implies the engine considerably, and it is not difficult to converse. During the flight Lieutenant Watkins was asked with regard to his proposed use of an aeroplane on his Antarctic-trip. ''We are using one of the new R. E. P. monoplanes." said he, "which will be equipped with a shield, covering the aviator as much as possible, in order to protect hiin against the severe cold. The machine will be used for scouting and locating open fields of ice that can safely be traveled by the exploration party. 1 do not consider an exploration outfit complete to-day without an aeroplane."

1 luring the whole hour's duration of the flight conversation was easily carried on and pictures were taken while aloft. Lieutenant Watkins has a line record as an aviator, and is the twenty-fifth man to secure a pilot license from the Royal Aero Club.

THE CHICAGO MEET.

The strictly competitive Chicago meet, under the auspices of the Aero Club of Illinois, will start Aug. 12 and last 10 days. Forty-nine different events are scheduled in order' that the $.so,()00 in prizes may be earned. The totalization of duration prize alone is $lo.Ono, while daily prizes of .$l,0(iii for the same feat are offered.

For the first lime no guarantees are paid to insure attendance of certain aviators. All are free to enter or stay away, and every dollar won will be earned through flights.

Garros, who has been flying in the wonderful cross-country races, and Andemars, who Hies three different machines, are expected back by the Moi-sant company to take part with Simon. Harrier, Frisbic, Raygorodsk.v and another "dark horse" in the meet. The Curtiss company will be represented by several flyers. Sopwith. Beatty, .Tames V. Martin, Ladis Lewkowicz and Uvington are expected. Chicago itself has a number of novice flyers who will not make the affair any less interés I i ng.

The Wright company may also outer a full complement of machines if Hie prizes they are certain of winning total as inmch as may be earned elsewhere in the same period.

Charles F. Walsh Is coming from the Coast, and W'illard and McCtirdy will be on hand with their two new machines.

EARLE OVINGTON TO FLY THE CURTISS.

Earle L. Ovington will have charge of the training school to be established by the Curtiss Aeroplane Co. at Nassau Boulevard. The first machine will be on hand for flights by Aug. 1. Under Mr. Ovington students will have the best theoretical as well as practical instruction, for he is an expert on engines, a most competent aviator, an engineer graduate of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and a thoroughly good fellow, particularly well fitted for such work. Cromwell Dixon, who was a mere boy when he sailed his first dirigible, which his mother and he built in the back yard, will be the first pupil.

NEW COMPANIES.

The Pioneer Aeroplane and Exhibition Co. has been incorporated in. St. Louis for $12,000 and has secured Andrew Drew, formerly manager of the Kinlocn and Creve Coeur aviation fields, as aviator. He is now at Dayton, Ohio, taking lessons on a Wright aeroplane which has been purchased by the company. A school will be conducted at one of the two St. Louis fields.

Sharp Aeroplane Co.. Cleveland, O., .$10,000. .Tames G. Reyant. K. C. Morris, Amiel Radtke, John Sharp and llattie Sharp.

Tacoma Aeroplane Mfg. Co.. Tacoma, Wash.. .$50,000. G. W. Stoomer, W. F. Longmire and J. A. Anderson.

Wildwood Aeroplane Co., Wildwood, N. J. A Bowman and T. S. Goslin.

U. S. Aerial Navigation Co., So. Dakota, $225,000.

Washington Aeronautic Co.. Seattle, Wash., $50.000. Jos. A. Kelly, A. B. Roberts.

Western Aviation Co., San Francisco, Cal.. $10,-0(i(). 11. E. Buggies, F. J. Crisp and James Leach.

Utah Aviation Association, $25,000, Salt Lake City. J. A. Kaufman. W. E. Palmer. E. M. Cooper, Peter Clegg, William R. Smith, William S. Marks, William Soelburg and Philip Aljcts.

The Bridgeport Aeronautical Co., Portland, $100,000. C. E. Eaton, T. L. Croteau.

Chicago Aeroplane Mfg. Co., of Chicago, $100,-00O.

McCurdv Aeroplane Co.. J. A. D. McCnrdy, $5,000, 17S0 Broadway, New York.

BOOKS RECEIVED.

THE PRINCIPLES OF AEROPLANE CON-STRPCTION, by Rankin Kennedy. C. E. Cloth, 8 vo., 145 pp.. 51 diagrams. Published by D. Yan Nostrand & Co., 23 Murray St., New York, at $1.50.

Contents: Elementary Mechanics and Physics, Principles of Inclined Planes. Air and Its Properties, Principles of the Aeroplane. The Curve of the Aeroplane, Centers of Gravity, Balancing and Steering, The Propeller. The Helicopter, The Wing Propeller, The Engine, The Future of the Aeroplane.

There is absolutely nothing new in the book in the way of experiments ; no new or original ideas of any kind.

One gets the idea that the author was not so very sure of the subject with which he deals. This comes from the very indefinite way in which a great many of the subjects are handled, as well as the fact that there are some inaccuracies.

The book belongs to that rapidly increasing class, which starts with nothing and ends with not much more, and contains no real information ; they have not even the merit of being pleasant reading.

CHARTS OF THE ATMOSPHERE1 FOR AERONAUTS ANH AVIATORS, by Prof. A. Lawrence Rot eh. founder and director of Blue Hill Meteorological Observatory, and Andrew II. Palmer, research assistant ; published bv John Wiley and Sons, 43 E. 19th St., New York, $2.00 net.

It is a handsome cloth-bound book of nearly one hundred printed pages measuring nine by eleven inches, and illustrated by twenty-four full page charts representing a great variety of physical properties and conditions of the atmosphere, sometimes at a height of a few hundred feet, again at all depths from the ocean face to the mountain tops. Among the data graphically portrayed

AERONAUTICS

A it (just, 19 il

in the charts are the atmospheric density, pressure and temperature, the wind velocity", direction and impactual pressure. Some of these relate to the general ocean of air. others to particular localities, and more especially to that of the Blue Hill Observatory. A large portion of the data are taken from original observations made at the Blue 11ill Observatory and in the four expeditions sent in 1905-1007 by Messrs. Teisserenc de Bort and Hotch on the steam yacht "Otaria" to explore the atmosphere in the intertropical regions of the Atlantic Oceau, both in winter and in summer.

Interesting features of the work are the observations charted and the conclusions derived from them, in the last three parts of the book. These show the wind speeds and directions in the northeast trade region of the Atlantic Ocean, and their applicability to aerial navigation over that part of the sea. Aerial summer routes across the north Atlantic from America to Europe and return are outlined, over which it is declared to be possible to cross the ocean in either direction in one or two days less time than by the fastest steamship, in a dirigible balloon capable of sustaining a speed of 25 miles an hour, and of remaining four days at an elevation of half a mile. The eastward route extends from Boston to London at a height of 3,300 ft., and is estimated to require 32 hours covering a distance of 3.300 miles ; the westward route extends from Lisbon to the Lesser Antilles, a distance of 3.UO0 miles, and is estimated at 50. hours, the voyage being made near the sea level.

The work is a timely contribution to the science of aerogeography, and a convenient reference book of aeronautical meteorology. Coming from investigators of so much experience, it should be heartily welcomed by aeronauts and aviators who have need of practical statistics of the atmosphere so concisely summarized and elegantly diagrammed.

LES LOIS EXPERIMEXTALS DE L'AVIA-T10X, par Alexandre See. ancien eleve de l'Ecole 1'olytechnique. Paper, 34S pp., with diagrams. Price. 7 fr. 50. from la Librairie Aeronautique, 4(1. rue de Seine, Paris.

Table des Matieres : Generalites sur le probleme du vol. Les lois de la resistance de 1'air. Theorie de l'aeroplane. Le vol des oiseaux. Le vol a voile. L'helice au point fixe. L'kelieoptere. L'helice propulsive. La stabilite.

FLYING MACHINES TO-DAY, by William D. Funis, M. E., Professor of Mechanical Engineering. Polytechnic Institute. Brooklyn. 12mo., cloth, 2BS pp., 123 illustrations. Published by I). Van Xostrand & Co.. 23 Murray St., New York, at $1.50.

Contents: The Delights and Dangers of Flying; Soaring Flight by Man; Turning Corners; Air and the Wind; Gas and Ballast: Dirigible Balloons and Other Kinds: Question of Power: Getting LTp and Down; Models and Gliders: Aeroplane Details ; Some Aeroplanes ; Some Accomplishments ; The Possibilities in Aviation ; Aerial Warfare.

The book gives in a very readable form a chronicle of the contemporaneous accomplishments in the air: it makes no pretence of doing more than point out the general principles of the aeroplane and lighter-than-air apparatus.

It is a book that is intended for the lay reader, who cannot but appreciate the different points as they are touched upon, so simply and clearly are they dealt with.

NEW AERO CLUB LICENSES.

Aviators' licenses have been issued by the Aero Club of America to the following :

Lieut. Thomas deW. Milling (Wright). No. 30.

Lieut. Harold II. Arnold (Wright). No. 29.

Howard W. Gill (Wright). No. 31.

Edson F. Gallaudet (Wright). Xo. 32.

Lincoln Beachey (Curtiss). No. 27.

Harry X. At wood (Burgess-Wright).

Lieut". Theodore G. Ellyson (Curtiss hydroaeroplane), Xo. 2.S.

Others who will try shortly arc Messrs. Geo. W. Beatty. William C. Beers, W. Redmond Cross and Lee Hammond.

Balloon pilot license No. 41 has been issued to Frank M. Jacobs of Topeka, Kan.

AVIATION INSURANCE.

The cost of aero accident insurance, as scheduled by the Glascow Assurance Corporation. Ltd., is of particular interest at this time in view of the refusal of American companies to write accident insurance for aviators and aeronauts, even attaching clauses to ordinary life policies held by the general public, practically cancelling most of the face value of the policy in case of death in aeroplanes, balloons or airships. Such shortsighted policy, in the presence of competent data, further illustrates the backward state of the art in America.

Following we give a list of the benefits: The premium to insure the whole of the above benefits for one quarter is just about $30. We have changed the pounds to dollars in round numbers in the following schedule:

$1,250 in event of death by any other than aerial accident.

$625 in event of death by aerial accident.

$750 for loss of both hands, or for both feet or for both eyes.

$500 for either loss of one hand or one foot or one eye.

Double, half or quarter benefits are written at proportionate rates. The above schedule is about one-fourth as great in amount for the same injuries as allowed in the average American accident policy and the annual rate is about nine times as much or nine times the premium for one-fourth the insurance. Assuredly, th.s is better than no insurance at all, and cancellation of ordinary life insurance.

Here is a sample of imbecility on the part of one American accident insurance concern. A man engaged in, for instance, publishing an aeronautical journal applies for an accident policy, $2,500 face value, premium $12.50 yearly. He is classed as "special" and an endorsement is attached to the policy, which states that if "performing any work or services on or connected with any airship or balloon, the company's liability under this policy shall not exceed $250 on account of the as-sured's death resulting from such injuries, and the company's liability under any other provision or provisions of the policy shall not exceed $50."

The holder might be sitting in the grandstand, according to the wording of this clause, noting down the operations of an airship over a course and taking time, and in case of death from heart failure the beneficiary would receive but $250. This is a bright example of actuarial ingenuity. In the evident desire to play safe, the statistician overlooked the fact that aeroplanes had been invented and the clause mentions only airships and balloons. Xow, an airship certainly is not an aeroplane, despite frequent newspaper usage.

Since the above was written and set in type, W. II. Markham & Co.. Pierce Bldg., St. Louis. Mo., are now prepared to cover aviators and aeronauts against death from aceidents up to .$5,000 through Lloyds. The premiums for bal-loonists are as follows: One day, 1 per cent.; two days. 1 y. per cent. : seven days, 2>.j per cent. : one month, 5 per cent.; twelve months, 10U pet-cent. For aviators the above rates are doubled. To insure an aviator's life for a year in a $5.000 policy would cost $1,050.

Messrs. Fichtei & Sachs. Schweinfurt. Germany, the makers of the well known F. Ai S. annular ball bearings, and whose American representatives are the J. S. Rretz Co.. have begun an action against the R. 1. V. Co.. the importers of the R. I. V. bearing, for infringement of the side entrance slot tilling patents which they own.

The value of these patents and others used in combination with theim consists iu their permitting tin1 use of halls of the largest diameter, also the use of more balls in a given size bearing, and consequently maximum load-carrying capacity.

SI

An Elbndge Equipped Curtiss Type Biplane

and the "Aero Special" in four and six cylinders, from te^ as light in weight as anything of equal power. Another thing

since passed the experiment; power plants for the man wl

If you will send us a together with weight, dime! to advise you, to the best I power plant.

If you have not already our 1911 catalog and booli Amateur Aviation," write fl They are free for the asking

Single Cylinder "Featherweight" Weight 60 Lbs. 10 H. P.

ELBRIDGE ENGINE COMPANY, 10 civer RoaJ

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CALIF. AERO MFG. & SUPPLY CO. SAN FRANCISCO

MARINE ENGINE & SUPPLY CO.

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In answering advertisements please mention this magazine.

IDGE AERO ENGINES

Itde in Different Sizes so that You aet Just the Proper Elbridge for our Particular Requirements

|R you have a monoplane, biplane or just an experimental there is just the right Elbridge Engine to suit you. The herweight" is made in one, two, three, four and six cylinders power, and es have long eal practical

4 Cyl. "Aero Special"

your 'plane will be glad le right size

Elbridge Equipped Bleriot Type Monoplane. Baker Aviation Co., Billings, Mcnt.

In answering advertisements please mention this magazine.

ARMY PLYING.

During the past month lhe army Wright machines have been kept busy. No less than 1 -7 (lights were made up to July 20, (luring which 50 passengers were carried. Flights over Washington from College Park occurred twice during the month by army aviators, Below is a synopsis of the work accomplished. That there are absolutely no frills to the story is obvious. It illustrates the matter-of-fact method of a Government report, its conciseness and accuracy :

During the past mouth the following were the principal incidents in the course of instruction at the Signal Corps Aviation School, College Park, Md. :

July 0, 1011, Lieutenant Milling, when trying for pilot's license, landed five feet from point marked as starting and landing point. July 7. 1011, altitude of 3,2<>0 feet made by Lieutenant Arnold; Lieutenant Milling, with Lieutenant Kirt-land as a passenger, flew to Washington Barracks, D. C. landed and flew back; highest altitude, 2,200 ft.; average altitude, 1,400 ft. July 10. 1011. Lieutenant Arnold, with Lieutenant Kirtiand as a passenger, drove to Washington. D. C. and returned without landing; time. 40 minutes; highest altitude, 2,400 ft. July 18. 1011. Lieutenant Arnold during a flight of 27 minutes and 35 seconds' duration reached an altitude of 4,107 ft. To July 20, 1011, 127 flights have been made, during 50 of which passengers were carried.

The following officers- are on duty at the Signal Corps Aviation School: ('apt. C. DcF. Chandler, commanding: Capt. Paul ,\V. Reck. Lieut. It. O. Kirtiand, Lieut. II. II. Arnold, Lieut. T. DeW. .Milling.

AT LOS ANGELES.

The future is bright for aviation in and around Los Angeles. The amateurs are gaining ground. Since the last meet Beryl Williams has come forward with a home-made Curtiss which he is Hying successfully. With G. L. Martin he has been filling exhibition engagements. Charles F. Walsh is filling engagements along the North Pacific with a big machine, using a (>o-h. p. 11n 11-Scott engine. Messrs. Gage, Crosson and Stiles are making short flights every week at the Domínguez field.

Eaton Brothers & Co. have established an aviation field at Hyde Park, which is a new place within a 10-cent fare from the city, and bids fair to become an ideal field. Jack Cannon is instructor in the school they have1 established. The Eaton boys have made several very creditable Curtiss type machines, and with Dwight Paulding as aviator are tilling engagements.

Earle Remington and William Stevens are laboring hard at Domínguez lo fly the two Bleriots

which Remington purchased of James Radley. Remington has had bad luck and has smashed the Blcriot twice himiself. The last smash was engineered by Frank Campion, who got up easily enough, but was unable to shut off the Gnome engine in attempting to get back down again. He landed head on, plowing up the ground with the propeller and badly injuring the engine.

The following year will see numerous flyers develop from the local bunch of amateurs struggling toward success.

The 4th of July saw amateur meets and exhibitions all over the country. At Riverside, Los Angeles, one straight-away' flight was made by Beryl Williams. <>n attempting the second one, he broke the running gear.

At Santa Barbara, Jack Cannon in a short flight, landed in a haystack and broke his machine, and Dwight Paulding in a short flight ran into a fence and smashed his machine.

AT MINEOLA.

Nine pupils are taking instruction at the Moi-sant school at Mineola. Miss Harriet Quimby, dramatic editor of '"Leslie's," Miss Mathilda Moi-sant and F. de Murias will try in a few days for pilot licenses. Miss Moisant has taken up aviation solely for the sake of the sport and is not going to give exhibitions—but she is determined to fly.

The concrete sheds which are being erected on the permanent grounds over on the Wcstbury side of the Hempstead Plains will be finished the 1st of August. The walls are up and the rolling iron curtains, which will be used in place of heavy wooden doors, are only waiting to be installed. In the meantime instruction and flying have been conducted at the old sheds put up by the Aero Club of America at Mineola.

Capt. George W. MacKay of the signal corps, Michigan National Guard, has been detailed' to take up flying at the Moisant school and took up his work the last week in July. lie is the first National Guard officer to be taught to fly. lie was assigned to this study through Adjutant-General Cox by Governor Osborn. whose mind was focused on the subject during the recent Moisant exhibition in Detroit.

Miss Harriet tjuimby is doing good work, circling lhe entire field and staying up as long as the motor will stay cool. She soon graduates to one of lhe Gnome-engined machines, under the instruction, of Houpcrt. Two men students are grass-cutting and making short hops, and De Murias is flying very well.

Captain Baldwin has gathered together quite a galaxy of novice stars. Three of his steel machines are kept busy and he is building a racer

for his graduate, Leo Hammond, to have an SO-h. p. Hall-Seott motor. Blanche Scott has been flying every day for the past month, and now "flies like a man." And she makes just as nice a looking flight as does the genial Captaiu himself. Hammond rapidly left the student stage and is now an expert instructor. William Evans, who dug his own flying knowledge out of the Kansas air all by himself a couple of years ago, has now received his Lovelace monoplane, which will also have one of Baldwin's six llall-Scotts : with all of whom, and Mars, another tour of the Orient is planned.

T. T. Tuttle, press agent for Captain B., decided he knew about all that was necessary about flying, as he bad seen several machines make many flights, and essayed an aerial feature himself. Scared so that his feet pushed the throttle wide open, he shot up and down, down and up, in a series of beautiful wave-like undulations, until he neglected to straighten out and the machine started tunneling to China. The P. A. is pretty tough, anyway, so a week in the hospital brought him around all right again, fit as a fiddle, save for a cut and busted ankle and numerous sore spots, et cetera. The steel construction saved the machine, and after straightening out the beams to the front wheel, flights with the machine were resumed.

William Ilaupt, who learned to fly the Wana-maker Bleriot, lias had built by the American Supply House a copy of Ovington's 70-h.p. Bleriot and fitted, it with a Roberts motor. It made a good sustained flight the moment it was finished, and he took it out for exhibitions at Altoona. Pa., and other places. A two-seater is being built for A. J. Brackett of Boston, Mass. This machine also has the reverse curve tail and hood over the Roberts engine and tanks. Another order has been received from A. C. Mouges of Marion. Ind.. for a duplicate of Haupt's machine, to be equipped with a 70-h. p. Gnome. A St. Louis man has sent in a 100 h. p. Emerson to be installed in another monoplane, of combination type, especially designed by the purchaser.

The illustration shows a fine piece of work in the way of a monoplane of the Bleriot order.

E. E. Boland of Rahway, N. J., is now at Mineola with a tailless biplane, similar, in a way, to the Valkyrie. This seems to fly even faster than Baldwin's "Red Devil," hut the controls seem very delicate and Boland makes a very wavy flight. A little more practice and there will be some real flying. There is no vertical rudder, steering being done by means of triangular vertical panels between the planes and the outermost struts. This has an eight-cylinder engine of his own make,

which is finely designed and develops real power, although it was made more than two years ago.

Another Curtiss type is at Mineola with a Stmalley engine.

Walter L. Fairchild is trying propellers and is ready to fly his second machine again as soon as he has his engine tuned up.

Dr. Henry W. Walden has boon more or less of a sensation at Mineola. With a machine but little larger than a Demoiselle, the smallest in the world, he has been making real flights. Dr. Walden has been building one machine or another for three years, and has finally adopted the monoplane, which has earned for him much laughing comment in the past. The man who departs from established custom usually gets criticised just because his construction is "freakish." This was true of "Doc." But lie has made good in fine shape. He has changed his baby air-cooled engine for a real motor, a 40 h. p. four-cylinder Uall-Scott, and only the other day flow to'llieks-villo cross-country and back again, and was lip for 30 minutes. The same flight was repeated the next day.

A description of the Walden monoplane was previously published in AERONAUTICS.

AT NASSAU.

There are now 30 sheds erected at the Nassau Boulevard, L. I., grounds, 20 of which are all occupied. Weekly flight matinees are held every Saturday and one is assured of seeing tine flying between Sopwith ; Welch, Wright tutor; William C. Boors. Edson F. Gallaudot, W. R. Cross and Geo. W. Boatty, Wright graduates ; Earle Oving-ton. Lewkowicz, and Arthur Stone, the Queen company's pilot. Then, too, usually cither Captain Baldwin or his pupil, Lee Hammond, flies over from Mineola, and sometimes lloupert, the Moisant teacher. On July 22 Hammond tried for his pilot license, and made good in a very sensational manner with the fast Baldwin machine.

One must add to the list published in the July number the name of llamiilton & lloilprin, who have an untried monoplane equipped with a Maximotor engine.

W. Irving Twombly has the framework completed for a finely built monoplane, and the engine, which he has designed himself, will shortly be tested out and installed.

A. N. Ridgely, with his six-cylinder. Kirkham-engined Curtiss type, made one rapid jump in the air on his first trial and the machine sustained a severe attack of general nervous breakdown.

Haupt's Well-made Bleriot Copy. Gl

CIRCUIT OF BRITISH ISLE.

ANDRE BEAUMONT, French military aviator, won the 1,010-mile race around England, ending- July 26, after an exciting neck and neck finish with Vedrines, who was but 31 minutes behind him in point of time, and his winnings in tlie three big races total more than $100,000. Beaumont's time was 22 hrs. 28 min. and Vedrine's, 22 hrs. 58 min. and 55 sec.

The British race for the "Daily Mail's" $50,000 prize was without question the most interesting and exciting of the three big circuits, as there were no stops along the way to give exhibition flights, nor rests in between the stages. It was a bruising contest from the outset. The stage from Bristol to Brooklands, 261 miles, was thrilling. Starting but two minutes apart Vedrines and Beaumont (Lieut. Conneau), who had a lead of about 22 minutes, raced with nerves strained to the utmost, knowinc that one of them only could win, and they arrived at Exeter but two minutes apart. Vedrines was given a special prize by the "Mail" of $1,000.

The three consecutive victories of Beaumont (Paris-Home race, 910 miles; European Circuit. 1,073 miles; British race, 1,010 miles) are a testimonial of iron nerves and a brave heart. Imagine the terrific strain of flying steadily, day after day, with scarcely a respite, from one race to another, totalling 2,993 miles. The Paris-Kome flight was made in four days, and the British race in five days. The European Circuit consumed 20 days. Beaumont also started in the Paris-Madrid race but retired the first day when he broke a wing.

THE EUROPEAN CIRCUIT.

The 1,730 kilometer (1,073 miles) circuit of Europe was most successful. In view of past performances in long distance cross country llights it did not appear that many would get through. "Where Bleriot's first crossing of the channel was heralded the world wide as a most stupendous flight, here 11 crossed in going and nine on the home run quite as a matter of course. This race has done a world of good in showing the vast number of skeptics that the aeroplane is likely to become "really practical."

Out of 52 entrants for this race around Europe, which started June IS and ended, again at Paris, on July 7, 40 actually started off the ground. Eighteen got through the first day's journey and nine were given a place at the end, though of these only seven actually tlew every stage. The last two skipped some of the sections of the tlight. One monoplane, an U. E. P. of Gibert's, and two Maurice Far-man biplanes, those of Benaux and Barra, finished without replacements or changes in mounts, though Barra skipped two stages. The other competitors changed mounts or made repairs at various points. Sometimes new machines, all ready to starl, were waiting along the line.

Benaux carried a passenger every foot of the way.

The figures are from the official report of the committee in charge.

A total of $91,500 was to have been distributed in prizes, of which $40,000 was offered by the Paris "Journal" for the complete course winner, $12,500 by the London "Standard" for the winner of the stage from Paris to London and $1,000 by the "Journal" for another section. Additional prizes were offered for the various stages and in these many shared, as frequently aviators who do not figure as hav-

ing completed the course, made fastest time in the stages here and there. The stage-prizes have been divided as follows:

"Beaumont," who is Lieut. Conneau in real life, won $21,244, Garros $8,466, Vidart $3,311, Vedrines $2,217, Gibert $1,555, Kimmerling $1,155, Benaux $1,122, and Barra $922.

COMPETITORS AVHO FINISHED TOTAL DISTANCE.

 

lir.

min.

sec.

 

. 58

38

00

 

, 62

17

16

 

. 73

32

57

 

, 86

34

02

Gibert (B.E.P.), time..........

S9

42

34

♦Kimmerling (Sommer), time..

. 93

10

24

 

110

44

05

♦Biplanes.

Benaux used a Renault engine of 60 h.p. and Gibert a 60 h.p. R.E.P., the balance using Gnomes with Bosch ignition. Propellers varied between Chauviere. Normale, Rapid and Rogy. F. & S. bearings are used in all Guoine engines.

THE GERMAN FLIGHT CIRCUIT.

The first prize in the German inter-city race, which began at Berlin, June 11, and ended at. the same city, July 0, was won by König (Albatross biplane), who flow a total of 1,500 kils. Vollmull-er (Rumpler-Etrich monoplane) was second with 1.470 kils., and Buchner (Aviatik), 1,01)1 kils., third. Lindpaintnor (II. Farman) came fourth with !)7S kils.; Wittenstein (M. Farman) 840 kils., Wiencziers (Morane) 651 -kils., Schauenburg (Wright) 5S5.5 kils., Laitch (Albatross) 45S, Thelen (Modified Gnome-Wright) 497 kils., Muller (own biplane) 143 kils., Jahnow (Harlan monoplane) S3 kils. Helmuth Hirth, one of the star performers in competitions along the route, did better than the race contestants, for he won the $10,000 prize for a flight from Munich to Berlin within 36 hours.

One, two and three day meets were held at five of the cities which made the race last longer than it otherwise would. Twenty-six aviators either flew part or all of the course or entered into the meets. All eight prizewinners, save Wiencziers, carried passengers along, mileage being added at the rate of 25 per cent, as a bonus.

König won $10,000, out of a total of $25,000 offered by the Berlin "Zeitung am Mittag." The money was divided on a percentage basis, one of the conditions increasing possible winnings where German built machines were used.

WINNINGS OF MANUFACTURERS.

The European Circuit, the British Circuit, the German inter-city race, Cattaneo's long flight, the Gordon Bennett and Johnstone's American record flight, are all wins for the makers of Gnome engines and their accessories, Bosch magnetos and F. & S. bearings. Hirth, in his long flight, used a 70 h.p. Daimler-Mercedes motor, and Boscli ignition.

Two Long Cross Country Plights.

Berlin, June 30.— Helmuth Hirth (Etrich-Rumpler monoplane) finished lo-day a flight of 335 miles, from Munich, which city he left the night before at 7 p.m. with a passenger. A stop overnight was made at Nuremberg and another landing at Leipsic which were required by the conditions. His actual flying time was 5:51. He won a prize of $10,000.

Buenos Ayres, June 25.—Cattaneo (Bleriot) flew from Rosario to Buenos Ayres, non-stop, 250 miles, in six hours, made a new non-stop cross-country record, and won a $3.000 trophy.

BEAUMONT FLIES 2,993 MILES—WINS FORTUNE IN THREE CROSS-COUNTRY RACES

<T> .. - a c O 1

■ * a 55 a a »

5 ii:

TT - ;

a o •

Map of Three Big European Races.

Long List of Broken Records.

NEW WORLD

DISTANCE AND RECORDS.

DURATION

Mourmelon, France, Jnly 21.—M. I.oridan, the aviator, piloting a small II. Farman biplane at the aerodrome here to-day. covered 403% miles, remaining in the air 11 hours and 43 minutes.

WORLD DISTANCE RECORD BEATEN.

Brussels, July 17.—The Belgian aviator, Jean Olieslagers, in a Bleriot monoplane to-day made a flight of 635.2 kilometers (394 miles), at the aerodrome here without a stop. His time was 7 hr. IS min. 2G sec.

NEW WORLD SPEED RECORD. Nieuport's speed in the Gordon Bennett was slower than his time in the elimination trials

on June 16, when he made the following wor.d records. His fastest 5 kilometers was made iust under Si miles an hour:

5 kil.................. 2 m. IS.4 s.

10 kil.................. 4 m. 37.2 s.

20 kil.................. 9 m. 14.6 s.

30 kil..................13 m. 53.S s.

40 kil..................1S m. 31.6 s.

50 kil..................23 m. 10.0 s.

100 kil..................4 6 m. 27.4 s.

NEW-

WORLD DIRIGIBLE ALT1TPDE RECORD.

Soissons, France, June 19.—The "Adjudant-Vincenot," made bv Clement-Bayard, with 6 men on board, attained the height of 2,000 metres.

2�76

Garros, Who was Second in the European Circuit; A. G. Moisant, His Chief, and Audemars.

NEW WORLD ALTITUDE RECORD. July 8.—Loridan (racing, H. Farman) made a new world altitude record of 3,280 metres (10,758 ft.).

NEW SPEED AND DISTANCE RECORDS.

Chartres, France, July 0.—Level (Savary biplane with 70 h.p. Labor motor), made new two-man speed and distance records over a closed circuit as follows:

200 kil.............2 h. 38 m. 26.4 s.

The Growing1 Death List.

FATAL ACCIDENT TO PA1LLOLE. While testing his machine on the Maison Carree race course near Algiers, before attempting to fly to the military ground where the troons were being reviewed by Gen. Baiel-lotid, the Frenchman Paillole had his machine caosized in a gust of wind and was killed on the spot.

WOMAN AVIATOR REPORTED KILLED.

Etampes, France, July 21.—Mme. Deniz Moore was killed at the aerodrome here tonight by a fall in an aeroplane.

Mine. Moore had already made several fine ascents and was about to make a high fight. When about one hundred and fifty feet in the air her biplane was caught by a gust of wind and capsized. It fell straight to the earth, and she was crushed beneath it.

Mme. Moore was a French woman, about 25 years old. She had hoped to obtain a pilot's license next week.

MILITARY STUDENT KILLED. Chalons-Sur-Marne, France, June 29.—Lieut. Truchon was mortally injured to-day while making his first trip alone in a small H. Far-man biplane. He came down with the motor running and in trying to shut it off moved the elevator lever and he was thrown out.

PASSENGER KILLED. St. Petersburg, July 25.—The aeroplane piloted by M. Slusarenkos in the St. Petersburg-Moscow race fell near Tsarskoe-Selo today.

The airman's passenger, M. Shimansky, was killed, ami M. Slusarenkos was badly Injured, both legs being broken. The race'covers a

distance of 400 miles. Prizes aggregating $50,000 are offered.

Death of Kreamer.

Dan A. Kreamer, one of the steadiest flyers on the field of the Aero Club of Illinois, was killed July lo while making an. attempt in a Curtiss type biplane with a 50 h. p. motor to win his aviation pilot license under the observation of Grover F. Sexton, representative in Illinois of the Aero Club of America, lie attempted to make too short a turn.

Kreamer was making a turn and seemed to slide toward the center of the circle. He tilted the machine downward to gain speed but he was too close to the ground and the aeroplane struck oh its nose. The machine was a Curtiss-type, of last year's vintage.

He was well known as a bicycle racer, took part in several six-day contests and had traveled all over the world, racing. At the time of his death he was on leave of absence from the Illinois Central It. K., on which he was employed as an engineer.

CALENDAR OP EVENTS.

August 2-4.—Colorado Springs, Col., Wright exhibition.

August G-20. Belgian Circuit race.

August 12-20.—Grant Park. Chicago, International meet.

August 20-September 9.—Astoria, Ore., Curtiss aviators.

August 26-September 4.—Boston, meet of Harvard j\. S.

August 26-September 4.—Montreal, McCurdy, Willard and Curtiss flyers.

August 28-31.—Des Moines, la., Wright exhibition.

September 4-S.—Nebraska State Fair, Wright aviators.

September 20-21.—Clarinda, la., Curtiss aviators.

September 23-24.—Fond du Lac, Wis., Curtiss aviators.

September 24.—Berlin aviation meet.

September 25-30.— Helena. Mont., Curtiss aviators.

September 29-October 7.—Springfield, 111., Wright exhibition.

October 5.—Gordon-Bennett balloon race, Kansas City, Mo.

October —.—Macon, Ga., Wright exhibition.

January 10-20, 1912.— Los Angeles, aviation and arrangements not certain.

September —.—Iowa State Fair, Wright aviators.

September —.—Minneapolis, Minn., Wright aviators.

ASCENSIONS

(Continued from page 67)

la

latest type, more or less popularized l>v D( Yaulx.

llolinesburg. Pa., June 25.—A. T. Atherholt. pilot. Clarence I'. Wynne and 11. 11. Knerr in the "Penn. 1," to Blue Bell, Pa., after a .".'/6-hour journey.

Los Angeles. July 0.—Albert Carter and E. Unger in a dirigible sailed around for four hours, after colliding with the roof of a house at the start and breaking the framework in two. There was no engine in the airship and it floated around just like a free balloon of spherical type. Landing was finally made at Saugus, Calif.

St. Louis, July 4.—Lieut. Frank P. Lahm and John P. Hart in the "Missouri-' to Granite City. III. The ascension was made to study the expansion of the gas in extremely hot weather and an all night trip was planned but which had to be foregone. The temperature on leaving the ground was 114 dog. Fahr.

AERONAUTICS

THE GORDON BENNETT

Ail gust, ipu

RACE

By George H. Scragg.

The Contestants' Standing1.

1. CU-S. T. WKYMAXX, America (100 h. ]). Gnome-Xieuport), 1:11:30.2, speed 7S miles per hour.

2. ALFRED LEBLANC, France (100 h. p. Gnome-Bleriot), 1:13:40.2, speed 75.S miles per hour.

3. EDOUARD NIEUPORT, France (70 h. p. Gnorne-Nieuport), 1:14:37.4. speed 74.s miles per hour.

4. ALEC OGILVIE, England (50 h. p. X. E. C.-Wright), 1:40:10.4, speed 51.2 miles per hour. Deducting for time lost in getting gas his speed would be 53 miles per hour.

5. M. CHEVALIER, France (28 h. p. 2-cylinder Nieuport-Nieuport), 37:50.4. Completed partial course only, due to engine trouble. Speed 5S.9 miles per hour.

G. G. IIAMEL, England (100 n. p. Gnome-Bleriot), fell on first lap in making turn.

The distance was 150 kilometers (93.15 miles) ; raced at Eastchurch, England, July 1.

PREVIOUS CONTESTS.

1009- Rncims, France, won by Curtiss: 20 kils. in 15 m. 50.4 s., mean speed 47 miles per hour.

1910—Belmont Park, won by White (1O0 h. j). Gnome-Bleriot) ; 100 kii. in 1 h. 0 m. 47.0 s., mean speed of Gl miles per hour.

OF course, you know by cable that the cup goes back to America, and Weymann, our solitary entrant, is responsible for it. The victory, however, is not so thrilling as it might have been, considering Weymann is a llay-tian by birth, lives, and lias done all his flying in Europe, and pilots a French machine. Last year I felt that Great Britain and White received more attention than was due, considering it was Bleriot's brain and experience that built the winning machine; and so the same may be said this year of Weymann. Of course, at the present stage of aviation, when the man is 20 per cent, factor and the machine SO, we must not underestimate Mr. Weymann's feat, but surely we would all be more pleased if each country were represented, not only bv a native aviator, but also by a home-built machine, as AERONAUTICS has so often suggested.

As 1 was the only American correspondent of an American aeronautical paper, I was the subject of sympathy—not expressed, to be sure, but 1 read the glances thrown me by fellow press men. "You poor fellow, what chance have you?" However, I had not forgotten that the same glances were bestowed upon me at the London Stadium at the Olympic games three years ago, when Johnny Hayes broke the tape first and Old Glory ran to the top of the flag pole, and I held my peace and hoped.

My eyes were fixed on two things : First, Weymann. as our representative, and secondly, the Wright machine, the only American machine in the race. When I heard that Weymann had been set to represent us on a Nieuport. I pinned my hope on him and picked him for the winner, and the result shows my judgment was not at fault. In fact. I do not see how anyone else could have been picked, barring accidents and all other things being equal.

The past performances of the Nieuport with but 28 h. p. had proved it the fastest machine in the world, and now with 100 h. p. I felt sure it would hold its own. especially in the hands of a skilled pilot like Weymann.

The other two Nieuports entered, driven by Nieuport himself and by Chevalier, were only 70 and 2S h. p. respectively, so they were not to be feared.

The Gnome engine, of course, was a question. Most of the good work done by them—take the

Madrid and Rome races, for instance—were the 50 h.p., with old model valve springs. The new engines have more than once failed at a critical moment, and so as the weather was a bit rough I kept my eye also on Ogilvie. whose machine is much fitter to tackle a big wind than any of the others. And Ogilvie could save time sticking to corners, as only the Wright machine can. Ogilvie had been practicing quietly for weeks, assisted by Wilbur Wright, at tuning up the "Baby" with an X. E. C. engine.

The race began badly. After a gustv morning, which even made the big Bristol biplane rock and roll, the sun came out and the sky cleared, and just before 3 oclock Mr. Ilamel's (England) machine, a special Bleriot, in the tests of the morning had proven itself slower than the Nieuports, so he decided to clip two ribs off each wing. Bleriot, however, advised him against such a course, as he figured the machine bad as little surface as it could afford and in case of engine trouble the descent would be hasty and it would be difficult to make a safe landing. Mr. Hamel. however, persisted, and this no doubt lost him at least a place in the race. On his first circuit, in taking a corner his machine skidded and his left wing tip caught the ground. He was thrown out. rolled over and over and lay still. When assistance came to his aid they found him bleeding profusely from injuries to his face and legs, though declining assistance. He was suffering from slight concussion and was much bruised, but is doing well.

M. Chevalier was second on the field, but his machine was little faster than the Wright, but then he only had a 28 h. p. Nieuport motor. He only flew 10 circuits when he came down rather abruptly with engine trouble. He tried again later with another machine, but came down.

Meanwhile. Weymann had flown off at a great pace. He did his first five laps in 2 m. 4G s., which works out at 83.5 miles per hour. His speed after this decreased slightly, but lie succeeded in doing the 150 kii. in 1 h. 11 m. 30 1/5 s.. which averages 78 miles per hour; and (lie Nieuport is a bigger area machine than the Bleriot.

The crowd enthusiastically applauded at the termination of his fine performance. I said little, but returned some of the glances that I bad received earlier in the day. Then Ogilvie (England) went up on the Wright.

Ogilvie did not put up the show I expected of him and certainly nothing eoual to Brookins' speed last year at Belmont on the "Baby." This, no doubt, was due to the engine. lie only averaged a little over 51 miles an hour. Stopping for oil cut the speed down from 53 miles an hour, lie did better than this last year at Belmont with a 30 h. p. Wright engine.

This left England out of the running, as no third competitor turned up to champion England. Grahame-White was on the field and in answer to questions said he had no fast machine. 1 wonder what has become of the 100 h. p. Bleriot lie won the trophy with last year? It lias not seen much use, if any at all. since his return from America.

The day was not ended and I have learned the lesson well not to count my chickens prematurely. His time was good and he had finished safely, so I was more than hopeful. Leblanc was the only competitor that worried me. but I hardly thought the Bleriot. with its greater head resistance, could compete with the Xieuport. though 1 bad taken into consideration the great skill of Leblanc.

\t 5.30 Nieuport. and Leblanc with bis wings clipped, got under way, and though they both put up fine performances, they failed to wrest the trophv for France. Nieuport completed the course in lb 14 m. 37.4 s. Leblanc was several minute* beyond Wevinann's time for twenty laps, and then it' became apparent that America had won.

It was a good dean race, the winner being but two minutes ahead of Leblanc. who in turn had but a minute the best of Nieuport.

The cup, plus $5.000, was presented to Wey mann at an informal banquet on the grounds the same evening.

While being overjoyed with the result, I could not help but feel sorry for France, which has done so much in the development of the speed marvels and has as yet never had her hands upon the cup. Another tale would have been told had each country entered its own machines. Glenn 11. Ourtiss is the only man yet that has taken the cup with a machine and engine made in the country which he represented. Let us hope now that we have the cup again, that next year when our visitors trudge across the ocean that we will have a man. an engine, and a machine, all American, to defend the trophy and to be equal to the task (if keeping it.

"It was amusing to find the 'American' winner compelled to reply in French. He is a native of llayti. who has lived on the Continent and done most of his flying there—on French machines, of course. The victory is, nevertheless, sure to be hailed with great delight in the States, and it will doubtless prove gratifying to the donor of the trophy." says "The Car."

In connection with the Gordon Bennett race, the Aero Club sent its members a bulletin which included the report of its special committee.

SECONDS THE I'LEA OF "AERONAUTICS."

For the first time the club has expressed the suggestion that it might be appropriate for America to be represented in aeronautics by American designed and built machines with American motors. This is a really and truly good spirit to show, oven overlooking the past. The two international balloon and aviation trophies are rather jokes; they are put up by a man who prefers to spend his time in Europe, they are first competed for in Europe, and the representatives of America, most of whom happen to also live in Europe, use apparatus built in Europe.

The cups might well go uncontested for by America, and with honor, rather than to win them under the above conditions.

The bulletin goes on to state that the Wrights could not be induced to enter on account of lack of time to build an engine ; that Curtiss was too busy ; and that—

"SUPERIORITY" OF FOREIGN MACHINES.

"A diligent search of the field in this country failed to reveal anyone else who was competent to construct a suitably fast machine; so it became necessary for your committee to turn to foreign makers, and to such Americans abroad as were competent to fly speedy foreign machines. Early in the year Mr. Campbell Wood particularly, and others of us who had carefully noted the progress of flying abroad, became convinced of the superiority of the Niouport monoplane, at least so far as speed was concerned, and also of the prowess of Charles T. Weymann. the American, as a clover track flyer. Through Mr. Campbell. Wood, your committee thereupon got in touch with Mr. Weymann. who appeared to favor the Moräne monoplane, and succeeded in inducing him to ecpiip himself with a Niouport of the power which we deemed necessary for the race, and to undertake the race on behalf of the Aero Club of America.

"James Martin, who was flying a Rurgess-Cur-tiss "Rahy" Grahamo-White biplane in England, was the only other flyer abroad who seemed worth consideration ; but, his machine not having sufficient speed, he was not chosen as a member of our team.

"Earle Ovington. who had been flying a TO h. p. Rleriot in this country, was considered but was not put on the team for the reason given in Mr. Martin's case."

CFRT1SS TO COMPETE IN 1011.

Glenn II. Curtiss will build a special machine to compote in the next contest for the grand aviation prize which Henry Weymann recently won in England and will bring to this country. Mr. Curtiss made this announcement a few days ago. He believes that American aeroplane builders will be able to hold the prize in this country, claiming that they can build machines that are quite as speedy and much safer than the French monoplanes, which have had the field to themselves recently as regards speed.

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NO. 49 AUGUST, 1911 Vol. 9, No. 2

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AERONAUTICS' BRITISH OFFICE.

On account of the increased European circulation and the necessity for an exclusive representative abroad, it is with pleasure that we announce the opening of a London office at 12 Newgate St.. under the management of Mr. George II. Scragg. At this address, the center of aviation in England, puhlishing "Who's Who iu Aviation." "The Aviation World." etc.. visitors will be welcome. Those going to England can use this office for their mall, sending it in care of AERONAUTICS.

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AERONAUTICS

Any list, 1011

ST. LOUIS WINS BALLOON ELIMINATION

THE East's representative, the 'New York." of Harmon and Post, in the elimination race for the selection of the American team in the international balloon race at Kansas City. Oct. 3. was badly beaten by the six other balloons which competed on July 10.

Alan R Ilawley. who won the big race in 1910, has, of course, the privilege of being one of the three. The other two. or all three if Ilawley does not go this year, are supposed to be those who finished best in this elimination race.

Eight balloons in all went up, but the "Missouri," of J. C. Hulbert and Henry Weber, was not a contestant.

Following is the official standing of the balloons :

1. ST. LOUIS IV. (Honeywell), Lieut. F. P. Lahm, U. S. A., and Lieut. J. F. Hart, to La Paz, Ind. Dur., 22 hrs. 26 min. : dist.. 480 miles.

2. MILLION POPULATION CLUB (Honeywell), John Berry and P. J. McCullough, to La Crosse, Ind. Pur., 20 hrs. 49 min.; dist., 445 miles.

3. MISS SOPHIA (Honeywell). Wm. F. Assmann and .1. M. O'Reilly, to Franklin Park, 111. Bur., 16 hrs. 26 min. : dist.. 415 miles.

4. BPCKEYE (Stevens), James H. Wade. Jr., and Reuben Hitchcock, to New Holland, 111. Dur., 21 hrs. 32 min. : dist., 2SS miles.

5. TOFEKA II. (Honeywell). Frank M. Jacobs and Raffe Emerson, to La Harpe, 111. Dur., 14 hrs. 42 min. ; dist., 210 miles.

6. KANSAS CITY II. (Honeywell), II. E. Honeywell and Jon Watts, to Packwood, Iowa. Dur..'s hrs. 5 mi.; dist., 193 miles.

7. NEW YORK (Baldwin i. C. B. Harmon and Augustus Post, to Fremont, la. Dur., 8 hrs. 5S min. : dist., ISO miles.

Non-Contestant, Missouri (Honeywell), J. C. Hulbert and Henry Weber, to Des Moines, la., 170 miles.

A lot of credit is due George M. Myers, president of the Kansas City Aero Club, and his board of governors, for making possible one of the most successful contests held in this country. The natural gas was very good, being reduced by Mr. Showers' bard labor to a specific gravity of .38, and was delivered to the balloons in record time of 40,000 cu. ft. in 4% minutes, but due to inexperienced labor used in handling the sand bags 214 hours we're consumed in getting away.

The French-American Balloon Co. products totalled five out of seven balloons in the race, as well as the "Missouri" which Hulbert used. The Topeka balloon carried three people.

OTHER ASCENSIONS.

The first skyscraper to be used as an aeronautical (station, despite a/11 the press agent stories each time a new building is laid out on paper. 1ms really and truly been established and put in use in New York City in July.

Psing the roof of one of the two John Wana-maker store buildings, each of which occupies an entire block. A. Leo Stevens piloted Rodman Wanamaker iu his newly purchased 05.000 cu. ft. Lachambre balloon, the "Wanamaker I." for which Mr. Stevens is the American agent, to Nyack, N. Y.. on its initial trip.

From the Wanamaker store the balloon crossed the Hudson River and traveled over Newark and Paterson. Here the balloon was sent up to 7.000 ft., and a counter-current was met, which carried it back over Forty-second St.. New York, toward Long Island. As the Sound was reached the balloon was dropped to a lower altitude and the return made over Yonkers and up the Hudson River, following along with one of the Albany boats. As it neared Nyack, which is some twenty miles up the Hudson, the balloon was dropped still lower, and it turned inland to the west. One of the residents of Nyack who saw the balloon come close to the ground near his house, with the assistance of the neighbors, caught the drag rope and the [mlbion was eased to the ground by letting out gas. The trip consumed 3 hours 23 minutes.

The Wanamaker Balloon Leaving the Roof.

A hydrogen gas plant has been installed on the roof of the Wanamaker building, which is now available to anyone desiring to make an ascent. The cost for making the gas for a small balloon of 18.000 cu. ft., which will carry two people, is around $150. It is planned before long to make a dirigible ascension from the same building.

Hamilton. O.. July 16. Dr. L. E. Custer in the "Luzern." to Waynesville, O., 40 miles. Dur. 2 hours.

Lowell. Mass., July 1.—John J. Van Yalken-burgh. alone, in a balloon. Bostou to East 1 Quivers, Mass. Duration. 1 hour 45 minutes: distance. 22 miles: altitude, 3.S00 ft. Ascent was made alone to qualify as pilot.

Philadelphia. Pa., June 27. Dr. Thomas E. El-dridge, Miss Maude Johnson. Anna Nittinger, Dr. G. II. Simmerman and Dr. T. F. Herbert in the "Philadelphia II." up to beat Miss Ridgway's record for the Simmerman cup. After a circuitous trip thev landed at Hartford. N. .1., after 2 hours. Altitude. 7.030 ft.

Chicago. III.. Julv 4.—Herman Mossner, up alone, landing on the outskirts of Chicago.

DIR1CIBLK ASCKXT.

Saunderstown. R. I- June 30. Stewart Davis and his passenger, James J. Scott, made an extended ascent from here over Newport and Nar-ragansett. landing at Wickford. in a dirigible balloon imported for Mr. Davis by Leo Stevens from the Zodiac builders in Paris, and is of the (Cmtinued on paje 'i)

The Hall-Scott Engine.

The Hall-Scott engines, made by the Hall-Scott Motor Car Co., Crocker Building, San Francisco, though placed on the market but last Fall have created very favorable impression and are now being used by some of the best known flyers in this country.

Three sizes are being made, of 40, GO and 80 horsepower, the two latter eight-cylinder machines. The first and third have cylinders 4 by 5 and the GO horsepower cylinders are 4 by 4 inches.

A special advantage is claimed by the makers in cooling the oil used for lubrication. Oil is forced by gear pump, through an oil jacket in the carburetor manifold, which operation serves two purposes, of heating the manifold and cooling the oil before it passes into the end of the hollow cam shaft and distributes to the main case, excess draining into the sump from which it is again pumped through the strainer and so around.

The following description is of the four-cylinder 40-horsepower motor. The eights are exactly the efficiency. Valve seats 1% in. diameter. Valve

stems % in. Valves operated by single cam shaft and individual push rods and rocker arms.

Cam shaft of steel tubing, with cams of machine steel hardened and ground to size, secured in place with two taper pins, riveted over. Particular attention is called to the crank shaft size with its 1% in. bearing. Cut and machined from one solid hand forged and heat treated block of special nickel steel. Main and connecting rod bearings lined with highest grade of Wm. Cramp's Parsons white brass. Main bearing caps cut from solid steel blocks. Connecting rods machined from hand forged heat treated nickel steel. Crank cases, water and oil pump casings, etc., of the best aluminum alloy. Oil sump cast integral with lower case, provided with sight oil glasses at either end.

Ignition is by means of Mea high-tension magneto, with connection to Bosch spark plugs. The motor may be started as easily with this system as with battery and coil, and with magneto in retarded position, so that there is no danger of back kick.

Hall-Scott 4 cyl. 40 H. P. Motor

same construction, except there are more cylinders and they are arranged "V" shape.

Type A-1 is of the four-cylinder vertical, fourcycle, water-cooled, type, with cylinders measuring 4 in. bore by 5 in. stroke. Cylinder walls, pistons and heads are made of special cast iron. Cylinder walls are machined inside and out, which absolutely insures even expansion. Steel water jackets, press fit, placed on cylinders, then cylinder inside ground to size. Heads are cast with water jacket integral, a by-pass between head and cylinder prevents any danger of water leak into cylinder. Circulating water system is ample, with large capacity centrifugal pump in connection. Copper asbestos gaskets placed between heads and cylinders, and the assembly held in place by means of rods running through crank case and bolted through heads, with castellated nuts, cotter pinned at head end. Pistons carry three cast-iron snap rings, pinned in position. Pistons supported at connecting rod cud in bronze bushing with hard-

ened steel pin. absolutely secured in position, so there is no danger of side play with consequent scoring of cylinder wall. Valves of chrome nickel steel, all in one piece, seated directly in heads without the use of cages. This valve position, together with the fact that heads are machined upon inside, is known to give maximum power and A special aluminum Stromberg glass bowl carburetor is used, with connection to the oil-jacketed manifold.

Type A-l power plant complete, consisting of Type A-l motor, complete with carburetor, magneto, water and oil pumps; a 7-ft. diameter, 4%-ft. pitch propeller, special light weight radia-

IN THE MANUFACTURING FIELD

tor. 3-gallon copper gasoline tank with filler cap and outlet flange, and all necessary hose and copper pipe connections, crated ready for shipment, $1.050 f. o. b., Ran Francisco, California.

Two New Curtiss Motors.

Two new Curtiss engines have been produced, of 40 and 70 h. p. respectively, four and eight cylinders, 4 by 5 in. bore and stroke. The other two motors which have been produced for the past two years are rated at 30 h. p. and GO h. p.

In the new motors the method of lubrication has been slightly changed, the four-gallon oil reservoir being cast in the lower half of the crank-case, from which a submerged rotary pump forces the oil direct to all bearings via the hollow earn and crankshafts. The connecting rods are made hollow and oil is also forced through them to the piston pin bearings and cylinder walls. The excess oil falls into the splash pan and thence through the overflow pipes back into the reservoir. An increase of oil is supplied the engine as it speeds up.

New Curtiss 70 h. p. Motor.

The base of the new cylinders is now round and attached to the case by 12 bolts, and the bearings are much larger all around. The long case now incloses the thrust bearing, and particular pains have been taken to make the motor oil-tight, which is often very difficult, as oil is apt to find its way out where the cylinders join the base or be pumped out by the suction of the push rods. A slightly different type of manifold is also adopted.

The weight of the large four-cylinder power plant complete is ISO pounds; that of the large eight is 275 pounds. These weights include El Arco radiator, Curtiss propeller, Bosch magneto, Schebler carburetor and fuel tank. The eight-cylinder motor shows 500 pounds thrust at 1,200 r. p. m. with an S-ft. diameter 7-ft. pitch propeller, while the four develops 315 pounds at 000 r. p. m. with a propeller a foot less both ways. The pitch speed of the eight-cylinder motor on the navy machine is 90 miles an hour.

The fuel consumption on these motors is quite remarkable. During the two-hour test run made in behalf of the navy, the eight-cylinder consumed but four gallons of gasoline and one gallon of oil per hour.

German Monoplane Agency in the United States.

The Grade monoplane, which was one of the very first aeroplanes in Germany to make notable flights, is being represented in the States by a firm of young men. Griffith & Meixner of 405 Delaware Ave., Buffalo. X. Y.

The machine, more or less known here through the aeronautical magazines, is a monoplane of its own type, fitted with a two cycle, air-cooled, four-cylinder motor, designed and made solely by Hans Grade. Several types are manufactured. For the 10-24 h. p. engine but 1.7 to 2 gallons of gasoline are used per hour, with the oil consumption 0.4 gallons.

From one to five people can lie carried, according to type, with motors from 1G to 45 h. p. A principal feature of the machine is that the aviator and his passengers sit below the wings and can see the whole of the ground at all times One lever operates the rudder and elevator at the same time it is used for warping the wings.

The aviator, Schall, during one of the German meets, attained 7,000 ft. altitude in 23 minutes, with the 10-24 motor. During a cross-country flight of 37 miles Grade himself, as pilot, took second prize from competitors of much higher power.

Wright Motors for Sale.

Wright motors are now available to the general public from two sources. The 35 h. p.. four-cylinder and the 70 h. p., eight cylinder motors, complete with magneto, water and oil pumps, weight 193 pounds for the 35 h. p., power guaranteed, may be obtained from Du Alois Aero-nautiqne, 17 hue Casette, Paris (Vie), France.

The Wright Company in America is selling American-made motors at $1,500.

H. T. Gratz, a former Louisville man. who was connected with the automobile business in this city, made four short flights on July 4 without accident at Urban Park, 111., before a crowd of 2.50(1 people. Gratz is flying a Gray Eagle biplane for the Gray Eagle Aviation Co., a Louisville corporation, and with his apparent skill in (lying a new machine he shows promises of becoming an aviator of the first rank.

The Maximotor Makers, Detroit, report a strong demand for their aero engines. Another G0-75-h.p. engine was shipped to lsaburo Yamada in Japan for his dirigible and a number have been sent to novice aeroplane builders throughout this country. Among those who have purchased motors are : Thomas Longo, Danville, Ky. ; Hamilton & lleilprin, Nassau Boulevard ; A. AI. Nassr, Pensacela, Fla. ; Horace S. Kemmerle. l'pland. Pa. : J. X. Sparling, East St. Louis, 111., and Theodore Krasting, New Britain, Ct.

The Sparling Aviation School, at Washington Park. Mo., is progressing nicely and weather is ideal. Park has finished- his course and is now flying in the West. II. E. Maier of Denver has been making straightaway flights for the last week and is going to tackle the turns in a few days. Students handle the straight flights in winds up to 15 miles per hour before attempting the turns. A heavy low-powered machine is used by beginners and not until they are familiar with all the workings of the machine in low straight flights are they given a real flyer.

During the past week the following pupils enrolled : II. A. Signor of Meadville. Pa., who made good straightaway flights the third day in the machine, and promises to make a good cool-headed flyer; Ed Ncimiller. East St. Louis, and Harry Kelley, Colorado Springs, Colo.

The Thomas Brothers of Bath. X. Y.. have completed another headless machine with a six-cylinder Kirkham motor. It is a fast flier and a rapid climber. Walter Johnson promises to make still better records for himself.

The postoffieo authorities have brought to account an alleged aviation school. A certain self-styled "lieutenant" was a strong bidder for students, representing that he was head of the aeronautic work of the Fnited States army and was connected with the school temporarily for the purpose of securing a nucleus for his aviation squad in the army. Advertising of the school has been accepted right along by magazines and papers of all classes. AERONAUTICS conducted an investigation of its own at the outset and cancelled further advertising.

I hare remi your editorial noie lor -lulu irith admiration ami enthusiasm, and unte your splenditi adrertisiiit/ palronar/e. and its iopieal nature. Your periodical' lias been as complete t irnrhl-iride) and nearlii as wonderful as the triumph of Oreille and Wilbur Writ/lit. John McGovkkn.

AERONAUTI CS

August, içii

UNITED STATES PATENTS ABSTRACTED

Henry .1. Casanova, Chicago, III., 095,437, June 20. 1011. Filed Aug. 0, 1910. FRAME CONSTRUCTION.

John O. Wrenn. Portland, Ore., 993.512. June 20, 1911. Filed July 2G, 1909. FEATHERING BLADE PROPELLER.

' George Francis Myers. Columbus, O.. 995,550, June 20, 1911. Continuation of application filed Jan. 29, ISO". This application filed May 31, 1904. AN ANNULAR AEROPLANE.

Lincoln Winters and Samuel Hofstetter, Free-port, 111.. 995,750. June 20, 1911. Filed Dec. 30.

1910. HELICOPTER.

James Lester Walker, Eagle Point. Ore., 995,819, June 20, 1911. Filed Aug. 20, 1910. Aeroplane with AUTOMATICALLY OPERATED AILERONS for securing lateral and longitudinal STABILITY.

John Burns, Los Angeles. Cal., 990,058, June 27, 1911. Filed Dee. 27, 1910. FARACIIUTE.

Thomas Wigston Kinglake Clarke, Surbiton, England. 990,001, June 27, 1911. Filed July 11, 1908. ADJUSTABLE FOLLOWING SURFACE AEROPLANE.

De Witt Clinton MeCallum. Los Angeles, Cal., 990.105, June 27. 1911. Filed June 3, 1910. Aeroplane with REYOLVABLE SERIES of ELEVATING PLANES.

Guy Snow, Kaufman, Tex., 990.153, June 27.

1911. Filed May 12. 1910. Comhined HELICOPTER and ORTIIOPTER.

Ernest Peter Vincent, New York, N. Y., 990,171, June 27. 1911. Filed May 28. 1910. Triplane with middle surface having greater depth than the other two.

Albert Hugo Friedel. Baltimore, Md., 996,233, June 27, 1911. Filed Jan. 31, 1910. Aeroplane with extensible CURTAINS for the purpose of STEERING.

John J. Rectenwald, Tittsburg, Pa.. 090,301, June 27, 1911. Filed June 7, 1910. Device for utilizing the balloonets of a dirigible as LIFE SAVERS in case of accident.

John J. Rectenwald. Mt. Oliver Borough, Pa., 996.362. June 27, 1911. Filed Aug. 13. 1910. INFLATABLE BAGS to keep aeroplane afloat in water.

John J. Rectenwald, Pittsburg, Pa., 996,363, June 27. 1911. Filed Nov. 3. 1910. Aeroplane with FOLPABLE PLANES and device for applying power to wheels.

Walter W. Roberts, Seattle. Wash.. 996,366, June 27, 1911. Filed Sept. 16, 1910. HELICOPTER.

Attilio Pusterla, Bath Beach, N. Y., assignor of one-half to Samuel Schenkein, New York, N. Y., 996.425, June 27, 1911. Filed July 9, 1909. HELICOPTER.

Julius Christiansen, New York, N. Y., 996,456, June 27, 1911. Filed Oct. 27, 1909. MULTIPLANE having air-eonfinin^ side pieces.

Richard Wilcke, Friedenau, near Berlin, Germany, 990.547. June 27, 1911. Filed Sept. 19,

1910. PROPELLER for aerial vehicles. Cassius B. Lamburth, San Francisco, Cal.,

996,592, June 27, 1911. Filed Dee. 12, 1910. Aeroplanes having pointed flaps for preserving EQUILIBRIUM.

Victor Carnal, Paris, France, 990,613, July 4,

1911. Filed March 17, 1910. Machine in which vertical lift is obtained by a set of RECIPROCATING SAILS.

Francis M. Eggert, Lansing. Mich.. 096.027, July 4, 1911. Filed March 31, 1911. LIFTING and PROPELLING mechanism.

Preston Tugman Moody, LaCrosse, Wash., 996,659, July 4, 1911. Filed March 16, 1911. Hinged lateral planes swinging in a vertical direction and interconnected so as to preserve LATERAL EQUILIBRIUM.

John A. Renniee, New York, N. Y., 996,728, July 4, 1911. Filed Feb. 23, 1910. PROPELLING and balancing apparatus for airships.

Weslev Wait, Newburgh, N. Y., 99G.S15. July 4, 1911. Filed Sept. 9, 1908. HELICOPTER.

William Kriedter and William Bourdon. New York, N. Y., 99G.S63, July 4. 1911. Filed May 27, 1910. UNIVERSAL RUDDER for flying machines.

Robert Leidorf, Cleveland. O., 996,932, July 4, Bill. Filed Nov. 7. 1910. Aeroplane having several sets of rotatable wings to preserve STABILITY.

George A. Owen and George A. Bates, Hartford, Conn.. 997,001, July 4, 1911. Filed Oct. 17, 1910. Variable height of CENTER of GRAVITY, also method of precipitating the engine from the machine and landing as a parachute.

Otto A. Fenn, New York, N. V.. 997,122. July 4. 1911. Filed May 16. 1910. Flying machine with plurality of STEPPED supporting SURFACES.

AERO

MART

Engines for Sale.

ENGINE FOR SALE—A. Harriman, 30-11. V. engine; Eisemann magneto; late model; bargain at $400. Address Harriman, care AERONAUTICS. TP

RlNEK ENGINE FOR SALE—A Rinek S-cyl-inder engine, 1910 model ; just completely overhauled by factory; in perfect condition ; complete with El Arco radiator, magneto and gasoline tanks; $600. Address Rinek, care AERONAUTICS. TP

FOR SALE—One 2-cylinder double opposed, weight 125 lbs.; price $90.00. One 4-cylinder upright, weight 120 lbs.; price $140.00. Both in first-class condition. Address N. Y. Z., c/o AERONAUT I PS. Aug.

FOR SALE—50-lt.p. II. F. or Harriman aviation engine; new ; $500. This is the same size engine that the Harriman Motor Works are charging $1.673 for. Address "Box 3, Girard, Kans." TP

FOR SALE—40 to 00-h.p. Elbridge Aero Special, 1911. Complete with Bosch magneto. Absolutely new; guaranteed just as received from factory. Cost $1.330; will sell for $850. Aug.

M. F. II. OOUVERNEPR,

Wilmington, N. C.

FOB SALE—Two motors for aeroplanes. 30 and 60 h.p. Weight 130 and 180 lbs. respectively. Price low. Address Fred Suellv, B.F.I i. 2. Bridgeport, ft. --Aug.

Business Cards.

J. ED. SHERIFF, MECHANICAL ENGINEER AND INVENTOR. ORIGINAL DESIGNS A SPECIALTY. 125 WATTS ST., NEW YORK. Dec.

Aeroplanes for Sale.

AMATEUR AIRMEN—Full size MONOPLANE, ready for power, $75.00 ; one passenger, fine flyer ; 2e. stamp for particulars. SEND now. E. C. MINERT AERO CO., 1122 W. Locust St., Davenport, Iowa. Aug. Positions Wanted.

EQUILIBRIST. SLACK WIRE WALKER, well educated, good business training in office, experienced in shop work, four seasons operating own automobiles, wishes to associate with manufacturer to give flying exhibitions, train others and prosecute business generally. Excellent reputation. Address "Equilibrist," care "AERONAUTICS." Sep.

I AM desirous of entering the services of a reliable aeroplane manufacturing firm ; have served 4U, years building high-speed gasoline motors, understand aeroplane construction thoroughly ; all types of uvotors ; at present am in naval service; will consider anything to learn. Address B. II. B.. care "AERONAUTICS." Aug.

AVIATOR — Trained at Wright Flying School, Dayton. Ohio. Now open for position. Address IT.V.LL, 323 Newport Ave., Milwaukee, Wis. —Aug.

CHICAGO CLUB HAS GROUNDS.

The Aero Club of Illinois formally opened its ISO-acre flying field, just without the city limits of Chicago. July 4. with a series of amateur flights in aeroplanes and a balloon ascension, all of which would have done credit to professionals.

The club field is the largest and best private cluh grounds in the world, being as level as a lawn and having space for a mile course 350 ft. wide, ample room in any direction for a 500-metre straightaway course such as is required in taking the tests for an aviation pilot license, and it has room to hangar 250 aeroplanes if the time should come when that many are owned by memibers of the club.

In addition there is ample room to seat 40,000 persons and still have considerable space for automobile parking. To the west extends 350 miles of unbroken Illinois prairie, and the club easily could establish a 10-kilometer course of ground absolutely satisfactory to airmen. Fifteen machines already are on the grounds, and at least four more will be taken out directly.

The grounds are reached in 23 minutes for a 5-cent fare from the "Loop"' district or business center of Chicago by means of the Douglas Fark branch of the Metropolitan elevated railroad. This railroad has built a special station for the club, and has put in turnstiles capable of checking 22.000 persons per hour into this tield. and cheeking more than that number back onto the railroad after events. The field is fenced in. and has a beginners' runway 700 ft. wide and 15,000 ft. long that has been scalped and rolled, and is perfect for testing machines.

July 4 the flying events were arranged, four of the amateur aviators—Dan A. Kreamer, LT. W. Powers. Otto YV. Brodie and Allan Lougheed— sharing in the prize money. Tn addition there were short jumps and the hangars were thrown open to the public.

Flying matinees are planned to be given weekly through the year, including winter events.

The officers of the club are : James E. Flew, president: Harold F. McCormick and T. Edward Wilder, vice-presidents; Grover F. Sexton, secretary ; Charles E. Hartley, treasurer, and James S. Stephens, consulting engineer.

The Aero Club of America has added to its affiliated clubs the recently formed Aero Club of New York, located at Nassau Boulevard. Garden City, L. I., which has nearly 200 members. Arrangements have been made for the use of the Aero Club of New York grounds by the members of the Aero Club of America. The clubhouse, which heretofore has been used by the residents of Nassau boulevard, has been turned over by the real estate company which controls the grounds to the Aero Club of New York. A joint grounds committee has been appointed, with members from both the Aero Club of America and the Aero Club of New York.

The Aeronautical Society continues to hold its regular bi-monthly public lecture and weekly members' meetings.

<>u July 13 Lieut. It. E. Scott described his bomb-dropping device for aeroplanes and dirigibles, the calculating of speed over the ground, etc., an article on which subject is printed in this issue. S. Y. Beach told his troubles with a monoplane at the high altitude of Denver and Dr. Mcllvry, of the Hall-Scott motor concern, told of their habit of sending out propellers of steeper pitch for high altitude flying. On July 27 A. J. Thompson honored the society with a most valuable illustrated lecture on "Vanadium and Its Relation to Machine Design, and Its Uses in General."

COMMUNICATIONS

Criticizes Article on Soaring-.

Dear Sir :—

1 read the article in the Mav issue of AERONAUTICS of "Some Facts About Soaring Flight," by E. F. Andrews, in which I think 1 can help toward the advancement of same.

The planes must be thicker at the forward edge, as I have always said to myself.

1 do not know the exact distance that the thickest part should be from the forward edge, but 1 should judge about one-quarter the length of the rib. And the thickness of rib at the thickest place should be 1 in. to every foot in length. The thickness depends upon the speed of the craft. The front upper part of plane should be rather abrupt, but rounded, and the lower forward part should be a little more than level. As you know, the forward part of a plane surface will lift more than the rear, thus overcoming what little down pressure there would be on the upper front side.

Most 'planes made nowadays, especially the biplanes made in this country, are a true or "nearly true" parabolic curve, alike on both sides; this leaves a heavy backward and down suction under the forward part of plane. This, I think, is what brought Hoxsey to his death, when the rear elevator was not sufficient to overcome the same. The said elevator being rounded or parabolic on the top. as a rounding surface will not pull much, so I think a small elevator close up to the planes in front would help on any aeroplane in addition to the one in the rear. If the planes were set at a steep angle to overcome the suction, the rounding upper part would not be of any account.

1 QR£RTEST LIFT**

Regarding soaring flight,. I think the wings or planes must be about level, so that the forward part points downward. This, when starting to fall, will start forward. Thus the rounding upper surface will turn the air upward and make the air rarefied on the top, producing a lift. I may not be right in my viewrs, but that is "perhaps" a possible way of rising and soaring without power or an upward moving air current.

Ovington's talk on pa<*e 1S4 will convince you to some extent in this idea of having the planes thick at the forward edge.

1 am building an aeroplane of the monoplane type along my owu original ideas, of which I will let you know more when I make my first flights or try-out. It has these special designed planes, of which I herewith show sketch of end section.

If an aeroplane or soaring machine were to be made, the aviator and motor would have to he located within a fish-like body to overcome the head resistance and the suction on the backs of same. The struts and other parts of framework would have to be made in like manner, so that the aeroplane would move forward easilv.

R. R.

Raymond W. Garxeu. ï. Box 31, Davenport, la.

AERONAUTICS August, 191A

SUBSCRIBERS' FORUM AND EXCHANGE

MIGHT BE USED AS A "WIND WAGON."

327 Orange Street. Newark, X. J., Dec. 29, 1910.

Dear Sir:—

Having read with great interest, in your December issue, the description of a "glider" actuated by "bicycle movement," I thought perhaps my experiments along similar lines might be interesting, if not useful, to some of your many readers. I have not reached the point of making an actual trial at flying with my own power, but hope to do so in the near future. I am enclosing a photo of my device in order to make tre description more clear.

In the construction of my device I have used bicycle parts and spruce, the only special metal work on the machine is a 6-in. roller pin bearing on which the propeller turns.

The propeller is 6 ft. long and 5 in. wide, cut out of a solid piece of spruce, the blades are straight and slightly concaved on the face, the back is finished oval, forming sharp edges.

The propeller is driven by means of an extra grooved pulley attached to spokes of rear bicycle wheel, over which a belt passes by way of idler pulleys to the grooved pulley on the propeller.

The highest speed I have been able to obtain with a leather belt is 325 r. p. m., owing to the slip of the belt, but at this speed I maintained a steady pull of 9 lbs. for nearly two minutes; the test was made with a good spring scale, attached to the rear of the machine, the driving wheel being lifted clear of the floor by suspension from above, the front wheels resting on the floor. A second lest was made with a weight attached to machine by means of a cord and pulley with the same result.

T am about to substitute a chain and sprocket drive in place of the belt, in order to stop the loss of power by the slip of the belt, and I believe the gain in pull will more than compensate for the added weight of the chain. The machine is of the biplane type, except that no front elevator is used, the control being by the reai- tail plane. The main planes have a supporting surface of 152 sq. ft., the tail plane 15 sq. ft.

The weight of device shown in the picture is 40 lbs. The total weight of the machine complete is a little less than 100 lbs. The ratio of the gearing is 5 to 1.

Hoping Ih is small contribution will prove

interesting to vou, and believing some day l| will be able to'iiy with my own power, I am, Respectfully yours.

A. N. PIERMAX.

Wants Hearst Conditions Easier.

Editor AERONAUTICS:

Sir: Although, the copy was merely sent to you for your information and co-operation, I felt that "the promptness with which you gave a couple of pages of your valuable land crowded magazine to my letter to Mr. Hearst in your December number was extremely flattering and kind. However, you are like the cow that gave all the good milk—and then kicked over the pail. It happens that I did not read it in print until a moment ago, and I find that you have made two interpolations which took the snapper off the end of my lash and might affect the result which my letter was expected to accomplish. To give serious recognition to the Hearst prize in its present condition will undo all the earnest work of years in soliciting prizes to encourage the accomplishment of possible achievements. While it is entirely legitimate for Mr. Hearst to achieve publicity by offering a prize for a stunt, which, if at all possible (and this involves besides the aeroplane performance and the endurance of the aviator, a sequence of 720 hours of perfect meteorological conditions throughout this continent and at altitudes up to some 10,000 feet, if not actually through unexplored regions), we should not let the magnitude of the prize on paper bewilder us in interpreting its terms to Mr. Hearst himself. If, as we have no reason to doubt, this prize is offered in the soirit, for example, in which M. Deutsch of Paris gave prizes of similar magnitude for flights of a few kilometres, Mr. Hearst will no doubt be influenced by the opinions of the aeronautical societies and engineers into amelioration of his terms.

Now, the first of your interpolations stated that Prof. Simon Newcomb "seemed to argue that flight was impossible at a time when the Wrights were actually flying." I have carefully reread both papers and find nothing on which you might base your statement. On the contrary, in the first of Xewcomb's papers he states that "both the Wrights and Farman have had success." In his second, "The Problem of Aerial Navigation." he starts out with "The recent construction of machines on which for the first time in history men have flown through the air." etc. Again "The vital question is not whether aerial navigation is practicable, for that has been settled in the affirmative; now it is proved in the best of all ways, that of actual trial, that a man can fly through the air on an aeroplane." In your second interpolation of my argument that flight would be impossible in a 70-mile wind, you state: "As a matter of fact, an aeroplane does not lose lifting force going with the wind, owing to increased speed," which does not affect my argument, but might give an impression that I had not been aware of it.

Air in motion is not to be depended on for dynamic flight. The helicopter "gets into the air" on still air, but descends immediately because it sets up a descending current and churns up the air. To illustrate the absence of sustaining force in a gale, the stream lines of the churned air must be referred to. and in the sketch herewith a condition is shown which would readily solve the mystery of poor Hoxey's fall. Eangley said: ' "Wind cannot be compared to the flow of a river," but that it consists of infinitely complex internal gyrations. In my sketch the resultant of these would be a sustaining force of nothing, although it is not a "hole in the air" or rarified section, but a compressed swirl.

A 70-mile wind is classified as a hurricane and its navigation, which would be perilous even if it flowed like a river, would be impossible because of these swirls.

C. W. SIRCII.

Eos Angeles, March 31, 1911.

Rochester had more than its share of flying during July. The aero club there secured Simon, Barrier ano Frisbie, Moisant aviators, whose flights were appreciated by thousands, most of whom sat outside the field and saw the show for nothing. Three days later, Beacney and Robinson, of the Curtiss Co., flew under the auspices of a newspaper at other grounds and drew large paying crowds. The rival flyers attended the second meeting and saw for the first time Beachey do his sensational stunts aud Beachey did not cut anything off the program because of the presence of his peaceful adversaries.

Wants Capital for Novel Monoplane.

Dear Sir:

Thinking that my work or patents would be of use to your valuable journal, thought that I would send you a drawing showing the general construction of the monoplane that I would like to construct or get someone to furnish me the capital to do so. I have several patents pending on this machine.

As I have three or four different warping devices, with the one showing, which is oper-

A Laboratory Suggestion.

Editor "AERONAUTICS,"

New York. Dear Sir:

The writer has a suggestion to make to experimenters in aerodynamics by means of which all the principles underlying bird flight could likely be discovered, as our knowledge along these lines is admitted by all to be quite defective, and there is much to be revealed concerning Nature's secrets in the flight of birds, bats and other creatures, and especially the soaring of many birds without perceptible wing movements, which mystifies the closest students of this phenomenon. "Witness also that the condor, for instance, sustains 395 pounds per horse power, while the most efficient man-made flying machine lifts less than 50 pounds for each horse power used.

My suggestion is to take very rapid moving pictures of a large bird or bat flying through a column of smoke, or in a smoky room, and then reproduce these pictures as slowly as possible to make a continuous picture. Extra-rapid moving pictures—up to many thousands a second—have already been taken of insects' flight, but sui bono? Such pictures of the larger flying creatures' movements could be much more easily studied, the wings being larger and the movements slower. If they could not be taken by the same method—a

Josiph Picncl At»Ofl»»l w..h Satlty Dtvict ..o Autom.t.c VAb|>,„c Dt.ut .

ated by gears, arms, etc., I also have patents on a safety device which is used only when an accident happens when in the air. The whole monoplane is made of steel tubing, the beams in the wings are also steel tubing and are reinforced inside by a process of my own to give the added strength so as not to cause them to buckle, as there are no wires whatever used on the above.

I will give you an idea as to how the monoplane acts when the safety device is used. When the above is flying I have a small lever near one of my hands that, just as soon as L pull same, the wings are unlocked from position and are caused to turn; just as soon as wings are starting to turn and wings are unlocked, my weight causes the frame to drop down backward in a vertical position to the way it flies; as the seat is loose on the frame so as it may slide down the frame for about 15 feet, so as I may act as a pendelum to the wings as soon as frame is in this position the wings are locked automatically.

The warping device acts automatically, as the seat which I sit in acts as a pendulum for the above; the steering is operated by turning wheel right or left, the same as an automobile. The elevating is done by the same wheel by pushing backward or forward.

Of course, these things, such as engine, etc., are balanced so as to make the safety work quickly and in the right way. There are also two springs right on the second beam from the front, so as to help turn the frame.

JOSEPH PIERCE, 2713 N. Warnock St..

Philadelphia, Pa.

continuously moving film and electric spark for light—two or more olograph machines could be arranged into one, taking pictures alternately, or in succession, and reproducing likewise, but slowly. The object of the smoke mentioned is to make the movements of the air visible—something absolutely essential before we can fully understand the principles of natural flight. Then by applying the principles thus discovered to propellers and planes we can equal, perhaps excel, Nature, as we have done with the bicycle.

Yours faithfully,

ELMER G. STILL, Editor Livermore (Calif.) "Echo."

Editor of AERONAFTR'S, New York City. Dear Sir:

I have read with interest the article in May AERONAUTICS by Mr. E. 1- Andrews, entitled "Some Facts About Soaring Flight." I have never had any practical experience iu gliding, but I have had a whole lot of it in watching and photographing the flight of birds, and those have included gulls, terns, shearwaters, ospreys, eagles and vultures all along the coast from Maine to Florida and through Cuba. I have never seen anything to indicate that any bird can rise and ad vanco against the wind without motion on his part or the aid of currents.

Mr. Andrews is first in error in stating that there are three kinds of vultures in our southeastern states. There are hut two species, the turkey vulture anrl the black vulture. The latter is a shorter bird, with less expanse than the former, but is heavier, consequently it cannot sail or glide as easily.

The comparing of a soaring bird to a tacking boat is a fallacy. The wind striking the sail of a close-hauled boat exerts its force in two directions—to carry the boat along with it and to propel the boat forward, the former of which is combatted by the resistance of the water on the keel and broadside of the boat. The wind against the wings of a soaring bird also exerts a force in two directions—one upwards and the other backwards, but none with which to make forward motion against the wind ; the resistance of the air not being sufficient to overcome the backward thrust of the wind, the bird will be carried backwards .unless he has the assistance of rising currents or exerts some force himself.

Tt is more than probable—it is almost certain— that if a bird is progressing against a wind without flapping and in a flat or ascending plane, that bird is propelling itself even if the motion of the wings be imperceptible. Gulls or vultures never sail with no movement of the wings or body ; the body may rock, one wing may tilt a trifle—movements scarcely perceptible to the eye. hut every one calculated to maintain balance and to propel in the direction desired.

Birds cannot exceed aeroplanes in speed, but they are past masters in the or/ of flying; they know just exactly what to do and when to do it. Perpetual motion is no more of a dream than is the theory that a bird or anything else can progress against a wind, in an ascending plane, by the sole use of an adverse wind and gravity.

Chester A. Reed,. S. I?.

Worcester. Mass.. May 12, 1911.

FOR SALE—A perfect Santos Dumont monoplane, thirty horsepower, fitted wltb pontoons for water and wheels for land. Guaranteed to fly. Just the thing for an amateur. Will demonstrate to purchaser or send photo while in flight. Reason for selling buying two-passenger machine. Price at Akron. O., 8800.00, J. R Ct AMMETER, Akron, O. —Aug.

AEROPLANE FOR SALE—Genuine imported French Aeroplane, monoplane type, French motor, 3(>h.p..4 cycle opposed 5x 5 cylinders, water cooled with French radiator, G. & A. Carburettor, French Magneto, Chauviere Propeller, for $800.00, complete ready to fly. The power plant is high-class in every way and is worth more than what we otter the complete outfit for.

LANIER & DRIESBACH MFG. CO. 248 Butler St., Cincinnati. O. —Aug.

/ icish to express my hearty appreciation of Aeronautics ; it contains more useful information than any other publication i know of.—Harry R. Kiessig.

Please continue to send the magazine, as I would not be without it for three times the cost.—■ Prof. U. Sorenson.

Anyone interested in aeronautics can ill afford to be without Aeronautics.—Dr. A. S. Howe.

Your magazine is an absolute necessity.—P>. j. Presset.

ENGLAND BUYS FOUR BIPLANES

By Geo. H. Scragg.

The recent announcement in the House of Commons that the British War Office had par-chased four "Bristol" biplanes naturally attracts a great deal of attention to this machine. The military machines now being constructed are an improvement on the type of machine which took part in the army manuevers on Salisbury Plain last September. The appearance of the biplane at once conveys the idea of immense strength and power. The spread of the planes, including the extensions, is 51 ft. 3 in., the length overall is 39 ft., and the height 11 ft. 10 in. Fitted with a 70-h.p. Gnome engine the total weight is 855 pounds.

The planes, after a great deal of experiment, have been so shaped that under normal conditions of flight a considerable amount of lifting power is always in reserve, and have been constructed especially with a view of facilitating rapid repairs. At each end of the upper plane is fitted an extension, which can be demounted in a moment, saving considerable storage room. The machine can be flown without the extensions mounted, though, of course, in that case the weight carrying capacity would be somewhat reduced.

The chassis is so constructed that it is extremely difficult to buckle the wheels, an important part in a machine which may be required to land on rough ground, and combines the advantage of the skid landing gear and a wheel chassis without the defects of either. Here, as in every other part of the machine, the importance of effecting renewals and repairs very rapidly has been borne in mind, and in ease of breakage renewals can be made easily and quickly. The total supporting area of the machine is 62 square meters, and it is fitted with three comfortable upholstered seats set in a gracefully shaped body, the pilot's seat in front and the passengers' seats abreast behind.

The control is by a vertical column pivoted at the bottom to work fore and aft for elevation, at the top of which is mounted a wheel rotating in a vertical plane for lateral stabilizing. For steering, three rudders are fitted, and

are worked by means of a lever, pivoted centrally and working in a horizontal plane, operated by the feet. This method of control is a considerable improvement on the old, as it is much less fatiguing for long distance flights. The propeller is of the "Bristol" type, made of laminated walnut, and is exceptionally strong and powerful. Altogether, one cannot but feel that our military aviators will be mounted on the best machine possible for military purposes.

The "Bristol" Racing Biplane, which was also shown at the recent British show, is a very speedy looking machine, with a fuselage rather on the lines of that of a monoplane, and is almost a midget compared with the military biplane just described. The weight has been cut down to the lowest possible limit, and this little racer, complete with engine, weighs only 570 pounds. The width of span is S.2 meters, the length overall 7.6 meters, and the height 2.9 meters. The planes are specially constructed to give the maximum of lift with tha minimum of drift, and the stanchions are so shaped as to give the least possible head resistance. The engine fitted is a 50-h.p. Gnome engine with "Bristol" propeller, and the control is practically identical with that of the military type. There is, however, only one rudder.

The "Bristol" Monoplane, which was also shown, is an exceedingly graceful and swift-looking machine. It has a span of 10.2 meters, a length overall of 9.6 meters, and a height of 2.8 meters, and the total weight is 580 pounrs. The wings are supported by three separate wires in parallel instead of the usual steel ribbon, as in the opinion of the "Bristol" manufacturers the latter system is very treaclierous. The chassis is a combination of skid landing gear and wheel chassis, but where speed is the only desideratum, as in racing, the skid portion of the chassis can lie entirely removed, considerably lessening the dead weight and head resistance. The control is a modification of that already described in connection with the other types, and permits of long flights without discomfort. The engine is a 50-h.p. Gnome.

WHAT'S THE MATTER WITH AVIATION?

PRINCIPAL manufacturers of aeroplanes and supplies, motors and accessories have been asked to contribute their views on the subject of Progress of Aviation in the United States.

These articles will be printed in the order of their receipt. Some of them will be found below.

The Chicago meet seems to have renewed hope in the breasts of those who, but a short time ago, were more or less pessimistic. In making the request for contributions to this symposium several items were mentioned:— the lack of prizes for the stimulation of individual effort or research, the losses sustained at meets, the harmful effect of inexperienced aviators attempting to give ex-

By HUGO C. GIBSON,

A. M. I. E., CHAIRMAN TECHNICAL BOARD AERONAUTICAL SOCIETY.

Principally, that the whole industry is bred and fed upon Hot Air, and such support as it gets is obtained upon the basis of the prospects of unreasonable profits from the spectacular and death-invoking antics of untutored fledglings fired by the lust of desired approbation and unusual monetary reward; or, unusual, at least, for the class, who, in America, are mainly attracted to the new occupation.

Profits are being made by some concerns engaged in the show, and perhaps in the accessory business; and such concerns are liable to be satisfied and say that aviation is a success here, but unprejudiced observers must confess to the really slight advancement that is being made.

Aviation is a science, and for its advancement requires an army of scientific workers, not nerveless incompetents, nor high-strung, nerve-wracked scatterbrains; it is a serious business, and when tackled by serious minded engineers, who know how to select their designs, forms, material, methods and labor, and who are relieved from the necessity of prostituting their product by parsimonious economy, it will become a standard money-making business in the provision of the many thousands of machines which will be used by sportsmen on land and water, by the farmers on the plains of the west, and eventually, as time becomes more precious, by everyone who appreciates Euclid's definition of a line, "The shortest distance between any two points."

llow will this be accomplished? Regretfully I would predict that the method will be similar to that second-handed one which was necessary to give America its place in the automobile industry—to copy the best product of the European continent. This will be done, of course. In fact, it is being done, but it is a precarious method, because the operator probably will not know why he does these things—he will just copy. At least, if copying is to be done, let it be plain copying—no tassels on it. There are probably fifteen so-called copies of the Gnome engine being messed with in the States today. In each case the copyist's stoek in trade wherewith he secured the neeessary capital was "improvement," "double the horsepower," or some similar inordinate claim; quite unnecessary if the job is just copying. It might be thought from this that America has not the necessary initiative. That is not so. There is all the inventive and investigative initiation necessary, but there is not the support nor encouragement for the man of service, the man who would make two blades of grass grow where one grew before. The most lamentable instance of this in late years is found in the futile efforts of the American inventor of the Knight engine, who was turned down cold all over America. Made a stupendous success of

hibitions contracted for by ambitious booking agents and the obvious attempts at fraud, misleading advertisers, the scarcity of aeroplanes in the hands of amateur sportsmen, the aeroplane-less aviation schools, stock-schemes, the scarcity of capital available for investment, the great amounts of bad debts on the books due to over enthusiasm and downright fraud on the part of buyers and unreasonable credit by sellers, the general "tightness of money," and so forth. It was also suggested, parenthetically, that perhaps "you do not agree in the lack of progress and feel that we are moving as rapidly as can be expected."

That some did not "agree" is evident.

in England, it is now presented to American purchasers as the greatest thing that ever happened, the argument being based on the reputation of its English backers, and the wonderful success they have made of it. That invention could have remained in America to her enrichment.

Positively, the situation in America is continuously made worse by the habit of financial men relying solely on the word of the inventor, instead of consulting an engineer of broad experience, with the object of having the flaws in the story pointed out clearly and put up for discussion. Then again, most inventors seem to find it neeessary to represent their invention as a bonanza or get-rich-quick proposition. It practically never is, but the average American investor seems to need either a gilt-edged security, or a »o-per-cent profit world-beater, and the inventor, misled by the scareheads of yellow journalism in reference to "wizards of this or that," tries to live up to the situation, forgetting that our greatest scarehead wizard, Edison, makes his most impressive manifestations in investigating and commercializing the inventions of others.

That is the point. Get down to brass tacks by knowing what to do and how it is done. Be satisfied with reasonable returns. Don't spoil the ship for a haporth of tea. Make a reasonable investment and don't expect big returns in the first few months.

My opinion is that the greatest cause of the present state of aviation in the United States is that Hot Air replaces basic knowledge.

BY E. W. ROBERTS,

V. P. ROBERTS MOTOR CO.

Delay in aeronautical progress in the United States' is due in a great measure lo the inability of the aviator or builder who is just starting in the game to appreciate just what is needed to ensure successful Hying. It has been my privilege to visit some of the great aviation fields of the country within the last few months as well as to view the Chicago Meet in its entirety. I have seen, as well, a number of amateur attempts of many curious kinds.

one of the greatest mistakes made by the amateur, is in the choice of his power plant. Like many a beginner in automobiles, his choice is based more on price than on what the motor has reallv done. He installs one of these bargain-counter outfits and by the time he finds that he has been stung, be is out of funds and his friends are so disgusted at his attempts to flv that they will lend him no aid. I he number of American built motors that have really llown a dozen different aeroplanes can be counted on the lingers of one hand and I doubt if all of these could be depended upon

f,'A,îlthei- ™ ofuelay is the fact .that many auiauurs actually make contracts for exhibitions when their machines are incomplete an neither they nor the machines have ever been he air They appear on the field, and

either get "cold feet" and fail to get off the ground, or meet with disaster.

All these things delay progress, and fill the papers with exaggerated accounts of the "danger" of the aeroplane. As a matter of fact, had there been a nine days' series of automobile racing similar to the Chicago Aviation Meet, it is likely that the death roll would have been at least ten instead of two. It is a fact that there are few automobile accidents that result in serious injury to the car itself without injury to occupants. Compare this with accidents to aeroplanes.

By Lyman J. Seely.

PRES. ELBRIDGE ENGINE C< >.

Replying to your letter of the 25th: It seems to me you have pretty nearly outlined the answer in your inquiry.

There seems to be very little sporting interest in aviation in America. Except in very rare instances the machines are being built by men of little means who expect to reap a harvest from flying. As few of them have really well-built machines, nor the time and money to properly learn to fly, they don't make any money: consequently they cannot pay those who have trusted them for materials or money.

The great American "Bug-a-boo" is undoubtedly the unsatisfactory status of the Wright patents. That keeps money out of the proposition. People are afraid to make investments of any size.

So far as juvenile interest is concerned, there is plenty of it. Rochester did practically nothing last year because we had no Hying field. This year the Aero Club secured a fair field and now there are eight of ten fairly good machines in almost daily use. By and by men with money may get interested and then we shall see something like Europe is seeing at the present moment.

From the business standpoint the proposition is paralleled by the tiny dog who has a large litter of puppies. She simply hasn't milk enough to nourish all of them. Some of them have to die off for lack of nutrition. Too many concerns are trying to make a big thing out of aviation in America. It isn't a big field as yet, so some of them are bound to get left. The business won't go 'round.

The exhibition business is too frankly one of exploitation. The press-work and promises are overdone. The public has been led to expect too much, and in consequence are disappointed and don't go a second time.

Just the same, the game is a comer. The mushrooms will die off and a real business spring up.

By Alfred J. Moisant. PRESIDENT THE MOISANT INTERNATIONAL AVIATORS.

The status of aviation in the United States has changed so rapidly in the last month that, whereas four weeks ago a great deal could have been written about "What's the matter with American aviation?", now one may truthfully answer that question with the one word, "Nothing." T have been in business for thirty-five years and I cannot recall any time in my experience when any business or industry made so complete a revolution from torpor to activity, from an indifferent condition to one whose present presages a wonderful future, as has aviation in the Cnited States in the past month.

The one thing which has helped, perhaps most of all, to create this new situation is the. Chicago meet. Organized on a sportsmanship basis and carried out strictly on that line the support of the public and the activities of the aviators competing there would seem to show that competition on a purely sporting basis, without guarantees of any kind,

stimulates interest in the flying machine as no other means of exhibition can. Three or four meets more of the same high calibre and on the same non-guarantee basis as the Chicago meet, if they are held in this country between the present time and next summer, will do more to put aviation in the United States on the same high level as it is in Europe than anything I know of. Clean competition always produces the best results, and only in non-guarantee meets can clean competition be assured both to aviators and to spectators.

1 naturally take a great deal of pride in the fact that four licensed pilots have now been graduated from the Moisant Aviation School at Garden Pity. With the exception of the Pan, Mourmelon, Buc, and Ilendon schools in Europe, the Moisant institution has already turned out more pilots than anv other school in the world, although it has been in active operation for only two months. We have graduated four pilots this month and with good luck we shall have two more before the first of September. Now that there is in the United States a well-established and successful aviation school where anybody who desires to do so can learn how to fly, 1 believe the American public will very quickly take advantage of such an opportunity.

Aviation in this country has been held back because there was, until our institution was formed, no place where the public could go to learn how to fly. We intend to establish in the very near future six more schools exactly like the one at Hempstead Plains, and T am now completing arrangements for four of these.

To my mind there is nothing now the matter with American aviation. I could not have said that truthfully a month ago, but, as T have said, things have so changed in the last four weeks that I am glad not to be able to make such an answer correctly and sincerely.

Engine Horsepower Tests.

There seems to be rather a peculiar impression amongst some people engaged in the manufacture, of motors in regard to the horsepower of their product. In one case the "horsepower" is obtained by mounting the motor on a carriage and letting a propeller drag it along. The horsepower Is then calculated by taking the thrust of the propeller multiplied by the R. P. M. and by the pitch of the propeller, all divided by 33,000. That this gives the real horsepower Is a matter for investigation, for there are so many losses that the power calculated in this way may be higher than the actual by as much as 209r. The power may be measured correctly, however, using a propeller. It would be necessary to measure the torque of the propeller. This times the R. P. M. divided by 33,000, will give the true power.

Charles F. Walsh, one of California's first aviators, filling hjs first engagement under the direction of the Curtiss company, flew 37 minutes at Sterling, 111. He is well booked up through Nebraska and western territory. He has discarded his old machine and is using a regular Curtiss exhibition machine as used by all the other aviators of the Curtiss Exbltion Co. Twelve flyers are now busy filling dates: Lincoln Beachey, .lames J. Ward, Hugh Robinson, (\ O. Witmer, R. St. Henry, Beckwith Havens, Cromwell Dixon, lOugene Ely, Charles K. Hamilton, Charles F. Walsh, Earle L. Ovington.

I do not know what I would do If It never came. Other aero magazines can not take the place of AERONAUTICS.

H. L. Worley.

THE effect of color upon the flight of aeroplanes is a subject which is never spoken of by constructors. Is it possible that some of the builders consider color of such importance that their machines are turned out, one after another, all with the same colored material? Or Is it just a matter of fancy, unconsidered as a factor aside from that?

Most, if not all, of the foreign machines, and those of the Wright Brothers are white, or nearly so. The Wrights have gone even further, by not only using white surfaces but by giving every uncovered part a bright aluminum finish. In the foreign machines the woodwork is generally given a coat of varnish or shellac which preserves the natural light color of the wood.

It appears that the Wrights have taken color as quite an item, as their machines show. And have they not good reasons for this?

Color seems a trifling matter but in these days of more or less experimenting with gasless machines, it is considered by all

blacked sides, causing resistance and the fan is propelled away from the rays. Walk up to the window and allow your shadow to fall on this little instrument and it will immediately slow down and perhaps cease to revolve altogether. This is but one of the many ways of showing the resistance caused by the rays of the sun. This illustration is given for 1 constructed an apparatus after this principle in an effort to discover, if possible, the exact difference in lesistancc on black and on white surfaces. Unfortunately, the air currents (which are very numerous and almost continuous in California) interfered with my efforts and I am, therefore, unable to state definitely what the difference is in figures, though through these little experiments I was able to find quite a variation between the two surfaces.

The contrivance consisted of a three-foot square surface fastened on a stick seven feet long by \V° inches thick, one side was covered with white cloth and the other side

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that advantage must be taken of every possible assistance to get into and remain in the air with the least effort.

All are endeavoring to cut down weight, or to add more surface, or to use material shaped to offer the least resistance to the air. Why not consider the sun's rays, which, when resisted by a large surface, offer a proportionate repelling power?

As a general rule, one will observe in an optician's window a small device, known as a "radiometer," which is used more to attract attention than anything else. It is composed of either a two- or four-bladed fan, placed on a needle point in a vacuum bulb; the blades on one side are usually quick-silvered and on the other, lamp-blacked. When this little device is placed in the sunlight it revolves very rapidly because of the sun's rays striking the lamp-

with black fabric. Tais was pivoted one foot away from the square and was counterbalanced three feet further out by a pail of sand. After turning the white surface to the sun for some ten to fifteen minutes, and filling the pail with sand sufficiently to balance, the plane was then reversed and the black side faced the sun. At first it balanced perfectly but after some three or four minutes 1 was forced to either move the pail or put in more sand.

Even on so small surface, the difference after fifteen minutes was either a whole handful of sand or a movement of the pail 3« of an inch towards the end of the stick.

One could barely hold bis hand on the black surface while the white surface retained its original cool temperature. One was able to see the heated air shimmering above the black side. For this reason preference is

DOES COLOR AFFECT AEROPLANES?

By H. F. 1'ntternon.

given to white garments in tropical climates.

The whole apparatus was rough and crude, yet even with this in a still atmosphere considerable data could be obtained by one so interested.

It is a known fact that aeroplanes ñy more easily on a dull day, even in a light rain, or early in the morning and in the dusk of the evening, than when the sun is shining brightly. It is a mistaken belief that air is heavier during rain. If such were true, why does the mercury drop in a barometer and force the liquid in the other tube upward, had it the usual counterweight 01 heavy atmosphere? This is a simple form of expressing the difference.

High altitudes, thus far, have been accomplished in "white" aeroplanes, even though some of them have had less powerful engines to drive them upwards than the faster colored machines, and therefore, were simply "nursed along" until the atmosphere became so cold that the discomfort of the aviators forced them to descend, or because of the possibility of the engines' freezing, as the machines were still capable of climbing higher.

The question is, can a dark 'plane with the same construction throughout do as well] on a sunny day?

Another test! TTace a black and white cloth side by side on the snow in the sunJ No matter how cold the day, the snow will melt slowly around the edges of the whitei cloth and if left long enough a pile of snow would be left standing the shape of the cloth. The black cloth will gradually sink into the snow and eventually all the snow underneath will melt, leaving a hole the size of the cloth. Small pieces of soot will do likewise, owing to its blackness.

Someone will probably suggest that all birds are not white. It is probable that Nature seeks rather protection from foes than absolute efficiency of movements. The chameleon changes its color to that on which it rests, making it almost impossible of detection by its natural foes. Nevertheless, most of the arctic and antarctic birds and animals are snow-white.

Believing, however, that color is a factor to be considered with aeroplanes, the writer humbly submits this subject to those interested in the hope that others may experiment in the effort to advance aviation and make it safer, surer and more popular.

STRESSES DUE TO DIVING OR SWOOPING

IN view of recent accidents frequently ascribed to the overstraining of the machine by the sudden dips and swoops that are practiced by some aviators, it might be well to call attention to the conditions of overload that exist.

The following table has been computed by Dr. A. P. Zahm, in order to show clearly the stresses that are set up in an aeroplane while doing these spectacular stunts.

It is obvious that the greatest stress in the machine occurs at the bottom of a swoop, if

Velocity V,

         

of the

 

Kadius

of Curvature, It.

 

Afioplane.

         
 

100 Ft.

200 Ft.

300 Ft.

400 Ft.

500 Ft.

Miles per

Weight.

Weight.

Weight

Weight.

Weight.

Hour.

         

30

0.41

0.20

0.14

0.10

0.08

40

0.73

0.30

0.24

0.18

0.15

no

1.14

0.57

0.38

0.28

0.23

oo

1.64

0.82

0.55

0.41

0.33

70

2.23

1.11

0.74

0.50

0.45

80

2.91

1.45

0.97

0.73

0.58

00

3.08

1.84

1.23

0.92

0.74

loo

4.55

2.27

1.52

1.14

0.91

the machine be made to rebound on a sharp curve. The total force acting on the planes may be found from the table, if V and R be known, by adding unity to the figures given, then multiplying by the weight of the machine. For example, with a speed on the swift descent of 60 miles per hour, and a radius of curvature 200 feet at the end of the descent, the total force on the sustaining surface would be 1.82 times the weight of the machine.

Aviation in Germany is making' rapid strides. Within the past year a number of big cross country events have been held, as well as many flying meetings and contests. Tt is possible that Germany may soon overtake France in this sport and science. Aviation has interested the very best of German engineers and mechanics and in the building of motors have notable advances been made. At the present time

there might be mentioned the Argus, made in 50 and 100 horse-power types; the Daimler, which has made a big name for itself through the prize winnings of Helmut Hirth, in his Rumpler-Etrich; and the rotary motor Hoffman, largely used at the moment, in 50, 100 and 120 h. p. sizes.

Flying in Germany is under the control of the great federation of aero clubs and scientific organizations devoted to aeronautics, numbering thousands of members. The most prominent club is the Frankfort Aviation Club, which own two flying machines largely used by the members.

The performances of Hugh A. Robinson's hydro-aeroplane, was one of the big sensations of the meet. Rising from the aviation field Robinson would soar in the air, alight in the water, skim along its surface and mount again to the clouds in a most thrilling manner. He takes absolutely no regard as to whether his wings are wet or dry, whether they are exposed to the sun or wind, or to what effect the elements may have on them. This is because the Goodyear fabric is so made that under no conditions will it warp, crack or lose its shape. Without such a material a hydro-aeroplane would be no better than a butterfly, fit only for one or two flights, for water, sun and wind would quickly ruin an ordinary rubber cloth.

Aeroplanes Calculated

and Designed

PATENTS INVESTIGATED

Gr over Cleveland Loening, b.sc. a.m., c.e.

Consulting Engineer on Aviation -ADDRESS-

82 East 77th Street - - New York

IN the "Baby" or Model E. biplane built by the Burgess Company and Curtis, of Marblehead, Mass., for C. Grahame-White, though in general appearance resembling closely a Parman, there are many structural features, and those of design, also, which vary from its larger prototype. '

It has become noted for its fine construction and for the speed developed by it in nights made with it first in England by James V. Martin and C. G. White, who ordered six of them during his visit to America last fall. Martin has made a number of fast cross country flights with it and was entered in the European Circuit race, when he decided to return to this country. He brought back with him a Burgess Baby and flew it at Nassau before taking it to the Chicago meet.

Alain Supportiny Planes. These are built In three sections, the two outer ones being easily detachable at the points where the elevator and tail spars join the main lateral beams. Extensions of the upper plane are provided which increase the spread to 36 ft. 10 inches, which enables the carrying of a passenger. The rib curve has a depth of 2%", located 1' 5" back from the front edge. On the ground the angle of incidence is 12° 20'; the flying angle, 6° 50'. The ribs are screwed to the lateral spars, which vary in cross-section, both upper and lower. Those in front are rectangular (cross-section), measuring Wz" deep by 1V2" thick in way of engine and seat; IV4," by 1%" in the middle body section and 1" by 114 in the wings. The rear spars are by 1%"

in the middle and 1" by 1%'for the wings. All are solid spruce, the three lengths being connected by ferrules.

The struts are fish-shaped, of solid spruce, attached to the main spars by steel sockets.

Roebling solid plated "Aviator" wire, Nos. 10, 12, 14 and 16 is used for staying the cells. These guy wires are attached by eyes to eyebolts and are tightened by means of turnbuckles attached to eyes in the wires, which are secured by small copper sleeves.

Goodyear No. 6 aeroplane fabric is used In a single layer and attached to the spars by pockets in the cloth.

Elevators. Single plane, double covered elevators are front and rear, as usual, working in conjunction. The elevators have their upper surfaces curved, the under, flat. A single lever, moved forward or backward operates these, or the Burgess "gate control" may be used, as originally fitted to the machine. Instead of a single vertical lever to control both the elevators and the ailerons, the pilot holds a horizontal wooden link which connects two vertical levers, one each of the boat-shaped body in which he sits. This allows him to be protected from the wind and there is little opportunity for fouling the control cables. Another advantage, either hand may be used. This boat-shaped body is covered with fabric and is provided with a seat for a passenger.

Rudders. These are similar to the regular Parman, hinged to the struts of the biplane tail. The operating wires run to a steel tube yoke which forms, also, a foot rest.

Supplementary Fixed Surfaces. A fixed biplane lifting tail is employed, at upper rear edge of which is hinged the rear elevator.

For passenger carrying, extensions are fitted to the outer extremities of the upper main supporting surface, each held rigid by four stay-wires, two of which are connected to tops of two masts erected on the outermost box rib of the upper surface, and the other two are attached to eyebolts at the extremities of the lower wing proper.

Burgess " Baby "

THE BURGESS-CURTIS "BABY"

.so

BURGJ

IPLANE

81

Stability. This is secured by ailerons hinged to the rear lateral beams, of both planes, and they are operated by a lateral movement of the gate control. These ailerons extend out beyond the rear edge of the planes. Where the operating wire turns

beams. A rear skid supports the tail and is supplied with a flexible joint and rubber spring.

Power Plunl. Bosch-equipped Gnome engines have thus far been used, with the propeller between the engine and the mount-

MCMBE-R of T-RI6

_ Or- ' '■ RI&

THROUGH

BtriT copper. piPE- vjrtiCn :5 BR^ZfrD on ^TfjfrL PLATEr

corners, it goes through copper tubings. The ribs of the ailerons are light, solid, box and "T," covered in same manner as the main surfaces.

Pit nnimj Clear. Usual Farman type. The lower plane is much nearer the ground than in the big" machine, which is made possible by placing the propeller high up. The skids are of ash, with ash struts running from the steel sockets up to the main lateral

ing, placed midway between the planes, giving a high center of thrust. The Chauviere propeller is used turning at 1,200 R.P.M.

General Information. Spruce has been employed almost entirely throughout the machine, ash being used only for the skids and their struts and the struts of the central cell of the planes. Sheet steel sockets are used all over the machine.

MAY CROSS ATLANTIC.

Hugh A. Robinson, one of Curtiss* star aviators, has announced his intention of attempting a transatlantic (light with one of the Curtiss hydroaeroplanes, in the Spring of 1'J12. Ai-rangements are being made for the financing1 of the trip and for boats to be stationed along the route with supplies of gasoline and oil, and a duplicate engine.

Flights with the "triad" recently at Seattle, in very rough water, says Mr. Robinson, assures a creditable possibility of success during favorable ocean weather. The present triad can carry oil and gas for eight or ten hours' straight flying and even might carry another ;.viator along with whom to alternate while resting or taking-food.

Robinson had a thrilling experience at

the anniversary celebration of the founding of Astoria, Ore., on Aug 24th, with the Curtiss hydroaeroplane. Robinson made several beautiful flights the day before and was just starting out again in very rough water when his propeller struck a large wave and broke. One piece of it cut a large hole in the float which partially filled with water and the aeroplane turned over backwards and floated upside down. Robinson refused to leave his machine and, perched on top of the upturned float, directed the towing of the disabled craft to the side of the launching barge. It was finally raised out of the water and found to be in good shape, hut he had not enough extra parts and could not continue flights. The accident occurred directly in front of the grand stand and aroused great excitement.

Aviation " Expert " Arraigned—

"B. Maynard Harrison, who says he is an army officer, and who was arrested in Detroit by federal agents, charged with swindling would-be aviators by a mail scheme, was brought to Chicago yesterday. He was arraigned before United States Commissioner Mark A. Foote and waived examination. His bond was fixed at $1,000."

Press Clipping.

THAT many aeroplane "schools" give to students nowhere near what they advertise and promise is the much modified substance of a very strong remark recently made by a man who had conducted more than a casual investigation into the aero school situation. How far was he from the truth?

The answer in some instances is found in the files of the United States secret service bureau of the department of justice and in the records of postal officials. Here and there a school, so-called, has sprung up with wide acclaim (paid for at space rates) —but its demise and disappearance never is recorded.

An investigation by the writer into tne aeroplane school situation has convinced him that one of the first and greatest aids aeronautical bodies could extend to the world of aviation would be to clean out the fraudulent institutions, whether they be defrauding through malice or ignorantly. These work chiefly by advertising- what they cannot deliver and taking from hundreds of clerks, bell-boys, young mechanics and farmers' sons their hard-earned funds, which the latter have invested believing they would be placed upon the golden highway of fortune supposed to be traversed by all aeroplane pilots.

I found schools advertising a correspondence course to teach a man to fly; all holding out alluring lists of prizes said to be offered, most of which now are mythical; several arranging "booking courses" for their "graduates;" all advertising "shop courses" and immediate flying lessons; at least one of these latter did this without having a machine; one advised students they would be helped by an "inside influence" to get a job in a new department of Uncle Sam's army.

Advertisements tell the neophite he should start at once, learn by the correspondence course how to fly and then come on, learn how to build a machine in the shops and get practical flying. The shop course attempts in a month to make of clerks, bell-boys, etc., finished carpenters and expert builders in an art in which the leaders openly admit their advances have been only in the genesis. The school, by the way, plans to sell the machines the boys have paid to learn how to build.

Usually students have not been given prompt flying lessons in the field—some have been given none. Most of the students have waited weeks and months and then many of them have come to our office and asked what they could do, and how they could actually learn to fly. No less than fifty such inquiries have been received.

One school, so-called, until the federal authorities arrested the alleged imposter, advertised as a member of its staff, a "lieuten-

ant in the United States army," who would help students into the army in fine positions if they finished in this school. This man had a pilot license issued to another man, and with his name written - underneath it. The "lieutenant" is under arrest.

One school owner admitted he was innocently defrauding students.

"I can't give them what I advertised," he said; "I thought I could. This shop course stuff is all rot. The plan is wrong. I want to get out, clean up, sell what I have got, pay the boys back who have been hit, and stay away from it."

The investigation leads the writer to two conclusions, for work for the aeronautical world:

First, clean up the fraudulent schools— drive them out of business by federal prosecutions and publicity.

Second, encourage actual flying schools along an intelligent method of doing what the name implies—teaching flying.

Along this last line, I submit for consideration the conclusion I have reached for a successful school:

Divide the work into three parts: correspondence, handiwork and flying departments.

Advertise the correspondence course for just what it is—simply a plan to teach the learner why an aeroplane flies and something of the principle of the cambered wing and propeller: the laws of the air as to resistance; all this with the clear understanding it will not tell him how to fly, but why a machine does fly.

The handiwork course at the school should devote a couple of days to teaching the student how to assemble and take apart a machine; how to make sound wire splices and joints, little handy things in the way of adjustment, etc. A clay might be used in going over arrangement of stresses, etc., and how to stretch fabric and p^tch it. Ten days more, finishing the course, should be devoted to instruction in the "art" of running a gasoline motor, till the student is sick of the words, "poppet valve, carbure-tion," and the like.

The field course? One machine, built heavy and strong against serious breakage, good for 1,000 feet jumps and one turn ONLY, will take care of twenty students, each worked five to ten minutes every morning, going ahead slowly, and starting with a flight as a passenger for several trips in every instance. By degrees they will learn to turn to right and left.

Equipment ought to be bought outright. A "school" that cannot afford this hasn't much back of it. If the school desires to operate a light flyer for tests for aviation pilot licenses, that could next be taken up.

"When it has worked its students through the course suggested, they will not know how to build an aeroplane, probably, but they will know why it flies and how to fly it, and that is all they want to know to start in pursuit of that golden reward.

Above all, the school should be absolutely frank and aboveboard with its students. A modest beginning will not militate against it in getting students if it tells them just what "they can get and gives it to them, and soon it will leave behind its blatant "competitors."

If it is desired to build aeroplanes—build them, but do it with skilled workmen, not bovs and clerks.

In conclusion, I would like to suggest that persons contemplating taking up a course in aviation make inquiry of former pupils it has in mind, and compare its plan with this I have suggested. This, I think, will be the most effective in putting an end to the frauds being perpetrated daily.

AVIATION ''SCHOOLS''

By Grover K. Sexton.

SECRETARY, AERO CLUB OF ILLINOIS.

MILITARY

The U. S. Army Aviation Squad at College Park has settled down more or less to a matter of routine. The aviators so far are Lieut. T. de W. Milling, handling the Burgess-Wright; Lieut. Harry N. Arnold, the straight Wright. Both these men were trained at the Wright factory. They have in turn trained Capt. Chas. de Forest Chandler, and Lieut. R. C. Kirtland. ('apt. Chandler is now at the Wright camp at Dayton officially, to inspect aeroplanes and for further training.

The longest cross country flight that has been made from the camp, is to Frederick, Mil., by Arnold and Chandler, 41 miles air line, to visit the National Guard camp there, lie-turning that night, Chandler broke up the machine, landing at Gaithersburg. It has been repaired.

Capt. Paul W. Beck is flying an eight cylinder Curtiss. He attended the Chicago meet on furlough. Lieut. Frank M. Kennedy, 10th Inf., is to be the first Curtiss pupil. Of course, there is a good deal of rivalry between the Wright and Curtiss men.

The two Navy aeroplanes, one Curtiss "triad" and one Wright machine are expected at Annapolis by September 1st. The work of the Navy in aeronautics, under the charge of Captain W. I. Chambers, is entirely independent of the lleet operations, despite the newspaper stories to the effect of aeroplanes to lie tried out at the lleet maneouvres at Prov-incetown during August. However, Captain Chambers hopes to sandwich in some stunts when the opportunity offers. The assembled lleet has been doing target practice at kites and the Board of Ordnance has been urged to conduct an investigation in the subject of guns for repelling aerial attacks or frustrating aeroplane reconnoitering. This is still in the experimental stage.

The object aimed at by Captain Chambers, is the development of the naval aeroplane to the position of ship equipment and then assign one or two aeroplanes to each ship, just as life boats are part and parcel of the outfit.

NEW U. S. AEROPLANE GUN.

The Bureau of ordnance, Navy Department, for some time has been experimenting with a gun capable of being sighted through an

AVIATION

extreme number of degrees for high angle firing. The first photograph is herewith shown of the new gun, just tested at the Indian Head Proving Ground.

The Navy's High Angle Aero Gun

The gun used was an ordnance service one-pounder, on a mount especially designed to permit of firing at high angles without damage to the mount due to the excessive recoil. The cylinder seen on top of the gun is the recoil cylinder which is ordinarily carried under the gun, but was in this case placed on top so that it would not interfere with giving high angles of elevation to the gun. The remaining parts of the mount shown in the

photograph, are those ordinarily used with a three inch gun.

The recent experiments at Tndian Head were purely for the purpose of determining whether the mount as designed was sufficiently strong

to withstand the shock of vertical firing. The experiments were entirely successful and the information gained from them will be used in the further development of the service gun of this type, and, perhaps, in bringing out three and four-pounders.

NEW 2-MAN AMERICAN ALTITUDE RECORD.

The American 2-man altitude record of 3,080 ft. made by George W. Beatty, in his new Wright biplane on August 5, was the first record to be established at the grounds of the Aero Club of New York. Beatty had only just finished a two-weeks' course with A. L. Welsh, the veteran Wright instructor, who taught YV. Redmond, Cross, Edson P. Gallaudet, Wm. C. Beers, the first of America's long- hoped for amateur sportsmen flyers.

On Aug. 6, Beatty made his second crosscountry flight, over to Long Beach with a young lady, Miss O'Hagen. Here he landed on the sand of the beach. Taking up another passenger for a flight over the ocean, he experienced considerable trouble in starting and had to run along the wet sand close to the edge of the water, narrowly escaping the wetting of his planes. This was repeated, though he wet his tail in getting off, when lie started back to Nassau with Miss O'Hagen. The night before he flew with a passenger to Long Beach and out over the ocean returning in the dark. The trip lasted 1% hours. This was the flight in which he made the new 2-man altitude record.

A goodly number have gained pilot certificates at Nassau, whose names are given elsewhere in this issue.

The weekly matinees of the A. C. of N. Y., have been omitted of late as the aviators there have been flying at Chicago and Boston. NEW McCURDY AEROPLANE

J. A. D. McCurdy, is back from Chicago with a new machine illustrated herewith:

A detailed description of this will shortly appear in AERONAUTICS. Its speed is over 51 miles an hour on a circular course.

This is the same type of machine that Mr. McCurdy used in the Chicago meet, one of which was burned when it came in contact with a live wire and was built to Mr. McCurdy's design by the Queen Aeroplane Co.

Dock Wiklman, one of the new finds of the McCurdy-Willard Company, gives promise of becoming one of America's foremost aviators. His performance at Nassau Boulevard recently, in the rain, with this new machine was nothing short of marvellous. J. A. D. McCurdy and Dock Wildman have entered two of these machines in the Louisville Aero Derby.

GORDON BENNETT BALLOON RACE.

The following teams are expected to start from Kansas City, on October 5th in the international balloon race:

Germany-—Ing. Hans Gericke, Lieut. Vogt, both contestants in the last race held in this country, and Freiherr von Pohl.

France—Alfred Leblanc, Emile Dubonnet and Welby Jourdan.

United States—Lieut. Frank P. Lahm, John Berry and Wm. F. Assmann.

The Aero Club of America has made it obligatory that the American team be provided witli rubberized fabric balloons, by reason of the fact that the trophy, if won by the home team this year, will remain forever in the United States, as the property of the Aero Club, as it has been already won twice in succession by representatives of the United States.

Lieut. Lahm has been awarded the Aero Club's gold medal, in recognition of his victory in 1906, whereas, all subsequent winners have been awarded medals heretofore.

GORDON BENNETT AVIATION CUP.

Henry A. W. Wood has been named a committee of one to take up with American manufacturers the subject of the defense of this cup, in 1912 and "will be pleased to hear at any time from those already thinking of building" machines for next year's race. Let it be hoped that his efforts "to induce American builders to compete may be directed in such lines as to bring results this time.

$100,000 FOR 2867-MILE FLIGHT—MAYBE?

President Collier, of the San Diego (Cal.) Exposition in 1913, and president of the San Diego Aero Club, with John D. Sprec-kles, the Californian sugar king, both the "whole show" in the exposition, is endeavoring to raise a fund of $100,000 for the first aeroplane flight from the Fanama Canai to San Diego after the opening of the exposition. It is planned that the aeroplane carry a photograph of the first vessel to navigate the canal, which photogaph would be sold at a high figure to a Pacific Coast newspaper. A prize of $10,000

New McCurdy Headless Biplane So

has been offered by the exposition company and negotiations are in progress with Mexico and Central American countries, with the expectation of bringing the amount up to $75,000 or $100,000. The distance in a direct airline is at least 2867 miles, over the snow-clad peaks of Mexico's old volcanoes and the Sierra Madre range of sky-puncturing ridges.

A route imight be followed along the coast, which would increase the mileage tremendously. However, the prize can not be taken seriously as yet, for like all other aero club presidents, with two or three exceptions, Mr. Collier is not up on aeronautics, either aerostation or aviation.

NEW PILOTS.

There are now 57 pilots who have registered with the Aero Club of America, and the latest who have obtained certificates are given below, with place and date of final test. Numbers are not assigned until license fee, photograph, and details as to birth, etc., have been furnished.

33 Harry N. Atwood (Burgess-Wright, Gov-

ernors Island, July 3rd and College Park, Md., ......................July 13th, 1911.

34 Lee Hammond (Baldwin), Nassau Boule-

vard, L. I........................July 24th.

35 W. Bedmond Cross (Wright), Nassau Boule-

vard, L. I........................July 27th.

36 William Badger (Baldwin), Mineola, L. I.,

................................. July 30th.

37 Harriet Quimby (Moisant), Mineola, L. I.,

............................... August 1st.

38 Ferdinand E. de Murias (Moisant), Mineola,

L. L, ......................... August 1st.

39 Capt. Paul W. Beck (Curtiss), College Park,

Md............................August 3rd.

40 William C. Beers (Wright), Nassau Boule-

vard, L. I., ....................August 4th.

41 George W. Beatty (Wright), Nassau Boule-

vard, L. I., ....................August 4th.

42 Hugh Robinson (Curtiss), Nassau Boulevard,

L. I...........................August 4th.

43 Cromwell Dixon (Curtiss), Nassau Boule-

vard, L. I., ................... August 6th.

44 Matilde Eleanor Moisant (Moisant), Mineo-

la, N. Y., .................... August 13th.

45 Lieut. Roy Carrington Kirtland (Wright),

College Park, Md............August 10th.

46 Oscar Allen Brindley (Wright), Dayton, O.,

............................... August 3rd.

47 Leonard Warden Bonney (Wright), Dayton,

Ohio., ....................... August 3rd.

48 Lieut. John Rodgers (Wright), Dayton, O.,

............................... August 3rd.

49 C. P. Rodgers (Wright), Dayton, O.,

............................... August 7th.

50 Andrew Drew (Wright), Dayton, O.,

............................... August 8th.

51 Louie Mitchell (Wright), Dayton.. O.,

............................... August Sth.

52 .lames .1. Ward (Curtiss), Chicago, 111.,

.............................. August 11th.

53 Charles C. Witmer (Curtiss), Chicago, 111.,

.............................. August 15th.

54 Shakir S. Jerwan (Moisant), Mineola, N. Y.,

.............................. August 26th.

55 Norman Prince (flying name: Geo. W. Man-

nor), (Wright-Burgess), Boston, Mass., .............................. August 29th.

56 Glenn L. Martin (Curtiss), Los Angeles, Cal.,

57 Paul Peck (Bex Smith), Washington, 1). C. ('apt. Charles De F. Chandler, LT. S. Army,

and Charles F. Walsh, of California, will both shortly undertake the tests.

Beryl Joseph Williams, of Pasadena, California, wishes to pass his license tests at Santa Ana. Eugene Ileth (Wright) has also applied for a license. If. II. Brown (Wright) and Bcckwith Havens (Curtiss) also are ready for their tests.

THE BOSTON MEET.

The Boston Meet, Aug. 26.—Sept. 4, met with bad weather after the first day, and flying had to be postponed to Sept. I. C. G. White (Nieuport and Farman) took most of the money the opening day. His Nieuport, the first to be seen in the States, attracted a lot of attention.

Very little interest has been shown in the affair. White, Sopwith, Coffyn and Atwood are taking up passengers at $50 a flight.

The following aviators are present:—

C. G. White (Nieuport and Farman); T. O. M. Sopwith (Wright and Bleriot); Geo. W. Beatty (Wright); Eugene Ely (Curtiss); Lincoln Beachey (Curtiss); Arthur Stone (Queen); J. V. Martin (Burgess "Baby"); H. W. Gill (Burgess-Wright); F. T. Coffyn (Burgess-Wright); H. N. Atwood (Burgess-Wright) ; Earle L. Ovington (Curtiss & Bleriot).

CALLS ON CUUTISS BY TLA\E.

Walter Johnson, who has been quietly doing some exhibition work the past year with one of the headless biplanes made by the Thomas Brothers, of Bath, N. Y., made a flying trip, cross-country the first part of August and called on Glenn Curtiss at Ham-mondsport.

He wasn't exactly expected at the Curtiss factory, but like the flea, he got there just the same. Starting from the Kirkham factory at Savona, some IS miles to the southward, by route, where a new 6 cylinder 50 h. p. Kirkham engine has been installed, he flew along the railroad to Bath, where he turned north. Here he picked up the little single track railroad, over which a train makes frequent trips—every time a new Curtiss aeroplane is shipped—and followed its winding course between the vineyard clad hills to the shore of Lake Keuka. For five miles of the route there is nothing to land upon but a rocky creek, the railroad and thousands of poles with clinging grapevines. Two days later he flew back with the wind behind him at 70 miles an hour.

The Hammondsport county is the Rheims of America. Like the Rheims of France, it is a champagne center as well as an aviation center; in fact, there is even a little town nearby called Rheims. What's that? Oh, is it on the map? Yes indeed! (You bet!) Curtiss and Kirkham have made it excell in aviation as their forefathers did in the reviviscence of spirits.

HOY MISSING

Donald Renwick disappeared from Conesus Lake, N. Y., Tuesday night, August 8th. He is 16 years old, weighs about IIS lbs., 5 feet 6 inches tall, of slender build, has light hair which he brushed straight back, high forehead, blue eyes and dark eyebrows; was deeply tanned. In conversation uses excellent English.

He is intensely interested in aeronautics, and is conversant on this subject. When last seen he wore long yellow khaki trousers, a swimming shirt, and was without coat or hat.

Any information regarding the whereabouts of this boy, or which may lead to his recovery, should be communicated by wire to his father,

C. J. RENWICK, 508 Prudential Building,

Buffalo N. Y.

Received sample sopy and like pour magazine very much. Inclosed find M. O. for a year's subscription.— W. W. Swan.

I could not do without your magazine.—Ekoenk G. Biggs.

AERONAUTICAL, M VM'FACTl'REKS ASSOCIATION Meeting September 18.

Members of the Aeronautical Manufacturers Association, representatives and non-members are requested to attend its second general meeting to be held, September is, Saturday night, at the Hotel Ciimberl mil. Broadway and ottii Str.et, New York, at s o'clock, P. M.

Now that vacations are over, cool weather is forecasted with usual Weather Bureau accuracy and aviation concerns and those concerned in aviation are getting back to earth, members are being urged to buckle down to work. During the summer the bylaws have been printed and distributed and a majority of the business houses have been invited to join. Many have already accepted and it is hoped that the coming meeting will have a goodly attendance, in order that the work may be prosecuted by those best fitted. Owing to the short notice, many were unable to attend the organization meeting. Out-of-town manufacturers and dealers are requested to make a special effort to come to New York on this date.

WESTERN ASSOCIATION FORMED.

The magazine "Aviation" has been able to form a concrete body on the Coast under the name Western Aeronautical Association. Its members include the Hall-Scott Motor Car Co., Eames Tricycle Co., Shaffer Aviation Co., Eaton Brothers, Gage Aviation School, Dosh Aeroplane Co. and the Aeronautical Society of California. Meetings have been scheduled in Los Angeles and San Francisco. This organization will co-operate with the Eastern body in the establishment of aviation at a fixed angle, in the elimination of frauds and fraudulent concerns, in the standardization of certain material, and in maintenance of reasonable prices.

The meeting, as stated before, is at the Hotel Cumberland, New York. September is. Please put this on your calendar.

BOOKS RECEIVED.

VEHICLES OF THE AIR, Third Edition, by Victor Lougheed, 500 pp., 270 ills., 8 vo., cloth, published by Reilly <fc Britton, at $2.75 postpaid. Subjects treated in this new enlarged and revised edition are: The Atmosphere. Properties and Characteristics, At Rest, In Motion, Meteorology, Winds, etc. ;-■—Dirigible Balloons, with drawings and photographs illustrating every type, their construction and all matters relating thereto;—Flying Machines of the various classes, with a history of the development of aviation;—Aeroplane Details, covering the various types of aeroplanes, taking up in careful detail the arrangement of surfaces, sustentation, balancing, steering and controlling, with full sketches and halftones of principal systems, scale drawings of the best known machines, and their details;—Propulsion, with thirty pages of data on propellers, mounting, efficiency, forms, etc.;—Power Plants, taking up the mounting, cooling, ignition, carburetion, and smaller details, as well as the subject of the transmission of the power;—Bearings is another chapter which covers thoroughly the subject of engine bearings;— Lubrication is the next important item to be discussed and this subject is exhaustively gone into;—Starting and Alighting is a chapter which takes up the actual flying

Curtiss McCurdy-Willard

of the machine, while Materials and Construction, and Accessories are covered in further sections of the work. A tabulated chronological history of aviation takes up a number of pages, beginning with the reported flights of the Middle Ages, through the first fledgling attempts of the twentieth century to the present period of astounding accomplishments in aerial locomotion. Lougheed's book was the first of its kind to be brought to the attention of the aeronautical field, and has held since a position in aeronautics comparable to Kent in engineering. This new edition, just finished, can be secured from the office of AERONAUTICS, 250 West 54th St., New York, at $2.75 postpaid.

C.H,FA1)AI{ OF EVENTS.

•2—Eagle Grove, Nebr.,

aviators. 4—Louisville, Ky. aviators.

4—Little Falls, N. Y., C. F. Willard. 6—Lewiston, Me., Curtiss aviators. 8—Wheeling, W. Va., Curtiss aviators. 8—Glean, N. Y., Curtiss aviators. S—Providence, R. I., Curtiss aviators. 8—Lincoln, Neb., Wright aviators. 8—Wheeling, W. Va., Curtiss aviators. 9—Hamline, Minn., Wright aviators. S—Smith Center, Kan., Curtiss aviators.

8—Marion, Ills., C. A. Zornes. 6—Corning, N. Y., Curtiss aviators. 7—Fremont, Nebr., Curtiss aviators. 7—Rome, N. Y., Chas. F. Willard and

Baldwin flyers. 8—Morrison, Ills., Curtiss aviators. 8—Bloomfield, Nebr., Curtiss aviators. 8—Clay Center, Kans., Curtiss

and Wright aviators. 9—Yankton, S. D., Curtiss aviators. 9—Cincinnati, O., McCurdy-Willard flyers.

15—Grand Rapids, Mich., Wright flyers.

12—Moscow, N. Y., Curtiss aviators. 12—Marshalltown, la., Curtiss aviators.

13—St. Jolinsbury, Vt, Curtiss aviators.

-15—Huron, S. D., Curtiss aviators. -16—Milwaukee, Wise, Curtiss aviators.

13—Red Lodge. Mont.. Curtiss aviators.

13—VVinfield, la., Curtiss aviators. -14—Ashland, Wise, Curtiss aviators. -14—Mandan, N. D., Curtiss aviators. -15—Chadron, Nebr. 14—Emporia, Pa., Curtiss aviators. 14—Youngstown, O., Wright aviators.

-15—Lancaster, Wis. -16—McAlester. Okla. IS—Noonan, N. D., Curtiss aviators. 19—Ogdensburg, N. Y., Curtiss aviators.

-21—Oneonta, N. Y., Curtiss aviators. 22—Aledo, Ills., J. C. Mars. 22—Chippewa Falls, Wise. Wright and

Curtiss aviators. 21—Clarinda, la., Curtiss aviators. 21—Riverhead, L. I., Curtiss aviators. 22—Williston, Mont., Curtiss aviators.

22—White River Jet., Curtiss aviators.

-22—Billings, Mont., Curtiss aviators.

-22_Ithaca, N. 'Y., Curtiss aviators.

.22—Chanute, Kans.. Curtiss aviators. .30—Nassau Blvd., N. Y., open meet. 24—Carmen, Okla., Curtiss aviators. 24—Berlin, Germany, aviation meet. .30—Helena, Mont., Curtiss aviators. .29—Rochester, N H.. Curtis* aviators. -28—Houghton, Mich., Curtiss aviators. .2«»—Carlisle, Pa., Curtiss aviators.

.2*9_Canton. Ohio, open meet.

(Continued on page 111.)

Sept.

Sept.

Sept. Sept. Sept. Sept. Sept. Sept. Sept. Sept. Sept.

Sept. Sept. Sept. Sept.

Sept. Sept. Sept.

Sept. Sept.

Sept. 11

Sept. Sept.

Sept. 12

Sept. Sept.

Sept.

Sept. Sept. Sept. Sept. Sept. Sept.

Sept. Sept. Sept. Sept.

Sept. Sept. Sept.

Sept. Sept. Sept.

Sept. 20

Sept. Sept. Sept. Sept. Sept. Sept. Sept. Sept. Sept. Sept. Sept.

In California this winter at famous Dominguez Aviation Field, Los Angeles.

Aviation School of the Aeronautical Society of California offers practical instruction, either monoplane or biplane.

Directed by Licensed Aviators.

Finest Flying Field in America.

Impossible to find a better course of instruction anywhere else.

For rates and other information, address

Aeronautical Society of California, Los Angeles

The location of the Western office of the J S Bretz Company of New York, has changed to 504 Ford Building, Detroit, Michigan, where J W. Hertzler, their Western representative, wili make his headquarters. A full sample line of F. & S. imported ball bearings, German steel balls. Star ball retainers, D. & H. master magnetos, Bowden wire mechanism, Hartford universal joints and clutches, and drop forgings will be displayed there for the convenience of the Western trade.

During the past month the following parties purchased Gray Eagle Motors: Raymond W. Garner of Davenport, la., Lincoln Aviation Co of Lincoln, 111., H. H. Hoover of Memphis, Tenn., Jesse Cooke of Fort Worth, Tex., United Aeroplane Aviation Co. of Chicago, 111., H. G. Baker of Harland, la.

The apparent demand for a reliable motor, selling at a reasonable price, shows evidence of what the aspiring aviators want from this list of recent purchasers.

Albert Elton, Y'oungstown, Ohio, Cadillac dealer for northeastern Ohio, has bought a model B Wright plane and will install his recently purchased Maximotor. He finished his aviation course at Dayton.

On August 14th, Maximotor Makers booked orders for nine Maximotors. They report recent receipts of from two to four orders a dav.

The envelope for the Vaniman dirigible has been completed by the Goodyear company and shipped to Atlantic City, where the airship is being assembled for its trans-atlantic trip

Lieut. Conneau (Beaumont) has won this year some $102,330, heading the list. Vedrines won, in the Paris-Madrid race and others, a total of $40,000, while Garros and Vidart have earned $30,000 and $20,000 respectively

A new exhibit has been added to those on view at the office of AERONAUTICS by the New Y'ork Aeronautical Supply Co., which is in good standing with the landlord at 50 Broadway, New Y'ork. It covers a complete line of strut sockets, beam connections, wire strainers, and parts. Ribs and struts are treated with a waterproof solution before the varnish is applied. Laminated work is guaranteed not to open up. The company has its own metal and wood-working shop and is shipping promptly. To visit the office is to be astounded at the number of standard type machines which must be building all over the country and in South America and the Argentine. If motor and aeroplane makers are complaining of hard times, the parts and supplies merchants certainly have no cause to grumble.

That there is a verdant field in Cuba and South America evidently is the opinion of this house, for it is printing a catalogue in Spanish.

P. S. The publishing business might be better, too.

DaffydMls.

If Wilbur Wright has an ivory dome, has Henry A. Wise Wood?

If the Burgess machine Is pretty, Is the Curtlss aero—plane?

I t/tit move assistance from the paijes of Aeronautics than ana one individuai could tjivc me. Tliroui/li AiCRoNAt'Tics m.i/ inventions have hern imjirori'd tenfold.—.Tok W. N.U'HE.

I could no! do without nour ma//a.;ine.— Kiok.nk (Ï. Kioos.

/ alin'ius look foriruiit eaijerlii for each Siiccreil-inu issue. I onlii uish Akioin.M'TH's came offener, "it's a Iona time betiveeu drinks !"—J. 1. !..

7654

NEW WOULD RECORDS

World Altitude—11,642 ft., Aug. 20, Lincoln Beachey (Curtiss 50).

World Two-limn Duration—3 his. 42 min., 22 1/5 sec, Aug. 19, G. W. Beatty (Wright 30).

World eliminila Speed—500 meters in 3' 35", T. O. M. Sopwith (Bleriot 70) and Réne Simon (Bleriot 50), tied, August 19th.

MEW AMKItK.W ItlCCOKDS

VHitiid.—11,642 ft., Aug. 20, Lincoln

Beachey (.see above). 10.S37 ft., Aug.

IS, P. O. Parmelee (Wright 30). Two-man Speed for 10 km.—7 min. 50

sec.. T. O. M. Sopwith (Bleriot 70),

Aug. 17, 1911. Three-man Sliced for km.—6 min.

56 2/5 sec, T. O. M. Sopwith

(Wright), Aug. 15. Fastest Two-man Speed in 31. 1*. II.—

57.7S5 m. p. h., T. O. M. Sopwith

(Bleriot 70). Aug. 17. Fastest Three-man Speed in >l. 1*. H.—

34. 6 m. p. h., T. O. M. Sopwith

(Wright 30), Aug. 15. Two-mini Duration—3 h., 42 m.. 22 1/5

s., G. W. Beatty (Wright), Aug. 19.

2 h., 11 m., 35 s., G. W. Beattv

(Wright 30), Aug. 12. 2 h., 4 m.,

A. L. Welch (Wright 30), Aug. 12. Three-man Duration—1 h., IS m., 22 s.,

G. W. Beatty (Wright 30), Aug. 13.

1 h., 10 m., 26 s., T. O. M. Sopwith

(Wright 30), Aug. 13. 0 h., 4 m., 20 s.,

F. T. Cottyn (Wright 30), Aug. 12. One-man Climbing—See under "World

Records."

Weight Carrying—45S lbs., P. O. Far-melee (Wright), Aug. 19.

Two-man Altitude—30S0 ft., Geo. W. Beatty (Wright), Nassau Boulevard, Aug. 5.

TWO men lost their lives, 3 new world records were made, 300,000 people were present and aviators received $101,114.87 at Chicago, Aug. 12-20, the second big meet which has been held in this country; one which outshone the other at Belmont last fall. The Wright Company won $16,029 and received royalties of $100 a day from Rodgers, Beatty, Sopwith, Brindley and Drew, independent Wright flyers. Curtiss' men got $27,291, Moisant $8,143. The largest single winner was Sopwith who drew down from the paying teller $14,020, while the smallest was poor Lewkowicz who, with his Queen Monoplane, won 60 cents in a flight of IS seconds, plus 250 expenses for having his machine on the grounds. The expenses of the meet were approximately $195,000 and the total receipts were $142,901 leaving a deficit of over $50,000 for the promoters to face.

The Chicago Club produced one of the world's best exhibitions of flight without drawing in the least upon foreign talent. Every contestant, except Mestach, was already either an American or one who had been in the country, Hying, for the past few months.

There were no accidents to aviators beyond the two fatal ones, but many accidents to machines occurred and an auto truck was kept fairly busy carting machines to sheds, minus wheels, or skids, parts of wine:s, etc.

The Aero Club of Illinois is the first club In the world to conduct a meet on a purely

sporting basis, in the same manner, practically, as horse-racing is carried on. Entrants, except the big exhibition companies, had to put up a $1,000 bond to insure then-attendance. When their machines arrived each received $250 in cash and another $250 after a flight of 5 minutes had been mide. The exhibition companies had to take their chances on winning enough to make then-entries pay. How well they succeeded is shown by the figures. In the case of the Wright aviators, the policy of no-Sunday flying lost for them considerable of the total duration money. The independent flyers of Wright machines, Beatty, Rodgers and Brindley ran their duration up to top-notch figures, Rodgers within four hours of the greatest possible obtainable.

A year ago such a meeting would have been impossible, for guarantees were demanded by all aviators and none had the stamina before to start purely sporting events.

The field was very small, indeed, right on the edge of Lake Michigan, a spot always known as windy—and isn't Chicago called by those who do not live there, the "Windy City?" On some days, starts had to be made with the wind blowing straight out over the lake, as there was no room to start against the wind. The Wright company would not allow its men to take any chances of failing to get off and dropping" in the lake, and the machines could not get off running along with the wind from the side.

The turbulent air currents came down from over the roofs of the skyscrapers lining one side of the field and blew down on the aeroplanes as they tried to rise.

The nine Curtiss machines went through the meet without accidents other than the smashing of propellers, due to carelessness. Beachey and Ely flew on one day when the other machines could not get off the ground and demonstrated that they could fight out any wind.

Beachey's flying with his 'headless machine put him decisively at the extreme pinnacle, both figuratively and literally. He flew himself to fame greater than ever before and won more money than any other aviator using one make of machine. In the free-for-all race on the 16th he beat Oving-ton, in his 70-horsepower Bleriot in 12 miles.

His world altitude record was a feat which may stand unbroken for a long while. He started on his 2-mile climb knowing that he might fail because of the small capacity of his fuel tank, even expressing doubts of the result. He kept on. however, until he had drained the tank dry and then glided down every foot of the way. Beachey actually was in the air two hours when he had gas' enough for but an hour and three-quarters.

The barograph showed that he climbed steadi-lv and came down steadily at a sharper angle. The line on the record sheet goes straight up to its highest point, and then directly down at an angle still more nearly the perpendicular. He took about 1 hour and 4S minutes to go up and 12 minutes to come down.

The best flving of the meet was clone by Beachev, Ovington and Welsh. The most interesting events were the races over the lake to a crib some four miles out, and back, in which Ovinerton and Sopwith with their 70 Bleriots had it touch-and-go. In the straightawavs the 70 Bleriots had a little the best of it over Beachey, Ely and Ward, but the latter made up considerable on the turns. Beachey carried a passenger 8 miles in 10. min. 19.87 sec.

The Wrierht company had four sizes of machines ft the meet, the standard 39-foot machine, the 32-foot and the two smaller ones. The 8 cvlinder engine, seen at the Belmont meet last year, was installed in one of the

THE CHICAGO MEET

I

The Chicago Aviation Field on the edge of Lake Michigan.

escorted by Brindley (right).

Atwood (left) Is arriving,

big- machines for weight carrying and quick starts but was discarded. Parmeiee used the 32-foot machine in making his altitude record.

The Curtiss hydro-aeroplane, a special feature, attracted a deal of attention flying above the boats on the lake, over the grounds, and back to the lake again. Robinson flew out to the Johnstone machine when it fell in the water and was ready to assist in the rescue work. The use of this craft for rescue work was demonstrated effectively. Robinson could get to the scene at a rate of a mile a minute and could always land within but a few feet of the desired spot.

When René Simon, of the Moisant flyers, fell into the lake with his monoplane. Robinson alighted within a few yards and drove his hydro-aeroplane up until the little French aviator could touch it with his hand. Robinson wanted to take Simon off his wrecked monoplane, but the Frenchman refused to leave it until a tugboat arrived and fastened lines to his machine for the purpose of towing it ashore.

Again, when St. Croix Johnstone fell in his monoplane and sank in at least 40 feet of water, Robinson, who was in the air at the time well out over the lake, flew to the spot where Johnstone sank, alighted on the water and cruised about for ten minutes, hoping that the unfortunate aviator would rise to the surface so that he might rescue him. Johnstone, however, was fairly trapped in his machine and never rose to the surface. Robinson stood by the wreck until dredgers and motor boats arrived on the scene and located the body of Johnstone..

George W. Beatty, although a novice flyer, one might say, having received his pilot certificate at Nassau Boulevard only a few days before leaving for Chicago, was one of the bright stars of the meet. He flew the Wright model B owned by Walter B. Davis, of New York, the same one as used at Nassau Boulevard on August 5th when he nitide the new American

two-man altitude record of 3.0S0 feet. He finished second with the total number of hours in the air.

Sopwith, Mho was the biggest single winner, used both a 70 h. p. Bleriot and a Wright which he purchased from William C. Beers at Nassau Boulevard just before the meet. This he altered and fitted the Farman universal control lever, with foot-yoke for'the rudder.

The several Queen monoplanes met witli disaster and Rowkowicz got but one chance to fly and that lasted just IS seconds. The 100 h. i>. tv>ueen was not tried. Mestach was not very experienced with his Morane. the first to be seen in this country, and landed only two prizes. Cummings did not fly at all and loaned Iiis 50 Bleriot to Ovington, who used it thre-e days of the meet. Frisbie came to life at Chicago with his Gnome-engined Curtiss-type and did good flying.

Baldwin had bad luck with his own three machines. Hammond dropped the SO h. p. Hali Scott-engined Baldwin 3 miles out in the lake, then broke the propeller of a second through a pliers having been left on the plane. This was the old Baldwin school machine. Badger broke up the third and Mars did his flying on Baldwin's old Curtiss 50. The new McCurdy machine bit a live wire and burnt up.

On August 7, papers were served upon officers of the International Aviation Meet Association, in a suit brought by the Wright Company, which alleges that the machines competing are infringements of the Wright patent. A share of the profits and damages are asked.

lOach aviator was allowed "expenses" of $500 after be had flown for 5 minutes. Two dollars was paid for every 60 seconds an aviator was in the air, in addition to all prize money won in contests provided that the sum thus earned exceeded ids prize winnings alone, in which case he was given the difference between the prize winnings and the total at the $2 a minute rate. Where no prizes were won the $2 a minute rate was applied.

The totalization of duration prize originally was $10,000 but as the unearned prizes amounted to $6,000, this amount was added to the original $10,000, divided according to the ratio of the division of the first amount. These figures give the money received, whether as prizes, at $2 a minute, both, and the expense money allowed.

Four days before the meet opened, René Barrier (Moisant) made one evening flight high above the field and over the lake but this was his only one as his doctor forbade him to fly.

The meet closed officially on the 20th but on the following day a benefit performance was given by all the aviators for the widow of St. Croix Johnstone.

Correct List, Contestants and Results.

Totalization of Duration. Total money Rodgers, C. P., (Wright 301. .27:00:16 $11 Beatty, G. W., (Wright 30). .24:21:58 Brindley, O. A., (Wright 30).23:44:54

Ward, J. J., (Curtiss 50)____20:36:34

Welsh, A. L., (Wright 30).. .10:49:46

Beachey, L., (Curtiss 50)____14:33:05

Simon, (Bleriot, 50 Gnome).. 9:55:47 Sopwith, T. O. M., (Bleriot,

70 Gnome & Wright 30) 9:14:56

Ely, Eugene, (Curtis 70).....7:28:13

Ovington. Earle L., (Curtiss

50 & Bleriot, 70 Gnome) 5:04:49 Parmelee, P. O., (Wright 30) 5:04:0S Turpin, J. C, (Wright 30)... 4:21:07 Mestach, Geo., (Morane, 5()

Gnome) ................... 3:53:48

Gill, H. W., (Wright Baby 30) 3:45:17 McCurdy, J. A. P., (McCurdy,

50 Gnome) ................. 2:55:55

Frisbie, J. J., (Curtiss-type,

50 Gnome) ................. 2:49:43

Mars, J C, (Curtiss 50)..... 2:44:0S

Martin, J. V., (Burgess

'•Baby," 50 Gnome)........ 2:03:43

Brookins, W., (Wright 30).. 2:3S:11 Hammond, Lee, (Baldwin, SO

H-Scott) .................. 1:51:46

Beck, Paul W., (Curtiss 50). 1:03:53 Stone, Arthur, (Queen. 50

Gnome) ................... 1:01:28

Coffyn, F. T., (Wright 30).. 5S:56 Robinson, H. A., (Curtiss 70) 55:51 Baldwin, Capt. T. S., (Baldwin, 60 Hall-Scott)........ 2S:02

Drew, Andrew, (Wright 30). 17:13 Witmer, C. C, (Curtiss 50).. 13:38 Bonney, L. W., (Wright 30). 09:19 Lewkowicz, L., (Queen, 50

Gnome) ................... :1S

James Cummings (Bleriot, 50

Gnome) ................Did not fly

Johnstone, St. Croix, (Moisant

50 Gnome)

Badger, W. R., (Baldwin 60 Hall-Scott) ................

Atwood, Harrv N., (Burgess-Wright) ...................

For Curtiss Hydro-aeroplane

4:56:36

2:2S:00

Rec'd 285.00 ,125.00 ,351.00 ,413.00 ,121.00 667.00 ,050.00

020.00 4,672.00

¡,900.00 4,451.00 1 022.23

967.60 2,450.00

2,400.00

2,000.00 S2S.27

750.00 816.37

1,050.00 900.00

622.93 650.00 611.70

556.07 650.00 527.27 51S.63

250.60

250.00

1,093.20

900.00

,000.00 ,500.00

Totals ....................206:31:1S $101,364.87

THE CANTON MEET.

The Aero Club of Ohio, in conjunction with the Business Men's Association and the Stark County Agricultural Society will hold an aviation meet at Canton, September 27-29, and propose to spend $50,000 on the affair. Negotiations are pending for the aviators who have been flying at Chicago, and it is expected that three women monoplane drivers will also enter.

I am taking several other papers now, but 1 will subscribe as soon as they expire, a» I would lather have your paper than all the others put together.

Newton Lumm.

BEACHEY WON INTER-CITY RACE.

The first American inter-city race, flown between New York and Philadelphia, on August 5th, was won by Lincoln Beachey with Hugh Robinson a close second. Hamilton, who was an added starter to take the place of Eugene Ely (who first planned to be one of the three), at the last moment resigned his chance to Elv again, who flew after all, according to the firs't plans, though he was totally unprepared for the trip.

Starting from Governor's Island, a United States military post situate in New York Bay, all three flew their machines up the Hudson River several miles, then turned diagonally east directly over the great transatlantic docks and ferry-slips, the tenements and factories to above the Gimbel department store, at 33rd Street and Broadway, the center of the shopping district of New York, keeping at a height of 2000 feet. They were timed here officially for the start of the flight, which ended officially at the Gimbel store in Philadelphia, a distance of 82.S miles in straight lines from Gimbels to Trenton, to Gimbels.

Beachey was the first to start and the first to arrive over the Philadelphia crowds. After passing the line he started in to give the Quaker Pity a free show, dying around William Penn's statute on the City Hall, before he flew off to the final landing place in Fairmount Park where thousands of people were worrying the mobilized police of the Sleepy City into, for the time being, unwonted activity. Here Beachey made his machine do the tricks of a bronco in the throes of being "broke." It was nearly a half hour later before Robinson arrived. He had lost his way just before reaching Trenton, N. J., and made a wide detour, stopping once at New Brunswick. Both aviators stopped at Trenton for gasoline.

Ely and Beachey were pretty close together at Rahway but over Princeton Junction a plugged feed, so it is said, caused Ely to descend. Both Beachey and Robinson ran into a rainstorm and were soaked to the skin. The three flyers encountered a 15 mile head wind all the way to Philadelphia.

The total duration of Beachey's time was 2 hours, 0 minutes; that of Robinson, 2 hours. 50 minutes. Counting only actual flying time, or time in the air, from one Gimbel store to the other, the figures are as follows:

Beachey ............1 hr. 50 min. 1-8 sec.

Robinson ............2 hrs. S min. 47 sec.

Ely descended after 56 minutes flight approximately, not counting 2 stops at Princeton Jet., and New Brunswick. Beachey's average flying speed ..45 miles per hour.

Robinson's average flying speed ..3s miles per hour.

Gimbel Brothers donated a prize of $5,000 and arrangements were made with the Curtiss Exhibition Company for the race. Luncheons to the newspaper men, and friends, were given at the Gimbel stores on Thursday and Friday preceding the contest.

Beachey used his headless machine and Robinson one of the late type standard Curtiss machines, as did Ely. who Hew a new one direct from the factory. All were fitted with Curtiss 8 cylinder 50 h. p. motors. Naiad cloth is used for' covering the surfaces, El Arco radiators cool the water from the droning motors which are kept running by the sparks from Bosch magnetos.

Fohmkk ltor.Ni> Titir of Hamilton

On June 13, 1910, Charles K. Hamilton made the trip to Philadelphia and return, making no stop on the way to Philadelphia. He covered this 74.31 miles in 103 minutes. On the return trip he made a landing at South Ainboy, which increased the distance to 53.12 miles returning and the Hying time by one minute. His average speed for the 149.511 miles covered was 43.34 miles an hour.

The fourth day of the Chicago meet saw the fatal accidents to William It. Badger, of Pittsburg, and St. Croix Johnstone, of Chicago, a Moisant llyer of a year's experience. Badger was little more than a novice, having only gained his pilot certificate two weeks before the meet opened. Badger was making a sensational slide downward in his Baldwin biplane, with the full power of the big Hall-Scott engine behind him, the terrific strain upon the machine in "leveling up" suddenly exceeded the limit and the 'plane collapsed. The builders of the Baldwin machine assert that the stay wires must have given way under the sudden pull. The machine was reduced to a mass of wreckage. Although the poor aviator was rushed to a hospital he died after a few moments. No official report has been made by the Aero Club of Illinois, nor has an investigation been made into the death of Johnstone, who, with his machine, dropped beneath the surface of Lake Michigan.

Badger came to Chicago direct from Mineola where he had been learning to fly under the tutelage of the veteran Captain Thomas S. Baldwin, known everywhere for his extreme caution. "Uncle Tom" has always found it difficult to keep his enthusiastic young proteges, Hammond, Badger and Mars, from being a mite what you might call reckless. His first public exhibition, Badger was a little inclined to "show off." He wanted what all want, the plaudits of the multitude, however reckless or foolish it might be in its demands for sensations. Many an aviator and automobile race driver has taken one chance too many in order to please or appease the wanton spectator. The demands of the excitement seeker are alike, whether in the bull rings of Spain and Mexico, the saucer tracks of the bicycle race, the hurdles of Longchamps or Belmont, the prize ring, the lightning-fast Brooklands and Indianapolis, or the aerodromes of an aviation "meet:" a secret desire that "something will happen." The showman's realization of this is his stock in trade. The power-driven dives and spiral shoots are to the aviator the loop-the-loops and Hying rings of the. former.

Before the horror of this catastrophe had begun to pall upon the enormous crowd, Johnstone plunged into the lake about a mile out. Robinson, who was in the air nearby on his hydro-aeroplane when it occured, flew to the spot, but nothing was to be seen but the tail, the propeller and some sticks of wood floating upon the water. The fast motor boats which came up managed after

>me time to recover the body from the tangled wires and sticks. Doctors tried to resuscitate Johnstone, but gave it up after nearly an hour's efforts. It was the opinion of one of the doctors considering the small amount of water which came from the lungs and a severe cut, that the aviator sustained his immediate death by being hit by a portion of the aeroplane rather than by drowning.

Hugh Robinson describes the accident as follows:—

"High above ine I could see Johnstone winging in the clouds. He was 2,500 feet in the air and traveling slowly. Fully two miles out from land I saw him change his course and start downward. He came with terrific speed. I thought at first he was merely 'sliding' to obtain a different air stratum.

"When he was 500 feet from the water I saw he was in trouble. His planes were not working right. Down it shot toward the water at a sickening speed.

"I didn't think of Johnstone dying at that minute. 1 thought, 'Now I'll get to him and save him.' 1 started my hydro-aeroplane and

gave it full speed. I was fully a mile away, but I made the distance in not more than a minute.

"I could see Johnstone every second from the time the monoplane collapsed until lie struck the water. Johnstone was standing up in the cockpit when the aeroplane started down, and he was still standing when it struck the water. I can see him now standing there, helpless, his arms in the air, seemingly frantically trying to balance the mass of wreckage.

"As the waters closed over him lie went in feet first. I doubt if he thought of death. He was too busy thinking of righting the shred of a machine.

"It couldn't have been more than ninety seconds from the time he hit the water until I was landing near the wreckage and hunting for him, although it seemed an hour. I was almost crying, because it seemed to me that machine of mine wouldn't get up enough speed. I pulled every bit of power out of it it had.

"When I reached the wreckage the ripples were still on the water. Above the water the tail of the machine was sticking and for feet around were bits of wood and canvas. The machine had been torn to pieces by the fall.

"I worked the hydro-aeroplane into the wreckage and then scouted all around. I cut in circles, hoping that Johnstone had started swimming. I knew if I found him 1 could carry him on my planes until the launches came.

"1 couldn't get sight of him, however. It was fully ten minutes before the launches and pleasure boats arrived. I was satisfied by that time that Johnstone was dead beneath the wreckage."

KISSIAX A it >I Y AIIOI \X KILLED.

ST. PETERSBURG, Aug. 29.—Lieut. Zolot-nehin, a Russian military aviator, fell with his aeroplane while making a flight here today and was killed.

FI(I«>IUE KILLED.

NORTON, Kan., Sept. I.— J. J. Frisbie was killed by a fall in a Curtiss biplane at the Norton County Fair. He met with an accident the day before, and went into the air again only when driven to it by the taunts and jeers of the crowd. He lived for about an hour.

Frisbie, an old parachute jumper, was flying for the Curtiss Company. He began in 1910 with a machine he built himself.

FHEJfCH AVI VTOIt IIIH.VED IN MIDAIIt.

TROVES, France, September 2.—Lieutenant de Grailly, of the Eighth Cuirassiers, was burned to death in midair.

The disaster probably was caused by the explosion of the fuel tank, the burning fluid being scattered all over the machine. The blazing aeroplane fell with Its pilot at Rigny-la-Nonneuse, about twenty-five miles from this city, and lie was completely incinerated.

ANOTHER ARMY OFFICER KILLED.

NANGIS, France, September 2.—Captain de Camine, one of the most experienced aviators in the French army, fell with his monoplane while flying here today and was killed instantly.

ENGLISH AVIATOR KILLED.

LONDON, August 2. Gerald Napier, a young English aviator, met death last evening while flying with a passenger at Brooklands, in a Bristol biplane. Napier was driving a biplane and a sudden gust of wind dashed the machine to the ground, killing him instantly. His companion was thrown clear of the wreckage and escaped uninjured.

ANOTHER DEATH.

JUV1SY, France, July 23. Charles Joly, in a 70 h.p. Voisin biplane, was killed.

DEATH OF BADGER AND JOHNSTONE

The Model B Wright, with "Blinder" Modified, at Chicago Meet,

THE WRIGHT BIPLANE, MODEL "B"

THE first thing that strikes an observer on seeing one of the new Model B machines that are being delivered to customers of the Wright Co. is the neat appearance of the entire machine. This is due not only to the finishing of the parts, but in a great measure to the harmony of the entire design. A cursory glance at the machine does not at once reveal such strength and solidity as a closer examination makes evident. A study of all the various details of construction brings one to realize that every part has been thought over and carefully designed for its particular use and position.

Unlike most of the other machines on the market this one is not intended to be completely taken down for shipment. The front portions of the skids are so hinged that they can be folded back parallel to the main planes, and the foot rest folds up out of the way. The rear outrigger to tail taken off complete, slid between the main planes from one end, and tied to the strut's, the machine may be put in an end-opening box car. Of course, the assembling takes a very short while, which is a desideratum for military as well as private use, and there is no danger of the planes being poorly set up.

The machine is highly finished in every part. 'Exposed strut-sockets and connections, wires, hinges, straps, planes, etc., are nickel plated. The woodwork is of bright aluminum finish. This is obtained by dusting aluminum powder on a specially prepared wet varnish, giving a harder coat than a covering of varnish alone. This is rubbed down and the final finish is like that of a piano.

About sixty men are now employed at the 'Wright factory at Dayton, turning out duplicates of this model. Russell A. Alger, Robert J. Collier, Redmond Cross, Wm. C. Beers, Edson Gallaudet, A. S. Cochrane and other wealthy I amateurs are recent purchasers. A number have also been sold for exhibition work, on a royalty basis. George W. Beatty used a Model B at Chicago, where he made a new world 2-man record. C. P. Rodgers took first prize for totalization of duration at the Chicago meet with standard Model B.

OTHER MODELS. The older machines, as will be remembered, had a biplane elevator out in front and no rear

elevator. The machine Wilbur Wright first flew in France, and the first Government aeroplane was of this type. Following these two in 1910 a rear elevator was attached and worked in combination with the front elevator. At the Asbury Park exhibition, 1910, the headless machine made its first appearance. This was one of the same machines as then standard, with the front elevator merely removed. With slight increase in the size of the rear elevator, the machines from that time on were headless, and as new machines were built, the outriggers formerly used to support the front elevator were left off. In the Model B, put out in 1911, the front construction was shortened up, and the "blinders" at the front end of the skids were made a little larger. In July the new machines of this model had in addition, a pair of rectangular blinders under the upper surface in the middle section.

Starting was formerly accomplished on a rail; first with a falling weight, and later without. The first headless machine was equipped with a running gear, the same as in use today, and this got off the ground, no matter how rough, without the use of any outside assistance. Starting rails have not been used with the Wright aeroplane for over a year.

Model R, the "roadster," was first shown at Belmont meet, in the fall of 1910. Of these, the only one in the hands of sportsmen is that of Alec Ogilvie, in England. This spreads 26V& feet, planes 3 feet 7 inches fore and aft and weighs 585 lbs., equipped with the standard 30 h.p. motor. This type was used by Johnstone when he broke the world altitude record at Belmont, making 9714 ft. It is without doubt, for the horsepower the fastest climbing machine in existence, according to times and altitudes measured at Belmont meet. Ogilvie made a speed of 52 miles an hour in the 1910 Gordon-Bennett race with 30 horsepower.

A special racer was built for the Belmont meet, with but 22 ft. spread, with a special S cylinder 60 h.p. motor, but this, unfortunately, was smashed before it crossed the line in the Gordon-Bennett. A 32-foot machine, one passenger, has also been built for exhibition work where the grounds are small.

DETAILS OF MODEL B.

Main I'hiiies. These have a spread of 39 ft. I and a chord of 6 feet 2 inches, and are each built up in three sections. The cloth, which is prepared by the Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., is laid diagonally, being attached to each section separately and the sections laced together. The cloth covers both sides of the planes. The main spars are of spruce, as is the most of the woodwork, lV by lV, the greatest dimension being vertical in the front spar and horizontal in the rear spar. They are larger in the middle section of the lower plane, being 1%" by 2V6" for the front and 1V4" by 2]/2" for the rear where ash is used. There are 34 ribs to each plane, spaced a foot apart in the center and wider toward the lateral extremities of the planes. The ribs which come near struts are solid between the main spars. The others are built up of an upper and lower strip, with blocks spaced about six inches as distance pieces. The two ribs that support the engine and the two seat ribs are the only ones between the spars of the lower plane for the center six feet.

There are nine pairs of uprights of various sizes, the outer two sets on each end being secured to the planes by the familiar flexible joint, the remainder by a sort of socket joint, both being illustrated herewith. It is noticed that a few turnbuckles have made their appearance in the center section. This is doubtless in order to be able to replace the engine or other parts with greater ease. All the steel piano wires not fitted with turnbuckles are cut to length and are interchangeable. When setting up the planes the wires are attached and the struts are then sprung in place. These guy wires are cut and the loop bent by a special tool at the factory. As the wire used has a breaking strength of from 800 to 2400 lbs., according to size, it can be seen that once the plane is set up there will be no occasion for further adjustment through the stretching of the wires.

The curve of the planes is 1 in 20, the greatestB depth being two-fifths back from the front edge. The aspect ratio is 6.25.

Siiiiiilrnirntiirii Fijcil Surface*. The little semi-H circular blinkers in the 1910 machines have given place to two sets on the latest machines. This is due to the fact that greater area is required, now that the skids have been shortened up. The shape and location of these are shown in the drawings.

Vertical It mirier. This is, in general, of theB same construction as in the early models, although somewhat smaller. The rudder is operated by the combination warping and direction level', as shown in the sketches. As shown, this lever also warps the wings. By "breaking" the top section "B" either to the left or the right alone, (without moving the balance of the lever from its normal or other position), the rudder only is moved to steer left or right, respectively. In making Hat turns, without banking, this top section only of the lever is used. The movement is entirely a natural or instinctive one.

This separate movement of the rudder is ob-1 tained by having the sector "D," movably mounted, capable of individual action with respect to lever section "A," through the steel tube actuated by the section "B" of the lever. The wire which goes over the top of sector "D" must go to the left side of the rudder cross-liar.

Elevator. The front third of this surface isl held rigid while the rear two-thirds is flexible. This is" operated by forward and back movement of the elevator lever, as shown in the drawings; the wires being crossed so that pushing out on the lever steers down and pulling toward the operator steers the machine up. The cloth is laid on diagonally ("on the bias") and only one thickness is used, the ribs and spars running through pockets in the c loth.

There is a second elevator lever, which carB be used by a student passenger, who would then do the warping (and rudder) with his right

liand. Some of the Wright aviators use the seat next the engine, with the warping lever at the left. Others, taught by these, sit on the outside seat. This second elevator lever has a disc ttached, encompassed on its periphery by a flat steel friction band to hold the lever in any set position.

Transverse Control. While the control of the machine does not appear to be instinctive, it certainly is easy to learn, and after having been once firmly impressed on the mind, seems to be very satisfactory. It would seem that the exertion of moving the warping lever fore and aft is a great deal less than if it were arranged to mote sideways as in some other machines.

The warping is done by tne lever "A". Pushing forward, raises the left wing and depresses the right. The same movement turns the rudder to the left—the side having the lesser angle of incidence, when the lever as a whole is used, not being broken at the joint "C."

The wiring for the warping is shown in the diagrammatic sketch. The rear spars of the two end sections of the planes are hinged to those of the center section, so that warping may be accomplished without flexing the spar.

The lever arrangements have varied on many of the machines. Some are flown with the aviator using the left hand for warping. Students taught by these, use the right hand for warping, as a rule. This is now the practice in "breaking in" flyers, in order that any passenger or other weight they may carry will occupy a central position on the machine and retain the balance. However, one or two machines have been put out with 2 warping and 2 elevator levers, for those who desired to fly together and who had both learned the use of the same hand for warping.

THE MAKING OF SPIRALS.

Referring to the sketch of the combination warping and rudder lever, the wooden lever "A" is jointed, or hinged, at the top. The short section "B" turns left or right on the axis "C for independent rudder action. The lever as a whole moved forward warps the left wing up and the right wing down, at the same time turning the rudder towards the left (to offer resistance to the side having the lesser angle of incidence). The elevator is also warped down to enable the aviator to gain speed, and the. machine has begun to bank, the right side being the higher.

Next, this combination lever as a whole is gradually brought back to normal position, as the 'plane is now half way to being "on end." At this stage, with this lever (as one) normal, and the wings straightened out, the top section of the lever is "broken" over to the left which turns the rudder only to this side. This operation is gone through in making the short circles, or spirals, for which the Wright machine is so famous. The operation for turning to the left has been given. For right spirals the reverse must be done.

Care must be taken to straighten out before the machine has banked at so steep an angle as to make recovery impossible. In the sketch the Section B is broken to the left, turning the rudder only to the left.

Power Plant. The 4 cyclinder, vertical, motor Is rated as 30-35, and the brake horsepower runs, on test, in conformity with the rating. Frequently the brake horsepower is more. The engine in Beatty's machine has shown 42 horsepower on the block. The cylinders are 4 s8 inches bore, by 4-inch stroke, rated by the A.L.A.M. at 30.6 horsepower. The gray iron cylinders are cast separate and have aluminum water jackets held in place by steel rings shrunk on. The nickel steel crankshaft is cut from a solid block, as is the camshaft. A camshaft within the crankcase operates overhead valves by means of rocker arms. The connecting rods are of hollow steel, "T" shaped ends, on bronze and white bronze bearings. For shutting the motor off the exhaust valves are

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lifted, when a wire over the head (if the operator is pulled. A cut-out is used when desired, to short-circuit the Mea magneto which is driven off the camshaft through steel gears on the outside of the crank case. Gasoline is fed directly into the cylinders by a gear pump placed on the right side of the engine, the gasoline entering a vertical tube through a jet orifice. This pump controls the amount of gasoline fed the engine in direct ratio with the engine speed. This vertical tube leads to the center of a simple horizontal equalizing manifold which opens direct to the inlet valves. The only method of controlling the engine speed is by advancing or retarding the spark. In the Mea high tension magneto the. spark is of the same fatness at any advance, through its manner of construction. A foot lever pushed out against a spring retards the spark for starting the propellers. There is a catch on the magneto to hold it in retarded position so that the operator may start his own machine, without danger of its running off before he gets in the seat. Oiling is effected by a gear pump inside the base, with a glass sight which shows the level of oil in the reservoir from which the oil is pumped to the trough under each cylinder.

The cylinder head and valve cases are not water jacketed, but are made very heavy. The Inlet valves are automatic, with light springs. The weight of the bare engine is 180 lbs.

Cooling is through a vertical tube radiator which has a capacity of three gallons, sufficient for 6 hours' running. The tubes of this radia-

tor are now made fish-shape, instead of rectangular as before. Circulation is by centrifugal pump.

The gasoline consumption is about four gallons per hour, the 12-ga'llon tank carrying sufficient for three hours' flying. A gauge on the gasoline tank shows at all times the relative amount of gas remaining in the tank.

The engine is mounted at either end of the base on cross-members which in turn rest on the engine foundation ribs, which are solid. Duplicate sprockets screwed and locked to the crank shaft back, of the flywheel, drive through specially made Diamond nickel steel roller chains the two propellers, the gearing being in the ratio of 11 to 34. At an engine speed of 1,325 revolutions, which the engine turns up during flight, the propeller speed is 428 revolutions, with a flying thrust of about 250 lbs. The mounting of the propellers on their short chrome nickel steel shafts is shown in the drawings. Iless-Bright ball bearings are used. The chain can be tightened by means of the adjustable stay.

The early engines were 4" by 4", then 4>i" by 4" and now 4%" by 4".

In starting, the propellers are turned (with the compression "off") to fill the cylinders with gas. Then the compression rod is pushed in, the magneto retarded and the propellers given a quick pull.

In gliding down, or preparing to land, the compression is released and the propellers rotate solely by their impetus or by reason of the air

FORWARD OR LCA/tR *A "TURNS RUbDER LfrF-T AHh WARR5 RIGHT WIM6 DOWN AN5 LErrT VING UP. "BREAKING" ^ErCTIOM "B" TO LETT, WITH LOWCR ^frCTION /10RHAL, TURM5 RUDbER OriLY-TO LtP"T

DIAGRAMMATIC VIEW WRIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM

currents, without any braking effect of the pistons. Compression may be obtained again during Hight by pushing back the rod mentioned above.

Landing Gear. Wheels are used in combination with the usual skid arrangement. There being no need for the skids extending so far forward, after having done away with the front elevator, the skids have been shortened until they are only long enough to make the likelihood of tripping the machine rather remote. The exact mounting of these wheels is illustrated herewith.

Weight. The machine weighs, with operator, and passenger, ready to fly, in the neighborhood of 1250 lbs. The weight thus carried per horsepower is about 40 lbs. The weight carried per square foot of supporting surface, on the abo\e basis, figures out at 1\k lbs. Lancaster gives the Wright machine an efficiency of 63(/r, after deducting 5% for loss in the chains. The new book by Eiffel, just published, makes the remarkable statement, in view of the known facts, that it takes 30 horsepower to fly the Wright machine, which is obviously an erroneous conclusion.

THE WRIGHT MACHINE BY YEARS. For the first time is given a complete series of pictures showing the Wright aeroplane in each stage of its development. In the early

power machines of 1003 to 1005, the aviator was flat on his stomach and the engine, even, was laid on its side. In 1005 the rudders and elevator were placed further from the main planes.

Wright Running Gear.

In the spring of 100S, after a period of three years devoted to business negotiations and experiment, flights were renewed at Kitty Hawk, N. C, the scene of the early glides and power

Left Side of Wright Engine

flights, and the world "sat up and took notice" for the first time. Later in the year, Wilbur Wright went to France with one machine, shown in the illustration, while his brother, Orville, demonstrated the Government machine at Washington. After creating untold interest in Europe, Wilbur returned to this country. In the meantime the unfortunate accident occurred at Washington and a year later a new machine was demonstrated to the Army officials and accepted. Then, Hie experiment was made by Wilbur Wright at College Park of takinfrotf the uDper surface of the front biplane elevator and attaching it rigidly to the

The Mea Magneto used in all Wright Machines

tail, at the rear of the rudder. Next, this rear stabilizer was made movable and connected with the elevator lever, working in conjunction with the front elevator, which was generally used as a biplane.

In the summer of 1910, after a number of exhibitions had been given throughout various cities of the United States by a corps of aviators who were taught to fly at Dayton, a machine made its appearance at Asbury Park's exhibition, minus the front elevator altogether. It was just merely left off, the usual supporting struts remaining. From that time on, all machines were made headless and the two diagonal struts which stuck out were sawn off and small "blinders" were put on. Next, the front outriggers were shortened up, as we have explained in previous paragraphs.

TO FLY FOR HEARST PRIZE.

Robert C. Fowler, a dark horse aviator, with a stable of four Wright's is to start before the middle of September, from Los Angeles for the Hearst $50,000 coast-to-coast prize. A weal.by Californian is backing the endeavor, which will cost any contestant, according to the estimates

figured out by well known aviators, aiij where from $30,000 to $50,000 to carry through.

Burton H. Dreyer, of Toledo, is now at Nassau Boulevard with a 70 horsepower Gnome engine, Bleriot copy, made by the Brooks people of Saginaw, Mich. Dreyer will start during September and lly West.

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HARRY N. ATWOOD, an aviator of but three months' experience, who made a new American cross-country record by flying from Boston to Washington, 461 miles in straight lines, June 30 to July 10, between the days of August 14th and 25th began and concluded another flight which beats by nearly a hundred miles the best previous cross-country flight, the Circuit of Europe, which took 19 days and which distance was 1,073 miles, measured in straight lines from town to town. Atwood's flight, carrying a message from the St. Louis Pout-Dispatch to the New York World, measured from stop to stop, totals 1,155.62 miles from the point of start at St. Louis, Mo., to the point of landing at Governors' Island, New York. The distance measured by the railroad, which Atwood followed pretty generally all of the way, has been figured up at 1,266 miles. No official attention has been paid the flight, unfortunately, by any club and no figures that can be verified are available of the exact time of flight, nor of the distance. As Atwood veered even from the railroad course at times to fly over some town, his distance undoubtedly considerably exceeded even the 1,266 miles.

In recording this wonderful flight among the annals of aviation history, mention must be made of the fact that no repairs were made throughout the entire distance to the Burgess-Wright aeroplane, beyond re-babbitting two bearings at Nyack, within twenty-five miles of New York. And this was the same machine used in Atwood's flight from Boston to Atlantic City. Although two complete machines followed the intrepid aviator by express, they were not touched. Aside from the personal victory, manufacturers of the Goodyear fabric and tires, the Roebling wire and Mea magneto will come for their share of the glory.

Using the greater mileage as a basis, the daily average is 105 miles. Not a day Intervened between any two stages—the daily grind was accomplished irrespective of wind or rain.

Very little money came the way of the aviator, despite his wonderful achievement. About $5,000 were the net proceeds. Victor J. Evans, patent attornev of Washington, offered a prize of $10,000 for the flight if it could be done between the dates of August 14 and 27. It was attempted to secure prizes from the cities along the route, stops to be made in those cities which hung up a purse. This scheme was only partially successful and at Lyons, N. Y., Atwood broke away from this arrangement by the payment of some $4,000 and continued his flight to New York according to his own desires. On the evening of the 25th Mr. Evans presented the. prize to Atwood at the Hotel Knickerbocker.

ATWOOD MAKES NEW WORLD DISTANCE FLIGHT

1,1!««» Miles in I-' Days. Summary of the Klijsht.

Distance by path..........1,26G miles

Distance, straight line, from town

to town ...............1,155 miles

Duration of flight............12 days

Actual time in the air 28 hrs. 53 min.

Mean speed........43.9 miles per hr.

Mean daily flying time. 2 hrs. 27 min.

Mean daily mileage.......105.5 miles

Started from St. Louis,......Aug. 14

Landed New York...........Aug. 25

Walking record for same distance ......................22 days

Atwood starting from the top of the Palisades at Nyack. Note the wing warp and the air. tanks.

Atwood carried with him on the machine a suit ease, with some clean clothing and a few tools. No passengers were carried, though an attempt was made to take up Leo Stevens for the stage from Elkhart. It was, however, found impossible to get off the ground in the small field. A pair of cylindrical copper tanks, 9 ft. long, 10 ins. in diameter, were attached to the machine at Castleton for the flight down the Hudson River. The wire stays used in this machine were made 2 gauges heavier than usual and ferrules were used at strut ends at those points where they are wrapped with twine in the Wright machines. Where plates eome together and are generally riveted, welding is done to make doubly sure. All ribs were "box."

In 1910 two prizes were open for cross country flights; one of the N. Y. Times of $25,000 for a flight from Chicago to New York and the other of the N. Y. World and St. Louis Post-Dispach, $30,000 for a flight between St. Louis and New York. Neither were contested for.

Both prize offers expired by the end of the year. The World offer was open for six months, the Times prize was for a race starting a set day.

There is no prize open for 1911, save the Hearst eoast-to-coast flight.

XOTE :—The first column of figures represent rnilrinnl miles: the second, miles in straight line: Ihe third, filling lime.

The I'llfilil Diiv by Day.

AUG. 11.

ST. LOUIS ...............

SPRINGFIELD. ILLS.. 98

PONTIAC, ILLS.......97. .

CHICAGO. ILLS......91..

2.S3 259.92 6:12

This was the longest day's flight of any. Passed through two rain storms. Averaged

46 miles an hour. At Pontiae a supply of gasoline and oil was obtained and dinnei was had at Springfield. The landing in Chicago was at the aviation field on the third day of the meet there. Further than the rain, the weather was fine and Atwood took it easy.

AUG. 15.

CHICAGO...................................

ELKHART, IND......101 ......89.87......2:16

AUG. 16.

ELKHART PETTI SV1LLE, TOLEDO, O.,

O.,

. .97. . .37.

. .92.55......2:06

. .37.28...... 35

134 130.13 2:41

Getting into Toledo, Atwood flew with the wind which increased his speed to 65 miles an hour. Atwood had railroad time tables with him and at towns swooped down low to read the name on the stations. His speed for this day's flight was 50 miles an hour.

AUG. 17.

TOLEDO...................................

VENICE, O...........55 ......41.60...... :59

SANDUSKY .......... 3...... 2.24...... :05

CLEVELAND ........65......53.92...... 1:26

123 97.76 2:30

Average speed 45 miles an hour. From Toledo all the way to Buffalo, Atwood had the wind sideways off Lake Erie. The wind was especially bothersome from Toledo to Cleveland.

AUG. 1S.

CLEVELAND, O...........................

SWANVILLE, PA..... 84 ...... 87.68 ...... 2.07

From Cleveland the speed dropped to 39 miles an hour. The start was made from Cleveland on a narrow strip of sandy beach, narrowly skimming the lake. Puffy side winds all the way. The course followed along the edge of Lake Erie.

Jcqtpieto

ATWOOD

HAS TO SAY

BURGESS COMPANY and CURTIS

Marblehead. Mass., Aug. ¿8. 1911. Messrs. Marburg Bros., Broadway and 58th St., New Voik, N. Y. Gentlemen:—

Allow me to congratulate you upon the high quality of the Mea magneto which served so well on my flights fiom Boston to Washington and from St. Louis to New York.

It may interest you to know that the only control over the motor was through the retardation of the spark as no throttle or other control of the gasolene supply i* provided. The method of control through the spark has given satisfactory results in all of my long distance flights.

Yours very truly, (Signed) HARRY N. ATWOOD.

USED BY

SIMPLEX

BURGESS-WRIGHT MERCEDES AUSTRIAN FIAT HALL-SCOTT MAXIMOTOR

ASK FOR CATALOG No. 9

AUG. 19. 4.4.4^4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4,4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.

SYYANVILLE .............................. * *

ERIE ................11...... 8.00...... :14

BUFFALO ........... 88......81.28......2:09

99 S9.28 2:23

At Swanville the start was made in a strong wind. Arriving at Erie one new sparking plug was inserted, the first mishap of any kind, if such it may be called.

AUG. 20.

BUFFALO .................................

LY'ONS ..............104......96.00 ......2:11 4.

AUG. 21. 4»

LY'ONS ..................................... +

AUBURN ....................22.88...... :56 *

BELLE ISLE ........40 ...... 15.68...... :32 *

38.56 1:28 | BOSTON-WASHINGTON

AUG. 22. 4.

BELLE ISLE .............................. J \I7LIiT

FORT PLAIN .......95......83.84......2:10 4. W H A 1

Averaging 44 miles an hour, with the air 4! so calm that Atwood either flew with his 4. hands in his pockets or became absorbed in 4. the doings of the hero in the railroad timetable, Fort Plain was reached without inci- 4* dent, where he was enthusiastically' received 4* by Ginseng Bill. 4*

AUG. 23. 4"

4*

FORT PLAIN ............................. 4.

CASTLETON .........66......53.44......1:32 *

+

From Fort Plain, Atwood followed the 4*

Mohawk River for a way then cut off be- 4*

low Albany to the Hudson River, which he 4*

followed to Castleton, where he changed his 4»

second spark plug. He stopped 15 minutes 4*

at a small town named Glen for gasoline. 4*

4"

AUG. 24. *

•fr

CASTLETON .............................. +

GARRISON .......... 86......80.64......2:05 J

NY'ACK .............23 ......20.80...... :32 4.

109 101.44 2:37 |

At times flying here was 60 miles an houi, 4,

the fastest speed that has ever been made 4.

on, under or above the waters of the Rhine •]•

of America, first navigated by power when 4>

Fulton sailed to Albany in the Clermont. 4*

Since then the Hudson has seen YYilbur +

"Wright fly over its lower end, and Curtiss 4*

flew its distance in 1910. Before crossing 4»

the river to land on the east bank at Gar- 4*

rison, Atwood circled over the parade ground J

at West Point, in the expectation of land- T ii/ninijT

ing, but the air currents which are always T YVKIblll

bad at this narrow and crooked part of the 21

river, made him finally go further. £

AUG. 25. J.

NY'ACK ..................................... %

NEW YORK.........28......2S.00...... :46 4.

GRAND TOTALS .1,266 1,155.62 2S:53 +

4*

Finding something wrong with the engine, ^,

a landing was made necessary at Nyack, on 4,

the top of the high hills which a little lower 4.

down the river form the Palisades. Here 4.

two bearings were found to be burnt out. 4

These were babbitted again over night, 4»

and in the dense fog of the next day, the 4.

25th, flew down the rest of the way to 4#

Governor's Island, where he was cordially 4*

greeted by the officers of the military post. 44.4.++4.44-***++*+**+4«+4'+4'v*4-4'4'+*

ST. LOUIS-NEW YORK *

+ +

4» 4-+ * 44444» 4» + * 4« 4«

MARBURG BROS.

1777 BROADWAY —NEW YORK—

PARAME, France. Sept. 4.—Flying over the sea here to-day, Garros broke the world's -aeroplane altitude record by ascendinK l.J.OIfl.

Tlie 2 y\u\i \l(i(nde Itcconl. It was reported from England that Comte de Montalent and passenger tlew up to 2,200 meters (7,210 ft.) in his P.reguet biplane at Brooklands, Aug. 9. Conf irmation of this will be awaited with interest.

1-Man Altitude

ETAMPKS, France, Aug. 5.—Capt. Felix director of the Military Aviation School, ascended 3350 metres in his Bleriot, (10,988 feet) breaking the aeroplane record for height. The ascent was made in 59 minutes, and the aviator planed down in 6 minutes. The flight lasted iu all ] hour 15 minutes.

The official record for altitude had been held by Legagneux, who at Pau, France, last December rose to a height of 10,168 feet.

The late Archie Hoxsev reached an unofficial height of 11,474 feet at Los Angeles, Dec. 26.

Vedrines Flies 496 Miles.

PARIS, Aug. 9. Jules Ved'ines (Mo ane) the French aviator, broke the record for a longdistance Hight over a closed circuit in competing for the Michelin Cup. He covered 811.2 kilometers (504 miles; in 10 hours 56 minutes and 42 seconds beating Loridan's mark.

Vedrines tlew over a measured course of 101 kilometers. In the third round he stopped 22 minutes for gas and oil, and 50 minutes in the 6th and 7th. His official record stands at 800 kilometers for this prize. His average flying speed was 93 kilometers per hour. The 10 hours 56 minutes includes the 50 minute stops. He used the same machine which covered the 1010 mile British circuit. His actual flying time was 8 hrs. 54 min. 45 sec.

Cody Finishes 1010-MMe Race.

BROOKLANDS, England, Aug. 5.—Capt. F. S. Ody limped back to Brooklands today, two weeks after his departure on the 1010 mile Circuit of Great Britain. His French rivals Beaumont who won, and Vedrines, completed the course in four days.

With the arrival of Capt. Cody the coir, e-tition, in which only four men out of nineteen finished, is ended. The other man to finish the entire course, placed third, was J. Valentine, who readied home the night before. These two though badly beaten by the Frenchmen, made it a point to show that all British aviators and machines could start if given time enough.

Vedrines, after finishing second in the big race, flew home to lssy, near Paris, on Aug. 4, using the same machine. He stopped once at Dieppe, after crossing the Channel. He covered 290 kilometers in 2 hours 35 minutes. New Michelin Trial.

SAINT CYR, France, Aug. 7. Eugene Renaux (M. Farman) came near to Loridan's (H. Farman) Michelin Cup record made July 21, 700 kilometer, when he covered 657 kilo-mclers (41H miles) in 11 hours of actual flying: time for stops not counted.

New 2-Man Distance Record.

CHARTRES, France, July 30.—Level (Sav-ary biplane) beat the two-mini <ii tance record by doing 2U.70 kilometers. Mis time was:? hours 13 minute-3.5.H seconds. The duration record up to the time of the Chicago meet, was held by Amerigo. 3 hours 19 minute--.

Levels other records made, Julv 9, are:—

2 hrs...............................151 kil.

3 hrs.............................224.85 kil.

200 kil..............2 hrs. 38 min. 26.4 sec.

Beats Vedrine's Record. MOFRMELON, France, Aug. 26—M. Helles, a young French aviator, has broken Jules Vedrine's long flight record in competition for the Michelin Cup. He covered 860 kilometers.

AERO

Engines for Sale.

ENGINE FOR SALE.—A. Hani man, 30-H. P. engine; Eisemann magneto; late model; bargain at $400. Address Harriman, care AERONAUTICS. TF

FOR SALE—One 50 H. P. 4 cylinder, 4 cycle, Harriman engine. We bought this engine for a biplane, but the plane was a failure and was never completed, the reason we are selling. Harriman Co. selling this ensine for $1,650, our price with two propellers, $700.

LE BRON-A DAMS AEROPLANE CO.,

313 So. I2th St., Omaha, Neb.—Sep.

FOR SALE—An 8 cylinder "V Type," aviation engine, 30-40 H. P., in perfect'condition. Very little used. 270 lbs. thrust driving, 7' 6" dia., 4" pitch propeller. Demonstration to prospective purchaser. $560 complete, including brand new Boseh magneto and propeller. Address "X," c/o AERONAUTICS.—Sept.

FOB SALE AT A SAORI Fl CE.—Five brand new four throw crank shafts, finest vanadium steel made by P. 11. Gill, Brooklyn, N. Y. Suitable for 25-30 IL P. engine. Reason for selling, we are no longer building engines of this size. For price, specifications, etc., address quick,

ENGINE BUILDERS, Care Aeronautics, Sep.

MART

Positions Wanted.

EQUILIBRIST, SLACK WIRE WALKER, well educated, good business training in office, experienced in shop work, four seasons operating own automobiles, wishes to associate with manufacturer- to give flying exhibitions, train others and prosecute business generally. Excellent reputation. Address "Equilibrist," care "AERONAUTICS."

Sep.

Carliiirelur Rights for Sale.

FOR SALE—The J. M. Automatic Carburetor for sale. Rights sell for $2.00 or 20'"o in same to manufacturers. John McDonald, Jr., Point Prim, P.E.I., Can. Sep.

IIiisiiie.h.s Cards.

.1. ED. SHERIFF, MECHANICAL ENGINEER AND INVENTOR. ORIGINAL DESÌI INS A SPECIALTY. 125 WATTS ST., NEW YORK. Dec.

\«to|>lnnes for Sale.

AMATEUR AIRMEN:—Full size MONOPLANE ready for power, $75.00. One passenger; fine flyer. Four cent stamp for particulars. Send now. E. C. MINERT AERO CO., 1122 West Locust St., Davenport, Iowa.

Sep.

FOK SALE CHEAP—Cnrtiss (Type) biplane. leiurth :« ft , width :iOxr> ft., $:550.oo. 50 H. P. U.K. AVIATION MOTOR Al condition, with two T-ft. Propellcrs,*t34 and 5:,4 ft. pitch, one ti-frallon Gasolene Tank and one 3-gallnn Radiator, $500.00. TENT Al condition, 40xii(i ft., in ft. wall. $175.00. First come, first serwd.

LOUIS O. EKICKSON. H7* Liberty St.. Spriiurtirld, Ma.«.| —Sept

GARROS MAKES NEW ALTITUDE

THE Aeronautical Society in its promotion of aeronautics lias made good progress in the past month in the way of affording facilities for members' benefit. Its regular semi-monthly lectures and discussions have been particularly good.

Mr. Alfred Thompson, a noted scientist and authority on Vanadium, gave an interesting lecture, illustrated with lantern slides, showing the comparitive merits of Vanadium steel with other steels. The Society is publishing this lecture in full detail in bulletin form, showing tables and cuts used, which will be forwarded to its members and to the interested public upon request.

Thursday evening, August 10th, was very interesting, the discussions for the evening being devoted to Internal Combustion Motors, presented on all sides by the following speakers: R. B. Whitman, "Gas Engine Principles," Lewis R. Compton, "The Two < ycle Engine", Jas. G. Dudley, "The Two Cycle Engine". Hugo C. Gibson, "The Four Cycle Engine and

Common Misunderstandings", George S. Bradt, "General Faults in Motors", Ernest A. Von Muffling. "The Six Cycle Motor".

Members in general at the meeting joined in the discussion on the merits of the two and four cycle motors, and information of considerable value was brought to light.

Thursday evening, August 21st. was the evening devoted by the Society to a general discussion and a special talk by Mr. Arthur R. Mosler on "Spark Plugs and Their Construction in General". Mr. Mosler exhibited numerous models and samples of Spit Fire plugs and explained their operation and advantages.

Mr. R. E. Sabin gave an interesting talk and special information on "Air Holes", with demonstrations on blackboard.

The Society will continue to hold informal meetings every Thursday evening at its Club Rooms, 250 West 54th street, while the Entertainment Committee has arranged a series of notably interesting lectures and talks for the Fall and Winter, which will be held on the General Meeting nights—the 2nd and 4th Thursdays of each month.

It should be noted that the Technical Board of the Society, composed of twenty-five eminent men from all sections of the country, is doing exceedingly valuable work. This Board is sub-divided in the following committees: Standardization Committee, Research Committee, Record Committee, Construction Committee.

Each of these committees is at the special service of members seeking advice, co-operation or assistance in advancing the particular work the member may have in view.

The Aero Club of California, Los

Angeles, has changed its rooms to ¡¡49 South Hill street. The club is also taking steps to acquire new grounds nearer the city.

The Eaton Brothers and Co., have established a flying ground at Hyde Park, a suburb of Los Angeles. They are manufacturing biplanes at present. They have n- machine of their own make, a Curtiss model, but modified as to the running gear, which is partially a Sommer.

They have two engines, a Hall-Scott 60 h. p. and a Ford automobile engine. This engine (Ford a 22 h. p.) has been tuned up until it gives between 30 and 35 h. p. and Warren S. Eaton is making daily flights with it.

In fact, the engine works so well that he is able to take up a passenger. Mr. Eaton is one of our old club members. Though young in years, being but 19, we expect to see him de-

velop into one of our crack flyers in the near future. He is a graduate of the Los Angeles Polytechnic High School, where he received his mechanical training.

Frank Champion, a Long Beach boy, in a Bleriot belonging to Earl Remington, (50 h. p. Gnome), made a cross-country llight from Domínguez field to Long Beach and return on July 30th. This is his first flight in this country. A year ago he went to London and took lessons in flying. 1 am informed that the Aeronautical Society of California, has secured Domínguez field for its tlying ground. This flight lasted about 45 minutes and the course lay partly over the ocean.

H. La V. TWINING

The Trenton Aeroplane Club, Trenton, N. J., has been incorporated.

Mechanics' Aeronautical Association is the

name of a new club at Rochester, N. Y. Officers are as follows: President, George Boulton; vice-president, Fred Hengler; corresponding secretary, H. IT. Simms; treasurer, Howard B. Nurse: governors, Fred Robinson, Charles Rick and Glen Atkins. Communications will reach the club in care of Mr. Nurse, 301 Cutler Building.

The Continental Aero Club has been formed at Richmond, Ky.; Capital $1,000. Incorporators: W. F. Higgins, W. J. Newson, H. R. Tevis and S. ,E. Norman.

Aeronautical Research Club of the Y. M. C. A.

Buffalo, N. Y., formed during August. The officers elected are: President, N. E. Oorrin; Vice-President, James Steller; Treasurer, N. E. Marks; Secretary, H. C. Myers; Consulting Engineer, C. L. White.

The \er<> Club of California, with Earle Remington as president, has been established as a sort of combination business and club arrangement and bids fair to survive its birth. The Society has secured Domínguez Field for its flying grounds.

Author of "V'elilelo.M of tin- Air" lU-slnns Cliieatio Club.

Chicago, August 12th, 1911. Mr. Orover F. Sexton,

Secretary Aero Club of Illinois, Auditorium Hotel, Chicago.

My dear Mr. Sexton:—

1 am surrendering herewith my membership card, and with it tender my resignation in the Aero Club of Illinois, the same to take effect immediately.

Feeling that many of my friends in the club mav expect and are entitled to some explanation, 1 am herein stating my reasons for this action.

When I enlisted in the formation of the club, it was then clearly intended that its organization was for the effective and intelligent promotion of aviation progress In this locality, and it was anything but my understanding that it was to be utilized in any wav as a vehicle for the furtherance of personal interests or social ambitions on the part of any portion of Its membership. Assuring him of this view, I prevailed through personal friendship upon Mr. Octave Chanute to lend his great prestige

to the infant club, by becoming its first president—an office that he most reluctantly agreed to accept, and then only with the distinct stipulation that the example of a well-known and much-criticised eastern aero club, which had degenerated into an association of millionaire balloonists, was the type of thing to be avoided at all costs.

The outcome I regret to state, has been anything but what was hoped, and certain aspects of the present International Aviation Meet enterprise compel the realization that The Aero Club of Illinois no longer offers any opportunity whatever for men not bulwarked by money, nor rated in society to contribute to the progress of aviation. Instead, there has come into being a sordid self-seeking on the part of individuals—an almost complete subordination of practical and personal interest in aviation to a chiefly academic regard for and a social patronage of its possibilities.

Une of the principal purposes behind the organization of The Aero Club of Illinois was that of casting off the domination or the Aero Club of America, an essentially local New York Club, which because of its early formation, usurped and has sought to maintain control of aviation sport throughout the country, and has thus succeeded in constituting itself a clog upon rather than a help to flight development. At one time, when a secession of western clubs from the Aero Club of America was led in New York by the writer and other members of The Aero Club of Illinois, it appeared as if the democratization of the sport was really in prospect, but since then everything accomplished has been practically nullified by almost a complete acquiescence in almost every imposition of the eastern club—even to the extent that the superserviceable secretary of the Aero Club of America has been employed to define and dictate the rules of the present Chicago competition.

The meet itself, under the guise of a nonprofit-paying corporation, has been turned into a salary-disbursing business organization, and Its management vested in the hands of a man with the tact of a Missouri mule, whose only claim to the special knowledge desirable for the place inheres in the fact that he has a pjill with the city administration and was a notorious local politician out of a job.

Concerning the question of passes and admissions, which it has been attempted to magnify into the reason for the fast-growing criticisms of the meet and its management, this has been left arbitrarily in the hands of favored officials, who have utilized their authority to favor their friends and antagonize others. Already this question has become a sore subject with almost every working newspaper man or other person having legitimate a business at the fields or hangars, and already there are many representatives of the press who have paid admissions or missed news rather than waste time in the continued attempt to secure that to which every tradition of their profession and every interest of the meet legitimately entitles them. And yet it was a matter of general consent Saturday afternoon .'that while everyone with proper business instead of a special pull was bullied away from the hangar enclosure—a place of undoubted danger if over-ciowded—this place was packed with from one to two thousand friends, and friends of friends of certain meet officials—a stripe of petty grafting that naturally excited criticism.

As for the quality of the exhibition that Is furnished, while this is certain to prove vastly attractive to the numerous local population whose interest has been heretofore almost unsatisfied by Chicago's unparalleled and wholly unnecessary backwardness In aviation, every expert in this

field of engineering knows that it is anything but what so important and populous a community has a right to expect at this time for the amount of money expended. Indeed, Chicago is being made to pay heavily for a show that is not even as good as can be seen for nothing at almost any time, at any of the European aviation grounds, or even at the grounds of the Wright company in this country. Yet there should have been no difficulty, for the same expenditure, in bringing to Chicago, for the time at least, practically every world's aeroplane record, thus making the most constitute an epochal point in the history of aviation. Instead there is billed simply a hippodrome exploitation of such aviation progress as had been made up to about a year and a half ago, at which time there were plenty of flyers capable of doing everything that is going to be seen at this meet.

This condition has resulted largely from the patently ill-advised policy of refusing bonuses and guarantees to the great flyers of the world, whose claim for special financial consideration has been recognized at all other meets and is most legitimately based upon the fact that they are the men who have spent their money and risked their lives for the experimenting and the manufacturing that have afforded the most important results. The effect upon the quality of the meet as a result of this no-guarantee policy is readily discoverable in an analysis of the entries, which have shrunken from the much-touted list of fifty to the actual appearance of sixteen, the eliminations including most of those from whom really notable results were reasonably to have been expected. Those left include little of novelty aside from Curtiss' interesting hydroaeroplane and a lone Morane that is one of the first of its type to reach this country. The rest are a few Curtiss machines, one antiquated Bleriot, three or four American counterfeits of ancient Bleriots, and a considerable number of Wright biplanes, which can be depended upon to carry away the lion's' share of the prize money. And had it not been for the Wright's fortunate eleventh-hour decision to forget 'for the time their own serious differences with the meet management, this most considerable portion of the show would not be in evidence—with the effect, for example, that the eight machines in flight at once on Saturday would have been reduced to three.

It is evident to all who know that from such an aggregation of slow and obsolete aeroplanes there can be little hope of new records coming—unless by the process of claiming them instead of making them, as was done in the case of the passenger flight of Welsh on Saturday, which despite the misstatements to the contrary, does not supplant the three hour and nineteen minute flight made by Amerigo abroad, nor the one made in France on July 1, by Bevel in a Savary machine, M. Junquet as a passenger. Similarly mediocre, and equally significant of what is to be expected here, was yesterday's flfty-mile-an-hour speed record when compared with the world's official speed record of eighty miles an hour, and numerous unofficial records abroad in excess of one hundred miles an hour.

The time is fast approaching when there will be room in Chicago for an aero club that will concern Itself with the problem of flight and the advancement of flight, rather than with circus exploitation and society patronage of the men who are doing things In this field of engineering. And such a club will depend for its strength not upon wealth lavished upon the snectacular end of a hobby, but upon a membership of the men who are building and improving aeroplanes and flying them.

I am,

Sincerely, VICTOR LOUGHEED.

AERONAUTICS PRESS. Inc.

250 Wot 54th St.. New YorL

anyone will credit us with charging- fake against Ovington, Baldwin and Willard whose names were mentioned, but several minds, who obviously must be quite dense have endeavored to make it appear that we have classed these gentlemen, friends with those referred to above in quotation marks. We hope that this paragraph will make it clear to all.

Cable: Aeronautic, New York 'Phone 4833 Columbus

A. V. JONES, Pres'i E. L. JONES, Treas'r-Sec'y

ERNEST L. JONES, Editor — J. C. 8URKHART, Ass't Editor

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NO. 50 "SEPTEMBER, 1 91~1T~ Vol. 9, No. 3

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WHOLESALE WRIGHT SUITS.

Attention has been called to the wording of a sentence which appeared under this caption, in the fifth paragraph, in the August number. While the sentence perhaps is a little bit obscure as to meaning, it was certainly intended to make a distinction between those well-known aviators who were specifically mentioned, and "the large number of lesser lights who are killing the chances for future meets or exhibitions all over the country, by failing to satisfy the public, or even fly at all in many cases." It does not seem possible to believe that

COMMENDABLE, BUT INCONSISTENT.

In a recent bulletin issued by the Aero Club of America, the following resolution occurs: "RESOLVED that the Aero Club of America strongly deprecates the practice of flying over large cities at this stage of the development of aeronautics; that this practice presents in many cases danger to the public and offers no particular good or utility, from a scientific or any other standpoint, and that any accident brought about thereby at this time would greatly discourage the progress of the Art by arousing popular prejudice against it."

This is but following in the wake of foreign clubs, some of which have suspended pilots for flying over thickly populated districts. It is undoubtedly a step in the right direction, and, if consistently followed up, will tend to decrease cross-city flying, which certainly presents features of a dangerous nature at the present stage of the art.

Resolutions, however, are of little use when not consistently backed up by a judicious exercise of authority; and, in this case as in many others that we might mention, the Aero Club has painfully demonstrated the truth of the old saying, "Consistency, thou art a jewel!" In short, just a few days after the issue of the aforesaid interesting bulletin, a cross-country contest was officially conducted under the auspices of a club affiliated with the A. C. A., which contest involved flying over the most thickly populated parts of at least two cities, New Y'ork and Philadelphia. Moreover, at least one of the machines in this contest was new and untried and an aviator of wide reputation refused to take the risk of flying it without trial.

LTp to the present writing, we have not heard of the Aero Club rising up in righteous indignation on account of this flagrant disregard for its "resolutions," nor have any of the aviators concerned been threatened with excommunication, so far as we know. All of which causes us to remark, with tears in our voice, "Consistency, old top, cheer up; the worst is yet to come!"

GET BACK TO THE OPEN!

djc intercollegiate

Established 1899

1135 BROADWAY NEW YORK This will take you there qo cents a trip!

Published by THE INTER PUBLISHING CO. Of interest to all recreation-loving Americans. An illustrated monthly magazine of College Life and Endeavors; also Aeronautics, Dramatics and Books. A lot of action.

Appeals to the Father as well as the Son Contributing Editors in each of the Colleges Special Articles, Reviews, Fiction. Wit and Humor Offlckii Orgitn for Intercollegiate Aeronautical Association 10 cents jier copy SI.00 each year

Special Summer Subscription As the publishers wish to add a few thousand subscriptions before October 1st, they are offering to nil new sub; scribers sending in a dollar before that dale three months extra subscription. Tims yon get October, November and December issues FREE and your subscription is dated until January 11II3. F1FTEKN MONTHS FPU Si.00

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THE INTERCOLLEGIATE MAGAZINE 113N5e^Y„tlrkay

The Adams Company, Dubuque, Iowa, who in 1S98 built the first revolving cylinder motor that actually ran, and since 1903 have been building the Adams-Parwell car, driven by a motor of this type, are now turning their attention seriously to the production of high-powered aviation motors, and have brought out a 72 h.p. motor, revolving vertically, as shown by photograph herewith.

Since most of the laurels won by heavier than air flyers have gone to motors of the revolving cylinder type, this new motor, by the world's first builders of that type, is of especial interest. In addition to building Adams-Farwell motors and cars, the Adams Co. are large manufacturers of machine tools and hardware specialties, so have not found it necessary to market an aviation motor in the experimental stage.

In some respects this motor is very similar to the five cylinder revolving motors used in the Adams-Farwell automobile, having the same number of cylinders, the same single throw crank, the same positive oiler and the same crank construction. In other respects, however, it is quite different, being designed from the ground up solely for aviation purposes, and revolving in a vertical plane, so that it may be direct connected to propeller shaft or have propeller mounted directly upon the motor for aeroplane work.

The most interesting improvement found on this motor and no doubt, the most important advance made in the construction of aviation motors since the introduction of the revolving cylinder type, is the elimination of the carburetor and employment of injection with a means for absolutely regulating the amount of gasoline injected into each cylinder, and insuring that all cylinders will receive exactly the same mixture. This also makes it possible to do away with the inlet valve, and employ one valve for both inlet and exhaust, as only air is drawn in by the suction stroke of the piston, while the gasoline Is sprayed within the cylinder where it is mixed with the charge of air before compression. Having but one valve in the head of the cylinder, it can be made amply large to insure a full charge and a free exhaust.

In order to relieve the cam controlling the action of all five valves from the heavy load of opening a large valve against the high pressure at the time exhaust takes place, the cylinders are provided with auxiliary exhaust ports, which are uncovered by the piston on its downward stroke. No check valves are required over these auxiliary ports, as on the suction stroke, pure air and not a mixture of gas is drawn in, so what air is drawn in through the auxiliary ports on the suction stroke becomes a part of the explosive mixture in the cylinder, and being a constant quantity does not affect the operation of the motor.

The control of the motor is entirely taken care of by regulating the amount of gasoline used, and the only adjustment that might be construed as belonging to the carburetion system, is the valve by means of which this control is accomplished. The motor is not sensitive to adjustment, and the speed may be regulated through quite a wide range by this simple means.

The lubrication system above mentioned consists of an oiling" device covered by one of Mr. F. O. Farwell's patents. This oiler consists of a single rotary member much resembling in form the cylinder of a revolver, with longitudinal chambers bored therein. Each of these chambers carries a plunger which, as the cylinder revolves is driven from end to end by two stationary cams, causing a small amount of oil to be drawn in to each of the chambers at the bottom and ejected into a corresponding tube at the top.

This oiler supplies cylinder oil of an extra heavy grade to the various bearings and to the cylinders, doing away with the necessity for splash lubrication which calls for the flooding of other revolving cylinder motors with a great quantity of oil which gums up the valves and soots up the spark plugs.

There are two spark plugs in each cylinder of this motor, and two independent ignition systems are employed, so that either or both of the set of plugs may be used, thus insuring against the accidental stoppage of the motor from a broken wire.

Something over ten years ago, the Adams Company conducted a series of experiments to determine the action of the air in circulating about the cylinder of a revolving cylinder motor, and as a result, established beyond question the fact that longitudinal ribs are much more efficient than the circular type. The air coming in contact with the cylinder walls is thrown off radially, circulating lengthwise of the" cylinders, so the only logical arrangement of cooling ribs is lengthwise of the cylinders. The placing of ribs in this way has the further advantage of strengthening the cylinder against tensile strain caused by the action of centrifugal force, and the explosion.

This new motor operates satisfactorily on any grade of gasoline, using ordinary stove gasoline or naphtha with perfect success, but when these grades are employed, it is desirable to have a small tank of higher grade gasoline to facilitate starting.

In designing this motor, reliability has been considered above extreme light weight, as evidenced by the large bearings on the connecting rods, and crank shaft, and the fact that four rings are employed on the pistons where some builders of aviation motors are using only a single ring.

The materials employed are, of course, of the highest class, and Vanadium Chrome Nickel Steel is used wherever practicable.

Having a bore of six inches and stroke the same, this motor is rated at 72 h. p. by the A. L. A. M. formula (square the

IN THE MANUFACTURING FIELD

Description of the New 7Z II. I'. Adams-Farwell Aviation Motor.

bore, multiply by the number of cylinders and divide by two and one-half), and on actual propeller tests, has delivered more power than this. It drives a 9 ft. 6 in. propeller of 6-ft. pitch at 900 to 1,000 r. p. m. developing a thrust of 440 to 460 lbs., which pull can be maintained indefinitely without overheating motor.

Probably 72 h. p. is more than the average aviator requires at present, but as competition in this line becomes more keen and greater records must be set to interest government officials and other prospective purchasers of heavier than air machines, this additional power will be required and as machines, of greater stability and larger carrying capacity are built, the high power will be found essential. Another point to be remembered is that while a motor of small power may be able to fly when properly tuned up, it is necessary to have a motor of larger power if one is to be sure of flying under all conditions and rising from the ground quickly, where there is not room for a long run in starting.

Those who have seen this motor on the testing stand, declare that it is the ideal motor for aviation purposes and will, no doubt, be the future power plant of many record breaking machines.

The J. i>I. Carburetor

John McDonald, Jr., of Point Prim, P. & B. Island, Canada, has sent us the following description of a carburetor of his own design, which he is desirous of putting on

CARBURATOCI

_I049.\

the market. This is intended to fill all requirements, and to run perfectly at speeds from 50 to 1,200 r. p. m. No adjustments of any kind are to be made. The illustration shows the arrangement and operation. Gas enters at A and passes through needle valve B, which is actuated by the float, keeping the gasoline at the same height as the nozzle C. The main air intake is at

DD. The piston E, driven by the cog from the engine power, compresses the air and gas, forcing it up into the mixing chamber P, from which the engine receives it. For high engine speeds there is an auxiliary air intake provided in the ball cage GG. The mixing chamber has a hot water jacket to assure an even temperature at all times. The piston of the compressor is oiled by splash from the base of the carburetor.

"Curtiss-Type'' Aeroplanes.

The use of the words "Curtiss-type" in advertisements of aeroplanes built by others than the Curtiss Aeroplane Co. has caused the statement which appears below, to be sent out from the Curtiss office.

One concern which operated in New York and carried big advertisements in some of the other aeronautical papers and automobile journals boldly promised to deliver "Curtiss" aeroplanes without motors, at around five hundred dollars. The word "type" was not even used. Statements, though not in advertisements, were even made by this company that their machines were actually made at the Curtiss factory. Anyone who purchased a machine on such a condition from this five-hundred-dollar concern were certainly defrauded.

For the purpose of quickly telling the genera] appearance of some newly built aeroplane, the use of "Curtiss-type" has something to commend it.

Farman produced an aeroplane with certain more or less easily distinguishable features and machines made by others, which resembled the Farman original were called "Farman-types" for the purpose of giving at once a general idea of their forms and principal characteristics. Curtiss produced another pattern with easily distinguishable characteristics, and copies of this, or machines resembling" the Curtiss in a general way, were also described by saying "Curtiss-type."

This manner of nomenclature has been adopted universally. To describe the general appearance of an aeroplane without using such an expression as above, would necessitate the use of a photograph every time a certain not-well-known machine were mentioned, or would entail a lengthy, dry description, which would be worthless save to convey to the mind of a reader all that is simply set forth in the two words in question.

It is claimed that such an expression as this lays the user thereof open to prosecution where it is used to induce the sale of aeroplanes, on thé ground that a name is an asset and no other manufacturer has the right to derive profit from its use. The Curtiss Company says:—

"Because of the dependability and popularity of the Curtiss biplane, numerous attempts have been made to copy it. Throughout the country alleged aeroplanes, representing nothing more than the efforts of local carpenters and blacksmiths have been brought forth. Because in these structures, endeavors had been made to reproduce Curtiss ideas and achievements, these 'machines,' as defective in many instances that they couldn't be flown under any circumstances, have been called 'Curtiss' or 'Curtiss-tvpe' biplanes. In attempting to fly these imitation aeroplanes many would-be aviators have come to grief. They have injured themselves physically and financially. Out of pocket always and in the hospital usually, they learned by sad experience that something more than a two dollar blue-print was required to insure the construction of an efficient aeroplane.

"Occasionally, in a machine more or less rudely copied from a Curtiss model, an amateur has succeeded in making straightaway flights for short distances. But all the. 'achievements with 'home-made imitation Curtiss biplanes' amount to scarcely more than this. Several persons, having more known hardihood than ability, have advertised themselves, in an entirely ^unauthorized manner, as 'Curtiss aviators.

Aeroplanes at $90.

Aeroplanes are getting' to be cheaper than automobiles. Here is a concern, the Wolverine Aeronautic Co., of Albion, Mich., supplying all the parts for a biplane, save the cloth, motor and wheels, ready to be bolted together, for ninety dollars. The biplanes are even guaranteed to fly and replacements from defects are replaced free of charge for a year. The same machine set up, clothed and in its right mind, except for power plant, sells for $400. The first of these was bought by T. Tanner, in Cleveland, O., who put in a Roberts motor and flew it first shot without any trouble at all. There is no excuse now for anyone staying on the ground, except that of cold feet. All aviation editors will now have machines of their own, no doubt.

Two-Sealer American-Built Monoplane.

Willie Haupt wants to make a, flight over New York or around Manhattan Island in the new monoplane, copied after the late 70 h. p. Bleriot, which he bought from the American Aeroplane Supply House, of Hempstead, fitted with a Roberts two-cycle motor. A new machine with the same kind of a motor has been completed for Judge J. A. Brackett, of Boston. This ix a two-

seater and is probably the only one of Its kind as yet in this country. This was demonstrated the first of August, by Haupt, who circled the Mineola Field for 15 minutes with a passenger. A. V. Reyburn, of St. Louis, is another purchaser of one of these monoplanes, to be fitted with a 100 h. p. Emerson.

A visit to the factory of this concern, at 266 Main street, in Hempstead, L. I., was rather of a surprise. The workmen are doing overtime on the monoplanes in order to meet the urgent demands of the cu.i-tomers who want to break them up or fly them before snow falls. All the woodwork is done right in the one building, the covering of the planes, the brazing of the metal parts like tubing. Even the Bessemer "U" bolts, of the varying sizes, are bent and threaded here. The workmanship displayed on these machines is excellent and fully up to the original.

Application of Clutch to Aeroplanes.

"With progress rapidly being made in the maneouvering and construction of aeroplanes, refinement of details are occupying the minds of designers and engineers who have become interested in aviation. Pilots are being comfortably shielded from the elements, and instruments of precision and maps are already a part of the equipment of the present-day 'planes— non-magnetic compasses, revolution counters, anemometers, gasoline and oil sights, barometers, pressure gauges, inclinometers, etc.. For a long time dirigibles have been as completely outfitted proportionately as the latest ocean liner.

The one thing that, after the invention of the motor, made the automobile of today possible, the clutch, has been applied to the Zo-

V

diac dirigibles, those of the Astra company and the new Zeppelins, and even to the aeroplane.

The modern aviator starts his motor with a crank, the same way as he starts that of his automobile, with which he has come to the aerodrome. The starting of the engine by turning over the propeller against the compression, with its attendant possibility of a "kick," ever a source of danger and an accomplishment that has already caused the injury and death of several mechanics, is soon to be a thing of the past.

To design an aeroplane clutch with a proper friction surface, and without too great weight, has been a problem, apparently solved in the new Hele-Shaw clutch marketed by the Merchant & Evans Company, of Philadephia. To obtain small friction surface and not too great spring tension, a novel method has been adopted.

In spite of the very small encumbrance ot the device, the undulated discs offer," nevertheless, a relatively large friction surface, they also produce a final wedging, requiring only one-third of the pressure necessary for any other system. An annular V being raised in these discs, the latter are extremely rigid and can sustain enormous pressures without losing shape.

To allow the aviator to increase the pressure on the discs from 0 to 300 and 400 kilos, the system of starting has been combined with an effort not exceeding 10 kilos and that, too, without exerting any axial push or tension. Consequently, one need have no fear in mounting the clutch on motors of the lightest construction.

This result has been obtained by applying the pressure between two ball bearings of which one is stationary and the other advances to compress the discs B and C. On (he aeroplane models the pressure is applied by means of a non-reversible screw.

The aeroplane clutch is composed of a drum with its muff A containing bronze discs B and steel discs C that glide alternately in the grooves of the drum and core 1 >. This core is forged with the spindle E. Thus, when there is no pressure on the discs, they all turn on each other and the drum can turn while the spindle remains immovable.

As soon as the pilot presses on the discs there is immediately produced a slight friction, which carries along the steel discs and with them the spindle E. This rotating increases with the pressure up to the moment when the two series of discs hound together and the spindle turns at the same speed as the drum.

The two ball bearings F are contained in two concentric cages, one slipping into the other.

The bearing C presses against the roller J, which is itself held in place by the screw K, into which is fitted the roller L," forming the support of the spindle.

The cage 1 is fixed to the chassis by the shoulder M and this cage is lengthened on each side by a support N for the lever O. This lever, whose axis is in P, is joined with the cage H by the rods Q. Consequently, when the lever O is moved forward the rods Q push the cage and the bearing F and also the rods R and the compressor plate S which compresses the discs.

xVs soon as the lever O is released the movable parts of the starting gear come back-

O. When the discs pile up the pointer comes down a notch to maintain the pressure.

For the clutches of which the power exceeds 100 h. p., the starting gear is generally made by a helicoidal rise acting between the two ball bearings; this rise being operated by a fly wheel and worm.

This system is in use on the dirigible balloons Zodiac, Astra, etc., and on the new Zeppelins.

CALENDAR OF EVENTS.

(Co?it!?tî(e(/ from page S7.) Sept. 28—Evansville, Ind., Curtiss hydroaeroplane.

Sept. 2S-29—Dubuque, la.. Curtiss aviators. Sept. 28-29—Beach, N. D., Curtiss aviators. Sept. 28-29—Binghamton, N. Y., Curtiss aviators.

Sept. 29-Oct. 7—Springfield, 111., Wright exhibition.

Sept. 30-Oct. 7—St. Louis, Mo., open meet, not definite.

ward under pressure of the springs around the rods R.

After this description, one notes that the lever takes its point of support on the bearing G to advance the bearing F and that there is no axial push. The pressure on the discs is only limited by the load that these bearings .can stand. On the clutches for aeroplanes, the pressure is limited to 350 kilos. There is no loss of power as a consequence of the work of the bearings.

So as to be able to limit this pressure and increase the lever arm, the apparatus is provided with a pointer T, in which is placed a spring (sized) so that the end of the pointer can leave its cage when the pressure determined on has been exceeded. On the axis U of the pointer T, is keyed a lever V, whose length of 340 mm. allows the exertion of a pressure on the discs up to 350 kilos with an effort of 10 kilograms.

To prevent any disengaging on account of the vibrations, the end of the pointer T is engaged in a series of notches on the lever

Oct. 2—Walterborough, S. C, Curtiss aviators.

< )ct. 2—Beatrice, Neb., Curtiss aviators. Oct. 2-7—Cedar Rapids. la.. Wright aviators.

Oct. 2-7—Spokane, Wash., Curtiss aviators.

Oct. ;S-ti—Conway, Kan , Wright aviators.

Oct. 4-5—Bad Axe, Mich., Curtiss aviators.

< >ct. 5—Gordon-Bennett balloon race, Kan-

sas City, Mo.

i >ct. 5-8—Peoria, 111., Curtiss aviators.

Oct. 9-12—Lewiston, Idaho, Curtiss aviators.

Oct. 9-12—Muskogee, Okla., Curtiss aviators.

Oct. 10-20—Macon, Ga.. Wright aviators.

(Jet. 11-14—Albuquerque, N. M, Curtiss aviators.

Oct. 12-18—Macon. Ga., Curtiss aviators. Oct. 17-19—Raleigh, N. C, Curtiss aviators. Oct. 18-20—Garden City, Kans., Curtiss aviators.

Oct. 19—Hatchez, Miss., Curtiss aviators.

Oct. 25-30—Turin, Italy, 5th Congress Permanent Internafl Aeronautical Committee.

Jan. 10-12, 1912—Los Angeles, Cal., open meet, arrangements not certain.

4115

- MANUFACTURERS OF--- in Brass, Steel and Aluminum

Aeropl

■ J ■ Engine mountings for any

«ine rarts riorT t.,so, Copper and

brass 1 anks of any description.

STEEL TUBE FRAMES TO ORDER

Reliance Auto Parts Manufacturing Company

244-250 West 49th Street, New York City

Telephone 5135 Bryant

QUEEN AEROPLANE COMPANY

197th STREET and AMSTERDAM AVE., - - NEW YORK CITY

This company is ready to make quick delivery of its single or passenger carrying monoplanes equipped with Anzani or Gnome motors. It guarantees that in workmanship, strength of parts, beauty of finish and in superior materials employed that the product of its factory equals or surpasses the finest aeroplanes manufactured in this country or abroad. The Company has an aviation school on Long Island for the instruction of purchasers or others; and the ability and skill to gain an aviator's pilot license from the Aero Club of America is guaranteed to pupils.

We have four complete Queen Monoplanes, ranging from $2,000 to $8,000, ready to fly and can be delivered at once.

INSPECTION INVITED.

Our machines have flown at Chicago International Aviation Meet, Boston Aviation Meet, Garden City, L. I., and Atlantic City, N. J.

EXHIBITION FLIGHTS ARRANGED FOR. TERMS UPON APPLICATION

BLERI0T MONOPLANES

On June 31st WILLIE HAUPT made a twelve-minute flight at an altitude of 500 feet, at the Mineola Aviation Field, in one of our duplicates of the

1911 CROSS-COUNTRY TYPE BLERI0T MONOPLANE

This machine is an exact duplicate of Karle L. Ovinprton's machine, and is the first machine of the latest

type to be built in the U. S.

-SINGLE SEATERS, PASSENGER MACHINES, MILITARY AEROPLANES, RACING MONOPLANES, ETC.-

Tuition Given Free to all Purchasers at our Aviation School

AMERICAN AEROPLANE SUPPLY HOUSE

266-68 FRANKLIN STREET - HEMPSTEAD, L. I., N. Y.

In ansivering advertisements please mention this magasine.

AERONAUTICS September, 1011

U. S. PATENTS ABSTRACTED

Copies of these patents may be obtained for five cents each, by addressing the "Commissioner of Patents, Washington, D. C."

Grover C. Younggreen, Los Angeles, CaL, 997,354, July 11, 1911. Filed Feb. 15, 1911. PARACHUTE applied to aeroplanes.

John Travis, Cascade, Mont., ¡197.521, July 11, 1911. Filed March 7, 1911. ORTHOPTER.

Johann Schutte, Langfuhr, Near Danzig, Germany, 997,419, July 11, 1911. Filed July 14, 1909. Steering, stabilizing and lifting apparatus for DIRIGIBLES.

John Hafely, Boston, Mass., 997,496, Julv 11, 1911. Filed June IS, 1910. Screw-propelled channeled DIRIGIBLE BALLOON.

Ferdinand Lischtiak, Eggenberg, near Gratz, Austria-Hungary, 997,455. July Id, 1911. Filed March 2, 1911. Foldable KITE.

Charles Alfred Swenson, Medford, Mass., Assignor of one-half to Otto E. Kuehl, Medford, Mass., 997.587, Julv 11, 1911. Filed Sept. 17, 1909. PROPELLER with adjustable blades having projecting curved ribs.

Halvor Gaara, Bo, Norway, 997,612, Julv 11, 1911. Filed August 17, 1910. Steering device for aeroplanes, in which the rudders are assisted in manual operation by the force of the wind turning a propeller (with blades angularly adjustable by a lever) which rotates a shaft on which wind the control cables of the rudders.

Charles Winston. Topeka, Kansas, 997,727, July 11, 1911. Filed Sept. 20, 1909. Aeroplanes with PLANES MOV ABLY CONNECTED with the frame.

Pius Beidl, Vienna, Austria-Hungary, 997,733, July 11, 1911. Filed October 26, 1909. Device for manual and automatic STEERING of aeroplanes.

Max Goehler, Vancouver, B.C., Canada, 997,804, July 11, 1911. Filed June 2S, 1910. Pivotallv mounted. vertical. oscillating BLADES TO PROPEL aeroplanes, acting similar to the sculling of a rowboat.

Charles Obediah Rowland, Chicago, Ills., 997.856, July 11, 1911. Filed December 27, 1909. AIRSHIP comprising a body provided with a closed front end, an open rear end and a longitudinal opening in the under side of the body and a framework suspended from the body, adjustable planes mounted on the said framework on both sides of the said body, means for adjusting the said planes, a horizontally disposed plane secured to the said framework beneath the said body, exhaust fans in the said body, for drawing air into the body through the said opening and exhausting the said air rearwardly out of the said rear end of the sa.id body, and means secured to the said framework for operating the said fans.

Matthew B. Sellers, Baltimore, Mel, 997,860, Julv 11, 1911. Filed April 28, 1909. STEPPED AEROPLANE with two or more

aeroplanes arranged in stepped form, means supporting said aeroplanes at their front portions, yielding means supporting the rear edges of said aeroplanes and adapted to permit the same to be depressed at their rear edges, a rudder, a steering means, connections between said steering means and the rudder, and connections between the steering means and the rear edges of the aeroplanes. Combination wheel and runnei chassis, with means for automatically or otherwise releasing the wheel of the machine after it has left the ground.

The present patent is for improvements in the machine of the former patent, incidental to its use as a power machine and especially for the combination of the wheels and runners, the wheels alone being used for starting and runners alone for finishing a llight. The wheels are adapted to be automatically raised or released after leaving the ground in flight. The claims also cover the steering device in form of a handle bar; lateral balance and elevation being effected by depressing the rear of the planes. In the machine Ilown by Mr. Sellers, the front and upper plane is used for both elevation and for lateral control.

Daniel D. Wells, Jacksonville, Fla., 997,-8S4, July 11, 1911. Filed August 5, 1909. Reversible and adjustable pitch propeller.

Christopher John Lake, Bridgeport, Conn., 998,295, July 18, 1911. A flying machine having a series of SUPERPOSED CONCAVE SUSTAINING SURFACES of a generally triangular and forwardly pointed shape and a propeller located in front of said series, each of said sustaining surfaces being larger and extending beyond the edges of the one below.

Frederick Farmer, WTorcester, Mass., assignor of one-half to Matthew P. Whittall, 998,333, Julv IS. Filed July 12, 1910. AUTOMATIC STABILITY. On each of two vertical shafts mounted at the outer front struts is a triangular balancing plane In the form of a quarter-section of a screw (said plane having two rearwardly extend-

ing edges at an angle to each other, the outer one of said edges being higher than the inner one), which can be swung by cables over pulleys, one inwardly and the other outwardly, automatically operated from a pendulous weight, so that the balancing plane on the lower side of a laterally tipping machine would swing out and the other one in. Vertical vanes are provided, also., which automatically swing to prevent the natural turning movement of the machine caused by the above operation of the balancing surfaces.

SANTOS DUMONT TYPE AEROPLANES, IMPROVED

^=$1000.00^=

Write for prices of material for Bleriot and Curtiss-type aeroplanes.

Get our prices on complete machines, Turnbuckles, "U" bolts, Sockets, Wheels, Steering gear, Landing gear, made in our own factory.

Craftsman perfect propellers, $40.00.

Oval seamless steel tubing, 25c. per foot.

9626 ERIE AVENUE I CHICAGO, ILL.

M. STUPAR

HYDROGEN

For BALLOONING Uses

MMIE International Oxygen Com-*~ puiy's plant is located on the main line of the Pennsylvania Railroad, and the Company is prepared to make immediate shipment for ballooning uses, to any part of the United States, of practically unlimited quantitiesof pure hydrogen, in high pressure cylinders, at a low cost per cubic foot. Write for I. O. C. catalog. We install complete plants or furnish Oxygen and Hydrogen in cylinders

INTERNATIONAL OXYGEN COMPANY

68 Nassau Street, New York

Works : Paris, France :

Waverly Park. Newark, N. J. 39 Rue de Chateaudim

BUILD YOUR OWN AEROPLANE

We supply Blue Prints with exact measurements of the Curtiss, Bleriot XI and Farman machines. Blue Prints are 27x40 inches and larger, and are

drawn to scale. - Price $2.00 each -

AEROPLANE BLUE PRINT CO., 208 W. 56th St., New York

Send for List of

AERO BOOKS

AERONAUTICS, 250 W. 54th St., New York

Light Powerful Enduring Safe

Brooke Non-Gyro Aero Motor

This is not one of the mechanically impossible blue print guesses, but is the result of ^L. the highest engineering practice—Mr. Brooke spent over four years and $'21,000 in developing this great motor, and did not at any time announce what he was going to do; he just went quietly ahead and did it! This motor does a number of good stunts that no other motor can do, anil does not do a lot of bad stunts that most other motors do.

If yon trill writfl us we trill lie fflatl to mail yon detailed particulars

BROOKE-KUHNERT COMPANY

'321 South Wabash Avenue :: ::

All Foreign Rights for Sale

Chicago, III.

In answering advertisements please mention this magazine.

A POPULAR SCIENTIFIC EXPLANATION OF THE MOTIVES OF THE GYROSCOPE AND ITS APPLICATION IN AVIATION.

By I'mil Buergln.

THE number of applications of the gyroscope in mechanics has grown enormously during late years, while the comprehension of its real motive of action has not kept step in proportion. This is due to the lack of literature concerning the theory of the gyroscope. The few books pertaining to the subject display such a collection of higher mathematical formulae that even technically educated men are not prone to tackle them. There is, however, a possibility of explaining in a more comprehensive way the peculiar action of the gyroscope. By applying only the fundamental laws of dynamics, omitting mathematical formulae, it is still sufficient to judge the effect of the gyroscope in any case in which it is applied.

The aeronautical bureau of a first-class newspaper exhibits an electrically driven gyroscope to the eager spectator. Instead of explaining, however, the laws of its motion, it hides them under a cover of mystery. It suggests that the gyroscope ignores the laws of gravity by demonstrating it, lifting a weight without any counterbalance. But the comprehension of the motives of the gyro-

to the former one and goes through the axis X. (Fig. 2).

But we find that according to the laws of dynamics there is still another power acting on the gyroscope. If a particle of mass moving in a certain direction is to change its direction even within a small angle, this has to be originated by a force acting vertically to the former. We observe that daily. An element of a fly wheel may have at a certain moment a velocity in direction d (Fig. 3). The next moment it has the direction d. The tendency of this element to keep in its initial direction is called centrifugal force. Its reaction is the force that changes this direction and is equal to the strain on the different parts of the rim of the wheel. If the wheel bursts this reaction ceases. As nothing is preventing the detached pieces from following the course they have at that moment, they fly away tangentially but not radially. It is similar with the gyroscope where the centrifugal forces compensate each other within the fly wheel proper. But if the gyroscope is making said revolutions around axis Y, all elements of the wheel

 

z

If"

 
   
   
   
 

z

scope will make it easy to look into these mysteries and find their origin.

In Fig. 1, ABCD shall represent the ring of a gyroscope revolving around a spindle Z. X and Y are two axes at a right angle to each other and lying in the plane of the ring. If we turn the spinning gyroscope slowly but steadily around the axis Y, each of the particles of the ring will receive an additional velocity but vertical to the plane. Near A and C it will be the greatest and zero in B and D. Representing these velocities by arrows, the connecting line of their points will be an ellipse lying in a plane through the axis Y. Hence a revolving particle of the ring will endure on its way from A to B a reduction of speed produced by turning the gyroscope around the axis Y. It will be zero in B and reversed in C; then diminishing and changing its direction in D to have again the original velocity in A. To do this the particles have to receive accelerations downwards on the way from A to C and upwards from C to A, which necessarily produce a reaction in the opposite direction; that is, from A to C upwards and from C to A downwards. It is the strongest in the points B nd D. Representing each element of reaction by an arrow in proportion to its force and of the same direction, we again receive an ellipse by connecting their terminals. This ellipse is, however, turned at 90 degrees

perform this same angular rotation around axis Y. By this an element parting from point B intending to follow the circular course, will suffer a change of direction. It is brought downward by a force vertical to it which produces a reaction upwards but of the same magnitude;. There is a similar one in point D in opposite direction. On both sides of B and D the forces decrease and are zero in A and C, these vectors of velocity being only removed parallel. The total reaction produces again a moment of torsion around axis X and is of the same direction and proportion as the one that resulted in the beginning.

These reflections show that the resistance of a gyroscope to any change of the direction of its axis depends only on the weight and the velocity of the rim of the wheel. Further, the moment of torsion acts perpendicularly to the direction in which the gyroscope receives its inclination and therefore it cannot oppose this motion.

Now those having experience with the gyroscope will find this latter result entirely contrary to their observations. They shall, however, not be reproached for this, for even in scientific literature one can read about the stahle axis of the gyroscope which resists to every change of direction. All applications, however, that were based on t lis assumption proved to be a failure.

Let us see how the gyroscope will act according to these stated facts. The inclination around the axis Y creates a moment oí torsion about the axis X which makes the gyroscope turn around axis X within the same angle as the original movement around Y. This second motion creates, however, again a perpendicular moment which has Y as axis and this one opposes the original motion.

If we hold a revolving gyroscope in our hands and want to turn it we have indeed the impression that the axis is stable. It is because we do not realize the small perpendicular moment to which we yield and which induces the reaction in the first direction. If, however, we fasten the gyroscope in an apparatus which prevents any moving of the gyroscope sideways, the turning in the first direction will be just as easy as if the gyroscope were not running. These results also show that the gyroscope does not ignore gravity. A gyroscope in horizontal position, the axis of which is only supported on one end, will not drop but it will begin to rotate slowly around its point of support. In the first moment it intends to follow the force of gravity, but this angular movement will induce perpendicular forces to it, producing a similar movement horizontally, which again compensates the influence of gravity. The higher the number of revolutions of the fly wheel, the greater are the induced forces, and the slower, therefore, the gyroscope can rotate around its support in order to counteract the influence of gravity. This horizontal motion of the gyroscope around its support is called precession. If we increase it the gyroscope will rise and if we prevent it the gyroscope will drop as if it were not spinning.

These are the laws the gyroscope is subjected to and their comprehension enables us to consider where and how gyroscopical' forces are acting.

The interest in the qualities of the gyroscope has become more general since the development of the aeroplane. It was hoped that this apparatus, resisting practically to every turning motion, might give the floating aviator a point of support in order to keep his machine in a voluntary direction as a compensation for the one he cannot have from the earth. Up to this present day, however, we are glad to succeed in eliminating or counterbalancing the existing gyroscopic influences on an aeroplane.

To steady an aeroplane by means of a gyroscope we can consider three possible ways:

(1) Entirely stable,

(2) Entirely free, and Ci) Half free.

(1) The entirely stable suspension has been tried the most. While this method proves very successful with torpedoes, it cannot be applied to aeroplanes. There it would have the same effect as the gyroscopic forces of the propeller and the rotary motor, twisting the aeroplane and producing great strain in the frame work.

(2) The entirely free suspension. This method is applied in the Whitehead torpedo. The gyroscope is supported by two rings which can swing at a right angle to each other, by this permitting the gyroscope to swing in any direction.

If the torpedo, installed in this way, makes a turn, the gyroscope will keep its original direction. A lever hinged to one of the two rings will act on the valve motion of a pneumatic servo motor which changes the position of the rudder. Hut even this small resistance changes gradually the original direction of the gyroscope, and therefore also influences the torpedo in its course.

Although with the flying machine we do not ask for so exact governing, this system is not applicable to it because we wish to change our course voluntarily.

('.',) The. half free suspension. The gyroscope is built in such a manner into the framework that it is obliged to follow the

motion it is to correct, but can swing in a direction vertical to it. It only should be powerful enough that the secondary motion can easily overcome the resistance in governing a servo motor.

With the flying machine there are three directions, perpendicular to each other, in which we desire to prevent an involuntary turning. To do this we need for each direction a gyroscope for itself. It is the most important to prevent the aeroplane from de scending suddenly; that is, from an involuntary turning around the horizontal axis through the planes, which would produce sudden falls. For this purpose the gyroscope can be placed either with its rotating shaft in the direction of the course of the aeroplane, allowing it to swing horizontally, or it may be suspended vertically, allowing it to swing in a vertical plane, which is, however, perpendicular to the direction of the motion of the aeroplane.

If we wish to ascend or descend we simply change the angle of the plane in which the gyroscope can move in relation to the aeroplane. Thus the gyroscope will influence the servo motor and by this the rudder until we have the desired direction.

Any other turning motion of the aeroplane will be of no influence on this gyroscope, the friction of the governor being sufficient to keep it in the same position relative to the framework. The reason is that the gyroscope is stable in the direction perpendicular to this motion and therefore cannot produce any gyroscopic reaction. This was proved above.

A second gyroscope can be used for keeping the lateral equilibrium. This gyroscope acts similarly to the first one upon a servo motor. It has to follow the lateral swaying of the aeroplane but can swing liberally in the longitudinal direction.

The control of the vertical rudder in the rear may be left to the aviator.

It might still be desirable to limit the speed of the aeroplane in ascending or descending. Ascending at too steep an incline, the power of the machine will not be sufficient to produce the necessary speed to support the aeroplane and it will drop backwards.

Descending too rapidly, the framework cannot resist the air pressure. If, however, we connect the gyroscope which controls the rudder for steering up and down with a transverse vertical plane pivoted to a horizontal shaft, the increased or decreased air pressure upon this plane will change the inclination of the gyroscope to the axis of the aeroplane and so influence its course.

All these installations do not diminish, however, the demands regarding the faculties and skill of the aviator, for this mechanism is liable to break down and has then to be substituted by individual steering.

At Topeka, Kan., A. H. Longren, a machinist employed in the railroad shops, flew in a homemade plane from a farm seven miles south-east of Topeka, across the center of the city and landed on the Washburn College campus without damage to self or machine. His flight including detours was more than ten miles. Longren never navigated an aeroplane until he made this trial flight.

During the present season the C ur t i-s s lis hibition Company has contracted for, and carried out, exhibitions at thirteen state fairs, viz.—South Dakota, Vermont, Montana, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Missouri, Maine, Alabama, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Utah, Georgia and North Carolina. Contracts are coming In to the Company's office every day from secretaries of state fairs throughout the country, particularly fairs in the southern states.

THIS apparatus, which was designed and patented in France by M. Doutre for the automatic maintenance of equilibrium of aeroplanes, is composed essentially of three members: (1) an anemometer, (2) an aeeelerometer, (3) a relay cylinder.

The anemometer is composed of a plate which normally receives the relative wind. This plate is balanced by two springs R1 in such manner that when the relative speed is sutlicient for the proper control of the aeroplane it rests upon a stop.

As soon as the relative wind diminishes, the springs R1 press the plate, which, by means of the relay cylinder, places the equilibrator at descent. When the relative speed of the wind is again sutlicient for control, the plate is gradually brought back to its original position.

A view inside the Doutre Device.

The aeeelerometer is composed of two movable weights M, each upon a rod placed in the direction of the llight, and capable of shifting as soon as positive or negative acceleration is produced. They are both kept in place by two springs R situated in front and behind. The purpose of these springs is to restore the weights to their original position as soon as the aeroplane regains uniform speed, and they also prevent all movement of the weights, when, without acceleration, the apparatus is inclined, either forward or at the rear.

By shifting, the weights set in motion the slide value of the relay cylinder < ontrolling the rudder, and by means of the latter, equalize the effect of inertia upon the aeroplane.

When a shock to which the aeroplane is subjected causes it to lift its nose, the rudder is set for ascent, and, inversely, for descent when the shock tends to cause the aeroplane to fall.

The weights are subject to exactly the same effects of inertia as the aeroplane itself, instantaneously registering the direc« tion, the duration and the intensity of thf shock.

The control, therefore, is instantaneous, and accompanies the shock; or in othej words, it is the shock itself, which at th« same time as it produces a disturbance o>: the equilibrium, also produces a compensating movement of the rudder.

Since the anemometer and the accelero meter have a common purpose they are com bined in a single device capable of correcS ing all trouble which may arise.

To this end the anemometer and the aeeelerometer act upon a single rod control-ling the slide valve of the relay cylinder; theu movements are algebraically combined upon this rod, so that the couple of correction obtained is equal to the sum of the couples necessary to maintain the equilibrium of the apparatus or to aid it to regain a correct position.

This algebraic addition of the movements of the anemometer and the aeeelerometer is effected as follows:

The plate, when shifting, carries with it the rods A, and consequently the weights mounted thereon and retained in position by the springs R. The weights are, in their turn, movable upon these rods on which they shift whenever they are subjected to a shock of such a nature as to overcome the resistance of the springs R. By the rods 10 they are rendered rigid with the slide valve of the relay cylinder.

The single resultant of the indications given is registered by the shifting of a single rod, and hence the movement of the rudder and its intensity and duration are measured with precision. Kvery variation in the angle of attack necessarily bringing about a corresponding valuation in the speed of displacement of the aeroplane, the stabilizer, by means of its aeeelerometer, corrects the effect of its own rudder's movement at the same time as the apparatus obeys that movement. This control effect is extremely interesting and important, and constitutes one of the essential characteristics of the stabilizer.

Xo delay is possible since the apparatus registers, not the disturbance, but the disturbing causes themselves.

The purpose of the relay cylinder is to transmit with sutlicient force to the horizontal rudder, the indication given by the plate and the weights. In its construction it recalls the device employed for the first torpedo.

As is well known, in this latter apparatus every displacement of the slide valve causes a corresponding displacement of the piston, exactly as if the slide valve and the piston formed part of a rigid whole.

The stabilizer, composed of its three members, anemometer, aeeelerometer and relay cylinder, is clearly illustrated in the figure showing a section of the apparatus.

In this figure will be seen the plate mounted on the tubes A which slide with little friction in the aluminum case F, the action of the air on this plate is balanced by the springs R1 wound upon these tubes between the collars; the weights Al can shift on the tubes A. The springs B render the weights rigid with these tubes when the plate recedes or advances under the varying pressure of the wind, but nevertheless permit them to move along these tubes nder the force of inertia.

DOUTRE LONGITUDINAL STABILIZER

The rods E, rigid with the weights, are rigidlv assembled on the rod T of the slide valve "of the relay cylinder. This slide valve is arranged in the rod itself of the cylinder C; the compressed air is admitted into the chamber D of this cylinder and is distributed into the chambers I or H, according to the direction in which the rod T is shifted, the bars K or L covering or uncovering the entrances of the passages N and O. Depressions provided upon the rod T permit the

40 kilogrammes, which is entirely sufficient in all cases.

A small pump operated by the aeroplane motor furnishes the compressed air to the relay cylinder, and a reservoir is provided I which makes it possible to have a sufficient reserve supply in case the motor stops.

This stabilizer was tested by the inventor at the Juvisy aerodrome during the months of February, March and April, 1911, on a biplane of the Henri Farman type. Then in

Plan view of Stabilizer.

compressed air to escape from the chamber H through the orifices S, when the air is admitted into the chamber I and vice versa. All the movements of the slide valve T are thus instantaneously followed by a movement of the piston B in the same direction. The piston B is connected by suitable controlling members to the rudders.

May last it was installed on a Maunee Farman aeroplane of the military type. With this apparatus the pilot made flights from Juvisy to Buc and back; Juvisy to Villacoublay and from there to the plateau de Milly and return.

A demonstration took place on July 21st,

Doutre Stabilizer on an M. Farman Biplane.

A force of 100 grammes at the most is before General. Roques, who made a fifteen

necessary to shift the rod T, and the piston, minute flight over the field. General Roques,

according to the pressure of the compressed upon alighting, declared that the operation

air, can exert a working force of from 10 to of the stabilizer had been perfect.

AERONAUTICS 0c,obcr_

THE TWO-PLACE DEPERDUSSIN MONOPLANE

K -#5

MESSRS. G. M. Dyott and Captain 1*. Hamilton, of 50 Church St., New York, have brought to this country the first Deperdussin machines seen here: one 2-place machine with a 6-cylinder, 50-t>0 h. p. Anzani motor, and the other a single flyer with a 3-cylinder, 30-35 h. p. engine of the same make. These engines are the very latest put out by the manufacturer and are giving perfect satisfaction, even in their untried condition. Both machines were flown over from Mineola to the Nassau field the tirst time the engines were run in flight. Apparently over-heating has been gotten away from in the newer engines. The one-man machine is almost exactly a smaller replica of the 2-place 'plane.

The first flights made with these machines over here were from Belmont and Mineola to Nassau and around and in some of the contests of the Nassau meet. About half the time the management failed to provide shed room. The motors had not been tuned up before leaving the factory, owing to need for rush delivery, and one or two little bits of accidents, like short-circuiting a magneto or failing to turn on oil just robbed the new machines of a place in the prize list, which was small anyway.

These 'planes remind one of Antoinette's in flight through their outlines: they fly at a speed of about 60 miles an hour and land and rise beautifully. The running gear is very staunch, as has already been proven.

The Deperdussin first made its appearance at the Palis Show in the Winter of 1910. Since that time the factory has pursued vigorous methods and it is now almost impossible to obtain prompt deliveries. Aviation schools have been established and many have learned to fly this machine. The smaller machine, with a 30-h. p. Anzani motor can be had in America for $-1,000, while the 2-place machine will run up to $8,000.

A military type, one-place machine, with 50-h. p. Cuomo: a two-seater with either 60-h. p. Anzani or 50-h. p. Gnome; a 70-h. p. Gnome two-place and a 3-sealer 100-h. p. Gnome military type are other models. The military types are used by every European government save l^ngland.

The Deperdussin holds many world records: In fact all speed, duration and distance records for a anl 5 men, up to 5n kilometers.

Supporting I'linie. The wings offer very ample lifting surface for the weight. Great strength is imparted to their construction by the two staunch masts erected at the front of the fuselage. These are of large size at their base and accommodate the eniN of the front lateral wing spars. The guys to the front main spars are large stranded cables. On the Nieuport one notices also the list1 of heavy cables for guying. The wing construction is of conventional type. The ribs, like those of the lderiot. are of •-1" cross section, merely a web with to]) and bottom chords tacked and glued. The entering edge is an oval strip of wood against which the rib ends butt. Of course, the cloth Is put on both sides. A preparation called "Kmaillite" renders the fabric moisture proof and nearly oil proof. This same varnish is used to cover all fabric on the machine. The trailing edge of the cloth is laced to each rib-end through eyelets in the fabric. A strip of wood runs along about an inch from the back edge between the upper and lower chords of the ribs.

.Metal plates are placed under the metal

connections on the wings to which the guy

and warping cables run. to prevent abrasion of the fabric.

The wing curve flattens out slightly near the tips. There is a small dihedral angle to the wings on the 2-place machine. <Mi the single plane there is practically none The

n;

center of gravity is about one-third back from front edge. The gliding angle is 5 deg. to 7 deg.

Controls. The warping and rudder action instinctive. Pushing forward on the inserted U-shaped yoke steers down through grossed cables to the elevator at the rear nd of the fuselage. Turning a hand wheel, Inounted in the center of the yoke, to the fiigh side lifts the low, or down, wing, and

sided square steel socket about S inches long. At this point these spars aie close to 1 Inch square. They taper from 1V4 inch square at front end of the fuselage to % Inch squaie at the rear end. Fabric is used on all four sides of the rectangular (cross-section) fuselage; tacked on the bottom and lower edge of sides. Top edges of sides have grommets inserted and lace over the longitudinal spars to the panel on the top side of

rlce-versa. A foot-yoke steers right and left, lie i udder cables running straight. The elector wires are good heavy cab'es lunning >ver pulleys and through copper leads packed vith grease. The cables from the warping vheel lead over pulleys in the angles of the 'U" down to a rocking lever attached to he rear cross-member of the chassis. From tere the cables run over pulleys on the skids •o wire-thimbles, from which each branches nto three heavy steel wires with tighteners o different points on the rear spar, as shown n the drawings. The elevator cables are nch diameter and run back on each side of :he fuselage to the two masts on the devator.

Fuselnge. The Spruce fuselage comes lpart just back of the pilot's seat. The ongitudinal spars butt together in an open-

the fuselage. The diagonal stay-wiring of the fuselage is similar to Bleriot's method. A "belly" of laminated veneering extends from the front of the fuselage to a little aft of the pilot's seat. The p.issenger sits in fiont of the pilot, just forward of the re ir lateral wing spur. Both are protected from oil and wind by a hiuh aluminum win.lshield, just aft of the gravity gasoline tank. The sides of the front enl of the fuselage are covered with aluminum sheeting, fitted with doors to give access to the magneto, oil pump, piping, etc.

Power Plant. A six-cylinder stationary Anz^ni air cooled motor drives diiect anticlockwise a "Rapid" propeller of 2.44 meters diameter by 1.3 meters pitch. Bosch ignition and G. & A. carburetor, with auviliary air adjustment, are part of the equipment, as Is

a revolution counter. The combined gas and oil tank, gravity, is mounted in front of the passenger's seat ahead of the two masts and supply. Another reserve gas tank, torpedo-gauges are fitted to show at all times the shaped, is attached just under the belly, from which gas may be forced up into the gravity tank by a hand pump at the pilot's right, fastened to the fuselage spar. The front end of the fuselage is covered with a steel cap. or plate, to which is bolted the crarikcase of the motor. The mixture is drawn from the carbuietor into the rear compartment of

rigidity being obtained by two diagonal wooden struts in compression. These struts extend in front of the chassis proper and are curved up to give protection to the propeller. Shocks occasioned by rough landings are distributed over as much fuselage area as possible by means of stranded cables w^hieh pass under the belly of the fuselage and over grooves at the top of the chassis struts, thus forming- a kind of cradle or sling suspension. A simple skid pivoted from a V-brace of tubing at its center with elastic bands at the front end supports the tail.

the crankcase, from which it is distributed to the different cylinders by short lengths of tubing. This compartment thus acts as a manifold and reservoir for gasoline vapor.

It mining (it'Jir. The landing chassis is a very neat, strong and light wheel and ash skid combination, the axle being carried by conventional radius rods and elastic shock absorbers. The latter consist of many wraps of round elastic bands covered with woven fabric. The cross-members of the chassis are of large steel tubing. The four main oval struts are covered with fabric, laid in with varnish. Very little wire bracing is used.

KIjJKS IIOMIC KOI! lilt I<1 M\KA ST.

After successfully tilling an engagement at Ocean Beach, Frank L. Champion, the aviator, flew from that place to his home in Long Beach, a distance of 62 miles, in 55 minutes, on Sept. fith. Mr. Champion had intended to send the machine home by rail, but on getting up. the idea of getting home for breakfast struck him, and the morning being ideal, he wheeled his Bleriot out and was off before anyone was aware of his plan. The entire distance was made over the water, although he was close to the land at nil times. The trip was made without incident and after landing on the beach, the aviator walked home, arriving there in time to surprise his wife and baby at breakfast.

The Wright Company, French, inaugurated a new big aerodrome to rank with Mourmelon and lssy, when Count do Lambert, Wilbur Wright's lirst pupil discovered Villacotiblay two years ago. It' is nearer Paris than Mourmelon, only 10 kilometers and only a couple of kilometers from the military aero park of Chaláis Meudon.

Nieuport has established a branch here, as has Breguet. The Wright sheds are lighted by

Kived Surface. .V flat surface starts fron just back of the pilot's seat and spreads outward to the spar which forms the pivo* for the elevator. .V good deal of wire guying is used on this surface, which is composed of fore and aft and transverse strips covered on both sides with fabric. A small triangular vertical fin runs from the rudder pivot forward to a point on the top of the fuselage.

Wei«lit. With oil and gas, without operator, 780 lbs. Gas and oil for 5 hours flying are carried. Speed is 02 miles an hour. The mileage per gallon runs from 15 to IS miles.

electricity, complete electric plant being one of the features. The French War Office has three tents here, where experiments are conducted and various tests made. Lacnapelle, who was one of the first of the Wright exhibition aviators in America, gave up flying last summer, and is now manager of the Villacoublay field

NO AERO BILL IN MASSACHUSETTS.

The Aero Bill which caused so many press items has failed to materialize in .Massachusetts. The House passed a resolution calling for an investigation of the subject but this was "held up" by the Senate for some time and finally rejected by I hat branch.

The New York state bill will come up in September. It was still "in committee" when the legislature adjourned for the summer. The bill proposed by the Aero Club of Pennsylvania failed to pass the legislature: nothing ever came of California's bill and fortunately the fool law of Missouri never came to pass. Connecticut is the only state having- legislation on the books.

ASUCCESSFUL experiment of great importance to the aeronautical' department of the Navy was carried out at the Curtiss factory and experimental grounds at Hammondsport, N. Y., Sept. 7.

This was the launching of the Navy's new Curtiss hydro-aeroplane from a wire cable stretched from a platform erected 150 feet from the shore of Lake Keuka to the water.

The experiment was organized and directed successfully by Lieut. T. G. Ellyson, of the Navy, who was the first member of that branch of the military service to become a qualified aviator.

The object of this unique method of launching an aeroplane was, as stated by Lieut. Ellyson, to produce further evidence of the practicability of the hydro-aeroplane for use on vessels of navies.

By Lieut. Ellyson's methods a hydro-aeroplane may be launched at sea under any conditions, without the loss of time in putting it overboard to arise from the water and without delay because of rough sea. Under the new method it will only be necessary to stretch a wire cable from the boat deck of a battleship to the bow, down which incline the hydro-aeroplane can slide. It is maintained in balance on the main cable by two auxiliary wires, one stretched on either side, parallel to the central cable. These two auxiliary wires support the right and left wings until the machine gets up sufficient headway to maintain its own balance by means of its balancing planes.

The rigging for launching the hydro-aeroplane does not interfere in any way with the armament of the ship. It will not be necessary even to remove this rigging. It can be left standing for immediate use, or it can be taken down and stowed away in a few minutes.

This system enables the machine to be launched when a high sea would make it impossible to arise directly from the surface of the water after being lowered over the side of the ship. Previous experiments carried out at San Diego, Calif., last winter in connection with the U. S. S. Pennsylvania showed that the hydro-aeroplane could be landed alongside and hoisted aboard ship in a wind of 10 knots and when a 4-knot tide was running with sea conditions too rough for successful launching. Lieut. Ellyson regarded the getting away from the ship as being by far the most important point in the practical use of the aeroplane in the navy, since the loss of the machine after the desired information had been secured would be of minor importance.

With the new method it is also possible for the ship to steam ahead into the wind at any desired speed, and thus readily secure

the necessary condition of wind for quick launching

The machine used by Lieut. Ellvson was the regular type of two-passenger navv hydroaeroplane, built by Curtiss, with 75 h. p. engine, fitted with a double control system, so that the operation of the machine can be shifted from one occupant to the other while in the air. The total weight is 1,200 pounds.

The hydro-aeroplane was launched from a platform and rose from the wire cable in 150 feet, after attaining a speed of 30 miles against a wind of about 10 miles. The launching apparatus is very simple, consisting merely of a wire cable 250 feet long and % of an inch in diameter, which was made fast to a pile 75 feet from shore driven down in the water far enough to allow the hydroaeroplane to pass over it. The wire cable passes over a pair of shears 16 feet high, fitted with a platform upon whch to stand when starting the motor. The bottom of the pontoon under the hydro-aeroplane is fitted with a groove one Inch wide and 1% inches deep, lined at the ends with tin and reinforced at the bow and stern with band iron to protect the bearing surface. Each wing Is fitted with a light iron, forming a bearing surface to engage the balancing wires strung on each side of the main supporting-cable.

The grade was about 10 per cent. The wind blew about 10 miles an hour, slightly quartering against the line of flight. The machine was first floated in the lake and then pulled up on the cable.

The releasing device consists of a short piece of rope fast to the bow of the pontoon and fitted with an eye through which passes a toggle pin connecting this short piece with a rope made fast to the legs of the shears. By a sharp pull on this toggle pin the hydroaeroplane is released and quickly gathers headway under the impulse from the motor and the slight angle at which the cable is placed. Two men held small lines running to each wing to make sure that the machine would keep its balance until full headway had been gained, but their assistance was not required. Lieut. Ellyson and Lieut. J. H. Towers, who are in charge of the Government work at Hammondsport, N. Y., have been practicing since the first of May with the hydro-aeroplane, flying out over the lake nearly every day, in order to become thoroughly accustomed to the machine and to be able to'handle it under all possible conditions. The Navy's hvdro-aeroplane has been taken to Annapolis, "lid., where the Navy training school has been established, and it is hoped to try the method of launching it from an aerial cable on board a battleship this fall.

300,000 MILES BY AEROPLANE.

Some almost startling figures showing the progress of aviation in France have been published by M. Georges Besancon, the secretary of the Aero Club of France. In reply to inquiries made by his club among the French constructors seventeen firms sent in their figures.

These seventeen firms between them have turned out over 1,300 aeroplanes. The horsepower fitted to these machines totals up the enormous figure of 60,000. The passengers actually accounted for as being carried by the machines turned out by these firms number nearly 5,000. M. Besancon has calculated that the cross-country trips exceeding 10 kilometers in length made on these machines number over 3,000, or 30,000 kilometers, equal to about 18,000 miles. Besides these he computes that the flights actually logged in the form of flights around aerodromes total about 500,000 kilo-

meters, or more than 300,000 miles. These represent approximately 8,300 hours spent in the air, which means nearly a year off the ground. .

One year ago cross-country flights in France were a rarity, and any trip lasting over an hour was worthy of special mention, and the figures show the marvelous progress made by France in aeronautics.

"My check for three dollars enclosed. > 1 am getting mv copies regularly; if I didn't you would hear from me right off. I certainly have no criticism to offer. 1 often remark that little AERONAUTICS contains more brainv matter than any of the big weeklies I happen to read. I consider you an excellent editor, and wish you much success in the future."

Fred \\. Riser.

NAVAL HYDROAEROPLANE EXPERIMENT

'A

1.—The Curtiss hydro-aeroplane before being drawn up the 350-foot cable. A pile Is driven in the lake and sawed off several feet below water line. From this cable is carried inland o\er a jack and hauled taut by block and tackle. 2.—Taking the 'plane up the cable. Note light wires AA, which were used to steady the machine, and tube bridges under wings. The weight rests on cable B. 3.—Lieut. Ellyson, U. S. N., about to start his flight. Light wires removed so as not to foul rudder and machine steadied by guys held by men on either side. The man in the rear of the machine is ready to start the motor. 4.—"Off."

NEW MOISANT BIPLANE

THE Moisant Company lpas recently built a passenger carrying biplane at their Hempstead shop, of which great things are expected. The general outline and appearance of the machine is similar to that of the Harry Farman Michelin Cup type. The construction work has been carried out in an excellent manner, the machine being up to the high standard set by this Company with its monoplanes.

Main Miriiites. The size of the main spars, sizes and method of construction of the ribs, also the rib curvature, are nearly the same as in the Wright machines. The chord of the rib is 6 ft. 9 in., the depth of the curves being 1/20 of the chord.

The coveiing, which is Goodyear fabric, is laid on both sides of the plane and is tacked to the ribs top and bottom. The lower plane of the center section looks a little odd. having a hole cut 3 ft. by l»ft. 4 in., just ahead of the rear spar. This is done to accomodate a Bleriot Gnome, as no biplane Gnome was available.

The trussing of the three sections at the center of the machine is all double wire. Those wires in the vicinity of the engine and propeller are wiapped with string to keep them from flying into the propeller should they become broken.

Running Gear. The standard Farman type running gear is used, the wheels and rubber shock absorbeis being Goodyear make.

Controls. The standard Farman control is used, one lever operating the elevator and the ailerons. The steering is done by a foot yoke.

Control wires to ailerons, elevator and rudder are all double.

The machine proved itself a success from the first time out, with aviator Ragorodsky in charge. The machine rose nicely after a run of about a hundred feet and a four-mile cross-country flight was made in fine style. Some trouble has been had with the engine, which has been sent away to be repaired. For this reason the machine has not been seen in action since its first trial.

The maximum carrying capacity of the machine is, according to the constructors, 1,120 pounds, which in addition to the 920 pounds weight of the machine gives a total weight of 2,040 pounds. This is supposed to be carried at 40 miles per hour, using the Gnome 50. As this would be over 40 pounds

per horse-power it is rather doubtful if much more than short flights can be made with this load. The total supporting surface is 510 sq. ft. The machine is very easy to take apart in sections.

The Hempstead Plains Aviation Company is a subsidiary company of the Moisant International Aviators, which has, during the past year, made an exhibition tour of the United States, Mexico and Cuba, as is well known. The exhibition work is considered an advertising or publicity department of the business, whic h is really the manufacturing of machines and the conduct ot a school. A new factory has been located in Bong Island City, while the school has its quarters at the Mineola field under the careful tutelage of Andre' Houpert and Albert C. Triaca. A lai ge number of pupils have graduated and obtained their licenses. Some of the graduates have attached themselves to other builders of monoplanes as aviators; some have attained fame through their flying at meets and exhibitions. Miss Harriet Quimby, one of the editors of Leslie's Weekly, made a great success of her lessons and has been doing great flying. She flew at the Nassau meet and at an exhibition on Staten Island recently. Miss Matilde Moisant, sister of the late John B. Moisant, is another woman flyer who has done exceptionally fine work.

Miss Matilde Moisant is as accomplished a flyer as one could wish for. There are plenty of the male sex who would give their right hand to do as well. Wind Is nothing to her, for she has shown her ability in the Long Island breezes in her cross-country flights to Nassau, Westbury, 'round and about the little villages that scatter themselves on the borders of the Plains. Miss Quimby, too, must come in for praise, for she too, has earned her pilot certificate and the new rules see to it that one is pretty fairly conversant with such things as rudders and warping and ailerons.

Three school machines are kept busy night and morning. The people of Mineola have become accustomed to the flying and do not even bother to look up any more, so frequent are the flights of the Moisant pupils. Near the school sheds is a group of buildings in which the construction and repair work has been conducted and where the theoretical part of the flying course is given.

Some Moisant Details. 123

The Ovington-Queen 'Plane

SOME modifications and improvements have been made upon the Queen monoplanes which have been put in readiness for Earle L. Ovington's coast-to-coast flight, which he announces he will definitely attempt. These changes are only in the size and arrangement of gasoline and oil tanks, the use of a door in the aluminum sheeting at the forward end of the fuselage for ready access to the motor, substitution of bronze for aluminum castings in the running gear, reinforcements in the framing, and spacers on the wheel forks.

The new Indian rotary motor is employed in each of the three machines which comprise Ovington's "stable." The standard Queen machines have heretofore been fitted with Anzani and Gnome engines.

While the Queen machines have the general dimensions about the same as Bleriot monoplanes, and to the casual observer appear the same, there are many differences which can be considered as improvements. Eighty-five men are being employed by this company in the factory and on the field. Arthur Stone and Ignace Semeniouk are flying the machines as instructors and in exhibitions and meets. The plant at the old amusement park of Fort George, New York City, is fully equipped with machine and woodworking tools and apparatus of modern tyoe, bought especially for the w>r'f i> hand. The buildings which are of extremely large size were peculiarly adapted to toe company's needs.

The main assembling building, for instance, was formerly used as a skating rink. Considerable outside work has been taken in. j. A. D. McCurdy had his six biplanes built there and others have had their repairing done at the place.

The Crane concern, builders of the Dixie engines, are now at work getting out a special engine to be installed in future Queens to take the place of those of foreign manufac are.

A new type biplane has just been put out and has been at the Long Island fields for some days awaiting trial, a long design made by James V. Martin. The main cell is of Far-man type, with a 100 horsepower, 14 cylinder engine mounted in front of the main cell. Instead of outriggers to the tail of the usual-type a "fuselage" or body of a monoplane extends back to the tall, which comprises a fixed surface, rudder and a pair of elevators. The aviator sits in this body just under the rear edge of the upper plane of the main cell.

Following is a description of the Queen monoplane, with the slight alterations made for Ovington's contemplated trip. Ovington has already become familiar with the Queen machine, using it, with the Indian motor, in his mail carrying at the Nassau meet. Here he gave the new American motor the hardest kind of work which his experience has taught him an engine is ever called upon to dn, with the most satisfactory results.

THE QUEEN MONOPLANE

Scale Drawing Queen Monoplane.

Supporting Planes. The wings are of extra strong construction, the ribs being spaced closer together than common in Bleriots. There is a truss bracing of wire between the ribs to stiffen the wing. Aluminum sheeting is not used for an entering edge, a half-round wood strip being employed instead. The Goodyear cloth goes on both sides and is held taut by strips of rattan along the ribs. There are two extra stays to the underside of each wing, one extra cable for warping and one extra metal strip. The ends of the front main lateral spars butt against a steel tube and held rigid by two wide straps, brazed to the steel tube, which bolt on each side of the spar. These short tubes then slip In the tube of larger diameter which runs across the end of the fuselage. The angle of incidence can be altered by raising the rear of the wings, by means of an adjustable socket in which the rear main lateral spar fits. The curve is 3% inches deep, 2 feet from the front edge. The wings are 2% inches thick at the greatest thickness. The angle of incidence is f> degrees.

In the rear is a fixed surface, practically the same as that of the Bleriot, 2 inches thick.

Fuselage. This is of ash and elm throughout, of usual Bleriot type, with similar manner of connecting struts to spars.

Running Oear. Considerable changes in details have been made here from its Bleriot prototype. The "sill," or lower horizontal member of the chassis framing, has been made heavier. Rubber band shock absorbers have been replaced by steel coil springs. A brace has been introduced, running from each end of the sill diagonally to the fuselage. A novel skid is used to support the tail.

Controls. The elevator is similar to that of a Bleriot. There are two vertical levers operating the elevator instead of one, mounted on the axis of same. Roebling Wire cables run from each of these to the steering column, so that in addition to having a double chance on the wires there is doubled safety In the two levers. The stability is controlled by warping cables in the usual

manner. Instead of a bell-shaped metal affair from which the control cables go down to the cross-piece, brackets are used for warping* and for elevating. The rudder is operated by the usual foot-yoke, this is reinforced by steel plates on both sides. It also Is guided on a track. The warping cables are doubled for safety.

Power Plant. This consists of a 7 cylinder rotary Indian motor, rated at 50 horsepower. As with the well-known French rotary engine of similar appearance the gasoline is taken in through the hollow crankshaft. To avoid the chance of setting fire to the gasoline which, as in the Gnome, drips continually from the carburettor when the gas is turned on and the engine is not running, the floor of the fuselage in this part of the machine is made gasoline tight. Directly under the carburettor the floor is bellied down, with a hole in the depression. Under this hole is an apron which shoots any surplus gasoline on the ground. The cause of this dripping of gasoline is the non-use of a float in the carburettor. The aluminum sheeting on the side of the fuselage at the forward end has a door, which can quickly be opened to make any adjustments to the carburettor, piping, etc., from the ground, without climbing into the machine and squeezing in under the hood or windshield. A Bosch magneto furnishes ignition. The Indian motor has F & S ball bearings, the same make as used in the Gnome, but has three additional. There are but three engines made today with ball bearing connecting rods: Indian, Gnome and the Merkel motorcycle engine, all of which use these bearings. The propeller used is a Gibson, 8'-3" diameter.

A Hopkins electric revolution counter shows on a dial at all times the speed of the engine.

Gas and air levers are on steering column, magneto spark is fixed, a cut-out is provided, also.

Weight. The weight including 240 lbs. of gas and oil, is 740 lbs. without aviator. Five gallons of oil and gas combined are used an hour and a speed of 60 miles an hour is obtained.

Thirteen gallons of castor oil is carried, and 27 gallons of gas. which is gravity fed. The aspect ratio is 4.5 approximately.

The Queen monoplanes sell for $2,900 with Anzani 3-cylinder motor, and $5,500 with the Gnome engine. The Ovington-Queen, with Indian, may be had for $4,500.

At the last moment when Ovington expected to start for the Pacific Coast, it was found necessary to lighten the machine and to put on the skid from his own Bleriot in place of the standard Queen skid. The front half of the fuselage is of hickory while the rear half is ash. Some of the struts are maple. The large fuel and oil tanks shown in the scale' drawing have had to be replaced, also. With a Chauviere propeller of 2.5 meters diam. by 1.6 m. pitch, a test was made at the Indian factory at 1150 revolutions and the standing thrust obtained was 352 lbs. In the air the engine turns another hundred revolutions. Forty-five actual horsepower, brake, was shown. The cylinders are a shade larger than those of the Gnome, being 4% bore by 4% inch stroke.

The dashboard carries a barograph, revolution counter and automobile clock while at the right hand side on the fuselage is an inclinometer to show the angle of ascent or descent, near the oil sights. A stout leather strap to go around the aviator is fastened to the seat.

UVKKX-MAKTIX III I'IjAN k.

•'The Queen Company's hundred horsepower Martin biplane" is the official title of the newest 'plane to make its appearance at the Nassau field. It has been built by the Queen Aeroplane Co., to designs of James V. Martin, formerly manager of the Harvard Aeronautical Society and instructor in a British flying school.

The first week in October it had its first try-outs, with entire success, piloted by,Mr. Martin. A novelty lias been introduced in the stabilizing. The ailerons, which are hinged to the rear beam of the upper plane act in opposite directions according to the system inaugurated by Curtiss, are hooked up with the elevator flaps which operate in conjunction, though not to the same degree. These flaps have but a sixth of the range of the ailerons proper. At the same time, also, they act as true elevators by forward or backward motion of the gate control of Burgess type. The aileron cables which run to the control have a certain amount or slack to permit the ailerons to take a stream-line position when not operated to avoid unequal resistance.

Booking at the picture, the operating cable runs from the top of the gate control to a pullev between the two outer rear struts up

to the rear edge of the aileron. Prom the top of the mast, which is not at the axial line but to the rear thereof for a definite purpose, a cable continues to a pulley on top of the plane at the front edge. From here it goes along the edge to a pulley on the other side of the machine, back to the other aileron and from thence to the control. The ailerons do not normally hang down as in Farman machines but act positively in both directions.

The rudder is operated by the usual foot yoke. The machine is stated by Mr. Martin to fly at no angle of incidence, lifting from the ground on the wing chamber. The tail is non-lifting at full speed.

As will be noted, the 100 h, p. Gnome is installed in the front end of a monoplane type of fuselage. A Gibson propeller of 8 ft. 6 in. diam., by 7 ft. 6 in. pitch is used at the piesent time. Ignition is by Bosch magneto. The fabric is Goodyear.

The two gas tanks hold total 45 gallons and 17 gallons of oil. The auxiliary tank under the seat holds gas which is forced by pressure to the gravity tank when needed.

The speed in flight was estimated between 70 and 75 miles an hour. An official test will shortly be made. Detailed description may be expected in the next issue.

THE ROTARY INDIAN

The new Indian motor is of the rotary, .A. air cooled, 4-cylinder type, having seven cylinders of 4% inches bore and 4% inches stroke, developing 50 horse power at 1,000 revolutions per minute. Nickel steel is largely used in the construction of the motor. F. & S. ball bearings are used throughout. The motor complete weighs 185 pounds, and its outside diameter is 36 inches.

The crank case and cylinders are made from heavy nickle steel forgings which are machined uown to a very lignt weignt, and each cylinder is made of exactly the same weight, t" insure a perfect balance and

Side Elevation of Motor. Paktly in Section

smooth running without vibration. In the same way, all valves, connecting rods and other parts aie made to correspond in weight so that the distribution of material shall be accurately equal and symmetrical.

The inlet valves of the automatic type, placed in the heads of the pistons, and balanced to counteract centrifugal action. The exhaust valves are mechanically operated, and, as in the case of these, centrifugal action assists in their closing, only very light springs are required.

The exhaust valve operating gear is of a new and greater simplified form that insures smooth action and perfect operation, and this is facilitated by a system of counter-

balancing the operating rods and levers tol counteract centrifugal action, a matter om considerable importance in all rotary motors!

In mounting a rotary motor, the nickelf steel crank shaft is rigidly fixed in a suit-| able frame so that it cannot i evolve. The crank case, carrying with it the cylinders and accompanying parts, revolves on the crank shaft, and to the forward part of tne crank case is attached the propeller. It will be seen f i om this that when the crank case and cylinders revolve they perform the functions of a fly wheel, and as all of the parts are carefully balanced by weighing, and the material is symmetrically and equally distributed, the rotation of the motor is absolutely smooth and without vibration.

To assist in the mounting of the motor, a large supporting plate is fixed on the crank shaft, at the rear of the motor, and upon this are placed the magneto and lubricating pumps, which are driven by a gear on the rotating motor base.

The ignition is by a Bosch high tension magneto, which feeds its current to a dis-fl tributing disc carried by the motor base, and properly connected up to the several spark plugs in the cylinders.

For these motors, water white castor oil is recommended. This oil is forced by mechanically operated pumps to sight feed lubricators suitably located so they can be observed at all times. From the lubricators the oil is conducted by pipes to the main bearings, and also to the parts within the motor that require lubrication.

The carbureter is of extremely simple construction, and is attached to the rear end of the fixed, hollow crank shaft, through which the mixture is conducted to the interior of the motor base, and from thence distiibuted to the various cylinders through the inlet valves placed in the head of each piston. The adjustment of mixture is accomplished by the setting of a small needle valve, and the regulation of the extra air shutter, and when the proper mixture has been secured at starting, very little further attention is required.

A feature of excellence in the construction of the Indian is its extreme simplicity, and the ease with which all necessary inspection and adjustments can be made.

To inspect ihe valves of a cylinder, the head can be taken off in one minute, and carries with it the exhaust valve complete. This is accomplished by unscrewing a single castellated ring, which is quickly and easily done with a special spanner. When the head of the cylinder has been removed, the inlet valve, fixed in the head of the piston, is exposed to view for inspection; and if it is desired to remove the inlet valve, this can be done directly without disturbing any other part.

A piston can as readily and as quickly be taken out for the renewal of a compression ring, without disturbing the cylinder; and all can be as quickly replaced ready for starting up the motor.

These motors list at $2,000.

R. O. Rubel, Jr. & Co. have just published a little circular for "all victims of aero-planitis," telling who have purchased Gray. Eagle motors, with pictures of the 'planes they went in and what they did, together! with facsimile affidavits of actual flights.

Mr. Harry N. Atwood

on his record bre 'king cross-country th'idits was enabled tosu pa-s his m-ny rivals both in Europe and America by the rel al>le peif- nuance of his

BURGESS AEROPLANE

Built only by

BURGESS COMPANY AND CURTIS, Marblehead, Mass.

THE REX SMITH BIPLANE

THE second biplane built by the Rex Smith Aeroplane Co., of Washington, is described in the following article. Since Antony Jannus conducted the experimental flights with the previous machine, taking up a number of prominent Washington people and giving a number of exhibition flight series at Potomac Park, several aviators have been employed, none of whom have made any great success, until Paul Peck flew himself into the lists of competent flyers. Peck started in on July 20th and nine days later was a bona fide pilot. On August 6th he flew from College Park to the city of Washington, circled the dome of the Capitol, down Pennsylvania Avenue, around Washington Monument, over into Virginia and back to the speedway in Washington in a half hour flight. The next morning he flew back to College Park. Since then he has been making almost daily flights at the Park and short trips into the surrounding country.

Mr. Smith was an amateur trick bicycle rider in Washington in the old days, and played bicycle polo with Will Robinson about 1885. That seems a million years ago but many remember seeing him. He won national repute by being the first man to ride a bicycle down the steps of the Capitol.

He commenced building a flying machine about a year and a half ago and last November completed his first. It was a single surfaced, headless biplane with ailerons and general Curtiss type of control except that it lacked the front elevator. This machine was flown a number of times by Antony Jannus. He used an Emerson 100 horsepower engine.

This spring he completed a second machine. This was one with a slight dihedral angle on the lower plane and a diminishing curve from the centre to the ends of the main

planes. The feature of this machine was that instead of using straight ailerons between the ends of the planes, he substituted flexible tips at the end of the upper planes. These worked up and down just like ailerons and were controlled by the regular shoulder yoke. Their seeming advantage is that he puts them where he gets the most advantage from the leverage and since they are very flexible, they seem automatically responsive to a side gust. They seem a little more effective in lateral balancing than straight ailerons. Paul Peck, who flies this machine, says that they made the machine very easy to control and that the balance is practically automatic.

A third machine has been finished and is to be tried out soon. This is a duplicate in most respects of the second machine. The differences are that it is double surfaced, the slight dihedral angle is wanting in the lower plane. The depth of the lifting curve varies not at all from the centre to the ends of the plane and the pianos are the same width from entering edge to rear at the outer ends as they are at the engine. They are'using a 60 h.p. Hall-Scott on the third machine while they used an 80 on the second. The second machine Is now on the road with Peck in exhibition work.

Maih Planes. The span of the entire machine is 40 feet. The main planes having a span of 32 feet. The chord length of the surfaces varies, as shown on the drawings. The depth of curvature is 4 inches maximum, situated 2 feet back from the front edge. The ribs are all the same, except that those on the narrower portions of the planes are off on front ends, giving a lesser degree of curvature at the outer ends. The planes are covered with heavy Naiad cloth, laid on top of the planes.

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Scale Drawings Kcx £>mmi t>it-lane 120

96

he ribs are laminated spruce, %-in. by %-[rich in section, and are fastened to the spars y steel straps. The spars are oval in shape Y2 in. by 2 in. and aie 4 feet 6 inches apart.

For convenience in shipping, the planes are uilt up in sections, the spurs being- joined by leeves of steel tubing. The elotn is laced together at these joints. The entire plane hay be quickly dissembled, the longest sec-ion being the center one, which is 8 feet.

The upper plane is perfectly straight trans-lersely, the lower one, however, ri^es from he middle to the tips some six inches. The lepaiation of the planes in the middle is 6 eet and at the ends 5 feet 6 in.

The angle of incidence of the main planes k stated to be 7 degrees both on the ground nd in flight.

The struts, 16 in number, are of stream line lection llA inches by 2y2 inches. These are |f solid spruce and are attached to the main >pars by being pinned to a socket which fermits their easy removal. Roebling wire 3 used in staying. This has a breaking strain f 2,100 pounds. The wires are cut to length nd the stiuts sprung into place. No turn-(uckles are used.

Elevator. The biplane tail situated in the ear acts as the elevator, the trailing edges leing made flexible for this purpose. The fonstruction of the elevator and the aileions .3 the same, there being a fixed front portion, I'hite hickory ribs extending back as shown a the drawing.

Rudder. Some changes are being made in he position and number of the rudders. They re, however, of the same type of construc-lion as the ailerons" and elevators; that is, here is a fixed front portion, in this case /ithout any curve, and a flexible after porion.

Stability. The ailerons, 4 feet by 4 feet, 6 nches, are situated at the ends of only the op planes. The operation is by means of the amiliar shoulder brace. Double Roebling /32 inch cable is used on all the controls, 'ulleys are used wherever it is necessary to hange the direction of wires instead of fair-eads. The coveiing of the ailerons and ruders is double, the flexible portions having ■ockets sewed for the ribs.

Running Gear. This-is of the Wright type vith four wheels. 20x^ Pennsylvania tires are >eing- used at present. The axle is situated 0 inches back from the front of the plane. ?he skids are of spruce with a hickory shoe f" > _

% inch thick on the bottom. The length is 12 feet and the section 2x2 inches.

Power Plant. The power plant comprises a Hall-Scott 60 h.p. engine, and radi .tor. The propeller is one furnished by the Detachable and Adjustable Propeller Co., 8 feet in diameter, by 6 feet pitch turning at 1200 r.p.m. The radiatoi, which is located in front of the engine, is the standard one supplied with this size engine. It holds three gallons of water. Stromberg carburetor and Mea magneto are standard equipm°'->t. The fuel

CUT-OUT FOP.

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tank, which has a capacity of 8 gallons, is situated just under the upper plane.

The total weight of the machine with gas, oil, and operator ready for flight is 1,000 pounds. The weight per square foot of surface is three pounds, the weight lifted per h. p. being estimated at 15 pounds. The speed at which the machine leaves the ground is 35 miles per hour and in flight the speed is said to be 55 miles per hour. Three hundred pounds of passengers or freight are capable of being carried.

The center of pressure is said to be 1/3 of the chord from the front of the plane, the center of gravity being situated 1/3 of the chord from the rear of the plane.

A renewal of experiments is to be m%de by he Wrightv'Brothers at Kitty H-vvk this Vinter along the line of the possibility or oaring. Mi-. Chanute frequent^-stated that t was entirely possible to soar*all day Igng without using the engine power in certain >arts of the world where there were ascend-ng currents, notably in the great desei ts.

The Fairchild monoplane has proven steel ubing construction. After miking a number of flights of several miles in length, Har-Id Kantner, a graduate of the Moisant chool, landed the machine in the power wires f a local traction company at Mineola, des-roying one wing, the propeller and pulling he spokes out of one wheel without its delating the Goodyear tire fitted. After hitting he wires head on. the rmchine dropped traight about thirty feet. Not a stay of he fuselage or any_of the tubing was so rtueh as bent. The reason for encountering he wires was engine trouble, the power h'V; ng fallen rapidly off due to too weik valve-prings. The machine flew on even keel ven after power began to drop, until it :ot "o low that the wires cduld not be voided.

The 20th. Century Motor Car Supply Co. of South Bend, Ind., is to put on the mirket a patented five cylinder, two cycle, revolving type of motor but which is not ready as yet to give a detailed desciiption.

Aeronautical editors visiting the great metropolis should take the pie lge of sobriety, at least before accepting New York hospitality. Instances lvve been known where the aforesaid, in consequence of not being fortified with a double riveted and br zed resolution, hive succumbed in a wholly undignified manner to the libations incident to the pioper worship of the Goddess of Flight.

"I wouldn't b& without AERONAUTICS if I could possibly scrape the price together."

. £. George A. Dunlap.

Three yyun°r men of Junction" City, Km., the Wetzi-g- Bros, -mid James McCirty. h"ve returned,,., here from St. Louis where they lcined-' to aviate. They h-ve leased the b^seb-ill park and are assembling a new -.biplane.

AERONAUTICS October, 19 IM

buel hurndon green, M.eI

The Late Bue! H. Green

THOSE who would know the meaning of a certain passage to be found in Moedebeck's Handbook will find enlightenment in i.he passing of Buel Hurndon Green, M. E., on August 27th.

I cannot quote the passage as I am penning these lines by the side of a noisesome torrent high up in the Rockies, far from any book. But poor Moedebeck speaks ther<5 of the real tragedies and heroism that is to be found in the lives of the inventors and engineers who failed to materialize the aeronautical projects they had planned. Buel Green died at the age of 29, yet he had completed works which would do credit to a life of three score years. Graduated from the University of Southern California, he gave evidence at an early age of rare inventive genius, and was granted several patents relating to controlling devices for the automobile. He was appointed second designing-engineer at the Tourist automobile factory, a position from which he resigned after one year to become associated with Lanchester in England. Abroad he spent much time in the shops of foreign manufacturers. He was a charter member and was elected secretary of the Aero Club of California. At the international aviation meets at Los Angeles he acted as interpreter for the French aviators.

These distinctions may soon be forgotten but Mr. Green has to his credit those achievements in aeronautical invention which will live.

There are a trigonometrical manual double control for aeroplanes which will greatly

increase the safety of this art, an engine and! a turnbuckle.

All these inventions are of a high order! mechanically, but his engine, when it will! be possible to publish its details, will bl a sensation. It may be stated here that his second engine of 200 horsepower is now almost completed, and weighs only 350 Ibs.l with magneto and carburetor. It will be almost free from vibration and totally without gyroscopic action. He had completed] his first engine, and, while it is tol be regretted that he could not live to hear! the plaudits of the multitude, he was not of a nature to have cared for that. To arl engineer it is fruition to have completed! the plans on paper. We visualize all plana and indeed it often happens that we take! little or no interest in the metals in whic'rl they are executed afterwards. Yet Mr. GreeJ had progressed further than this. He hal incorporated the "Lamson Aeroplane Coml pany," and had the pleasure of seeing thl first machine well under way before he succumbed to the valvular heart troublB against which for many years he had made a heroic fight.

Inspired by his singular Christian life! in this materialistic age, the Aero Club ol California was moved to draft a resolution! which may be termed a classic.

Resolution of the Aero Club of California. I

At a meeting of the Directors of the Aerci Club of California, held in the Club Rooms! August 2S, 1911, the following preamble anl resolutions were unanimously adopted:

Whereas: Almighty God, in the exercisl of His divine will, has removed from thill world and the busy cares of life, BUEL Hi GREEN, of Los Angeles, California,

THEREFORE: We, the Directors of thdj Aero Club of California, have assembled herJ tonight to pay our last sad tribute to thl memory of the departed, and to express oul deep appreciation of the many and lastinl obligations that we, as fellow workers, owl to him and by words and tokens to expresl our sincere sorrow for the loss Science haJ sustained by his death.

The work in this Club of our late fellow-worker commenced on the night of its organi-. zation when he as a charter member gave many and valuable suggestions for its futurel guidance. That ceaseless labor has borrl full and truthful evidence of the warrrl affection in which he was held, and as ofttcerJ "director and chairman of various importani committees the club honored itself by honor-] ing him. It is a great thing to say of anl man, that he is crowned with the love anl admiration—after his grave is closed—oil all those who knew him. Such men are nol born to die out of the memory of theil associates. They were born to live in oul affections, and the day will not come in thJ history of the Aero Club of California wheil mention the name of Buel H. Green will nol recall to every member's heart an hones! sense of pride that such a man lived anil labored among us as a poineer in the field ol Aviation.

RESOLVED: That we take this occasion^ to express the hope that the Hand of Geniufl may in the near future cull from the collecj tion of materia] wealth he has left behind! him what he would have most desired to bel that shall stand as the best monument tci thus preserved, and the constructor thereon find in his labor an embarrassment of riche>| the memory of our lamented scientist and inventor.

RESOLVED: That the Secretary be instructed to spread upon the minutes a cop>| of this preamble and resolutions, and that <<J copy be sent to those who were nearest and!

dearest to him, his sorrowing family, as a token of our respect for the deceased, one who was, in eveiy way, worthy of our deepest respect and highest regard.

Van M. Griffith, Geo. B. Harrison,

• Secretary. President.

A SCO It 15 OF DEATHS

CHARTRES, France, Sept. 2.—The French aviator Marron was killea.

LIMA, Peru, Sept. 7.—The Peruvian aviator, Carlos Tenaud, died to-day as a result of injuries received making a flight last February.

LONDON, Sept. 17.—While flying at a high altitude at Hendon, Lieutenant R. A. Cam-mell's Valkyrie military aeroplane collapsed.

MÜLHAUSEN, Germany, Sept. 7.—Lieut. Neumann, with his passenger, M. LeComte, were killed.

KARLSRUHE, Germany, Sept. 7.—Paul Senge fell with his aeioplane.

ESS1NGEN, Germany, Sept. 9.—Raimund Eyring was flying in the dark and collided with a mast marking the limits of the field.

BUC, France, Sept. 2.—Capt. de Camine fell from a great height and instantly killed. Lieut. Jaques de Grailly was burned to death when his machine took fire in midair near Tjoyes. The cause is given as explosion of the fuel tank. The right wing of Capt. Camine's machine became detached. With six other Army flyers they weie on their way to military manoeuvers at Chalons.

PARIS, Sept. 12.—Lieut. Chotard, a pupil of the Military Aviation School, killed while making a flight at Villecoublay.

DEWITT, la., Sept. 20.—Louis Rosenbaum, a young man who has spent his time since 1908 building biplanes and finally flying, was killed giving an exhibition. After flying several miles away and back he was about 275 feet high over the center of the field when the machine plunged sharply down, righted, and then dived again. The coroner's jury rendeied a verdict that the cause of his death was not due to faulty construction. He was filling a date for the International Aeroplane Co., of Chicago, in a biplane made by that concern after the style of a Curtiss. Louis Rosenbaum was a member of the Aeronautical Society and began his building back in 190" \«~t-hpr vi tor =ent out by this company refused to fly In the old machine and Rosenu^uni o^me ^n cne scene to fly it. He made an unsuccessful effort but after tinkering with it and fixing it up, finally succeeded.

ST. LOUIS, Mo., Sept. 22.—A young Russian mechanic, Ray J. Raymond, was struck by the propeller, which he was cranking, of A. V. Reyburn's monoplane and died the following day in the hospital.

MANSFIELD, Pa., Sept. 22.—Tony Castellane fell to his death a short distance from the field where he was giving an exhibition in a biplane copied after the Curtiss.

BERLIN, Germany, Sept. 29.—Capt. Engelhardt, one of the pioneer aviators of Germany, the first Wright flyer and who was taught by Orville Wright himself, was killed during a meet. He had with him at the time Herr Sedylmayer as passenger. The latter sustained severe injuries but his death has not been reported.

NEW YORK, Sept. 25.—Dr. C. B. Clark, an oldtime trick bicycle rider, was killed in his monoplane during the aviation meet at Nassau Boulevard. He was a pupil of Arthur Stone, the Queen Company's instructor, and had only graduated from the Anzani to the Gnome engine. Directly over the parked automobiles he made a sharp right turn, banked up at a startling angle. He made a complete spiral of a diameter scarcely more than the spread of the machine and landed head-on just a few feet from the motor cars. The direct cause of his death is attributed to

making too sharp a turn to the right banked at an impossible angle With the probability that he either could not recover or still kept his rudder turned to the right which continued the spiral. Dr. Clark was well-known on the vaudeville stage in his motorcycle act, the "globe of death."

TROY, O., Sept. 23.—In making his last flight closing his exhibition at the local fair, Frank H. Miller, flying another Curtiss-copy built by Charles J. Strobel, of airship fame, was burned to death in the fire resulting from a headlong dive to the ground, or was killed by the fall itself. He was descending from an altitude of about 200 feet when the 'plane suddenly turned its nose directly down and took fire. Miller was from Cleveland. Miller could be seen frantically trying to right the machine. Other witnesses state that the machine was afire before it_ started its headlong flight.

SPOKANE, Wash., Oct. 2.—The't. „..Ji- of Cromwell Dixon while making an exhibition flight is particularly heartrending because of his youth. He was but 19 years of age and had only recently learned to fly a Curtiss aeroplane for the Curtiss company. He had to fly in dangerous grounds and was making a tuin, steeply banked over a deep railroad cut when an unlooked for air current struck the machine, which he was unable to right. On Sept. 30 he was flying at Helena, Mont., where he rose 6,000 feet and crossed the Rocky Mountain divide to a town 18 miles away, .landing and returning to Helena. Cromwell Dixon in 1907 built a little dirigible, for which his mother made the envelope. Later he went on the road with a larger one.

Eilouard Nieiiport Dead

The death of the designer of the fastest machine in the world, Edouard Nieuport, in an accident to his own machine at Verdum is one of the greatest losses the aviation world has met. On September 13 he was flying in the presence of the military authorities, giving a course of instructions. He flew to Chalons in a violent wind. He took to the air again and executed some wonderful turns, in the course of one of which, steeply banked and headed down, a down current caught a wing and the machine dove. The following day he passed away in the hospital.

ALDERSHOT, Eng., Aug. 18.—Lieut. Theodore Ridge was killed while attempting a short turn.

Edwin J. Bachman, Jr., of Catasauqua, Pa., suggests the use of two curved plates of thin steel, running longitudinal under the central section of an aeroplane, these sheets joining at their lower edges so as to form a V-shaped keel to deflect from the power plant and the aviator any bullets from rifles in the hands of sharpshooters.

"Claude Grahame-White, the famous English aviator, predicts that in twenty years regular aeroplane service will be in operation across the ocean. 'The machines used,' says White, 'will be 1,000 feet long, with steel-planes, and will carry 1,000 passengers. The motors driving these huge craft will develop 75,000 horsepower, and the speed attained will be close to 200 miles an hour.' "—So says the Club Journal. "Pull the string."

Mr. Thomas Sopwith

after trying oilier aeroplanes won his many prizes at the Nassau Boulevard Meet on bis

BURGESS BIPLANE

- with Gnome motor, built by-

BURGESS COMPANY AND CURTIS, Marblehead, Mass.

New World Record

Three-man Duration, 1:54:42 2/5, Lt. De Milling (Burgess), Sept. 26.

New American Record

Duration for Women, 1:04:57 2/5, Mile. Du-trieu (Farman), Sept. 30.

Kiyer.s nnd Winnings

Ovington (Queen and Bleriot) ....

Atwood (Burgess) $350

Lt. Arnold (Burgess) 350

Lt. Beck (Curtiss) 1150

Beatty (Wright) 950

Lt. Ellyson (Curtiss) 700

Ely 'Curtiss) 1400 \V (Nieuport and Burgess Baby) 3950

UV . !ond (Baldwin) 500

Milling (Burgess) 2550

Miss Quimby (Moisant) 600

Sopwith (Bleriot and Burgess) 5200

Disbrow (automobile) 600

McCurdy (McCurdy) ....

Mile. Dutrieu (Farman) 2500

Walden (Walden) 100 Miss Moisant (Moisant) No award.

Geo. M. Dyott (Deperdussin). ....

Present A warily Protested

Lt. Ellyson 600

White 300

Sopwith 700

Ely 100

Lt. Arnold 300

$22,900

THE establishment of the first aerial mail service in the United States as one of the features of the Nassau Boulevard meet Sept. 23-30, caused more interest, perhaps, than the actual contests, such as they were. Everyone who at-

tended could mail postal cards to their friends to their heart's desire.

To Earle Ovington belongs the distinction of having been the first duly appointed aerial mail carrier, covering a set route from a regularly established post office for a period of nine days.

In the evening of the opening a large canvas sack, which contained exactly 640 letters and 1280 postcards, was handed Ovington by A. H. Bartsch, advertising manager for the Bosch Magneto company. It was an unwieldy load as owing to the construction of his Bleriot he had to carry the bag on his knees and, consequently, was hampered considerably in his control. Nevertheless, he had no trouble throughout the entire meet, flying from the canvas tent serving as a post office at Nassau Boulevard over to Mine-ola, where the bags were dropped in the field to be picked up by the postmaster of that place.

Postmaster General Frank Hitchcock arranged a municipal collection system on the grounds. Twenty regulation boxes and two sub-stations were set up in the spaces alloted to spectators. A mail carrier collected the messages at regular intervals and Post Office Inspector M. H. Boyle saw to the canceling in the tent main post office.

On one day Captain Paul W. Beck, U. S. A., took Postmaster General Hitchcock, in his military Curtiss, who carried a sack of mail on his knees, over to Mineóla. Mr. Hitchcock dropping the bag at the proper spot. Ovington followed along with another bag. In all, 32,415 postcards, 3,993 letters and 1,062 circulars were carried by aeroplane during the meet. The relay race was very interesting. Each aviator was handed a packet of mail; he had to run to his machine, jump in, fly to Mineóla, land, get receipt from the postmaster there and return.

Sopwith in Gnome-engined Burgess. 134

THE NASSAU MEET

The Walden Monoplane just before It was Wrecked by the "Wash."

Lieut. Milling-, who, with the other Army and Navy officers flew in the meet on le;tve of absence, took up George C. Wilson, wireless operator who sent messages to a receiving station on the ground in charge of Oscar Roesen. The Curtiss and Burgess companies supplied ma'chines for the military aviators.

The flights of Miss Quimby, Miss Moisant and Ml'e. Dutrieu in the latest Farman weie especially interesting. They were flights as good as any man could do and the spice of femininity added to the zest of the entertainment. Miss Moisant received the Wanam:iker trophy for altitude and Miss Quimby had no competition in the cross-country race.

A number of new machines were seen; the two Deperdussins of Dyott and Captain Hamilton, the Burgess "Baby" flown by White and the latter's Nieuport, the new military type Curtiss, the Walden monoplane. Mile. Dutrieu's new little Farman and the McCurdy. The alley in front of the shed held swarms of fans who talked knowingly of all the things they didn't know about flying machines.

Considerable interest was taken in Beatty's Wright machine which could trim Sopwith's Gnome-engined Burgess-Wright and the standard Burgess-Wright of Lieut. Milling. Beatty had had a new pair of propellers made by the Gibson Propeller Co., and his claim of five miles more an hour speed was borne out by the record. These gave 238 lbs. thrust on the ground at 447 r. p. m. Beatty broke a crankcase of one engine and blew out a cylinder of another and it may be that the new propellers speeded the engine up to a greater degree than consistent with good policy.

If the minagement had been more kind to the press, the former might have been better pleased with results. To get any information as to what was going on was a catch-as-catch-c^n proposition with the megaphone man. Photographers were not allowed on the field, though lady friends of the officers had no difficulty on that score. The obtaining of pictures was a matter of prime interest to those interested in aviation and a club meet is supposed to be run for the advancement of the sport and scier.ce. No one, however, will accuse the Nassau management of being over keen on the scientific side. A ludicrous sight was the repeated chasing given the photographers by alleged cops on horseback, with the Ex.-Lieut. Governor Woodfuff cheering the gallant horsemen on to the fray. One

smashed aeroplane and numerous narrow escapes were caused by these pink tea policemen getting in the way.

Those who attended the Chicago meet missed the hourly duration, and the altitude contests. The absence of the duration prizes cut down the amount of flying to the minimum.

A license fee of $5,000 was paid the Wright Company by the corporation which financed the meet.

GXOME-EXGIXEB JlUHC.ESS-WRIGHT.

While a Gnome engine has been used abroad in a Fiench Wright, the Burgess Company and Curtis, of Marblehead, Mass., have taken the initiative here in using a rotary engine in their Model F machines, the first one of which thus fitted was supplied to Sopwith and used by him in his fights at the meet on Long Island, Sept. 23— Oct. 1. As is well known, the Burgess company is manufacturing under license from the Wright and uses in their standard Model F machines the Wright power plant. The latter machine is the type which Atwood flew in his 1,265-mile flight from St. Louis to New York, and in his flight from Boston to Washington, 461 miles. Atwood's success in making long distance flights is .ne more remarkable when one considers the other attempts made in cross country flying.

The rotary engine has more power than a 4 cylinder engine and runs with greater smoothness. The Farman type of control was substituted for the Wright type as Sopwith is used to the former system. In place of the usual seats, those of the deep bucket pattern were put on so that the aviator might have a firmer hold from which to meet the side thrust of his control lever.

In staiting the motor there is a noticeable absence of vibration which is conspicuous in the vertical engine until it is up to speed.

The rudder is operated by a foot yoke.

It will be noticed that the engine is mounted to the left of the aviator, instead of to his right as in machines using the standard Wright engine. This was done to keep the direction of rotation of the propellers the same as in the standard machine; the Gnome revolving in the opposite direction from the Wright engine.

The tank to the left of the picture is used for the castor oil.

The guying has been slightly altered in the section where the aviator sits, thus do-

ing away with the contortions one used to have to go through to get into the machine.

The gearing of the propellers is at present 12 to 34. Sopwith is not satisfied with this and has ordered a 14-tooth gear for the engine shaft, which may increase his speed. The gearing on standard Wright machines is 11-34.

BOSTON MEET.

Prize AVIniiers.

Ovington (Bleriot) ...............$11,782

Lieut. Milling ( Burgess-Wright) . . 6,200

Sopwith (Wright)................ 6,022

White (Nieuport)................ 5,224

Beachey (Curtiss)................ 3,630

Stone (Queen).................... 1,000

Gill (Burgess-Wright)............ 534

Beatty (Wright)................. 482

Atwood (Burgess-Wright)........ 296

Coffyn " " ........ 200

Ely (Curtiss).................... 150

$32,520

To these amounts must be added expense money allowed.

Ovington Won 100-Mlle Tri-state Knee.

The first cross-country race inaugurated in America in connection with an aviation meeting was held from Boston to Nashua, N. H., Worcester, Mass., Providence, R. I., and back to Boston, covering corners of three states, on Sep. 4 in connection with the second Harvard Meet, so-called, Aug. 26-Sep. 6. The distance is reckoned as 160 miles. Landings had to be made at each place, where thousands were gathered to view for the first time a monoplane in flight.

Earle L. Ovinfrton. in a 70 Bleriot, covered the course in the flyinff time of 3:6:22-1/5. Lieut. Muling, in ^ .uurgess-Wright, took 5:22:37. Arthur Stone (Queen monoplane) and Harry Atwood (Burgess-Wright) also started. Both failed to get further than Medford, Mass. Atwood started with his father and he flew back alone from Medford. White, Beachey, Ely and other flyers refused to enter the race, claiming the course too dangerous, no good landing places, et cetera. Besides that, it was a purely snorting offer, the $10,000 prize of the Boston Globe, and one of the flyers thought it not worth while unless something were guaranteed on account. Other troubles were had with the management. It was alleged that White had been promised a guarantee while others had not. "Fly" says : "Those who are aware of Grahame-White's avidity for the clinking of silver and gold, as well as the yellow certificates of large denominations issued by the United States Government, insinuate that the Englishman never came to Squantum without a substantial guarantee."

The attendance was poor save on two days. Weather delayed the meet also. Even the 30-mile flights out over the ocean to Boston Light failed to draw the populace. Beachey set a record in sensational flying that others will have to match or lose out as a drawing attraction. On Sep. 2, Beachey and Ovington flew the Boston Light race in a wind of 26-28 miles an hour and Beachey did the flight to Blue Hill and back, 15 miles, when the other aviators stayed on the ground. On August 28, the flight to Boston Light was cancelled, though Beachey and Ely protested. Beachey and Ely flew anyway just for the sport of it, and were the only ones to fly that day. Ovington's flying in the Tri-state race was most consistent, covering each 40-mile leg without not more than five minutes difference in times. Ely was unfortunate, losing two contests purely on technicalities.

The ovations the Tri-state flyers received were tremndous. A hundred thousand people were at the State Fair in Worcester to witness the spectacle. Two days later Stone made flights in Worcester. After a flight on Sept. 6 the machine made a complete somersault in landing burying him underneath. He had a marvelous escape.

AVAL I) EN MONOPLANE MAKES FINE FLIGHTS.

The original monoplane of Dr. Henry W. Walden has, after three years of experimenting and flying, proven itself as a flier. All during the month he has been flying at Mine-ola. At the series of exhibition flights made under the auspices of Walter B. Davis by Beatty, Sopwith, White, Ely and Atwood, Dr. Walden made his first real public bow. Although not a pilot or really an expert flier he made circle after circle of the field, flying over the trolley wires and the houses of Coney Island. When he landed he found he had not flown the requisite time demanded by his contract. Scarcely waiting for people to get out of the way of his wings he started up again and flew more than was necessary. At the Nassau meet he had agreed to fly but the first day he got in the wash of a Burgess-Wright and broke up a wing. As he was about to land, Lieut. Milling started off the ground and rose right in front of Walden, who cleared his tail but a couple of feet. Dr. Walden was compelled to turn sharply so as not to strike the other machine and the stream of air caught him and dashed him about forty feet to the ground. The picture shows the ailerons in position to balance up when the "wash" struck him. An instant after the picture was taken the machine was a wreck.

The day before he tried for his pilot license and met with all the requirements, save as to altitude. Though the observers vouch for 1,500 feet, the club's representative failed to furnish a barograph and he has no pilot license as yet.

Two more machines are now being built, all to be equipped, like the present one, with Hall-Scott engines.

Many flights have been made from the Mineóla sheds over to Nassau and back. His flight over on the opening day of the meet when no one was expecting him and no shed prepared at Nassau, was a sensation.

Although not a pilot, Dr. Walden flew in a sanctioned meet under contract and was entered on the program. When he was carted to the hospital in an ambulance, he had to pay $2 for the ride; he also got a bill for taking his wrecked aeroplane off the field. It would be hard for an aviator to be broke and have to go without the luxury of an ambulance. But, then, all aviators are supposed to be wealthy, so what's the use of worrying. The earth-worms can still ride free in ambulances.

TO "1IUMIJLE INQUIKEK."

We have received a letter asking further information on the pressure equalizer described in a recent issue of this publication. The letter was signed "A Humble Inquirer."

We are always glad to answer all inquiries; but it is out of the question to expect reply when no name or address is given. Will he please supply it?

Mr. Grahame-White

bavin? studied the world's be«t aeroplanes regularly flies one Nieuport monoplane and two specially designed

BURGESS BIPLANES

——— designed and built by--BURGESS COMPANY AND CURTIS, Marblehead, Mass.

WON AU TICS October, 1911

'HAT'S THÉ MATTER WITH AVIATION

AST issue we began a series of articles under this heading, treating of the status of aviation in this country at the present time. At least, that is t we requested. In our letters we point-out several items which were not en-ly favorable to rapid progress and to the tstiy. Some evidently believe th it avia-is flourishing. We do not wish to confine symposium entirely to aviation. It iId be interesting to bring in the sport ballooning, and the piloting of dirigibles, ny aie ever to be used for sporting pur-;s in this country.

"The Aero Club of......

Is now without gas and there is nothing doing." Signed by club's president, he aero clubs who aie doing anything of practical value can be counted on one d, with perhaps a finger or so to spare— | way, a thumb.

ontributions from every one who has lething worth while to say are solicited

this series, provided they are brief, and

not "trade puffs."

THE EDITOR

My Jerome S. Faueiulli,

Manager Curtiss Exli bition Co.

would say that progress in aviation is isfactory as far as this Company is conned. We note a gradual widening interest oughout the U. S., both in exhibition and ctical sides of the business. I believe t the numerous exhibitions which we have en and are still giving throughout the S., will do moie than anything else to nonstrate the increasing practicability 1 reliability of the aeroplane.

regard the Chicago Meet held in August greatest demonstration of the art of ,ng that has ever taken place in this or / other country. Its beneficial effects aie jnd to be widespread. Already we have 3 evidence of the aroused interest re-ting from the Chicago Meet, t is true that the U. S. is far behind Tie parts of Europe, France in particular,

the matter of offeiing prizes for cross jntry flights. However, there have been r'eral such prizes put up in this country

recently, notably the one of Gimbel Bros, for a race of three Curtis aviators between New York and Philadelphia, which was successfully cariiecl out on August 5th. 1 look for a great deal of cross country flying next year, for which there will be adequate prizes offered. I also expect to see aeroplane racing-made a feature of all the big meets held in the U. S. next year.

All things taken into consideration, I re-gai d the progress in aviation in this country as slow but steady with good prospects for the immediate future. While few machines have been sold for sporting purposes, thus far, I believe that the hydroaeroplane will do more to stimulate interest in this direction than anything- else that has been developed in the brief history of heavier than air machines. With the advent of aeroplane racing I look for many wealthy men to enter the game, possibly not as operators of their own aeroplanes, but for the sport of having the fastest machine with a hired aviator, the same as one would put an automobile 01 a motor boat in races to be run by employed experts.

I have no complaint to make in regard to the exhibition business, as we shall have filled engagements calling for more than 350 flying days by the end of the season. I have absolute faith in the future of aviation, and believe that next year will bring rapid development.

By J. T. Patterson,

Skc'y Maximhtok Makers.

We have industriously tried to find something the matter with aviation and failed.

Aviation is very young yet.

In compaiison with it the beginnings of the automobile industry, etc., etc., were insignificant and slow.

You, of course, remember the time a few years ago when it was an achievement for an American built auto to make a non-stop run around a block—when automobiling was the butt of eveiybody's joke.

Certainly aviation is rapidly passing from a circus to an industiial basis.

We are hopeful your diagnosis will indicate the most serious "matter with aviation" is "growing pains."

CLUB NEWS

The Aero Club Italiann S. U. A. has been rmed with Albert C. Triaca, president; ancesco Gi utter, Secretary, Saverio A. iscia, Treasurer; prominent New York ilians complete the board of directors. The ice is at 403 Park Avenue, New York. The Jb has been started by Mr. Triaca. who :11 be remembered by all who followed iation from its rise in this country through s school. This lost a pot of simoleons iparently because people thought they uld copy well-known types from descrip-)ns and pictures in AERONAUTICS and save e trouble of learning the principles and signing their own. They evidently did. The Trenton Aero Club has been incor->r;.ted at Trenton, N. J., with the following ficers: P. F. De Marco, President; Stephen ack, Vice-President; John Falcey, Secre-ry; Frederick Gebert, Treasuier; James enton, Ass't Treasurer.

strong effort was made to secure the co->eratinn of the business men of Trenton Jt without success. It was planned to es-blish a real club with grounds for experi-ental flights.

Chas. F. Willard is having a new Curtiss achine built, two passenger type, with nome engine. The passenger will se-'t to le side and to the rear of the pilot. Other-ise, this will be a standard Curtiss. The evating surface is slightly increased, for

his rear elevator will have the same surface as that in Beachey's headless and the front elevator will increase the whole surface by its area.

H. F. Ke:irncy. of St. Louis, will undonb'edly fly wi>h Hnl-Scotl Equipment at the Si. L'ins m el, Kearn. y is reeove.ed fr..m his t.« 11 nf.-i month air . ;it whi h time he flew 35 miles cr sseountrx to Kmloch ' iel.l. an l then m ide a hard landing . n ace- tint of his n o'or snipping due lo his gas tank • mini- g do . Th mas McC.o->,who purchased a (iJ Hall Seott power pi in alter sc in!.' ihe resul so-i'Min d I'ioih II ll-S<olt equipme"! in Haldw n planes at the Chiei'go nice*, has been making more than goud in and ar. and Giand Forks.

Daily flights are being made at Nassau Boulevard with the Shneider Biplane. Three hangars are occupied at present, and the fourth machine will be shipped there within a few days. Great activity is shown in his school, the students are progressing very rapidly and making successful flights. Mr. Shneider himself has been trying out a Gyro motor in one of his machines. The Shneider factory has several machines under construction. Recently one was sold and demonstrated to Mr. N. Lapadat, of Johnstown, Ohio.

You hare so far succeeded in your efforts to publish a rem inicrcstini/ anil learned journal, and you shall 'have yiy subscription as tony as you publish.

— ClIAS. UlLL.MAX.

GERMAN BALLOON WINS INTERNATIONAL RACI

THE international balloon race which started from Kansas City, on October 5th, was won for the second time by Germany. Official reports have not been received at the Aero Club of America as yet and the distances given here are measured on large scale maps.

The record distance in competition for this trophy, 1172 miles, made last year, is far from being beaten.

Three balloons entered for the Lahm Cup but failed to get close enough to the old mark. Following are unofficial results:—

International Knee

Merlin II, Lt. Hans Gericke and J. O. bunker, at Holcomb, Wis., 450 miles.

Unckeje, Lt. Frank P. Lahm and J. H. Wade, Jr., at Sparta, Wis., 364.6 miles.

Ili-rlin 1. Lt. Leopold Vogt and Lt. M. Schoeller. at Austin, Minn., 301 miles.

America II, John Berry and Paul McCul-lough, at Emmettsburg, la., 275 miles.

Million l'on. Club, Wm. F. Assmann and J. C. Hurlbert, at Mason City, la., 265.5 miles.

Condor. Emile Dubonnet and Pierre Dupont, at Mingo, la., 172.S miles.

I;aliin Cup

Kansas City II, Capt. H. E. Honeywell and John Watts, at Kennan, Wis., 486 miles.

Topekn II, Frank M. Jacobs and W. W. Webb, at Dunnell, Minn., 302 miles.

Pi-nnsj Ivanla II. A. T. Atherholt and E. R. Hunnewell, at Buffalo Centre, la., 293.6 miles.

OTHER ASCENSIONS

Suit I.akr City, Sept. 4 H. E. Honeywell, R. N. Campbell, Lewis B. McCormick and J. Frank Judge were the aeronauts to christen the Salt Lake Aero Club's new Honeywell balloon "Salt Lake City." The strong wind did not deter the passengers and, of course, Honeywell didn't mind it a bit. After sailing around over the salt lake and the hills the balloon was dropped to a low adtitude and it followed the foothills in the direction of Ogden, land ins near Utah. The party packed up and returned to Salt Lake from Ogden.

Two other ascensions were made before Captain Honeywell left the city after a week's instruction in ballooning. The last two were made over the Wasatch Mountains at a high altitude.

Kansas City, Aug. 31.— a he Kansas city Aero Club has purchased a new balloon of 80,000 cubic feet from PI. E. Honeywell, of St. Louis, and on August 31 made a trial trip, carrying nine people all told, of which five were ladies. The rest of the party was composed of members of the press and aero club officials, including president George M. Myers. They were not all taken up at once but in relays, rive different ascents being made from the one inflation. Friends of the aeronauts followed in automobiles.

l'Utsfit-Iil. Sept. II.—H. Percy Shearman, president of the Williams College Aeronautical Society left alone in the "Springfield" on an attempt to make a new record to Canada. He was discovered the following morning in a field in an exhausted condition near Auburn, Me., by a farmer who started to investigate the presence of a balloon on his property. Shearman could give no more than his name. When he arrived at the hospital he sank into a stupor. He had passed through a severe rain and hail storm, followed by cold weather. lie had climbed in the rigging, ripped the bag, falling back unconscious in the basket. Distance 190 miles.

I'hlla., Aug. 25.—Dr. Thomas E. Eldredge. John Noggle, Frank Middleton and a 9-year old boy. Meats Noggle. ascended in the "Philadelphia II". The landing was at Ar-neytown, N. J., after a trip of two hours.

1'ittsfleld, Sept. 17.—J. J. Van Valkenburi William Van Sleet, and Jay B. Benton al cended in the "Springfield" a few momenl before midnight. Morning found them ovi Long Island Sound and a landing was mad in Auburndale, L. I. The duration of tr| trip was 5:25 and the distance 109 milel This was Valkenburg's 10th trip ar his second as pilot.

Atchison. Kans., Sept. 4— W. C. Jacob* John Cain and Will Harburger ascended i the "Topeka I" and landed at WathenJ Kansas.

Pittsfield, Oct. 8. Wm. Van Sleet ar, Jay B. Benton, in the "Boston" to LakewooJ N. J. The trip was begun 15 minutes aftJ midnight of the 7th with a full moon anl beautiful weather.

A Hudson River Steamer discovered th] balloon with its searchlight.

The landing was made 8 A. M. Sundaj morning.

IMUsiiii.l.—Sept. 23. Ernest G. Schmolcll Mr. and Mrs. St. J. C. Wood and Malcom <| Ludlam in the "Springfield" to Cheshire.

SPRINGFIELD, ILLS., July 17-18. John Benl and Roy F. Donaldson in the "Million PopulJ tion Club" to La Place, Piatt Co., Ills, on a trl lasting from 7:30 o'clock Monday evening ti 10:30 Tuesday a. m. Two other landings weil made earlier in the morning at Kirksville at I Bethany.

KANSAS CITY, MO., July 14. H. E. Honeji well, pilot, and four newspaper men in til "Kansas City" at 4 p. m. At 8:32 p. m. lanii ing was made about 8 miles from the star! having drifted back and forth about the cityl aerial section.

SAN DIEGO, CAL., Aug. 13. In an attemjl to reach San Bernardino, Gene Savage, C. I Hunt, T. Henning and Stanley Schultz, eni ployees of the gas company, were caught in a unexpected cross current of air, swept soutll west over San Diego Bay and finally alighteJ on Table Mountain below Tia Juana in Lowd California. Their experience was terrible, aj the wind was sweeping them rapidly out tl sea, which meant sure death unless a currerl caught the bag and drove it back over the lanl Sam McGovney, owner of the ballon, named till "Globe," followed it in an automobile.

The daring young men had expected to reacj San "Bernardino in about three hours. Thl wind was just right, until they reached a heigl of 600 feet. When they were caught in a gal and swept towards the sea. Besides the foil occupants, the balloon today carried 1110 pound] ballast, thirty pounds of drag rope, 500 feet cl inch cord, water, food and an anchor.

PITTSFIELD, MASS, July 22. Alan R. Haw] ley, Harrington Emerson and Richard F. Dal in the "Springfield." !

PITTSFIELD, MASS., Aug. 13. Wm. Van Sleei and J. J. Van Valkenburgh in the "Pittsfield] to Coltsville, a short distance from the stari The start was at midnight and the landing al 1 a. m. „ J

ST. LOUIS, MO., Aug. 12. St. Jno. P. Harl and Sergt. Joseph O'Reilly, of the Mo. N. G., a 7:45 p. m., to Black Jack, Mo., at 8:30. Distancl 15 miles.

PARIS, July, 19. Ernest O. Schmolk, qualtl fying for French license, sailed over Paris ii tiie balloon Ariane.

Lieut.T. D. Milling, U.S.Al

baving: won the principal biplane prizes at Ihe Bosloi Meet on a

BURGESS BIPLANE

has established h new World's Record, eariyinsTwl Passengersat Nassau Boulevard on Ihesanienoroplniu] --built »iy----1

BURGESS COMPANY AND CURTIS, Marblehead, Mass

KIjV with two motors.

Reports from Eastchurch aviation field, in England, state that the Short biplane with two engines flew an hour on September 23, changing from one motor to the other while in the air.

Aviation is "on the blink" in England. There is very little doing. Our sympathies! Same here, old man.

vaniman to start soon.

From a standpoint of novelty the airship Akron, in which the Sieberling-Vaniman expedition will attempt to cross the Atlantic ocean the latler part of October, is perhaps the most remarkable ever constructed.

The gas bag itself is 258 feet long and 47 feet in diameter. Most of the other dirigibles constructed in Europe have had greater diameter and less length, but Mr. Melvin Vaniman, who has a number of new ideas embodied in the latest of airships, believes more in length of a gas bag than in breadth. Thus the "Akron" bag is built along the lines of a slim racer and the dirigible will have a speed of from thirty to thirty-five miles an hour.

The bag was. manufactured in the factory of Frank A. Seiberling of Akron, O., who is financing the present expedition. It consists of Goodyear material embodying seven thicknesses, four of rubber and three of cloth or fabric, rendering the bag practically impervious to weather conditions. The bag weighs 4,400 pounds and when it leaves on the voyage to Europe it will contain approximately 400,000 cubic feet of hydrogen gas.

The upper two-thirds of the Akron's envelope is made of fabric built up by sandwiching three layers of the finest cotton cloth between four layers of rubber. This makes a fabric that will stand a tensile strain of 160 pounds per inch. The cloth was all specially made for this balloon and more than 2,200 pieces were sewed together with a double seam and then bound with tape on both sides. Laboratory tests have showed that this seam will stand a strain of 100 per cent, both as to strength and leakage. In other words the seams are as strong and tight as the rest of the envelope. As the under side of the bag will have a minimum strain it is of lighter material than the upper part.

The entire weight of the engines, car and whatever cargo the ship carries will be borne by the upper half of the envelope as the car is swung from long loops of fabric running almost the full length of the bag. These loops are of heavy fabric and are sewed and cemented to the bag itself. The outer coat of the balloon is a bright yellow to protect the inner coats of rubber from the ultraviolet sun rays. These rays, so scientists claim, cause rubber to become brittle and crack but passing through a yellow medium they are robbed of this power. The "Akron" contains two ballonets, one in the forward end of the bag and the other toward the rear, both connected with air pumps and by

inflating them with air to a greater or less degree. Mr. Vaniman declares he will be able to maintain an even pressure in the envelope at all times.

The hydrogen gas is being made right at the hangar in Atlantic City. No one but the initiated would know that this gas is being made with such stuff as old rusty barrel hoops, lathe turnings and other scraps of the machine shop, acted upon by sulphuric acid. Nearly 80 tons of scrap iron and 100 tons of sulphuric acid is necessary to manufacture the gas with which to inflate the "Akron" bag. An equal quantity of coal gas would supply an ordinary five-foot burner for more than 10 years.

The car of the Akron is 185 feet long and consists of a framework of steel tubing, constructed in the lightest possible manner, attached to the long, torpedo-shaped gasoline tank on which the four engines of the dirigible will rest. The top of the gasoline tank will form the floor of the car. This tank is made in compartments of reinforced galvanized steel and will carry over 8,000 pounds of gasoline. The car will weigh 6,000 pounds. The car will be enclosed with waterproof fabric.

The four engines of the dirigible are the best that Mr. Vaniman could secure in this cbftntry and Europe. Two of them are of 110 horse power each, one of SO horse powder, and the other of 17 horse power. The two powerful engines are of American make while the others are French and English.

The six propellers, three on each side of the dirigible, were especially constructed in France. The two forward propellers will be of the ordinary type, while those in the rear will be movably mounted so as to either slant the ship upward, downward, or steer it in a horizontal plane. This device is the invention of Mr. Vaniman, upon which a patent was recently obtained, illustrated and described in AERONAUTICS.

Beneath the" car will be suspended the lifeboat, which is 27 feet long'. It has air-tight compartments, and is non-capsizable.

In this boat will be carried the wireless apparatus and provisions for a fifteen day voyage. Five days' provisions will be carried in the car. Members of the crew when not on duty will sleep in the lifeboat. Vaniman intends that his crew shall have plenty of good things to eat on the voyage and he has fitted up two of the engines' exhaust pipes with frying pans and all sorts of ham and eggs and tempting dishes are to be part of the menu.

The substitute which Vaniman has invented for the old equilibrator that last year encumbered the America is being kept secret for the present. But upon this invention the airship will depend a great deal for success. It is not revealing any secrets, however, to say that the method of maintaining equilibrium has something to do with the taking water from the sea. Mr. Vaniman is confident it will be successful, as is also his backer, Mr. Seiberling.

MICHELIX PRIZE FOR DROPPING PROJECTILES.

In order to encourage the development of the aeroplane as an offensive implement of war. M. Michelin has offered a prize of $30,000 for the competition of French pilots, either civil or military. This sum is to be divided into tour piizes.

The first one, of $10,000, is to be given to the pilot who by Aug. 15, 1912, from an altitude of greater than 200 meters, places tho greatest number of projectiles in a circle of 10 meters diameter. Five projectiles must be carried, each weighing not less than 44 lbs., and be dropped one at a time. Another prize of $5,000 is to be given for dropping projectiles from the height of 1,000 meters, into a rectangle 100 meters long by 10 meters wide.

These two orizes are for competition up to and including Aug. 15. 1912; the award of the balance of the money is to be arranged later, and is to remain open till Aug. 15, 1913.

The prizes are known as the "Michelin Aero T„.D^ K._e„.

SCOTT IIOMI! DROPPER SUCCESS

A first trial was made October 10, under adverse conditions, with Lieut. Riley E. Scott's apparatus for dropping projectiles with scientific accuracy in, the Army's Wright biplane at College Park, Md. The two projectiles were dropped within 6 feet of a target and 6 inches apart, from an elevation of one thousand feet.

Lieut. Scott's invention is the only method thus far suggested anywhere in the world for the determination of speed relative to the earth and for the launching of projectiles with the same mathematical accuracy with which any gun is sighted.

AVILLOUG1IBY WATER 'PLANE.

Capt. Hugh L. Willoughby has had so much encouiagement from his experiment in Newport Harbor during the last Summer that he is to start a factory at Sewall's Point, Fla., to build duplicates of his machine "Pelican." The hydro-t-eroplane has caught the general fancy and the concensus of opinion is that it will be the machine of the future, tor so many obvious reasons. Safety is an important reason; faster than a motoiboat, cheaper on a speed basis.

Captain Willoughby's machine spreads 30 ft., with a weight of 575 lbs. without wheels for land use, or the brass-sheathed floats, which weigh 103 lbs. A Curtiss 30 horsepower motor drives a propeller in the front of the machine. The f opt nd rear elevat^rc 1

in conjunction, in the same manner as in use in Farman, Curtiess and other machines, under Capt. Willoughby's patent. He has also patented an engine control which, in case of hird landing, will shut off the power with certainty through the natural movement of the body.

FLIES RUDDERLESS MACHINE

Frank E. Boland has been making good flights with his ruddeiless machine, wnich is, perhaps, still in the experimental stage. Though even tailless at first, one had now been added but the rudders are still absent, h. Ler. 1 steering Oeing fccoinpiisheu by triangular oblique fins at the outer evtremi-ties of the biplane cell. These likewise sc ve to pcfomp'ish l"te»"«] st- hiMty.

Kennerly has been making flights at Mine-ola with a Curtiss copy equipped with a Mjximotor engine. Bui.inu u..e-> his own design S cylinder 60 horsepower engine. Antony Jannus has been flying the old Weeks Curtiss-type machine, after taking off the front elevator. This is equipped with a 4 cylinder Emeison. Both Jannus, and Dr. Walden have exhibition dates in the South. Kennerly is takinsr his machine home in Kentucky for the Winter.

C. O. Hadley now his Joe Seymour's old original Curtiss, with the elevator way out front ^nd h^s made some real good flights with his Roberts engine, for which he is agent.

Fred H. Medrick has a heavy, old Curtiss-type, with Roberts engine, flew clear to Westbury and back the second time he tried to fly, a distance of about 10 miles altogether. Joe Stevenson has bought a 60 Hall-Scott engine and put it in his Curtiss-type but he smashed up several times after flights. Francois Rpische has a new Curtiss-type out with a Smalley engine. Clyde, with a bipPne of his own m:.ke, has been trying to fly with Hall-Scott, but h-^s not done much in the way of flying. Wilbur R. Kim-b"1' h"s ''Pen m"kin^ h~n<; -with bis 2-nro-peller tailless biplane with an auto engine. All tbese fixers re located in the Aeronautical Society's sheds, at Mineola.

AVIATOR ELTON FLIES £44 MILES

Albert Elton, who Ir^d just lenrned to fiy a Wright biplane at Dayton, flew from there to Youngstown, O., in the three days. Sept. distance of about 70 miles. The next day he flew to Pickerington, Newark, Wakato-mica to Trinway, 64 miles, making stops at these places. The third day's trip took him "f» t°wn V •"rr"!tiivn. 113 miles on

The Willoughby . ydro-aeroHlane. 140

The Yamada Dirigible.

the way. A. L. Welsh, the Wright instructor, was his passenger throughout the flight. This was the first long distance tow-man flight in America.

ARMY'S AEHO GUN. Not to be outdone by the Navy, the Ordnance Department of the U. S. Army has built and is to test out a high-angle aeroplane gun. The department will not release any photographs of it, nor will it give any details beyond the fact that it is a 6-pounder high velocity gun mounted upon a specially designed mount for use in the attack of aeroplanes and dirigibles.

A JAPANESE DIK1G11ILE.

The Japanese dirigible of Isaburo Yamada some time ago completed a series of successful trials and the populace is enthusiastic over the thoughts of a Japanese airship. Yamada began in 1909 and is reported to be building in behalf of the Government. Japan is not suitable for aeroplanes, such open spaces as there are being controlled by the Govei nment. Port Arthur is apparently the best place. The airship is of the non-rigid type, fitted with a new Maximotor engine, of 60-75 h.p., replacing a smaller engine of the same make.

NKW A IK PILOTS

There are now sixty-three registered aviation pilots. The latest who have met the requirements are as follows, the place and date of the tests being given:

5S Harold H. Brown (Wright), Nassau, Sept. 7.

59 Capt. Chas. De F. Chandler, U. S. A.,

(Wright), Washington, D. C. Sept. 20.

60 John D. Cooper (Curtiss-type), St.

Louis, Aug. 30.

61 A. B. Lambert (Wright), St. Louis,

Sept. 20.

62 Lieut. .1. II. Towers, IT. S. N, (Cur-

tiss), Hammondsport, Sept. 11.

63 L. E. Holt. Bos Angeles. Aug. 31.

Spherical balloon certificate number 32 has been given to George B. Harrison, dated Los Angeles, Aug. 31.

A' A A* A I, OFFICER INVENTS AEItl.M, TORPEDO.

The aeroplane itself has now become an engine of destruction to foes. First, we had the areoplane as a scouting vehicle, then through the invention of Lieut. R. E. Scott, as a carrier of missiles. Paul E. Chamber-lin, an officer in the U. S. Marine Corps, has patented in the U. S. means for employing the aeroplane as a missile. (1,004,367, Sept. 26, 1911.)

A specially designed one-man monoplane is used, with a light and powerful engine. In the extreme front of the machine is a projectile or explosive bomb. The seat for the aviator is mounted on a platform which can be tripped at any time to allow the aviator, who must be a nervy man. to drop himself through the bottom of the aeroplane, opening a parachute as he goes. An inexpensive engine can be employed, as no long flights are demanded. The cooling system can be done away with altogether, possibly and the fuel and oil carried will be but little. The torpedo is made of armor steel and heavy enough to pierce the sides and decks of vessels. It is intended to carry about ISO pounds of wet gun cotton and to be supplied with an explosive means—for instance a combination time and percussion fuse.

When the aviator is ready to direct his attack and take leave of his machine, lie pulls a lever, which simultaneously diops him through the floor and ignites the fuse. The wings are so arranged that at this instant they will fold up vertically because of the pressure of the wind. The length of the fuse is to be determined before launching the machine on its death-dealing mission in order that the torpedo may explode at the proper moment.

Provided the aviator does not strike the object aimed at at the same time the aeroplane does, the scheme would be all right.

It may be assumed that the engine keeps on running until the fuel is exhausted, for no mention is made, of what the motor is to do. Leaving this out of it, the forward speed of the machine at the moment the attack is started, combined with the pull of gravity, will force the apparatus to follow a parabolic path. The aviator is moving with the aeroplane when he lets go and will follow closely the same path, nicht wahr?

Another little drawback might be mentioned. No provision is made for the timing of the drop the proper distance before reaching the object aimed at. Perhaps he will use Scott's patented method of determining his height, his speed, his path and the instant for action.

Will the aeroplane keep on an even keel or will it turn over and over, this way and that, with the sudden change in weight distribution, center of pressure, center of gravity, and a few other little items which keep aeroplanes in the air? Perhaps the extinguished editor of Fly can answer this. If this last sentence is not clear address H. B. H., c/o "Fly," Philadelphia.

NEW CONCERNS.

The Aeronautical Society of California, Los

Angeles, Capital $200,000, of which $1,600 is subscribed. The incorporators are Earle Remington, Roy L. Blakeslee, J. M. Bloom, L. S. Emerson, Sidney Clifton, Thomas K. Kase and Walter Home.

Trenton Aeroplane Club, Trenton, N. J.

The Lindsay Hopkins Aviation Company, of Greensboro, N. C, to manufacture and sell flying machines, etc.: authorized capital. $30,000; paid in. $300, by Lindsey Hookins, Thorn-well H. Andrews and Thomas S. Beall.

Continental Aero Club, Richmond, Ky.

Smith Aero Engine Co., Traverse City, Mich., capital $100,000.

Reimers-Malr Biplane Co., Chicago; name changed to Standard Aviation Company.

Rochester Aerial Company, Rochester, N. Y. capital $10,000. The directors are George Mutch, R. Edward Smith and William feearle Hutchings, of this city, and Stuart M. Wol-verton, of Canandaigua.

The Snyder Aeroplane Company, Osborn, O., capital $5,000. Charles B. Snyder, Al. Stim-mel, Frank Semler, Frank Esterline, Horace Pence and William Semler, incorporators.

American Nleuport Aeroplane Company., New York. Capital $50,000. Incorporators: Allan A. Ryan, Ignatius V. McGlone, K. R. Howard, all of 32 Liberty Street, New Yrork.

The Gray Eagle Aviation Company, Louisville, Ky., capital $5,000. The incorporators, with their holdings are: Ernest Orndorff, Mat-toon, III., E. L. Grey, Ora Gratz, and R. O. Rubel, Jr.

Blerlot Monoplane Co., New York City. cap. $150,000. Incorporators: R. A. Burkhard, G. B. Marcus, S. M. Marcus, New York City.

Pioneer Aeroplane and Exhibition Company, July II, St. Lous, Mo., to deal in aeroplanes and give exhibitions. Capital $12,000, half paid. Incorporators: M. Lellie, C. J. Shea, F. P. Meyer, E. W. O'Brien and Andrew Drew.

The Aero Exhibition Company, Canton, O., to book evhibitions. Capital, $15,000. Incorporators, William H. Clark, J. J. Piper, J. M. Blake, Elwood Salisbury and J. P. Fawcett.

Sather-Philllps Aeroplane Co., Chattanooga, Tenn., capital $10,000. Paul Andress, J. E. Gross, T. W. Hagan, T. F. House and Lawrence H. Smith.

Harvard Aviation Association, Boston, capital $40,000; Leonard 1 >. Ahl, Adams D. Claflin, Raymond L. Whitman.

The Wilson Aero Co., formed for the purpose of exhibition flying. First flights have been made by Charles Mink in their own make of biplane with a Maximotor engine. Capital, $100,000. Incorporators: John Wilson, Jr., 715 Prospect Avenue, John I'. Abbott, 705 D. S. M. Bldg., Geo. J. Rohmer, 835 Niagara Street, all of Buffalo, N. Y.

International Aeroplane Co., 104 Second | Ave. South, Minneapolis, Minn. Capital, $50,000. Incorporators: William V. Bloom-field, Gustav H. Sachs and Sigvard Quam, all of Minneapolis.

Gibson Propeller Co., Fort George, New York. Capital, $20,000. Incorporators: Robt. L. Moffet, 52 William St., Nathan A. Egbert, 52 William St., Theo. S. Williamson, 71 Broadway, all of New York City.

Sather-Phillips Aeroplane Company, Chattanooga, Tenn., capital of $10,000. Incorporators are Paul Andress, J. E. Gross, T. W. Hogan, T. F. House and Lawrence T. Smith.

New England Aviation Co., organized at Kittery, $1,000,000 capital stock, of which nothing is paid in. Officers: President, Leon G. Chase of Boston, Mass.; treasurer, A. Ingham Bicknell of Boston, Mass.

American Paraplane Company, Chicago, 111., the business of which is to manufacture, sell and deal in paraplanes, aeroplanes and dirigible balloons. The incorporators are: C. A. Pease, Chicago, 111.; T. C. Corwin and M. A. Noble, of New York City. The capital stock is $1,000,000.

Kimball Aeroplane Co., Lynn, Mass., $30,000, by A. G. Kimball.

The Mercurial Aeroplane and Entertainment Company, New York, to manufacture and deal in aeroplanes, to employ aviators and birdmen to give exhibitions and lecture upon the subject of aviation and to act as theatrical proprietors and managers.

Capitalized at $10,000. Directors: Oscar Gabrial, William Gabrial and Charlotte Gabrial of New Yrork City.

American Aviation Company of New York City was incorporated today for the purpose of promoting and conducting aviation meets, race contests and speed trials, also to manufacture and deal generally in airships of all kinds.

Capital, $2,000. Directors : Walter B. Davis, Julius Gottlieb and Edward Dolan of New Y'ork.

Nassau Aviation Corporation, 334 Fifth Ave., New Y'ork, to finance meet.

Aeroplane Mfg. Co. (G. W. Strommer). South Tacoma, Wash., for the building of aeroplanes.

AEHO CALEXDAIt.

Oct. II—Wilmington, Ind., Curtiss aviators. Oct. 9-15—Birmingham, Ala., Curtiss aviators.

Oct. 11-14—Albuquerque, N. M., Curtiss aviators.

Oct. 12-13—Sturgis, Mich., C. F. Willard. Oct. 12-13—Atlantic City, N. J., Curtiss aviators.

Oct. 12—Salem, N. H., Curtiss aviators. Oct. 12-14—Seneca, Kan., Curtiss aviators. Oct. 12-14—Peoria, 111., Curtiss aviators. Oct. 12-18—Macon, Ga., Curtiss aviators. Oct. 14-21—St. Louis, Mo., Wright aviators. Oct. 16—Broken Bow, Neb., Curtiss aviators.

Oct. 17-19—Raleigh, N. C, Curtiss aviators. Oct. IS—Belvidere, 111., Curtiss aviators. Oct. 19—Natchez, Miss., Curtiss aviators. Oct. 20-21—Raton, N. M., Curtiss aviators. Oct. 25-27—Garden City, Kans., Curtiss aviators.

Oct. 26-2S—Norfolk, Va., Curtiss aviators.

Oct. 25-30 -Turin, Italy, 5th Congress Permanent International Aeronautical Committee.

Nov. 14-19—Houston, Tex., Curtiss aviators. Nov. 22-23—Newburn, N. C, Curtiss aviators.

Dee. 7-12—San Juan, Porto Rico, Curtiss aviators.

.Ian. 10-12, 1912—Los Angeles, Cal., open meet; arrangements not certain.

—Dallas, Tex., J. A. D. McCurdy. -Shreveport. La., ,1. A. D. McCurdy.

HOOKS RECEIVED.

AERIAL, NAVIGATION by Albert F. Zahm, A. M., M. E., Ph. D. 8 vo., cloth, 500 pp., published at $3 net by D. Appleton & Co. Copies may be had direct from AERONAUTICS. Fully illustrated with 74 half-tone pictures and 58 other illustrations. "While the book is a popular treatise on all branches of aeronautics, it is a distinct pleasure to read it, with the consciousness that one may l ely upon what is read. It deals mainly with leading facts and principles, in a clear and simple style.

Contents are as follows: Model Flying Machine; Nineteenth Century Man-Flyers; Aeroplanes of Adequate Stability and Power; Advent of Public Flying; Strenuous Competitive Flying; Forcing the Art; Early History of Passive Balloons; Practical Development of Passive Balloons; Early Histoiy of Power Balloons; Introduction of Gasoline-Driven Dirigibles; Practical Development of Non-Rigid Dirigibles; Development of Rigid Dirigibles; General Properties of Free Air; General Distribution of Heat and Piessure; Permanent and Periodic Winds; Cyclones, Tornadoes, Waterspouts, Thunderstorms, Wind Gusts.

THE AVIATION WORLD, or Who's Who and Industrial Directory, small Svo., 319 pp. cloth, illustrated, published at 2/6 net by Aviation Woild Publishing Co., 12 Newgate St., London, E. C. In addition to containing a business directory of manufacturers of aeroplanes, motors and accessories, list of aviators in all countries, records, prizes, club lists, conversion tables, certified pilots' names, terminology, etc., there aie given the records and past performances of the principal aeroplanes, description of the well-known engines, and articles on aviation, patenting of inventions, etc.

Ill It D CONSTRUCTION COMMITTEE'S REPORT, of Aeronautical Society of Great Britain, compiled by Colonel J. D. Fullerton. Published by the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain, 53 Victoria St., S. W., London, at 10s. 6d. net. To the student of bird-flight, here is a work of remarkable value. The weights of muscles, speed of wings, and other data is given on no less than 459 different species of bird life in addition to the text.

THE LAW OP MOTOR VEHICLES, by

Berkeley Davis, of the District of Columbia Bar. 775 pp., Svo., cloth, published by Edward Thompson Company, Northport, Long Island, N. Y., at $5.00.

The chapter dealing with the Law of Aviation is, so far as we are awaie, the only extensive and complete review of this topic of the law.

The various headings in this chapter are as follows; Status of Aerial Law; Value of Early Rules and Observations; Status of Space Superjacent to Land or Water; National Ownership and Control of Space; Private Ownership of Space; Rights of Aviators to Pass over Pi ivate Property; Nature, Extent, and Incidents of Right of Passage; Regulation of Use of Aerovehicles; Power of Congress to Regulate; Civil Liability of Aviators; Liability Arising from Negligence; Vis Major and Inevitable Accidents; Liability Arising from Nuisance; Alighting on Private Land; Guille v. Swan; Articles Falling from Aerovehicles; Jurisdiction of Ciimes and Torts Committed on Aerovehicles; Jurisdiction of Federal and State Courts; Aerial Warfare.

It will be seen from the above that the subject has been covered in a very complete manner and that there is a great deal of information that an aviator might find useful on occasion.

Copies-of the Aerovehicle Bills introduced in the Legislatures of California and Connecticut are given in the Appendix.

LANGLEY MEMOIR ON MECHANICAL PLIGHT, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. Edited by Charles M. Manly. Price $2.50 in cloth and $2.25 in paper. Large

quarto volume, 320 pp., fullv illustrated with beautiful halftones and line drawings.

The present woik, as planned by the late Prof. S. P. Langley, follows his publication on "Experiments in Aerodynamics" and "Internal Work of the World" printed in 1891 and 1893 respectively.

This Memoir was in preparation at the time of Mr. Langley's death in 1906, and Part I., recording expeiiments from 1SS7 to ls96, was written by him, detailing the work up to the close of the experimental period when the first steam-driven model was flown. Part II., on experiments from 1897 to 1903, was written by Mr. Manly.

A third part of the present memoir is yet to be published, to consist largely of the extensive technical data of tests of the working of various types of curved surfaces, propellers, and other apparatus.

The work is rather technical and is of great interest to the student of aerial development, containing as it does so much valuable data íelative to a great number of models and engines, both small and large. Probably no other present-day work will be found to compare with this in value to the experimenter. The book can be had direct from AERONAUTICS, 250 West 5 4th St., New York.

PROGRESS IN CALIFORNIA.

California is an earnest rival of New York state in the number of aviators and flying fields. No less than three aviation schools are located near Los Angeles. The old Domínguez field, the scene of two big meets, is under the management of Will L. Frew and is controlled by the Aeronautical Society of California, with Earl Remington, who flies the Bleriot brought over by James Radley, as president. The Society is formed for the conduct of a school and for financing aeronautical enterpiises.

The Gage aviation field is located to the east of the city, and the Hyde Park field and and school to the west. At Domínguez are Holt, Champion and Remington. The Gage school is at its own field. At the Hyde Park field are Beryl J. Williams, Warren Eaton and the Aero Club of California. Under the observation of Professor H. La V. Twining, several aviators have now become pilots: Glenn L. Mai tin, who flew for his certificate at Santa Ana on Aug. 9; E. L. Holt at Domínguez on Aug. 23, and Beryl J. Williams at Hyde Park on August 26. These three are members of the A. C. of Calif., and others will be flying soon.

Eaton Bros. & Co., at Hyde Park, have four machines, of Curtis and Farm in types, with a couple of their design. They also have three pupils.

Professor Twining, ex-president of the A. C. of Calif., and his son Sidney have built a shed at Hyde Park and have installed their machine. An amateur meet will be held in October and an international affair in January.

At Santa Ana is another aviation field and •school, conducted by Glenn L. Martin. Martin has made a name for himself in aviation as one of the early novices to get into the air and do real flying And there are others on the Coast who have done the like.

The flying season is starting in again in earnest on the coast, and training schools are getting in shape to take care of the large number of pupils already ejirolled. Glenn L. Martin, Beryl Williams, E. L. Holt, and Fred De Kor have been making excellent flights, many times of over an hour's duration. De Kor recently flew from Santa Ana to Domínguez field, a distance of 35 miles. This is quite remarkable as he has only had a month's practice in flying. He will shortly go out for his pilot's license, and when he obtains it will be the fourth flyer in the vicinitv of Los Angeles obtaining a license with Hall-Scott equipment. E. L. Holt is flying with Hall-Scott 40 motor, installed in the

old Walsh 'plane, rebuilt. It shows some speed however, as he has been able to win out a number of times against the interurban electric cars that run near Dominguez Field. The Jay Gage School of Aviation, with a beautiful flying field located within four miles of Los Angeles, has turned out a number of successful airmen. They have been using Hall-Scott 40 power plants in the Gage headless bl-plane, a machine that has excellent efficiency, and that has carried two passengers at a tinip. They now have a 60 oower plant in addition to the 40, and are already trying it out with the throttle so arranged that it will be impossible to get more than half the power of the engine. The Aeronautical Society of California will have their training school at Dominguez, and have already established their shops, hangars, and other quarters. They have licensed French pilots for instructors, and operate with both monoplanes and biplanes. They have already enrolled a number of students for winter flying, and the five Hall-Scott power plants they have ordered will undoubtedly be kept busy.

"Ideal" .Model Catalogue.

The new catalogue of the Ideal Aeroplane & Supply Co., 82 West Droadway, New York, provides an interesting few moments even to aviation bugs themselves. Without intimate knowledge of the enormous demand for models and model supplies one is very prone to underestimate this branch of aviation. To the boy who had to work out his own propellers, power plant, and other parts from pictures but a short while ago, it must mean a world of pleasure to be able to buy propellers all beautifully made, thrust bearings, silken fabric, multiple gearing, shafts, miniature rubber-tired wheels, corer brackets, sockets, minute turnbuckles, etc. For the advanced or the model expert there come propellers in the block to be cut out to suit individual tastes and knowledge. Think of the fun of running a "Baby" engine in a model flyer of half horsepower. Even the old boys can learn something from this. This is a 2-cycle air cooled motor which turns an 18 inch propeller at 2,300 revolutions, stays cool and weighs but four pounds.

AERO MART

Positions Wanted.

1'OSITIOIV WANTED by an all around flying machine man as assistant constructor or Aviator. R. C. care Aeronautics. Oct.

Business Canl.s.

J. ED. SHERIFF, MECHANICAL ENGINEER AND INVENTOR. ORIGINAL DESIGNS A SPECIALTY. 125 WATTS ST., NEW YORK. Dec.

A EHO PHOTO COLLECTORS, Send 25c. for set No. I-A, six photographs of the leading aviators and machines.

Inter-National rhoto Specialty Co. _Revere, Mass.

WARNING. All Aviators and Owners of Aeroplanes! Beware of Cadillac, Michigan! Owing to poor condition of Fair Grounds which the Committee refused to remedy, and failure of engine at last moment, making it impossible to make a flight, the Fair Association seized and are now holding a Curtiss biplane keeping the aviator from making a living. Should you be approached for a date at this city at any future time, take warning from the experience of a brother aviator. Mart Gairens McCormack, Aviator and Owner.

AEROLANE OF THE FUTURE. Partner wanted, to invest in manufacturing of aeroplanes with plurality of gradiently arranged supporting surfaces, the fundamental idea patented in U. S. p. 876,125. Further patents pending. Will also sell my patent. Good chance for aeroplane manufacturer. Address F. VVondra, Box 834, Schenectady, N. Y.

Power Plants For Sale.

WZANI MOTOR." 12 h. p. 2 cylinder, air cooled, weight 65 lbs., complete with carburetor and coil, $150. Mack, 571 Forty-fifth St., Brooklyn. N. Y._Oct.

MOTOR, exceptionally fine, almost new, 8 cylinders, V type, 60-80 h. p., light but strong. Built this summer by well known concern. Will make price right and give terms if sold at once. W. W. Simmons, Dayton. O. Oct.

PROPELLER FOR SALE: Best grade Chelsea Aero Co. Walnut propeller. S ft. 6 in. Diam., 6 ft. 0 in. pitch. Practically new, having been used only six hours testing engine thrust. Write for particulars. Will accept any reasonable offer. A. V. Reyburn, Jr., 5305 Delmar Boul., St. Louis. Mo._Oct.

I'urniMii Type lli|i)»uc. Rebuilt.

Fine condition and without motor. Nassau, c'o "Aeronautics."

ANZANI 6 cylinder, 50-60 for sale. Lists here $2,800. Will sell at $1,600 cash. Never flown. Only run few moments. Perfect condition. Absolutely new. Good reasons for selling. Address, AERONAUTICS, 250 West 54th Street, New York.

BLERIOT XI monoplane for sale at $3,000, complete with 30-35 Viall engine. Demonstration and instruction free. Same machine that M. Lewkowicz flew over New Cork. Perfect condition. Newly covered with Goodyear fabric. Address Bleriot, care AERONAUTICS.

Engagements AVanteil— Sep.

BOOKINGS WANTED. Amedee V. Reyburn, Jr., with 100 h.p. Bleriot monoplane is now booking engagements for exhibition flights. Apply to 5305 Delmar Avenue, St. Louis, Mo._

Instruction.

THE EAGLE AEROPLANE COMPANY, Incorporated, Capital Stock $100,000. Teach Aviation and Aero-Wireless Telegraphy. Pilots, Mechanics and Motor Experts Wanted. Factory and Training Ground. P. O. Box 1174, Atlanta, Ga. Branches in Florida and California.

FRENCH motor, new, 4-cylinder, for sale. Good for biplane. Make offer. Queen Aeroplane Co., 197 St. & Amsterdam Av., New York._T.F.

Help \A anted.

FLVERS WANTED. Manufacturer booked for winter wants few men to train for aviators, $100 to $350 required. Gates, 227 Englewood Ave., Chicago, 111.

Veroplnne For Siile.

WRIGHT III PLANE for sale, Model B. In A-l condition. Best of reasons for selling. Demonstration to genuinely interested party. Neither machine nor owner is broke. Apply to W. V. D., Box 175, Patchogue. L. I., N. Y.

Oct.

Cable: Aeronautic. New York 'Phone 4833 Columbus

A. V. JONES, Pres't — — E. L. JONES, Treas'r-Sec'y ERNEST L. J0.1ES. Editor — J. C. BURKHART, Assi Editor

SUBSCRIPTION RATES

United States, S3.00 Foreign, $3.50

ADVERTISING REPRESENTATIVES: E. F. INGRAHAM ADV, CO.. 116 NASSAU st.. NEW YORK

Clifford w bean. S park so.. bos'On. Mass.

NO. 51

OCTOBER, 1911 Vol. 9, No. 4

copyright, loll. aeronautics press. inc.

Entered as second iIjss matter Seplember 22, 1S08, at the Postolfice New York, under the Ad of March 3, 1879.

CAERONAUTICS is issued on the 30th of each month All copy must be received by the 20th. Advertising pages close on the 25th. :: :: :: :: :: ::

CMake all checks or money orders free of exchange and povuble to A KRONAU TICS. Do not send currency. No foreign stamps accepted. :: :: ::

AGENTS rOR "AERONAUTICS."

NEW YORK—American News Co., 15 Park PL; Brentano's, 5th Ave. and 27th St.

ST. LOUIS—Aeronautic Supply Co., 3932 Olive St.; H. F. Mardorf, 4068 Olive St.

JERSEY CITY—A. W. Castellanos, 231 Virginia Ave.

BOSTON—I. N. Chappell, 26 Court St.; J. F. Murphy, South Terminal Station.

SAN FRANCISCO—Foster & Orear, Ferry Bldg.; San Francisco Stationery Co., 20 Geary St.; Ck-ve T. Shaffei, 331 Oct..via St.

CINCINNATI—J. R. Hawley News Co., II Arcade.

MEMPHIS—R. M. Mansford, 26 S. Main St. CHICAGO—P. O. News Co.. 178 Dearborn St.;

H. S. Renton, 49 Wabash Ave. BOISE—Rawl's, 917 Main St. PORTLAND, ORE.—S. S. Rich, 267 Morrison

St.

SALT LAKE CITY—Sheppard, the Magazine Alan.

DALLAS—S. W. Aeronautic Supply Co., 214 Main St.

LOS ANGELES—Whalen's News Agency, 233

S. Spring St.. WASHINGTON—-Brentano's.

BERLIN—W. H. Kuhl, 82 Konlggratzerstr., S.W.

PARIS—Brentano's, Place de l'Opera.

LONDON—Aeronautics, 12 Newgate St., London, E. C. Geonre 11. Scragg. Mgr.; also at the office of British Aeronautics, 89 Chancery Lane. London.

BERNE—A. Francke's Sortiment.

PLE \SE READ.

If anyone who reads this knows the present whereabouts of one A. C. Grant, he will confer a favor if he will forward us this man's address, or information as to where same may be secured, or where Grant may be found.

AERONAUTICS, 250 West 54 St., New York.

a BOARD OF INQUIRY.

The lack of fotesight and the inability to learn by hindsight is still a prominent attribute of aero clubs in this country. The fatal accident to the student Clark in a monoplane should have been made the subject of diligent inquiry by a board consisting of men qualified to act in such a capacity. Of course, it would be necessary to obtain the services of non-members but a fair-minded body ought to have no objection to getting at facts whoever they may be found. The cause of accidents is an important matter. A rigid investigation might save many lives.

The wreck of Clark's m ichlne was carted away at the same time the ambulmce took the body. No one was allowed to even photograph the aeroplane in its smashed condition. Once moved, the possibility for anything like an investigation with the expectation of results is gone.

I GENUINE f

! CURTISS !

4 CYLINDER

aeroplane!

Complete, No

I PERFECT

+

Restrictions * +

î

+ + + +

CONDITION J DEMONSTRATION |

$1450

First money wired, order,

% bank draft or certi tied check % + h»-Ids mnchine for demon- *

J strati on.

J Also Genuine Bleriot, 6 cylinder % % Anzani Engine, 20 H. P. Con- % * tinental .*. .". .'. .'. *

| USED 'PLANE DEPT. |

I AERONAUTICS j

| 250 W. 54th St., New York |

■Tl I I I I IMI 1 I I I 'I'M' II HHIIIl

Copies of all pillen* s may In* obtained for five ceuls each, by addressing the ••Commissioner of Patents, A\ nxhiiigton, IJ. C."

Manuel B. Saavedra, Habana, Cuba., 998,402, July 18, 1911. Filed Sept. 24, 1910, AUTOMATIC STABILITY by means of a pendulum mounted in the center of gravity of the machine, operating through gear and pinion arms on containing frame, which arms are connected to the elevators and ailerons, with arrangement for manually operating the rudders and ailerons, if desired.

"William X. Searcy, Silverton, Colo., 998,408, July IS, 1911. Filed March 30, 1910. SUPPORTING STRUCTURE of hollow triangular prisms, open at ends in line of flight, means for closing ends to convert device into parachute, vertical mast supporting car and power plant, gas bag in central prism.

Paul Lehmann, Schoneberg, near Berlin, Germany, 998,53S. July 18. 1911. Filed February 7. 1910. BALLOON OR DIRIGIBLE ENVELOPE of rigid exterior and non-rigid inner chamber, one of said chambers to contain the gas and means for forcing air into or exhausting it from the other chamber, whereby interior dimensions of the rigid chamber may be changed without varying external dimensions.

John C. Schleicher, Mt. Vernon, N. Y., 998,553. July IS, 1911. Filed February 28, 1910. Flying-machine, comprising balloon and means whereby same, propellers and aeroplane maybe tilted up or down, etc.

lohn C. Schleicher, Mt. Vernon, N. Y"., 998.554, July IS, 1911. Filed March 12, 1910. Flying-machine, combination of gas bag and superposed planes.

J. W. Fawkes. Burbank. Calif., 998,683, July 25, 1911. Filed Sept. 2S. 19'>9. Flying-machine consisting of hollow spherical body, with propellers top and bottom in horizontal plane, and front and rear in vertical plane.

Allen L. McKeeth. Los Angeles. Cal., assignor of one-half to "Willet B. McKeeth, of same place. 998,791, July 25, 1911. Filed March 22, 1910. A flying machine embodying a supporting- aeroplane, a basket depending from the supporting aeroplane and mounted to swing from side to side, a bracket extending upwardly above the pivot of the swinging basket, a tail plane mounted with its main rib extending through a bearing in the bracket, and a mast extending upwardly from the forward end of the swinging basket, above the pivot and connected to the. forward end of said tail plane rib, so that when the basket swings one way the tail plane will swing the other way.

John AY. Boughton, Pbila., assignors to the Boughton Flying-machine Co., 99S,834, July 25. Filed Nov. 13, 1909.

Johan R. Froberg, Goldfield, Nevada, 998.-■S44, July 25. Filed Oct. 4, 1909. DIRIGIBLE BALLOON, with retainer for compressed gas, to be let into envelope as desired, means for heating the gas.

Ernest A. Norris, Albanv. N. Y.. 998,978, July 25. Filed Oct. 12, 190S. TANDEM AEROPLANE, with wings capable of being-tilted relatively to each other for the purpose of restoring equilibrium. The 32 claims in this ptaent preclude a short synopsis.

Joseph Danziger. Chicago, 999,ol 2, July 25. Piled Mar. IS, 1910. AUTOMATIC STABILITY device, comprising movable surfaces, operated by electric current, contacts with magnetic coils being made through a movable electric conductor.

Hans von dor Oelsnitz, Pittsburg, Pa.. 999.06S. July 25, 1911. Piled May 5. 1910.

"GAS-AEROPLANE MOTOR-AIRSHIP." Dirigible balloon with planes for guidance and equilibrium, longitudinally extending ball-loonets.

Henry Flanagan, Ft. Worth, Tex., 999,105, July 25. Filed Apr. 19, 1911.

An aerial navigating apparatus comprising a frame, a longitudinally disposed open-ended shell mounted thereon, an upright shell projecting from said longitudinally disposed shell at a point between the ends thereof, said upright shell being open at its upper end and communicating with said longitudinally disposed shell at its lower end, a parachute aeroplane arranged before the upper end of said upright shell, a wind gate arranged within the longitudinally disposed shell at a point in rear of the point in communication of the upright shell therewith for controlling the amount of air flowing to said upright shell, and means for adjusting said gate.

Geo. P. N. Sadler, Attica, Ind.. 999,125. Julv 25, 1911. Filed Aug. 29, 1910. SWINGING WEIGHT for biplanes.

JUSTIN P. C. Bouscal, San Francisco, Cat, 999,149, July 25. Filed Aug. 16, 1909. HYDROAEROPLANE.

Kalman. Leon, Washington, D. C, 999,170, July 25. Filed May 4, 1911. PARACHUTE attachment for flying machines.

H. L., A. E. & H. (i. Short, of Battersea Park. London. 999.266, Aug. 1. Filed June

21, 1910. Applied to main, subsidiary or balancing- SL'RFACES, means for their automatically assuming variable curvatures. Claims cover fixed front edge, pockets in fabric for ribs, pockets for front spar ani stiffening strip at rear edge and means for elastically connecting the real- edge to a rear main spar.

C. W. Waller, Chicago, Ills.. 99'.i.27S. Aug. 1. Filed Oct. 6. 1910. FLYING MACHINE with an upper and lower plane longitti lin-ally troughed. with subjacent planes of like formation, balancing planes at side and pontoons.

Wassilv Rcbikoff, St. Petersburg. Russia. 999,337, Aug. 1. Filed March 9. 1907. VERTICAL LIFT machine, with substantially horizontal vibrating members and propellei in a vertical plane.

William W. Green. Nilcs. .Mich.. 999.448 Aug. 1. Filed Jan. 16. 1911. BIPLANE-PARACHUTE combination. Upper plane has an open bottomed tapering dome with normally folded extension, or parachute, at the top.

U. S. PATENTS ABSTRACTED

Johann Schutte, Langfuhr, near Danzig Germany, 999,469, Aug. 1. Filed July 2 1909 DIRIGIBLE ENVELOPE. Claims cover the form thereof.

George H. Sherwood, Denver, Colo., 999 -471, Aug. 1. Filed Nov. 12, 1910. So-called AIRSHIP which consists of a cigar-shaped rigid hull supported by hollow rubber ribs containing air under pressure, with oscillating wings at the sides.

Armin Helfer, New York, 999,560, Aug. 1 Filed May 6, 1910. FLYING MACHINE comprising a plurality of rotating frames, with series of rotating planes within each frame having planetary motion about the axis of the frames, revolving at slower speed than the frames.

Hans Gundersen, Fredrikshald, Norway, 999,715, Aug. 1. Filed May 31, 1911. A flying machine having attached by hinges to a body portion, oscillating wings, the apices of which describe an "S" during the upstroke and a reversed "S" on the clown stroke, making a complete figure "8" during a complete upward and downward movement of one wing.

Julius C. Christiansen, New York, 999,959, Aug. 8, 1911. Filed June 22, 1910. DOUBLE-ACTING RUDDERS. Front and rear elevators are mounted in a yoke which can turn on its longitudinal axis through an arc of 180 degrees. Wires from the operating lever are crossed to one elevator. Movement of lever forward or backward steers up or down, while if turned left or right at the same time tilts the elevating planes laterally at any desired angle from an imaginary horizontal line drawn at right angle to the line of flight.

Oscar P. Ostergren, Brooklyn, N. Y., 1,000,035, Aug. 8. Filed Mar. 7, 1911. HEADLESS BIPLANE in which lower plane is depressed at the central portion and hollow, constituting a hydroplane. The two elevations of the lower plane are connected by inclined portions. Elevators and vertical rudder at rear of longitudinal framework, with balancing plane above the framework at the rear end, capable of adjustment to various angles of incidence.

Wm. H. Stebbins and Louis Geynet, Norwich, Ct., 1,000,127, Aug. 8. Filed Oct. 20, 1910. STEERING DEVICE for aeroplanes, consisting of a shaft, and gears, which can be rotated by turning the hand-wheel, which can be rocked fore and aft, or can be rocked sideways and can do any or all of these movements at the same time, as well as steering the front wheel of the aeroplane while the latter is on the ground. It is designed for use in a machine in which the elevator (in front) is in two sections, laterally, which sections can be tilted at opposite angles for correcting lateral instability, or operated simultaneously up and down, and in connection with the usual vertical rudder.

Robert F. Gardner, Vallejo, Calif., 1.000,252, Aug. S. Filed Oct. 19, 1910. AEROPLANE in which the supporting surface is described as disposed in the direction of the line of flight, tapering from the front to the rear of the machine, said supporting surface curving transversely which curvature constantly increased from the front to the rear. Claim covered elevators, front and rear, and vertical rudder.

Henry C. Lobnitz, Cowes, Eng., 1,000,273, Aug. 8. Filed Oct. 8, 1909. PENDULUM device, swinging fore and aft and laterally, liquid filled cylinders for preventing too quick movement. Provision for substitution of platform for weight.

Dorus W. Moore, Fultonville, N. Y., 1,000,283, Aug. S. Filed July 23, 1910. STEERING DEVICE. Front horizontal rudder composed of vertical and horizontal planes, jointed at forward end to frame, vertically arranged steering wheel to which rear end of said rudder if universally jointed eccentric to the axis of said wheel. Rear rudder composed of vertical and horizontal surfaces, capable of yielding to air pressure against a coiled spring, for the purpose of limiting deflection of machine from its course.

spring mounting for motor and arm from motor acting on a buffer.

Adolphe Clement, Levallois-Perret, France, 1,000,495. Aug. 15. Filed Feb. 6, 1909. DIRIGIBLE of the semi-flexible type, with claims covering attachment of special framework and balloonet compartments.

Albert J. Lockwood, Chicago, 111., 1,000528, Aug. 15. Filed July 28, 1910. PROPELLER with series of blades bolted to a circular flange on the propeller shaft, each blade being stayed with brace rods to a collar around the shaft.

Edwin H. Skinner, Arrochar, N. Y., J,-000,560, Aug 15. Filed Apr. 4, 1910. STABILITY DEVICE for aeroplanes, consisting of series of planes pivoted about axes parallel to the line of flight; these series being located in outer sections of the lower plane of a biplane, which outer sections are upwardly and outwardly inclined. These small planes are held in their normal position by springs and may be operated to close and present an increased surface on the side of the aeroplane, which has been tiled downward, and to open further and decrease the area of the high side, by a lever, or automatically by a pendulum.

Ernest Ebbinghaus, New York, 1,000.592, Aug. 15. Filed Feb. 28, 1911. AEROPLANE comprising plurality of wings at forward end of a frame, plurality of inclined planes carried on the underside of the frame, means for moving said auxiliary planes on their pivots, tail pivotally mounted at rear of the frame adapted to automatically operate the same when machine changes from horizontal course by means of pivoted weight.

Taul Schmitt, Paris, France, 1.000,697, Aug. 15. Filed Sept. 22. 1909. LONGITUDINAL STABILITY DEVICE, in which the motors, propellers, controlling apparatus, running gear, aviator and passengers, etc., all but the planes themselves practically, are carried on a frame pivoted within the aeroplane, which system is intended to always keep the centre of gravity coincident vertically with the centre of pressure, without recourse to a tail or elevator.

William D. Burr, Willow Grove, Pa„ 1,000,711, Aug. 15. Filed May 13, 1911. The object of this invention is to so mount the power plant that the propeller or propellers may be inclined at various angles to supposedly assist in rising.

Walter H. Campkin, Fort Gaines, Ga., 1,000,714, Aug. 15. Filed May 20, 1911. DIRIGIBLE with longitudinally disposed tunnel in the gas chamber, auxiliary gas chambers parallel to the main chamber, series of air actuated ballasting devices, strata producing planes in tunnel, propelling-means in tunnel, steering means in tunnel, etc.

Adolphe Clement, Levallois-Perret, France, 1,000,494, Aug. 15. Filed Feb. 6, 1909. SHOCK ABSORBING DEVICE FOR MOTORS to save frames from vibration, comprising

A. CLEMENT.

ENGINE MOUNTING FOR AIRSHIPS.

Leon A. Hewitt, Livermore, la., assignor of one-half to Franklin E. Collins, 1,000,808, Aug. 15, 1911. Filed May 25, 1910.

A flying machine comprising' a frame formed of vertical and horizontal triangular portions, said triangular portions having a common base piece, front wheels jour-naled on said base piece, braces connecting the vertex of the horizontal triangular portion with the arms of the vertical triangular portion below the vertex thereof, a trail wheel, a horizontal balancing and steering plane universally joined with the wheel to the vertex of the horizontal triangular portion, means for vertically swinging and laterally tilting said plane, a supporting plane mounted upon the braces, a motor also mounted upon said braces, and a propeller driven by said motor.

Romeo Wankmuller, Charlottenburg, Ger-manv. assignor to Ruf tverkehrs-Gesell-schaft m. b. H., 1,000,865, Aug. 15. Filed Feb. 9, 1911. DIRIGIBLE, comprising combination of main car and auxiliary cars suspended from body of balloon, means for varying height of auxiliary cars as regards that of the main car, rigid link connecting the auxiliary cars to the main car.

Thomas M. Crepar, Dilworth, Minn., 1,000,897, Aug. 15. Filed June 21, 1910. AEROPLANE whose planes have a plan view in the shape of a fish, with central openings in the planes, and series of vanes disposed in the openings.

998,295, Julv 18, Christopher John Lake. Superposed wedge shaped SURFACES.

1,000,999. Aug. 22, O. A. Danielson & L. R Jones. PROPELLER .attachment to shaft.

1,001,143, Aug. 22, O. Kattenhorn, Flexible OSCILLATING, WINGS.

1,001,120, Aug. 22, J. A. Bloedin. Vertical STABILIZING PLANES.

1,001,123, Aug. 22, A. M. Collins, SWINGING SEAT to operate ailerons.

1,001,160, Aug. 22. P. A. Otto. Combination MONOPLANE-HELICOPTER.

1,001,185, Aug. 22, A. M. Zimmer. SUPPORTING SURFACE which absorbs shocks from gusts of wind.

1,001,223, Aug. 22. P. Schneider. VIBRATORY SUPPORTING SURFACES.

1,001,291, Aug. 22, A. McKenzie. Flexible-bladed PROPELLER.

1.001,309, Aug. 22, Y. Rolland. AUTOMATIC STABILITY device consisting of sliding shutters to vary the areas of surfaces automatically through valves and pistons actuated by a sliding weight.

1,001.332, Aug. 22, V. C. De Ybarrondo. PROPELLER mounting on universal joint.

1,001,721, Aug. 29, S. D. Wheeler. AIRSHIP propelling device.

1,001,849, Aug. 29, P. C. Hopkins. HELICOPTER, with propellers movable in various planes.

1.001,918, Aug. 29, F. L. Bartelt. PROPULSION device of parallel rotating surfaces winded with collapsible air pockets.

1,001,941, Aug. 29, V. T. Fleiss. Front and rear ELEVATORS working in combination.

1,001,956, Aug. 29, A. B. Holson. Combination of two PROPELLERS to avoid affect of torque.

•1,001,995, Aug. 29, J. Schutte. Inflatable elements of an Al USHTP.

1.002,002, Aug. 29, H. L., A. E. & H. O. Short. Resisting surfaces on front edge of supporting planes, capable of movement about a pivot to alter the lifting effect of either side to obtain LATERAL BALANCE. Various forms of the device are claimed.

1.0112,007, Ana-. 29. A. F. W. Maeinamis. AUTOMATIC STABILITY device, comprising propellers in a horizontal plane under wing tips, and elsewhere, set in motion or stopped automatically by making and breaking of electric circuits through the action of a pendulum.

1,002,093, Aug. 29, I f. Thoden. Flying machine with FLAPPING SHUTTERS.

1,002,1 1 1, Aug. 29, B. R. Alexander. Four superposed supporting surfaces hinged at entering edge and capable of CHANGE in ANGLE of incidence during flight at will.

H. L., A. E, & H. 0. SH0ET

1074-

1,002,138, Aug. 'V,,, \\\ c. Culbertson. AUTOMATIC STABILITY device in which engine, operator, etc., are below the supporting planes in a pivotallv hung car. 1,002,171, Aug. 29, J. D. Mills, TOY. 1,002,203, Aug. 29, B. T. B. Hyde & A. Gaul, Jr. Vertical keels for STABILITY.

1,002,323, Sept. 5, J. C. Schleicher. RUDDERS. 1,002,516, Sept. 5, W. C. Henderson. Plur-alitv of rotating FEATHERING blades. 1,002.52S, Sept. 5, N. R. Lamb. HELICOP-

TER.

1,002,532, machine.

1.002,674 BALANCE porting surfaces each side of the

Sept. 5, W. D. Lindsley. Flyin?

Sept. 5, J. A. Goodwin. LATERAL device. Swinging panels in sup-and in vertical panels at main cell.

1,002,682, Sept. 5, A. Haidin. A1RSHTP.

1,002,703, Sept. 5, H. A. King, PROPELLERS, turning in opposite direction.

1,(102,724, Sept. 5, G. F. A. McDougall Novel MONOPLANE.

1,002,908, Sept. 12, O. L. Dunton. Sustaining surfaces adapted to be deflected in opposite directions by inequalities in air movements or manually so operated.

1,003,162, Sept. 12, A. O. Paulson. The use of Box Kite formation for SUSTAINING SURFACES.

1,003,459, Sept. 19, L. B. Holland. Means for swinging the vertical surfaces of machines of Voisin type about a diagonal turning so as to assist in banking.

RODGERS BREAKS ALL RECORDS

Bc;\ts Atwood Record

New York. October 13.—Cal P.Rodgorshas reached Kan ■ sas City, Mo., on his al templed flight from New York lo the Pacific Coast. 1 Ic left on September 17 in a new S> foot KX one-man Wright biplane, wilh extra large fuel and oil tanks. I le has broken every exist ing record for long disbuice continued Hying. Ilis distance to this place measured in straighl lines from place lo place totals 1311 miles. Ilis actual route was considerably longer.

Holicrl Oi. Fowler slartcd from the Coast on September 11 and got only as far as Colfax, Cal., 1 >l miles by the 23d. where he is still located, l-'owler used a standard Model li Wrighl, with exlra large tanks, .lames .1. Ward, in a Cuiliss, stalled from New York on September 13 and got to Addison, N. Y'., a distance of J>1 miles in straight lines, where lie gave up the trip.

All slartcd for the I learst $.50,000 prize under the im pression I hat it was only necessary to start before Oct. 10 and finish in 30 days, with compulsory slop at Chica go. However, alter they slartcd it was made plain I hat I he trip must be finished by the loth of October so after all I he compel itors had gone lo all the trouble of starling they learned they had noeliaucc.

Uy Cleve T. Shaffer.

IT isn't what is the matter with aviation, its rather what is hindering aviation, it isn't aviation that has the hook worm, its those from whom aviation should get its natural support, namely the capitalist or investor, and the wealthy young man. I think this should be transposed: the wealthy young man being placed first, because if the sportive young fellow who has the means to gratify his desires in automobiles, polo ponies, motor boats, etc., would show enough interest in this most glorious sport to relieve the suspicion that his courage is wanting by ordering an aeroplane, the business so derived would embolden the timid investor and the consequent competition in the manufacture of aeroplane and engines would stop the present profit of three or four hundred per cent, being made particularly in motors, and bring the price down to a proper level.

The high price of motors is the greatest factor against the development of aviation.

With motors at a figure where a legitimate profit is made, thousands of people now interested will build or buy machines for the sport that is now denied them. Who can doubt that with thousands r ^>-e minds at work tabulating results from oneir own active experience, improvements and safeguards will oe developed which in turn will lure hundreds of thousands of the more timid to the delights of the sport.

Public apathy and distrust, one of the hin-derances, is due to a number of causes, primarily however, to the featuring by the newspapers of every death as an inherent iault of aviation, rather than a mechanical accident liable to happen in any mechanism, or as a result of attempting foolhardy stunts, which if tried in a corresponding manner any other sport would end likewise.

Fake stock companies, immature inventors with freak ideas of absolute impracticability (note nine-tenths of patents granted); half baked "aviators" attempted exhibitions, and poorly managed "meets" have taken so much money from the public purse that aviation investments, however well presented or legitimate, are looked upon askance.

The lack of proper standards, difference of opinion among so-called experts, and absence of authentic and reliable text books is confusing to the layman as is the puerile and aimless copy in some of the aero magazines.

Lastly if all those in the "game" would stop knocking there would be no need to ask the above question.

THE CUKE FOR AVIATION' l!y Anthony II. Jniinns

IN view of the many courteous explanations, apologies and huzzas published under the head of "What's the Matter with Aviation." 1 am prompted to contribute the following as my estimation of the present situation from a manufacturing standpoint.

Nearly every experimental machine produced in this country has been the result of a "gleam of light" entering the builder's brain, and he has set about building a full-sized, very expensive, and usually unsuccessful model, or muddle. Obviously the thing most needed was exact knowledge. This would construe that the present methods are unscientific and that is exactly what I mean. The best evidence of this is that ninety-nine of every hundred builders of "first machines" do not know how to fly their machines after they are completed.

Nevertheless, many of these builders have survived and are now earning money by giving exhibitions or by catering to the ever-increasing crop of fledglings who are impregnated with the same germ which infected us all. Still others are teaching pupils, and for these there is much hope. But let me offi-

ciate as a cost expert and ask a few questions, or rather suggest some questions which the indulgent reader will ask himself.

Let us consider upon what the profits in the exhibition business depend. Alas! upon what one or two definite things does this depend? One should secure good grounds, a good contract price, easy contract requirements and then burn incense to the weather God. This is the province of the booking-agent. The manufacturer should have a good flying aeroplane, with a careful aviator and good mechanicians. And here arises the question—what is a good machine? How much does it represent as an investment to be risked in attempting to fill the contract? How much does it cost to take it apart, pack it, transport it to the aviation field, and assemble it? Many exhibitors have been staring at a loss when this point had been reached.

In the exhibition profits to come saving in these bills will determine a profit or a loss and, with competition increasing, this part of the situation must be even moie and more keenly studied. The mere ability to fly is no longer any recommendation. It has been the writer's experience that great numbers of machines, built by ignorant builders would fly when completely manned. Obviously, ready crating and assembly are necessary, and they go hand in hand with ease of repair and replacement.

With the above observation granted it becomes evident that standardization is now imminent. That which facilitates exhibition profits does likewise for profits in teaching, manufacturing, and the sale of parts. An aeroplane manufactured of standardized parts could be catalogued in a four-page booklet with every part photographed and priced. With such a catalogue to refer to, customers would hardly trouble to have the village carpenter help him rebuild a damaged plane; it would be too expensive. Nor does standardization confine itself to one type, size, power-plant, running-gear, carrying-capacity, control or number of planes.

1 have worked out on the drawing-board, first a biplane, which reveals positively the simplicity and facility of standardization. Were I to build a single machine, in a hurry, this system would be the best. Nothing is sacrificed; everything gained. I venture to say that not one in every hundred of the "types" produced in this country has been completely drafted before the machine has been finished.

Such methods are unpardonable in the face of the growing competition; in fact, suicidal, for he who first produces machines that are simple and built-up of a few standard units will have the trade, once his product is demonstrated satisfactorily. Furthermore, the old saying "an hour on the drawing board saves a week in the shop" is just as applicable to aeroplanes as to any other engineering-problem in the world.

The Maximotor Makers, Detroit, report their 1911 engine product sold out. The 1912 engine will be ready after some little time.

American capital is either headlong and misdirected or is absolutely uninterested.

James V. Martin.

Leo Stevens has bought the Wright biplane of Harold H. Brown.

/ read monthlies concerning aeronautics in German and French, but I find yours the most interesting ami up-to-date. Frank Thai,man.

your magazine is a veritable mine of information lo anyone interested in uerial navigation.

llEU. 111' NT.

WHAT'S THE MATTER WITH AVIATION?

THE EFFECT

OF COLOR ON

Ily Prof. II. LaV. Twining.

AEROPLANES

IN THE September number of AERONAUTICS, Mr. R. F. Patterson had an interesting article upon the effect of color on aeroplanes. His observations and surmises there are scientifically correct. The only question that we need to raise is as to whether the effect observed is of any practical consequence. Mr. Patterson states that he had to remove a whole nandful of sand after fifteen minutes to restore the equilibrium occasioned by the heating effect upon three-foot square or upon nine square feet of surface. This experiment was conducted in still air. A large handful of sarid will weigh about .17 pounds.

In an uidlnary Ourtlss biplane there would be in the neighborhood of three hundred square feet. This will give a reaction of 55 pounds. If the aeroplane were made of black cloth, and the sun were shining directly upon all of this surface a downward reaction of 55 pounds would be developed upon the upper surfaces of the biplane, provided the machine wrere standing still in still air. In practice neither of these conditions are realized.

On account of the high speed with which the aeroplane is driven through the air the surfaces would be kept cool. Probably only a little more than half of the surface would be exposed to the sun and the maximum reaction would be. reduced to 30 pounds at least on this account, and this 30 pound reaction due to heating effect of the sun would be reduced to practically zero on account of the motion of the aeroplane through the air.

The vanes of the radiometer are caused to revolve by the reaction of the molecules of rarefied air in the bulb. The vanes are mounted upon frictionless bearings in a glass bulb from which the air has been pumped, leaving a vacuum. The light striking on the blackened sides of the vanes heats them, but white sides of the vanes reflect the light and remain cool. The molecules of air that still remain in the vacuum acquire motion when they strike the black side, but do not acquire any more motion, when they rebound from the white side, than they had before striking. The molecules that rebound from the black side get their additional motion from the heated black material. It must be remembered that

heat is a molecular motion. The molecules in rebounding from the black side thus kick back against the vane harder than the ones that rebound from the white side and hence the vanes are driven away from the black side. The rays do not cause resistance, but they cause a greater reaction on one side than on the other. If the air be all pumped out of the bulb, the vanes will remain stationary when immersed in the light. If no air be pumped out they will not run owing to the great resistance of the air.

In the heat of the day, the air is very much expanded owing to the heat of the sun, but early in the morning or late in the evening, the air is denser and consequently heavier. This has nothing to do with the moisture in the air. On a clear day in a hot sun the air may be saturated with moisture. It will then be heavier than on a damp, cool day, because the moisture is dissolved in the air and it is then a part of the air. On a cool damp day the moisture is not dissolved in the air but on the contrary it is a state of suspension. The air is thus lighter on a dull day so far as its pressure on the barometer is concerned, because the water is in suspension instead of being dissolved. The water when dissolved adds the pressures due to its molecular motions to the pressure of the atmosphere, and the contrary is true when in a state of suspension.

Thus on a cool-cloudy day the air is lighter so far as the effect of moisture is concerned and heavier so far as the absence of heat is concerned. The resultant weight is a combination of these two factors.

The rise and fall of the barometer is thus effected by both of these factors, and the ease with which an aeroplane can obtain its reactions will aso be affected by them.

In conclusion we are safe in assuming that anything that keeps the planes cool will prevent this reaction, and the rapid movement of the machine through the air, constantly bringing fresh air in contact with the plane, will keep it cool. The effect observed on the stationary surface is an accumulated effect, because it takes time for the black surface to heat. In the case of the moving machine the heat will be removed as fast as formed.

FLIGHTS TOO MANY TO RECORD

Hundreds of flights are being made every day all over the country, from short hops to little cross-country flights of five and ten and even more miles. It is obviously impossible to chronicle these; and it woulu serve no good purpose to do so. We do not get up at daybreak now to see a short straightaway flight as we did in 1909.

The centers of flying, like the Hempstead Plains in the East, St. Louis and Chicago in the Middle West, Los Angeles and San Francisco on the Pacific Coast, are the scenes of flights far too numerous to keep track of. It is a humiliating observation to make that most of the machines that are flying are copies of two or three well-known types of such lines as to make more or less imperfect duplicates look like the real thing. Few original 'planes of any make are in the hands of private owners or doing exhibitions, save by the makers themselves. There is all the chance in the world to work on original lines.

There are sixty or more licensed pilots in the country now and a modest estimate of flyers entitled by virtue of accomplishments would be not less than a hundred. Outside of machines furnished by manufacturers to their own aviators, one wo iId be safe

in saying there are not a dozen American made aeroplanes in the hands of sportsmen or exhibition flyers.

The Curtiss, Wright, Moisant, McCurdy-Willard, and the smaller concerns that have sprung into being are daily filling the air with the buzz and roar of engines, filling the hundreds of contracts at fairs, festivals, exhibitions and the like. There are no less than thirty or forty fliers filling "dates" this Fall in every country of the United States and still there seems to be a field. The remuneration has dropped very much from last year but there is still profit, unless an aviator smashes up, can not get a machine quickly, and has to cancel a long string of dates. The Curtiss Company, to illustrate the demand, is continually turning down contracts even with half a score of aviators, or turning them over to someone else.

The daily papers now mention nothing but deaths—God knows there are too many— and extraordinary feats. One must not get the impression because he sees little about flying in the papers and aeronautical journals that there is none being done. There's too much to print.

THE death of Professor John J. Montgomery during a series of gliding experiments on October 31, l'JIl, was a distinct blowr to a large number of people who anticipated some very interesting developments within the near future, It took three hours to get a doctor to him and he breathed his last as the physician came in sight over the hills of Evergreen, Calif., where the flights were being made. At the top of a hill a runway had been constructed of grooved tracks in which the wheels of a monoplane glider ran. The report is that a little whirlwind caught the machine and clashed it head-on to the ground. Professor Montgomery landed on his right hip and head. He did not believe himself seriously hurt and talked with his year-old bride in the tent. He complained of pains in his back and continued to grow worse until he died.

During the past year he had associated with him Victor Eougheed and James E. Plew, of Chicago, and was expecting shortly to bring out a power machine. A wonderful engine has been in course of construction for many months under the eye of the author Uougheed. All work was being kept very secret and no one has even seen anything of the machine in course of construction. Up to his death and for a great many years he had been an instructor at Santa Clara College, Santa Clara, Calif.

In view of Professor Montgomery's claim to the use of warped surfaces between 1SS3 and 1SSG and the building of his present machine to demonstrate his theories, it may be of interest to know what his claims are. as stated by himself at a talk given before The Aeronautical Society last April. His talk was taken in shorthand at the time by this magazine exclusively and afterward corrected by Professor Montgomery himself.

His remarks are published below for the first time.

BY PllOF. JOII.V J. MOXTGOMKUV,

"My first practical experiments commenced about 1SS3 and were continued until 1SS6. The first machines which I attempted to build were of the flapping order, hoping to rise from the ground by some flapping movement. I built three of these machines without any indication of success with man power.

"Giving this up for the time, I turned my attention to the study of gliding, hoping to solve some of the mysteries of the phenomenon of soaring.

"The first machine that was constructed was modeled after the gull's wing—-following it blindly, going against my reason in the matter but following Nature. The wings of birds, as you know, are curved and if properly placed at a small angle to the wind, or to the direction of movement, the front surface is inclined down. This was a stumbling block to me.*

"The first experiments with this crude device were a success. The apparatus measured 20 feet spread and an average depth, fore and aft, of 4y2 feet. I took this apparatus to the top of a hill, facing a gentle wind. There was a little run and a jump and I found myself launched in the air. I proceeded against the wind, gliding down hill for a distance of about 600 feet. In this experience I was able to direct my course at will.

SENSATIONS OF SOARING. "A peculiar sensation came over me. The first in placing myself at the mercy of the wind, was that of fear. Immediately after came a feeling of security when I realized the solid support given by the wing surface— and the support was of a very peculiar nature. There wkas a cushiony softness about it, yet it was firm. When I found the

♦See AERONAUTICS, October 190S to January 1509.

machine would follow my movements in the seat for balancing, I felt 1 was self-buovant.

"This experience led to what is now a very important question, one that is agitating the whole country, the question of wing-warping.

THE BIRTH OF WARPING.

"Wing-warping was born at this moment. T say this, because it is important in the study of aeronautics to have the problems thoroughly fixed. I commenced then to study the question of control of the machine. You will notice from what 1 have said that the first machine I made was successful as a glider. That is, it had great power because I blindly followed the surface provided by Nature. It was defective in its equilibrium or control. I went to Nature to study the principle of control. I watched the movements of the vultures and detected in their actions the twisting- of the wing. That gave the solution. Then I resumed" my work. T was not able to build the wing as the bird's is built, so resorted to the first simple device. But, also, while I followed the principle of equilibrium as presented in Nature, I departed from the form of surface because it seemed unreasonable that the wing should be inclined downward at the front.

"Therefore, the second machine was made with flat surfaces. In 1SS5 I built the second machine, somewhat larger than the one previous and to afford side equilibrium each wing was hinged diagonally. This diagonal hinge allowed the 'flaps' thus formed to yield to undue pressure on either side. These flaps were held by springs in a normal position. If the wind pressure became excessive on one side, the flap of that wing would yield up a little.

"But, in addition to the spring, I had a saddle which was so constructed that by leaning to one side or the other the rear portion of the wing would yield on the respective side (the saddle had an upright piece and this was attached by wires running to the rear portions of the wing). If a gust of wind came from the left and I wished to relieve that side my only inclination would be to lean to the left, and vice versa.

"T found that when I took that machine and faced the wind that its equilibrium was perfect, that is, I found no conditions under which I could not control it so it would not upset me, a thing I could not do with the first machine. When I attempted to glide I found its power of gliding was far inferior to that of the first. Immediately 1 concluded I had not found the right surface.

"Then T built the third machine. In this machine, in a way, I copied Nature in regard to surface and, in a way, I departed from it. The wings were formed more or less like those of the soaring vulture, with this exception. T could not bring myself to the belief that the surface curved down in the front was the proper surface. Therefore, I compromised by turning the front edge up a little and the rest of the wing was more or less like that of the vulture. The two wings were placed at a dihedral angle.

WARPING IN A DIFFERENT WAY.

"Now in this machine 1 carried out the warping principle in a different way. There was a lateral beam along the front of the wings. These two beams were capable of being rotated in a socket in the frame extending backward to the tail. Wires from the rear of each wing ran to levers, one for each wing, placed at the right and loft hands of the operator, who sat on a sent as in the other machines. By these levers I could bring both wings down together, or independently. That machine was perfect in control. Whether the wind was regular or gusty I had the machine under control by changing the angles of the wings. This had larger surface even than the second but was inferior in lifting power.

DEATH OF PROFESSOR JOHN J. MONTGOMERY

tt

i

/094-

Ju£.

A view of the aeroplane just as the hot air

balloon was cut loose. To get the best idea,

hold this illustration OVER the head and look upward.

"Immediately I found I did not have the proper form of surface as it did not have the same lifting; power under the same conditions as the first machine.

"The account I have just given I gave to the Chicago Congress in 1893 and is more briefly stated in Mr. Chanute's book 'Progress in Flying Machines.' He describes the experiments and the machines. From this you will see that warping of surfaces is not a new question.

"P.ut I was not at all satisfied with my work because 1 was floundering in the darkness, didn't know where to turn in order to determine a true surface. It was all mystery to me.

I concluded we knew little or nothing of aerodynamics, for I had searched the books and read magazines and papers for suggestions.

THE half circle noticed on the machine is movable horizontal surface with fixed vertical fin.

Taken in May, 1905, and reproduced from the January, 1909, issue of "Aeronautics."

"I took the machine apart and commenced at the bottom to study if possible the laws of aerodynamics and determine the proper form of surface to give such phenomena as the soaring of birds.

"In 1885 or 1SSG, I constructed a whirling table. This consisted of a couple of rails fastened together and mounted on a pivot. On the end of this 1 fastened surfaces of different forms and whirled the table so as to study the movements of these surfaces. I no sooner had commenced than 1 detected a peculiar phenomenon which suggested there was something taking place in advance of the surface. In order to test this 1 resorted to a number of experiments, particularly one which I described to the Chicago Congress in 1S9;}. I had my brother scatter thistle-down in the wind so as to detect the direction of the wind. Having done this I took a large

barn door and set it on the ground at an angle of about ten degrees. Immediately I noticed a reaction on the wind in front. Instead of the wind coming in a straight line it came in a gradual curve and rose to strike the surface, indicating that the surface had an action on the wind in front of it. Then 1 readily saw the reason for the curving of the surface of a bird's wing. I made this known to the Chicago Congress and also a series of studies relative to the forms of bird's wings, the ratio between weight carried and the curvature of a bird's wing. Mr. Chanute and Dr. Zahm were much interested in my work and gave me such encouragement that i continued and completed the whole series, but owing to various circumstances was not able to publish the results.

"In 1903 I was able to commence my investigations again and having discovered some of the fundamental laws I was able to put them into practice in the machines which 1 built.

"These were built strictly on the lines of science. I simply studied my own figures and made the first model. These were tested in vaiious ways. 1 stretched a cable between two hills -so that it was 150 ft. high above the valley. With cords 1 would elevate these models and liberate them in all possible ways, upside down, tail down, and every conceivable manner. They would glide safely to the ground no matter how they were liberated. In these I simply used the warping idea which I had developed in 1SS5 and 1SS6.

"After 1 found these models were perfect in their equilibrium and would follow any direction that 1 chose by giving them the proper warping-, 1 built a large machine patterned exactly after them. I did not change one iota from the plans which I had drawn after studying my own papers following out the theory.

"In order to make the test practical with the large machines, in 1904 I took them down to the mountains about 100 miles below Santa Clara to San Juan and with the assistance of three cowboy friends I performed a scries of experiments. I elevated these between poles

on a cable and dropped them with and without weight. Finding- them perfect I got in and with a running jump glided down the hill. A peculiar thing I found was that it would respond very rapidly to a change of the wind. I discovered this very unexpectedly. The long hill which I was in the habit of using had at its base a sort of canyon or a swale. At the top of the hill the wind came in the direction that I faced. Below it blew up the canyon directly at right angles to the wind above. I was gliding down the hill when quick as a tlash 1 was whirled at right angles to the first wind but was not upset.

"Then 1 attempted to give a series of exhibitions and develop the machine further. For that purpose 1 secured a hot air balloon man and parachute jumper. I was anxious to commence the experiments of raising a man in the air and dropping him short distances for the first flights. But my parachute jumper had his own ideas. He insisted upon being raised at least 1,000 ft. high the first time. It was an ordeal for me. But there was nothing left for me to do. I either had to give up or let him go up.; So I made the adjustments with my machine in such a way that it was impossible for him to get control of the machine and make a mistake and hurt himself. There was certain clamps that controlled the tail and wings that gave him limited action.

GLIDING FROM 1,000 PERT HEIGHT. "So he went up a thousand feet, cut loose and made the first time a very beautiful glide. Then the second time I gave him a little more liberty and be made probably one of the finest glides I ever saw.

GLIDES FROM 3,000 FEET. "He went up about 3.000 ft. in the mountain regions of Santa Cruz. As he cut loose from the machine, he lost his direction. We told him to come back to the starting point. He started to fly towards a distant city. In five or six minutes he detected his mistake, turned round and started to fly towards us, and in coming towards us he passed through two

/09S

Montgomery glider, showing the stirrups or cross-bar warping, suspended from a cable

stretched between poles, for experiments IN gliding.

or three clouds. This was a beautiful sight. Finally, lie came back near the point of starting. He could not make the exact point for he had lost a great deal of elevation in making his flights and there was an intervening forest of tall trees which h.e did not like to try crossing without good headway, so he made a circle and came to the earth.

"After that f continued my experiments at Santa Clara."

DEATH OF M ALONE Y.

"In 1905, one of my riders (Maloney) was killed. Hot air balloons rise very quickly and it was necessary to provide some means for retarding the upward rush. This was effected by ropes running through rings. In Maloney's last flight, one of these ropes caught in part of the machine. "We called out to Maloney that the aeroplane was broken but evidently he did not hear. When he got up about 3,000 ft. high he cut loose, the machine turned over and he descended with the machine upside down. He did not seem to be going any faster than a man dropping in a parachute. When we got to him the machine was broken and he was senseless. Six physicians examined him; found no mark on him except a scratch on the head from a wire. The physicians concluded he had heart trouble. There was no blood and no bones broken.

"I continued to build other aeroplanes giving other exhibitions until the San Francisco earthquake. This wrought such a disaster that 1 had to turn my attention to other subjects and let the aeroplane rest for a time."

Montgomery's patent, filed in ll»05 and granted 1906. number S31.173 may be had upon application to the Commissioner of Patents, Washington, D. C.

The Alpine death roll for 1911 shows 115 persons killed and 37 injured.

Aviation can not claim this in all its history.

Death of Eugene Ely.

Eugene B. Elv, one of the very best American fivers was killed in an exhibition flight at the" Macon (Ga.), fair on October 19th, in making one of his sensational dives under power. He had always been known as a very conservative flyer and only lately had taken up sensational "stunts."

Ely started flying one of the very first Curtiss machines ever put out, the one sold

to Henry Wemme, of Portland, Ore. After making a number of exhibition flights with his machine, he joined the Curtiss Exhibition Company and has flown in every part of the United States. In November, 1910, he flew from the deck of the cruiser Birmingham, in Norfolk, Va., to the land. In January last, he flew from the aviation field at San Francisco to the deck of a battleship, landing on an inclined platform. He flew from this platform on his return trip to the field. Ely demonstrated the Army's Curtiss aeroplane during his maneouvres at San Antonio, Tex. Ely was 26 years old. He leaves a young widow, a native of San Francisco.

Ely was using a headless Curtiss, with the rear elevator increased in size over the normal when both front and rear ones are used in combination. Though there is plenty of control without the front elevator for ordinary purposes, the elevator of a headless does not respond so quickly as the two and it is possible that either Ely waited too long before straightening out or that the wind velocity changed close to the ground and he dropped further than he expected. Curtiss flyers are doing nearly all the exhibition flying this fall in this country; the machines are fast and particularly adapted to spectacular work; and aviators will get reckless. By sticking to "straight flying" Ely's death would have been avoided. Cromwell Dixon started his flight' from a place utterly unsuitable for flying in his endeavor to "make good" regardless of conditions. "Avoidable" might be applied in both these instances.

The Aero Club of California paid its tribute to the memory of Eugene Ely in a resolution of its Board of Directors on October 24th.

DEATHS ABROAD. Rheims, Oct. 14. R. Level (Savary Biplane) was killed.

Hamburg, Germany, Oct. 21. H. Tacks (Tacks monoplane) was mortally injured and died a few hours later.

Berne, Switzerland, Oct. 14. Captain Jean Schmidt (Bleiiot), a Swiss army officer, killed in meet.

Rheims, France, Oct. 27. Jean Desharmet was killed flying a military machine.

After looking over your publication, it scents to in c Unit this maguziueshould be of great value to anyone wishing to keep informed on developments along this line.—JxVmes G. Hunt.

AEItO Pl.lll EXPOSITION.

An international aeronautic exposition will be held by the A. C. A. the week of May 9th in the new Grand Central Palace, New York. An agreement has been reached with the owners of the Palace for a term of five years, during which time the club has the exclusive use of this building for aeroplane shows. An emissary has been to Europe to obtain the exhibits of representative foreign manufacturers and will be in position to offer entry free of duty, the Palace people having arranged for blanket bonding.

It is the idea of the club to foster the industry by means of shows until such time as the trade is organized and capable of conducting its own expositions.

Charles .1. Yunk and Nathan Binder have been conducting a correspondence school known as the National Academy of Aviation at Detroit, Mich. Albert F. Butterfield, desirous of learning the art of Hying, matriculated in the school. He is still unable to soar through space and asks the local Justice for the return of $275.50 he claims he has coming.

The entire student body of the "school" was on hand as witnesses.

One of them said he had spent much lime In the school nights when he should have been at home with his wife. According to witnesses, students were to be taught the

construction of the machines, which, when completed, were to be used in the first lessons in flying. Testimony was adduced to show that the first lessons were not given because the students never finished a machine.

Butterfield asks in addition to the return of his tuition fees a salary of $20 per week for time spent in the school as an assistant professor of aviation. He claims he was guaranteed a position at the close of his college career.- Detroit News.

viono c\i,

Nov. 14-19—Houston, Tex., Curtiss aviators 16-1S—Atlanta, Ga., Curtiss aviators 21-22-—Austin, Tex.. Curtiss aviators 21-22—Salisbury, N. C, 1 aviator " 22-23- New Bern, N. C, Curtiss aviator 24-25 Chattanooga, Tenn., Curtiss aviators

24-25—Savannah, Ga.. Curtiss aviators

25 Borne, Ga., Curtiss aviator 29-30 —Spartenburg, S. C. 2 aviators 3D—Winston-Salem, N. C, 2 aviators Dec. 7-12 San Juan, P. R., Curtiss Aviator Jan. —Los Angeles, A.C.C. meet

Mexico City, Moisant aviators at presidential inauguration; later touring Central America.

1912—Inlcrnational Exposition. Vienna May. 9-1S. 1912—Show at Grand Central Palace, Aero Club of America.

AERONAUTICS

November, 191 1 November, 1911

CLUB NEWS

COLLIER HEADS A. C. A.

The Aero Club of America held its annual election Nov. 13th, Robert J. Collier was lelected president to succeed Allan A. Ryan, with J. A. Blair, Jr., Maj. Samuel Reber, Harold F. McCormick and H. A. W. Wood [vice-presidents in the order named.

The number of directors has been increased Ifrom 20 to 24, to include sixteen non-resi-ident governors and eight resident or nonresident. The sixteen governors have been Imade up from presidents of affiliated aero Iclubs since the National Council, which was Iheaded by Robert J. Collier, has become lost, •strayed or stolen.

A new section has been added to the By-Laws by -which the failure four times in succession of any of the eight "Class A" directors to attend directors' meetings without per-inission is considered as resignation. This is designed to limit these eight to live ones knd eliminate the drones. The office of Consulting Engineer has been abolished and a (fourth vice-presidency takes its place. The luctive work of the directors will now be pone by an Executive Committee of seven members, which has all the powers of the board of directors, when the board is not fn session.

The club-year is the most successful and prosperous the Club has ever known. During its course the individual membership has grown from 390 to 540, say an increase in a Tingle twelvemonth of nearly 40%. The afrili-hted clubs now number twenty-four and have phown greater activity and a more earnest support of the Club than in any previous year. The number of aviation pilot's certificates granted by the Club is now 74 as against 26 on October 31st. 1910.

The acquisition of the Club-house, the finest aero-club-house in existence and the only affording its members living rooms and restaurant service has' proved an unqualified success, fully justifying the opinion of those members who urged it for some time past. The attendance is increasing almost daily.

The granting of aviation pilot's certificates has been systemized so that applicants can pass their tests all over the country under the supervision of the A. E. C. A.'s special delegates.

The Club proposes to hold an aeronautic show in the near future, fashioned after the successful Paris salons and has already entered into negotiations in the matter.

Monday nights have been set aside as "club nights" and members are beginning to meet at the club for dinner and informal talks. On November 1st a semi-formal dinner was held, attended by a hundred members and guests, inaugurating a series of monthly dinners.

The Vrrn Club of Connecticut during the past month gave its members and their friends the opportunity of a short flight with aviator A. L. Welsh, of the Wright company, at the Lake Aerodrome in Bridgeport. A Wright model B machine was put at the disposal of the club for the sum of $1500, which was guaranteed by the club. The members were charged $30 a flight and some twenty-seven flights were made with entire success. This is the second club in the country to attempt to have its members become familiar with aviation to the extent of making it possible for them to obtain rides, the other instance being the club in Detroit.

The Salt Lake City \ero Club is in process of organization. Four men, Robert N. Campbell, J. Frank Judge. Lewis B. McCornick and G. Ray Walker are prime movers. The six ascensions made in the big balloon bought

from the French-American Balloon Company have stirred up a lot of interest and it is planned to keep the balloon in use taking up members' parties. Correspondence may be addressed to Mr. Campbell, Walker Bank Building, Salt Lake City, Utah.

The Aero Club of Pennsylvania listened to president A. T. Atherholt's description of his trip in the international balloon race at a meeting held October 20.

The Aeronautical Society continues to hold well attended bi-monthly meetings. The October 12th meeting was made very interesting by the short but vivid experiences of Messrs. Dyott and Martin. F. C. Dawson, president of the company handling duralumin, told of the properties of the new light metal and the purposes for which it is adapted, giving each member as a souvenir a paper-cutter made of this material. John J. Cutter, lately returned from Europe, told of the wonderful activity abroad. Basil V. Szabo told of the gliding work of Lilienthal from his store of intimate knowledge of Lilienthal's machines and practices.

At the meeting of October 26th, when the attendance filled the rooms, Jerome S. Fanciulli, of the Curtiss company, spoke on Ely's death and the development of the hydro-aeroplane for naval purposes, illustrated with lantern slides. George F. Campbell Wood, secretary of the Aero Club, addressed the Society on late developments, with slides. Both talks were highly appreciated and earned great enthusiasm. An exposition of "Cupror," a new metal, was given by Fred W. Barker, of the Non-Corroding Metal Co.

On November 9th, Mr. Frank W. Walton delivered an address upon "The Development of Aeronautics among School Boys, and its effect upon their mental activity." He spoke from a store of interesting observations and experiences from his connection with public school work. Mr. G. Curtis Gillespie spoke upon "Untouched Subjects of Aeronautics," in which he brought out a number of predictions based upon observations of the present development. Percy Pierce of model fame gave an illustrated talk upon "The History of Model Flying in America."

RAVIATION'S. By Antony Janniis.

If Tillinghast said he flew for many hours in the night, did Ely?

If aeronautical publications are always short of money, how much does Aero?

If a Wright machine flew over a mining town would it be Or(e)ville?

If the Wrights win their suit against Curtiss how much will Bleriot?

If Bleriot, Santos-Dumont, Paul ham and the other constructors should decide to take an outing, would it be Wright for them to Somer at Nieuport?

Tf Paul Peck bumped into the Washington monument would it Rex Smith?

If a buzzard can fly without power, do you think Capt. Willoughby's Pelican?

If Ovington flew across the continent do you think Atwood?

When Atwood left Grand Park, did Chicago?

Tf rve bread is nearly black is Grahame-White?

If Beachey had not been at Chicago who would we have had to defeat Sopwith?

If the Chicago cops were handcuffing reckless aviators would there be a Lincoln Beachey?

If Miss Moisant bought a blue aviation suit, what would Miss Quimby?

—Quick, boys, the life net; he's falling!

The Roland Tail-less P.iplane. The "jibs"' on the right of the photograph is pulled in to steer aviators left, or to depress that side.

AFTER experimenting with power machines since l'.tOS, flying, smashing, altering, with the one object in view of proving" that rudders as generally used are unneccessary, that ailerons and warping wings are only two methods of keeping right side up, Frank E, Boland, of Rahway, N. J., has demonstrated during" the past Summer that he can fly as well as anyone. Some exhibition flights were made on October 21st for the benefit of a number of interested persons who had assembled for the purpose of seeing the machine in flight.

Boland's flights all along have attracted a lot of attention among the flying colony on Long Island but little information has spread abroad. Nothing now startles aviation "fans." There is no grandstand play about Boland's flying. He just gets in the machine und off he goes turning as he leaves the ground, if he likes, which no other aviator thinks of doing. He just imagines himself in an automobile and drives accordingly. He says he never bothers about lateral balance or other minor things like that. His seat, with stirrups for his feet, is so secure that nothing can throw him out. He just turns his steering wheel to go to the right or left and pushes or pulls it to go up or down. If one side of the machine does get too low he just turns his wheel to the opposite side and he is level again. He put a tail on one day, found it did not fly as well, and took it off, all without re-balancing.

Boland uses his own engine which never fails him. No attempt has been made to re-line the machine, to have nicely finished woodwork, or neat sockets and turnbuokles. The cloth is rusty from the weather and has been on for about a year, part of the time no shed being provided for the machine at all—he just leaves it out like a lazy farmer would his plow. Some ribs have one curve, some another; sometimes they are flat, due to weather conditions, Out under the eleva-

tor hang four sash weights which some time in the past aided the housewife to raise her kitchen window. All Boland wants to do is fly and he doesn't care a hang for looks.

He was one of the original members of The Aeronautical Society at Morris Park. He bought Dr. William Greene's first machine and took off its tail. This he flew, smashed and flew, in a little two-by-four field in Jersey until he built the present machine, about a year ago. Soon Boland Flyers will be on the market.

Mnin Planes. The span is 29 ft. 6 in., the chord and separation of the planes beingi 5 ft. 6 in. The central section is built up as a unit, the uprights running from the skids to the top plane. The wing spars of the outer sections butt against these struts and are secured thereto by clips of sheet steel. The covering of the planes is single, the ribs running in pockets sewed on the upper side. The main spars are also run inl pockets, the ribs being attached to the top of the front spar and to the bottom of the rear, as in the Farman machine. The curvature of the ribs is very slight, only \? in. dee]) about half way between the spars. The trailing edges of the ribs are straight as originally bent, but they are very flexible. '■2 by 1 inch solid ash, tapering to a point at the rear. Here they probably take some reserve curve due to the pressure of the air. The plane flies as it stands on the ground with scarcely any angle of incidence, the ends of both front and rear spars being the same height from the ground.

Elevator. The elevator, pivoted 14 feet inj front of the main plane, has a span of 13 feet 2 in. and a chord of 3 feet. It is single covered and has a very pronounced curve—I 2'/2 inches. When in horizontal flight thisl is held at a very flat angle. The surface isl strongly stayed by wires running from thel two steel tube masts to which the wiresl from the steering frame are run. The frontl

THE BOLAND TAIL-LESS BIPLANE

spar is formed of a piece of % inch tubing, the rear being of spruce.

Controls. The main point of this machine, and the one which gives it its claim to attention, is the absence of both rudder and ailerons. To take the place of them a pair of "jibs" is used and these are situated at each lateral end of the machine. Each works in one direction only and both are

ing resistance on that side. A throttle lever is operated by hand.

The seating of the aviator is novel. The feet are not used for any purpose whatever and are inserted in "stirrups," or loops made of wire in the guying of the outrigger framing so that the man sits in much the same position, with the knees high, as the driver of a racing automobile. In case of a rough

f/MF B

/O90

controlled from the hand wheel on the steering column. According to Mr. Roland, the operation of the machine is the same as that of an automobile, with the exception of the elevator which works in the accepted manner. In order to turn to the left the wheel is turned to the left, the machine swinging around easily and banking itself properly. When the turn is complete the wheel is brought back to center and "that's all there

landing, it is almost impossible for the aviator to be thrown forward on his face, nor can he fall forward on his steering column preventing him from pulling back on his elevator. A picture taken of the late Louis Rosenbaum shows him leaned so far forward on his steering column that the elevator is depressed and he has nothing to push against to regain an upright position in his seat.

It uniting Gear. A combination of four wheels and skids is used. The wheels are mounted, one on each end of a long axle. The rear set is placed near the rear end of the skids and are 2 by 2G inch wheels, these are supported by rubber shock absorbers.

?

/OSI

•al' . , ° Jlhs aro triangular in shape with a balancing portion, and aro pivoted at the points A and B as shown in the sketch the wire C from the wheel goine; to the lower coiner. When the wheel is turned, the lower corner of the jib is pulled in, thus presenting an obliquely inclined surface, offer-

Tlie other set is situated about 4 feet in front of the planes and aro flexiblv mounted by means of cable running over puiievs and back to coil springs attached to the'skids. The wheels of the forward set are 2 by 20 in.

I'ower IMiinl. An S cylinder "V" motor of Mr. Boland's own make is used. This has stood the test and runs right along with vcrv little tinkering. The cylinders are 4" bv 4", brass water jacketed on the sides, the heads not being jacketed. The valves are conccn-

trie and are located in the cylinder head, only the exhaust valve is mechanically operated. The oiling system is a combination of force feed and splash, with oil well in the base.

Unique construction is noticed in the nickel steel crankshaft. This is "built up" of five members. One connecting rod is forked at its bearing, the other one working between the forks of the other, and are thus concentric. The cylinders and connecting rods are

forced into the connecting rods and line bearings, then splashing the cylinders. The one-piece connecting rods are hollow chrome nickel steel, cut from solid forging. There are oil pits under each connecting rod so thatyany change in the level of the machine wiLF not drain oil away from the high end of the engine. The cam shaft is mounted on R.I.V. ball bearings and a big hearing of the same make is used for the center bearing of the crankshaft. The other crankshaft bear-

1'iiK Uoland En-gink.

not staggered in this method. The special system of connecting rod bearings allow both rods of a pair to get full advantage of a wide bearing-, 2?i inches. The cranks are steel discs, bored for lightness. The weight of engine complete, with carburetor, magneto and oiler is 230 lbs. The crankshaft alone is 34 lbs.

Ignition is by a Bosch motorcycle magneto, delivering1 current to a separate eight cylinder distributor, placed at the rear of the motor and run by the oil pump shaft. The magneto runs at twice engine speed. The engine runs normally at 1200, giving 60 b.h.p.

The oil enters the hollow crankshaft, is

ings are solid bronze, slipped over the ends. There is no provision for take-up on these, as very little wear has thus far been discovered. They are larger than usual and a better pit is secured by being solid. A ball thrust bearing is used on the propeller shaft. This is tapered and a special hub is keyed to it. The propeller is bolted to a flange on this hub. Cooling by a Livingston radiator.

The pistons have three cast iron rings, with a large oil groove in line with the piston pin. The cylinders do not carbonize.

Weight. The weight is given as 800 lbs., without operator, and the speed is estimated at fifty or more miles an hour.

THE KANSAS CITY INTERNATIONAL CONTEST

Ily Lieut. H. K. Honeywell

Lieut. Honeywell piloted his balloon the "Kansas City II," with two other balloons entered for the Lahm Cup. As his balloon was not one of rubberized fabric, it was not permitted in the international contest. However, it beat by 30 miles the winner of the international, the "Berlin II," of Germany.

OUR experience in the contest held in Kansas City, Mo., Oct. 5th, proved a strenuous one. All the balloons encountered similar stormy conditions which were very unusual at this time of year. The weather map looked uninviting from the start, and right here I wish to state that in all future contests an elastic date should be enforced, suitable to atmospheric conditions.

The race was pulled off without a hitch, all contestants having an even break, that is, given no advantage in time of start, with cloudy weather and an even temperature. In the presence of 40,000 people a perfect getaway of all balloons was made.

All experienced fine weather until near midnight, when a very cold drenching rain and snow storm began. Those not prepared were wet to the skin and suffered.

We in the "Kansas City II," John Watts and myself, tried to get above the tempest for our basket rocked from time to time due to cyclonic conditions. After fighting our way up to 10,700 feet at 2 a.m., the temperature dropped to 5 degrees above zero and still snowing very hard. Five and six sacks of ballast were cut away at one time to force the balloon through the storm, only to find ourselves descending the next minute, due to lower temperature and contracted gas. We were nearly frozen, our feet and clothes were stiff—icicles galore. We could not stand it longer, and let her drop gradually to about five thousand feet where she checked and

struck an equilibrium the rest of the night without throwing ballast. Our statoscope was out of commission and the aneroid nearly so, due to water in them.

At daybreak we noticed through a break in clouds below a long streak of coast line which afterward proved to be Lake Superior. We thought we were in Canada as the lake vanished to our rear. Feeling satisfied that we were going N. E. at a great rate, decided to investigate no further, as clouds had blanketed the earth once more. At 9 a.m. we decided to drop below the blanket and get bearings. We hailed a man to learn what part of Canada we were in. Imagine our surprise when he answered "Wisconsin." We immediately consulted our compass, we thought it had gone wrong, a second compass said the same thing—course Southwest, speed 30 to 40 miles per hour. The upper strata of clouds were becalmed as previous observations proved.

In order to lose no more distance we valved a hasty descent, landing in a garden patch at 9.20 a.m. to avoid possible damage to balloon in a dense forest. In doing so one end of the basket struck a stone fence, my hands being high above my head pulling the rip cord, knees bent to avoid jolt, the upper edge of basket caught me in short ribs, fracturing one—the first injury in 164 ascensions. We could have prolonged our trip possibly through a second night had our course been true. Much discouraged, the balloon was packed and shipped back to Kansas City, not knowing that we had whipped the entire field of international rubber flyers. By doing so the varnished balloons proved again superior over all other makes.

In the last national race they came in 1, 2, 3, for distance and endurance, they have always made good in prior contests.

M c C U R D Y

HEADLESS BIPLANE

THE machine illustrated is one of six that were built to Mr. McCurdy's design by the Queen Aeroplane Co. They were used by him at the Chicago and Nassau meets and in exhibitions in various parts of the country. The machine is a fine flier, has a good turn of speed, and seems to handle well.

One has gotten rather used to finding most machines constructed principally of spruce, so it is rather a novelty to find in this machine that the only spruce used is in the two struts running from the upper plane to the front of the skids; all other woodwork being ash.

.1. A. D. McCurdy was one of the members of the Aerial Experiment Association. At its disbandonment in 1909, Mr. McCurdy and F. W. Baldwin, another member of the Association, formed the Canadian Aerodrome Company at Dr. Alexander Graham Bell's place at Baddock, Nova Scotia, building there several machines. When, in 1910, Baldwin left with Dr. Bell for a trip around the world, McCurdy joined with Glen Curtiss in exhibitions. In the Summer of 1911 he associated with Charles F. Willard in forming the McCurdy-Willard Company to give exhibitions and market machines, with headquarters at 1780 Broadway. In October, Messrs McCurdy and Willard both again joined with the Curtiss Company.

Main Planes. These are built in three sections, joining at the points where the skids are attached. The Goodyear fabric is laid and tacked on top and bottom of the ribs and to the front beam. Instead of the customary wire along the trailing edge of the ribs a light batten is used as in the Curtiss machines. The curvature of the ribs is 3" maximum, situated about 1 3 of the chord from the forward edge. The angle in flight is approximately 4 degrees.

The ribs as well as the main beams and all struts are of ash. The struts are fish shaped and are attached to the main beams by the combination of an aluminum socket and the "U" bolt familiar in the Bleriot. This "U" bolt is used only as an anchor for the guys and the struts, turnbuckles being used to tighten the wires.

Elevator. The elevator is hinged, as shown in the drawings, at the rear of a fixed surface. Neither the elevator nor the fixed surface are given camber, the fixed surface being set at a very slight angle which may be changed as desired by clamps on the strut at the forward edge. The elevator is con-

trolled by tilting the steering column. The controlling wires are doubled for safety.

Itudder. A single rudder, with a notch cut for the fixed surface, is used. It is operated by turninsr the wheel on the steering column, from which the flexible wire runs through Bowden wire down the center of the column to the pivot and to skid struts where copper tubing is used for fair leads.

Stability. This is secured by the use of ailerons hinged to the rear main beams of both planes. The operation is by means of the well known shoulder brace. The ailerons are really a continuation of the main surfaces, and when not in use are not at all noticeable.

Running Gear. Usual wheel and skid combination. The skids are of ash as are the struts. The connections of skids and struts and of the struts and the main spars is by means of special aluminum castings. There are also oblique struts of 1" steel tube running from the skids to the main spars under the engine foundation.

Power Plant. A 50 h.p Gnome is used, the propeller being mounted behind the engine. The gas and air control levers are mounted on the steering column, liberal use being made of Bowden wire. The globe valve for closing off the gasolene supply and the magneto cut-out are conveniently located at the pilot's right on the curved piece which extends to form the foot rest.

Weight. The weight of the apparatus is 505 pounds, without gas or oil. The speed is 51 miles per hour over a circular course.

The McCurdy Headless Biplane. 160

Scale Drawings McCi-Rnv Machine. 161

YY.u.TEit Johnson, Flying Thomas Headless

THE Thomas Brothers, of Bath, N. Y., have been building and flying biplanes fcr the past two years in a quiet sort of way. Bittle publicity has come their way for they are not located near centers of flying.

Walter E. Johnson, of Rochester, has been doing some exhibition work with the machine the past season, eighteen successful engagements having been flown. In a recent number we told of his flying to Hammondsport and back. The Kirkham motor factory at Savona is about eight miles and when he gets a short circuit in his gasoline tank or a leak in his propeller he just flies over and gets the motor maker himself to set him right. On October 20 he visited several towns in that part of the state, changing a magneto to Bosch at the Kirkham factory. The day before he Hew about the villages for a circuit of 20 miles.

His Kirkham six cylinder is doing excellent work, he says, and the experience with these several machines has led the Thomas brothers to start work on a speed machine. A monoplane with hydroplane attachment will be another machine. The designer is "William T. Thomas.

Main Planes. These spread 31% ft, 5% ft. chord and spaced 4' 5" apart. The depth of the tairve is 5" at 2' back. The planes are double covered with treated sailcloth, tacked on. The front beam is 2" by I'/i", the rear the same dimensions, 15" forward from the rear edge. The rectangular in cross section ribs, spaced 14" apart, size 1V4" by x!i", are fastened to the beams by iron strips. The 1%" by struts

fit in sockets or tubing. "Wire is used for guying. 1/16 and 3/32" diameter, tightened by locking turnbuckles.

Elevator. The design and bracing of the elevator plane is novel, in combination with the four rudders. The elevator is hinged to the rear beam of a fixed surface, IS ft. back from the front beam of the main planes. The elevator measures 10' by 3' 2" and the area is 27:V, sq. ft.

Pudilers. Of these there arc four, pivoted IS' back from the front of the main planes. Each measure 1V2' by 2'. These are operated by the turning of the steering wheel through 1 16" Roebling cable over pulleys where turns are made.

Htahility. Ailerons at the rear of both planes are used for keeping lateral equilibrium. Each

of these four measure 66" by 15". These are operated in the manner first adopted by Cur-tiss, by means of a shoulder brace. Cable 1/16" diameter is used.

Power Plant. A 50 h.p. 6 cyclinder Kirkham motor, weighing 230 lbs., is now used, driving a 7' by e1/?' pitch propeller at 1,100 rpm. The cylinders in this engine are 4%" by 434", valves in the head. The radiator is an A-Z and Bosch magneto. The propeller is made by the Thomas Brothers. The engine is mounted centrally between the planes. A trust of 350 lbs. is obtained.

h'unniny Gear. The four-wheel running gear has been a feature with each of the Thomas machines. Each wheel is spring mounted. These wheels, 20" by 2'/4 Diamond, are used in combination with 10' skids, 2" by 2" cross section, braced with tubing. The track of the wheels is S'.

The Aerial Construction Co. of New York report having taken a lease on additional premises to take care of the continued demand for their product. The "Sanford Special" propellers are in great demand, especially in the middle west and on the Pacific coast, where they have been having success during the past summer.

To keep its force of experienced workmen employed during the quiet winter months this concern is quoting low rates for its usual high standard construction work.

A. C. Menges, of Memphis, Tenn., has received delivery of another monoplane from the American Aeroplane Supply House, of Hempstead, L. T. This was tried out Oct. 6 by Andre Houpert, instructor of the Moisant school, who made a ten-minute flight. This is a single-seater 1911 Bleriot-copy, with a 70 h.p. Gnome engine.

The Republica Dominicana, through its state engineer, Z. H. Garcia, has placed an order and work has been commenced. This will be equipped with a Roberts.

The fifth monoplane tinned out by the American Aeroplane Supply House at Hempstead, B. 1.. lias been sold to E. J. Mariey, of Sumner. Miss., after successful trials were made by| Andre Houpert, instructor of the Moisant school at Nassau Boulevard. The flight covered about fifteen miles. A 70 Gnome is used. These two-seaters are finely built and all have llown at once.

thomas headless biplane

CONSTRUCTION AIDS, XX

More R.oe Details

__1077

1 I

ìaeronautics

Ithe rating of

November, 1911

GASOLINE MOTORS

THE problem of deriving a satisfactory formula for the determination of the brake horsepower of a gasoline motor is one that has caused a great deal of discussion, and many formulae have been fevolved. Some have been too complicated, Imd others, on account of their simplicity, were rendered unsuitable.

The formula known as the A. L. A. M. Iformula, (diam. squared x no. cylinders-=-2%) has been widely used, but is at the best 'rather unsatisfactory.

Marshall formula. In order to illustrate the method of using it, we have taken the case of the Wright engine—4%" bore by 4" stroke. Enter at the bottom of the measurement for stroke, and run up until the correct revolution line is reached—in this case 1,300—then to the right and take the curved line which starts at the part of arrival, between two lines in this case, and follow it until just under the diameter 4%"; then run across to the right where you arrive at 32 h. p.

It might be worth while to point out that

Cylinder diameter in Inches and Millimeters 70 80 HO 1C0 110 120 130 140

2.5 I . 3 I . 14 . I 4.5 J 5 |

150

10 19 I 81 17 I G I 5 I M

210 220 180 160 140 120 100

Stroke in Inches and Millimeters

HORSE POWER No. of Cyliudeis 1_2 4 0

GG

54

42

80

18

132

108

84

60

36

12

198

126

90

54

18

180

/063.

Comprehensive chart showing the horsepower for various motors which can be read off at a glance, taking bore, stroke and engine speed into consideration.

Mr. C. P. D. Marshall in The Automobile has advanced the formula

d"nsv d2nsv -----or--- ---12,000 -200,000,000 according to whether the dimensions are expressed in inches or millimeters. In this formula d is the diameter, n the number of cylinders, s the stroke and v the revolutions per minute. It is derived from the "PLAN" of steam practice, and assumes the mean effective pressure corresponding to the brake horsepower to be 84 pounds per square inch. Results given by this formula have been compared with the brake tests on a goodly number of engines, and have been found to be a very good approximation when the engine was not being overdriven. As the power curve of an engine sags off when the engine is overdriven, the results given by the formula are then too high. This is, however, a fault common to all other formulae as well. The chart gives the horsepower by the

the exact equivalent for the constant 12,000 when millimeters are used is 196,634,000. The effect of taking the round number 200,000, 000 gives a result 1% per cent, lower, which is near enough for all practical purposes, considering that an approximation is all we can aim at when using a formula.

This is only One of Many.

"I believe I wrote you that I had received 'How to Build an Aeroplane.' So completely does your magazine cover the subject, that I have thus far found very little in the book that has not been dealt with somewhere in the nineteen copies of AERONAUTICS that I have read. The book is a sort of condensation of all the essential points that you have already published.

With delightful anticipation of the feast I shall have when the September number of AERONAUTICS arrives,

Verv truly yours,

(Signed) H. B. Newton."

AERONAUTICS November, 1911

Progress in^hydro-aeroplanes

WHEN \V. Starling- Burgess first became interested in aviation and began to forsake the yachting field in which he had met with such eminent success, following in the footsteps of his father, his many friends wondered how long it would be before his experience and skill as a designer of yachts would solve the problem of the hydro-aeroplane. It is said that it was with great difficulty that Mr. Burgess refrained from interesting himself in this development while designing and perfecting the Burgess Biplane, which has been so successful wherever it has been used this year, taking 0J% of the biplane prizes at the last important meet, at Nassau Boulevard when competing with aeroplanes of five other makes.

This success, with the very excellent cross country work which has been accomplished by a number of aviators on the Burgess during the season has proved the machine to be second to none as an aeroplane and Mr. Burgess at once devoted his attention to the even more attractive opportunity of developing the hydro-aeroplane.

The hydroplanes, which are made with a large factor of safety, are so designed as to meet the water at an angle without the possibility of strain, are two boats about 14 feet long, 2 feet wide and a main draft of about ten inches of the single step hydroplane type, heavily trussed and reinforced.

On the morning of October 25 Mr. Burgess launched the new hydro-aeroplane from the sheerlegs just as for years he has been launching the yachts that have made a name for him all over the world. The first demonstration consisted of a fifteen minute run among the yachts that were moored in the harbor. His expectations were entirely fulfilled in finding the hydro-aeroplane a sea-

worthy craft, as easily steered as a fast motor boat. While he had assured his friends that he would not leave the water, the temptation after a few minutes became too great and one or two short jumps showed that the aeroplane had ample power to lift the boats without difficulty on the first pulling of the elevator.

From that flight on for one week all of the aviators in the Burgess Company flew the hydro-aeroplane, on one day carrying Mrs. F. G. Macomber, Jr., the first woman to ride in a hydro-aeroplane over the Atlantic Ocean. A number of other passengers were given flights. The machine was flown in varying weather conditions from a calm to a 25 mile wind and it was gratifying to note that the winds which would bother a skilled aviator in his machine over the uneven ground gave the novice no difficulty in the new hydro-aeroplane over the water. No adjustments have been necessary and not a repair has been required since launching.

Both H. N. At wood and C. W. Webster expressed themselves as highly delighted with the new machine and were enthusiastic in their comparison of the joys of flying over the water as compared with flying over the land.

This new development has a deeper significance for aviation than is at first appreciated. One of the greatest difficulties that hoth the manufacturer and the teacher has had is to impress upon the untrained, and very often upon those skilled in the art, the necessity of flying only in favorable weather. Most of the unfortunate accidents that have occurred during the last year can be traced to an over anxiety on the part of the operator to 11 y when conditions were not satisfactory.

The licHGKSS Water 'Plane Just "Leaving tue Ground." 100

The hydro-aeroplane automatically solves this problem, as while it can be operated in higher winds on account of their being more regular over the water, still a limit is reached when the sea prevents the satisfactory planing of the boats, so that the unwise or too reckless aviator is prevented from flying when the conditions are unfavorable.

It is reported that the company has taken steps for the immediate construction of a number of hydro-aeroplanes to attach to its machines that are now in use, and the Government is already interested in the development for its own equipment.

they shut off the motor and alighted on the water. When a suitable place was found to get ashore, the motor was started up again and the 'plane run aground.

The double control system was employed and each of the others relieved the other from time to time, the jointed control lever being shifted from one to the other without any difficulty whatever. The details of this were published in the August number, page 56. A self-starting device has been added. A lever at the side of the aviator works a ratchet gear on the propeller shaft, just forward of the propeller.

lUiring the following week the return trip

•The Curtiss Hydro-aeroplane.

MANY II YnilO-AEUOI'BANES lll'l l.DIXG,

The hydro-aeroplane has "caught on" all over the world since Curtiss first made real flights a year ago in California. Numerous experiments are being conducted abroad but none of the machines there has reached the present stage of those in this country. One or two are busy giving exhibitions, the Navy's machine has just flown up and down the Atlantic Coast and Robinson down the Mississippi River.

The Queen Aeroplane Co. is trying out a monoplane equipped with a boat.

The early part of October Frank Coffyn attached floats to a. Wright machine and made, a large number of flights at Detroit.

Hugh D. Willoughby promises to have an aquatic aeroplane on the market this coming spring. Some flights have been made in Baltimore with E. R. Brown's biplane and there arc other private experimenters widely scattered who are getting active in this direction.

Curtiss is experimenting with another variation of the water machine line, with the engine high up in the top plane and the tlyer low down on the boat.

navy orriciais m\kio new iiecoih)

The U. S. naval otlicers Lieut. Theodore O. Ellyson and Lieut. .1. G. Towers on October 25th established a non-stop hydroaeroplane record by Hying from Annapolis, Mil., to Buekroo Beach, near Fortress Monroe, Ya., a distance of 13S.2 miles in the Curtiss hydroaeroplane recently purchased by the Captain W. Irving Chambers, head of aeronautical work in the Navy, which machine is the only successful water 'plane of any government to date. The distance was made in 2 hours 27 minutes, which averages 56.-1 miles an hour.

When the aviators sighted the point of land at the entrance to Hampton Boads

was made, with two stops, due to motor trouble.

RETURN TRIP.

On October 30, the Navy aviators started for the return flight and got as far as Gloucester Point, on the York River, Va.. when a landing was made on account of a broken pump shaft. The following day they reached Smith Point. S-l miles on the way back when the water pump broke. Here a landing was made and the Navy Department wired of the situation from Beedville. Va. In "response to offer of a tug, Lieut Eltyson telegraphed "Tug not needed. Machine in line shape. Waiting in weather."

The following days were very cold and the aviators endured marly hardships, as their resources were poor for subsistence and comfort in their determination to make a practical test out of the flight and to get along as well as possible without outside assistance.

Ellyson and Towers completed the return (light to Annapolis on November 3 in a biting, strong, northwest wind. They were nearly frozen stiff but cheerful and happy in having "stuck to it." The machine was in tine condition.

Lieutenant Ellyson. in writing to Glenn H. Curtiss, gave the following interesting incidents about the flights :—

"I steered for the first half hour and then Towers, for the same length of time. At the end of an hour the water connections on top of the radiator began to leak and water went on tho magneto, causing the engine to miss. Towers climbed and repaired the leak the best he could and had to hold the water-pipe in place, which he did for over an hour while I drove.

After two hours flying, the oilguage seemed to be getting low anil we decided to land. This we accomplished in a six foot surf with a twenty mile wind behind us. 1 ran the ma-

Mr. Reader!

5 WHY ARE YOU

if,

t Interested in

i AVIATION?

t Tell Us Your Reasons i And We Will I Mail to You i FREE OF CHARGE

*

| An Artistic

£ Autographed Photo of

t GLENN H. CURTISS

Like above cut

Sales Agents and Foreign Representatives for

The Curtiss Aeroplane Co. Hammondsport, N. Y.

This photograph is 5 x 7 inches, suitable for framing. It is an excellent likeness of Mr. Curtiss and is a work of art. This offer is made because

I We Want to Know

The extent of the interest in aviation and the opinions of those interested in the future development of the Aeroplane Industry. If you are pessimistic regarding the progress of aviation, state your views on the accompanying coupon or in a letter. If you are optimistic, say so!

Fill in tbe Coupon and Mail it to

In answering advertisements please mention this magazine.

QUEEN

LEARN to FLY

AT THE

QUEEN AEROPLANE COMPANY'S SCHOOL OF AVIATION

which will open its Winter Quarters at

LOS ANGELES, CAL., November 15th, 1911

with Six Queen Aeroplanes, fitted with Gnome and Anzani Motors, under the personal management ot Ladis Lewkowicz, licensed pilot of The Aero Club of France, the only aviator who ever flew over New York City with a monoplane. CSchool to be conducted strictly on French principles, and contract being the same.

Special Inducements: For the first twelve pupils enrolled a Complete Course will be given until license is granted, for only $250.00.

The Queen Monoplane has flown at Nassau Boulevard, Belmont Park, Atlantic City,Chicagoand Boston International Meets. For full particulars,

Address: The QUEEN AEROPLANE COMPANY

Attention of MR. LADIS LEWKOWICZ. c/o Aero Club of California. Los Angeles, Cal.

Queen Aeroplane Company

Manufactures a

QUEEN MONOPLANE, fitted with 30 H. P. Anzani Engine

QUEEN MONOPLANE, Racing Type fitted with 50 H. P. Gnome Engine

QUEEN MONOPLANE, Passenger Carrying, fitted with 50 H. P. Gnome Engine

Each machine is delivered ajler a trial flight, and the purchaser is allozced half of the tuition fee on the price of the ?nachine.

For full particulars apply

QUEEN AEROPLANE CO., 197th St. and Amsterdam Ave., N. Y. C.

chine high on the beach, coming- in at full speed, just touching the crests of the waves. Much to our surprise the boat was not injured in the least."

PREVIOUS ATTEMPT GOOD

On October 11, Lieut. T. G. Ellyson with Lieut. Towers as passenger in the Navy's Curtiss, started from Annapolis, lid., to visit the fleet in Hampton Roads, Va., but trouble developed and a landing had to be made on the beach at Smith's Point, Va., at the mouth of the Potomac River, where they found a burnt bearing and had to telegraph for a boat to bring them back. During the trip they flew about 500 feet high and kept close to the shore line. The distance covered was 75 miles, in 1 hr. 20 m.

IIYDRO-'PLANE'S LONGEST FLIGHT

In his flight from Minneapolis, Minn, to Rock Island, Oct. 17-21, Robinson set some new records in the aviation world, and, as his manager says, made "some history." He covered 314 miles in three flying- days, always flying directly over the river, in a machine in which it would be impossible to alight on land. He carried mail a greater distance than ever before in an aeroplane, Robinson carried 25 pounds of mail and he delivered numerous letters to Rock Island people from friends and relatives at Minneapolis and St. Paul.

The record of his flight was as follows:

Left Lake Calhoun, Minneapolis, Tuesday morning at 9:11.

Landed at Whitman, Minn, at 10:39, having covered 104 miles at rate of 76 miles an hour. In alighting in the river he struck a wing dam which tore a hole in one of his pontoons. He was towed into Winona at 3 :45 Tuesday afternoon, the 17th.

Plight was resumed at S:19 Thursday morning.

Reached La Crosse at 8:45 making 24 miles in 26 minutes.

Left La Crosse at 9:30 and passed Lansing at 10.30, 32 miles.

Reached Prairie du Chien after short exhibition, at 1:02 p. m., 22 miles.

Reached Guttenberg at 1:30 where he gave brief exhibition without alighting, 17 miles.

Reached Dubuque 2 p. m. Thursday, 30 miles.

Left Dubuque at 9:18 a. m. Friday.

Arrived at Bellevue at 9:40 a. m., 22 miles.

Left Dellevue at 12:15 p. m.

Arrived at Clinton at 1:50 p. m., 33 miles.

Left Clinton at 3:07 p. va.

Appeared over tri-cities at 3:48 p. m. Landed at Rock Island at 3:52 p. m., Friday, 30 miles.

When Robinson was finally sighted up the river at 3 .40, the Rock Island levee was thronged, and there was a goodly crowd on the Da'tenport shore. The machine came on at a high rate of speed. When he approached Moline, Kobinson became somewhat confused as to the bridges, and he was not certain as to his place for landing. lie circled over the river, and in a pretty descent, alighted on the water about 200 feet from the shore. He was greeted with a salute from the whistles of the ferry and other boats, and the cheers of the big crowd of spectators.

At Rock Island Robinson decided to call off all of his plans and to abandon his flight at this point. The reason for the decision was that cities which originally promised financial assistance in the undertaking took advantage of the. fact that, because of weather conditions, Robinson was unable to start his flight at Minneapolis on the date scheduled. A heavy storm prevented his starting on the day set, but the people of Minneapolis were satisfied with the arrangements that were made, though they were the heaviest contributors toward the fund for

the flight. Thev gave Robinson a check for $3,000 before he started.

SCHOOLS MOVE WEST FOR WINTER

As soon as cold weather arrives in earnest at the Hempstead Plains the Moisant school removes to California, opening in December. Another will be started up in Florida with two monoplanes and a biplane, while the California school will have five monoplanes and two biplanes. Pupils may select either type. "Captain Patrick," (Capt. P. Hamilton) and George M. Dyott have associated themselves with the Moisant interests, flying the two Deperdussin machines recently brought over by them. Capt. Hamilton is a British army officer attached to a company in India, now on leave of absence.

The Curtiss training school is again located at San Diego and is now in operation under Lieut. J. \V. McClaskey, late of the U. S. Marine Corps. A number of pupils went along from Hammondsport with the machines. Mr. Curtiss himself will follow in November and takes up some further experiments which he has in mind. Lieut. McClaskey became acquainted with Mr. Curtiss on the Coast last year and this summer resigned from naval services to permanently connect himself with the Curtiss company. Having learned to fly and exhibited splendid ability in many ways, Mr. Curtiss has made him official instructor of the school. The course costs $500 and one is not limited to any definite time.

The Queen company opens its Los Angeles schools next month under the management of Ladis Lewkowicz, the man who flew over New York city and glided some four miles when his French air cooled engine got hot to landing in the state of New Jersey, crossing the Hudson River on his soaring way.

The Queen school will be conducted on entirely French lines, and the terms of tuition are very reasonable.

The course costs but $250, tuition continuing until a license is obtained. The deposit for breakages is $300.

Ward Fisher, of Rochester, N. Y., is the business manager of the Curtiss school this season. The pupils this season are to be trained in flying the hydroaeroplane, as well as the standard Curtiss cross-country and military biplane.

BLAZE BURNS OUT BENOIST.

The Benoist school in St. Louis will continue right along as though nothing like a fire had happened. On October 19 the aeroplane factory of the Benoist Aircraft Co., at 6664 Delmar Blvd., St. Louis, burnt up, including three perfectly good aeroplanes, tools, supplies and uncompleted material. Despite a total loss the company is on the job and going ahead with the well known school, as we said before, "as though nothing had happened." So much for spirit! Aeroplanes make fairly good combustibles and the fire was just as progressive as Mr. Benoist himself, which is quite complimentary to the fire.

R. O. Rubel, Jr., & Co., of Louisville, Ky., are preparing to open an outdoor school and has leased for five years a tract of land outside of that city. Frederick Morlan will be instructor. Three biplanes, three monoplanes, a wind wagon and a hydroplane constitute present equipment. The biplanes have Hall-Scott, Maximotor and Gray Eagle motors. The monoplanes include a Bleriot, an imported Demoiselle and a copy. The water machine is nearly completed and will be used on the Ohio River. Board may be secured on the grounds. The date of opening has been set for December 1st. A two-propeller biplane is being built by the Rubel company for Messrs. Huff and Maris, of Columbus.

The construction of Aeronautics, ami its contents shoic to me that you (ire purveying only the best material. -T. Chalmers Fulton.

1G8

Map of Rodgers* Flight.

Miles

Total Distance measured in

straight lines between towns.. 3390 Air line, New York-Pasadena.. 2540

Stops

Number of stops including start

and end........................ 68

Miles

Longest single flight, Stovall to

Imperial Jet................. 133

Longest day's journey. Kansas

City to Vinita................ 174

Days

Days consumed (Sept. 17—Nov. 5) 59 Hest Previous Records.

Miles

H. N. Atwood, St. Louis-New

York ........................ 1155

German Flight Circuit........ 1096

British Circuit ................ 1010

European Circuit .............. 1073

RODDERS MAKES TR AXSCOXTIX EXT\1, FLIGHT.

IT is extremely unlikely that the flight of Calbraith P. Rodgers in his Model B Wright aeroplane will be beaten before the end of this year, nor perhaps for another year. He has tripled the longest continuous flight, or series of flights, yet made in the history of aviation in the world. He started from New York on September 17 and finished at Pasadena, California, on the Pacific Coast, on November 5th, a distance measured as the crow flies, from town to town, of 3390 miles. This has been measured by AERONAUTICS on state maps and checked on a very large national map. The airline distance from New York to Pasadena is 2540 miles.

As will be noted by the map, the most direct course was not taken. There were no doubt, particular reasons why certain towns were "made". The trip was conducted throughout as an advertising campaign of a new soft drink, at the same time having in mind the Hearst $50,000 prize for a flight across the country in thirty days. He figured he had until October 17 in which to complete the distance to be eligible for the prize but on that'day he was at McAlester, Tex. A special car accompanied him, with a store of spare parts. The Men Magneto was used throughout.

At the present -time, the flight must be considered as a wonderful feat in many respects. Compared with an automobile trip, the latter has the better of it, for the coast-to-coast trip has been made in 15 days, with two crews. A record of some years back for a one-man trip was something like 41 days, as we remember it. Two weeks total of Rodgers' time was spent waiting for bad weather to pass over or in making- repairs.

From Texas Rodgers followed the line of the Southern Pacific railroad and climbed steadily from Del Rio on the Mexican border through Alpine, Marfa, Sierra Blanca to El Paso, which towns run from 2000 to 4600 feet above sea level. From here the altitudes gradually dropped until he got to Pasadena.

Fowler On Way East.

At Tucson Rodgers met Robert G. Fowler on his way east. Fowler started his second attempt to cross the country from Los Angeles on October 18; also in a Wright Model B, fitted with a windshield. His previous attempt started from San Francisco on Sept. 11. when he reached Colfax, Calif. By Nov. 5 Fowler had gotten as far as Mastodon, N. M., about 760 miles.

XEW CROSS COUNTRY RECORD.

Fowler came within an ace of beating Gill's new duration record when, on October 29, he was up for 4 hours 26 minutes, unofficially, flying cross country miles from Yuma,

Ariz, to Maricopa.

The Queen Martin Biplane.

THE Queen Aeroplane Company's new hundred horse biplane-monoplane, built to designs of James V. Martin, has had its successful trials at the hands of Mr. Martin at the Nassau Boulevard aerodrome during the month of October, and its entrance as a new machine into the world's catalogue of aeroplanes is accomplished. It is the second machine in this country to attempt the combination of standard monoplane and biplane construction. This new machine is Larger and, perhaps represents a more ambitious effort. It is capable of carrying passengers and has double the power. It is a most substantial machine and finely built.

Main Planes. The spread is 30 feet, with a chord of 5 ft. 1 in., single surfaced, with the ribs slipped in sewed pockets in the fabric. The planes are spaced 5 ft. apart, struts held in brazed steel sockets, double guyed with Roebling nickel plated wire. The front beam is l%"x-l1A" except on the main section, under fuselage, which is 1% sq. section ash, the rear beam being 1 %" x 1 V4 "■ the edges merely rounded off not to cut the cloth. The libs screw on top the front beam and to the under side of the rear one. There are three sections to each plane. The ribs at the joining points are square box construction intervening ribs solid rectangular in cross section. Near the center of the sections is a "T" rib of usual Farman type, while the very outermost ones at the extrem ties of the planes are of "E" design. Spruce is used for struts (except center section) and small ribs; the box ribs are elm. The cloth is tacked on, with strips of y2 round rattan. Section are laced.

Over the top of the rear beam is a strip of cloth sewed to the fabric of the planes to house the rear beam. The sections are joined by lengths of square steel tubing fitting over the ends of the beams and bolted. The box ribs to rear of rear beam consists of but the lower member, tapered. The whole remaining surface back of the beam is more or les.s flexible. A wire runs along the rear edge in a pocket of the cloth.

Fuselage. This is in two sections, joined by square steel sleeves. The longitudinal members in the front half are ash; in the rear half elm; the struts are spruce. The front end curves upward to get the propeller axis nearer the center between the planes. The joining of the longitudinal members and vertical and horizontal struts is by steel angle plates bolted with eye-bolts, into which the diagonal guys hook in the usual manner, tightened by Bleriot-type turnbuckles. The operator sits in the fuselage just over the trailing edge of the plane. Under his seat is a big supplementary gasolene tank from which fuel is pumped to the gravity tank just in front of him. The operator has to look over the tank to see straight forward, as he would in a monoplane.

Control. Positive acting ailerons hinged to the rear upper beam are employed for preserving lateral stability through the gate control introduced by the Burgess company. Either hand may be used to rest the other. A sideways movement pulls one aileron down and lifts the other by means of a compensating wire (connecting ailerons over top of upper plane through 2 aluminum pulleys and along the leading edge). The elevator is in two parts and each half operates in conjunction with the ailerons on the same side, though in the proportion of but one to six. The ailerons cables have a cert- in amount of slack to avoid any turning movement of the aeroplane or to avoid unequal pressures on the ailerons. The vertical members of this gate control are universally pivoted to allow for use also as a means of working the elevator as an elevator pure and simple.

Elevator. Hinged to the rear edge of a perfectly flat fixed surface, semi-circular in shape, are the 2 elevators. These -'re onernted simultaneously by a fore and aft motion of the gate control through crossed cables. The elevators themselves consist of semi-circular flat surfaces, double surfaced, separated by the fuselage.

Rudder. The rudder, of course, double surfaced, is operated by a foot yoke. The rudder cable run outside the fuselage in guides on the struts.

THE QUEEN-MARTIN BIPLANE

This machine has inherent stability and in ordinary weather he does not use the ailerons for lateral stability. And by switching off engine the machine assumes its gliding- angle of about 5 degrees. It is only necessary to apply full power and machine climbs very rapid. This of course controls the longitudinal stability.

for auxiliary air and throttle. Here Bowden wire is used.

RuiiiiiiiK' Gear. Long and stout ash skids are used in combination with the usual rubbered suspended twin wheels with stay tubes. The axles, however, are reinforced by tubes of larger diameter sweated over. The tail is supported by an hickory skid pivotally

Tower Plant. Fourteen cylinder, 100 h.p. Gnome, driving a Gibson propeller 8 ft. 3 in. diameter, 7 ft. 6 in. pitch. A large combination oil and gas tank divided fore and aft is just in front of the aviator. On one side is the gas and on the other the castor oil. In a vertical recess at the rear are two glass gauges to show the level of the oil and gas. At the right hand is a pump which draws the gas from the auxiliary tank under the seat and forces it into the gravity tank. To the left are two short circuit switches to shut off either set of seven cylinders. At the right hand are two levers on sectors

mounted at the middle, with rubber shock absorbers at the top.

Number 10 Am. gauge Roebling wire is used in the main section and where the heavy strains are.

.Miscellaneous. The main cell is double wired throughout each wire with turnbuckles. All control wires are Roebling stranded cable. The weight is 950 lbs. with oil and gas. Fuel is carried sufficient for five hours' flying. The machine is stated to fly at no angle of incidence, depending for its lift entirely on camber of the surfaces, which is very slight— about 2V2 inches.

HOOKS KECKIVEU.

THE SECOND BOYS' BOOK OF MODEL AEROPLANES, by Francis A. Collins. 12mo., 267 pp., cloth, handsomely illustrated, $1.20 net, The Century Co. That model flying is more indulged in than actual aeroplane flying will be the opinion of the laity after reading this book. There are photographs and scale drawings of successful .long distance models built by American men and boys. There is particular interest in reading about the accomplishments of one's own acquaintances seen through the eS'es of another. The builders of many of the models described are known personally to hundreds of model enthusiasts.

LE VOL DES OISEAUX, by Maurice Gaudil-lot, published by Gauthier Villars Imprimeur Librairie, Paris. Svo., paper, 30pp., illustra-

ted by charts and diagrams. The author advances a new theory of dynamic air pressure, especially with reference to inclined planes and beating wings, assuming that the impact of the air sets up a series of waves of compression and rarefaction sim-iliar to sound waves and like them having a velocity of 340 m. p. s. Using this quantity in a formula he obtains a pressure many times greater than that in accepted formulae. He also uses a coefficient to represent the efficiency under any given conditions as compared with the ideal value obtained in the above mentioned formula; this coefficient being greater where the air next to the surface is continuously renewed, as in the case of a plane inclined at a small angle. While it is difficult to prove experimentally such a theory, the author's exposition of it is worthy attention.

172

Scale Drawii

1/ 'QQQ.

NEWS IN GENERAL

■ll.VXl'P.VCTI RKUS ASSOCIATION.

Mr. Seiberling, liead of the Goodyear company, has consented to be second vice president of the Aeronautical Manufacturers' Association, which has formed recently. Membership in this body will be a very valuable asset before long- and it is urged upon reputable concerns that they apply and assist in the work contemplated. Communications should be addressed to the association at the office of the Secretary, F. D. Wood, 1737 Broadway, New York.

An endeavor is being made to conduct tests of wood, fabric and other materials marketed by members for the purpose of aiding the development of more suitable parts, standardization, etc. It is hoped that it will be possible to issue a more or less regular bulletin with the results of experiments and tests.

stead. For one hour and seventeen minutes he kept on flying steadily, at times reaching an altitude of 7,000 feet. He gave his new monoplane a complete trial test in every manner, dipping, volplaning, etc.

When at last he landed it was pitch dark. He said that never before had he flown an aeroplane for long duration on its trial flight, and that usually when trying a new machine, he was obliged to come down after a few minutes flying to adjust one thing or another, but that everything worked so perfectly that he could not prevail upon himself to come down sooner than he was actually forced to do so by the complete darkness, lie used Gnome engine and Gibson propeller.

1>E K OR FLIES HOUIt.

Fred De Kor, of Los Angeles, who recently purchased a biplane from Glen H. Martin of Santa Ana, Cal., has been making long crosscountry trips, a thing of almost daily occurrence in the vicinity of Los Angeles and Santa Ana, flying over the towns and out to the ocean over the beaches and íeturning, one flight being of one hour and five minutes duration. He recently flew from the Martin school grounds at Santa Ana to the Domínguez Aviation Field, a distance of about 35 miles in 55 minutes, against a strong wind, which accounts for the slow time.

Having a date at Anacheim, a town about the same distance away De Kor wings his

Ladis Lewkowicz in1 l,i:\VK(IH KlillOS OYICIt HOIK.

on October 25th, Ladis Lewkowicz started from the Nassau Boulevard Aerodrome to try his Queen Monoplane and made a tlight which was one of the best ever seen on Long Island. Taking his machine out of the hangar at 1 o'clock in the afternoon, he first tried his engine to see how it worked, and finding that everything was satisfactory he began his tlight. Following his customary procedure, he climbed upward immediately, and the lirst circle he made of the aerodrome saw him at an altitude of 3,500 feet. Then he headed for P.elinont Park. Coming back he passed over the Nassau Boulevard Aerodrome and continued on over to Milieola. On his return from Mineola he tlew all over thai section of Long Island, going to .Jamaica and back, and thence to llicksville and Ilemp-

is Queen at Nassau.

way over to fill it, making a high flight, th< sensation of looking down on the cloud being a novel and beautiful sight, he claim.'

The machine used, a modi tied Cnrtiss type is almost a duplicate of the one Martin i now using in the middle west, tho' somewha heavier; extensions on the upper plane ar supported by tubing diagonals, and tubin stays are used between all the struts. Th outriggers of quite large sized bamboo ar very rigid, and the writer recommends thei adoption in lieu of the smaller size generall used, the latter being so flimsy that unles a large number of wires and struts are at taehed, proper strength is not obtained an "trueing-up" is a difficult matter. An > cylinder llall-Scott is giving excellent n suits.

WlilfiHT AM) OGIL.VIE GLIDING.

During October Messrs. Orville Wright and Alec. Ogilvie, the English Wright flyer, have been at the old Wright gliding camp near Kitty Hawk, N. C, experimenting with a glider made up of planes very much the size of the "Baby" Wright, with a rear rudder from this machine.

The Wright Glider in North Carolina.

A single seat is provided, very low skids, usual control. Various experiments were made. The rudder surface was altered, a vertical keel placed in front of the machine and a bag of sand attached way out in front on the end of a pole, one flight is reported of 9 minutes in a- gale of wind.

EMES WITH SEARCHLIGHT

The two-place Deperdussin monoplane of Messrs. Dyott and Hamilton has flown in the pitch dark, by the aid of a searchlight fastened to the front distance rod which separates the two skids. A Vesta lamp was used in connection with a storage battery of the usuaL automobile type, weighing about 34 pounds. The light was set at a proper angle to show the ground when the machine is slanted down in landing and a switch was placed in front of the passenger, who was Captain Hamilton. The battery was stored under the passenger's seat. The sight of an enormous light up in the air, the aeroplane unseen and its motor unheard, was weird. Two lights were made about the aerodrome near Garden City, successful landing being made each time.

The last week of October, in which this flight occurred, was employed in packing up preparatory for the trip to Mexico. The pas-

senger machine was flown back and forth from Nassau Boulevard to Hempstead and to Mineola gathering up spare parts and luggage which were all carried on the machine to the assembling point at Mineola.

At some date in the probable near future president Madero, of Mexico, will have his inauguration. Miss Moisant, Miss Quimby, Houpert, Dyott and Captain "Patrick" will participate in a meeting to be held at that time for prizes totalling $100,0(10. From here other cities will be visited, such as Guadalajara, which already has posted $_25,000. Last year flights were made by Moisant aviators at very high altitudes, Garros' flight reaching the highest altitude (above sea level) ever flown by an aeroplane up to that time, 12.7S9 feet.

The Mexican government has purchased six Moisant monoplanes for its military aviation schools which is to be started. After Mexico, a tour of Central American countries will be made by the Moisant aviators.

NEW AM ERIC AX EN* 1)1'It ANTE RECORD.

Howard W. Gill, in a Wright biplane, made the new American duration record of 4 hrs. 1G min. 35 sec, just beating the American record recently made by the late St. Croix Johnstone of 4 hrs. 1 min., during the joint meet of the Wright Company and the Pioneer Aviation Co. at St. Louis, Oct. 19.

Mail carrying was the feature of the meet. Walter Brookins flying almost daily in very windy weather with the sacks from Kinloch to Fairgrounds Tark.

P. (). Parmalee with a Wright EX model did the altitude wrork, going up to 4,500 feet.

George W. Beatty. who is remaining at St. Louis doing school and passenger work, took up many people. The other fliers including, Albert Elton, Andrew Drew, Clifford Turpin. A. B. Lambert, all Wright flyers: W. H. Robinson, H. F. Kearney, Hill, Beachey. John D. Cooper, two Benoist flyers and Dr. H. W. Walden with his original monoplane.

KANSAS STARTS AERIAL SIGNS.

G. S. Bennett of the Kansas City Aviation School has submitted a recommendation to the Kansas City Aero. Club, which has merit.

Mr. Bennett's plan is to have the United States divided into sections or zones and marked so as to enable an aviator to locate himself. For illustration, the Eastern coast as far west as Buffalo should be known as Section "A"; from Buffalo to Chicago and from Canada to the Gulf to be the Section "B"; the territory west of the river as far as Denver and the mountains should be Section "C"; and the Pacific coast would be Section "D". Let it be the work of the many aero clubs and the publicity clubs of all the larger cities to get out a series of signs on the large buildings, on the side of a mountain, on a hill, so that an aviator in the air could see where he was and how far from the city. For illustration, Kansas City would be "CI" as this city is on the main thoroughfare between the East and the West, and when an aviator would reach a zone within 50 miles of this city he would see on the top of a barn, on the side of a bluff or on the top of some flat building a large white arrow pointing to a local field.

A piece of white oil cloth 0 foot wide and 60 foot long can be seen and read from 1000 feet in the air.

This cloth should be cut to represent an arrow and marked with black letters at least five foot in height, the district, station number, direction and the registered number of miles. For example a sign like this 50 miles East of Kansas City should read "CI West 50" and the aviator would know by consulting his chart that Kansas City was 50 miles west and he was in the state of Missouri, where they show you.

All towns, all states look alike to the aviator who is 1000 feet in the air, and this system will save a lot of time and cuss words to the aviator if he is instructed where he can find a safe landing ground and gasolene.

To start this light house or sign board plan the Kansas Aero Club of Overland Park and the Training School will this winter install these signs on barns and sheds within 50 miles of this city, so that next season all aviators will be guided to a public hangar and landing ground.

sistance in their same relation. This brings the radiator tops below the water jackets and necessitates the use of the peculiar shaped spouts or fillers shown in the photo, which bring the water" to the same level as in water jackets.

W'4 I

^1

The Hamilton Monoplane.

THE J. W. HAMILTON IIIiEItlOT TVI'E.

J. W. Hamilton's Bleriot No. 11 type monoplane, rem irkable not only for its fidelity to the original, but for its workmanlike construction, and attention paid to detail, has made a number of successful flights at Palo Alto.

General dimensions are practically identical with the Bleriot No. 11. Mr. Hamilton's aim has been to construct a machine as nearly like the original as possible and the result is a machine he can well be proud of, both in construction and necessary Hying qualities; as we have seen a number of machines very neatly put together, which will not fly.

The attention of the critical observer is first drawn to the twin radiators which are placed In front of the landing frame on either side and flush with the front cylinder of the engine. A line drawn through their centers bisects the crank shaft, thus keeping the centers of effort and head re-

The radiators are swung by steel straps from the upper longitudinal members, which project about an inch beyond the upper main cross piece they are also fastened at their centers, to engine base and main knee uprights. The El Arco radiators being directly in the propeller draft effectually cool the engine. A single radiator of the same size has now been put on and cools all right. This would naturally cut down head resistance, which is quite appreciable, considering that much of the area in the propeller draft is now obstructed by the radiators. Of course, propeller thrust near the hub is comparatively small, but it must have its effect upon the speed.

The center of thrust, Is somewhat lower than in the Gnome or Anzani Bleriot, owing to the vertical engine used, but as this is tail lifting type it is not entirely a bad feature, outside of the fact that it gives less ground clearance for the propeller. The four longitudinal members of the fuselage are

of spruce of a little larger section than the original, with taper towards the rear, having the same relation: considering the weakness due to the number of holes necessary for the "U" bolts and the unusually severe strains encountered during noviate trials, this is a good feature. A very good addition is a truss under the lower cross member of the landing frame.

The slight additional weight and labor being insignificant compared to the security obtained. A str p of 1 16x1 inch flat steel similar to the diagonals, passes under two blocks, on the under side of the lower cross numbers whkh aie pet directly beneath the main wooden upright or knee pieces. It is riveted at each end to oval steel plates

which encircle the main tubing uprights underneath the lower cross member; to the other end of the oval plate are bolted the two steel ribbons or front wing guys.

Instead of tubing usual in the links connecting the wheels to the lower swivel collar T'xl" steel is used, bent to the proper curves. This seems a bit heavy and unnecessary as tubing similar to the links connecting the wheels and upper sliding collars should do. Apropos of collars, Mr. Hamilton has made both stationary and sliding collars of steel instead of aluminum or McAdamite, which is not only more dependable but almost as light. The cost however is somewhat greater, owing to the machine work. Bronze is now used for sliding collars.

1. Showing main surfaces of standard Curtiss aeroplane loaded with 900 lbs. of gravel. surfaces are upside down and supported from the engine bed on two horses. this load is somewhat in excess of the normal load in flight.

2. Shows an instrument for measuring the tension of the wires.

3. Shows regular panel of surface supported at each corner, same point at which it is attached to the posts and guy wires when assembled in the aeroflan e.

4. Shows this panel loaded with 300 lbs. of gravel without any noticeable change in its form, the normal load on the surface is 75 lbs. in

flight.

the strain on the diagonal wire in the end panel registered i)0 lbs. this wire, or cable, has a tensile strength of 600 lbs.

The second panel showed a strain on the cable of 176 lbs. tllere are two of these cables, each capable of holding 600 lbs.

The engine section showed 192 lbs. on the diagonal wiring, of which there are two, and the

same on the wire. which if the machine were completely assembled, would be from the skid to the bottom of the first post out.

When the machine is assembled, the steel tube bracing in the engine section is sufficiently strong to support several thousand pounds.

The Loose Biplane

Control- is identical with the original, the

bell or "cloche," is of MeAdamite with a tubing post, steel universal joint and 8 wooden wheel. The warping devices is well made, the lever of one eight inch stock. Warping pulleys are turned out of steel also, as is the free pulley for the inside guys, steel disks at either end of warping ensemble are riveted to the four tubes comprising the under mast. A wooden foot lever operates the rudder. A cast aluminum lever is fastened to the tubing of the rear elevator.

Steel springs 1 Vt inch give the proper resiliency and limit of sidewise play of the wheels, while four vertical rubbers on each side carry the weight and take vertical shocks. They arc of pure rubber one inch round, about 12 inches long normally lengthening out under load to about eighteen inches. The sliding collars are about one inch wide but should be twice this, as unless made a very tight fit on main post, the play comes on the two clamps holding the upright links rigid. These latter clamps are not cast, being steel as per sketch. The distance rod between wheels is of steel tubing instead of wood, with a neat ball and socket joint at each end. The front beams or wing bars are inserted in a tube on the fuselage as usual, but rear beams are bolted directly to ash uprights strut dispensing with the elaborate box or casting of aluminum. This is a simple and efficient method, when all parts are of proper size and reinforced with steel plates as on this machine. The tires are Ooodyears.

The rear skid is of 1" rattan fastened to fuselage with wire wrapping and then taped.

The Planes have f>' X" chord, camper 4 si " very neatly made. Itibs of spruce are of I beam cross section. Learns arc of ash. Good-

year covering. 3/32" Cable is used for top guys and warping; solid wire for fuselage.

A 40-60 Elbridge Aero Special is set in the fuselage ingeniously, taking into account the small compass of fuselage the height of the engine and the danger of a too low centre of thrust and propeller clearance from the ground. A length of angle iron is bolted at sides to center uprights. To angles on this are bolted the wooden engine bearers; 2x3 pine, by the way, instead of heavy ash, oak or lamination.

At the rear engine is suspended directly from tubing socket that holds the wing for ends. The thrust is taken by two diagonal tubes running from rear of engine bed to front uprights, and, of course, by the front angle iron.

The carburetor is a G. & A., Bosch Magneto. Weight about 550 lbs. with fuel and water. Mr. Hamilton has made some very pretty flights straight away, with under 200 lbs. thrust, which is decidedly complimentary to both his constructive and flving ability.

CLEVE T. SHAFFER,

KLIES WITH SMALL POWER

The pictures show George Loose, a San Franciscan aviator, flying his biplane with a 25 horsepower two cylinder motor of local make. That so large a machine of this character should fly with an engine of so little power is very creditable. Steel tubing has been used for the skid struts and one notices a novel system of bracing. During the San Francisco meet Loose tried out a now machine and rather than run into the crowd which had encroached upon the course, deliberately wrecked the aeroplane, with great peril to himself.

Lieut. Scott Preparing for a Bomb-Dropping

SCOTT II03II1 UKOIM'KIt TRIALS.

A few unofficial trials made by Lieut. R. E. Scott at Washington of his bomb dropping: device during the month of October proved fairly successful. It was impossible to get up to an altitude of more than 300 feet on account of the weight of Scott, pi incipally, and

his bombs. According to his tables with which projectiles may be dropped with almost theoretically perfect accuracy—as perfect as gun fire—the element of possible inaccuracy is greater at such low altitudes. The short space of time given the operator to consult his table and set his telescope at the correct

The Scott Bomb Dropper. 179

angle at such an altitude is not sufficient to obtain from the device the results of which it should be capable. A thousand feet elevation is the lowest at which it should be worked. Even at the 300-foot height, a square of canvas some four or five feet square used as a target, the bombs came within ten feet of it.

The trials were very much hurried and no great preparations were made. The operator had to lie down on the Army's Wright machine between the aviator and the engine, in this crowded space he was hampered in the necessary movements for the working of the device. A very full description of the apparatus was given in the August issue.

XKW PILOTS.

The following are new aeroplane pilots whose certificates were granted by the Aero Club of America on October 18:

04 Jesse Seligman (Moisant), Mineóla, Sept. 24.

65 Harold Kantyer (Moisant), Mineóla, Sept. 6.

66 Mortimer F. Bates (Moisant), Mineóla, Oct. 15.

67 ("apt. George W. McKay (.Moisant),

Mineólo, Oct. 15.

68 Phillips Ward Page (Wright), Oct. 10,

Nassau Boulevard 00 Clifford L. Webster (Wright), Oct. 10,

Nassau Boulevard 70 Claude Couturier (Wright), Nassau

Boulevard

Spherical balloon certificate 43 has been granted to Major Samuel Reber.

71 Beryl j. Williams (Curtiss Type), Aug. 26,

Los Angeles., Calif.

72 Fred. De Kor (Curtiss Type), Oct. 14,

Santa Ana, Calif.

73 Max T. Lillie (Wright Type), Oct. 28,

St. Louis.

74 r>r. II. \V. Walden (Walden Monoplane),

Sep. 22, Mineóla, X. Y.

Xew Headquarters for the I. O. C. System.

The International Oxygen Company has removed its New York headquarters from 68 Nassau Street to 115 Broadway, where increased facilities have been secured for transacting its steadily growing business.

The new location is especially well fitted for the company's needs and easy of access for parties coming into New York City who may want to investigate the methods of the I. O. C. system of oxygen and hydrogen manufacture for commercial purposes.

The success of the I. O. C. system, since its introduction into this country a few months ago would indicate a continued increase in the company's business with still greater accommodations in the near future.

From the Hall-Scott Factory.

The Hall-Scott Company find business brisk, and are extremely busy at their factory. Their pay roll shows that they are now employing nearly forty men, and they have been running overtime for the past few months, and it looks as if they would continue to do so for the next few months to come.

This Company is now putting on the market a laminated propeller of selected mahogany, and is finding a ready sale for it. It is hand polished and brought to a higher finish than even the French blades. To protect propellers in shipment they are nicely fitted to a shipping box provided with hinged cover, lock and keys, and felt stockings are pulled over the ends of blades before boxing. These blades, of not over S' diameter, boxed ready for shipment, sell for $75.00 f.o.b. San Francisco. The Company is also continuing with their spruce blades, made up from the same templates, but not brought to such a high finish. These blades, crated for shipment are now selling for $50.00, f.o.b. San Francisco.

Japanese Aviation "Fans."

fOMI'AMKS.

Hudson Aviation Co., Cleveland. O., $5,000; Mark A. Copeland, Jos. A. Schlitz. W. S. Mitchell, G. B. Kennerdell, W. A. Greenland.

American xVieupost Aei oplane Co., 32 Liberty St., New York. Exclusive selling rights for United States. Capital $50,000. Allan A, Ryan, I. V. McGlone, Kenneth R. Howard, M. F. Greggs, John Nordhouse.

Hamilton Aeroplane Co., Redlands, Oalif., $25,000; W. G. T. Hamilton, George E. Henrv and J. W. Neblett.

Froberg Aeroplane Co., Richmond, $75,000. J. R. Froberg, J. H. Edelen, Jones, B. E. Farrell, Frank W. Smith.

Temple (Tex.), Aero Club. $5,000.

Calif. J. R.

Will

buy an aeroplane to give flights to advertise that city.

Western Aeroplane Co., Chicago. $1.200; J. J. Douglas, Chas. T. Bushong and Adolph Katz.

Sather-Phillips Aeroplane Co., Chattanooga, Tenn.. $10,000; G. J. Sather, Taul Andress, J. E. Gross and others.

Wilson Aero Co., Buffalo. N. Y., $100,000; John A. Wilson, Geo. J. Rohmer and John P. Abbott.

The Eagle Aerial Navigation Company, San Diego, Cal. Capital, $50,000. Incorporators, Charles R. Mitchell. CarL Johnson, Bertie Mitchell.

Mid-West Aviation Company, Sioux Falls, la., to manufacture aeroplanes, ice-boats and tools. Capital, $25,000.

Securitv Aircraft Company, Shreveport, La., to manufacture aircraft. Capital. $250,000. Incorporators, Dr. C. W. Lawrence, B. Cannon, J. .1. Hudson, T. D. Coupland, Otis Williams1 and E. M. Bramlette Company was oi-erajiized in Longview, Tex., but will On,. ~ Shreveport.

The Dean Manufacturing Company secured permission from the secretary of the State of Ohio, on October 5, to increase its capitalization from $100,000 to $150,000, in order to develop aeronautical motors.

Timothy L. Woodruff, Allan Ryan, Chicago Aero Club and all other meet promoters would find a better field in Japan than in America. The picture shows part of the crowd which paid 400,000 admissions to see Captain Thomas S. Baldwin, "Bud" Mars and Tod Shriver fly at Osaka, Japan. The thought of this is enough to drive a fair manager to distraction, or destruction, whichever is correct. If only a fortieth this number had paid to see the "scientific experiments" on Sundays end the common, or garden, variety of flying on weekdays at the Nassau Meet what an encouragement it would have been to the Honorable Mr. Woodruff.

The Wolverine Aeronautic Co., of Albion, Mich., has completed a biplane for the Chinese revolutionary party. It is 30 ft. double surface, designed to be taken from crate and set up for two passengers in two hours. At present the outfit includes both a Gray Eagle and a Roberts motor. A representative of the revolutionary party visited the East recently and was given a demonstration at the Hempstead fields by another concern and apparently the idea of using aeroplanes was given up at the time.

The Curtiss aviator Charles F. "Walsh who has been flying in the Territory of New Mexico for the past two weeks, has established a record by flying at Raton, New Mexico, which is situated at an altitude of 7,000 feet above sea level. Heretofore aviators have had difficulty in flying at places where the altitude was more than 6,000 feet because of the very rare atmosphere Shd the peculiarly dry climate. He ascended to a height of 1,500 feet above the earth.

Nils Nelson, Bar Harbor, Me., has made a Curtiss-copy 'plane and equipped it with a Maximotor engine and is now flying it around his home town.

College Park from the Army Aeroplane.

\SCK\SIO\.S.

Pittsfleld—A. Leo Stevens, W. D. Munn and Miss Mary Van Rensimer to Hawley, Mass.

Pittsfleld, Oct. 14. Jay B. Benton, H. H. Clayton and Prank Bowker in the "Boston" to Hartford, Ct. Dur. 2 hr.

Salt Lake City, Sep. 20. R. Vvr. Campbell and J. Frank Judge in the Salt Lake Aero Clubs new balloon "Salt Lake City" to Heber Citv, being up for 4 hrs. 15 min.

Pittsfleld, Oct. 17. Wm. Van Sleet and Walter Richardson in the "Pittsfleld" to Glens Falls, N. Y. Dur. 3 V2 hrs.; dist. 64 miles.

Fort Omaha. Nebr., Oct. 20 Capt. Chas. De F. Chandler, U.S.A.. took Major Samuel Reber and Major Russell of the Signal Corps up for four trips in the Signal Corps' balloon. After that, Major Reber made one ascent alone and has now completed requirements for pilot certificate.

One other ascent was made this year in the "Signal Corps No. 11" C35,000 ft.), on May 15th, Captain Chandler and four other oflieers, landing near Woodbine, Iowa, a distance of 34 miles. Up 50 minutes. Hydrogen gas is used in the Signal Corps balloons.

AIIMY DIRIGIBLE Ul\

Three ascents were also made by Captain • 'handler in the Government Dirigible No. 1 who returned to the College Park aviation school on October 20.

Salt Lake, Oct. 13. R. N. Campbell, W. IT. Young and Lieut. N. P>. Green in the "Salt Lake City" to near Kcho, Utah. lTp I hrs. 15 min. greatest attitude 11,160 feet "above sea level."

Los Angeles, Oct. 10th. Malloon "Peoria" from Luna Park, Los Angeles, with Chas. P.. Saunders and Albert Carter. Highest elevation 7.S00 feet. Landed at 4.2<> l>. M in buckthorn brush in mountains back of Soldiers Home where Saunders got out and

putting in ballast to make, up for his weight, Carter rode the balloon across the mountains landing in San Fernando valley near Van Nuys an hour later.

Holmesburg. Pa., Nov. 4. A. T. Atherholt, P. T. Sharpless and H. L. Hess in the balloon of the Pennsylvania Aero Club to New Brunswick, N. J. Duration 4 hrs. They passed over the Princeton-Harvard football game. James H. Hare, piloted by Oscar Brindley in Collier's Wright flew over the game and photographed it from aloft.

Pittsfleld, Mass., Oct. 23. Ernest G. Schmolck, Emile Dubonnet, Mme. Dubonnet and Mile. Vrasdi to Springfield in a two-hour trip.

U. S. PATENTS ISSUED

(Continuedfrom page 1SS)

Carl E. Ritter. Petaluma, Calif., 1,006,2S2, Oct. 17, 1911. HELICOPTER.

Samuel S. Yarrington, Wilmington, Del., 1,006,335, Oct. 17, 1911. Combination AERO-PLAN R and HELICOPTER with GYROS-COP 10 attachment.

Peter Peterson, San Francisco, Calif., 1,006,592. Oct. 24, 1911. Aeroplane with TILTABLE PLANKS.

H. M. Benson. Crescent, Nev.. 1,006.624, Oct. 24, 1911. Combination AEROPLANE and BALLOON.

Thomas F. Dunn. New York N. Y., 1,006,734,

Oct. 24, 1911. DlRIG1 RLE. James Ilavton, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1.006.S46.

Oct. 24, 1911. AEROPLANE with FLANES

capable of ROTATION. Samuel B. McTlenrv, Chicago. Ills., 1006.967,

Oct. 24, 1911. PROPELLING MECHANISM. Robert 10. Miller, Pittsburgh. Pa., 1.006.969,

Oct. 24, 1911. Filed Älar. 3, 1911. CONTROL

SYSTEM for AEROPLANES. Thomas F Dunn. New York. N. Y., 1,000.99*,

Oct. 24, 1911. DIRIGIBLE.

Words Cannot Express What 1 Woild Like to Say to Those Who Failed to Reid My Letter Opposite Page 18-i of the October Xomrer.

—E. L. JONES, Editor.

AERONAUTICS PRESS, inc.

250 Wat 54th St.. New York

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United States, S3.00 Foreign, S3.50

advertising representatives: e. f. ingraham adv. co.. 116 nassau st.. new york

Clifford w. bean. s park so.. Boston. Mass.

NO. 52 NOVEMBER, 1911 Vol. 9, No. 5

_copyright, ion, aeronautics press, inc.

Entered as second-class matter September 22, 1908, at the Postoffice New York, under the Act of March 3, 1879. AERONAUTICS is issued on the 30th of each month All copy must be received by the 20th. Advertising pages close on the 25th. :: :: :: :: :: :: #T Make all checks or money orders free of exchange ^ and payable to AERONAUTICS. Do not send currency. No foreign stamps accepted. :: :: ::

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St.

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BERNE—A. Francke's Sortiment.

FULLER ARGENTINE PACKAGE EXPRESS, Defensa 127, Buenos Aires.

CALL AVIATION ENGINE

{Continued from Page 1S5)

Lubrication is by a combination of splash and force feed, the oil being forced from a small gear pump to sight feeds in the cylinders over each piston and also to the crank case over every important bearing.

Ignition is by Bosch or Mea magneto as preferred supplemented by coil and batteries, two spark plugs being supplied to each cylinder so that both systems may be used together or independently.

The weight of the 50 h.p. is 1S5 lbs. and of the 100 h.p. 325 lbs. It will be seen that although the construction has not been slighted by cutting down parts, the weight is as small as that obtained in other engines of the same power.

THE NEW FRONTIER AERO MOTOR.

The illustration herewith submitted represents a remarkable development in aeroplane motors. It is shown mounted on testing block where it is run for a number of hours preparatory to a ten days' test with propeller and final inspection. When the picture was taken the motor was running with an S'i foot propeller by five foot pitch at a speed of 1100 r. p. m., mounted on testing

frame which is clearly shown of light construction. One feature is the absence of vibration which is indicated by the sharp lines of the engine.

This engine model A-l, is the product of the Frontier Iron Works, Buffalo, N. Y., who have spent the past two years developing and testing this motor for aerial purposes. It is of the v type, eight cylinder, four cycle. The makers claim it is faultless in design, workmanship and efficiency.

The cylinders, pistons and rings are of a mixture and grade of iron that has made the company's reputation famous as a good wearing and non-overheating metal, being used by thousands yearly. The crank case is aluminum, box type and is ribbed and braced in such a manner as to give stability and to resist undue strain.

The cam chamber is cast integral with the case and machined out to insure perfect alignment with no danger of parts loosening or becoming false timed.

The crank shaft is made from Krupps 31/f> chrome nickel steel, hollow, as is also the connecting rod and piston wrist pins, through which the lubricating system pumps a continuous How of oil from the reservoir, which is returned strained and continually used. All revolving shafts are run in imported annular ball bearings supported in specially designed housings with connections to the lubricating system.

The valves are of special alloy and construction which has been thoroughly tested to withstand long runs without adjustment or cleaning. The valve stems are operated through push rods adjustable for wear, they are hardened and run on steel balls, this feature eliminates the improper timing of valves. The intake and water manifolds are of copper, well designed for strength and capacity. All bolts and nuts are provided with ample protection against looseness through lock washers, castle nuts and copper pins.

This motor is equipped with carburetor, megneto, oil and gasolene tanks and radiator, this being the standard equipment. Propellers are extra but can be furnished if desired at a reasonable price.

In the design and manufacture of this motor the company had first in mind, regardless of expense to produce a power plant for aerial locomotion that could be relied upon for long runs and continual service and before offering it to the public have put it through severe long run tests. With ten gallons gasolene supply at 1200 R. P. M. carrying an 8*^ x 5 foot pitch propeller the motor has run without a miss for four hours and part of the time in a heavy downpour of rain, without protection, the magneto only being covered.

The company is now building these motors in dozens lots in their newly equipped factory.

THK ti)i'2 a-t'VLIXDER DETROIT.

Very recently the Detroit Aeroplane Company announced their 1912 model. For three seasons it has been their practice to incorporate the results of their improvements and research work in a new yearly model. While the chief difference between the 1910 and 1911 models was noticeable from their outside appearance, the new 1912 model power plant distinguishes itself from its predecessor through constructional and internal changes. The new model has many advantages. The omission of cap screws by replacing same with machined bolts locked with castle nuts and split key is decidedly an advance. In the present type there is not a single nut that remains unsecured. Another constructional detail is the introduction of chrome nickel steel as crank shafts and steel alloy as connecting rod material. This change was made necessary through the additional power and speed gained by the use of higher compression. The additional heat developed by the more instantaneous combustion was compensated through arrangement of auxiliary holes in the cylinder walls and the necessary change of the valve timing which is now slightly over-lapping. It is a well known fact that auxiliary holes have a certain unwelcome reaction on the lubrication and therefore one will find on the new model the necessary arrangement in form of an oil pump driven from the cam shaft and feeding the cylinder from a lubricating supply in the tank.

The power plant itself develops, according to the manufacturers, 28 brake horse power and when equipped with a seven ft., 3'4 ft. propeller delivers a stationary thrust of 250 to 2G0 lbs. at 1100 R.P.M. These propellers are copies of the Chauvier type and made by an automatic machine at the rate of four every 3% hours. The way in which they are made is most ingenious and deserves attention. The original propeller is cut in two and one half is cast in aluminum. This aluminum half acts as a master propeller and from it are made, first the right halves; then by turning it around ISO degrees the left halves of four propellers at one time. This method insures absolute correctness of both halves and when the propeller leaves the table it is mathematically balanced, provided the material is homogenous.

The company is giving, during the winter months, exhibitions throughout the states and Canada. A demonstration during November will be given in New York City, Boston, Baltimore, Philadelphia and Washington, D. C.

cJMONG MAKERS OF MOTORS

NEW ROBERTS MOTOR.

The Roberts Motor Co., of Sandusky, Ohio, have added a six cylinder aeronautical motor to their output. It follows very closely after their four cylinder model; in fact, the same cylinders are used on a longer crank case. All the features that have given such good satisfaction on the four have been retained on the six.

The power has been found to be in direct

The cylinders are cast of a special allov known as Aerolite, having a tensile strength of 38,000 lbs. and a specific gravity of 2.7. The metal is very dense and the bore shows less wear than cast iron and there is no tendency to cut. The cooling is well taken care of, circulation by gear pump.

The lubrication is by the use of grease cups on the main bearings and bv mixing oil with the gas.

Roberts Six-Cylinder Motor.

proportion to the number of cylinders, and according to the makers' tests the four gives 50 h.p. at 1100 r.p.m. and the six 75 h.p. at the same speed. Speeds greater than 1200 may be used with safety, the motors giving greater power at the higher speeds.

The timing device on this motor is worthy of special mention on account of its originality and successful operation. The Bosch magneto used is of the fixed spark type, variation in the timing being secured by the use of a helical gear to drive the armature shaft. This gear is slidably mounted on tne shaft and is operated by a couple of fingers and a warm gear which in turn are operated by a cable controlled by the operator.

The feature that the makers claim the most for. is the entire absence of back firing. This is due in part to the use of a rotary distributor and in part to the use of a Cellular bipass which is a feature of all Roberts motors.

Mr. J. T. Seely has recently been appointed Special Representative for The Roberts Motor Company of Sandusky Ohio. He may be reached at 7S1 Golden Gate Ave., San Francisco, and will cover the three Pacific Coast States, California, Oregon and Washington.

Mr. Seely is admirably fitted for his new work, having been connected with the El-bridge Engine Company of Rochester, X. Y. for the past three years as Secretary and Sales Manager. In this capacity he has had a great deal of valuable experience in aviation and marine work.

He is representing the complete line of Roberts aviation, marine, automobile and stationary motors. He will be more than willing at all times to give anyone interested in the above lines, the benefit of his wide experience, in recommending a Roberts Motor most suitable for the particular installation at hand.

Any inquiries addressed to Mr. Seely will receive his prompt attention.

CAM, AVIATION KXOI.NE.

The Aerial Navigation Company of Girard, Kansas, the builders of the Call Aviation Engine, have, in the design and construction of their 1912 engine, departed from the usual practice of cutting down the sizes of parts to the limit for the sake of lightness, and have made it their aim to produce an engine that would run all day at high speed and be free from breakage.

The engines are built in two sizes, a two cylinder opposed 50 h.p. and a four cylinder 100 h.p. The cylinders have a bore of G in. and a stroke of b\i ins. They are intended to be run at speeds of from 1,200 to 1,700 r.p.m.

The crank shaft is cut from a solid bar of chrome nickel vanadium steel and is solid throughout. The crank pin is cast of an aluminum alloy and is of ample section.

The cylinders and cylinders heads are cast separately of vanadium grey iron, and are re-

inforced at points where special stress is encountered. The cylinders are secured to the crank-case and the cylinder heads to the cylinders by one dozen steel cap screws respectively.

The water jackets are of aluminum *i inch in thickness, and are set in asbestos packing in grooves turned in the cylinders. Inside of these jackets are spiral guides which conduct the cooling water four times around the cylinder walls. The water jacket in the cylinder head is cored in, the valve seats being machined in the head, without valve cases, permitting the cooling water to come in direct contact with the valve seats. The water circulation is secured by the use of a large gear pump.

The valves are two inches in diameter and have a lift of 7 10 inch, both being mechanically operated. There are auxiliary exhaust ports uncovered by the piston on its down stroke to relieve the pressure on the exhaust valve. (Continued on page 1S3)

COMMUNICATIONS

G1IISOX I'HOl'KIiLEKS ON WIIKIHT.

Please take pity on a poor editor! In relating some of the doings at the Nassau Meet in the October number, mentioning in particular the extra speed made by Beatty after a change of propellers, the statement was made as follows:

•'Beatty broke a crankcase of one engine and blew out the cylinder of another and it may be that the new propellers speeded the engine up to a greater degree than consistent with good policy."

The fact is that the aeroplane made more speed for which the Gibson propeller company claims credit. Mr. Gibson states that no change whatever was made in either pitch or diameter when making the new propellers. We have received from him the following letter:

Kinloch, Mo., November G, 1911. Dear Mr. Gibson:

Referring to the notice on page 135 of "Aeronautics" for October in regard to your propellers on my Wright machine, I think it only proper that you should let that magazine know the true facts in the case, which are as follows :

The Gibson propellers in question were intended to be stronger than the Wright and proved to be so. Being accurately made did not "fight" each other and the speed of the machine naturally increased though the engine ran at the same speed as formerly.

After making several flights and breaking records for Wright machines, the engine broke the crank case, but not in any way as a result of the use of your'propellers. It was a pure accident, and to prove very emphatically that the propellers were not at fault, on November 4th, while making a cross country flight, my engine broke in exactly the same place, only in this instance the machine was equipped with Wright propellers which positively substantiates the above, and will be borne out by Mr. Albert Bond Rambert, president of the Aero Club of St. Bouis.

Now T wish to enlighten all those concerned as to the blowing out of the cylinder referred to in the same article. The engine in question was the one with which Sopwith fell in the ocean at Brighton Beach and after being in the salt water naturally deteriorated, which explains the weakness and accounts for its blowing out.

As you are aware, this same thing happened to Mr. Wilbur Wright at Governors Island and to Rodgers on his transcontinental flight.

Further, the Gibson propellers have stood the racket of all this engine trouble in a remarkable way. The back fires and bumps experienced during that period would have wrecked three or four of the propellers usually supplied with the machine, and finally, the Gibson propellers are flying the machine right along and are doing just as well as they did at the start and 1 stand ready to demonstrate the above.

Wishing you every success in the new field I remain,

Very truly yours,

(Signed) George W. Beatty.

Novice Trials and T ri l.n I :i 1 ion s.

To the editor;

The boys have asked me to write vou a letter about the 5 mile (light I made a few days ago over east Detroit and tell vou something about our aviation camp.

Five of us came to a school here last spring

to study aviation and learn to fly_Bill

McRobbie, formerly of Alabama; Arch Smith engineer and ex-Pnited States soldier who came from California; Tom Ross, athletic instructor and wrestler of British Columbia-

Fred June, a Detroit engineer; and myself from Freemont, Ohio. We gave up a couple of hundred each for tuition and spent a lot of time. But we soon saw the "Professor" could not teach us to fly. Even if he knew how, he had neither plane nor engine. Of course we kicked ourselves for soft suckers. But we did not like to jump on the professor for he was in worse than we were.

We took a fiekl on Marshland boulevard, near the Chalmers Hudson and Lozier factories and put up a tent. The tent was dining room, sleeping room, work shop and hangar. Ross gave us the kind of cooking he learned while mining in Alaska. We stuck it through—camping out in the city for nearly five months.

After a good deal of preliminary work we built two Bleriot monoplanes, two Curtiss biplanes, and a Demoiselle monoplane. The engine that we got for the Demoiselle ran one minute and in that time travelled a block, turned the plane over and wrecked it without even getting off the ground. Smith risked his neck there.

Another engine was bought for a Bleriot. We had to do some figuring and running around to get the plane properly balanced. By that time the engine got out of order and we had to send it back to the factory.

Then we got a 50-horsepower Maximotor for one of the Curtiss planes. I was elected the "goat". After a day or two mowing down weeds and rooting up the field generally I started up twice, shut my teeth and shook hands with myself; "It's good luck or good-by to Johnny". Both times it was pretty nearly "good-by". First the plane took a head dive and the landing gear sloughed off. Next time sire flopped on her side and a wing crumpled, besides what happened to me.

In a few days, as soon as I could stand up and sit down smoothly, I climbed in again. The roar of the engine brought around the usual swarm of our old friends, the automobile testers.

The propeller was a C-footer running nearly 1 400. It brought the plane into the air inside 100 feet. Before T realized it I was away over the trees and out of the field. x must admit things felt a little wobbly at first.

When 1 got up about 50(1 feet high over Jefferson the big pay-enter street ears looked like stubby caterpillars. 1 could hear the cheering from the cloud of specks below— crowds of people gathered from the cars and autos stopped to watch. I was told afterwards that they mistook me for Coffyn.

After getting a good bird's eye view of the town I circled back toward camp. Easy? 1 was just lifruriiifr whether T would start from New York or Boston on that little $50,000 cross-country trip.

The plane was coming down on the last glide over 70 foot poplar trees when it started to slide down and forward on the left. I threw out the ailerons, shoved up the elevator with my last ounce and steered to the right, but—down, down she came in a half circle like a lame duck. Toppled over on her baek.

"lie's gone sure". 1 heard the auto men say as they drove up to carry me away.

1 picked myself up—in pretty good shape considering everything. The plane looked like a wreck all right, but the motor upside down was tearing away with the stub of the propeller as if nothing had happened.

Anyhow we were satisfied our planes would fly. The accident, 1 believe, was caused by the eddy and up-current in the wind as it went over the trees.

The season was nearly over and we had spent most of our money (some of us far over $1,000) so we decided to break up for the winter. Ross lias gone back to British Columbia. A friend of his there already has

a plane that has made short flights. He has arranged for a Maximotor from Detroit and will- attempt the first fight across Puget Sound from Victoria to Seattle. The rest of us are going into the automobile business for the winter and are storing the planes, etc.

By spring we will have two hydroplanes ready for flights on the water. We are now arranging for a large aviation field fronting on the Detroit river bank. Everything will be prepared for building planes to sell and for testing them.

Respectfully yours,

JOHN C. KUCK.

OA THE GYROSCOPE.

New York, November 8, 1911. To the Editor of "Aeronautics," 250 West 54th Street, New York City.

Dear Sir:—■

In reference to the article of the October issue on "A Popular Scientific Explanation of the Motives of the Gyroscope and Its Application in Aviation" by Mr. Emile Buergin, kindly allow me to express my opinion as to the correction of Mr. Beurgin's statements.

It seems to me that the question of the gyroscope, also gyrostat, may be summed up in a few words. The Gyrostat is not a Gyroscope.

A gyrostat when in operation was supposed to point its axis forever toward any star or position in the universe not including the planets in our solar system. Lately, it has been shown by the Sperry Gyrostat compass now used in the United States Navy, that it does seek the true North Pole, because it has been brought lately to a practically perfect balance before spinning.

The only true gyroscope is that which has a variable radius vector. It then is immediately transformed into another satellite or

moon to the earth. That is, it precesses, nutates, perturbates, and performs all the functions of a moon or planet.

"When the true gyroscope (brought out by Mr. Edward Durant of New York City) spins, it continues forever in an elliptical orbit plane tangential to or paralled with the earth's surface.

What we conceive of as weight, mass and gravity are all controlled from the center of the orbit of this gyroscope. That is to sav, while it is spinning weight, mass and gravity are all cancelled from any universal proposition we may entertain. In other words, we may entertain gravity, weight and mass only when the gyroscope is not spinning. Then it is a local affair.

It is also an electron model in accord with the electron theory advanced by Prof. J. J. Thomson, who received the Alfred B. Nobel $40,000.00 prize in 1906.

The electrically operated gyroscope now on exhibition at the New York World Building, is a new mechanical motion, and the fundamental law governing it has not been accepted by any scientific institution in authority.

Now the fact is, scientists told us we could not fly, find since we have flown, they are perfectly at sea as to the fundamental laws governing the correct gyroscope.

Today it is utterly impossible to obtain in writing under their own signature, what any professor or scientist believes to be the basic or fundamental law governing the true gyroscope, and yet they pretend to know all about the gyroscope.

My advice is for those interested in the subject, to see the electrically operated gyroscopic moon in operation at the World before attempting to solve the problem of aero-gyroscopics.

Yours truly,

Samuel Wein,

51 East 9S St., City.

AERO MART

WORK POIf XOTH1XG. High School Graduate would be glad to work for instruction in aviation. Want to study care, construction, engines, with a chance to fly. Percy Williamson, 40 Holmes st., Providence, R. I.

Nov.

TRIPLAXE—32 ft. by 25 ft.-rear control (headless) without power, $200. Laminated propellers, anv reasonable pitch up to 8% ft., $20. 20 ft. biplane gliders $30. 30 ft. Curtiss-type biplanes without power $475. Address John Frier, 5833 Julian St., St. Louis, Mo. Nov.

Hl.EHIOT XI monoplane for sale at $2200; complete with 30-35 Viall engine. Demonstration and instruction free. Same machine that M. Lewkowicz flew over New York. Perfect condition. Newly covered with Goodyear fabric. Address Bleriot, care AERONAUTICS.

ROOKIAOS WAXTEU. Amedee V. Rey-bnrn, Jr., with 100 h.p. Bleriot monoplane is now booking engagements for exhibition flights. Apply to 5305 Delraar Avenue. St. Louis, Mo. Aug. 12.

IILEHIOT PARTS:—Will tit genuine Bleriot 'Planes; ribs, rudders, castings, alighting-gears. Low prices, quick delivery. The Western Aeroplane Supply House, Sedalia, Mo.

Nov.

Ul IS HER I ZED FA Hit IC:—Get a sample of our rubberized fabric before covering your planes. The Western Aeroplane Supply House, Sedalia, Mo. Nov.

XVAXTED—Partner with some capital to take interest in and management of aviation exhibition company. Apply to R. V. A., care AERONAUTICS._Nov.

Fit EACH motor, new, 4-cylinder, for sale. Good for biplane. Make offer. Queen Aeroplane Co., 197 St. & Amsterdam Av., New York._T. F.

FOlt SALIO Detroit 2-cylinder opposed 30 h.p. motor, propeller, carburetor and magneto, 250 lbs. thrust. First draft $285 takes it. Address Herbert Doyle, 321 Lake St.. Rochester, N. Y._ Nov.

J. E1J. SHERIFF, Mechanical Engineer and Inventor. Original Designs a specialty. 125 Watts St.. New York._Dec.

FOR SAl-E: -Very slightly used l^-inch Schebler carburetor. Aluminum aviation model all complete. Address A. V. Reyburn, Jr., 5305 Delmar Blvd.. St. Louis, Mo. Nov.

SOPWITH'S. 70 n.p., two-seater Bleriot, 64 m. p. h. speed. Racing wings and two sets touring wings. Duplicate parts of everything. Around $6.500. Address Sopwith, care Aeronautics. 250 West 54 Street. New York.

x<OR SALE—A bargain. One De Chenne 50 H. P. Power Plant complete with propeller, etc., with or without aeroplane for same. Has made only about 100 flights and good as new. Reason for selling, closing for season. Correspondence solicited.

DeCHENNE MOTOR & AEROPLANE CO.,

AVIATOR—Do you want to back or employ an aviator? State your proposition with full particulars. Address; Arjr, care AERONAUTICS.

u

PATENTS

ISSUED

1,003,714, Sept. 19, J. W. Dolson. PARACHUTE for aeroplanes.

1,003,721, Sept. 19, J. W. Dunne. London, England, assignor to Blair Athall Aeroplane Syndicate. Piled April 1, 1910. The object of the present invention is to obtain a form of aeroplane which by virtue solely of the arrangement and form of its SUPPORTING SURFACES possesses automatic stability in still air, and also, without requiring any alteration of its center of gravity or of its surfaces, in very high winds.

The invention consists in constructing each of the main supporting surfaces as a rear-wardly projecting rigid wing, the angle of incidence of which decreases from the center toward the tips and in some cases changes sign and compensating for the decreased lifting power of the tips by shaping the wing so as to compress air between a positively inclined portion of the wing near the center and a negatively inclined portion in the region of the tip.

The invention also consists in so constructing each wing that the upper face may be defined as traced by a straight line traveling on two guide curves one of which may be infinitely small, so arranged that the resulting sui-face swept out is convex toward its upper side in all sections taken fore and aft and laterally, the angle of incidence gradually decreasing from the center to the ends of the wings and in some cases changing sign, and the lower faces of the wings being preferablv concave. See AERONAUTICS of March, 1911.

1,003,530, Sept. 19, W. R. Smith. LATERAL STABILITY.

1,003,411, Sept. 19, H. H. Bales. Auxiliary device to fly an aeroplane, consisting of a number of SKYROCKETS.

1,003,670, Sept. 19, R. M. Thompson. Device to dampen oscillating of pendulum-operated STABILITY means.

1,003,605, Sept. 19, L. B. Holland. RUNNING GEAR in which wheels spring up above ^kids when aeroplane leaves the ground.

1,003,687, Sept. 19, E. H. Andrae. Novel FLYING MACHINE.

1,003,756, Sept. 19, L. C. Kincannon. Improvement to previous patent.

1,003,782, Sept. 19, C. Ostermai. HELICOPTER-PARACHUTE.

1,003,851, Sept. 19, P. & L. Zampol. Novel AEROPLANE.

1.003.858, Sept. 19, M. G. Adams. LONGITUDINAL STABILITY device comprising an elevator operated automatically through a controlling surface actuated by the wind.

1.003.859, Sept. 19, M. G. Adams. Modification of the above.

1,003.885, Sept. 19, J. .1. Day. HELICOPTER AEROPLANE.

1,004,058, Sept. 26, \V. H. McKeen. OSCILLATING WINGS.

1,004,117, Sept. 26, De Witt C. Vought. AEROPLANE with car containing motor, etc, free to swing.

1,004,367, Sept. 26, P. E. Chamberlin. AERIAL TORPEDO, the whole aeroplane containing explosive shell is directed toward tne desired object, the aviator dropping first in a parachute.

1,004.378, Sept. 26, W. A. Crawford-Frost. Novel AEROPLANE.

Chas. H. Duncan, New York, N. Y., 1,004,558, Oct. 3, 1911. Novel AEROPLANE.

Jhas. H. Duncan, New York, N. Y., 1,00 4,559, Oct. 3, 1911. AILERONS operated by the tilting of planes; also variable center of gravity.

Charles A. Kuenzel, Buena Vista, Colo., 1,004,662, October 3, 1911. DIRIGIBLE.

Francisco Filiasi, Naples, Italy, 1,004,761, Oct. 3, 1911. DEVICE TO KEEP AEROPLANES AFLOAT ON WATER.

Mihaly Mihalyfi, New York, N. Y., 1,004, 805, Oct. 3, 1911. PROPELLER.

Thomas Malcolm Walling, Tinton Falls, N. J., 1,004,944, Oct. 3, 1911. Automatic transverse STABILITY.

Robert P. Hall, Searchlight, Nev., 1,005,026, Oct. 3, 1911. Novel AEROPLANE.

Michael H. Whalen, New York, N. Y., 1,005,089, Oct. 3, 1911. SUPPORTING SURFACES.

Romeo Wankniuller, Berlin, Germany, 1,005,097, Oct. 3, 1911. BALLOONS.

Ernest Peter Vincent, New York, N. Y.,1,005,-120, Oct. 3, 1911. BUDDER for Aeroplanes.

Carl Hartmann, Woodside, N. Y., 1,005,205, Oct. 10, 1911. STEPPED AEROPLANE.

Christian F. Kohlruss, Augusta, Ga., 1,005,232, Oct. 10, 1911. Flying-machine with central and side planes arched from side to side and a combination of rudders.

Henrv \V. Mattoni, New York, N. Y., 1,005,258, Oct. 10, 1911. Foldable supplementary SURFACES.

Chas. R. Mitchell, San Diego, Cal., 1,005,272, Oct. 10, 1911. HYDRO-AEROPLANE.

john C. Schleicher, Mount Vernon, N. Y., 1,005,327, Oct. 10, 1911. Novel AEROPLANE.

Samuel Weber, Ossining, N. Y., 1,005,3S1, Oct. 10, 1911. Combination BALLOON and AEROPLANE.

Auld Weinberg de Meir, Providence, R. 1., 1,005,569, Oct. 10, 1911. SAFETY SUIT.

William A. Crawford-Frost, Baltimore, Md., 1,005,609, Oct. 10, 1911. Combination SUPPORTING PLANE and PARACHUTE.

Carl V. Johnson, Goldfield, Nev.. 1,005,640, Oct. 10, 1911. Flying machine with BALANCING TIPS pivoted to ends of planes.

Willis 1. Wood, Glenhaven, Wise, 1,005,759, Oct. 10, 1911. WINDSHIELD.

Osmond T. Belcher, Los Angeles, Cal., 1,005,127, Oct. 10, 1911. Supporting surface having end portions separate and movable about a pivot so as to preserve EQUILIBRIUM.

Silas J. Conyne, Chicago, 111., 1,005,810, Oct. 17, 1911. KITE.

David Crockett, Birmingham, Ala., 1,005,812, Oct. 17, 1911. FEATHERING PROPELLER.

Walter I. Pennock, Philadelphia, Pa., 1,005,871, Oct. 17, 1911. CAPTIVE BALLOON.

Charles Michael Wanzer, Urbana, Ohio, 1.005, 908, Oct. 17, 1911. Means for LAUNCHING AEROPLANES.

Joseph C. Morris, Columbus, Ohio, 1,005,988, Oct. 17, 1911. Combination Aeroplane, Helicopter, Balloon and Parachute.

Edgar John Crawford, Seattle, Wash.. 1,005,941, Oct. 17, 1911. SAFETY DEVICES for Balloons.

Thomas H. E. Folger, Corral, Idaho, 1,000.074,

Oct. 17, 1911. PROPELLING MECHANISM. Leon Marie Joseph Clement Lavavasseur, Pn-

teaux, France, 1,006,106, Oct. 17, 1911. HEL1-

COIDAL DEFORMATION. Amos A. Wvckoff, Santa Cruz, Calif., 1,006,171,

Oct. 17, 1911. Combination BALLOON and

AEROPLANE.

(Continued on page 182)

Wood Finishing for Aeroplanes

A Talk Before the Aeronautical Society By Professor A. H. SABIN

S^S^jS^jS^JS^jT may be laid down as a fundamental principle that a

sXt y good and durable finish can-

I (S^ not be had without a proper -I- S^J foundation. Fortunately,

m^y^y^yS^r-S the wood used in aeroplane

^^^u^u^ui^ construction is as a rule,

WM)WW$®§ quite dry; this is an essen" tial condition for proper finishing. The surface of the wood should be exactly finished to the correct shape; for while paint may hide minor defects, varnish displays and magnifies them. You are all familiar with the use of the rasp, file and sandpaper, which should be carefully and faithfully used; it may be added that in most large towns glass-paper may also be had which for fine surfacing has some advantages over sandpaper.

In using any kind of varnish or paint it is necessary to have each coat well dried before a following coat is applied.—It is not always enough to have it appear so, but time must be allowed for hardening throughout. Perhaps the most common way of finishing woodwork of this class is with shellac varnish, which is a solution of shellac resin (gum shellac) in alcohol. The solvent may be ordinary grain alcohol, the only objection to which is that it is expensive; denatured alcohol is also used but much of this contains kerosene, often as much as 207c and varnish made with such alcohol is slow to dry, and cannot be recommended for rapid work. Wood alcohol makes good shellac but its vapor is somewhat poisonous; however in large well ventilated rooms, such as are necessary for aeroplane building, the danger is slight, and when the amount of varnish used is small, as is commonly the case, it may be negligible. Shellac varnish appears to dry with extreme rapidity; but this is not altogether the fact. The first coat dries quickly, sinking into the wood; and a second coat may be applied two or three hours later; but at least a day should then elapse before another coat is applied, and after that two or three days should be allowed between coats. Otherwise, if several coats be applied in rapid succession, although each may seem dry to the touch, it will be found that the result is a layer of a somewhat waxy consistency, which will not become quite hard for a long time, and is one of the most vexations and troublesome things imaginable.

If you have several coats of this varnish, well dried, you may, if you like, rub down the surface with pumice and cold water. For this you should have a felt pad, three or

four inches square and half an inch or more in thickness. This may be had of dealers in painters' supplies. Wet this thoroughly with water, sprinkle on some finely powdered pumice stone, and rub the surface lightly but continuously until it has become smooth. Use plenty of cold water. 'Then wash it clean and dry it with a clean dry cloth or chamois leather. It is then, after air-drying for a time, in condition to receive more varnish. The final surface may, after rubbing in this way, be polished by rubbing with a polishing-powder, such as the finest rotten-stone, and may receive a finishing touch by rubbing with fine dry flour.

Shellac is ordinary yellow or orange in color; but white shellac may also be had. This latter is made by bleaching the yellow shellac resin with chlorine. It is not as durable as the other, but is probably the varnish which discolors the wood least of any which you can properly use. Shellac is not very durable when exposed to the weather, but neither are aeroplanes, and within doors it is durable.

Other varnishes are made from linseed oil combined with certain resins, which are obtained from tropical countries.—The most important qualities of such varnishes naturally depend on the proportion of the oil and the resin. The more oil is used, the more elastic and durable will be the varnish; the more resin is used, the harder and more brilliant it will be, and quicker to dry.

Such are called oleoresinous varnishes, and of this sort are probably nine-tenths of all the varnishes used in this country for all purposes.

A suitable oleoresinous varnish may be applied directly to the wood, if desired, as was done with shellac; and in this way a foundation and finally a finish may be obtained. But it is more usual to prepare the wood by the use of a filler, as it is called; something to fill up the pores of the surface of the wood. This may be what is known as a paste filler, the best of which are composed of silica, that is, powdered quartz rock, ground to a fine powder and mixed with a little hand-drying varnish. This paste filler is thinned with turpentine and applied to the wood. When nearly dry it is rubbed hard with a stiff brush, or sometimes with a handful of curled hair, or excelsior, to rub it well into the pores of the wood, and to remove the excess. When this is quite dry, it may be lightly rubbed with fine sandpaper, and then the varnish may be applied.

(continued on page ¿2.1)

Competition of Military Aeroplanes

By Lieut. RILEY E. SCOTT, Foreign Representative Held under the Auspices of the French Ministry of War

S^I^S^jS^J^P^ tlle °f November, 1910, the French Minister of War, X""V SSyt General Brim, issued a pro-i 1 v^f gram for a competition of vi^c military aeroplanes, to be-

!>£t gin on the first day of

^(^^^(^ October, 1911, and to con-S^S^KSS^j^j tinue for at least one month. c^p^c§3b£sc§s Copies of this program were (^¡^¡^(^(¡2$ furnished to constructors at that time, thus giving them nearly a year to prepare for this event.

This great competition in which thirty-one aeroplanes were entered has just been completed and the final classification announced. The severity of the tests and the value of the prizes make this the greatest event in the history of military aviation and demonstrate to the world that France is at the head of military aviation and intends to maintain that position. In fact, this competition proves conclusively, and onpe for all, that the aeroplane has become an important factor in modern warfare, as the French call it, "the fourth arm," and that the nation which neglects the development of this arm does so at its peril.

The general conditions to be fulfilled by all competing machines were the following:

(a) To be constructed entirely in France with the greatest care and of the finest materials.

(b) To be able to fly, without landing, over a closed circuit of 300 kilometers (1S6 miles).

(c) To be able to carry over this course a useful load of 300 kilograms (GG0 pounds), in addition to gasoline, oil, water, etc., necessary for the trip.

(d) To be furnished with three seats, one each for the pilot, a mechanician and an observer.

(e) To be able to maintain a mean speed of at least GO kilometers per hour.

(I) To be able to alight without accident on stubble ground, plowed ground, sowed and clover land, and to be able to arise therefrom.

(g) To be easily transported, whether dismantled or not, by road and by rail, and to be easily and rapidly put together without minute adjustments.

After having satisfied a committee that it was entitled to enter the competition, each machine had to go through a severe series of tests, known as elimination tests. Thofe machines fulfilling all of the elimination tests were entitled to take part in the final test for classification. The elimination tests were as follows:

(a) The machine was weighed and all parts stamped. Any part could be replaced during the tests by an exact duplicate, but no modification was allowed, except in the case of propellers and wheels. It was necessary, however, to begin the tests over when a part was replaced.

(b) Each constructor was required to declare the amount of gas and oil required for a flight of 300 kilometers. The tanks were then gauged, and this amount of gas and oil put in before each flight.

(c) 1st flight, cross-country, carrying 300 kilograms useful weight and landing on clover ground between two flags about 75 meters apart. Each machine was then required to rise from the same ground, circle and re-alight on the same ground. The machine was then dismantled and taken to •the starting point by road.

(d) Same as above except the ground for landing was stubble.

(e) Same as (c) except the ground was plowed.

(f) Speed trial, a round trip of 60 kilometers, which was also a test as to the amount of gasoline and oil declared for 300 kilometers. In case there was a shortage of less than 10 per cent, it was necessary to recommence the trials. In case there was a shortage of more than 10 per cent., the machine was eliminated from the competition.

(g) Height test, each machine required to attain height of 500 meters in 15 minutes or less, carrying load of 300 kilograms. This test to be duplicated. This concluded the elimination tests.

The elimination tests had to be completed by October 31st, after which the proper committee designated the machines which, having satisfied all of the elimination tests, were to be admitted to the final test for classification. There was no appeal from the decision of this committee. The following machines, out of an entry of over thirty, were designated to take part in the final competition:

1 Nieuport monoplane

2 Deperdussin monoplanes 2 Breguet biplanes

1 H. Farman biplane

2 M. Farman biplanes 1 Savary biplane

The final race over a course of 300 kilometers, known as the classification test, was as follows: "This test comprises a return-trip flight of a length of 300 kilometers, without alighting, carrying a useful load of

300 kilograms, the departures being given by the committee on a day fixed by it and at intervals of five minutes in the order previously determined by lot." Contestants were allowed three trials each. After one of the most interesting races in the history of aviation, in which eight out of the nine designated machines completed the prescribed circuit, the following classification was announced:

1. YVeyman (Nieuport monoplane, 100 H.P. Gnome motor, Chauvière propeller, average speed, 116.9 kilometers per hour.)

2. Moineau (Bréguet biplane, 140 H.P. Gnome Motor, Chauvière propeller average speed, 95 kilometers per hour.)

3. Prévost (Deperdussin monoplane, 100 H.P. Gnome motor, Chauvière propeller, average speed, ST.5 kilometers per hour.)

4. Brégi (Bréguet biplane, 100 H.P. Gnome Motor, Chauvière propeller average speed, S7 kilometers per hour.)

5. Fischer (H. Farman biplane, 100 H.P. Gnome motor, Chauvière propeller, average speed, 84.4 kilometers per hour.)

6. Barra (M. Farman biplane, 70 H.P. Renault motor, Chauvière propeller, average speed, 76 kilometers per hour.)

7. Rénaux (M. Farman biplane, 70 H.P. Renault motor, Chauvière propeller, average speed, 72.3 kilometers per hour.)

S. Frantz (Savary biplane, 70 H.P. Labor-Aviation motor, Chauvière propeller, average speed, 67 kilometers per hour.)

According to the original program, the following rewards were to be given to the winners, although it is said that supplementary orders will be given to those constructors who made a good showing but were not classed among the winners:

To the constructor of the first machine, the sum of 100,000 fr. upon the delivery of the machine to the State; an order for ten

machines at 40,000 fr. each, with a bonus on each machine of 500 fr. for each kilometer greater than 60 made by the winning machine.

To the constructors of the machines classed second and third, orders for six and for four machines, respectively, for which the sum of 40,000 fr. each will be paid, with a bonus as mentioned above.

It will thus be seen that the prizes, in the shape of orders, are as follows:

NIEUPORT.

For the winning machine......... $20,000

10 machines, at 40,000 fr........... 80,000

Bonus on 10 machines............. 56,900

BREGUET.

6 machines at 40,000 fr............. $4S,000

Bonus on 6 machines.............. 35,000

DEPERDUSSIN.

4 machines at 40,000 fr............ $32,000

Bonus on 4 machines.............. 27,500

Grand total $299,400 Scale drawings and full details of the Deperdussin were published in the October issue. In the current number will be found some interesting data on the Nieuport.

Geo. H. Schmidt has just installed a model 2 Maximotor in the Bleriot he had built by the National Aero Co. of Woodhaven, N. Y.

Reports from Honolulu indicate considerable activity bv P. A. Scbaefer of the well-known importing firm of G. E. Schaefer & Co., Ltd. His Maximotored plane is believed to be the sole aeroplane between San Francisco and Yoka-bama.

When we can see these things ahead of us it amazes us to find an aero club boasting because its clubhouse is the finest in the land, and yet find its membership composed of men who ask if parachute attachments wouldn't lie good.***** Soon we will have aero clubs as uroud of aeroplanes as they are today of clubhouses, and then great things will come.

Walter Brookins in N. Y. Times.

A view of the Etrich from Underneath.

The Etrich Monoplane VI-VIII

By FRITZ EDELSTEIN

FOREMOST Plac<3 amongst K£jj)^i£i\£&& the great pioneers of A &x mechanical flight must be za §iven t0 1§° Etrich, who is

the first Austrian aeroplane x£< builder. Not merely con-

s^j^js^l^js^ tent with constructing a r^(^r^(r^(^< machine that would only MMMMM Ay. he has probed more ^^]^^)^5 deeply into this problem, in v^X-^x^x^-tx^ order to evolve an aeroplane naturally stable in a disturbed; medium. From the flight pioneers Dunne and Weiss in England and Etrich in Austria, whose researches have all resulted in the discovery of the improvement of longitudinal stability by the incorporation of the negatively-incident thrown-back wing tips, Etrich from the first has worked on independent lines.

Like our greatest aviators, the famous Wright Bros., Igo Etrich commenced his experiments by the study of gliding and bird flight in the year 189S, when he acquired the well-known Lilien thai-glider. Further he studied the propulsive organs of every kind of flying animal,—birds, insects, bats, flying fish, and even went to the extent of investigating the different species of flying seeds, those of sycamore and pine, for instance, which are so abundant in the vegetable kingdom.

Experiments with a Zanonia-form glider, of his own design, commenced in 1904 at Trautenau and during the year glides of up to three-quarters of a mile in length were made by lng. Wels.

It was not until 1909, that a power-driven monoplane was evolved, which, piloted by Illner, soon captured all Austrian records, Since then it has undergone improvement after improvement, and to-day is universally ranked among the most successful and most scientifically designed of air-craft.

Recently, Etrich has constructed three new types of his bird-winged monoplane, and we will describe first of all the type VI—VIII, called "The Dove".

The most outstanding features are the Zamonia-formed bird wings (Sheet I) which merit a careful study. Reference to the accompanying sketches and diagrams will

facilitate description. The front part of each wing, is rigidly constructed of webbed ribs, built over three longitudinal spars, of which the forward one forms the leading edge. This section is double surfaced (i. e. on both sides) with Continental fabric. Behind the rear beam extend bamboo continuations of the ribs, which, covered with a single surface of fabric, form a flexible trailing edge.

The camber is very slight, even at the point where the wings are attached to the fuselage, together with the angle of incidence, towards the tip, which is flat and presents successive negative angle of incidence to the direction of flight. The flexible wing tips are within turned up at the rear and so gi\ e the ends of both wings an effective negative angle of incidence. It is to this feature that the Etrich monoplane owes its pronounced degree of natural stability. Lateral balance is maintained by raising either wing tip by means of a cable, which, passing over a pulley situated at the top of the king-post, divides up into eight wires connected to the flexible extremities of the wing. A cable passing over the lower end of the king-post lowers the opposite tip a corresponding amount. Enormous strength is imparted to the wing by a bridge-like structure of steel tubing, which embraces the middle wing spar and is attached below the under surface-strength which renders them capable of withstanding strains many times in excess of those that they are likely to be called upon to bear in flight.

A small wheel mounted at the lower extremity of the king-post protects the wing-tip from contact with the ground. The bird-tail pivots in one unit about a horizontal axis. The rear portion is the elevator, controlled by warping the horizontal tail plane. Two small triangular vertical rudders, one above and the other below the horizontal tail plane, are hinged to the rear edges of two triangular stabilizing fins and are operated by means of pedals from driver's seat (Sheet II). Elevation and lateral balance are controlled by a rotatable hand wheel, mounted at the top of a vertical

Scale Drawing of Etrich Monoplane.

Sheet VII.—Middle Section of the Main Plane and Rib Curves.

column (Sheet III). In the matter of under-carriage the Etrich VI-VII monoplane has a Bleriot-type landing chassis with a central-ash skid, which is movable in any direction together with the rudder by pedal operation. It is also possible to steer the machine, when turning on the ground. (Sheet II.)

The body of Etrich VI-VIII monoplane is a fish-shaped structure of four wooden longitudinal spars, cross braced by wire. From the engine seat, which is mounted at its forward end, the body deepens and widens in the vicinity of pilot's seat, from where, still preserving its triangular cross-

section, gradually tapers away to the tail, where it terminates in a vertical line. To avoid internal disturbance in the air discharge, the body is covered in front with metal sheeting and aft with fabric.

Very ingenious is the construction and disposition of the inverted "V" shaped radiator, which is mounted above the passenger's seat.

In case when the water pump of the engine, refuses to work, then is a very effective circulation guaranteed of the hot water by thermosiphon action, which is favored by this disposition of the radiator.

The manufacture of 'the Etrich monoplane has been standardized into four types: a two seater touring machine (as here described) of 45/60 h.p. Bosch equipped Daimler engine, a single seater racer of similar power, a 120 h.p. three seater, touring machine, and a similarly engined racer to carry two.

A few days ago Igo Etrich has at Trau-tenau completed a new wonderful stable-type "swallow", whose description we will give later.

Three new world's records were established recently by Etrich aeroplanes in Austria.

Lieut. Bier, flying in an Etrich monoplane, powered with a Bosch-Equipped Daimler motor, flew with one passenger 155.25 miles on October 1st. On October 4th he flew with two passengers 69.55 miles, and on September 2Sth he made an altitude record with two passengers, of 3937.2 feet.

/ hope Aeronautics ivill continue as it bcynn in quality, and thai its readers will steadily increase.— <i. \V. Holmes.

The Hamilton Biplane

By THOS. F. HAMILTON

NEW and original biplane is the product of the Hamilton Aero Mfg. Co., of Seattle, Wash. This company perfected a hydroaeroplane this summer that .gave excellent results, propelled by a 6 cyl. 60-90 h. p. Elbridge. In working on the hydro lines it was discovered that the ordinary aero propeller used was too weak to stand the spray in rough weather and after experimenting they developed a strong hydroaeroplane propeller. Different fabric and metal covers were applied in many different methods to protect the blades from the spray with results that developed the Hamilton hydroaero propeller to the extent that the makers believe they have a" most strong and efficient propeller for that use.

The Hamilton factory has also produced a biplane of the general type which has given a good account of itself in the hands of Thos. F. Hamilton by making many successful flights with practically no accidents. 1 his machine was destroyed by fire before any extended flights could be made. It was sold to be used for exhibition purposes in Canada. This was equipped with an Adams-Farwell rotary motor and a Hamilton propeller. Several more on the same lines are under construction being headless and have the same size and type of planes as the new Hamilton X.

The following is a description of the new machine. The main supporting surface is composed of twelve sections: four heavy ones, four feet long; and eight light, six foot ones. The span is thirty-two ft. and the chord is five ft. having more than three hundred sq. ft. of supporting surface. The four foot sections comprise the centre planes and are built extra strong, the ribs being one foot apart. The outer six foot sections are lighter than the inner and the ribs are placed farther apart. The lateral beams are oval selected Oregon Spruce, as

is most of the construction, except in the centre or where the stresses are great. Here ash, hickory, and steel 'tubing is employed. The ribs are fastened to the top of the front beam by a small steel socket or ferrule and pass under the rpar cnp. there held in place by a screv . The 1 i is held to the ribs by pocket.v and also covers the front beam. There is no lacing. There are ribs at the ends of all sections and each section is separate. They connect at the uprights by steel plates and are very easily demounted. A light and small steel tube is used to hold the ends of the outer ribs from bending in due to the strains of the cloth. Small hooks are used to fasten the end ribs of adjoining sections together. A wire passes over the tips of the ribs to keep the cloth from bagging.

The uprights are four feet, ten inches long and fish-shaped at the middle, tapering to round at the ends on which are fastened a ferrule and a permanent lag-screw. This screw goes several inches into the upright and is very solid and will not work loose from vibration. The upright is held to the plate by this lag-screw which is threaded and has a lock washer to hold the nut from possibly coming loose. Between the end of the upright and the steel plate is placed the terminal to which is fastened the turn-buckles. The cable guys are firmly secured to the clip and soldered solid. The cables are wired and soldered together wherever they cross and each cable has a turn-buckle. The centre cell and other places subject to great strain are double cabled. Roebling's cable is used throughout the machine. The cable connections make packing convenient as they and the uprights are placed together in a rack in the order that they are set in the plane so that the machine may be set up without loose cables to bother with.

A portable extension plane is provided and can be easily attached to the upper plane for passenger carrying or duration flights where great weights are carried. They are attached to steel plates with a

Scaie Drawing of Hamilton "X" Biplane.

chrome-leather hinge. Two small light steel tubes, one to each beam are used to hold the plane and take either compression or tension strain. These tubes may be quickly detached and the extension planes folded against the uprights so that the aeroplane may be placed in a shed of limited size. These extensions are made in four or six foot lengths and add forty or sixty square feet to the supporting plane. They are usually set at a slight dihedral angle.

The ribs, which are three laminations of spruce, are flexible at the rear and have a slight inverse curve on the theory that the angle of incidence automatically adjusts itself according to the weight carried and the speed. This may also help to maintain stability by absorbing the sudden gusts and puffs by their flexibility on the outer sections.

The construction of the fuselage is ash, hickory, spruce and steel. The rear section of the frame is made of spruce, the longitudinal members tapering slightly to the ends and meeting on the entering edge of 'the elevator and are well trussed by many upright members. The last foot is made solid by a piece of wood placed between the spars as they come together. This is rigidly guyed with piano wire, each wire having a turn-buckle. There are not as many cross bars in the trail-frame as uprights. This section is joined to the forward section a little behind the pilot's cock-pit. Both sections are about the same length so that they may be packed in the same case without waste of space. The rear section is very easily detached to facilitate storage in a small space. The front section is mostly covered by an aluminum hood. The balance is enclosed by fabric. This hood may be detached as easily as an automobile hood, from the frame members to give access to the motor, fuel tanks, and controls. It also forms a protection for the pilot, the cockpit being at the rear of the hood, provided with a pneumatic pad around the edges to protect the pilot in case of an accident or rough landing. The whole cock-pit is designed to preserve the safety and comfort of the pilot and passenger as much as possible. The foot rest is provided at the end of a slatted floor. A passenger or student would sit on one side of the control pillar and the pilot on the other. It may be operated by either person at will. This greatly facilitates teaching in a practical manner. When no passenger is carried the pilot sits with the pillar between his legs. The cockpit is kept warm by the heat of the motor in a novel fashion that also protects the pilot and fuel tanks should the motor take fire. This protection is much neglected in most machines.

A speed-indicator, revolution-counter, gasoline-gauge, oil-gauge, inclinometer, and lamp-carrier are before the pilot.

The stabilizing planes start a little behind the cock-pit and gradually widen to the

elevator. They are made of spruce and surfaced on both sides, being attached to the fuselage by light metal clamps and small steel tubes. No lacing. This surface is non-lifting, and may be slightly adjusted. These planes contain approximately forty square feet.

The elevator is more than sixteen feet to the rear of the center of gravity and is secured to the stabilizer by eye bolt and chrome leather hinges. A mast to which the rudder is hinged supports the guy-wires and the control cable is attached to it. This plane, semi-elliptical in shape, is also double surfaced, as are all control planes, and contains about eighteen square feet. This surface has a slight inverse curve.

To the mast that holds the elevator guy-wires is hinged the vertical rudder which is intersected below the center by the elevator and can be operated without coming in contact with it. The rudder surface is about seven square feet and may be operated regardless of the angle of the elevator as it moves with it.

Lateral stability is maintained by the use of two biplane ailerons which are hinged to the rear uprights. Again chrome leather is used to hinge the small uprights between the ailerons, which are double controlled by two different independent systems. Both sets total about forty-five square feet, each plane being two by six feet. When one set depresses the other lifts.

The controls are instinctive, all being governed by hand from a single pillar. Steering is accomplished by turning the wheel in the same manner as an auto or boat. The elevator is operated by moving the pillar fore and aft while the lateral stability is maintained by moving the pillar from side to side. The magneto cut-out is on the pillar and the advance and throttle are at the seat. A valve for shutting off the gasoline is at the left hand. This should be done on a rotary motor before the switch is thrown in to make certain that the engine will not keep on running from the heat of the cylinders. All control wires are doubled and at the terminals are fastened by a snap hook as well as a turn-buckle.

The chassis is of the shock-absorbing variety and is exceptionally strong. The two wheels are equipped with 24x3 detachable tires and a combination rubber and steel spring device. This is well designed and braced with steel tubing of several times the necessary strength. There is a laminated ash skid in the center and when the machine is on the ground it rests on the rear end of this skid which is metal shod for two feet. It absorbs the sudden shocks of rough landings and distributes them over a great area. The terminals of the wheel forks at the longitudinals are braced to the fuselage by eight steel tubes for the same reason. This also greatly strengthens the fuselage. The skid projects

(Continued on pwje ;?0.f/)

The Nieuport Monoplane

S^S^^JS^S^^TE designer of this machine ^fk*A^k£Ag4 the late M> Edouard Nieu-i£i ^ttA sm port, has aimed to develop it!) I ^j) a macnine> tne features of n$ jl which would be simplicity,

X&c &£i efficiency and speed. That "

ne nas been successful can S^S^jfi^jS^jS^j be seen by an examination of

the machine, which is, per-^u^S^^^^^S haps, the simplest looking

machine that has been produced. Its efficiency, as compared with that of other machines, is vouched for by the fact that, at one time, one of 'these machines equipped with a 30 h.p. motor held the speed record, the speed itself being within two miles of that made by the winning-machine at Belmont Park last year which was equipped with a 100 h.p. engine. The 70 h.p. Nieuport made a speed of 74.S miles per hour in the last Gordon Bennett. Weyman's 100 h.p. Nieuport made 7S miles per hour. The 30 h.p. made 58.9 miles

speed in the same race. The 1910 Gordon Bennett was won with a 100 h.p. Bleriot which made 61 miles per hour.

The machine described herein was a 50 h.p. Gnome engine, 2-place machine.

The Main Planes are built upon two main spars of ash, the center lines of which are shown in the plan view. Between the spars are run three light battens merely to tie the ribs together. The ribs, which are spaced about 13 inches, are built up in the usual manner, being of "I" section, with the webs perforated for the sake of lightness. The box ribs are built up by using two webbs and wider top and bottom flanges. The rib curve varies in each rib, decreasing toward the wing tips, going down to a flat bow. The curve given in the sketch might be taken as the standard curve allowance being made for the different chord at various places, and also for the different thickness of the spar, which, by the way, tapers both ways from a straight central portion. It

will be noticed that there is a slight reverse curve on the under surface at the trailing edge, while it is very pronounced on the upper surface. Each wing is trussed with two heavy stranded cables top and bottom to each spar, and are set at a slight dihedral angle.

The Fuselage longitudinals are of ash, rectangular in section and are channeled out between the struts for the sake of lightness. The struts are also of rectangular section, except those over the skid struts, which are steel tubing. The connections between the struts and longitudinal members are made by aluminum castings to which the wire bracing is anchored. The whole structure is inclosed in fabric.

The control system is a little unusual, in that the warp is accomplished by the feet, while the elevator and the rudder are operated by a hand lever, which is mounted by

a swivel-joint on a short shaft that lies along the floor inside the body. A forward and backward movement of this lever operates the elevator by wires passing around pulleys mounted at the ends of the rock shaft. A lateral movement of the lever actuates the rudder wires by means of a crank, which is formed by the extension of the rear pulley sheave, and which is, of course, fixed permanently to the rock shaft. The elevators are semi-circular in plan, and are constructed of steel tubing frames covered with fabric on both sides. The construction of the fixed plane is also of steel tubing.

The Running Gear is composed entirely of steel members, the central skid, leaf-spring axle and the oval skid struts being composed of this material. The "V" members are made up as a unit and can be slipped over the skid and put in place in a short time should repairs become necessary.

A 50 h.p. Gnome is fitted, the propeller being S feet by 4 inches in diameter. Weyman's Nieuport (100 h.p.) in the last military competition, made 72.6 miles an hour average over a 1SG mile course carrying two extra people.

A photo of the Nieuport chassis.

December, 19 11

S^IS^jS^SS^jS^^VEN models of the new ¿1* Bleriot Type XXI have been S&t delivered to the French ^ army after very successful >v| trials, with prizes awarded

xi&t sSt for extra lifting capacity,

^1^^^^^!^! economy in fuel, etc. S^^j^S^^S Tllis type had already ^rf^rv^rf^rS^ Deen tried out in France S^&u&u!^!^ °y Lieut. Yence and in England by the late Lieut. Cammell who covered with it about 3000 kilometres in two months just before his terrible fall where experimenting with an English Aeroplane. The aviation officers at Chalais who have driven it obtained with it a speed of 96 kilometres per hour. The driver has a very clear view, the seat being placed forward near the front edge of the planes.

Th leading characteristics of the machine are as follows: Motor, Gnome, 7 cylinders, 70 h.p.; total length, 8 meters 240; span across wings, 11 meters; carrying surface, 25.2 sq. meters; weight when empty, 330 kilograms; contents of gasoline tank under seat, 78 litres; Normal reserve supply 35 litres; contents of oil tank, 35 litres; duration of run, about 3 hours; Speed, 90 kilometres.

This apparatus, specially worked out for military needs, has two seats placed side by side covered by a hood which also covers the motor. The driving members of the apparatus are so arranged as to permit either one of the aviators to guide the machine. For this purpose two pedals are provided in front of the temporary driver and operate the direction rudder control. Ex-

perience has shown that the member controlling the wing twisting as well as the ascent and descent can be easily operated by either of the occupants without exchanging places. A movable bar placed across the frame carries the instruments necessary for navigation, such as the map-holder, anemometer, altimeter, etc., these instruments being capable of sliding on said bar and of changing their relative positions at the will of the occupants of the machine.

The rear part of the frame is completely covered with canvas and the lateral surfaces present a form tapered toward the rear. The purpose of this feature is to diminish the resistance of the tail to lateral gusts and, in a way, to balance it with the forward surfaces subjected to the same gusts. This gives the apparatus as a whole a very graceful form.

The horizontal rudder is arranged at the rear of this surface and a little in front thereof is found the direction rudder arranged alone at the upper part of the frame.

A landing runner, of supple wood and very long, completes the rear of the apparatus. The purpose of this exceedingly deep runner is to force the apparatus when at rest to be greatly inclined toward the rear, which increases the angle of incidence of the planes meeting the resistance to flight, the air acting as a brake upon landing, which is thus accomplished in an entirely normal manner and on a comparatively short run.

Aeronautics is tlic finest magazine of its kind, and i wish it every success.—Louis R. Miller.

Military Bleriot, Type XXI

D. C. De Hart in Eaton Biplane.

The Eaton Brothers Biplane

By CLEVE T. SHAFFER

BIPLANE of the Curtiss-y§« yfsl Farman type that is doing

fkx. » ikx good work is the new III /-\ Hi! school machine of the SjSf Eaton Brothers at their

WWW^WW^ grounds near Los Angeles. N^N^N^H^^ Tne macnme> a large and ^^SWJ^jgy strongly built biplane, has lllf^lll^lll a number of novel features,

which will become apparent upon close inspection of the photos. One's attention is first drawn to the long forward extension of the skids, and their large dimensions, 2"x21/4"; a heavy strut runs from the leading edge of the upper plane to a point on the skid, an excellent combination for a school machine, being well calculated to take the shock of a too steep landing.

A noticeable feature which, however, is open to criticism, is the large-sized "blinkers" used. It is doubtful if they perform much service in turning, inasmuch as the elevator has the usual vertical triangles, and so much surface (triangles and blinkers) with such a leverage has a tendency to dampen the rudder effect and might prove somewhat difficult to manage in a side wind. That difficulty has been experienced from this cause can be seen by the large rudder employed; its dimensions are 4'S"x3'3". Again, the blinkers being so far below the center of gravity (unlike the Wright) might prove troublesome.

The new Farman arrangement of pilot and passenger seat is here evident. The two beams carrying the seats are held in place at the front by wires which support their share of the weight, at the rear the beams are bolted to the leading edge of the lower plane.

The running gear struts are entirely of steel tubing, the ends of which fit into sockets and are held in place with a cotter pin, a good feature allowing of quick disassemb-

ling. A steel strap is placed diagonally between the skid struts.

Control is by single lever and foot yoke as shown. The Farman flaps extend two sections on the top plane and one section on the bottom, and are worked both up and down, upper and lower flaps being connected by wires, the control wires are attached to the masts.

Spread is 35 feet. Planes are double covered, the top and bottom surfaces of the plane are 2" apart at widest point.

This shape of rib is claimed by the Batons to be very efficient, and is the result of considerable experiment.

A Hall-Scott 60 h.p. A.2 engine turns an Eaton propeller of 7'9" diameter—4'6" pitch, blade lQx/2" wide.

The Eaton Bros, have made a number of successful machines, including one for Chas. F. Walsh, and have now turned their attention to school work. One of their pupils, D. C. De Hart of Los Angeles, has made a number of good flights and will soon try for his license.

On Nov. 4, 1911, D. C. De Hart left the aviation ground of the Eaton Bros. & Co., at Hyde Park, Cal. in an Eaton biplane, and made a cross country flight which raises him into the rank of a skilled aviator.

He left the field about 9:30 a.m. and returned about 1:30 p.m. He had been making short flights into the surrounding country before this. In these short flights he landed in some favorable place and after inspecting his machine returned to the field.

On the morning in question he planned to fly to San Pedro and out over the harbor where the Pacific fleet lay at anchor.

The program was carried out without a hitch. After leaving the field he headed straight for Domínguez field, at an altitude of about 1000 feet. He passed this field and continued on to San Pedro passing out over

the fleet. The sailors cheered him lustily as he flew over at an altitude of 1500 feet. He then continued on along the beach to Long Beach. He swung over this 'town and headed again for Domínguez field near which he landed in order to take on gasoline.

On his return to Hyde Park he had to face a heavy head wind which kept him busy, and on his arrival at the point of starting at about 1:30 he had acquired a sharp appetite for the dinner that was awaiting him.

A Detail View of the Eaton Machine.

The Hamilton Biplane

(continued from page 19s)

five feet ahead of the wheels which prevents the machine from standing on its nose, and also protects the propeller. The wheels are placed well ahead of the center of gravity so as to prevent this tendency in steep descents or rough landings. It will also be noted that when the wheels absorb the shock they move forward thus moving the weight farther back.

The motive power is furnished by a 50 h.p. Gnome equipped with an eight foot Hamilton propeller. Sufficient fuel is carried for a four hour flight. Another tank may be easily placed with a pressure pump for the pilot to the gravity tanks, which are built with many compartments to prevent the fuel from rolling from side to side. It is expected that American motors will be tried in future machines according to the requirements of the customers.

This type of machine will be fitted with a float and tried out early next spring. The price of this model equipped with a 50 h.p.. Gnome is $4,500 and $3,500 for a 50 h.p. Anzani or Indian. Several of these machines will be built for customers this winter and an attempt will be made to have machines for immediate delivery in the near future.

and new

k-ered

In France, the number of machines delivered' for military purposes in 1911 is about states Louis Bleriot to AERONAUTICS, has in addition orders for more than 100 machines.

In foreign countries, he has actually dcliv the following numoer of machines:

Russia: 11 single and 10 2-place.

Italy: 9 single and 1 two-place.

Roumania: 3 single and 1 two-place.

England: 2 two-place.

Japan: 1 single seat.

Austria: 1 single seat.

Others have been sold through agents, number sold for civilian purposes is about

The-130-

AhKUlVAUllLS

December, 1911

QUEEN AEROPLANE CO.

The possibilities of the

HYDROAEROPLANE

have a strong appeal at present, and we are therefore perfecting the design of a new machine,

The QUEEN "AEROBOAT"

a combination aeroplane and boat rendering aero-planing safer and more reliable and boating more exhilarating. This machine is to be ready for the coming season.

We have several Queen Bleriot type monoplanes, one and two passenger, 30 to 100 h. p., ready for quick delivery, at prices ranging from $3,500 up.

QUEEN AEROPLANE CO.

197th St. and Amsterdam Ave. NEW YORK CITY

The Ellsworth Lateral Stabilizer

By CLEVE T. SHAFFER

tHAS. P. Walsh, the well known Southern California aviator, has just concluded a series of successful experiments with the Ellsworth Equilibrator, having made up to the present, thirty-one flights in which the lateral balance of a Curtiss-type aeroplane was left entirely to the automatic device, the usual shoulder forks being disconnected.

This device, the invention of a Portland, Ore., man, now being marketed by the Ellsworth Aviation Company of that city, is probably the first lateral stabilizer that has been actually tried out on an aeroplane with successful results; the Doutre being a longitudinal stabilizer.

human agency. This I found by having the wires from the ailerons connected to my steering post, which was pulled from side to side by the action of the equilibrator in maintaining a balance before I was even aware that the balance had been disturbed." In turning corners the equilibrator banks the aeroplane automatically by having the mechanism connected to and controlled by the steering wheel, thereby banking the aeroplane at just the required angle for the turn.

In the above statement it will be noted that in turning corners the equilibrator will automatically bank the machine at the right angle. A point not made clear, however, is that the amount of bank or angle is always at instant command of the operator should he desire it more or less.

Some of the advantages claimed for the

The Machinery of the Ellsworth Stabilizer.

The equilibrator tried by Walsh is a combination of pendulum and electric action; also rotary motion received from the engine crank shaft the pendulum, of course is used 'to denote variation from the horizontal: electricity is used in the intermittent transmission of pendulum action to an electromagnetic clutch.

In the illustration the equilibrator can be seen back of Walsh and under the Hall-Scott engine.

In an interview Walsh stated: "In a series of tests with this device on a Curtiss-type biplane under varying conditions in every case the equilibrator responded instantly to the least variation from the horizontal far more quickly than it could be detected by

device are as follows: —

It will hold an aeroplane level under all conditions unless the angle be deliberately changed by the operator.

In banking an aeroplane, the automatic balance is not in any way interfered with. The angle at which it works is changed only.

In circling to the right or left the equil ibrator is automatically adjusted, by the action of the rudder, to bank the aeroplane at exactly the required angle.

Although the driving power of the equilibrator may be taken directly from the engine of an aeroplane yet it does not depend upon such driving power, for should the speed of the engine be reduced, an elec-

Charles F. Walsh In Machine Fitted with Stabilizer. The Apparatus Is Located in the Wooden Frame underneath the Motor. The Wires AA Run to the Ailerons. Ellsworth is seen in his shirt sleeves.

trically driven motor will automatically cut in and drive the equilibrator mechanism long enough for the operator to make a safe landing.

It is obvious that electric motor and storage battery weight (if the latter is used), is not included in given weight of 18 lbs.

Though no information is at hand it is possible that instead of a storage battery a small dynamo driven by a fan or fans utilizing the aeroplanes, speed will be used.

The construction and detail of this remarkable device is very interesting. Dimensions are: length 16", width 9", height 8", weight 18 pounds. The mechanism consists of two rotating electro-magnets driven in opposite directions by a gear pinion. An armature between the magnets is keyed to a drum shaft so that a rotation of the armature causes a relative rotation of the drum.

The drum carries the aileron cable. An electric circuit is completed by either arm of a pendulum dipping into a mercury cup, upon the listing of the aeroplane. One of the rotating magnets is then excited and

grasps the armature, thereby revolving the drum. The drum shaft, however, terminates in a gear; the block containing the mercury cup is so attached to the gear wheel, that the rotation of the gear wheel will drop the cup away from the pendulum arm, breaking the circuit and leaving the ailerons set to right the aeroplane. As the aeroplane comes back to normal the operation of the equilibrator is reversed, thereby bringing the ailerons to a normal position.

Means are provided, for rotating at will the block containing the mercury cups, thus causing contact to be made for banking the aeroplane to any required angle. A movement of the block does not cause any movement of the gear wheel, yet a movement of the gear wheel causes a relative movement of the block. This allows the operator to change his angles, laterally of course, at will without interfering in any way with the automatic control.

The device can be applied to fore and aft control as well as lateral control.

Capt. Hugh L. Willoughby, of Newport, R. I., and Sewalls Point, Fla., has recently received delivery of a 6 cylinder "Kirkham" motor to be installed in his hydroaeroplane, the "Pelican." Motors have also been delivered during the past month to Jas. V. Martin, and the Chicago Aeroplane Mfg. Co.

On October 15, John Sehwister, of Wausau, Wis., in a biplane of his own construction, equipped with a "Kirkham" 6 cylinder power plant made a flight of 45 minutes over the city of Wausau and surrounding country, flying part of the time at a height of 2000 feet.

     
 

MODEL NOTES

 
     

By PERCY PIERCE, Model Editor

abroad.

ST is ray aim, in writing this model page which will appear every month in Aeronautics, to aid and encourage those who are interested in the art of model flying. This page will contain accounts of new model clubs, contests and descriptions of some of the best models here and I would like all those who belong to model clubs or have models which they believe can fly a considerable distance, to send me all information regarding same.

Real model flying in America did not show itself until October of 1909, when the West Side Y. M. C. A., New York, held its first contest in the yard adjoining the Association building. From that time on, model flying grew very rapid and now flights of over a quarter of a mile are being made.

The New York Model Aero Club was organized in Sept. 1910, and has grown considerably, not only in model flying, but in membership. Their new quarters are at the rooms of the Aeronautical Society. 250 West 54th Street. The Stuyvesant Aeronautic Society, another of the early model clubs is still flourishing. This club meets in room 201 of Stuyvesant High School.

KHE model described in this issue was designed by Frederick Watkins, one of New York's enthusiastic model flyers. The unof-fical flight to its credit is considerable more than 1600 feet; official, 1400 feet. It first made its appearance at Van Cortlandt Park, New York, in the early part of November, 1911, where it has since been making very long flights. The weight of the model ready for flying, is 2% ounces, and has a supporting area oi about 48 square inches.

The Frame. This is of bamboo tapering from % inch at the middle to % inch at the ends. All the joints are held together by Ambroid (a waterproof glue) and thread. The fin at the front, enabling straight flight to be made, is of 34 gauge aluminum. The white pine propellers are 7 inches long, % inch thick and have a pitch of about 13 inches. In most of the long flights this model has made, 1100 turns were used. No. 14 piano wire is used for the propeller shafts and front rubber anchorage. The power consists of 9 strands of flat rubber.

The Planes. The framework of these is constructed of bamboo, the large one being

A LUMI M UM Fin

RUBBER

TOP ELLVATIOn

noiwiAriE

BACK ELEVATIOn

COPPER WIRE

TIPPED UP EÏ1D

FASTEninCS

BOO

16 inches by 2y2 inches, with eleven double ribs. The front one has but three. The planes are covered with rice paper, coated with varnish, which makes an air tight, smooth surface. They are held on the frame by rubber, so that in case the planes strike a tree they are easily pushed aside. The ends of the planes are tipped up a little for stability.

The model is wound up by attaching the rubber at the front to a double winder. The rubber is stretched about twice the length of the model as it is wound up, thus enabling more turns to be had and consequently longer flights.

This weekly contest held at Van Cort-landt Park, Nov. 7th, proved to be a great success. Eighteen contestants entered their models. Frederick Watkins, with a Watkins monoplane, came first with a flight of 1400 feet, winning the "Second Boy's Book of Model Aeroplanes" offered by Mr. Edward

Durant. Stuart Easter with his "Easter-plane," came second with 1387 feet. The record of-1691 feet, made by Cecil Peoli, has not yet been surpassed.

English Duration Records.

The English model records for duration show that America is far behind in the art of model flying. At one of -the contests held at the sports ground, Crystal Palace, on June 7th last, the duration attained was 146 2/5 seconds, over two minutes. This is quite a good deal more than that of 48 3/5 seconds (American record), which was made by Cecil Peoli. The result of the contest held at the sports ground is as follows:—

First. C. B. Ridley, (Ridleyplane) 146 2/5 sees.

Second. R. F. Mann, (Mann monoplane) 112 sees.

Third. C. K. Srarf, (Srarf monoplane) 77

sees.

Addre.s all inquire to PERCY W. PIERCE, 5907 Osage, Phila., Pa

The Aero Club of Long Island held its annual meeting December 7th. The following officers were elected for the ensuing year: Charles Wald, President; Charles D. Spence, 1st Vice-President; William T. Newell, 2nd Vice-President.

Joseph K. Post, Secretary, and Henry I. Newell, Treasurer, were re-elected to their respective offices.

There will be a change in the Board of Directors owing to the expiration of the term of Howard C. Brown. Thomas Kramer was elected to fill the vacancy. The Directorate for the ensuing year is as follows: Charles Wald, Chairman, Francis C. Wilison, John H. Lisle, Henry I. Newell, Jr., Thomas Kramer.

The meetings of the Club are held on the first Thursday of each month. The secretary's address is 418 Oak St., Richmond Hill, N. Y.

The Aero Club of California, at a meeting held November 7th, elected Charles E. Rilliet to the office of president in the place of George B. Harrison, whose office was declared vacant by the directors on account of his connection with the Aeronautical Society of California.

The Aero Club of Pennsylvania is having regular meetings now at the Bellevue Stratford, Philadelphia. On Dec. 15, E. R. Brown lectured on "The Development of the Hydro-aeroplane."

At a well attended meeting of The Aero-nautial Society on November 23, Prof. A. H. Sabin gave an interesting talk upon wood finishing, with particular reference to the aeroplane. Mr. R. F. McFIe, a builder from England discussed his views on the automatic stability of machines of the Dunne type, giving as well, a review of the best English practice. The Ambroid Company sent their New York representative, Mr. G. H. Rohwedder to the meeting. He gave a description of Ambroid and its physical characteristics. Edward Durant gave a talk upon local model flying. Dr. E. P. Beadle gave an intensely interesting demonstration of a two cvlinder, four cycle gasoline motor that weighed, including ignition system, less than fourteen ounces. Air. W. S. Howell, Jr., talked upon the automatic stability of his model.

On December 14th, the well known author, Grover C. Loening, talked upon little understood problems in aerodynamics. Mr. George P. Van Wye described a new method for safely storing gasoline, Mr. Robert A. Alberts of the C. B. Hewitt & Bros, described the proper use of glue in aeroplane construction.

The Aero Club of America has made a special division in membership, the Fifth Class, for commissioned officers of the regular army of the United States, with initiation fee and dues but $10 each.

The annual dinner is scheduled for January 27, at which President William H. Taft has promised to be present.

The Aero Club of New England held its annual banquet, Nov. 2S. The discussion embraced ballooning, aviation and hydro-aeroplane and soaring without power, an interesting illustrated lecture upon the latter subject being delivered by A. A. Merrill.

One of the surprises of the meeting was the introduction to the. members of James Lewis, of Boston, who this year slipped away from his friends and took up the study of aviation in France, qualifying as a pilot on Oct. 6 last from the Voisin School.

Mir. Lewis delivered an address upon his experiences in learning the art of aviation.

Eugene P. Merlet of Paris, now a resident of Boston, gave a talk on "Aviation in France."

Greeley S. Curtis of Marblehead spoke on "Hydro-Aeroplaning," H. H. Cummings described a new instrument to determine the speed of an aerostat, Jay B. Benton described a recent night trip from Pittsfield over New York City, William Van Sleet, the pilot, made a short address, and Mr. Merrill concluded the meeting with a lecture, illustrated, on "Flight Without Power."

Prior to the dinner these officers were elected: Jay B. Benton, president; Henry Howard, first vice-president; John J. Van Valkenburgh, second vice-president: A. R. Shrigley, secretary; William C. Hill, treasurer; Nathan L. Amster, T. E. Bvrnes, Jay B. Benton, H. Helm Clayton, J. Walter Flagg, Charles J. Glidden, Henry Howard, Harry C. Pollard, Griswold S. Hay-ward, A. R. Shrigley and John J. Van Valkenburgh, directors; Griswold S. Hayward and Charles J. Glidden. committee on foreign relations; Charles J. Glidden, Jay B. B'enton and J. Walter Flagg, committee on contests and balloons, and W. Starling Burgess, Harold W. Brown and Albert A. Merrill, committee on aeroplanes.

It meets our lest expectations.—G. IT. Cortiss.

O all my good friends who read "Aeronautics," who have sent me so many kind and complimentary letters, whose co-operation has made it possible to conduct this journal for a longer time than any other aeronautical publication free from club subsidies— Greeting!

Since the inception of this paper, time has not been a cheap commodity with me. All the days and most of the nights have been crowded with work. Never has it seemed possible for me to sit down and talk direct to you as I have wished.

Each month since the beginning I have tried to give you all I possibly could in the way of interesting and valuable reading matter. From the letters continually received from some of you, I know that my purpose has been accomplished to an appreciable extent. For this I am grateful and feel amply repaid for my efforts.

But, surely I am not satisfied. From the beginning my one aim has been improvement. Improvement must continue. The magazine must grow in size, in amount of articles and data, in appearance and in value.

To promise and to do are very different things. To keep in the advance, your co-operation is as essential now as before. I am not content with slow progress. I want each issue to show a more decided improvement.

I want five thousand new subscribers during the next six months.

This is not an extraordinary demand. If each one of you would send in but one new subscriber my expectations would be more than realized.

This seems very simple. The point is here—Are you willing to try to get one new subscriber each? Some friend who is interested in aeronautics would be pleased with a subscriptions as a Xmas gift.

On another page in this issue you will find a plan outlined by which you can be remunerated for your efforts.

This request is not for my personal benefit—it is for the benefit of the magazine—for your benefit.

From now on I am going to make a strong effort to devote more time to the producing of a still better magazine and I mean to take time to say a few things.

Curtiss Notifies Alleged Infringers

Patent on Pressure Equalizer

LENN H. CURTISS has notified manufacturers iof so-called Curtiss-type aeroplanes, parts makers and other alleged users of his devices, warning them against using his shoulder control and other devices of which he is inventor and which are being widely used in this country.

Mr. Curtiss has applications pending, also, on a device for equalizing the pressure on ailerons in order to avoid any possible turning movement of the machine about a vertical axis due to the use of ailerons, as well as applications covering shoulder control and hydro-aeroplane. Mr. Curtiss wishes to inform the public that he is not acquiescent in the general use of his inventions upon patents will eventually issue.

One Patent Just Issued

A United States' patent, 1,11,106, was issued on December 5, 1911, to Alexander Graham Bell, F. W. Baldwin, J. A. D. McCurdy, Glenln h. Curtiss and Edward A. Selfridge, administrator of Lieut. Thos. E. Selfridge, deceased; all assignors to Charles J. Bell, trustee, of Washington, D. C. The application was filed April S, 1909.

The patent aims at the maintaining or restoration of lateral balance of machine having rigid supporting surfaces by means distinct from the supporting surfaces themselves. The patent claims that heretofore supporting sur-

faces have been made flexible for the purpose of warping the extremities to preserve balance, which warping imparts a turning movement which must be corrected by a vertical rudder.

The main claims of this patent cover the combination of supporting surfaces having a positive angle of incidence with a pair of lateral balancing rudders, or ailerons, which are adjusted to equal and opposite positive and negative angles of incidence, normally at zero angle, connections to a controlling device which embraces the body and is operated hy the movements of the aviator. There are twenty-eight claims covering the placing of the ailerons outside the lateral margins of the supporting surfaces, in combination with multiple surfaces and other modification of the principal features.

The patentees are those who, in 1908-1909, comprised the Aerial Experiment Association, which was formed to build aeroplanes for experimental purposes. After building four machines, Red Wing, White Wing, June Bug and Silver Dart, all of which flew, the Association was dissolved, after a year's time. It was financed by Mrs. Bell and was formed at her suggestion at a time when all these men happened to be together on some experimental work of Dr. Bell's at his Nova Scotia home.

It is of interest to note that the Wright patent describes a cradle which was used to warp the wings of the Wright gliders. This embraced the body of the aviator and the body movements warped the wings.

J think there are hut two magazines combining the essentials of their class—presenting news, at once, timely and authoritative, and always "readable." The which justifies their being called representative of their subject, in their respective continents ad the world at large. Of course, i mean "l'Aerophile'' and Aeronautics.-—Jos. A. Blondix.

The Wlttemann Stabilizing Experiment.

AERONAUTICS Page 214 December,, 1911

THE WITTEMANN AILERON SCHEME

The brothers Adolph and Charles Wittemann, Staten Island, N. 1'., builders of the Baldwin "Bed Devils" and other machines, have applied for a patent on vertical vanes, which are curved upward and outward. Experiments have been made with these fastened to the lateral extremities of the main planes and made both either rigid or movable as desired by the usual shoulder control but in the same direction.

If one side "of the machine drops one of the outwardly curved surfaces offers more lift than the other and tends to lift the low side. It is claimed by the inventors that no turning movement of the aeroplane is caused.

An aeroplane fitted with these avus balanced on a pair of horses, as seen in the photograph. One side was pulled down so that the machine was overbalanced on one side. The gusts of wind against which the machine was headed invariably righted that side. The machine, without motor, was also run fast downhill, even getting off the ground for a few feet. It was found that the rocking felt in runming over the ground was avoided. Trials were also made with cables attached between the shoulder control ,and these auxiliary surfaces which were then manually operated. It was found that the operator could keep the machine balanced on the horses. These auxiliary planes are pivotally mounted on the axis AB, shown in the photograph.

PROSPECTS IN THE NAVY.

The $25,000 aeronautical appropriation in the U. S. Navy granted last summer has been largely reduced by the purchase of the Wright biplane and the Curtiss water 'plane and incidental expenses so that no new complete machines will be bought until after June 30, 1912. The present Wright machine has been made into a hydro-aeroplane by the addition of pontoons from the Burgess company.

Captain \V. Irving Chambers, head of aeronautical work in the Navy, was asked recently by Aeronautics a number of questions which are here answered briefly.

"In the range of subjects you wish me to touch I fear you are almost as impatient as I am to get on. The very things you want me to write about are of least importance in my estimation and can only be shown up clearly by time. Aviation is barely out of the crawling stage of infancy; although many would like us to assume that we must judge of the future by present performances. Some enthusiasts are over-sanguine, the knockers are too pessimisstic and everybody is too fond of sensation.

"As to the likelihood of aeroplanes being shot down. Of course that will happen. Everybody and every machine engaging in war must contemplate the risk of being shot. Aeroplanes will fight aeroplanes and those that are not overburdened with missies intended for dropping will have the advantage. They will be useful auxiliaries in the war game everywhere, but don't for a moment entertain the idea that they are going to supplant armies on land or ships on the sea. That is an old, old story with which we have to contend when anything new appears. It is fascinating for the overburdened taxpayer to think that some new cheap and sneak device is going to revolutionize warfare and cheapen its cost and many misguided enthusiasts prey upon his credulity in order to force the. development in the wrong way. It has always been so and always will be so, but the net result in the end, is always to increase the cost of war, because it adds still another factor or complication to consider. As regards ships it simply requires increase of offensive and defensive powers even to the addition of tlie new devices as auxiliaries. Why, way back during the Revolutionary War, our doughty Admiral John Rodgers proclaimed that torpedo warfare was inhuman and ought to be suppressed by international agreement. You will doubtless bear something of this sort concerning aviation ere long. Only a short time ago the French Navy almost dropped out of the running through the campaign of an energetic newspaper fanatic who induced the administration to devote its energies almost exclusively to the development of torpedo warfare.

"And now you ask me to compare aeroplanes with Scout Cruisers on a cost basis. My answer is that the Scout Cruisers will remain and the aeroplanes will be needed in addition." REMOVAL OF ARMY SCHOOL.

The Signal Corps Aviation School departed from College Park, Md., the afternoon of. November 28th, and arrived at Augusta, Ga., about midnight the 29th. Capt. C. DeF. Chandler, Lieut's. R. C. Kirtland, H. H. Arnold, T. DeW. Milling, Lieut. J. P. Kelley of the Medical Reserve Corps., and nineteen enlisted men of the Signal Corps made the trip in a special train of nine cars.

Capt. Paul W. Beck was detained in Washington on account of the death of his father, General Beck. Lieut. Kennedy remained in Washington for treatment at the Walter Reed General Hospital, but these officers are expected to join the school shortly.

The Wright, B'urgess-Wright and two Curtiss aeroplanes, and all other equipment pertaining to the school was taken along, including horses, wagons and mules.

The new site for the Aviation School during the winter is on the Barnes farm near the east boundary of Augusta. There are several hundred acres of level land used only for raising hay; these fields afford ideal conditions for the instruction of beginners. The average wind velocity of Augusta during the winter months is very low, and it is expected that many aeroplane flights will be made practically every day.

During the first week of December, the Aviation School got well started for the winter season. The Wright, Burgess-Wright and 8-cylinder Curtiss aeroplanes were assembled and flown.

The flights of special interest were: one around the city the 7th inst. at an altitude of 2500 feet by Lieut. Kirtland and on the 9th both Lieuts. Kirtland and Arnold went around the city at an average altitude of 2500 feet.

On the 8th. inst. Lieut. Arnold ascended to an altitude of 4100 feet. In addition to being an expert aviator -with a Wright control, Lieut. Milling has been learning to fly the Curtiss type. His instruction began at College Park under direction of Captain Beck and now he is flying very successfully alone.

PROHIBITION OF FLYING OVER GAMES.

On November 13th the following resolution was passed by the Board of Governors of the Aero Club of America:—

WHEREAS it has come to the notice of the Board of Governors of the Aero Club of America that the practice of flying over spectators and contestants in athletic sports and games is becoming prevalent among aviators, and

WHEREAS such flying unnecessarily endangers human life.

BE IT THEREFORE RESOLVED that all aviators licensed by the Aero Club of America be and are hereby forbidden to fly over in the close vicinity of spectators or contestants in games or sports other than licensed aviation meets or exhibitions in which the flying is governed by the rules for the meet or exhibition and

BE IT FLTRTHER RESOLVED that the Contest Committee be and is hereby instructed to take cognizance of any violation of the above inhibition and supply such one of the penalties set forth in Article 63 of the Regulations of the International Aeronautical Federation as it may deom expedient.

PRESIDENT MADERO'S FLIGHT.

President Madcro, the present president of Mexico, lias attained the distinction of being the only head of a nation to go up in an aeroplane. George M. Dyott took him up in Ins 2-place Deperdussin, (described recently in AERONAUTICS) at Mexico City on November 30. Mr. Dyott writes there is some difference between flying at S.000 feet altitude and around New York. Some of the machines at the exhibition, in that city could not fly at all. In the mornings Hying can be indulged in only by the most eNpert pilots. The air is very thin and treacherous; even though there may be no wind. In this respect it is like Issy-les-Moulineaux. Mr. Dyott has been offered a post witli tin! Mexican government as chief pilot.

WHITE CAN NOT FLY IN U. S. A. Wright Company Gets Decision.

Claude Grahame-White can not fly in the United States until the Wright Company says so, from now on. And if they do let him, he will fly either a Wright machine or pay a royalty. Not only that, hut the Wright Company may be able to collect some part of his earnings for the past year, and, possibly, even before that.

Judge Hand, of the United States Circuit Court, Southern Dist., handed down an opinion of prime importance to said White on December 12—just one day short of being the 13th, but it was bad luck anyhow. His opinion settles the validity of the Wright patent so far as Claude G. W. is concerned, though for the public the validity of the patent is not necessarily sustained. The question of amount of damages due the Wright Company from last November, 1910, when the present suit was started, until the present will be determined later. A new suit has been started for damages sustained by the plaintiff company from the time White began flying in this country up to November, 1910.

The action ended by Judge Hand's opinion was a suit for infringement and accounting against the defendant by reason of his use of Farman and B'leriot aeroplanes, claims 3, 7, 9, 14 and 15 of the Wright patent being in suit. The defendant did not present any proofs and the validity of the Wright patent was not seriously disputed.

Judge Hand, among other things, states: "In the form in which the case arises there can not be any substantial doubt of the right of the complainant to an injunction. The defendant has put in no proofs upon any of the issues raised in the answer and the patent is sustained by its own prima facie validity. 1 shall adopt the same interpretation which I put upon it in The Wright Company vs. Paulhan, and hold that the fixed connection between the rudder and the warping mechanism is not an essential feature of the claims, but that the only connection between the two may be made by the intermediation of a human body and a human will. The defendant, while not conceding the validity of the patent, does not seriously challenge it, or argue that his biplanes have not infringed it. I have, therefore, no alternative but to grant an injunction."

WRIGHT-CURTISS SUIT.

The Wright-Curtiss suit will probably not come to trial at Buffalo until February or March, as additional time has been granted in which to take testimony.

DEATH OF SHRIVER

San Juan, Porto Rico, Dec. 2. "Tod" Shriver, pilot number nine of the Aero Club of America was killed flying an exhibition at Ponce. He "lost control in making a turn." With George Schmitt, of Rutland, Vt., he was flying a Curtiss type with a Hall-Scott engine, the outfit furnished them by Captain Baldwin. "Pete" McLaughlin, a hotel keeper of Mineola, was financing the tour. Shriver was 32 years old and was born in Manchester, O. Within the past year he broke one leg twice in aeroplane smashes. He was an old showman and went with Captain Baldwin many years ago, during the St. Louis world's fair. In 1907 he worked for Glenn H. Curtiss. In 1910 he interested a brother of the lamp manufacturer, Dietz, in the building of a machine and with that gave a number of exhibitions in the course of which he broke his leg. Shriver was known the United States over as "Slim," many knowing him by no other name than that.

Munich, Germany, Dec. 3. An aviator by the name of Reeh was killed making a flight from Munich to Nuremberg.

Berlin, Germany, Nov. 25. Lieut. Baron von Freytag Loringhoven, military aviator, was killed at the military field at Doeberitz.

Berlin, Nov. 15. Herr Pletshcker (Albatross; was killed at Johannisthal field.

London, Dec. 6. Hubert Oxley and his passenger Robert Weiss met death flying for the Blackburn aeroplane concern, makers of an Antoinette-type monoplane.

Vienna, Dec. 1. An author, Mosca, was killed while flying as a passenger with Lieut. Nittnej at Wiener-Neustadt.

Etampes, France, Dec. 13. Lieut. Chas. Lan-theaume fell 1500 feet and was instantly killed.

Turin, Italy, Nov. 26. Humbert de Croce was killed practicing the dropping of bombs. <

RODGERS REACHES PACIFIC OCEAN.

On Dec. 10 C. P. Rodgers finally reached the Pacific. In the last issue we gave full details of his flight to Pasadena from New York, arriving at Pasadena Nov. 5. Many towns wanted the honor of seeing him actually toucn the ocean. The Long Beach's offer was finally accepted and he started for that point on Nov. 12.

Becoming confused he landed at Covina, but immediately reascended. On this next leg of his journey he was apparently taken ill while in the air and met with a serious accident, when he fell at Compton, where he was forced to remain in the hospital for some time.

The flight from Pasadena to Long Beach added 27 miles to his straight line distance, making the total, measured in straight lines between stops, 3,417 miles.

In speaking of his fall afterwards Mr. Rodgers said:

"AERO-ASPHYXIA MADE ME FALL."

"I lay this same thing blameworthy for the death of Arch Hoxsey, Ralph Johnstone, Eugene Ely and dozens of other aviators, who have come hurling to earth from great altitudes, after seemingly having lost control of their craft.

"It was not, in my case, the rarifled air that overcame me.

"There was no stifling sensation but I did notice a peculiar odor, a sleep-producing property, not entirely unlike chloroform. 1 knew I was falling, but did not lose consciousness until within a few feet of the ground.

"Ethereal asphyxia, somnipathy, that is, something that lurks in pockets in the upper air strata, and creeps irresistibly upon the senses of an aviator, lulling him into dreamy unconsciousness, is what did this job.

"The sense of drowsiness was first apparent shortly after I had passed over a small town south of Pasadena. I was up about 1500 feet. I tried to shake it off, but it increased. The desire to sleep was irresistible. Then I thought the machine could take care of itself. There was no pain, no noise in my ears. It was just a sweet, soothing feeling that I wanted to go to sleep.

"Somehow I got a grip on myself and started on a long glide toward the earth. The nearer the ground I got, the sleepier I became. I remember that I had righted my machine, and was looking for a place to land when 1 suddenly lost all consciousness. It was then that I fell. I don't know how far up I was right then, probably 200 feet."

WHAT FOWLER SAYS. "I have no doubt about Rodgers going to sleep." said Fowler, "It is mighty easy to go to sleep while flying. The air is in effect a perfect cushion. Your machine usually goes along without the least jar: the hum of your engine is like a lullaby, and sometimes a fellow has to fight to keep his head clear and his eyes open."

OTHER THEORIES.

J. Kauffman, a physician of Hazleton, Pa., claims auto-hypnotism. He says:—

"The cause is, in my judgment, wholly psychological, absolutely independent of atmospheric conditions as to density and chemical composition. Any one familiar with hypnotism will readily see in the case of a man traveling through the air the most favorable conditions of the individual and his environment for the induction of the hypnotic state. I will not enumerate the various factors essential to the induction of hypnotism, but will simply submit as a very plausible theory for the irresistible sleepiness auto-hypnotism. If my theory is correct, a man who has once encountered that condition will meet with it again, and it would be suicidal for any aviator having once experienced the condition to continue the perilous sport."

Dr. Thomas E. Hldridge, of Philadelphia, denies the hypnotic theory but states that lie himself went to sleep in a balloon for an hour but that this "sense of drowsiness has not been more so than bad I been overworked at my desk or had I slept for a shorter time the night before."

PREVIOUS INSTANCES. Not long ago some French scientists read a paper before the Academic des Sciences on this subject. They made numerous experiments, taking blood pressure of aviators after making various kinds of flights.

After a long, swift glide the aviator's "face flushes," these investigators reported:—

"His face flushes; his eyes smart; his heart beats violently. As he nears the ground a strange drowsiness seizes him. It is only with an effort that he keeps his eyes open. When at last he touches the grass he is more like a torpid, hibernating snake than a human being, so far as sensation is concerned. He steps out of the machine with the slow, awkward movements of a drunken man, who cares not whither he stumbles if he can only sleep."

In the paper referred to, Drs. Cruchet and Moulinier cite the case of a young aviator who failed to return to his hangar. He was found seated in his machine in the open country, sound asleep. When he was awakened he could not explain how he came to light in the place where he was discovered.

During one of his early experiments on Lake Bras d'Or, at Baddeck, Nova Scotia, J. A. D. McCurdy had a similar experience. After making a short flight over the ice he was seen to land and when picked up by his mechanics was found sound asleep some feet from the machine. In his flight from Key West to Havana he had a somewhat similar experience. He afterwards said that it was only by exercise of great will power that he was able to keep awake.

ATWOOD STARTS SCHOOL.

Harry N. Atwood, who flew from Boston to Washington and from St. Louis to New York, has associated himself with the Clayton & Craig aviation school, Boston, Mass., and is now prepared to give flying lessons. His address is 161 Summer St. Instruction will be given in either land or water planes.

GORDON BENNETT AVIATION RACE.

The distance to be flown in this race, which will be held in America in 1912, has been increased from 150 to 200 kilometers (124 miles). It will be necessary to have a very large course so that turns will not cut down speed. Chicago has hopes for the holding of the contest in the vicinity of that town.

MASSON FLYING OVER 'FRISCO.

On Dec. 2, Didier Masson, once of Mineola. flew over Market street in San Francisco and over Oakland with his Hall-Scott 'plane, crossing the bay on the route.

PECK FLIES 1 HOUR, 42 MINUTES.

The Gyro motor is still doing fine in flights of College Park and on tests. Two more large automatic machines have been put in and the company is getting out parts in quantities. Peck is making flights every few days at College Park. His longest flight was on Nov. 26th, one hour and 42 minutes. He says it is too cold to fly long now.

Richter won his license the other day with the Tarbox-Schneider machine with Roberts engine and Paragon propeller.

Rex Smith has bought a Roberts 4x and another Paragon to go on it.

FRENCH TRIAL OF SCOTT BOMB DROPPER.

Arrangements have been made by Lieut. R. E. Scott for the trial of his bomb-dropper in one of the Astra Company's- Wright machines in France. The Astra Company, which is building a magnificent machine which will lift 300- kg. easily, Lieut. Scott states, has offered him all their facilities and it is expected to have someone compete for the Michelin bomb prize.

Personally. I consider Aeronautics of ilic utmost value to any crpcr'uncntor to keep him up-to-date and for the valuable information it contains. It lias been a great help to me. I recommend Auriixai'tii's to anir one lool;iny for the best in aerial locomotion.—J. Benson Khyah.

Your paper is certainly the best published in the interests of acronunties in this country.—G. 1?.

FOWLER CROSSING CONTINENT TO EAST.

Robert G. Fowler, in a Wright model B, is still on his way across the American continent and has traveled 1679 miles, as measured in straight lines between stops on maps. He has been on his way 51 days, starting from Los Angeles, October IS. At Mastodon, N. M., a town which is not located on maps, be was stuck in the sancl for a week. He finally got off the ground by placing his machine on a handcar on the railroad and was able to get up speed enough to leave the handcar and fly.

Following is the route he covered:—

Miles

Oct.

IS

Left

   

"

is

Arr.

   
 

19

"

 

7

 

21

   

.....45

 

23

 

Banning .......

............ 36

 

25

"

 

............149

"

30

   

............10S

1 *

30

   

............ S4

Nov.

2

"

Benson, Ariz. .

............ 4S

 

2

"

Bisbee ........

............ 42

 

3

"

Douglass ......

............ 36

*4

5

 

Mastodon, N. M.

not on map

Nov

13

Arr

El Paso, Tex..

............16S

 

IS

 

Van Horn ....

............110

"

IS

"

Pecos ..........

............ S5

"

IN

"

Pyote ..........

............ IS

 

21

 

Sweetwater ____

............190

"

to

 

Abilene ........

............ 40

"

24

 

Eastland .......

............ 55

 

24

"

Ranger ........

............ 5

 

24

"

Strawn ........

............ 12

 

26

 

Thurker .......

............ 5

 

26

 

Weatherford ..

............ 40

 

27

"

Ft. Worth .....

............ 25

"

30

Arr.

Josuba ........

............ 20

 

30

 

Waxahachie ...

............ 30

 

30

"

Ennis .........

............ 15

 

3(»

 

Corsicana .....

............ IS

Dec.

1

"

Mexia .........

............ 30

"

1

"

Groesbeck .....

............ 13

 

1

"

College Sta. ...

............ 65

 

1

 

Cypress .......

............ 60

 

2

 

Houston .......

............ 20

 

7

 

Sheldon .......

............ 15

 

, 7

 

Liberty ........

.............25

"

7

 

Beaumont .....

............ 40

 

7

 

Orange ........

............ 20

     

Total

1679

JANNUS FLYING IN ST. LOUIS.

Antony Jannus has associated himself with the B'enoist factory and school in St. Louis and has been doing big stuff with the Benoist-Roberts S planes, getting his pilot certificate and taking up passenger for thirty minutes.

NAVAL OFFICER FLIES HYDRO.

Lieut. John Rodgers of the LTnited States navy gave one of the new Burgess-Curtiss hydroaeroplanes a test at Newport, R. I., last month, flying above and around the battleships with perfect ease. The machine was towed over the road from the factory of Burgess Co. & Curtiss, Marblehead, Mass., by automobile, and launched from the torpedo station. Later, it encircled the Missouri and came to rest alongside the Ohio, from which point it was hoisted on board that ship and taken outside the harbor for other trials. The experiments are said to have been a decided success.

NEW COMPANIES.

Midwest Aeroplane Co., Sioux Falls, Iowa.

Western Aeroplane Mfg. Co.. 2219 Cottage Grove Ave., Chicago, 111. $3,000, to manufacture aeroplanes and parts. Adolph Katz, Arthur J. Irion, Chas. F. Bushong and Jay J. Douglas. Fred. R. Golder, assistant manager.

Am. Aeroplane Mfg. Co., Chicago, 111.

The Sea Gull Aeroplane Co., New York. ($100,000; V. E. D'Frso, G. Tomasulo, A. Scaturro.

Sloane Aeroplane Co., 1777 Broadway, New York: capital, $30,000. J. E. Sloane, South Orange; A. A. A'antine, II. Vantine, New York city.

Milwaukee School and College, capital stock, $50,000; incorporators, Eleanor Silverston, Henry

Feldhus, Louis Jensen, Lester A. Loewenbach and A. Rudolph Silverston.

National Aeroplane company, Chicago; capital, $10,000; manufacturing and selling aeroplanes, giving exhibitions and instructions, etc.; incorporators, Howard Linn, W. S. Linn, E. M. Spates.

The State Department of Delaware issued certificates of incorporation to the Furtaw-Mc-Kay Monoplane Company to engage in the manufacture of flying machines and their accessories of all sizes and descriptions. The incorporators are F. R. Hansel, of Philadelphia: George H. B. Martin and S. C. Seymour, of Camden, N. J. The capital stock is $100,000.

The Eagle Aerial Manufacturing Company, St. Louis, to make a new type of aeroplane invented by Thomas H. Keppel of Indianapolis. The company has a capital stock of $100,000, half of which is subscribed, held as follows: Thomas H. Keppel, 1,579 shares; Robert F., Jesse and Jesse E. Keppel, 979 each; Joseph Van Raalte, 720; H. G. Lind, 259; Lionel Davis, 424.

AERIAL EQUIPMENT CO.—Schedules in bankruptcy of the Aerial Equipment Co., of No. 1743 Broadway, New York, show liabilities $13467 and assets $141, in accounts. The company had office furniture $450 and pictures $6 which were sold by the sheriff.

NEW PILOTS

Four more aeroplane pilots qualified in November and December, as follows:—

75. Albeit Elton (Wright), St. Louis, Oct. S.

76. John H. Worden (Moisant), Mineola, Nov. 14.

Francisco Alvarez, 22 years old, a rich Mexican, born in Mexico City, whose father was a wealthy contractor and real estate operator of that place: and Clarance de Giers, 22 years old living at the St. James Hotel, New York, whose father is also a real estate operator; both flew for their licenses on Dec. 3.

Jesse Seligman, son of the banker, of the firm of Seligman & Meyers, has left for Kingston, Jamaica, where he will exhibit, thence going to Colon to fly across the Tsthmus of Panama; visiting subsequently other Spanish-American countries. Seligman received his license last month.

All three are graduates of the Moisant School. Spherical balloon certificate number 44 has been given to John J. Van Valkenbnrgli.

In addition to their present staff, the Maximotor makers, Detroit, have engaged the services of a celebrated Detroit automobile designer whose ears are being turned out at the rate of over S00 weekly. This engineer has worked a number of years in Europe at the plants where the foremost light engines of the world are built. He is co-operating with the Maximotor designer, Mr. Dingfelder.

Among the recent purchasers of Maximotor engines is Mr. Lewis Matthews, official and part owner of the Malleable Stove Works of South Bend. Ind., who has now resigned to invest in an aviation enterprise.

Bombs dropped from an aeroplane created great havoc in an attack on Tripoli on December 2 bv Lee Hammond in a Baldwin "red devil." ' Hammond was a star feature of a moving picture sketch, uniformed as an Italian aviator and the plav was aeronautically staged at Mineola. About thirty passengers were carried by Hammond, whose machine has been fitted with a passenger's seat.

THOMAS BROTHERS MARKET BIPLANE

It is with a sense of satisfaction that the prospective buyer can cast about and occasionally find a manufacturer who has had the courage to follow out his ideas and stick to them.

At the present time there are in this country but very few American machines which bear the stamp of individuality. It is safe to say that 95r; of the machines actually Hying in this country tn-day are copies of some well known make of aeroplane, foreign or American. Among one of the few exceptions may be the machines

built by Thomas Bros., Bath, N. Y. The original machine built by them was conceived and built in 1909, and was equipped with a 4 cyl. standard type of automobile engine of bore and stroke, 25 h.p., A.L.A.M. rating. Extensive experiments were carried on with this machine in the spring of 1909, which to some extent were discouraging. This will be realized when it is known that the machine failed to get off the ground at all for the first three months. In September circular flights were possible.

The experimental work continued through the following winter, and by this time this same machine was perfected to such an extent that short passenger flights were made on several occasions. The heaviest passenger weighed 160 pounds.

Up to this time every kind of lateral and longitudinal control had been tried which was in use in this country and abroad.

The old machine was sent out on exhibition work with a view of ascertaining the true conditions under which a machine had to operate.

The spring of 1911 saw a machine which was distinctive in design from any American or foreign machine, and which was up-to-date in every sense of the word. A number of features of the original machine were retained, the retention of which were determined by actual experience. The 1912 models are among the most up-to-date and scientifically built biplanes on the market to-day. The manufacturers have put out three models to meet the demand for special machines. These models take the form of a racer, a touring machine and a passenger machine. All machines are equipped with 50 h.p. "Kirkham" motors, other makes optional. Complete details were given in the November n umber.

The touring machine is an exceptionally fast climber and will average 55 m.p.h. in ordinary weather. Speeds of 72 miles per hour have been made over a measured distance in light winds, the makers state.

The manufacturers made the statement some time ago, that they did not intend to market their machine until they were sure of what they were giving the public, and have always been conservative in their statements regarding the performances of their machines. The machines in operation can be seen at Bath, N. Y.

LOS ANGELES MEET

Los Angeles enthusiasts are earnestly looking forward to a meet there in January. The Aero Club of California, the official body, has made a contract with the lessees of the Donginuez field, the American Aeroplane Co., by which the Club receives 2% of the gross gate receipts for the use of its name and good will with the understanding that the meet in January will be held there under the auspices and sanction of the Aero Club of California. A meet on a gate receipt basis for the flyers as well as for the Club is assured. There are many local flyers, Dekor, DeHart, Champion, and C. P. Rogers is there. The Curtiss and Oueen schools are both nearby so that a meet can be run by local talent alone.

MARTIN BIPLANE ANTEDATED

P. Robinson, of 191 Caledonia Av., Rochester, N. Y., claims the distinction of being the first in this country to build a biplane with the engine and propeller in front. The machine was produced last September. Charles P. Willard, however, built rod flew one along this line last summer, drawings of which were published in AERONAUTICS. No fights were made with the Robinson machine on account of engine trouble, he states, but hopes to fly in the spring when the engine will have been put in shape.

EARLE OVINGTON TO MANUFACTURE

Earle L. Ovington will be in the manufacturing field next year with a machine both unique and different, not following any standard design. Exhibition flying has been given up for good but aviation has not lost his aid. He has located at Newton Highlands, Mass.

LIBERTY RACE GOES TO WHITE

The donor of the $10,000 Statue of Liberty prize has not the money now. Neither has any

of the three "winners;" although the international body has declared. White the successful one in the altercation, it is reported by cable,— as yet unconfirmed by letter to the Aero Club of America.

John B. Moisant, in a machine new to him, fifty horsepower, flew in a direct line to the Statue and back at the Belmont meet last year and made the fastest time. White with a hundred horsepower engine was second, and De Lesseps third. Moisant was awarded the prize. White protested on the ground that the original rules for the contest provided that no one could compete unless he had flown for an hour previously during the meet. The race had been postponed and in the meantime the meet officials rescinded this clause and made it possible for Moisant to fly for the money, although he had not flown an official hour at any time during the meet. He did fly an hour, as a matter of fact, but the system of time keeping was so arranged that no record was made of unofficial flying. The hour clause was designed to keep inexperienced men from attempting the flight. Moisant had flown from Paris to London and was rainy well qualified, one would say, to compete with White and quite in the latter's class.

White protested to the A. C. A. the award to Moisant on the basis of the hour condition; +hat the meet had no right to change published rules. The club sustained his protest and awarded the money to De Lesseps, the last man, on the ground that White had fouled a pylon in starting on the contest and, of course, was not eligible. White protested this, was backed by his club and the matter taken to the Rome meeting of the federation which gives the money to White, as the American club did not prove the fouling and the federation evidently did not admit that the officials of the meet could change the rules thereof.

The heirs of John B. Moisant have not yet decided what course to pursue.

COLLIER TROPHY

The address of president Robert J. Collier, of the Aero Club of America, on his election contains the statement that the trophy which he proposed to award to the winner of the elimination race for the selection of the Gordon Bennett team will be offered for the most substantial achievement in the cause of aviation during 1912. The awarding of this would be left in the hands of a committee.

Late in the afternoon of Nov. 5, W. P. Cline, in the A. N. Ridgely plane equipped with a 6-cylinder "Kirkham" motor, flew for 6% minutes at Nassau Blvd. Ascending in the fast approaching darkness he flew on schedule anu descended only on being signalled down, and It was then so dark that it was necessary to burn a considerable quantity of gasoline on the field in order that he might safely alight.

There has recently been a considerable increase in -the demand for these motors and a large number of orders have been booked for future delivery. Indications point to a considerable activity in the sale of motors during the winter and spring months.

The E. J. Willis Company stock of aeronautical catalogues is entirely exhausted at the present time. A new edition will he ready very shortly and as soon as possible they will again be pleased to mail same Free to All Interested Parties. In the meantime they want to hear from those' jontemplating entering the aeronautical field or at present engaged in building their own machines. If they can tender any assistance by advising in the constructional details of various type machines they are glad to do so and incidentally to quote prices on the very many parts and fittings that they carry in stock in large quantities at all times.

They have recently placed upon the market an extra largo turnbuckle with locking device, preventing loosening of the turnbuckle and slacking of the cable around the engine sections of the biplanes which is expected to be a very popular seller.

CURT1SS HYDRO-AEROPLANE GOES TO RUSSIA.

An order reached this city yesterday from the Russian Aerial .League for a two seated Curtis hydro-aeroplane of the dual control type used by Lieutenants Ellyson and Towers in their recent successful flight from Annapolis to Fort Monroe. The order was placed by the Russian Importing Company of New York City.

The Aerial League is said to have been organized to further a movement to develop Russia's military power in the air as a more practicable enterprise than the upbuilding of the lleet shattered in the war with Japan.

The Curtiss Company has agreed to send an aviator to Russia to demonstrate the machine for the purchasers. Hugh Robinson, who made a notable flight in a hydro-aeroplane from St. Paul to Rock Island, is on his way here from the West and probably will go to Russia with Eugene Godet.

The Curtis Company also has sold one of its machines to Dr. Charles S. Decker, of Bingham ton, President of the Aero Club of that city and also head of the Binghamton Automobile Club.

Mrs. Lillian Janeway Atwater, formerly widow of the late Senator Thomas C. Piatt, now wife of William B. Atwater, has decided to study aviation at the Curtiss winter training grounds on North Island, San Diego, Cal.

A large amount of equipment, in the shape of aeroplanes, parts, machinery and staff of employees has been sent from the Curtiss aeroplane factory at Hammondsport, N. Y., to the Curtiss training ground and experimental station on North Island, near San Diego, California, within a few days. The Curtiss training school is already open at San Diego with about a dozen pupils in attendance, including one officer of the Greek army, and Mr. Curtiss will follow the equipment which he is sending to that point about the 1st of December.

Mr. Curtiss is now building a hydro-aeroplane rescue boat of thirty horse power and equipped to carry twelve men. Should this latest device of the Hammondsport inventor prove success-

ful, it will prove conclusively the great value of the hydro-aeroplane in war as a means of rescue.

A VISIT TO THE HALL-SCOTT FACTORY.

In the perfection of the beautifully finished Hall-^cott engine, that is being installed in an ever increasing number of American aeroplanes may be seen the result of many years' experiment and study. A pioneer in the aeronautic industry and a successful builder of railway motor cars, and automobile engines, before the aeroplane's advent, this company, under the management of C. B. & L. C. Scott, and the clever designing of Al. Hall, has forged to the front, its engines are now to be seen in daily action at almost every aviation field in the country, and at every meet of any consequence their engines were prominent in the hands of professional aviators.

As a result of nersonal observations during a recent trip around the country in which a good opportunity was had to witness different makes of engines perform under varying conditions and in various machines, the writer determined to visit the Hall-Scott plant and see the actual manufacture and surrounding conditions which go to make such a uniformly successful engine.

A short trip across the bay from San Francisco lands one at West Berkeley where the factory is situated. A large new building is occupied, but the increasing business has already reached its limitations and plans for a large addition are now under way.

One passes through a maze of busy planers, drills, turret lathes, grinders, etc., their squeaks and shrill protests seem strangely silent however, in the popping roar of a large railway motor being tested over in one cornel". Mr. Scott, my guide, tells me that this engine is one of two which are to be installed in railway motor cars of exceptionally high speed. He gives a lot more interesting information but his words are lost in the noise.

We visit the extensive stock room wherein a large number of parts are neatly arranged in

Assembly Room of the Hall-Scott Motor Works.

bins. At least twenty-five complete power plants could be assembled from parts in this room alone, an insurance against delay in replacement should breakages occur.

Touring the main floor we stop and oversee development of various parts, such as the crankshaft, etc., from the rough to the finished and perfectly balanced article.

Here a cylinder is being bored; a large pile of the grey iron castings on one side, Mr. Scott informs me, are discards, owing to small defects which might ordinarily pass, but are not up to their standard; an average of two out of three being thrown away.

Everywhere one is impressed with the swiftness and economy of jig and template. The expenditure here for this most necessary equipment must amount to a large sum.

Attention is called to a pile of aluminum alloy crank-cases neatly finished, polished and smooth inside and out, then to some connecting rods that are a joy to handle.

In the busy pattern shop propellers and patterns in various stages of completion are spread about, seemingly in confusion, but really in well ordered array. The Hall-Scott propellers are made here, walnut now being used entirely for this purpose. Their latest model is a blade of neat design and high efficiency. A 7V, ft. d., 4y2 ft. pt., turning 1200 R.P.M. witli the 00 h.p. A2, giving 400 lbs. thrust in the factory, tho 300 lbs. is all they claim.

Adjoining the main building, in a well lighted addition, is the assembling room where are usually to be found five or six engines in various degrees of construction. A door at one end opens out to the testing stand. A car of suitable design carrying the engine to be tested on tracks that run through the assembling room to tlie stand out doors where an elevated support carries gas and water pipes, the whole being conveniently arranged and quite ingenious.

It was the writer's intention to give some details about the engine itself but the Hall-Scott pamphlets Al, A2, A3 give this in a more thorough manner than space here would allow. A final impression gained was that the engine is worthy of the plant or vice versa.

CLEVE T. SHAFFER.

CALL COMPANY BUILDS 'PLANE

A monoplane has been built and flown by the Aerial Navigation Co., of Girard, Kans., makers of the unique Call two-cylinder motors. The flight was short and sweet but it was of value.

In the shop, the engine turned an S'G" by 5' propeller at 1300 r.p.m. It was then nought that the engine had power enough to turn a bigger blade so one of 6' pitch was put on which ran a 400-pound scale to the limit. Then the machine was run throttled around the field. After several trials like this, the machine was given its head up a hill with advance spark and wide open throttle. The novice in it had no idea it would jump in the air but it did, with the result as shown in the picture. The machine weighs S00 lbs. without fuel or pilot and has 210 sq. ft. of surface. The 'plane rose right away and as it cleared the top for the hill the pilot made a disastrous landing after he shut off the power.

The Call engine is the only 2 cylinder opposed motor of the equal of 50 h.p. that we know of. Its first appearance at the Belmont meet caused considerable interest on account of its uniqueness and beautiful finish.

CALENDAR OF EVENTS

Jan. 1928—Los Angeles, A.C.C, meet.

li) 12—International Exposition, Vienna May. 9-18, 1912—Siiow at Grand Central Palace, Aero Club of America.

Akroxatticr is a very instructive and interesting magazine.— Edw. E."l?itowx.

The Mormon Tabernacle, Temple and Utah Hotel at Salt Lake City taken by H E.

Honeywell from his balloon.

ASCENSIONS.

Phila., Nov. 11. Dr. H. F. Pyfer and Dr. L. T. Ash, of the Norristown Asylum for the In-1 sane, (no joke intended) in the "Penn. 1." to Bound Brook, N. J., after a four and a half hour

DIRIGIBLE ASCENT. Atlantic City, N. J., Nov. 4. The first trial was made of the transatlantic airship "Akron." A landing was necessary in the water, which resulted in minor damages.

DOUBLE ASCENSION.

Dayton, Nov. 4. Dr. L. E. Custer in the "Luzerne" (22,000) and Dr. P. M. Crume in the "Hoosier" (SO,000). The Hoosier carried as passengers R. T. Louis, Joseph Light and Bert Klopfer. The. Hoosier landed at North Lewis-burg after 1 hr., 27 min. Dr. Custer won the race by landing 12 miles farther on. The race was for a silver cup of the Dayton Aero Club.

Redlands, Calif., Oct. 30. George B. Harrison, piloted Earl Remington, Miss Myrtle Dennison, Frank Champion and N. L. Stevens in the "All America II." Landings were made at Highlands and East Highlands where the trip to Los Angeles was abandoned as the balloon could not be gotten out of the valley.

Pittsfield, Mass., Nov. 13. H. P. Shearman, pilot, H. R. Corner and J. A. Jones in the "Stevens 1" to Unity, N. H., landing in the-tree-tops. They were rescued by farmers who cut away some smaller trees so the aernauts could slide down the anchor rope.

Indianapolis, Inch, Nov. 19. G. L. Bumbaugh, pilot, and Walter Mofflt, tried for the Lahm Cup record but got only 110 miles from here, landing at Monroeville, Ind., the following day.

St. Louis, Nov. 26. John Berry, Joseph O'Reilly, Joseph A. Gerspracher, Hans J. Schuster and Edward Strassman in the "St. Louis IV" to Barnet, Ills. Up 3 hours.

Dayton, Nov. 29. Warren Rasor and son Jefferson, ascended in the "Dayton," landing at Upper Sandusky 5 hours later.

Fifteen balloon ascents have been made this year by one man alone, Captain H.. E. Honeywell, of St. Louis, with himself as pilot. Among the passengers were many ladies, and as many as eight people have been taken up in one balloon. They were made in San Antonio, St. Louis, Kansas City and Salt Lake City.

The "X Company," of Detroit, which recently offered a $25 prize for a word to replace "propeller," has awarded this sum to Raymond W. Garner, of Davenport, la., adopting the modification "spiron" of his suggestion. A propeller with the trade name "Spiron" will be put on the market by this concern in the spring.

The New York Aeronautical Supply Co., of 50 B'way; New York, report that in spite of the winter season, orders are coming in fast. A large percentage of the orders are for supplies for the machines which are to be built during the inclement weather and used in the Spring. A new addition to their line is the "Roberts" motor. They have these motors in stock for immediate delivery. This enterprising concern] will demonstrate their motors, next season, in a Curtis's-type hydro-aeroplane. The hydro-areoplane is now under construction in their factory. A new and elaborate catalogue is now being compiled and will be ready for distribution about Jan. 1st. Mr. W. E. Watts, the president of the company, has just returned from a trip through New England and Canada nnd reports the outlook for next season "very bright."

/ find, the magazine all that could he desired. It is filled with insiruetire and enlightening literature. It is a compendium of useful knowledge pertaining to the science of aviation.—A. E.

HOSTELLET.

Questions and Answers

Edited by M. B. SELLERS

\\l are glade at all times to answer any questions that lie within our power. Heretofore, we have been answering these by letter. In future we will, in addition, print the questions and their answers for the benefit of other readers.

Not infrequently, the questions asked are such that they entail a great deal of time, more than we feel in a position to devote. In future, we will advise inquirers to the best of our ability, as before; but, where the demands made are more than can be reasonably expected of us we will, with the permission of the author thereof, refer these to a competent engineer, whose services are available. Mr. John C. Burkhart has arranged to devote whatever time and attention may be necessary to furnishing expert advice on design, balancing, purchasing of motors or other supplies, etc. He may be addressed at 250 West 54th St., New York.

To the Editor:

To date I have my power plant mounted and find that with the 4 cycle 4V4 by 4% engine, and 7' diam. sy2' pitch propeller I have made, 1 am getting 200 lbs. standing thrust at 1100 rpm. Now, what I am after is to reduce head resistance to a minimum, as the sketch, which you were so kind to help me out on, shows a blunt leading edge. I also proposed to cover the under side only but I have now decided to cover the top and bottom and, in particular, do away with the blunt edge by keeping the spar from S" to 12" to rear of front edge and depending on tight wires for the front and rear edges.

The point