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American Magazine of Aeronautics: Jahrgang 1910/1911 als digitaler Volltext

Die Zeitschrift Aeronautics war in den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika (USA) das Gegenstück zur vergleichsweise deutschen Zeitschrift Flugsport. Im American Magazine of Aeronautics wurde allerdings nicht nur über die US-amerikanische Entwicklung der Luftfahrt berichtet, sondern auch über den internationalen Luftverkehr, über Erfindungen, über Patente sowie über Flugwettbewerbe und Veranstaltungen. Als die Zeitschrift erstmals im Jahre 1907 erschien, hieß sie "American Magazine of Aeronautics"; der Name wurde mit der Ausgabe Februar 1908 in "American Magazine of Aerial Navigation" geändert. Abermals wurde der Name mit der Ausgabe September 1909 in "American Magazine of Aerial Locomotion" geändert. In den folgenden Jahren wurde die Zeitschrift nur noch als "Aeronautics" herausgegeben. Nachstehend kann der komplette Jahrgang 1910/1911 als digitaler Volltext eingesehen werden. Alternativ kann der komplette Jahrgang 1910/1911 frei und kostenlos als PDF Dokument (84,4 MB) heruntergeladen werden. Weitere Jahrgänge des American Magazine of Aeronautics stehen in der Übersicht zur Verfügung.


THE AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERIAL LOCOMOTION

VOL. 7 NO. 1.

JULY, 1910

25 CTS.

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0

AERONAUTICS July, T9r0

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TO THE PROMOTERS OF THE

Coming Aeroplane Meets

YOU want exhibitions of Man-Lifting; Aeroplane Kite Flying- to interest the crowds while the aviators are not flying-. C, I fifth or even moderate winds will invariably keep the aeroplanists from flying-until late each afternoon. Before then we will fill the air with hundreds of 9- and 12-foot Aeroplane Kites of every known kind. By flying these, dozens in tandem, enormous American flag-s, streamers and announcement banners about the meet can be lifted a half mile in the air.

C. These scientific kites will fly all day and the displays will be a great attraction in themselves and will keep the crowds quiet and contented, when for any reason the aeroplanes cannot fly. C, At the Meet of the West Hudson Aero Club at Arlington, X. J., June, 190!), New York papers said, "The hundreds of kites in the air were a decided feature."

SAMUEL F. PERKINS

110 Tremont St. :: Boston, Mass.

MODELS

llama SPECIALIST in the model-making art.

^ It is my business to duplicate in miniature any apparatus of any kind from the large machine or from scale drawings, accurate to the 100th part of an inch.

IJ Models made for the Patent Office.

•J My plant is one of the most completely equipped in the country. 1$ Only high class work solicited.

CHAS. E. DRESSLER

385-390 Second Ave. :: New York

— Glenn Curtiss Flies from Albany = to New York City

In a Bi-plane Equipped with PALMER AEROPLANE TIRES

(See page 7 for an account of the flight)

The B. F. Goodrich Company, Hammondsport, N. Y., June 4, 1910

c/lkron, Ohio

Gentlemen:—I have your letter of June 1st and thank you for your complimentary expressions.

The Palmer Tires, with which I equip all of my aeroplanes give the best of satisfaction for the purpose. The light weight does not greatly impede the lifting power of the machine and the great resiliency enables me to land without shock on the hardest ground and to pick up speed quickly in starting. I am glad to credit a part of the success of my aeroplane to the Palmer tire.

Yours very truly,

(Signed) G. H. Curtiss

The Palmer Aeroplane Tire

Manufactured by

The B. F. Goodrich Company :: :: Akron, Ohio

AERONAUTICS My> *910

fc/4.eronautics

MV object in undertaking aeronautical experiments has been purely from the standpoint of sport. In this I must say that I have not been disappointed. I and my friends have certainly found in it more outdoor sport and interest than in anything else I have attempted in the past. Up to the time I sprained my ankle by a foolish attempt to beat a previous record, I made flights several times a week, or whenever the breeze was fair.

There is not the slightest doubt that "flying" is the great coming sport. From my experience I believe that the younger class of people who enjoy outdoor life will buy gliders and motor planes, and arrangements will be made so that the machines can be kept and used at the country clubs and the golf clubs, to one of which most of us now belong. At these country and golf clubs there is most always a

| Gliding as a Sport |

% By Hiram Percy Maxim % * *

*********+**+*+***************

Towed in this manner, the machine rises beautifully. It is absolutely steady, and when one gets thirty or forty feet above the ground there is usually found enough wind to keep one aloft without the tow having to advance.

After becoming acquainted with the machine and the balancing and controlling, the tow lines are left off, and flights are made by running with the machine down a hill against the wind. After running about ten or fifteen feet

corps of servants to look after a machine, and do the necessary repairing and refitting. In addition, these clubs always have splendid grounds upon which to practice flying. There are always hills for gliding, and in most cases there are large areas free from trees and similar obstructions. A great advantage is that in clnbs of this nature the general public would not have access, and one would be able to begin his practice, which is always very clumsy, without having the invariable "gallery" of hangers-on, which is unavoidable at any public field.

The illustration shows my Wittemann glider, which is really a very superb piece of work, being towed by a man against a breeze which probably was about fifteen miles per hour.

a lift on the front of the machine carries one straight up into the air, and it is possible to coast down to and beyond the bottom of the hill, very similar to one coasting down a hill on a toboggan in the winter time. The greater the skill and the better the breeze the farther the coast. Indeed, I am wondering if with enough skill and breeze it would not be pos sible to actually keep aloft indefinitely. If this were possible it certainly would open up great things.

The accident which I was unfortunate enough to suffer was due to carelessness on my own part. For the benefit of those who may also be so intoxicated by this most fascinating of all sports as to act foolishly, my experience may be worth noting;

I had made several very successful flights, being towed by an automobile against a breeze which did not amount to more than five or six miles per hour. Just at sundown I decided to make a new form of bridle hitch, and by the time I had completed it it had grown quite dark and the wind had fallen just short of a flat calm. Of course, it was no time to attempt to glide, and had it not been for the enthusiasm which this sport arouses I would have stopped. I told the driver of the automobile to give me as near 20 miles an hour as he could judge in the dark. At the rear of the automobile we had fastened a 15-ft. length of 2-in. by 4-in. spruce. From the ends of this two tow lines were run, one to each end of the glider. After starting I rose quickly to about 50 ft., and in the excitement the driver of the automobile veered slightly from the true course. This meant considerable variation at the ends of the 15-ft.

timber at the back of the car. The result was that my starboard tow line became very taut, while my port line became slacked. This pulling on one side immediately tipped the glider up. I corrected this, but in the swinging sideways, due to the elevation, it suddenly brought the taut line to the other side. This gave me a sudden reversal of the dip, which was of such terrific magnitude that I could not begin to control it. The result was that the planes actually tipped up until they were standing straight up and down in the air. The machine then, of course, dove sidewise, and the result was a sprained ankle, knee and hip joint for the too enthusiastic writer.

The moral is not to attempt these things unless it is light enough for the automobile to hold a straight course, and also unless there is a little breeze. In the free flights down hill there is practically no danger of accident to anyone having ordinary dexterity.

îiîXZi

Can a Man Fly With Wings?

by~ h. la v. twining

[Continued from the June Xumber]

President Aero Club of California : Head of I'hysics and Electrical Engineering in the Los Angeles Polytechnic High School; Author of "Wireless Telegrapliy," Etc.

A superficial observation of the bird brings out the following facts: The wing is attached by its front edge forward and above the center of gravity of the body of the bird ; and the center of gravity of the body and the center of figure of the two wings are situated in nearly the same vertical plane. This relation is fundamental.

The pectoral muscles that lower the wing are attached to the front edge of the wing

muscles. The muscles that elevate and depress the wing therefore oppose one another. This makes a lever of the third class of the wing, whereby power is converted into speed, forming a lever similar to the arm, at the elbow.

In Fig. 1, let A be the body of the bird, B the large pectoral muscle, D the hinge joint, and E the elevator muscle. In this lever, for striking the air D is the fulcrum, E and B the power, while C is the long arm to receive a long and swift sweep. Consequently, a; short and powerful contraction of the muscle B resulting in a small movement at O throws, the end of the wing C, through a long distance quickly. Since the reaction of the air upon the wing C is proportional to the square of the speed with which it is driven, we can see at once the advantage of this arrangement. Here is a factor that makes the length of the wing much more effective than its width. In fact the wing must be narrow and long in order to develop the greatest reaction, and it is net a mere matter of the relation between square surface and weight with which we have to deal. The less the surface and the

near the body, and the elevator muscles are found underneath the large pectoral muscles. They send a tendon up around the hinged joint between the wing and shoulder. This tendon attaches to the upper front edge of the wing, nearer the joint than does the lower muscle. The remarkable fact to be noticed is that the elevator muscles are very small and weak compared with the depressor

shorter the wing, the greater the speed with which it must be driven in order to develop the same reaction. The wider the wing and the shorter it is, the square surface remaining the same, the faster it must be driven in order to develop the same lift. The longer the wing, the slower it can be driven in order to develop the same lift. In fact, its speed will vary inversely as the square of its length and

inversely as its width. It is readily seen that it is the outer end of the wing that really does the work. In fact, the inner part of the wing can be entirely cut away, and it will remain just about as effective. Either in soaring or in flapping flight, it is the end of the wing that is the most effective.

The next feature to be noted is this: In order to obtain support a 10-lb. turkey must develop 5 lbs. reaction under each wing.

We shall suppose that this 5 lbs. reaction to exist at the center of pressure which we shall suppose to be two-thirds of the way out towards the tip, at least. Since the pressure increases with the square of the distance from the center of motion, this is very nearly true. The turkey that 1 mentioned before has a wing spread of 5 ft., with an area of 3 sq. ft., and an average width of 7V2 hi. This would locate the center of pressure about 20 in. out from the shoulder. The pectoral muscle that depresses the wing is attached about 1^ in. from the shoulder. Here an important point presents itself. In a lever, the power times the power distance equals the weight times the weight distance. In Fig. i, if we regard the power applied at O as represented by X, D being the fulcrum, the power distance is OD. The reaction, which is equivalent to the weight, is at M and hence AID is the weight distance. OD is 1^2 in., AID is 20 in. and the reaction at AI is 5 lbs., hence (X) (1^2) equals (20) (5). Solving X, equals 661 lbs.

If the above analysis be correct, then the turkey must pull with a force of 663 lbs. on each wing in order to fly, if it is continuously to support its weight. That is to say the turkey must maintain a pull of 133J lbs., while flying or soaring, provided it is continually supporting its weight.

This means the expenditure of .24 h. p. in order to rise 1 ft. in 1 sec. or .12 of a h. p. to rise 6 in. per sec.

This is preposterous. A man's rate of work is about .1 h. p. If a man climbs a mountain, rising at the rate of a foot per second he has to be a hustler. This requires .27 h. p. In fact to go upstairs at that rate will take the breath out of an ordinary man. If he climbs at the rate of 6 in. per sec. he will be doing pretty well. This is .13 h. p. A 10-lb. turkey is not very fond of flying. A turkey buzzard, however, weighing 4 lbs. and having a wing expanse of 3 ft. and an average width of 8 in. flies and soars with ease. Each wing is \Vi it. long. This gives an area of 1 sq. ft. per wing, or 2 sq. ft.

In this wing then we have: (X) (1) equals (2) (12) : the pectoral muscle attaches 1 in. from the shoulder; and 5 of 18 in. is 12 in.; a 2-lb. reaction is necessary at AI. Consequently X equals 24. Hence the buzzard must pull 24 lbs. on each wing or 48 lbs. in all. This gives the turkey buzzard about .1 h. p. to rise 1 ft. per sec. whether soaring or flying.

An ordinary man weighs 37 V2 times as much as the turkey buzzard, and if the buz-

zard is expending energy at the same rate that a man expends energy, then it has to burn as much fuel as a man in a stove 1/37 as large. This does not look good to a reasonable mind, and there must be some mistake in it.

If, on the other hand, the fulcrum is not at D, Fig. 1, after the resistance of 2 lbs. is developed at AI, but at AI instead, then we have an entirely different proposition. In a lever the fulcrum is at the point of support when the weight is lifted. When the bird is lifted by the reaction of the air, it is resting on the center of pressure of the wing. Hence the fulcrum ought to be found at that point. If this supposition be true, then the weight arm and the power arm are very nearly equal. AID is the weight arm and AIO is the power arm. Then (20) (5) equals (18.5) (X) whence X equals very nearly 5.4, in the case of the turkey. In the case of the buzzard X equals 2.18 lbs.

This shows that a bird in flying has to lift practically its own weight only. This looks more reasonable. This represents .02 h. p. for the turkey and .008 h. p. for the buzzard in rising 1 ft. per sec.

There are losses to be taken into account here, of course, that would increase this.

But the question is, is the fulcrum really out at the center of pressure on the wing? Experiment only can determine it, although to suppose otherwise does violence to the judgment.

In a recent experiment results were obtained, which point clearly to the conclusion that the fulcrum is really out at the center of pressure.

EXPERIMENTS WITH MACHINE.

Last summer I constructed a machine built on the principles of bird flight as I see it. The machine weighs about 100 lbs. Aly weight is 140 lbs., making 240 lbs. The wings are manually operated by levers, which attach to the front edge of the wings through links, giving a leverage of four to one. The links attach 3 in. from the shoulder of the machine. The point of attachment is thus located forward and above the center of gravity of the body and machine. The machine is mounted on three bicycle wheels. I had hoped to cause it to run along the ground when the wings were made to oscillate, and after getting up a speed of 8 or to miles per hour on the ground, I hoped to be able to develop enough lift to take it off the ground. But nothing of the kind happened. I could beat the wings some 52 half beats per min., and develop enough reaction to take the wind out of me in about 10 sec. The wings had 30 sq. ft. each of surface and were some 10 ft. long by 4 ft. wide at the widest part. It took only a one pound and a half null to move the machine along I he ground with myself in it.

We suspended the machine by a block and pulley attached to a spring balance, and with myself in it, it weighed 240 lbs. By beating the wings down the machine rose 2 in. and gave

a 120-lb. lift on the scale. On the up stroke the machine rose slightly and developed forward motion.

Now if the fulcrum is at the shoulder we have the following: OD, Fig. I, is 3 in., DM is 80 in., hence (3) (X) equals (120) (80) or X equals 3,200 lbs. That is it would take a pull of 3,200 lbs. at O to develop a reaction of 120 lbs. at M on both wings in order to lift the machine. It would take one-half of 3,200 lbs. or 1,600 lbs. to develop 60 lbs. at M in order to lift half of the weight.

As a matter of fact I was lifting half of the machine by making a 200-lb. pull at O. If

the fulcrum were at D, I should have been able to have developed only a o-lb. lift instead of 200 lbs. lift.

By an iS-in. motion between the hands and feet, the tip of the wings can be swung through 10 ft. The above results seem to indicate that the fulcrum is out on the wing, and if that is the case, there is no reason why flight with wings should be impossible.

There are other factors though that might favor or prove unfavorable to the above conclusion. If the wing is wasteful of power, or if the power is applied in a very disadvantageous manner, it might still be impossible. [To be continued]

i New Prizes *

* t

* *

Curtiss' Flight Gets New Prizes.

The Albany-New York flight of Curtiss immediately had its effect on prize giving. For the past two years newspapers have been asked to offer prizes, but they seemed very cold. Mr. Curtiss' flight seemed to work wonders over night.

World-Post-Dispatch $30,000.

At the Hotel Astor banquet the $"0,000 prize of the New York World and the St. Louis Post-Dispntch for a flight from New York to St. Louis, was made public. Conditions have not yet been named, as the prize will, it is expected, be awarded under the rules to be formulated by the national federation at its convention on June '2'2.

N. Y. Times-Chicago Post Prize.

Another big prize of $25,000 was announced at the Astor dinner by the New York Times in conjunction with the Chicago Evening Post, for a flight between Chicago and New York, about 900 miles. Other prizes will undoubtedly be offered by cities along the route. Conditions for this. also will wait for the national federation which, no doubt, will in the future control all events in this country of local or nation.nl character.

Missouri Raising $10,000 Prize.

Only a few thousand dollars is needed to com plete the prize of $10,000 which will be offeree' in July for a trans-state flight in Missouri, the start being St. Louis and the finish Kansas City. The prize will be open for competition the week of July 18. according to the present plan.

It is further planned to allow five stops at as many controls, if more than one entry is received and to start all at the same time on a day to be specified by an impartial committee, which will take weather conditions and the preparedness of the contestant into consideration. Three days will be allowed for the journey.

The course will probably be along the Wabash

railroad to Kansas City, a distance of about 27f

miles. _ , . _ , , _

Edwin Gould Prize.

Edwin Goul- -.^s offered through the Scientific

'meriean a prize of $15,000 for the production of

the best successful aeroplane equipped with two or more motors and two or more propellers, so that any power plant can be used either individually or in conjunction with the other or others. This prize is to stimulate the invention of a "safe" machine. The conditions will be announced later.

Evening World Trophy.

The Evening World has offered' a perpetual challenge trophy in silver to the amateur making the longest continuous flight in any year. Each winner holds the cup for a year. The complete rules will be formulated and adopted at the national convention on June 22nd.

Scientific American $100 Prize.

The Scientific American offers $100 in three prizes to lie awarded to the inventor who gives the best account of how he conceived his invention, how he developed it in actual practice and how he succeeded in. setting it. This sum is divided $50, $35 and $15. open to August 15th. 1010. For rules address Scientific American, MCI Broadway, New York.

$20,000 for Race Between Wright and Curtiss.

The Aero Club of Washington has offered $20,000 to the Wrights for a flight from New York to Washington if they will enter one of their machines against a Curtiss.

J. P. Erie, of Denver, Colo., has been experimenting with a glider in which the upper surface is some S ft. greater in spread than the lower. This, he says, lends greater stability. There are triangular "wing tips" from the upper to the lower surface, at an angle of about 45 deg. from the horizontal.

First College Aero Degree.

The first degree to be awarded by an American University for work in1 Aeronautics was granted at the Columbia University commencement this June, when, Grover C. Loening received the degree of Master of Arts. Loening's thesis, entitled "An Investigation of the Practice and Theory of Aviation," is about forty thousand words long, and is a complete study of the aeroplane, from practical as well as theoretical standpoints. Twenty-six large plates accompanying the thesis, and show details of the various successful aeroplanes.

XXXXXXX'

How to Make a Propeller ::

TO make a propeller templets for a uniform pitch propeller, using the Drzwiecki method, one follows the plan below, which has been adapted from the French of M. Drzwiecki's book. You can take the pitch and diameter you have figured out yourself, or take the diameter and pitch of such propellers as mentioned in Aeronautics.

First obtain the pitch constant M, i. e., Pitch divided by two times 3.14I5U2G5, or roughly, pitch divided by G-2/7, or p as it is near enough.

Having obtained your pitch constant M, lay it out on tlie horizontal line AC (sketch I). This will give you the distance EB. Draw a line l£F perpendicular to AC from the point E. On this, starting from E, mark off lengths equal to %M, M, 2M, oM, 4M, 5M, giving you the points 1, 2, 3. 4, r>, 0. Lines are then drawn through thesp from the point B.

From these points 1, 2, 3, etc., with a radius equal to Yi of the specific width of the blade (This width is the width of the proposed propeller at Unit jiftiiit and may be any width you choose.) ares are drawn to intersect the lines IB, 215, etc.. on the same side of the vertical line EP as the point 15. Lines parallel to AC are then drawn through these points of intersection of the arcs with 115, etc.

The same procedure is carried out on the other side of the vertical axis EF, with the same centers, but with a radius equal to % of the specific width and lines parallel to AC are again drawn through the points where these arcs cut the lines IB, 2B, etc.

St. Louis in the elimination race, and gives tin club a chance to win all three places on the Ameri can team. It is not expected that any other clu' will enter more than three balloons in the elimina tion race.

These templets, of course, may be curved' to form segments of a circle. It will be seen that the inclined edges of the templets form a guide to determine the shape of the blade of the propeller.

For illustration, take a Curtiss 6-ft. diam. and f>-ft. pitch propeller. 4 in. wide at hub, 7 in. at ex'-tremity. (Sketch III.) One blade is 3 ft. from the center of the hub. Draw a line 3 ft. long. Pitch is GO in. One-sixth of CO is 10 in. Lay off 10 in. on line EC. Then take distances, 5"=y2M, 10"=M. etc. This gives only four templets, due to the fact that Curtiss" propeller is shorter than Drzwiecki's standard length. (According to Drzwiecki, a propeller with a 5-fL Ditch ought to be about 100 in. long.) This will-duplicate, however, a Curtiss' propeller, as it is not of uniform pitch.

The balloons piloted by members of the St. Louir club will be the club aerostats, St. Louis No. 3

^1

New Engine of Detroit (^Aeroplane Company

aud St. Louis No. 4, the latter just completed by Honeywell; the Centennial, of Honeywell; William F. Assmann's balloon, not yet christened, and the Million Club balloon.

Wooster Lambert says he will be Honeywell's aid in the Centennial, unless the health of J. W. Tolland, who was to have filled the place, improves sufficiently to permit him to take part. The St. Louis No. 3 will probably be piloted by James \V. Beinis, while A. B. Lambert may be the pilot of St. Louis No. 4.

The fourth sides of the templets are bounded by the vertical axis AD drawn perpendicular to AC at any optional distance from the point E. Drzwiec ki used narrow blades about one tenth of the di ameter wide.

The templets thus obtained are cut out of thin pieces of wood and the points "a" are marked upon them at a distance of XA their width. The % of width point "a" is measured from the front edge of the blade, i. e., the same side as axis EF is on and directly under the axis EE. This is where the thickest point of the blade comes, or the shank in a metal blade, and is near the front, to be at or in front of the center of pressure. (See sketch I.) These templets are numbered as in sketch I and fastened to a board with their plane perpendicular to the board. All the points "a" are placed on the axis "xy" in sketch II. These templets are spaced M, 2M, etc. The axis "xy" is di-

rectly under EF. ^_

St. Louis Active in Ballooning.

Charles F. Wenneker, president of the Million Club, has placed an order with II. Eugene Honeywell for a balloon of racing size, which S. Louis Von Puul will pilot in the elimination race to select the American team of three balloons to represent the United States in the international balloon race, which will start from St. Louis. Octo ber 17. The elimination race will be held Septen: ber 17 from Indianapolis.

This action on Ihe part of the Million Club now makes certain live entries from the Aero Club of

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Curtiss Wins :: $10,000 Prize ::

Flies From Albany to New York

THE FLIGHT IN FIGURES.

Distance, course, Albany to Camelot, 71*4 miles. Distance, course, Albany to Spuyten Duyvil. 128 miles.

Distance, course. Albany to Governor's Island, 1miles.

Distance, straight line, Albany to Spuyten Duyvil. 123.8 miles.

Distance, straight line, Albany to Governor's Island, 136.34 miles.

Speed per hour, by path, Albany to Spuyten Duyvil 50.52 miles.

Total time in air, 2 hours, 50 minutes.

Elapsed lime, Albany to Spuyten Duyvil 2 hours .12 minutes.

Gasoline used, 1.5 gallons. Oil used,2 gallons.

Weight of machine, Curtiss aboard, with tanks filled, etc., about 1,000 pounds.

Distances compiled for A»romautics by Mr. Williams Welch, Chief Draftsman, Office of the Chief Signal Officer, U. S. A.

it

. CAMELOT ■ /.- • . Lai ' • 8:26 aiW A.Lef' * 9-26

, I''

*7j

Sunday. May 20. The Hudson-Fulton Cclebra-tion of last October was made complete only today when Glenn II. Curtiss, bearing a letter from the 0ii Mayor of Albany to the Mayor of New York, won^ the New York World's .$10.000 prize for the first man to fly from Albany to New York, with an allowance of two stops on the way. Curtiss made hut one stop within the conditions of the prize.

After waiting several days for favorable weather, the start was made from Van Rensselaer Island in the Hudson River, at Albany, at 7:02 a. m. Circling over the lower part of the city, a minute later he crossed the line and was on his way to Xew York. *

At Xew Baltimore, a special Xew York Central train hearing Mrs. Curtiss, Mrs. .1. S. Fanciulli. Augustus Post, the official observer; .1. S. Fanciulli. Henry Kleckler. Mr. Curtiss' Chief Engineer : a committee from Curtiss' home town of Ilammonds-port and the newspaper men and photographers caught up with the aeroplane and kept pace with it as far as the first stop. Dear I'oughkeepsie.

The X'ew York Central Railroad runs close along the river as far as Spuyten Duyvil and the passengers could see practically every foot of Curtiss' flight.

FIRST LANDING AT POfGIIKEEI'SlK.

On down the Hudson without a skip of the engine, high over the I'oughkeepsie Dridge he came, landing for gasoline and oil at Camelot, a few miles below Poughkeepsie at 8 :'2i\. after flying ~UA miles in 8?, minutes, a sliced of 51.fi miles an hour. The machine was in perfect condition, save for one stay wire which vibrated too much. This was remedied. A farm had previously b. en selected here and a red flag hoisted to enable Curtiss lo make out the place,!

5puyten DUYVIL landed i0:3s u:i2

Curtiss Passing West Point

Pictorial News Co,

At 9 :2fi Kleekler, who had come down on the special train, started the propeller and Curtiss was off again on the second half of his journey.

Passing through the Storm King Mountains, where the crew of the llendrik Hudson are said to play at bowls on stormy nights, Curtiss met with his only difficulties in the way of air currents. Suddenly the air seemed to give way beneath the machine and it dropped like a plummet a few feet in the descending current.

"At Storm King," Mr. Curtiss told Aeronautics. "T was flying high through the narrow gap in the mountains and I caught the down current on one side more than on the other, and I dropped thirty or forty feet very suddenly and sideways. I had to shift the front control to get straightened out."

lands in new york.

Making a wide detour toward the Jersey side of the river, he flew over the railroad bridge spanning Spuyten Duyvil Creek and landed at 10:35 on an open field on Manhattan Island. His oil tank was leaking and, though the conditions were fulfilled, he wanted to make the feat complete by continuing on to Governor's Island off the southern part of New York City, so he deemed it best to fill up with oil to make sure of the accomplishment. From Camelot to Spuyten Duyvil is 5G% miles, time (19 minutes, or an average of 49.347 miles an hour, somewhat slower than the first half.

This field sloped steeply to the creek and there was no room to get a running start, so the machine was headed down the steep, grassy pitch and was in the air in record distance at 11:42. Out over the bridge again he went, between roughly wooded hills on either side and turned south down the Hudson, past Grant's tomb and

over the plying excursion and ferry boats, the Statute of Liberty, to within a few feet of the shed which housed his machine on Governor's Island during the IIudson-Fulton celebration. The exact time was not taken here, but has been put at 12 noon. At 40.3 miles an hour it would just, about take from 11.42 to 12 noon to cover the 14.5 miles.

As soon as the Curtiss party and tire newspaper men could get to the battery they boarded the little government ferry which runs to Governor's Island. Mr. and Mrs. Curtiss embraced! and were then congratulated by the few who were lucky enough to get by the guards at the ferry. The Ilammondsport delegation and a committee from the Aeronautical Society were on hand to express their appreciation of the great feat. The Aero Club of America, under whose auspices the prize was donated, unfortunately neglected the formalities of such a momentous occasion.

The party went to the Astor for luncheon and then proceeded to the World office where the check for $10,o0o was handed Mr. Curtiss with a few congratulatory words on his achievement.

trial flights.

Previous to this memorable flight, Curtiss made several long flights at Ilammondsport over Lake Keuka, landing in the water, one of which lasted* thirty-eight minutes.

Mr. Curtiss also entered for the Scientific American trophy, and the first half of his trip count s| as a record for this event. Mr. Curtiss won the' cup on the only two previous trials.

the machine.

Nearly four pounds to the square foot were carried in the flight, the upper plane having

spread of 31 foot 3 inches, being extended 30 inches on each side. The lower plane measured [III feet 3 inches. The front and rear horizontals svere about three inches wider than usual. Plat rubber bags had been, arranged below the outer extremities of the under planes, wooden strips icing fastened to the front and roar lateral beams forming the chord of the surface and in between >vero the rubber air bags. Two cylindrical metal tanks were also attached under tho lower surfaces in a line with the wheels, and the usual central <kid had a wide board1 nailed to it on which was mother rubber bag as shown in the photo. The two tanks were left behind at Spuyten Duyvil. lust in front of the front wheel, too, was a small Mirvod surface to net as a hydroplane in case of anding in the water.

A Bosch maaneto secured the efficiency of the ;park and a special large Kl Arco radiator kept he uO II. P. Curtiss S cylinder engine cool, and Vacuum oil did the lubricating. The wheels are itted with Palmer tiros and the planes are cov->red with Baldwin combination cloth.

PAULIIAN'S FLIGHT COM TARED.

Paulhan took 4 hours 12 minutes elapsed time o cover IS 3 miles when he won. the London Mail's STiO.OOO and made it in two stages of LIT and C>(> miles each. The 117 miles were 'overed in 2 :30, a rate of nearly 44 miles per lour. A night's sleep intervened and the reinain-ng C>0> miles were covered in 1 :2.'i. a rate of nearly IS miles per hour. The average for the above vas 44 :37 miles per hour. Paulhan could have

landed at almost any time and started again, whereas Curtiss could not have started if he had had to land in the water and for the whole dislance there wa-s scarcely a suitable space for landing on the ground, as for nearly the entire way rocky, wooded hills with precipitous sides lino the river.

DINNERS TO ITIITISS.

The following Tuesday evening a banquet was siven by the World at the Hotel Astor to Mr. Curtiss, presided over by Mayor Caynor. to which invitations were sent by the commonplace telegraph. Telegrams of congratulation from all over the world were read between courses. The speakers were: Mayor Oaynor. Hudson Maxim, president of the Aeronautical Society: Samuel II. Valentine, vice-president Aero Club of America: Don Sritz, of the ll'oi'W; Hon. .lames M. Beck, and Glenn Curtiss himself was prevailed upon to say a few words.

On. Juno 7th the X. V. Press Club gave a dinner to Curtiss. President John A. Ilennessy presided and introduced the speakers with an abundant fund of humor. .). Bernard Walker, editor of the Scientific American, announced the Kdwin Could prize with appropriate remarks. William A. Johnston, of the X. V. Worhl. announced a trophy of the Ercning World for amateurs: both proffers aroused great enthusiasm. The other speakers wore: C II. Curtiss. Charles M. Manly, Lieut. Humphreys, late of the [J. S. A.: I.ee S. Burridge. Clifford B. Harmon, William .1. Hammer, and Ithinelander Waldo.

'.¡1

H 1

¿4

Just After Curtiss Landed at Governor's Island 9

Pictorial Xeirs Co.

Hamilton Flies to Philadelphia

First Round Trip Between Cities.

SCHEDULE OF THE FLIGHT.

to philadelphia.

Distance. Time. Left Governors Island...... 7:43 A.M.

Landed at Philadelphia. 7tf'?/5^6.0 9:26 A.M.

return flight.

Left Philadelphia ............ 11 :33 A.M.

Landed, South Amboy (after a

detour)............5.3.-i'b$'. m& 12.54 F.M.

Reascended, South Amboy0:17 P.M. Arrived at Governors Island'.'".5? mr* 6:40 P.M. Time to Philadelphia, 1 hour. 43 minutes. Philadelphia to South Amboy. 1 hr. 21 min. South Amboy to Governors Island. 23 mjjiute^ Total distance, Phila. and return, l^w'miles. Total time in air, 3 hours, 27 ruinnte^ Average speed per hour to Phila., miles.

Average hourly speed from Phila.. 51.34 miles. Airline distance, one way, f^miles. Tf~.3t*f-Average speed over straight line. 43.47- miles. Xote.—The distance by path is not exactly accurate.

Weight of machine with extra large oil and gas tanks, mounted, 950 pounds. Surface main planes, 236 square feet.

On June 13. Charles K. Hamilton flew from New York to Philadelphia and back in a Curtiss biplane in just a trifle over eleven hours. This is the first round trip between large cities and he kept a schedule which had previously been prepared very closely. His average from New York to Philadelphia and return was 50.72 miles per hour. On his trip over he made 50.09 and returning, 51.34. A special train on the Pennsylvania railroad followed him nearly the entire distance.

Hamilton made the first start from Governors Island at. 7.11 A. M., but the propeller struck an obstruction, breaking one of the blades. Glenn H. Curtiss took the propeller from his Albany-New York machine, which fortunately was still housed on the island, and it was quickly put on Hamilton's 'plane, and he prepared for the second start, which was made at 7 :36 A. M. lie rose rapidly to a height of about two hundred feet and circled Governors Island, passing over his starting point and continued turning, until at 7 :43 he actually started over New York Bay. out over the Statute of Liberty and straight for the high chimney of the Standard Oil Company at Bayonne. Heading then to the right over the Kill von Kull at a speed of about 45 miles per hour he flew straight over Elizabethport. where he came in sight of the special train which accompanied him over the tracks of the Pennsylvania railroad. He passed through Trenton at S :40 and landed in, Philadelphia at 9:26, just 1 hour and 43 minutes after starting.

Returning from Philadelphia the start was made at 11 :33 A. M. and Trenton was passed at 12:09

P. M. Shortly after this point the motor began misfiring and he became confused by the rail-] road tracks of the Pennsylvania railroad and the Baltimore & Ohio railroad. Following the latter to South Amboy, he then decided to make a landing and seeing what he supposed to be a meadow on the shores of the Raritan River, he descended, but found1 the ground was a marsh. The spark | plugs were changed and a new propeller sent from Governors Island was put on the machine to replace the one which he had which was broken in landing. The machine was carried from this wet ground., up, the bank to a roadway, and a new start was made from this narrow place at 6:20 F. M. and Governors Island was reached at 6 :40, a little over eleven hours from the time of eaving.

Bosch Magneto and Palmer lire< won again. The ladl ator was an A Z.

Other Flights in Curtiss Machines.

On June 7th to 9th, Willard and Mars were! at Topeka. Kan. In flying over a railroad train, the .aeroplane caught the suction from the last ca^aand dropped to the ground, partially wreck-(iKing it. Mars was uninjured.

^ On June 12 at Springfield. Mo., Willard's engine failed him at a critical point, after making two good cross-country flights. In making a hasty descent Willard sustained cuts and bruises and the machine was almost totally wrecked.

J. C. Mars and1 C. F. Willard gave exhibitions at Joplin, -Mo., May 28-31. Both Willard-and Mars did well the first two days. Rain-then intervened and "rain checks" were issued. On the 31st a I new "stunt" was developed.

propeller hit by bullet.

Opening the program of the last day of flights, Charlie Willard launched out on a cross-country flight early in the afternoon. Straight across un even country he flow until he disappeared1 across the crest of a line of hills. When he did not return after an hour's wait. J. C. Mars, the other aviator, set out to find him. Following the direction taken by Willard. Mars found him six miles from the aviation field, near Carl Junction. Mo. Mars landed nearby and discovered that Willard's propeller had1 been splintered by a rifle shot, from some person whose identity is unknown. Willard was at a height of 500 feet when the bullet struck his machine. lie landed with considerable difficulty, barely escaping collision with a clump of trees. As soon as he discovered the nature of the accident Mars flew back to the aviation field, explained the circumstances and nn automobile carried a new propeller to Willard1, Mars returning to him through the air. .

Willard's machine repaired, both aviators (lew back to the aviation field and described figures in the air for an hour.

Hamilton finished his engagement at Atlanta, where he made his usual highly spectacular flights over the Speedway and during the auto races, on May 7th. The day before he made cross-country flight to Jonesboro. thirteen miles away, and return.

At Augusta, Ga.. on the 1 1th of May he aroused an enormous crowd to a high pitch of enthusiasm. From there he went to Jacksonville, Fla., for May 21-22.

Willard flew in Alexandria, Va., May 14, for thirty minutes in a drizzling rain.

Wright Students Complete Training.

Dayton, 0., June 11.—The Wright Company closed the Montgomery camp the last of May. As the pupils there had practically completed their training they were brought on to Dayton to help train the new men. Since that time, flying has been done in all kinds of weather and in winds running up to thirty-two miles an hour. The men are taking long glides, and in fact, are thoroughly familiarizing themselves with the operation of the machine uuder every possible condition.

Some sensational flights have been made for altitude, gliding and short circles. Only a few days a^o. June Nth. Orville Wright was up to an alti-lude of about two thousand feet. When about a mile and a half or two miles away from the field he shut off the power and descended on an angle, and to avoid over-shooting the mark, he had to make several large circles. This was certainly an inspiring sight.

Duval La Chapelle. Paris; Walter Brookins, Dayton Ohio; Ralph Johnstone and1 Frank Coffyn, of New York, and Arch lloxsey. of Pasadena. CaL,

I The (^Aviation f ! :: :: World :: :: |

to get into the air. The ground at the aviation training cam]) at Dayton is peat, which rises into uneven hummocks and makes what naturally would be thought a most objectionable surface to start or land on. The Wright aeroplanes have no trouble, however.

During the last ten days, more thau, 101 flights have been made of a total duration of twenty hours. The meet at Indianapolis, June loth to ISth. is making everyone hustle, the factory is turning out a machiue a week, and the Exhibition Department has bookings already to keep at least twenty-five machines going in the fall.

New Stability Plane on Wright Machine

with A. L. Welch, of Washington, are the men who have completed their training.

The photograph shows the students putting the truck under a Wright aeroplane at the Montgomery, Ala., aviation training camp in preparation for starting a flight. The rail on which this rolls is in sections which may be handled easily and quickly placed in position. Unless it is found desirable to make a quick and short start, as in n restricted area, the tower and weight are not used, but the machine travels along the rail with its own propelling force, gaining momentum until the aviator raises the elevating planes and the aeroplane rises in flight. The use of the rail makes it possible to start on, short notice on almost any kind of ground affording sufficient open space

Bishop Wright Takks First Tkip.

On May 25th the Dayton Aeroplane Club was invited by the Wright Brothers to visit the grounds and witness the flights. Eight were made, on one of which Orville Wright went up to 2.720- feet. In another flight Orville took his father for his first ride, remaining in the air for ten and one-half minutes. The last trip of the day was made by the two brothers together, for the first time.

A committee has- been appointed by the Aero plane Vlub to arrange for a suitable memorial to the W-rights. The club will also purchase an aeroplane and has two sites in views for an aerodrome. The club now has over six hundred members.

Wright Machines Now Have Tails.

The illustration herewith shows the tail now being used at Dayton. This apparently is either under independent control of the operator or is connected by crossed wires to the front rudder and acts in conjunction with it. A rudder of this nature, under the control of the aviator, has been added to some of the French Wright machines, and in the German Wright machines a fixed horizontal surface, 12 ft. by 2 ft. is also located as shown.

Lots of Flying at Mineola.

Mineola, .Tunc 11.—A lot of credit must be given to Clifford B. Harmon, who is the only amateur in (he East, at least, who is doing much ilying. Since he began flying at Mineola his aerial trips have become longer and longer and he has ventured forth in greater and greater breezes. He has had a couple of accidents of no very serious conse-

Seymour, who bought A. P. Warner's Curtisi claims that he finds it very difficult to turn to the right, which is in the opposite direction to that of the rotation of the propeller, and a largel circle must be made than, when turning to thl left. The ailerons seem to have greater effect anci stability is more easily maintained when turninj to the left. In flying straightaway in calm air no turning movement of the aeroplane itself is uoB ticed.

Captain Baldwin, since the first of May, has ham about twenty days' ilying. beginning with jusB runs on the ground1 and getting up to a fifteen! minute flight. Captain Baldwin believes in, a low center of gravity and has his motor placed Io\^ down on the lower plane, driving his propeller bj a chain. While he uses ailerons now, he will shortly put back his vertical fin on top of thl upper surface.

Hamilton making a Sensational Dive over the A<

rjuenee, though a few days ago in landing a bii abruptly the running gear gave way, breaking some struts and the propeller.

flies 55 minutes.

His best flight has been one of fifty-five minutes and no one took particular notice of the fact. A year ago this was about the record and the papers described in full detail everybody's-aeroplane, even if on paper only.

These accidents Mr. Harmon ascribes to lack of power in his seven cylinder Gnome motor. -He has sent abroad for new valve springs which he expects will make everything all right again. Another Farman machine will also be delivered t< him shortly.

Joseph Seymour, the auto race driver, has made more than a hundred flights, from little jumps to one of twenty minutes day before yesterday.

nautical Society's Shed X Y. World Photo I

Harry S. Ilarkness is com;-reting a big shed to house his Antoinette.

W. D. Fairchild lias installed his Ueqna-Gibson motor, and will be ready in a few days to give his his monoplane, which comprises some new features,J a. try-out. In the next issue we will be able to I give full details of the machine.

In the Aeronautical Society's shed, Frank Van Anden has a new biplane, W. .1. Diefenbach is still | working on his biplane, the Eouis Rosenbaum monoplane is nearly ready for trial and Miss E. i1 L. Todd has her machine there. Edwards and I Edick have a Curtiss-type biplane with a motor 1 of their own make installed.

Francois Uaiche. who built a Curtiss-type biplane for Daniel Frisbie. of Uochester, started to try it ont on June 8th. The engine was cranked, j Kaiche got in the seat, touched the accelerator

and—but the machine did not move. Raiche looked wonderingly around to see why it didn't go, but there was nothin' doin.' The machine was given a good strong push and it ran along for ten yards when the propeller came off and the crankshaft broke in two. The engine has four cylinders, opposed, arranged horizontally. On a previous trial of the engine, the cylinders broke.

Hamilton Flying at Mineóla.

On the day of the Ourtiss flight. Hamilton and his machine arrived in New York. Within a few days it was down at Mineóla where Hamilton did some of his highly sensational Hying for the benefit of the hundreds of people, automobile parties from Xew York, wealthly residents of nearby summer colonies, who are on hand daily now to watch the flights of Hamilton, Harmon, Seymour and Baldwin, and to look over the other machines being built there in the sheds and tents.

Hamilton goes up to a height of several hundred feet and then makes a dive to the earth at an angle of nearly forty-five degrees. Within twenty-five or thirty feet of the ground he shoves up his front control and the crowd breathes a sigh of relief at the safe and easy landing after the fearful dip. On only one occasion here has he carried a passenger.

On June 5th Hamilton began covering the machine anew with cloth, as the old material had become worn out with almost daily use in all kinds of weather, in preparation for the flight to Philadelphia, and on the Sth he made a trial flight with the new covering.

flies GO minutes.

The weather delayed Hamilton's projected flight to Philadelphia and the aeroplane was not ready at Governors Island till the afternoon of June 11. Toward evening Hamilton made a great flight of Gil minutes, soaring and swooping like a gull over the ferry boats plying the harbor, not landing until it was pitch dark.

On .Sunday, the 12th, another flight was made in the drizzling rain of about ten minutes.

stevens gives advice tu flyers.

A. Leo Stevens offers a valuable suggestion to aviators. He argues that aviators should carry with them on the machine on cross-country flights a spare propeller. This would add little weight to the machine and would certainly avoid delays dependent upon the breaking of Hie propeller.

Erickson Gets His Plane Off Ground.

After experimenting for several months with two different biplanes. Louis G. Lrickson, of Springfield, Mass., finally made good. On May 12 he rose about ten feet in the air, traveled' sixty feet or more at a very uncertain angle and then shut off the power just as it looked as if the biplane would turn completely over and bury the aviator beneath its wreckage. On May 20' another trial was made, but no better results obtained.

This is the second biplane Mr. Erickson has built, lie is now working on another biplane, the planes of which will be 5x30 feet. The frame will be of spruce and bamboo, and the fabric wit be rubberized silk instead of varnished cambric.

DETAILS OF THE ERlCKSON II.

Main planes, which are perfectly flat, measure 20 ft. by 7 ft., covered with cambric, which was treated with linseed oil and Japan, equal parts of each. Bamboo construction is used altogether for ribs and main beams. Kibs placed 1 ft. apart and tied1 to main beams, overlap of 10 in. to the rear. Ribs, % in. diameter. The uprights are 1 in. bamboo. 4 ft. 0 in. in length. The riser is 2 ft. by G ft., bamboo frame also. The rudder is 2 ft. by G ft. horizontal and 2 ft. by 3 ft. vertical. Both riser anil rudder Curtiss copy. Outriggers to riser and rudder are 1-in. bamboo, distance of each 11 ft, G in. Ailerons, 2 ft. by G ft., work with shoulder brace. Chassis, M2 in. by 20 in., regular aeroplane wheels with Hartford Aviator Tires, set same as Curtiss type. Bracing, Xo. IS piano wire used with cop l»er ferrules. Propeller G ft. G in., 11 in. at ends, made of Philippine mahogany, laminated G pieces, true screw. Motor power, a .".0 II. P. HarrimanFitzpatrick make, turning propeller 1,000. developing about 2on to 225 pounds thrust, holding aeroplane by means of rope tied to floor. Weight complete with motor. 475 pouuds.

Flights at Plum Island.

William Milliard, an auto racer of Boston, has been making successful flights in a Herring-Burgess machine at the company's trial grounds at Plum Island, Mass.

The Herring-Burgess aeroplane bought by C. \V. Parker, a showman of Abilene. Kans., made its first flight since the latter's ownership on May 2U at Salina. Shortly after it left the ground it was struck by a gust of wind and LaComme, the inexperienced pilot, shut off the motor. A couple of braces in the running gear were broken.

Indianapolis Meet Opens.

Indianapolis, June 15.—The second day of the meet closed yesterday. Five Wright aviators are here and in addition are: J. W. Curzon [Farman], M. Marcpiette [Marquette]. 6 R- Shaw [Shaw], Lincoln Beachey [Beachey] and G. L. Bunibaugh [Fisher].

Previous to the opening the Wright aviators made some preliminary asci nts.

New World Altitcdb Rpcord?

W. II. Brookins [Wright] flew to an altitude of 43S4 feet. A confirmation of this wassoughtand the corrected height put at 2100 feet. There may be an error in the sending of one or the other of the messages. OrvilIt-Wright himself made a short flight. Brookins made ti miles for the fastest 10 mile prize. A. I,. Welsh [Wright] made the mile trial in 2:82. lhookins gave a spectacular exhibition of figures, sharp turns and a dive. Two machines were in the air at once, each carrying a passenger for 12 minutes.

Brookins [Wright] made a trial high flight, going up to 209.1 feet. In the second trial he did even better, being measured at 43St feet by A. B. Lambert of the St. Louis A. C.

G. L Bumbaugh met with an accident in a machine of local make, after getting sixty feet in the air. Bum-b.iugh, the veteran balloonist and dirigible pilot, was caught under the machine when it fell, and painfully injured.

Full details of the meet will appear in the next issue.

The Erickson Biplane

New cTVlachines

Bicycle Rider Turns Aviator.

Charles YV. Miller, the world famous six-day bicycle rider, says he expects to win the New York-Si. Louis if:!!"),<W0. prize.

Mr. Miller has just had completed by Messrs C. and A. Witteinann, of Staten Island, an aeroplane of his own design, equipped with a 75 IT. P. Whitehead motor, a comparatively new, high powered aviation motor. With this power Miller's aero-

plane, which is of the biplane type, is expected to carry three.

The main planes spread 35 ft., by 0Vi ft. fore and1 aft. These are covered with No. 0 Naiad cloth laced to frame and stretched to drumhead tightness. These are spaced 0 ft. apart.

The steering is operated by a wheel as in an automobile, somewhat similar to the Curtiss arrangement. The front elevator has an S-ft. spread, by 2%-ft. depth. A double surface, self-balancing tail is provided for stability, with a single vertical rudder in the center. Vertical surfaces between the planes, similar to the Voisin machine, tend to maintain lateral equilibrium. The machine is trussed with steel aero cable, galvanized! to prevent rusting, fastened to Wittemann turnbuckles and specially designed eye bolts.

Chas. W. Miller's Aeroplane, Built by Wittemann

The chassis- is equipped with three pneumatic tired wheels, the rear wheels having a spring shock absorber, as shown in the .Tune number.

The ribs are three ply, laminated ash and spruce. The weight of the machine, complete, is 7tV> pounds. The magneto is Bosch high tension radiator El Arco.

The propeller of the Miller aeroplane is S ft. in diameter, of (5-ft. pitch. The Whitehead Company reports that ''On tost it gave L'To pounds thrust, but this by no means utilized' the power of the engine, the propeller being one that was merely calculated to drive the aeroplane about thirty-eight miles an hour. For higher speeds Miller will carry different propellers.

"On a preliminary test, the engine with a 10-ft. propeller, with a 7-ft. pitch, and 17-in. width of blades gave a thrust of 410 pounds.

"This is the greatest thrust that has ever been developed by a single engine on a single screw

has a much deeper curve and is set at a considerable angle. Lateral stability is maintained by the raising and lowering of the bottom planes, making tliepi more or less effective.

The gyroscopic force of the revolving cylinder motors also tend to keep the machine on an even keel. When the machine was first put together there were two horizontal rudders. 0 ft. by 4 ft. •'! in.—one 14 ft. in front and the other the same distance in the rear, but after a few trials another surface was added to each rudder. The rear one was made stationary and the front one was moved to within lO ft. of the main cell. With this improvement the machine flew about 100 ft. at a height of 0 ft. The flight was stopped by the breaking of the tail. Owing to breakages, no more flights have been made.

There are two revolving cylinders. .">»> h. p. Ad-ams-Farwell engines, set one on each side of the

Demoiselle Type Made in Seattle

for the given power and pitch speed, whicli was o.tKiO ft. per minute.

'"The Whitehead motor in construction is of the utmost, simplicity, there being no valves, springs, cams, cam shafts, rocking arms, or intake manifolds. There is absolutely nothing to get out of order. The utility of the two-cycle type and its ability to make long runs without getting out of order is generally recognized. The Whitehead motor has reached1 a degree of perfection which has neve before been attained by this type of engine, and its lightness, only 1200 pounds, makes it the leading engine for aviation."

The Andrews Biplane.

K. F. Andrews, of Daytona Beach. Fla.. has built a biplane which has a wing spread of 4.'! ft., the to]) plane being about 4 ft. shorter than the bottom one. The planes are 7 ft. wide at the middle and 4 ft. 3 in. at the tips, and are f> ft. apart. The top plane has a very small curve and appears to be set level, while the bottom plane

aviator. These drive direct two 7 ft. 4 in. tractor propellers of IVi ft. pitch.

The machine weighs about fiorfl lbs. and is mounted on three small wheels without springs. The horizontal and vertical rudders are controlled by two small wheels, one above the other, while the balancing planes are controlled by foot wires.

Sails Over New York.

Xew York, June 14. -Fred Owens sailed his t> II. P. dirigible from Hillside Park, Newark, across Xew York to-day. Passaic was crossed, then the Hudson Kiver to (he City Hall. The engine got going bad and he attempted to land on the roof of I he City Court Building. Someone in his zeal to help grabbi-d the trail rope and the airship hit Hie chimney, breaking the frame and stopping the motor. The ship went up again in this condition and crossed the East Kiver, narrowly missing the Brooklyn P. ridge, to a safe, though precarious landing m :i tree in Brooklyn; when he was rescued by tiremen.

AERONAUTICS,

July, ioio

News on the :: :: Coast :: ::

Br Cleve-T. Shaffer

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The Loose Monoplane.

GEORGE H. LOOSE, of the Pacific Aero Club, has just completed a new aeroplane which he is now trying out. The machine, 32 ft. spread, 31 ft. long, and 7 ft. high, is noticeable for its bird-like lines. It is very well and strongly built, having a number of novel and original features, several of the con structural details being especially praiseworthy.

Planes, in two halves, do not attach direct to body but join together a few inches above the inverted triangular frame, where they are held by

26" ; rims and tires appear rather too narrow, hub 6". Steel tubing axle supports the two 28" by iy2" elliptic springs, one on each side. Eight 1", by 16 guage steel tubes, 4 on each side, branch from spring clips and support the bird-shaped body.

Body. iy±" round spruce members connected with same ingenious patent fasteners, as shown in photo of former machine (Aeronautics for April) form an inverted triangle; the front carrying a special alloy casting which holds the front bearing (R. I. V.) of the propeller shaft, fins cast integral allow the frame members to be bolted to casting making a very rigid front bearing, the inner end of casting taking the thrust or pull bearings. Uprights, 35" apart, guyed with piano wire and turnbuckles of own make. Seat of aluminum 2 ft. from ground, placed over lower frame member. Two wire-wrapped, steel-shod skids are placed at the rear extremity of the frame.

Rudders and Keels. Horizontal rudders, Antoin ette type, front edge 18 ft. back from rear edge

George H. Loose Machine

rigid connections; are 10 ft. deep at the joining and extend 16 ft. laterally, the depth of the curved ends being 7 ft. G in.; total surface 275 ft.

Construction, double covered ribs, % in. by % in., 6 in. apart, 3 built-up lateral wing bars or beams, 1 in. by % in., with V2 in. blocks between. Curvature, arc of a circle, a little over 1 in 19, greatest depth at approximately center of plane.

Incident angle on ground 9 degrees, flight about 5 degrees. Three bamboo poles 12' 2" long, reinforced with two wires, on each side, one behind the other in the plane of flight, take the weight and also a part of the lift of the planes, being fixed to the chassis at their lower ends in such a manner as to be easily removable in demounting wings.

Mounting. The novel idea of using full elliptic springs is, I believe, in this machine its first adaptation to the aeroplane. Tread, 8 ft.; wheels,

main planes, 2 triangular surfaces 4 ft. wide 2S in. deep, between which is a vertical rud'der 44 in. high by 30 in. wide. These rudders are kept in their normal position by spiral springs. The entire rear rudder construction is of small steel tubing properly brazed.

Keels, both horizontal and vertical are in evidence, tapering down from size of rear rudders to a point 10 ft. therefrom on the frame and having about 40 sq. ft. in the horizontal and 34 sq. ft. in the vertical.

Power Plant. In deference to Mr. Loose wishes, description of motor, further than it is a 4 cylinder 3%" by 4", 25 II. P., is withheld as is method of lateral control. The motor placed! in front of and above operator drives by a short chain. The driving member is a 9" diameter 3y2" face cone clutch, mineral-tanned leather face. Gear ratio

2 to 1 of propeller. A rear propeller shaft bearing is affixed to the front of motor. In "Mounting" have given description of front and thrust bearings. A clutch lever extends to within reach of operator's seat.

Propeller is 71/4 ft. diameter, 8 ft. pitch, but looks to be wasteful of power. R. P. M. stated 800.

Radiator, constructed of brass tubes 1%" wide, is of neat workmanship, specially built for this machine by the Pacific Radiator Company of San Francisco. It is of a triangular shape and fits into

the body frame-work over the motor, not increas ing drift to an appreciable extent. Tt is doubtful to the writer if the comparatively high pitch speed, 8xS00=0,40O ft., can be realized with the 25 H. P. and 7% ft. diameter propeller.

The weight of machine complete with operator and fuel for 10 miles is about 700 pounds, which compares favorably with the Bleriot XI. the latter having 2.". H. P. and 151 sq. ft. lifting surface.

The body design is ideal in allowing propeller shaft free passage.

Miguel Lebrija has demonstrated that an aeroplane will fly in the altitude of Mexico City (7,500), and with a Bleriot monoplane he recently made fifteen successful flights on the plains of Valbuena.

Starting from the hangar, Mr. Lebrija ascended to the height of sixty-five feet and successfully steered his machine around and around through the air. maintaining that height for five minutes when he descended. After receiving the congratulations of his many friends who witnessed the performance, Mr. Lebrija again mounted his seat and made fifteen more flights, all more or less of the same duration as the former.

Machine Used Was A Bleriot Monoplane.

The machine he used in his wonderful performance was a monoplane of the Bleriot type similar to the one used for the cross-channel flight by Bleriot and was not equipped with any special motor or attachments, but was simply a stock machine as received from France.

Iu starting the machine left the ground 200 meters (60C 2") from the starting Hue and rose to a vertical height of about sixty-five feet, and during the many trials this height was not exceeded by the aviator, but he stated that he could have gone much higher if he had so wished.

Apparatus under Perfect Control. The monoplane was under perfect control and obeyed the rudder with ease and when landing gilded gracefully to earth and stopped without any perceptible jar. Xo accident occurred during any of the flights and there was no difficulty experienced with the motor and Mr. Lebrija, by these flights has plainly demonstrated that heavier than air machines can be flown successfully in this altitude, and the former theory that this was impossible on account of the experiments made with a few buzzards brought from Veracruz which died, a few days after reaching here, was completely exploded.

Yesterday Mr. Lebrija while trying out his machine, arose to the height of about thirty-five feet, and maintained that height for about ten minutes to the delight of the numerous spectators that had gathered around to witness the flight.

Mr. Lebrija while in the air stopped his motor and glided towards the ground, and when about fifteen feet from terra firma, started the motor again and rose to a height of about seventy-five feet. Then stopping the motor he gracefully glided to the ground, making a safe landing. After this Mr. Lebrija made several other flights, all of which were successful.

I Flying in Mexico

I by e. l. ramsey.

:!___._____ ____......_......

Mexican Army Is to Have No Balloon Corps—War Department Denies Rumors to That Effect.

For some time rumors have been current to the effect that the Mexican Army was going to be equipped with an Aerial Fleet for which purpose a number of Aeroplanes and Dirigible Balloons had been purchased and that the equipment would soon arrive in, Mexico.

These rumors were denied at the war department yesterday by Col. Luis Perez Figueroa, who stated there was no truth in the reports. Col. Figueroa said :

"Some officers of the Mexican Army have been commissioned to study aviation in various countries, but further than this, the war department has not taken any steps to equip the Mexican Army with Aeroplanes or Dirigible Balloons."

An Aviation Treaty Between Mexico and the United States for the Proper Regulation of Emigration and Smuggling.

The Mexican Ambassador in Washington, Sr. Francisco L. de la Barra and Secretary of State Knox, have been discussing a treaty between the United States and Mexico with regard to aerial navigation and which will have for its purpose the enforcement of the treaties at present in force with regard to emigration and smuggling.

The treaty which will be signed by Mexico and the United States will be the first of its nature in the world as up to date, while the several nations of the. world have apparently become alarmed1 at the perils offered by aviation in the event of war, they have done nothing towards solving the problem as regards the Improper passage over frontier lines.

march 18, 1910. enclosed find money order for $3 for which please renew my subscription to your valued publication. if t should miss a copy i would want to sue yon for all you've got.

h- d- callahan.

san saba, tex,

AERONAUTICS

Inly, ipio

I cTW eets and?

Tanforan Meet Held in Conjunction With Auto Races by the San Francisco Motor Club.

The Greene biplane belonging to Roy Crosby, equipped with a new motor and having a number of changes in its make-up, was brought out on the field at Tanforan, Cal., May 29th and ::Oth, but the wind was evidently too strong for the new aviator, Harold Hall, to buck against. Hall, who is only 1.8 years old, has made several flights with this machine and also has flown Frank Johnson's "Curtiss."

The gliding contests attracted a large number of entries. All flights were towed. The two-rope way of towing is open to criticism, it. being in. the writer's opinion a dangerous method.

Ten-year-old Walter Sittman won first prize of $101) for height. Wolf and Ilecher won second. A novel feature was the flights by the three young Misses Johnson, one of whom won second prize.

The second day the first prize was won by Harold Winthrop : second prize by J. Sittman. the P.echcr and Wolf gliders winning three prizes.

Robert P.ergfeld. while being towed by two autos had a had fall owing to a rope breaking. The glider was totally destroyed, P.ergfeld having a lucky escape.

Exhibition at San Jose.

San. Jose, Cal.. is tired of aviation and the promoters of the Auto and Aero Show during the Rose Carnival, had a hot argument with Frank 11.

Johnson, who lias been giving none too sensa-l tional exhibitions with his Curtiss machine. John-I son is reported to insist on pay whether he fliesl or not. During the fete Johnson made one or i two short flights and Harold Hall took Whipple Hall's Curtiss machine for a mile.

• University of Illinois Flights.

The aviation "meet" of the University of Illinois, at Urbana. was a fizzle, all but the kites] of Samuel F. Perkins, who had his usual bigl display of kites to make good when the aeroplanes fail to fly. Tn a preliminary flight the day before the exhibition day, May 21. Otto P.rodie considerably damaged the Curtiss aeroplane. The wreck was brought back to the university wood shops, and with the help of instructors, employes and students, was repaired late at night. Nothing more was done until the 2:!rd, when they took it out on the golf links, fin, the repairing different wood had been used, and it had been rained upon, soaking it and putting the machine out of balance.) P.rodie ran the machine several hundred yards, under power, on the ground, and then flew back to the starting point, hit a small sapling, and —two hours or so for repairs. P.rodie or Wild made eleven starts, and once rose almost two feet off the ground and stayed up for almost thirty feet. So everyone came hack in disgust and1 tire machine went hack to Chicago the next day.

The reasons ascribed to the failure of the event were : The unbalanced condition of the machine, and the overweight, due to the soaking; the small-ness of the field, 400 or 450 yards : the crowding of the spectators, and the possibility of the engine being underpowered.

First National Novice Meet.

St. Louis, June 12.—The first real aviation meet at which no other inducements than prizes ar" offered will be held at St. Louis, July 11 to If}.' I he postponed dates of the First. National Aviation Meeting for Novices of the Aero Club of St. Louis, which was to have been held June 20 to 25. Already four actual entries have been received on the entry blanks provided for the purpose for fir first time in America, accompanied by the $10 entry fee. to be refunded to entrants whose machines are on the ground Saturday previous til opening day.

Seven more entries are promised from out e town owners or builders, while five St. LouisanH have signified their definite intention to participate. The first entry came from William Thomas of llammondsporl. N. Y.. with his biplane, recently described in Akrox.utics. Other entries came from William Curtiss Robinson, of Grinncl la. (monoplane), and from Eric P.ergstrom, Chicago. 111., with what he claims is the smallest monoplane for its carrying capacity in the world. Howard Gill, of Los Angeles, Cal., entered a Gill I tosh biplane, and expects to enter a Curtiss-type biplane also.

Entries will close at the regular fee on June no They will he accepted at $20. not to bo refunded: until July 5. and until July 0 at $100. not to hr refunded. P.Ianks and all particulars can he ob-l tained upon application to E, Percy Noel, secre-i

tary of the Aero Club of St. Louis, 304 North Fourth Street, St. Louis.

The meeting was postponed in order to gain tirm in which to obtain larger grounds to accommodate the number of machines of which entry was promised. It is now expected that twenty planes will be on the field, and the construction of half tha. many sheds will be begun at once, others going <\\ as entries are received.

The new grounds will bo sufficieptly large for al purposes and will form the permanent aviation field of the .Nero Club of St. Louis, to be known as Cam]) No. 3. The Aero Club has already established a small tiekl within the city limits, when 11. A. Itobinson and .1. X. Sparling are practicing with their machines.

Aeroplanes Will Fly in Montreal.

Montreal is giving evidence of iter progressive spirit by announcing an aviation meet to take place there, commencing on the 25th of June and las ing until the 4th of July.

The meet will be held under the auspices of the Automobile and Aero Club of Canada, which is affiliated with the mother institution in Great Britain, and is being organized by E. M. Wilcox, publisher of Mulorimj, and C. W. Bennett, a well-known Canadian theatrical magnate.

Five Wright machines will definitely fly and it is expected several others will participate.

St. Louis to Hold Show.

Under tlie auspices of the Aero Club of St. Louis, the St. Louis Xational Aero Show has been organized, and will be held in the Coliseum Building, October 81 h to 13th, during the period when outdoor aeroplane and balloon events will take place in St. Louis, and is under the management; of G. L. Holton,

The Aero Show will be a complete exhibition of things aeronautic, and will include displays of nearly every manufacturer of aerial apparatus and supplies in America, and agents for foreign makers.

In kindly offering free news service of the show, the promoters state :

"The show has been organized with a serious purpose, which we believe will be appreciated by the press of America, in that the object is to advance the American aeronautic industry so that it will compare favorably to the industry which already exists abroad."

Model Flights.

At Hempstead Plains. Mineóla. Long Island, there will be cross-country model aeroplane flight contests every Saturday afternoon, also kite flying contests free to all.

Mr. Edward Durant, director of the Junior .Nero Club of America, has donated silver cups for both contests, and the president of the Mineóla frei*. Mr. .1. 11. Ellensohn. is in charge of the contests.

Members of the Xew York Model Aero Club will also compete in the model contests, and the school boys of Garden City and Mineóla will be active in competing for tlie kite-flying contest cup.

Frank Schober made a new record in model contests at the 22nd Regiment Armory, Xew York. June 4th, by flying a Langley-type model 1215 ft.

Aeronautic Calendar for U. S.

June 13-1S—Indianapolis. Ind., "First Xat. Aviation Meet," with exhibitions with Wright machines and open to all others.

June 18-1!)—Louisville, Ky., flights by Curtiss and Mars.

June 21-26—Xashville. Tenn., exhibition flights at Military Tournament by Hamilton.

June 22-25—Minneapolis. Minn., flights by tliret Curtiss aviators.

June 22-20 Minneapolis and St. Paul. Curtiss. Willard and Mars.

June 2N-.Iuly 5 Montreal. Can., aviation meet, with five Wright machines and others.

June 20-July 1—Sioux City, la.. **¥*Hrm*=:iiuL Mars. f.

July 2-4—'Aurora. 111., exhibition, one Wright machine.

July 2-5— Pittsburg. Kan.. Wright flights, on.

July4—Washington, 1). C, balloon races. July 5-0—Peoria. 111., balloon race. ■T»»^^>~--^ttJt'ia. 'N»l>„ Curtice. .WilliiI'd anc?

July 0-14—Omaha. Neb., flights by Curtiss. Wil lard, Mars and others. ("h^ v ^f*^j^g^X'*-

July 11-10—St. Louis, balloon racoaiTdiavia-tion meet for novices^fy-^^ to ■— " I C-

August 12—Indianapolis, Ind.. balloon race.

Sept. 5-10—Lincoln. Neb., exhibition flights b\ Wright aviators.

Sept. 5-l<>—Hamlinc. Minn., exhibition flights by Wriglit aviators.

Sept. 17—Indianapolis. Ind., elimination rae< for Cordon Bennett balloon race.

Sept. 10-24—Detroit, Mich.. Wright exhibition flights.

Sept. 20-30—Trenton, N. J., exhibition flights by Wright aviators.

Oct. 1-S--Springfield, 111., exhibition flights by Wright aviators.

Oct. 3-8—'Sedalia. Mo., exhibition flights by Wright aviators.

Oct. 5-15—St. Louis, Mo., aeroplane exhibition.

Oct. 8-13—St. Louis, Mo., Aero Show.

Oct. 17—-St. Louis. Mil, Gordon Bennett balloon race.

Oct. 22—Mineola. N. Y., Gordon, P.enuett and other aviation contests.

Dec. 1-S Chicago, 111., aeronautical exhibition of A. C. of Illinois.

S in. The model was launched or started from the floor.

On May 21 the West Side Y. M. C. A.. Xew York, held another model contest a I the 22nd Regiment Armory. At this contest there was a new cup offered by M. P. Talmage for the boys* class, to be flown for by machines having two propellers. The first leg was won by Frank Sehober. 104 ft. 4 in. Second was F. M. Watkins. 154 ft. 5 in., and third. C. C. Ilalpin. Hi!I ft. JO in.

In. the men's class Mr. M. I'. Talmage. with a Wright biplane, flew 132 ft. 1 in. This is the longest flight ever made with a biplane al any of the contests. Dr. I icderer gave an exhibition (light with his new machine and succeeded in making 105 ft., (he longest flight made by any machine since the flights were started.

affiliated clubs revolt.

form new organization.

Resenting its deeds and misdeeds, its arrogant attitude, the lack of representation, so on and so forth, half of the affiliated clubs have formally cut the strings of the Aero Club of America's apron and will now shift for themselves as best they may.

This happened at a meeting of the affiliated clubs called by the A. C. A. and held in its rooms on May 23. When the delegates were called to order in the morning there seemed to be no business to transact except to renew affiliation for another year and make any suggestions to the mother club which might or might not be acted upon in the discretion of the board of directors. Someone moved to adjourn.

Following were the delegates assembled : A. B. Lambert, Indianapolis and St. Louis ; Col. Jerome H. Joyce audi A. Albert Hughes, Baltimore; A. W. Carpenter, Harvard; W. B. Strang and George M.-»-Myers, Kansas City ; James E. Plew and Victor Lougheed, Chicago ; J. V. Martin, E. C. Brown and R. M. Allen, Harvard Aer'l Society ; J. S. Fanciulli, Washington; J. M. Satterfield, Buffalo; Alan R. Hawley, Pittsfield, and Augustus Post, Canton.

In the afternoon a second meeting was held. Samuel H. Valentine, the chairman of the morning meeting, Philip T. Dodge, Augustus Post and Alan R. Hawley, all of the A. C. A., withdrew at the second session, after granting the use of the club rooms. Jerome S. Fanciulli, representing the Washington Club could not officially represent that body at the afternoon meeting.

A resolution was adopted calling for the organization of the American Aeronautic Association, which was then formed with George M. Myers, Kansas City Aero Club, President ; A. B. Lambert, St. Louis Aero Club, First Vice-President; J. V. Martin, Harvard Aeronautical Society, Second Vice-President ; Victor Lougheed, Aero Club of Illinois, Secretary, and Col. Jerome H. Joyce, Aero Club of Baltimore, Treasurer.

The reason for the new organization was defined in the following resolution, which was unanimously adopted :

"We recommend' that for the administration of Aeronautical affiairs, of national or local character in the United States, the American Aeronautical Association be formed at once, with officers elected1 to serve until June 22nd, 1910, in New York City, at which time we recommend that new officers be elected for the ensuing year.

"We further recommend that all aeronautical clubs and bodies now existing or in the future to be organized in the United States, including the Aero Club of America,

be invited to join this Association upou some acceptable basis of powers and representation, founded upon the numbers of such clubs, or upon their membership, in accordance with rules and regulations to be enacted into permanent form by the representatives of affiliated clubs here assembled, and to be revised from time to time as may be decided at future meetings of the representatives or delegates of affiliated clubs." The following letter was delivered to the A. C.

A. together with a copy of the resolutions printed

above :

"New York, May 23, 1910. "To the Aero Club of America, "29 West 39th Street, "New York City. "Gentlemen:

"At the meeting held today by representatives of the affiliated aero clubs, assembled in response to your call at your headquarters, 29 West 39th Street, after discussion it was decided that the best interests of the affiliated clubs couldi not be advanced by conforming to the proposed arrangement between your organization and the Wright Company, and that the future of the affiliated clubs and the interests of aeronautical development in this country could be better conserved' by a separate organization, which would not be fettered by the entanglements now existing by reason of our connection with your organization.

"The meeting was, therefore, adjourned without action, immediately after which the affiliated club representatives called a meeting for the purpose of organizing the American Aeronautical Association, to be a democratic organization, representative of the aeronautical interests of the entire United States, for the purpose of controlling aeronautical events in this country.

"In accordance with the expression of opinion in the foregoing resolution, you are cordially invited to send delegates to our next meeting.

"In closing we wish to extend our sincere thanks for the courtesies of your organization.

"Respectfully yours, "THE AMERICAN AERONAUTICAL "ASSOCIATION, "Per VICTOR LOUGHEED,

"Secretary."

new national body organizes june 22.

On June 22 in New York there will be held a big convention with representatives from a large portion of the eighty-odd aero clubs in- the country, at which time officers will be elected for the ensuing year, plans formulated for the work of the body, the adoptiou of rules governing contests and the various prize offerings now awaiting the action of the convention, etc.

As announced in the last issue, the movement for a national body was started by the issuing of a letter by Hudson Maxim, president of The Aeronautical Society, to all the aero clubs of the country. This met with great response.

the day following- the secession of the a. c. a.'s clubs several meetings were held between representatives of the newly formed american aeronautic association, and of the aeronautic federation of america with the result that the convention of june 22 will be a joint affair comprising delegates from all the clubs with which correspondence has been had by both movements.

at a meeting held on june 2 of the aeronautic federation of america a temporary committee was formed taking in members thereon appointed for this service by the various clubs associated with the federation. some forty clubs are represented on this committee, which is headed by professor david todd, of amherst, and thomas a. hill, who has been one of the most over-worked energetic enthusiasts in the movement and is doing all the work of the committee up to the time of the convention, was made secretary-treasurer.

a proposed constitution and by-laws for adoption at the convention is being put into shape now by mr. hill. daily more clubs are beinj added to the list of those sending delegates to the convention.

all clubs foe harmony.

the aero club of washington is watching the new movement with great interest. dr. a. f. zahm hopes that the "final outcome will be one grand aeronautical organization embracing the whole country and enjoying solidarity and harmony of action."

while the aero club of ohio has renewed its affiliation with the a. c. a. for another year, the secretary, mr. j. blake, states: "we * * * hope that some course will be adopted that will promote general harmony."

wright injunction vacated.

new york, june 15.—yesterday the u. s. circuit court of appeals vacated the temporary injunction granted the wright company against the herring-curtiss co. by judge hazel at buffalo.

the history of the action is as follows :

the wright co. moved for a preliminary injunction before judge hazel. he held the infringement and validity of the wright patent bad been proved without doubt in the hearing and granted the relief prayed for. judge hazel, however, was willing to suspend the issuing of the order, but required the defendants to put up a $10,000 bond until the appeal, which was immediately taken by curtiss, was decided. now the court of appeals has reversed the hazel opinion, with costs, and a trial of the infringement suit will now be had before iudge hazel, with cross-examination of witnesses. the §10,000 bond is cancelled.

the reversal of opinion in the case is not a criterion of the outcome, for no trial on merits has been held. the court of appeals merely holds that on account of sharp conflict of evidence and the number of affidavits submitted after the original decision, infringement was not so clearly established as to justify a preliminary injunction.

Lcs Aeroplanes—Considerations Tlieoriqucs, by paul raybaud. (f. louis vivien, publisher, 20 rue saulnier, paris. price, i franc.) a brief expose of a new theory on effects of air on moving surfaces, which sets aside much of what has until now been generally admitted on the subject. it is written in french.

lamson. vs. wright suit.

paxton, warrington, & seasongood, of cincinnati, representing becker & blakeslee, of los angeles, cal., have filed papers in a suit against the wright company and wilbur and orville wright, in the united states circuit court for the southern district of ohio, southern division, at cincinnati, by the filing of a bill of complaint against the defendants stated, charles h. lamson being complainant.

the bill of complaint prayed for an injunction restraining the defendants from making, using or selling aeronautical apparatus, such as flying machines, embodying the invention for which letters patent of the united states were issued to mr. lamson, january 22, 1901, no. 666,427. this patent, it will be seen, antedates by over two years the date of application of the wright patent under which patent the herring-curtiss company and glenn ii. curtiss and louis paulhan have been sued for infringement. the bill of complaint filed as above also asked for an accounting of damages and profits.

the lamson pateut, while stating that the invention relates to "ribbed aerocurved kites," nevertheless sets forth that the construction is capable of use as a flying machine by the application of suitable propelling and guiding mechanism. the patent discloses means for "tilting or inclining" the tips of the wings or planes at each side of the body, and these means are claimed to be equivalent to those embodied in the wright patent and in the wright flying machines.

the patent contains the following claim:

"the herein-described kite having a central frame, wings projecting out from each side of said frame and means for tilting the tips of said wings with relation to the body of the wing."

mr. lamson charges that the wrights simply incorporated in their flying machine his invention; directed at maintaining lateral stability by warping or twisting the wings or supporting surfaces.

becker and blakeslee say : "we understand the wrights insist that anybody can use a box kite, but lamson's kite as shown in his patent is a trip]ane comprising ribbed aero-curves and connecting posts or upright standards joiuted thereto corresponding to wright construction. also tip warping or tilting means and a tail or rudder having horizontal and vertical members. lamson's device as patented and operated resembles closely general flying machine structures minus propelling and guiding mechanism."

judge hand, in his opinion in the wright-paul-han case, said : "i cannot see any relevancy in this patent."

the larger illustration gives a perspective view of the lamson kite with the covering removed from the upper wing on one side. the tilting is effected as follows :

"a general adjustment is made by guys -k," each of which is secured at the front lower comer of the frame 'a' and at the under side of the upper arm 'c by screw-eyes, or by other suitable means. by adjusting

the position of these screw-eyes a general adjustment of the wings on each side may be made. A more delicate adjustment is obtained * * * by loosening one of the diagonal tie-wires of the panel and' tightening the other. The simple means here shown for accomplishing this result are two loops /, adapted to slide on the uprights d, each of the two diagonal tie-wires passing through one of these loops. By sliding both of these loops up or down, the inclination of the ribs to the horizontal is adjusted with great precision."

Bibliography of Aeronautics.

A "Bibliography of Aeronautics" has just been issued as Volume 55 of the Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. Nearly one thousand pages are required to present the 13.500- references whi-h have been arranged alphabetically by authors, subjects and titles covering the subject down to July, 100!). Mr. Paul Brockett. the Assistant Librarian

two minutes. High winds and considerable rain prevented nights on most of the days. Lieut. Foulois also had other duties in addition to aeronautical service.

Three instructors and seventeen student officers of the Army Signal School from Fort Leavenworth were on temporary duty at Fort Omaha from May 10th to 15th. Captain C. De F. Chandler was ordered from Washington to Fori Omaha as instructor; two lectures were given and also practical instruction in the generation and compression of hydrogen, spreading and inflation of balloons: the Drachen captive balloon made several ascents, and there was one free balloon trip with Captain Chandler as pilot, and Captain It. J. Burl and Lieut. W. N. Haskell as aids. Signal Corps Dirigible Balloon No. 1 was also used, being manned1 by Captain Charles De F. Chandler as pilot and Lieut. Haskell as engineer.

of the Institution, is the compiler of this valuai.de contribution to scion.ce, and in his introduction he pleasantly reviews the long association of the Institution with aeronautics. There have been published by the Institution two papers on the general subject of aeronautics, and thirty-five publications on various phases of the subject, since IS01. In greater detail Mr. Brockett reviews the splendid contributions of Secretary Langley to this fascinating science. He (ells of the publication of his "Experiments in Aerodynamics" in 1S91. and then of his further technical contribution on "The Internal Work of the Wind." in. 189S. Very briefly is the story told of Langley's two epoch-making flights with heavier-than-air machines. This bibliography is a worthy tribute to the memory of the Smithsonian's late Secretary, and much credit is due to Mr. Brockett for his careful and painstaking compilation.

Army News.

During the last month at Fort Sam Houston, Lieut. B. D. Foulois made six flights in the Army's Wright aeroplane, the longest being one hour and

Record Kite Flight.

A new world's record in high kite flying was made on May 5 by the Mount Weather Observatory. 23,800 feet, at which point twenty-nine degrees below zero were recorded, the lowest ever registered by a kile-carried instrument. The previous record was also held by this station of the Weather Bureau. The nearest approach to the three Mount Weather records of more than 23,000 feet was made at Berlin, Germany. March 25, l'JOS. 21,320 feet.

Balloon Record Made Official.

The Board of Governors of the A. C. A. have made official the United States endurance and altitude record established by Messrs. Clifford1 1!. Harmon and Augustus l'ost on their trip in the balloon "New York" from St. Louis on the 41h of last October. The duration, figure is 4N hours 20 minute*), and the altitude is 1(1.015 feet. A much greater altitude was actually attained, bul Ihe barograph only recorded to this height.

*******************************

t Foreign Letter 1

* *

* By Greely S. Curtis. *

* 4*

l'aris, .lune 10, It) 10.

The immediate neighborhood of l'aris has been very (iniet for the last few weeks, so far as aviation is concerned. This is due to the unseasonable weather, which during almost the whole of that, time has been either windy or rainy, or both windy and rainy. Two or three hail storms have been thrown in for good1 measure.

A week ago, however, M. P.leriot, at the suburb of lssy-les-Moulineaux. flew on his monoplane before thc Chinese Prince Tsai Tao with, [ understand, profitable commercial results. Another attempt by a less practiced hand ou. May 14th was less successful, the aeroplane being upset by a gust, with some damage to the apparatus.

On May 10th. the weather again, permitted flights at lssy just at sunset, and 1 watched two Bleriots and a Sornmer biplane manoeuvre at will above the wide parade ground. Captain Maurice Clement also flew very steadily in the large Clement-Bayard biplane driven by a 4-cylinder 40 h. p. Clement motor fitted with a clutch and gear between the motor and the propeller. Capt. Clement preferred to make his turns while running along the ground, and stuck to low, straightaway flights. His biplane is controlled by means of auxiliary stabilizers of the llerring-Curtiss type.

A Swiss aviator, M. Audemars. was out with his Santos-Dumont Demoiselle. This monoplane traveled very fast, but its pilot also habitually flew low and made his turns almost entirely on the ground. A Voisin cellular biplane was exercised up and down the field, but 1 did uot see it leave the ground completely at any time. It seemed to lie quite unstable laterally, even in the comparatively calm weather which prevailed. There were in addition two experimental monoplanes, oue a Vendorne, which also ran briskly across and around the field. But they, too, kept always in touch with Mother Earth. The exhibition as a whole impressed me with the caution of the French aviators while practising.

The Santos-Dumont Demoiselle is certainly an ingeniously designed and compact little flyer for lightweight pilots, it is a redaction of the aeroplane to its present day minimum limits, and is at the same time an unusually speedy machine. Some eight or ten of these little monoplanes were in the Clement hangar at lssy awaiting their try-outs. Among them was the oue which I ordered last December, joiutly with Mr. S. A. Heed of New York, for experimental flights around New York City. Before the weather had cleared enough to permit a trial. 1 had decided to change to a Bleriot. Apparently no one of my weight had ever piloted a Demoiselle (I weigh over SOi kilos; Santos-Dumont is reported to weigh 4S kilos), and the owners of the other machines at lssy were mostly in the featherweight class. In spite of their light weight, however, minor accidents to the apparatus ou landing were frequent, and most of the machines at lssy had been reinforced at several points. In view of these and other considerations

the P.leriot, for instance, should be easier to repair after an accident—it seemed advisable to change to the larger and heavier apparatus.

M. de Lesseps' feat of" crossing the Channel aroused some interest, but no very great enthusiasm. "Le Temps" of the next day. in fact, left him still in the air, as it recorded his departure from French soil Saturday afternoon and had1 no report of his coming down again, either on this or on the other side of the channel, or even in the channel itself. Consequently as late as Sunday afternoon rumors reported both success and failure.

I have just returned from an all-day trip on the invitation of M. Henri Farman to the aviation grounds at Mourmelon. near Kheims. Unfortunately M. Farman was not there, but his courteous chef d' atelier. M. Fremri. showed me through the works. The shops are largely of temporary wooden construction, one story high. They are building two types of Farman biplane, both of which carry the high grade Gnome rotating motor. The lighter model has the lower plane some twelve feet shorter than the upper plane, the upper plane in both models being about •'!•"> feet long1. The special cloth used is given a smooth waterproof coating after attachment. The cloth is not mounted ou the bias, but has the threads parallel to the main dimensions of the machine.

Unfortunately a sharp thunderstorm prevented flying most of the time I was at Mourmelon. hut toward evening it cleared off aud three or more machines took the air. These included a standard Farman. an Antoinette, and a new model Voisin. with ailerons of the 1 lerring Curtiss fype instead of the familiar vertical panels. The Voisin Com pany are putting this new style on the market for racing purposes. This change marks the final adoption, by all the prominent French builders, of the Wright method of stabilizing.

The P.leriot. Santos-Dumont. Grade and Tellier are direct copies of the Wright patented invention, while the new Voisin and Clement biplanes follow the 1 lerring-Curtiss modification by using independent stabilizing planes. The Antoinette. Far-man and Sommer machines infringe by employing hinged flaps or ailerons on the main planes.

The editor of L'Arrniihile expressed his gratification and interest when I presented the card of Aeu<i.\ai'ti<".s. He was naturally familiar with the publication, and much interested in our attempts in America to improve on aud avoid the Wright patents. In France they find it difficult to understand the legality or justice of the Wrights" position. It is so obvious to foreigners that the widespread practice of aviation in the United States is smothered by the Wrights that they cannot understand the American acquiescence in what appears to them to be unjustifiable tyranny.

The photographs of the successful Xewburyport flights of the Burgess "Flying Fish" aroused the interest of French constructors and aviators, as this is the first successful model, other than the cellular Voisin. which is completely secure against infringing the Wright patent. The first Burgess production is more accurately termed the "Herring-Burgess Flying Fish." as Mr. A. M. Herring personally contributed to the design. This designation, however, leads immediately to confusion with the better known Herriug-Curtiss flyer, which is not free from legal difficulties with the Wrights. In this connection, a late issue of The Cur. London, contains an illustrated description of the Burgess biplane in Might under the heading "The New Curtiss Biplane." The confusion between the two rival machines was perhaps increased by the fact that 1 was piloting Mr. Burgess' "Flying Fish" when the latter was photographed. Needless to say. Mr. Glenn 11. Curtiss. the famous aviator, and 1 are not identical.

Speaking of the Wright patent, the Paris edi Hon of the Xrtr Yurk Herald had most interesting news about the revolt against the agreement between the Wright Co. and the Aero Club of America. The new American Aeronautic Assoeia tion has a wide field of usefulness before it. May it fill it wisely.

Aeroplanes are being exported in large numbers, many of them going to Russia and England. The Farman factory reported that four of their biplanes had been shipped the day before my visit, while tin- output of the Ateliers Bleriot is said to lie approximately thirty a month.

Builders are still hunting for the best motor, and those which give good satisfaction are difficult, to secure without a long delay. M. Bleriot took nie over all his well kept works and showed me monoplanes fitted with the following motors: Anzani 3-cylinder, V shape, 25 h. p., air-cooled ;

AERONÀUTÌCA

July, i'çiô

Clement 2-cylinder, horizontal, 30 h. p., water-cooled ; Ticker 4-cyliuder, vertical, 40 h. p., water-cooled ; Gnome, 7 cylinder, rotating, 50 h. p., air-cooled. Mr. Bleriot has mounted a Clement 30 h. p. on my machine, but is ready to provide any of the other motors according to the preference of his customers. An experimental monoplane, designed to avoid the Wright patent, was observed under construction, but it was not sufficiently far advanced to justify description.

Another French monoplane should1 reach New York before long. This is one of the large and high powered Antoinettes which it is said that Mr. Harkness is taking in under bond for temporary exhibition purposes.

The death of young Ilauvette-Michelin in his Antoinette at Lyons seems to have been singularly unnecessary. An eye-witness tells me that the monoplane was rolling along the ground when it^f*

PRINCIPAL FOREIGN FLIGHTS OF MONTH. Cross Country Flying.

May 13.—llauvette Miehelin, at Lyons, in an

Antoinette, struck in flight one of the poles marking the course. The pole snapped and struck Miehelin. Picked up insensible, he died shortly afterward.

new passenger record.

May 15.—Nicholas Kinet carried a passenger for 2 hours 51 minutes on a Henry Farman machine.

Wächter flew 2 hours 2 minutes in an Antoinette.

May 16.—Roger Sommer flew across country, Mouzon to Charleville and return, SO kil'oms., in /. 1 hoùr-4Q minutes.

May 12-»— Illner (Etrich) flew from Wiener Neu" : tomei

knocked over the turning stake, and that Hauvette- I stadt to 'Vienna and back, TfTjr kiloms., in 1 hour Miehelin made no attempt to dodge the stake as 14 minutes. it fell across his eraft. Many of those looking oe, ^ May 19.—Count Lambert (Wright) flew from were astonished to learn that he had even been-"0 Vineennes to Gentilly with a passenger, injured by the fall of the post. The dent which Cheuret (II. Farman) flew from Mourmelon to the spar made in the light frame work of the aero- Chalons and back, 1 hour 12 minutes.

plane is clearly visible in a photograph.

Many of the French aeroplanes, particularly those driven by Gnome motors, carry speed indicators to show the pilots at all times the speed at which the motor is revolving. The indicator most generally in use is made by Chauvin, and Arnoux. It consists of a minute magneto driven by a cord from the motor, the current from the magneto being indicated on a meter graduated in revolutions per minute, which is mounted where it may be most readily seen, by the pilot.

An accomplished fellow passenger on the Majestic, after seeing the photographs of the "Flying Fish" in flight, dashed off the following amusing jingle. It evidently belongs in the advertising columns, but perhaps you will let it slip in with this letter, as being the latest word from the other side.

advice.

Don't hitch your wagon to a star, A tame and time-worn measure,

For planets and their orbits are Too fixed for perfect pleasure.

" But if, my friends, you really wish The heavens to explore—you Have but to try a Flying Fish—/ . The skies are all before you. [r 3n *i

non-stop cross channel and return.

May 20.—Sommer flew from Sedan to Verdun and return, 160 kiloms., in 2 hours 10 minutes.

At Mourmelon Captain Marconnet flew 1 hour 30 minutes, and Lieutenant Fequant, 1 hour 45 minutes.

new two-man cross-country record.

May 21.—Maurice Farman with one extra passenger flew from Buc to Etampes, SO kiloms. "y 1)

cuoss-ciiannel flight.

May 21.—Jacques de Lesseps flew over the English Channel from Calais to Dover, time 42 min. The attempt to return was, abandoned. The machine used was a Bleriot XL, Gnome motor. Count de Lesseps is expected tb_fly at. the Montreal meet, June 25 to July 4.

May 23.—'Robert Frey flew over Berlin in a Farman biplane in a 35-minute flight.

May 23.—Martinet (II. Farman) flew from Chalons to Xeufmoutiers, near Paris, a distance of 140 kiloms., in 1 hour 2S minutes.

May 24.—Lindpaintner (H. Farman) flew from Mourmelon to Rheims. 45 kiloms.

Maurice Farman (M. Farman) from Etampes to Tourv, 30 kiloms., in 20 minutes.

May 28.—Grahame-White (H. Farman), Brook-lands to Ranelagh, 24 kiloms., in 20 minutes.

Louis Paulhan (H. Farman), Verona to Solferino, 36 kiloms.. in 30 minutes.

Louis Bleriot, Toury to Etampes, 30 kilometers.

A. Leblanc (Bleriot), Etampes to Toury, 30 kiloms.

June 2.—Hon. C. S. Rolls in, a Wright machine May 30.—A. Leblanc (Bleriot), Toury to Char-flew from Dover, England, at 6H-30 T. M., across tres. 45 kiloms.

the English Channel to Sangatte, dropped 4h*ee CL, May 31.—A. Euler (Euler) made a cross-coun-note$f, and returned to Dover in 90 minutes. Large try flight from Frankfort of 115 kiloms. in 1 hour

19 minutes.

air bags were attached to lower planes, ijr-',.

Aeronautics' Permanent :: :: Exposition :: ::

More exhibits are wanted to make Aeronau-tic"s Exposition of still greater value.

Every manufacturer of anything in the flight industry should have a display for his own sake and that of the development of the Art in general

It is surprising that such an "infant industry" should be growing so rapidly that manufacturers cannot promptly fill their orders. Still, one must look ahead.

Try to scare up an exhibit for the Exposition as soon as possible and ship it along. If dire necessity calls, shipment of the display sample can be made from the Exposition.

We want to hear from every maker and urge everyone interested to call.

Exhibitors.

Hartford Rubber Works Co., Tires.

Wittemann Bros., Gliders and Supplies.

Warner Instrument Co., Aerometer.

Requa-Girson Co., Motors and Propellers.

Elbridge Engine Co., Engines.

Pennsylvania Rubber Co., Tires.

C. E. Conover Co., Cloth.

Edwin Levick, Photos.

Philadelphia Aeroplane Co., Motors, etc.

Roebling Co.. Wire Cable.

Victor L. Brunzel, Varnish.

El Arco Radiator Co., Radiators.

J. A. Weaver, Wheels, etc.

Whitehead Motor Co., Motors.

Greene Co., Propellers and Parts.

Boscn Magneto Co., Magnetos.

Auto-Aero Supply Co., Supplies.

R. I. V. Co., Ball Bearings.

J. Deltour, Bamboo.

J. S. Bretz Co.. Magnetos, Bowden Wire. Aero Supply Co., Supplies. Chas. E. Dressler, Model Maker. Wm. P. Youngs & Bros., Lumber. Buel II. Green, Turnbuckles. Profac Food.

J Club News I

i-.j^^.______________________________________5

Hamilton's record, and all of Paulhan's and Farman's, were made on BOSCH-equipped aeroplanes

Ignition information for aeroplanes on request ::

Bosch Magneto Co.

223-225 W. 46th Street New York, N. Y.

Branch Office : Detroit, Mich.

870 Woodward Avenue Branch Office : Chicago, 111.

1253 Michigan Avenue Branch Office : San Francisco, Cal.

357 Van Ness Avenue

los angeles club dedicates shed.

The Aero Club of California held its annual picnic on, May 29. This picnic was held at the motordrome, where the club now has a hangar, capable of housing sixteen machines. Eight machines are now on the ground and others building.

Some eighty persons were in attendance and the affair was in every way a success. The Cannon brothers towed their big biplane behind an automobile and succeeded in leaving the ground and gliding some distance.

Mr. J. Wood Porter tried out his monoplane gliding machine, towed by an automobile, and mounted by Edgar S. Smith. The plane is circular In shape. The chassis is suspended1 from a central rectangle, the semi-circular wings being hinged onto this rectangle in such a manner as to allow of movement in a vertical plane like the wings of a bird. The whole surface is also hinged so as to allow the angle of incidence to be changed. The surface comprises some two hundred square feet. After running on the ground for some distance, the machine lifted slightly on one side, toppled over and became a wreck.

Three of the machines now at the hangar have engines and they will be tried out in the near future.

The Aero Club of California offered a cup to the boy making the best showing with aeroplane kites. The following boys of the Boys" Aero Club contested: Harold Scott, Carl Dorsey and John Casey with Farman models, and Edwin Gettings with a tetrahedral kite that he called a bimoplane. Mr. Gettings won the cup with a seventy-foot glide.

The hangar was dedicated by Frank C. Garbutt. Addresses were delivered by President II. LaV. Twining, Charles E. Rilliet, W. II. Leonard, Buel II. Green, William Stevens, It. I. Blakeslee.

The Pacific Aero Club held its second annual meeting May 11, 1910. The following officers were elected. J. C. Irvine, Pres.; I. B. Dalziel, V.-P.; C. C. Bradley, 2nd V.-P.; C. T. Shaffer, 3rd V.-P.; H. A. Chandler, Sec'y.; J. M. Masten, Treasurer; Adam Knieling, Consulting Engineer; A. S. Pare, Consulting Patent Attorney. Directors: A. S. Pare, A. L. Eisner, J. T. Stanton, Jos. Hidalgo and Jos. Rosenthal.

The membership is increasing almost daily, the weekly meetings of the club being well attended. Lectures by people of note in the aeronautical world are features.

Stuyvesant Aeronautic Society. At the annual Mechanics Arts Exhibition of Stuyvesant High School, No. 345 East 15th street, New York, held June 2, the Society exhibited eight aeroplane models. Six of these were of the monoplane and two were of the biplane type.

The Society now has seven members, whose names are as follows: Carroll E. Edson, President; C. Graham Halpine, Vice-President; Percy W. Pierce, Secretary; F. Eugene Robinson, Treasurer; Garford Oliver, Librarian; Bryan Battey, Frederick Fischer.

The Aero Club of Jacksonville now numbers more than sixty members. Charles K. Hamilton was recently the guest of the club at a water party. The genial treasurer, W. M. Stimson, kindly placed his handsome motor yacht at the disposal of the club, and after a pleasant trip down the St. John River, with plenty of good things provided, Hamilton was made the first honorary member.

The Curtiss Amateur Aviation Club has been formed in Los Angeles, with officers as follows: Ed. Gettings, president; Lawrence Adams, vice-president; Harold Scott, secretary and treasurer.

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The Aero Club of Dayton is anxious to have the next national convention after the one in New York, June 22, held at Dayton. Dr. L. E. Custer has been appointed to be chairman of a committee to represent the club at the convention. The Dayton Aeroplane Club has also appointed three delegates.

Dr. P M. Crume and Dr. L. E. Custer will represent the club in the balloon race to be held at Washington, July 4th. A committee will be appointed by the club to officially observe any record flights which may be undertaken at the Wrights' Dayton school.

The Aeronautical Society still keeps up Interest in its well attended meetings. On May 27th. President Hudson Maxim addressed the members on "Aeronautical Warfare." On June 9th. Roger B. Whitman, an expert on ignition systems, lectured on "Ignition." On May 19th another competition was held for the selection of a team to defend the Chanute Model Trophy.

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Exchange' and :: :: Forum :: ::

aids to the aeronautical art.

following are some pamphlets containing valuable information. in all cases, we believe, these can be obtained free by writing to the addresses given.

Some Aeronautical Experiments, by wilbur wright.

Aerial Navigation, by o. chanute.

Relation of Winy Surface to Weight, by r. von lendenfeld.

Researches and Experiments in Aerial Navigation, by s. p. langley.

The Greatest Flying Creature, by s. p. langley.

Experiments ivitli the Langley Aerodrome, by s. p. langley.

—from smithsonian institute, washington, d. c.

Some Theorems on the Mechanics of High Speed Dalloons.by albert francis zahm, ph. g

—from catholic university of america, washington.

The Resistance of the Air at Speeds Bclozu 1000 Feet a Second, by albert francis zahm, ph. d.

—from johns hopkins university, philadelphia.

Researches on the Forms and Stability of Aeroplanes, by w. r. turnhull.

Measurement of Air Velocity and Pressure, by a. f. zahm, ph. d.

—from the Pliysical Revieiv, ithaca, n. y.

Atmospheric Friction \\7itli Special Reference to Aeronautics, by a. f. zahm, ph. d.

—from the philosophical society of washington.

a letter to dick ferris.

san francisco, cab, june 1, 1010. editor aeronautics. dear sir :

in a letter from mr. dick ferris, published in your june issue there are certain remarks that 1 take exception to, and beg that you will publish this letter.

as your representative at the los angeles meet it would have been decidedly unethical and improper to have taken sides in any local differences or controversies, and if you will re-read my report (march issue) you will see that this was not done, that it was unbiased, in no way misleading or derogatory, nor did it ignore mr. ferris, as he claims. though he should have been given a great deal more credit for his executive ability in handling the meet. this was such a widely known fact that i. unfortunately, did not enlarge npon it further than to state that mr. ferris was one of the conceivers, and acted as manager.

as far as "petty jealousies" go, this charge is absolutely and obviously ridiculous, as 1 reside in san francisco, am a vice president of the pacific aero clnb, have been actively interested in and have written on the subject of aeronautics for a number of years, and our fields of activity in no way conflict.

regretting that the fairness and impartiality, which i believe has always characterized my reports, lias been (juestioned, audi assuring both you and mr. ferris that no injustice was intended, or done, lam

yours very sincerely,

cleve t. shaffer.

MOLLER AFTER GOULD PRIZE. Referring to engines of the twin type with two propellers, for which Edwin Gould offers a prize of $15.000, we had the pleasure of seeing a new construction in a two-cycle, double acting twin engine, designed by .T. A. Moller, of New Rochelle. This engine looks very fensible and ought to fill the bill for aeronautic purposes. It has a special cooling device and can be built either air or water-cooled. Mr. Moller has been studying aeronautic devices a good many years and would like the co-operation of some gentleman for the advance of the art.

Detroit Aeronautic Construction Co.

Builders of Light Weight, High - Power MOTORS, PROPELLERS and RADIATORS

PARTNER WANTED. I have invented and applied for a patent on a gasoline motor. It is of very efficient design and only weighs I'Va pounds per horse power. It can be manufactured, I believe, cheaper than any equally good motor ou the market. I need a little financial assistance to market this motor. I would like to form a partnership with some one who will put up the little cash required. Would1 make verv liberal terms with right party. R. E. LEE, Deposit, N. Y.

NEW DEVICE FOR CONTROL.

John C. Press, of South Norwalk, Conn., has devised a system of lateral control which he says is the most ingenious, unique and effective yet brought out, and does not infringe on the Wright patent. It accomplishes, he says, the same results as the warping and tilting devices used at nresent without changing from the horizontal, and gives great lift without appreciably increasing head resistance, and that, as there is no turning movement, the rudder does not require to be operated in conjunction with the device.

Mr. Press is anxious to get in touch with someone to assist him in establishing his claims.

ANOTHER LETTER TO MR. FERRIS.

Los Angeles. June 5. 1910. To the Editor of A ekox attics.

Sir: As to the statements made by Mr. Ferris in his letter published in the last issue of Aeronautics. I wish to call attention to the following misapprehensions under which Mr. Ferris seems to be laboring. The Aero Club of California came into existence some seven months before it eve# heard of Mr. Ferris, and it was not through any initiative on the part of Mr. Ferris that the Aero Club was organized.

This club was organized in May. 190R. and it was in full swing in the fall of 190S when Mr. Ferris pulled off his balloon race.

From the time of its organization this club has held continuous weekly meetings or semi-weekly meetings, and at no time in its history did it disintegrate or show any signs of disintegrating.

It applied for affiliation with the Aero Club of America six months before the international midwinter meet was heard of. but. owing to the slowness of procedure, it did not receive the papers until the movement for the midwinter meet had been thoroughly launched.

Mr. Ferris' statements also do rank injustice to the members of the committee of the Merchants' and Manufacturers' Association, of which committee he himself was a member. If it had not been for the Merchants' and Manufacturers' Association the Los Angeles meet would never have taken place, and it was the business acumen of this committee that made the meet such a financial success.

I do not wish to detract at all from the credit due to Mr. Ferris for the energy displayed by him in bringing this meet to a head, as it would not have taken place had it not been for him also, but I do object to his misstatements with regard to the Aero Club of California and1 his attempl to belittle everybody else connected wilh the meet, and to magnify himself.

Yours very truly.

II. L.\V. TWINING. President Aero Club of California.

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TO OUR FRIENDS.—We would appreciate it very much if you would specify in writing advertisers that you saiv the ad. in AERONAUTICS. This ivill help us, and eventually be of equal service to yourselves. _

Curtiss Uses Palmer Tires.

The B. F. Goodrich Company of Akron, Ohio, lias just received a letter from Mr. Glenn Curtiss, written immediately after his recent record-breaking flight along the Hudson from Albany to New York City. Speaking of his1 equipment in, that flight, the Palmer Aeroplane Tires, which are of Goodrich manufacture, he said: "The Palmer Tires, with which I equip all of my aeroplanes, give the best of satisfaction for the purpose. The light weight does not greatly impede the lifting power of the machine, and the great resiliency enables me to land without shock on the hardest ground and1 to pick up speed quickly in. starting. 1 am glad to credit a part of the success of my aeroplane to the Palmer Tire."

Mr. Curtiss used the Falmer tire on the winner of the International Aviation Cup, Rheims, France, last autumn, and on the winner of the world's record for short distance rising from the ground, at the aviation meet, Los Angeles, California, this year.

"The light weight which does not greatly impede the lifting power of the machine, and the great resiliency" which allows the plane to land without shock," were particularly important in the Albany-New York flight, when two landings were made on the way for supplies, and yet the distance was covered in phenomenal time, and with remarkable ease.

The Sacramento Aerial Co., was incorporated in April for $25,000. They are building two machines which will be done about June 10th. A lot has been leased where a factory will be erected for the manufacture of all kinds of aerial craft. It is the iiication of the company to manufacture a motor °which will have many improvements over anything that has been put out so far.

The Gill-Posh aeroplane which made its debut at the Los Angeles Meet, has made over fifty short flights. This was on the Curtiss order, but had a heavy automobile motor. A new model, different from anything on the market, is nowing being made and will be flown at the St. Louis Meet for novices. _

Several machines on the Coast have made short flights with the Hall-Scott motor, which is comparatively new to the aeroplane world. These are as follows : Wiseman & Peters, Farman type biplane, at Santa Rosa, Cal.; Frank Johnson, Curtiss machine at San Jose with Harold Hall as aviator, and Roy Crosby's Greene biplane with Harold Hall, rider.

Aero Motor for $250.

To fill the steadily increasing demand for a light weight aeronautical engine, the Detroit Aeroplane Co., of Detroit, Mich., has undertaken the rather difficult task to put a new motor on the market for the most popular price of $250.

This company has been incorporated under the laws of Michigan for $20,000, with F. Weinberg president, for the purpose of manufacturing aero motors and other devices. The firm of Wilcox & Carlson Co., of Detroit, makers of marine engines, has been bought out.

The engine is a two-cylinder of the double opposed type, four cycle, and has a bore of 5 in. and a stroke of 5 in., and the speed range is between 700 and 1,500 r. p. m., developing between

8

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twenty and thirty horse power according to speed and load. The weight is 9S lbs. Both valves are placed in the cylinder head, and all four valves are operated by one single cam. in this way eliminating a large number of parts, manufacturing cost and trouble. The advantage of this arrangement is largely due to the fact that by timing one valve the others are timed at the same time. Both valves can be detached with their valve cages by loosening only two screws, at the same time giving free view of the cylinder inside and the piston. The engine being air cooled is especially designed for this purpose, inasmuch as valve sections have been employed of an enormous area, the exhaust valve, for instance, being 3^ in. in diameter. On the other hand, the extreme large flanges have been arranged in double distance as customary practice shows. This is done to avoid the reciprocating action of the radiation from one rig to another, and has been thoroughly tested out on French and German motors.

By means of the double throw crank shaft, the pistons are forced in opposite directions, and as a result, a bright stream of air is thrown steadily inside the crank case and cylinder by each revolution, which helps considerably to bring the temperature of piston and cylinder walls down. This in connection with the arrangement of both cylinders opposite from each other, and the wide spread of the cylinder heads which are directly exposed to the cooling air draft of the propeller, warrants a most efficient cooling under propeller load.

The lubricating system is splash, and the crank case, therefore, is oil tight and from the best aluminum alloy. It contains, besides a lubricant, all moving parts of the engine, as crank shaft, timing gears, cam. connecting rods and pistons. The hollow double throw crank shaft is perfectly balanced and made from 40 to r>0 pt. high carbon steel, heat treated and mounted against thrust by a New Departure ball bearing, which feature enables a direct attachment of the propeller. All other bearings are made from best while brass, and are most liberally dimensioned and replaceable. This is the strongest keynote of the motor, which is not only as light, but as durable as possible, and distinguishes itself from all other light weight engines, because it does not need the care of any expert, but can be handled most successfully by amateurs.

Connecting rods and pistons are being weighed thoroughly, and this in connection with the balanced crank shaft is a most satisfactory running system. There are some other points of refinement employed in the design, one of which is that all the strain of the cylinder and crank case is converted into compression instead of pulling stress.

The gasoline tank may be mounted in or above height of the engine, as the carburetor is attached to motor on its lowest point of the crank case, forming with the latter a compact unit. The crank case itself is provided with flanges for the purpose of fastening to the frame of the aeroplane.

The design, in connection with the very best material used, and the very best workmanship obtainable, warrants a first class product. This, in connection with a large output and in always keeping a number of ready tested engines in stock, enables the company to' market this motor for only $250. This price includes the ignition system, consisting in snaptimer provision being made for attachment of magneto.

Propellers are made and attached to motors on special reouest. and arc kept in stock in sizes between 5 and 8 ft. diameter and 3 to 7 ft. pitch, these propellers being the sizes which the motor is able to pull successfully without overheating or destructive effect.

Catalogs are sent on special request. The company asserts that the price is so low that even the most modest aeroplane manufacturer can obtain a powerful engine at a reasonable price.

wittemann catalog.

C. & A. Wittemann, Stapleton, Statcn Island. N. Y., have gotten out quite the finest aeronautical catalog yet issued anywhere. It contains a full list, illustrated, of parts, gliders, wheels, etc., and the Whitehead engine.

The

Aeronautical Society

OFFERS REAL BENEFITS

All interested in the Art will be benefitted by becoming members.

DUES $10 PER ANNUM NO INITIATION FEE

NO association in the world has accomplished as much.

If you desire to learn what the Societ}7 has done for the Art in the last eighteen months, send for the brochure just published reciting the accomplishments from the formation of the Society in July, 1008, to December, 1009. It is practically a history of aviation in the U. S. during the above period.

For the purpose of increasing the sphere of usefulness the membership should be augmented. Every additional member advances the general good.

ci Address the Secretary for booklet and application blanks at P. O. Box 28, Station D, New York; or 1999 Broadway, where weekly meeting* are held.

NON-INFRINGING

AEROPLANES

Guaranteed to Fly

Ready for Early Delivery

Easy Terms for Exhibitors Manufacturer and Dealer an

aeronautical supplies

Aviators for Tournaments

N.Y. Agent for Elbridge Engine Co.

FRED. SHNEIDER

1020 E. 178th Street

New York t

AERO ENGINES

WATER COOLED

Cylinders Wrought Steei. Water Jackets—Wrought Steel.

WELDED to Cylinders. Crank Case-Aluminum Alloy.

Shaft—Hammer Forged Steel. Bearings - Drawn Phospher

Bronze. No leaky screw joints-every joint Welded. 25-30 H.P., Weight 80 lbs., $600 35-40 H.P., Weight120 lbs., $800 45-50 H.P., Weight :50 lbs., $1100

AEROPLANES BUILT COMPLETE READY TO FLY With Non-Infringing Equilibrium Device

25% cash with order, balance C. O. 1).

the SANFORD MFG. CO., S,dSvrtS

Propeller Tests Well.

A test of a propeller, the design of which is new. made by the Requa-Gibson Company, was made at the Curtiss place in Itammondsport on June 4. Hugo C. Gibson had gone to the factory of the Elbridge Engine Co.. at Rochester, to make tests of the propellers on the Elbridge engines. Six propellers were taken., one of which was of the new type. Owing to the rush of business, there was but one of the large engines available, and that had been delivered to Glenn 11. Curtiss. So the tests had to be made at Hammondsport. The engine was hung in a frame suspended from the ceiling, and on a spring balance attached to the wall the thrust was read. The 7-ft. diam.. 4-ft. pitch special propeller showed1 up :v.\7 lbs. at SCO r. p. m.. the engine developing at the time 20 h. p. With the balance of the power of the motor to draw on. the new propeller should show great speed possibilities and economy in gas consumption.

Fred Shneider Busy.

Three more aeroplanes, combination Farman and Yoison types, will be delivered by the end of the month. One will be equipped with a o-cvlinder. .'¡0-35 h. p.. and the others with 4-cyIinder, 40-100 h. p. Elbridge motors. One is for one Castellano, who used to loop the loop on a bicycle ; one is for Nicholas" Rippenbein. of Perth Amboy. and1 the third is for Mr. Shneider himself, if someone doesn't buy it in the meantime, to try out some new devices.

Manufacturers Please Note.

A. II. llofer. 20.-!.i Michigan avenue. Chicago. 111., would like to get catalogues of all aeronautic supplies. lie expects to construct a biplane of about the same dimensions as the Curtiss.

Many Aeroplanes Sold in Washington State.

The Hamilton Aero Mfg. Co.. of Seattle. Wash., have built and sold six machines, including several biplanes, and are now building two biplanes for the international meet, to be equipped with an Elbridge 40-00 h. p. motor and a Requa-Gibson propeller. They already have seven orders for "Dumonoplanes" and' biplanes. Many orders are • nrned away because they cannot make immediate delivery.

The Whitehead Motor.

The first aeroplane to be fitted with a Whitehead motor is that of Chas. W. Miller. Following are the details of tin- motor:

The engine is highly finished and has specially tempered steel cylinders with steel water jackets welded in place. Fnder hydraulic pressure the jackets stand a pressure of OOOi lbs. to the sq. in, Forced circulation is maintained at high speed1 by a sear pump.

The engine is of the two-cycle type, with eight port exhausts to each cylinder. No carburetors are used, a special Whitehead vaporizer being provided for each cylinder. Ignition is Bosch magneto.

The intake is automatic, and is through a valve located in the center of the piston, head. The crank case is divided into four compartments, which serve as pre-comprcssion chambers, and in which the gas is compressed to 2<>i pounds per square inch, previous to being admitted into the explosion chamber.

When the exhaust takes place, the relief of the pressure in the explosion chamber enables the lower pressure in the crank case to force the valve open, admitting the new charge into the explosion chamber, coincident with the escape of the dead gases through the exhaust ports.

On the upward stroke a compression of 05 lbs. is reached, which is considerably in excess of that of any other motor, resulting in increased power. The exploding charge is at 300 lbs. per sq. in.

The bore is 5 in. and the stroke 5% in., making it a low speed, high powered engine.

Photographers

Telephone 100 John

108 fulton street Cable

new york Photonews, N.Y.

Photographs of Practically every Aeroplane and Airship in the World Lantern Slides and Enlargements our Specialty

Write for Catalogue Agents Throughout Europe

Auto & Aeronautic Supply Go.

C Aeronautic Supplies of Every

Description in Stock c, Wood Cut as per Specifications 2100 broadway (73rd St.,) new york

■PHONE, 6948 COLUMBUS

HIGH-CLASS MACHINE WORK FOR AERONAUTICAL PURPOSES

We Accomplish Results where Others Fail

IHC0rü0r9.ti0H.S * Pedersen Lubricators have proven to be tbe most reliable

* X

Newell Aerial Navigation Company of Seattle. $100,000; Frank A. Newell. K. McA. Redpatb. John H. Casebier, Carl J. Lindquist and William V. Osborne.

Western, Aeroplane Exhibiting Company : Harry B. Snell. It. W. Lawson. Frank .1. Boot, Jr.. Harold S. Boot, Alva A. Ingersoll: $50.000: Denver.

The Twin City Aviation & Exhibition Co. has filed articles of incorporation with the Secretary of State ; capital .$30.000. The incorporators are L. N. Scott and William J. Murphv of St. Paul ; H. E. Pence. ,1. J. Barclay. W. E. Wheeler. A. W. Strong, H. E. Wilcox. L. II. Fawkes and F. E. Murphy of Minneapolis.

Marquette Aeroplane Co.. Indianapolis, Ind.. $10,000.

Portland Aeroplane Co.: principal office, Portland: capital stock. $5,000; incorporators, Frank Bettmann, Arthur Eangguth and P. A. Taylor.

4. 4« 4* 4» 4* 4* 4* 4* 4* 4* 4* 4. 4* 4* 4* 4* 4. 4* 4* 4* 4* 4. 4. 4* 4* 4* 4* 4. 4* 4.

I Patent List j

$4.4.4.^.4.4.4.4. 4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4. j 4.4,4.4.4.4. J

note :-in the future all patents listed will

show date of filing as well as date of issue, in response to the suggestion of a subscriber.

Igo Etrich and Franz Wels. Oberalstadt near Trautenau. Austria-Hungary, 052,317. March 15. FLYING MACHINE. The invention consists of an aeroplane wing having a forward convex curved edge and rear concave edge and rounded end portions, while at bottom of the plane the front is concave and rear convex.

Rudolph G. Dressier, Conev Island, N. Y.. 052.880, March 22. AMUSEMENT FLYING MACHINE. Two posts spaced apart and flexible rope extending across at tbe top and bottom with rotating drum to operate the rope and a toy flying machine attached to the rope at the top so as to be moved in imitation of ,flight from one post to the other.

Daniel C. Funcheon, Denver. Colo.. 053.108. March 29. FLYING MACHINE, This invention consists In supporting a car by means of kites flexibly connected thereto. Propellers are provided at the sides and rear of the car to control direction and tbe rear propeller is movable vertically on its bearings so as to raise or lower the apparatus.

Pedersen Manufacturing Company

(ESTABLISHED 1884. INCORPORATED 1906

636-644 FIRST AVENUE NEW YORK

(Jbwetä New York m--^=> Chocolates

Health Food Chocolate

Most Suitable for Aeronauts or those requiring a Non-Bulky Sustaining Food Office. 150-154 CHAMBERS STREET, NEW YORK

FOR ANYTHING IN AERONAUTICS

which you may desire from France, write to

Ladis Lewkowicz, Ervauville, Loiret, France

and prompt attention will be given your inquiry.

Specialty of securing reliable and successful motors. Any styles of aeroplanes. Quickest delivery and lowest figures. Manufacturers" guarantee. Full information can be obtained from my lawyer and resident representative, Eugene I. Gottlieb, Esq., 140 Nassau Street, New York City.

WOOD

4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4. For Aeroplanes |

Long Lengths of Selected Straight Grain

Spruce -- Pines--Bass-Whitewood-White Cedar, Etc.

*

+

X

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FULLY EQUIPPED MILL-LOW PRICES

Manufacturers Supplied

WM. P. YOUNGS & BROS. First Ave. and 35th Street - New York

EDWIN LEVICK

Aeronautical

AND MARINE

The cranks are set at quarter turns, making vibration almost negligible. Being a two-cycle type, the power is increased over a four-cycle engine of the same bore and stroke, there being four explosions for each revolution of the crank shaft, as compared with two explosions in the four-cycle type.

Thus a four-cylinder, two-cycle engine, such as the Whitehead, is theoretically much more flexible tharr a six-cylinder, four-cycle automobile engine, and is equal in flexibility to an eight-cylinder, fourcycle engine.

The oiling system is both by splash lubrication and mechanical oiler. The bearings are Ave in number, of phosphor-bronze. There is also a thrust bearing on the crank shaft to prevent the breaking of the crank case from the pressure of the pro pellcr.

The construction of the cylinders of the Whitehead engine is unusual, as they are bored out of a solid billet of chrome nickel steel and subjected to numerous temperinis.

The steel sheet water jackets are welded in place by the oxo-acetylene process, so that there is no danger of a break in the water-cooling system. There is in the Whitehead engine no packing whatever, and all its working parts are of the utmost simplicity.

The crank case is of aluminum alloy, and the cylinder bolts run all the way through the crank case, thus giving much more than the usual solid ity of construction.

PRICE ft 250

20-30 H.R

5 in.Bore. 5in.Stroke 1000-1500 R.P.M.

Weight 98 lbs

Wpjte for a Catalogue

The Detroit Aero-plane Co.

DETROIT MICHIGAN

Aeroplanes 35 Cents

Tin* greatest little fly it in existence; built on strictly scientific lines, with a view to help those interested in the problem of flight. For amusement and instruction it lias no equal. Your order will be filled by return mail. :: ::

AERO NOVELTY CO.

2506-Z-Monticello Ave. Chicago, III.

ÎHAMILTONÎ

in his flight, New York to Philadelphia and return, Los Angeles, and all other flights, had a

The same radiator was used in winning the International at Rheims by

CURTISS

For information on flying machine radiators write

A-Z CO.

540 West 56th St., New York

Johannes Schilling, Colonie Grunewald, near Berlin, Germany, 954,215, April 5. 1910, filed June 2. 1909. BALLOONS. This invention relates to a method of insulating balloons, more particularly dirigible balloons, by providing a jacket around the gas chamber and filling said chamber with an inert gas, that is a gaseous fluid freed from oxygen such as the exhaust gases from a motor.

Edward J. Augsberger, Philadelphia, Pa., 953,810. April 5. 1910, filed April S. 1909. FLYING MACHINE consisting of an aeroplane (of any type) proved with front and rear planes at th*e sides of the main plane or planes. These side planes are inclined from the horizontal, the front planes inclining upwardly from the inner to the outer ends and the rear planes inclining in the opposite direction.

Albert Koegler, San Francisco, Cal., and Ka-millo Stelzer. Jr., Dresden. Germany, 954.574. April 12, 1910. filer! March .">, I90S. MEANS FOU STEERING FLYING MACHINE. This invention contemplates a supporting frame, above the basket or chassis, for a motor hung in a universal joint. Above the motor extends a sleeve and inner shaft caused to rotate in, opposite directions, by means of bevel gears, and air vanes are secured to each. By changing the angle of inclination of the motor and air vanes, the apparatus may be steered in any direction.

Anna O. Ilagstedt. New York. N. Y., 954. 733, April 12, 1910. filed Feb. 18. 190!). FLYING MACHINE consisting of a body having two motors described as a main and auxiliary motor. Propelling means comprising front and rear propellers in addition to supporting means in the form of a plurality of (lapping wings are operatively connected to both motors.

Gustavo II. Brekke. Seattle. Wash.. 955.049, April 12. 1910. tiled May 10, 19U.s, renewed, Nov. 10. 1909. AIRSHIP comprising specifically a helicopter construction of oppositely rotated propellers supported on vertical shafts, one within the other, and means for swinging the propellers to aud from an inclined position. The upper end of shafts being broken and provided with universal joints.

Lagar R. Culver, Salt Lake City, Utah, 955,3S9, April 19. 1910, filed May 5. 1908. AEROPLANE, the novelty of which lies in a kite-shaped frame supported on a wheeled chassis. The frame is integral with the planes and is pivoted at the front corners so that each side may be raised or lowered independently. The tail is similarly pivoted and hand levers are connected for manual operation.

Nikolas Rueben, Aix la Chapelle, Germany, 950.428, April 20. 191(1. filed Sept. 1. 1909." AIRSHIP HALL with temporarily removable roof. A hangar consisting of gable side walls aud pillars and rafters constructed to swing on said walls to vertical position, the rafters being divided in the middle to form a slanting roof when in normal position. The roof covering is sliding]}* arranged on the rafters and movable in divisions.

Henry C. Schanzc Sr., Camden. N. .1.. 950.048, May 3. 1910. filed Nov. 25, 1908. DEVICE FOR AERIAL NAVIGATION. A housing provided with propellers above and at each end. the former rotating on vertical shafts and the latter on horizontal shafts. Quadrants are secured at the ends of housing for supporting the horizontal shafts and means are provided for quadrants and pro pellers for the purpose of steering.

Rudolph Gendts, New York, N. Y., 957.205, May IOi, 11)11», filed April 29, 1909. AIRSHIP. A rigid cigar-shaped gas balloon provided with compartments separate from the gas. An open air com partnient at the top serves as a passenger ear. Below this a compartment houses the power plant which through transmission gears operate vertical and horizontal propellers. Double rudder blades are provided at the rear on each side of envelope connected together by rods and operable simultaneously by transmission to a steering wheel in passenger car compartment.

William W. Christmas, Washington, D. C, assignor of 49.LOO to Creed M. Fulton and Thomas W. Buckev, Washington, D. C. and Lester C. MeLeod, Astoria. Ore.. 957.744,. May 10, 1910. filed Oct. 30. 1909. FLYING MACHINE. An. aeroplane consisting of a plurality of separate, inde-

pendent, suitably spaced supporting planes of concave-convex form in tbe direction of their length, transversely to the line of flight, the concave sides being towards each other. The upper supporting plane has also an intermediate air gap and is warped to present air guiding surfaces leading to said gap.

Louis Arnheiter, Jersey City, X. J.. 95S,4Gu, May 17, 1910, tiled Oct. G, 19US. AlKSltlP. An aeroplane having the following characteristics : A frame-work on wheels supports in the center a large sustaining surface of arch shape open at the front, rear and bottom. Located at each side of main surface a smaller surface of same style is provided. Within the large arch adjustable propellers serve to propel forward or backward1 while under the side arches a propeller at each side raises or lowers.

John Iloskine, Detroit. Mich., 958,747. May 24, 1910, tiled June 14, 1909. FLYING MACHINE, comprising aeroplane surfaces and a helicopter above them so arrauged that upon a rapid downward movement the spaces between the blades are automatically closed and an outwardly and downwardly extending rim surrounding the helicopter enables it to act as a parachute.

Frederic W. Schroeder, Kennington, London, ling-land, 959,2(>(3, May L'4, 1910'. filed Nov. 4, 1909. AERIAL SHIP. A combination of helicopter, gas bag, lifting vanes and parachute. -V series of lifting propellers arrauged in pairs on vertical axes to rotate in opposite directions are connected with auxiliary lifting vanes lying below and across the main blades of the propellers. Vertically disposed gas bags are carried below the frame and above a series of parachutes are arranged normally collapsed and adapted to expand automatically when any downward velocity is acquired.

Marcel Kapferer, lUllancourt, France. Assignor to Societe Arouvme "Astra," Uillancourt, France, 95S,92(J. Mav 24. P.HOt, tiled Sept. II. 1909. DEVICE FOR'FEEDING BALLOONETS ON AIRSHIPS, comprising a pipe within which is a flexible partition, running longitudinally and being of a width equal to half the circumferential development of the pipe. A flexible spherical cap, attached to the partition, is operable from the outside for the purpose of directing the gas into one or other of the compartments to be supplied.

John Buchanan, Holland, Mich., 959,199, Mav 24. 19H1, filed Oct. 9. 190S. FLYING MACHINE. An aeroplane provided with propeller at the front and rudder at the rear with a car pivotally suspended below and means for adjusting manually the angular relation of the car and planes.

•*• +

| Ascensions | + *

J :: :: Two 400-Mile Trips :: :: * + :: :: One of 200 Miles :: :'• *

Forbes' New Record Altitude.

note: asteki.sk (*) denotes trip over 100 .uii.es.

*Quincy, 111., May 9.—A Holland Forbes, pilot, in his new balloon "Viking." with .1. C. Yates, to Grail Hope, Ky., a distance of i/4 miles: dura tion 19 hours 55 minutes, highest altitude, 20,000 ft.

The trip was undertaken with a view of gaining the record duration, altitude and distance, but the poor quality of the gas cut down tin supply of sand bags. When the aeronauts landed there was but one bag left out of the thirtv-three at the start.

From 0:50 p. in., the time of the start, till 9:00 the next morning, but six bags were used. In passing over Illinois, the balloon suddeulv dropped from an. altitude of S.immi or 9.000 ft! and six-bags of sand were used to cheek this sudden descent, which was accomplished just as the trail rope touched the ground. It was found out afterward that a local rain storm probably created a rising column of cold air and caused the drop.

Specially Selected for Aeroplanes

ALL SIZES IN STOCK J. DELTOUR, INC., 49 Sixth Ave., New York

TELEPHONE 5565 SPRING

Aeroplanes, Propellers, Gliders ===== Aeronautic Supplies =

ESTIMATES FURNISHED ON APPLICATION

NATIONAL AIR-CRAFT CONSTRUCTION CO.

234 - 14th Street, N. W. Washington, D. C.

Weaver-Ebling Automobile : Company :

"WECO" OILS AND GREASES

All Aeronautic Supplies 2230 Broadway at 79th St., - - - New York

AEROPLANE WIRE WHEELS

20" x 2" Curtiss Type in Stock-WEIGHT 7 LBS. Monoplane Tail Wheel, 16" x I >3"-Weight 3 lbs.

Farman Type Axles v^ZtL^

14" Wire-Spoked Steering Wheels - - Turn-Buckles

J. A. WEAVER, Jr., 956 8th Ave., N. Y. L. B. REPAIR CO., Inc.

EXPERTS ON GASOLINE MOTORS REMODELING and OVERHAULING MOTORS, MAKING SPECIAL PARTS FOR EXPERIMENTAL WORK ON

AIR, LAND WATER VEHICLES

225 W. 5 7th St., N. Y. Tel. 6549 Col.

F. O. ANDREAE

REGISTERED

SOLICITOR OF PATENTS

Aerouautic Inventions Pasadena,

n .specialty „ ...

ot home and abroad *_aill.

ADAMS-FAR W ELL

THE WORLD'S LIGHTEST AND SIMPLEST

MOTOR

Less than 3 lbs. per H. P. A. L. A. M. rating

Self cooled by its own revolution

GET OUR CATALOGUE A No. 15-A

THE ADAMS COMPANY

DUBUQUE, IOWA, U.S.A.

AERONAUTICS My, içio

THE STRONGEST

LIGHT METAL

McADAMITE

Specific Cravily 3 20 Tension, - 44,000 lbs. to sq. in. Compression, 126,000 lbs. to sq. in. Transverse, 87,000 " " " " Torsion. - 60.000 " " " " Send for test bar or a pattern for sample casting

U. S. McADAMITE METAL CO.

19 Rapelye Street BROOKLYN. N. Y

BIPLANES and GLIDERS

Hamilton Aero Mfg. Co,

208 30th Ave., Seattle

Successors to HAMILTON 4. PALMER

DEMOISELLE MONOPLANES

18 ft., $275. Without power

DUMONOPLANES Above type 21 ft., $350 24. ft., $400

Exhibition Dirigible "SNAP"

Carl E. Myers Outfit; 7 h. p. Curtiss Motor; 58 x 18 ft.; in fine condition; can pay for itself in one exhibition.

WESTERN AGENTS FOR

Baldwin's Vulcanized Proof Material - ELBRIDGE Motors

SHAFFER AERO MFG. & SUPPLY CO.

302 Holyoke St., San Francisco

Aeroplanes, Gliders, Propellers, Designed and Con-strueted. "Shaffer" Aero Wheels, Gliders, Propellers, Strut Connectors, Model Power Plants, Laminated Ribs and Beams. Stranded Aero Cord. Spruce, all shapes and Sizes.

Whitehead Motors, Bosch Magnetos, Palmer Aero Tires

Considerable ballast was expended in attaining the great altitude. The aneroid was examined at about 2 :00 o'clock, and it registered' 20.000 ft. At this point the aeronauts were gasping for breath, and this height was maintained for about ten or fifteen minutes. It is supposed the balloon went considerably higher. The instrument was later examined by the makers and it was found that this height was the limit of the capacity of the aneroid.

The gas left only slightly filled the balloon, and as it tended to collapse, it had a corresponding tendency to elongate, hence the pressure upon the rope extending from the base of the appendix to the basket became great. In fact almost the entire weight of the rigging beneath the balloon was forced upon this single line, and at length it parted. This dropped the basket, elongating the balloon so suddenly that the line from the ripping panel to the basket became suddenly taut, tore open the ripping panel four or five feet. The gas rushed out at terrific speed. The result was the immediate collapse of the balloon and its descent to the ground at 2 :45 p. m. At this time the 350-ft. trail rope was just touching the ground.

The aeronauts were found1 unconscious by farmers. Forbes was laid in a lot of poisin ivy vines and suffered from, their poison for some davs.

TMttsfleld, May II.—Charles J. Glidden." pilot : Uabbi Charles Fleischer and .T. J. Van Valken-burgh in the "Pittsfield." to llolden, Mass. Duration 3 hours ; distance 75 miles ; altitude 5.400 ft.

Pittsfield, May 14.—Charles J. Glidden, pilot, and .Tason S. Bailey, in the "Mass.," to Berkshire Mass. Duration 1 hour 45 minutes ; distance 4> miles; altUude S,7jOO ft. Snow storm at 4,000< to 8,000 ft.jfla*, / k\. it*

Philadelphia. May IJr. Tliomas E. Eldridge. Ira Brown and Mrs. D. V. Evans, in the "Phila. I.," to Williamstown, X. J. Distance 20 miles-: ivration 5 hours ; altitude 9.000 ft. ^ittsfield, May 15.—William Van Sleet, pilot: Roswell C. Tripp. Fairman Dick and' E. C. Ely. the "Springfield." to. Sharon. Conn. Distance flhles ; (iTH'ation f». bourse altitude 7,000 ft. ■It. Louis, May 10.—John Berry, pilot : Prof. G. O. James and Andrew Drew, in the "St. Louis III," at 0:35 p. m., to Carsonville at 7:15 p. m. At 8 :30 p. m. {Knottier ascent was made from here, landing eventually at ll:20i near llillview, 111. llillview cannot be found on the map.

crosses lake michigan ix night trip.

*St. Louis, May 10.— II. E. Honeywell and William F. Assmann left St. Loins in the "Centennial" to make a new distance record. After being in the air 22 hours and traveling 40!) 1-3 miles, a landing was made at Shiloh, Mich. An altitude of 14.800 ft. was reached.

*Xorth Adams, May 20. A. Leo Stevens, pilot : Dr. David Todd. Percy Sherman and Charles Soin-erville, in the "Cleveland," to St. Dominique, Que., In, the longest flight ever made from a New England point. Duration 11 hours 52 minutes; distance 219 miles; altitude 11,000 ft.

r-"A TALK TO THE INVENTOR"-,

CThe above book is an honest explanation of how the Inventor may guard against obtaining worthless Patents, and is written with a sincere desire to place the Inventor-reader in a position to determine intelligently when he should not file an application for Patent. Sent FREE on request.

The business of experienced patentees and inventors solicited. Inexperienced inventors will be rendered equally thorough service.

H. L. WOODWARD

727 9th Street 0PP. U. S. Patent Office Washington, D. C.

wins three cdps.

The pilot, Mr. Stevens, wins for the first time, until his record is beaten, three cups:

"La Patrie Montreal," to the Dilot larding nearest the office of "La Patrie."

"Cortlandt P. Bishop." to the pilot making the longest flight in 1910, starting from a point in New England.

The "North Adams Cup." for the longest disance made from North Adams.

A lower current was encountered which began to drive the balloon towards the States again, and it was thought best to land1 at Prummonds-ville. The trail rope was dropped here and the aeronaut called out to a farmer to catch it, but the man's wife held him back. By this time the balloon had come up to a forest where it was impossible to descend, so the trip had to be continued some seven miles further on the return journey. The final landing was made at St. Iiominique, Que.

The Automobile Club of Canada's cup for a landing on the island of Montreal do^s nor appear to have been won, as St. Dominique is not on the island.

London. England, May 20.—H. TV. Gannett, of the N. E. A. C, made a trip over London and landing at Castle Abbey. Distance 00 miles.

The funeral of King Edward was viewed fr.-»m the balloon.

Pittsfield. May 21.—William F. Whitehouse/ to near Springfield, Mass., in the "Pittsfield." /Distance 40 miles. *1_ f\n^S «

Philadelphia. Mav 21.—Dr. George II. S/mmer-man, Dr. Thomas E Eldridge. Prof. Chaff-les L. Doolittle and A. L. Millard, in the "I'h/la. II.." to Ciertmoor, N. .7.

Grestmoor cannot be found on the map. Though the balloon was sent up 0,500 ft., on aconunt of the dense clouds, no view of the comet w/as obtained.

Indianapolis, May 27.—G. L. Bumh/ugh and Dr. L. E. Guster, from the Motor Spee/lway. landing about 10 miles away.

Indianapolis, May 2S.—Luzern/Ouster and C. A. Coey. from the Speedway to ^agletown. about 25 miles.

Pittsfield. Mass.. May 27.-/-L Walter Flagg. pilot, and W. G. Kelly, in /lie "Pittsfield." to Snringfield. Mass. Duration C. \ hours* distance . ? miles. / 7 -nvw'

1 Pittsfield. May 2S.—Cha/es .T. Glidden, pilot, and Jason S. Bailey, in tb-o "Mass." to Bethany. Conn. Duration 2% hours; distance 75 miles; altitude 7,700 ft.

Springfield. Mav 2SL/-.Tav B. Benton, pilot : Louis Dederick. Prof. David Todd. Robert Wells and Nelson Waite. left/the ground in the "Springfield1" but the balloor/ caught in the wires lining the railroad and th/ gas had to be let out and the trip abandoned;

St. Louis. June A2.— S. L. Von Phul. pilot, and •T. D. W. Lamhe/t. in the "St. Louis III.," to No--th St. Louis/ In descending it was found the rip ;md valve /ords were entangled and the balloon was allowed to drop of itself. The descent was in the Mississippi River.

PATENTS

C L. PARKER

Laie Examiner U. S. Patent Office

ATTOR N E Y-AT-LAW AND SOLICITOR OF PATENTS

American and foreign patents secured promptly and with special regard to the legal protection of the invention. Handbook for inventors sent upon request.

30 MCGlLL BUILDING WASHINGTON. D. C.

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Send sketch for free search of Patent Office Records How to Obtain a Patent, and What to Invent, with List of inventions Wanted and Prizes offered for Inventions sent free. Patents advertised free.

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AERONAUTICS

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No. 36 JULY, 1910 Vol. 7, No. 1

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many kindnesses thrust upon the magazine, and may success eventually alight at our doorsteps. ERNEST L. JONES.

Entered as second-class matter September 22, 1908, at the Postoffice

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il

Aeronautics New Year.

<$*S><S^<Sx8><$><^<8><^^^

It is with somewhat more assurance of the ultimate than on three previous Julys that with this issue "Aeronautics" begins its fourth year.

Aeronautical affairs of late have reached a higher plane and the structure of the Art is attached more firmly to the industrial chassis.

In the face of the kindly advice of those foremost on the subject the magazine was started in July, 1907, when a gas balloon was a curiosity and the Wright Brothers' flights were still alleged myths. g^With the good will and ready support of !%se somewhat pessimistic friends, and with 'the appreciation of those who found "Aeronautics" of interest and value, without a skip the magazine was continued single-handed through three not particularly encouraging years.

It was steep-angle work, you may be sure. No t;me or pains has ever been spared to make the paper as reliable, accurate and efficient as possible in its heretofore exceedingly limited field. The sun often set and rose again on a day's work, but the heart was in it, and this, perhaps, made the labor lighter.

In launching upon this New Year I want to express my sincere appreciation of the

Automatic Stability Problem Solved.

Longitudinal and lateral stability form the two most important problems in the development of thr aeroplane. Stability must eventually be automatic.

For some years past Lieutenant .1. \V. Dunne who was for some time attached to the l'.alloon Factory at Farnborough. England, hut has recently continued his experiments at Sheppey on, his own account, has worked at the problem. A biplane designed by him. and piloted by Lieut, Gibbs, actr ally made several flights in Perthshire in thr autumn of 11)08. Since the beginning of this year flights extending in one ease to nearly one mile have been, made in the Isle of Sheppey. The machine was recently reconstructed, and was brought out once again and tried on the afternoon of May 27, in a fair breeze. Lieut. Dunne, who piloted the biplane, arose from the ground after a run of some forty yards and, rising to sixty feet, maintained this altitude for some distance', when lie let go his grasp of all the steering-levers and absolutely abandoned the machine to the air. Pursuing its free flight with perfect stability and steadiness, the aeroplane covered a distance of just on two miles, when Lieut. Dunne resumed control of his levers in order to clear a high mound, but, being unable to do so, came to earth in a ploughed field. The entire length of the flight was about two and one half miles. During its free flight the aeroplane gradually rose all the while.

The importance of this achievement need not be insisled upon, it simply proves that the problem of automatic stability is in a fair way of being solved, and as such its significance transcends that of (lie majority of sensational sporting and exhibi Hon flights. During the whole of its free uncontrolled flight the aeroplane remained absolutely stable. The aeroplane is a biplane : the wings project backwards from the central axis of the machine, and in plan have the shape of a V with the apex in the direction of flight ; the wing tip* are actually situated in rear of the center of gravity of the machine. Their combined area i square feet. The machine carries no tail no steering or controlling surfaces of any kind wiili the exception of a flap hinged to the rear extremity of each wing for effecting horizontal aiu' vertical steering. A 4-cylinder. FiO 11. I', "llrepn" engine drives two propellers revolving at the rear of the surfaces. The wings have a positive angle of incidence near the centre, the angle gradually decreasing towards the tips, where the angle i actually negative. The machine weighs I.7IM1 pounds, the load therefore being about three pound per square foot.

PROPELLERS

AERIAL PROPELLER CO.

IN STOCK

LAMINATED, ALL WOODS

5 ft., $25—6 ft., $30—7 ft., $40

White Plains, N. Y.

We Build Balloons That Win

HAVE WON EVERY CONTEST ENTERED AGAINST ALL MAKES

CHICAGO CONTEST — Balloon "Fielding-San Antonio" — 9 competitors Distance and endurance trophies, also water record of the world—350 miles one trip INDIANAPOLIS CONTEST— Balloon "University City" — 6 competitors PEORIA CONTEST — Balloon "Peoria" — 3 competitors ST. LOUIS CENTENNIAL CONTEST — Balloon "St. Louis III" first, and Balloon "Centennial" officially second for distance and endurance, 47 hrs., 4 I min.—8 competitors Balloon "St. Louis 111"—speed record of America — Lambert, pilot; Von Phul, aide JUST THINK OF IT, EVERY CONTEST IN THE LAST TWO YEARS.

Aero Club Grounds, Centennial Contest, St. Louis, Mo .

•J The longest voyage by a licensed pilot in the United States, in 1908, was made with the 2200 cubic meter "Yankee"—461 miles with two stops— a remarkable performance; 800 pounds ballast aboard when landing.

HONEYWELL, Builder

<J The greatest balloon trip of 1908 and 1909—850 miles in competition — made by the 2000 cubic meter balloon, "Fielding-San Antonio." Four American and two Foreign makes defeated by wide margin.

HONEYWELL, Builder and Pilot

AEROSTATS, AIRSHIPS AND INSTRUMENTS

IN STOCK AND MADE TO ORDER q HONEYWELL CONSTRUCTION utilizes the latest and best materials —varnished or rubberized envelope with French-type valve, and Italian hemp or linen nettings. Cars equipped for comfort and convenience —light and durable. .........

FRENCH—AMERICAN BALLOON CO.

H. E. HONEYWELL, Director

4460 Chouteau Avenue, St. Louis, U. S. A.

PROTECT YOUR IDEA!

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FREE TWO BOOKS:

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Telling HOW OTHERS will do the same IN THE FUTURE.

WHAT AND HOW TO INVENT" BOOK FREE.

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New York City, N. Y. Farmers Mfg. Co.,

Norfolk, Va. New Era Mfg. Co.,

Fairfield, la. The Parry Stationery Co., Oklahoma City, Okla. Bell Show Print Co.,

Sigourney, la. The Camp Conduit Co.,

Cleveland, O. The Iowa Mfg. Co.,

Oskaloosa, la. Sam'l Allen & Son Mfg. Co., Dansville, N. Y. The Garl Electric Co.,

Akron, O. Superior Mfg. Co.,

S.dney, O Tidnam Tel. Pole (Jo .

Oklahoma City. Okla. Bernhard Fürst, Vienna,

I. Austria-Hungary. Compound Motor Co.,

Brooklyn, N.Y

circulation

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WHAT YOU INVENT!!

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AERONAUTICS A SPECIALTY

CImprovements in Aerostructures should be protected without delay. Thousands are experimenting, and your discoveries may be made and patented by others. A seemingly unimportant point to-day, may control the Aeroplane and Dirigible in the future as the Selden Patents control the Automobile. Do not give your idea* away; protect them with solid patents.

We render an opinion as to the patentability of any invention without charge. Send us a sketch and description, photographs or a model for immediate report.

booklets giving full information in Patent Matters, a list of needed inventions and a history of successful patents, mailed free. Write for them.

• , , —. —. r-k « m » »• r, •— PROMPT AND PROPER SERVICE

WOODWARD &. CHANDLEE ^irfsi^a:«r,sM„gton, d7c.

PARAGON

Diameter 7 ft.. Weight 5 WHICH WILL A stock propeller selected by guess for the special conditions of your machine.

A true screw of uniform pitch in which only a portion of the blade can have an effective gliding angle in the path through which it moves.

Material showing common "flat" or "bastard" grain which warps, cheeks and refuses a polish.

One kind can be had from several places; the

AMERICAN PROPELLER CO.

lbs.. Stands 200 lbs. Thrust. YOU CHOOSE."

A propellpr correctly and scientifically designed for the surface-weight ratio and speed and power of your machine.

A blade of variable pitch to take account of the elasticity of the air and the phenomenon of "slip" and that is effective all over.

A blade showing none but edge or "Quartered" grain and both blades being exactly alike, even to the lines in the wood—and a perfect polish. other you can get only from us. Think it over !

616 G Street, Washington, D. C.

4ER0NAUTICS

July, 1010

EQUIP YOUR AEROPLANE

WITH

Aeroplane Fabrics Aeroplane Tires Bumpers

Tell us what you need, and let us explain the superiorities of GOODYEAR Materials.

THE GOODYEAR TIRE & RUBBER COMPANY

Akron, Ohio

PROPELLERS

True Screw :: Spruce and Ash

In stock and can be shipped immediately

gft All Sparling-McClintock mLL, Propellers are of laminated spruce and ash. C,We get 200 p(ounds thrust from our 6-foot propeller at between 1100 and 1200 revolutions per minute. Our 6-foot Propeller,

any pitch, wt., 7 lbs., Our 7-foot Propeller,

any pitch, wt., 8^ lbs., Our 8-foot Propeller,

any pitch, wt., 11 lbs..

$30.00 40.00 50.00

Sparling-McClintock Co.

GRAFTON, :: :: ILLINOIS

CHURCH

Aeroplane Co.

BROOKLYN, N. Y.

Working Models Flying Models Separate Parts

MODELS BUILT TO ORDER

From Working- Drawings, Etc.

supplies for model builders:

Aluminum, Rattan, Bamiioo, White-Wood, Etc.

Special Notice!

WE have received so many-inquiries for agency propositions and orders are coming in so fast, that our mail has grown to such an extent, that we find ourselves unable to keep up with our correspondence, but will fill orders and answer all letters as quickly as possible until we have increased our facilities still further.

Price List of Models and Parts

is now ready, but it will be some little time before our

Supply Catalog for Full Size

Machines is ready for distribution as there are so many new tilings to list. In asking for catalog, plcnse state which one yon want.

CHURCH AEROPLANE CO.

main office and factory brooklyn, : : n. y. chicago office. 49 wabash ave, h. s. renlon, manager.

AERONAUTICS My, ipio

R. I. V. RADIAL BALL BEARINGSl

Used by Leading Aviators.

Light in weight— Strong and

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Variety of types and sizes in stock. Absolutely Guaranteed.

Send for Catalogue 19.

All Sizes Hoffmann Steel Balls on Hand.

R. I. V. CO. 1771 Broadway, New York

A SCREW BLADE Laminated Wood Propeller

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Mail or Telegraph 10% of amt. and we will ship C. O. D. for balance

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Sole Manufacturer 67 Main Street San Francisco :: California

J

AERONAUTICAL CLASSICS

===== Published by =====

THE AERONAUTICAL SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN

NOW READY

1. AERIAL NAVIGATION.

By Sir George Cayley, Bart., with Portrait and Biographical Notice. First published 1809.

2. AERIAL LOCOMOTION.

By F. H. Wenham, with Portrait and Biographical Notice. First published 1866. ^T Four more volumes in the presant series will be issued during the course of the year, including the most important works of Walker, Stringfellow, Pilcher, Fiancis Lana, Leonardo da Vinci, etc.

The originals of this valuable series are extremely rare, and practically unobtainable. All the illustrations are reproduced in facsimile.

Price 25c. each volume. Post Free 30c.

Subscription for complete series of six, $1.35 post free On sale at the Publishing Offices of of the Aeronautical Society KING, SELL & 0LDING, 27 Chancery Lane, London. England

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PROPELLERS

C. SPECIALLY MADE

Foje Model and Full Sized Aeroplanes. C, Prices on Application

L. G. DUQUET imSJfif

I have just such a twin engine to win Edwin Gould's $15,000 prize. Want capital to exploit this patent.

J. A. M., care AERONAUTICS".

Well known inventor building biplane which will not conflict with other patents, needs $3,000.

Perfectly safe, and simple control. Have machine entered for several contests. Best of references. No brokers.

BIPLANE, care AERONAUTICS.

Wittemann Glider In Flight

C. and A.

WITTEMANN

DESIGNERS - CONSTRUCTORS - DEVELOPERS OF

Aeroplanes, Gliding Machines, Models, Separate Parts

PRACTICAL LESSONS IN GLIDING experiments Conducted Large grounds for testing

GLIDERS IN STOCK works:

7 Ocean Terrace and Little Clove Road, Staten Island, New York

Telephone. 390-L West Brighton

WE MANUFACTURE THE LIGHTEST WEIGHT AND HIGHEST QUALITY ENGINES IN THE WORLD

All working parts of Krupp and other German Steels of highest tensile strength obtainable.

THE EMERSON ENGINE CO.

Alexandria

Incorporated

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LAMINATED TRUE SCREW

PROPELLERS

In Stock For Immediate Shipment

f")URG-ft. Propeller delivers 200 lbs. W thrust at 1200 R. P. M. C,Do you want to get the best results? If so get a "Brauner Propeller."

d.Our Propeller has proven more than satisfactory to those using it ::: :::

G-ft., 6i lbs. - - $40.00 7-ft., 8h " - - 50.00 8-ft., 11 " - - 00.00

P. BRAUNER & CO.

335-339 EAST 102nd STREET

Phone, 2189 Lenox ::: NEW YORK

% |_|ERE'S what the other fellow says in % !J! part referring to a big one—" It will %

remain stationary in the air or travel at *

|j| the rate of 150 miles per hour and up- |j

3" ward under any kind of weather condi- J |jj tions—it will go forward or backward,

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^ instantaneous control of the pilot. It has |j

|j a natural balance, also automatic control, |j

|j| hand control, hand and automatic in com- J

bination, thus making capsizing impos- % sible" etc. etc. etc. He hasn't exaggerated one bit either. 1 particulars apply to

■or

furth

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4» J\JO. £.. D100£.L.L., PITTSBURG. PA.

4» P. S. Remember the combination—It's a Helicopter, Para-

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NK thousand satisfied clients testify that the service, the stock, the painstaking attention of the

AERONAUTIC SUPPLY COMPANY

is invaluable to builder, novice, owner or aviator.

C. In response to a persistent demand we have inaugurated a new department. We will build complete machines in our own shops to your specifications. Full size or models with or without our special advisory service.

FA C TS

C. The Aeronautic Supply Company, organized last year, is the first concern of the kind in all America.

C. Our catalog is now running in the third edition. Bulletin number three

very complete and especially valuable, now off the press.

C. If you are not already in correspondence with us, write now. We help.

Aeronautic Supply Co.

SHOP: 3923 Olive Street, St. Louis, Mo.

General Office:

302 N. 12th STREET

Long distance telephone connection

First in all America

Scientific American Trophy, 1907

How Competition Promotes — Progress ——

FOR the third time America's first aviation trophy, which commemorates Langley's aeroplane, has been competed for and perhaps permanently won

by GLENN H. CURTISS

in his record-breaking flight down the Hudson River, on May 29th. On July 4th, 1908, he flew a mile in a straight line; last year he covered 25 miles over a circular course; and now he has flown 74.\ miles from Alhany to PoucHKEEi'siE without a stop at a speed of over 50 miles an hour — a long distance flight already increased materially by Chas. K. Hamilton in his ] hour and 50 minute trip from Governor's Island to Phii-adelpiha on June 13th. C.A11 this shows what progress has been made since we offered the Scientific American Trophy. The competitions this year which are to be cross-country flights — will evidently be very keen; and aviators intending to compete should make entry early.

l'oh FUll. particulars A Nil hulls address

The Scientific American SLi'^gK

1ER0NAUTICS My, T0T0

BALDWIN'S

Vulcanized Proof Material

?Hft« WINS ifflH^

LAHM BALLOON CUP—697 Miles

Forbes and Fleischman, Balloon "New York"

BEST DURATION INDIANAPOLIS BALLOON RACE—

35 Hrs., 12 Mins. Forbes and Harmon, Balloon "New York"

U. S. BALLOON DURATION RECORD—48 Hrs., 26 Mins.

Harmon and Post, Balloon "New York," St. Louis Centennial

U. S. BALLOON ALTITUDE RECORD—24,200 Ft.

Harmon and Post, Balloon "New York," St. Louis Centennial

GORDON BENNETT AVIATION PRIZE 30-KILOM. AEROPLANE SPEED PRIZE GRAND PRIZE OF BRESCIA FOR AEROPLANES QUICK STARTING EVENT AT BRESCIA 2nd, 10-KILOM. AEROPLANE SPEED PRIZE 2nd, BRESCIA HEIGHT PRIZE—Glenn H. Curtiss

BALDWIN'S VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL

Used in the U. S. Gov. Dirigible and Spherical Balloons

WILL last from five to six times as long as a varnished balloon. The weight is always the same, as it does not require further treatment. Heat and cold have no effect on it, and ascensions can be made as well at zero weather as in the summer time. The chemical action of oxygen has not the same detrimental effect on it as it has on a varnished material. Silk double-walled VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL has ten times the strength of varnished material. A man :an take care of his PROOF balloon, as it requires little or no care, and is NOT subject to spontaneous combustion. Breaking strain 100 lbs. per inch width. Very elastic. Any weight, width, or color. Will not crack. Waterproof. No talcum powder. No revarnishing. The coming balloon material, and which through its superior qualities, ind being an absolute gas holder is bound to take the place of varnished material. The man that wants to have the up-to-date balloon, must use VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL. Specified by the U. S. SIGNAL CORPS.

AEROPLANE MATERIAL A SPECIALTY

Prices and samples on application

Captain Thomas S. Baldwin Box 78, Madison Square

NEW york

AERONAUTICS

AERONAUTICAL SUPPLIES

AT MONEY SAVING PRICES

Elbridge Special Feather-weight, 2-Cycle Aero Motors

(water cooled):

3 Cylinder, 30-45 H. P., 138 1-2 lbs. . $750.00

4 Cylinder, 40-60 H. P.. 178 lbs. . . . 1050.00

Cylinders 4 5-8 x 4 1-2, copper jackets,

aluminum bases, hollow crank shaft.

4 Cylinder, 20-24 H. P., 150 lbs. (air cooled) 610.00 Cylinders 3 1-2x3 1-2, flanges 1 5-8 in. deep.

20 x 2 Aeroplane Wheels with tires built with steel

rims and special hub, very strong, price, . . 9.50

E. J. W. Aeroplane Hubs turned from solid bar oí

steel, drilled 36 holes, well-nickeled, . . . 4.00

E. J. W. Aeroplane Hub Brakes, enables aviator to stop his plane before or after alighting on ground, length 8 ins., outside cones 5 3-4 ins., bored

36 holes............ 10.50

Requa-Gibson Propellors, laminated wood, perfect screw:

6 ft., 6 I -2 lbs........... 50.00

7 ft., 9 lbs............ 60.00

8 ft., 12 lbs............ 70.00

The 6 ft. propeller gives 200 lbs. thrust at 1200 R. P. M. Model Propellors, laminated wood, 10 in. to 15 in.

perfect screw....... •.. • • • • 5.00

Galvanized Steel Cable for " Guying" :

1-32 in., 200 breaking strength, price per ft. .03 I - F 6 in., 500 breaking strength, price per ft. .03*2 3-32 in., 800 breaking strength, price per ft. .04 1-8 in.,2300 breaking strength, price per ft. .06 Rubber Bands for models, 15 ft. lengths, I-8 in.

square, each,........... 1.00'

Complete catalogue of supplies, motors, gliders, and light metal castings mailed free, upon request

E. J. WILLIS CO., Dept. "F"

8 Park Place - - NEW YORK

July, io io

^■|t i|t t|t«!» *y *\* •!* HH ■!■ "I"!* •!* "fr ■I1 4»

I NAIAD 1 Aeronautical Cloth

i

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t t

Manufactured Especially for Aeroplanes

Light, Strong Air-Tight and Moisture Proof

Samples, Data and Prices on Request

The C. E. Conover Co.

101 Franklin St., New York j

TTTTTTTTTTTTTtTTTTTTTTTTTTT'I1

STEEL TUBING

All diameters and gauges carried in stock

Also Nickel Steel Tubing for Propeller Shafts

NEW YORK 130-132 Worth Street

PETER A. FRASSE & COMPANY PHILADELPHIA 408 Commerce Street

Importers of Piano Wire, specially up-set for use in Aeroplanes

BUFFALO 50-52 Exchange Street

MOTORS TESTED

Dynamometer tests of aeronautic motors made for inventors, manufacturers and experimenters.

Any size—Any speed Reliable, conclusive and confidential reports.

JOSEPH TRACY

Conaulting Engineer 116 West 39th St. :: :: :: New York

G. L. BUMBAUGH

1029 N. Illinois St. :: :: Indianapolis, Ind.

Designer, Contractor, Operator Constructor

Airships and Balloons

Builder of the Balloon "Chicago" the largest in the world; the "Indiana," which holds the endurance record of the U. S.

For Sale—Four new spherical balloons, four new dirigible balloons, just finished. Will sell at reasonable prices.

AERONAUT LEO STEVENS

Leading

BALLOON AND AIRSHIP CONSTRUCTOR

of America

Representing the

Rubber Fabrics For

Balloons,

Aeroplanes

and

Airships

CONTINENTAL RUBBER COMPANY

of HANOVER, GERMANY

MAKERS OF THE FINEST AND STRONGEST BALLOON AND AEROPLANE MATERIAL IN THE WORLD

Passenger Aeroplanes and Flying Models

W. Morrell Sage

Models Developed

One to Fifty Passengers

Contractor to the United States Government

AND

Ninety-five per cent, of the Clubs in this country

Also Representing the Santos Dumont Aeroplane

American Representative

Carton & Lachambre

Balloon and Airship Builders of Paris, France

The Wilcox Propeller

Address : Box 181

Madison Square

N. Y.

AERONAUTICS My, ipl

% We Name

+

i

* *

$-- MARBLEHEAD, MASS.

+

BURGESS CO. & CURTIS

means

Good Workmanship

+ +

*

t

OUR AEROPLANES

t stand on skids, run on skids,

I get into the air on skids,

alight on skids, and are

... SAFE . . .

+ *

t on skids

| CThey are made by crafts-

I men, trained to careful work

t for many years on racing boats

% Our men know why and how

*__

*--

*--■-1-

*

+

Ask the Man Who SAW One

ERONAUTICS

July, io io

PROPELLERS

IN STOCK FOR IMMEDIATE SHIPMENT

Our true pitch, laminated ash and mahogany propellers combine all the most valued and proven features of foreign and home practice.

They are built in large quantities on the interchangeable plan.

We specialize. you get the benefit of our experience.

You know the value of buying a stock article, one which is past the experimental stage.

WRITE FOR CATALOG.

TERRITORY OPEN FOR AGENTS.

6 ft. dia. for 20-30 H. P. $50.00 at our Works

(Thrust 200 lbs. 0 1,200 R. P. M.)

7 ft. dia. for 25-40 H. P. $60.00 at our Works

(Thrust 250 lbs. @ 1,200 R. P. M.)

8 ft. dia. for 30-60 H. P. $70.00 at our Works

(Thrust 300 lbs. («' 1,200 R. P. M.)

larger sizes

to order

b u lletin Our latest design "SPECIAL" 7-foot propeller tested at the Curtiss Factory, Hammondsport, N. Y., fitted to an " ELBRI DGE" -engine, gave a thrust of 337 lbs. with great economy of gasoline.

-This means increased aeroplane speed and range of action-

small propellers for models 10-16" dia., $5.00 mail or telegraph 10°o of amount and we will ship c.o.d. for balance, plus cratage.

when ordering state the direction of rotation of propeller when you stand facing the breeze made by the propeller, clockwise or anticlockwise?

if uncertain as to the size you require, state the horsepower of your engine and its speed.

The Requa-Gibson Co.

225 west 49th street,

Phone 7200 Col.

- new york, n. y.

50th Street Subway Sta.

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AERONAUTICS *

July, jpl

+ *

+ *

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Call Aviation Engine

THE

MAGNALIUM

ENGINE

Aviators, Attention! ^JimeILw,ord

----- About Motjors

What you want is A Real Aeronautic Motor, light and yet strong, simple, and above all reliable. A motor, moreover, that the average mechanic can understand and operate.

What you do not want is a combination motor cycle, or modified automobile, engine. Lightness in these is secured only by the sacrifice of strength and efficiency; yet either type is unduly heavy. We have tried both and we know. Before you invest, it will be worth your while to write us, and hear what we have to say.

At an expense of several years experimenting, and many thousands of dollars outlay, we have at last perfected a high grade, water cooled, four cycle, gasoline engine for aeronautic work.

By special method of construction, upon which we are securing patents, these motors are much stronger than the ordinary makes, and at the same time very much lighter.

The 45 horsepower engine weighs 3 pounds per horsepower,

and the 90 horsepower only 2i pounds per horsepower: -about one-half the weight per horsepower of any other adequately water cooled engine. The weight as also the quality of each engine is guaranteed. These motors are not of freakish construction, either in the number of cylinders, or in any other respect. They are of the regular opposed type, similar to the famous Darracq aeronautic engine with which Santos Dumont's machines are equipped, conceded by gas engineers to be the smoothest running, and nearest vibrationless type.

A scarcely less important feature is the fact that our motors are silenced (not muffled), which feature is secured without loss of power. They are in fact, the only silent motors yet devised for aeronautic work. The importance of this feature can not be overestimated; and in connection with their strength, lightness, and reliability, places these motors in a class by themselves.

MODEL E-l: Two Cylinder, 45 Horsepower; Weight, 135 pounds. Price, $700. MODEL E-2: Four Cylinder, 90-Horsepower; Weight, 225 pounds. Price, $1,200.

EXTRA—Bosch Magnetic Ignition: Model E-l, $50; Model E-2, $100. TERMS: 40 per cent, cash, with order. Balance Sight Draft against Bill of Lading.

Write to us and let us send you Illustrations and description of these Wonderful Motors.

P. S.-Send for particulars and price of our REVERSIBLE AERIAL PROPELLER. Something entirely new and absolutely indispensable.

* THE AERIAL NAVIGATION COMPANY OF AMERICA, Girard, Kansas 1

ERONAUTICS

July, iqio

+ *

* +

AEROPLANE ENGINES

ADAPTABLE ALSO FOR USE IN THE DRIVING OF

Dirigible Balloons and High Speed Motor Boats

THE D E LIGHTS of Cross-^L. Country Planing are fully experienced when the Aeroplane is fitted with one of OUR ENGINES, as the aviator is relieved of any or all apprehension as regards this power plant.

TYPE B-3

fi»H.l\,Enrht C y 1 i n (1 e rs , mounted "V shapes with a 90° relation to each other. Weight, 27S lbs. complete.

TYPE B-4

SO H.l\, Four Cylinders, inoimted vertically on a coiiiinon crank case.

Weight, I'M) lbs. complete.

COnr motors express the ultimate achievement in engine construction, fulfilling a degree of perfection which leaves nothing to be added or desired in the way of* improvement, and the construction is so thorough and sincere throughout that the reliability, which aviators demand, is guaranteed as far as is humanly possible. :: :: :: ::

Favored exclusively by the experimenter in the science of flight, as it insures to him the maximum of safety

American Builders of the STANDARD VOISIN TYPE AEROPLANE

"THE ARISTOCRAT OF FLYING MACHINES" The only type machine not infringing the Wrights' Patents

Easton Cordage Company, easton, pa.

Catalogue C will be sent upon request

M O B I L O I L

USED BY

GLENN H. CURTISS

on his record aeroplane flight from Albany to New York

Hotel il-ifor

Uru.}3„rk

Vacuum Oil Company, 29 Broadway,

flew York City.

Dear Sirs:

I am pleased to report the success we have met with in the use of "Mobiloil" in lubricating; the engines in our aeroplanes, and to say that it maintained its reputation in ray Albany-Hew York flight.

Very truly yours,

Jw~. 1910.

FOR SALE BY DEALERS EVERYWHERE. MANUFACTURED BY

VACUUM OIL COMPANY

ROCHESTER, U. S. A.

Vol. VII

AUGUST, 1910

No. 2

THE AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERIAL LOCOMOTION

acts About "Elbridge" Engines

More actual power for weight than any other engines in the world! Only engines with unlimited guarantee based on actual performance!

^s bulk for the Irer than any other lines in the world!

Iyer parts (Work-lor otherwise) than I other engine in Iworld!

laranteed speed be 200 r. p. m. to !0 r. p. m.

-A—A

Extra large bearings, —more than 15 in. in 4 cylinder engines.

A refinement of detail only possible in a light weight engine that has actually been on the market more than four '°°rs.

ELBRIDGE "FEATHERWEIG.

Elbridge rating, 40 h. p. A. L. A. M. rating 60 h. p. Weight 167 lbs. Also made in 2 cyl. 20 h. p.; 3 cyl. 30 h. p.; 6 cyl. 60 h. p. Air-cooled engines, I to 4 cyl. 5-20 h. p. at 1,000.

Particulars and prices on request

ABRIDGE ENGINE COM PA NY

JCulver Road :: :: :: :: :: :: Rochester, N. Y.

AERONAUTICS August, içiM t*4>4^4-*4-4'#4'4°**4«*3H^

I ±

! nr i

HF

WE MAKE YOU FLY

-Capt. Thomas Baldwin

The HF Flying Power Plant

HARRIMAN MOTOR WORKS, INC.

* -

% "That engine will fly any properly built plane"

4*

% "I made a 25 mile flight (at Mineola) yesterday {July 12), the

|) engine not missing once "—George Russell

*

t

$ Four cylinder, vertical, four cycle, water cooled engine, 30 H. P. and

| 50 H. P.; 100 H. P., 6 cylinder

| 1. Engine.

| 2. Oiling System, force feed.

J 3. Oil Tank, aluminum, integral with crank case.

% 4. Carbureter (aluminum), aviation type.

| 5. Water, circulating pump.

* 6. Radiator, special HF aviation type. % 7. Magneto, Bosch type or Eiseman Automatic advance. t 8. Copper Gasolene Tank. J 9. Propeller, laminated mahogany. | 10. Steel hub and thrust bearing.

t 11. All necessary wiring; piping for gasolene, water and oil.

4*

* COMPLETE TOOL KIT—Water plug, wrench, socket wrench for plugs, J screw driver, wrenches for all nuts used, monkey wrench, pipe wrench.

| Price, 30 H. P. Power Plant, $1250.00

| 50 " " " 1675.00

% The customer has no further expense except gasolene and oil

*___

* 4«

| SOUTH GLASTONBURY, CONN. j

* j

AERONAUTICS

August, iqio

Set ffleaciy to ^¿2/-

ONE thousand satisfied clients testify that the service, the stock, the painstaking attention of the

AERONAUTIC SUPPLY COMPANY

is invaluable to builder, novice, owner or aviator. ; C, In response to a persistent demand we have inaugurated a new department.

We will build complete machines in our own shops to your specifications. Full 1 size or models with or without our special advisory service.

===== FACTS -

C. The Aeronautic Supply Company, organized last year, is the first concern of the kind in all America.

C. Our catalog- is now running in the third edition. Bulletin number three ; very complete and especially valuable, now off the press.

C If you are not already in correspondence with us, write now. We help.

A 1*0 General Office:

Aeronautic supply to. 302« 12th street

SHOP: 3923 Olive Street, St. Louis, Mo. Long distance telephone connection

First in all America

= Glenn Curtiss flies from Albany ==

In a Bi-plane Equipped with tO Ne\V YOfk City _PALMER AEROPLANE TIRES_

Hammondsport, N. Y., June 4, 11)10

THE B. F. GOODRICH COMPANY Akron, Ohio

Gentlemen:—I have your letter of June 1st and thank you for your complimentary expressions.

The Palmer Tires, with which I equip all of my aeroplanes give the best of satisfaction for the purpose. The light weight does not greatly impede the lifting power% of the machine and the great resiliency enables me to land without shock on the hardest groundf and to pick up speed quickly in starting*. I am glad to credit a part of the success of my aeroplane to the Palmer tire.

Yours very truly, (Signed) G. H. Curtiss.

* "Curtiss-jerked a lever. The machine glided 1 "Calm and cool, as unruffled as if stepping along the ground for perhaps fifty yards, and out of a street car. Luruss. as he landed, called then rose steadily, gracefully in the air."'—The out. "where's that oil and gasoline? —The Out-Outlook, June 25. look, June 25.

t "There was a sudden whir of the engine, a dash, across the field, and then like a huge bird Curtiss. in his aeroplane, rose gracefully in the air, circling about so as to come within the limits of Albany."— The Outlook, June 25.

The Palmer Aeroplane Tire

Manufactured by

The B. F. Goodrich Company ... - Akron, Ohio

PROPELLERS

IN STOCK FOR IMMEDIATE SHIPMENT

OUR true pitch, laminated ash and mahogany propellers combine all the most valued and proven features of foreign and home practice.

"THEY are built in large quantities on the inter ' changeable plan.

1A#E specialize. You get the benefit of our ex perience.

VOU know the value of buying a stock article, one ■ which is past the experimental stage.

WRITE FOR CATALOG. TERRITORY OPEN FOR AGENTS.

6 ft. dia. for 20-30 H. P. $50.00 at our Works ,

(Thrust 200 ibs. @ 1,200 R. p. M.) Larger

7 ft. dia. for 25-40 H. P. $60.00 at our Works SJZeS

(Thrust 250 Ibs. @ 1,200 R. P. M.) ^Q

8 ft. dia. for 30-60 H. P. $70.00 at our Works .

(Thrust 300 Ibs. («', 1,200 R. P. M.) I oraep

TESTIMONIAL

New York, July 9th, 1010. THK KKQUA-GIBSOM COMPANY, No. 223 West 49th St., New York.

(rentleinen:—It gives me pleasure to be able to tell you that your propeller has given me entire satisfaction. 1 think the silk reinforcement on the tips is a great improvement, as 1 have had broken wires, etc., get caught in the propeller without doing serious damage to same.

Whenever 1 can say a word for the RKQUA-GII3SON propeller you may rest assured that 1 will do so. Very truly yours,

(Signed), THOMAS S. BALDWIN.

Small propellers for Models 10-16" dia., $5.00 Mail or telegraph 10, of amount and we will ship C.O.D. for balance, plus cratage.

When ordering state the direction of rotation of propeller when you stand facing the breeze made by the propeller, clockwise or anticlockwise?

If uncertain as to the size you require, state the horsepower of your engine and its speed.

The Requa-Gibson Co.

225 West 49th Street, - New York, IM. Y.

Phone 7200 Col. 50th Street Subway Sta.

ERONAUTICS

AERONAUTICAL SUPPLIES

AT MONEY SAVING PRICES

Elbridge Special Feather-weight, 2-CycIe Aero Motors (water cooled):

3 Cylinder, 30-45 H. P., 138 1-2 lbs. . $750.00

4 Cylinder. 40-60 H. P.. 1 78 lbs. . . . 1050.00

Cylinders 4 5-8 x 4 1 -2, copper jackets,

aluminum bases, hollow crank shaft. 4 Cylinder, 20-24 H. P., 150 lbs. (air cooled) 610.00 Cylinders 3 1-2x3 1-2, flanges 1 5-8 in. deep.

20 x 2 Aeroplane Wheels with tires built with steel

rims and special hub, very strong, price, . . 9.50

E. J. W. Aeroplane Hubs turned from solid bar of

steel, drilled 36 holes, well-nickeled, . . . 4.00

E. J. W. Aeroplane Hub Brakes, enables aviator to stop his plane beforeor after alightingon ground, length 8 ins., outside cones 5 3-4 ins., bored 36 holes....._.......10.50

Requa-Gibson Propellers, laminated wood, perfect screw:

6 ft., 6 1 -2 lbs...........50.00

7 ft., 9 lbs............60.00

8 ft., 12 lbs....._.......70.00

The 6 ft. propeller gives 200 lbs. thrust at 1200 R. P. M. Model Propellers, laminated wood, 10 in. to 15 in.

perfect screw, . . 5.00

Galvanized Steel Cable for " Guying

1-32 in., 200 breaking strength, price per ft. .03 1-16 in., 500 breaking strength, price per ft. .031:; 3-32 in., 800 breaking strength, price per ft. .04 1-8 in., 2300 breaking strength, price per ft. .06 Robber Bands for models, 15 ft. lengths, 1-8 in.

square, each, ,.......... 1.00

Complete catalogue af supplies, motors, gliders, and light metal castings mailed free, upan request

E. J. WILLIS CO., Dept. "F"

67 Reade St. and 85 Chambers St., New York

August, tow

I NAIAD I

Aeronautical Cloth

%

+

Manufactured Especially for Aeroplanes

Light, Strong Air-Tight and Moisture Proof

Samples, Data and Prices on Request

The C. E. Conover Co.

101 Franklin St., New York

+

STEEL TUBINO

diameters and IPs carried in stock

lickel Steel Tubing Propeller Shafts

[NEW YORK 132 Worth Street

PETER A. FRASSE & COMPANY

PHILADELPHIA 408 Commerce Street

Importers of Piano Wire, specially up-set for use in Aeroplanes

BUFFALO 50-52 Exchange Street

MOTORS TESTED

Dynamometer tests of aeronautic motors made for inventors, manufacturers and experimenters.

Any size—Any speed Reliable, conclusive and confidential reports.

JOSEPH TRACY

Consulting Engineer 116 West 39th St. :: :: :: New York

G. L. BUMBAUGH

p N. Illinois St. :: :: Indianapolis, Ind.

Designer, Contractor, Operator Constructor

Irships and Balloons

Builder of the Balloon "Chicago" the largest in the world; the " Indiana, which holds the endurance record of the U.S.

For Sale—Four new spherical balloons, four new dirigible balloons, just finished. Will sell at reasonable prices.

(aeronautics

A IR currents and the effect of moving t-\ bodies in the air have been a source of baffling mystery to even some of le most scientific minds, and how true this ; may be determined by a few interesting xperiments, easily made by anyone without ^cpeuse.

Most everyone has seen the so-called ball ozzle in which a stream of water moving

ith considerable force is caused to form a dIIow cone by means of a loosely mounted - free ball directly in the path of the water.

0 matter what force the stream of water has cannot dislodge the ball. This is purely

1 air current phenomenon and may be con-dered a physical paradox.

Paradoxes of The

Air * * ßy c- w- Howell, Jr.

'* Director, The Aeronautical Society

If we take an ordinary lightweight visiting card and stick a pin through the exact center of it ("which may be determined by drawing lines diagonally from each corner) as shown in Fig. i and then place the pointed end of the pin into the hole of a thread spool, allowing the card to rest upon the head of the spool, and then blow through the other end,

The miniature whirlwinds one often sees the street and roads are true air cones fcause they develop force enough at their |ex sufficient to pick up dust, small sticks, while at their frustrum for a considerable lace about their axes there is little or no Tree except that caused by atmospheric pres-re supplying the losses caused by friction of b inner wall of the air cones.

it will be found impossible to blow the card away from the spool, in fact, the harder one blows the more impossible it is to dislodge the card. Even though one blows and then points the whole apparatus toward the ground, allowing gravity to assist, the card cannot be dislodged.

If now we take a card about 2% in. square (Fig. 2) and find the center by means of the

diagonal lines and then strike a circle about the center, having a diameter twice that of the hole in the spool and then cut along the diagonal lines from the circle to the corners and then bend the four corners BBBB upward at the dotted lines CCCC a pin-wheel or air vane will be formed which, when inserted in the spool in the same manner as the previous card experiment, will rotate with great rapidity as long as one blows through the hole in the spool. Care must be taken to only bend the corners BBBB upward and the pin must be inserted as shown in Fig. 3. If the corners DDDD are bent downwardly or if the pin is inserted any other way the experiment fails owing to there being an air space between the card and the spool.

Another interesting but not so easily performed experiment is to place a lightweight visiting card lengthwise on the under side of one's fingers when extended and held closely together, holding it against the fingers lightly with the other hand. Now blow on the back of the fingers between the second and third and midway between the joint and knuckle— the other hand may then be removed and the card will adhere to the fingers as long as you

4« ^* ^> ^ ^< 4* ■{"!* 4**!"!"S* 4* 4* 4* 4**!"!"t"i"!"{"S"i* 4* v * *

! A New Control ! + *

THE method of aeroplane control illustrated has been designed by James S. Stephens, 7321 Bond Ave., Chicago. The upper plane or deck of a biplane is made to project at each end beyond the lower. This in itself is claimed to add to the stability of the machine "by presenting a more efficient lifting surface to the air on the side tending to dip, and at the same time compensating for the deficient lifting power of the upper plane due to the resistance and disturbance of the air currents by the lower plane."

blow. It takes a little practice to accomplish! this, but it is worth the trouble.

The most interesting of all is the experiment! performed with a funnel and candle. If al lighted candle is held so that the flame is posi-1 tioned at about the center of the large end of! the funnel as shown in Fig. 4, not only is it impossible to put the flame out when one blows! through the small end of the funnel, but the! flame will be drawn into the funnel toward! the mouth, and no heat effect will be felt at all.!

Now hold the candle and flame in the rela-l tive position shown in Fig. 5 and the flame! can be readily extinguished by blowing through! the small end of the funnel.

To my mind this experiment clearly illus-l trates the theory of vortex rings or morel truly vortex currents or better yet cone cur-I rents, and I firmly believe that exploration! in this field will bring forth new ideas audi new principles will be discovered that will lead! to the perfection of air devices in general and! the propeller in particular, because I do 110« think that the real effect of moving structures! in or through the air is understood in spitel of the fact that flying machines are no longeil a novelty, and I hope that a general discusJ sion will arise through the presentation of the! experiments outlined here.

of this arm up or down will rotate the shafts! A, tilting one of the circular planes and th« other down, giving a lifting effect 011 one sid« and depression on the other, the rocking of thB arm G being a natural movement in oppoB sition to the tilt of the machine.

In the adjustment of angles of these in J clined shafts, they may be made to inclinB

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An inclined shaft A is journaled in ball bearings on the ends of each plane; midway between the planes on this shaft a circular plane B is attached and supported in a normally horizontal position by suitable wire guys. An arm, C, projecting at a right angle from the lower end of each shaft, has a flexible wire connection, D, from one to the other on one side, while the connection on the other side, E, passes up through pulleys, F, to a rocking arm, G- Any movements of the ends

\7 3?

rearward or forward to such an extent as t] present dihedral angles to the main plane.' when turned on their axes, thus giving a mon positive lifting effect opposed to end tilting j downwardly.

These planes are of circular form and ii section as shown at H this form and sectioi presenting a sharp edge to the air as it meet;) and leaves the surface and at the same tim< providing a concave surface on either side, thu.'l greatly adding to their efficiency.

Can a Man Fly With Wings?

Br H. La V. Twining

[Continued from the July dumber] \

Some experiments performed by myself in 1895 have a bearing upon this. If a silk cloth be hung up and a turkey wing be spread open, it can be vibrated in various positions in front of the cloth, and the action of the wing on the air can be easily demonstrated.

If this be done the following results are obtained: When the front edge of the extended wing is presented to the cloth, and the wing is vibrated in imitation of the flapping wing, the cloth is sucked in all along the front of the wing. This shows that the air is moving bodily from the front toward the wing. If the rear edge of the wing be presented, the air is sucked in along the rear edge. If the top of the wing be presented, and be vibrated to and fro toward it and away from it, the cloth is again sucked toward the wing. In fact, it clings to the wing as though it were glued there. If the bottom of the wing be presented the same thing takes place. This shows that when the wing is struck toward the cloth, the cloth is not driven away, but, on the contrary, it rushes to meet it.

If now the rear tip of the wing be presented, the cloth will be blown violently to the rear, downward and rearward. This simple experiment reveals at once how the wing is acting on the air.

As the wing beats, the air rushes in toward it from all directions except one, and here it is blown violently away. From this we are entitled to draw certain conclusions. The wing in beating creates an area of low pressure, and the air rushes in from all points toward this area, except the point where it is blown away. Now the more air the wing displaces the stronger the air rushes in.

When we remember that the air produces a pressure of 15 lbs. to the square inch, we can see the enormous possibilities here. Pressure on the wing is produced then in proportion to the displacement of the air. If the air were all displaced, then the incoming air would press against the wing with a force of 15 times 144 or 2,160 lbs. per sq. ft. This pressure, of course, can not be realized in practice, but the possibility for enormous reactions lie here. The pressure of the incoming air is all utilized in giving lift on the under side of the wing. When the wing strikes down it meets air coming toward it. When it strikes up, the upper surface meets the same condition. Here is the rock upon which all ornithopters built up to the present time have split. The up stroke throws them to the

ground with as much force as the down stroke throws them up.

Evidently this is not the case with the flying birds, because they fly, and if their up stroke threw them down, this could not happen.

What then is the peculiar structure of the bird machine that prevents this? Much speculation has been indulged in as to the feathers opening on the up stroke to let the air through.

Just a little intelligent observation of an extended wing will show how utterly fallacious this assumption is. The feathers overlap so that they shingle 011 top from the part near the body to the tip. On the under side they shingle the other way. In either case, as the air strikes the surface, the feathers bind together and present a solid surface to the air. The direction in which they shingle cannot make any difference in this respect. If we take up the wing and blow violently on top of it, holding the hand on the other side, no air will be felt coming through. If we blow against the under side the same result is obtained. Some have argued that the bird turns the feathers edgewise by means of muscles in the wing, but I have dissected many wings, and have looked in vain for any such muscles. If we get hold of the tendons of the muscles and pull them, we can see what they will do. There are no muscles singly or in sets that perform any such function that I can discover.

Furthermore, if one observes large birds, such as the pelicans, turkey buzzards, sea gulls, etc., as they go overhead, one would be able to see the blue sky through them if they turned on edge.

In soaring, the turkey buzzard spreads out its feathers at the tip of the wing more or less like the spreading out of the fingers, but this is a disadvantage, rather than an advantage as it lets air through from below.

Then again, birds in flying throw the wing open strongly on striking down with it, and fold the outer joint considerably upon the up stroke. This accomplishes just the opposite result from what those who advance the above theory are looking for. It closes the feathers together in a tighter mass than on the down stroke. It. of course, presents less surface to the air on the up stroke, but it serves a very important purpose as wc shall soon see.

The reason why the up stroke of the wing does not throw the bird down lies in the peculiar structure of the machine as a whole.

The fact that the front edge of the wing is attached to the shoulder, forward and above the center of gravity is a fundamental princi pie in bird flight. Under these conditions the up stroke develops a pressure on the upper surface of the wing, which rotates the whole machine around the front edge of the wing as an axis or fulcrum, and thrusts the bird forward, in the plane of the wing. If the wing is pitched upward, then the resultant motion is forward and upward. If the wing is pitched downward, then it will be thrust forward and downward. Whether the wing be pitched upward or downward depends on the will of the

Aeronautics

August, 19 io

bird. By raising its abdomen or lowering it, it can go up or down as it cbooses. When it wishes to fly down, it contracts a set of muscles that raises the abdomen relative to the plane of the wings. This raising of the center of gravity also brings it farther to the front, and as a consequence, the bird pitches forward. If it desires to go upward, it lowers the rear of the body, thus depressing the center of gravity and drawing it backward. This displacement of the center of gravity with reference to the center of pressure controls the fore and aft stability of the bird. The fact that this center of gravity is below and to the rear of the front edge of the wing is of vital importance in the maintaining of fore and aft stability. The tail is also used in maintaining fore and aft stability.

The center of gravity acting downward vertically is pitted against the center of pressure on the wings acting upward. The center of gravity acts over a lever arm with the front edge of the wing as a fulcrum, the feathers being the lever arm over which the center of pressure acts. These two lever arms are practically equal, and the weight and center of pressure take no mechanical advantage of each other.

Because of this the body of the bird rotates downward when the wing is struck up. and upward when the wing is struck down, thus alternately rotating upward and downward, around the front edge of the wing, wedging itself through the air, always moving along the line of least resistance, which is in the plane of the wing, forward. This can be easily seen in large birds like the pelican and the sea gull. As the pelican rises from the water, if one says up. up, etc., as the wing goes up, at the same time watching the abdomen, one can see plainly that the abdomen goes down. If on the other hand one says down, down, etc., as the wing beats down, one can easily see that the abdomen rises. Furthermore, by watching the head, one can see that it goes down while the abdomen goes up and vice versa.

This can be seen in the pigeon as it is about to alight. When the sea gull is coming directly toward one, the motion of the head, as it bobs up and down, can be easily seen. E. J. Alarey demonstrated the same thing with his tambours, but he misinterpreted the curves which he obtained. He interpreted his curve to mean that the bird was driven backward on the up stroke. Such a result would be impossible. A careful perusal of his book, and an inspection of his curve will show that instead of being driven backward, what happened was this: the abdomen was rotated downward, on the up stroke, thus giving the tambour between the shoulders of the bird a backward movement. This registered a backward movement but it was not a backward movement of the bird, but a backward movement of the tambour, which was located above and on a line with the front edge of the wing.

The inertia of the weight caused it to press on the drum of the tambour, thus recording

a curve on the kymograph, which he interpreted erroneously.

The up stroke of the wing thus becomes exceedingly effective, and it results largely in driving the bird forward, while the down stroke develops the lift principally. We can now account for the weakness of the elevator muscle. When the up stroke is made the bird rotates downward, presenting the under surface of the wing at a greater angle of incidence. The inrushing air striking the under side of the wing reacts upon it and the big pectoral muscle has to take up the strain.

Thus the elevator merely thrusts the mass of the bird forward, while the pectoral muscle has to assume the bulk of the work that results from that thrust. The folding of the wing on the up stroke also helps to produce this! rotation by giving the feathers at the tip1 greater leverage.

Inertia plays a most important part, not only in the flight of birds but also in the flight of aeroplanes of all kinds. When a stone is thrown through the air, it does not rest on the air, it pursues a path which is the resultant of two forces acting on it. One of these is gravity pulling it downward, and the other is the momentum of the stone itself, which, tends to keep it in a straight line. The resultant curve is a parabola. The same thing happens to any projectile whether it be, an aeroplane, a bird or a stone. So by virtue of its motion, the bird only needs to strike the air often enough to keep up its motion or to lift it back through the distance fallen through in the interval of time between strokes.

Furthermore, inertia, whatever its nature, acts like a resistance. If a body be moving in a straight line it resists any tendency that tries to deflect it from a straight line. It takes an appreciable amount of time to overcome that resistance. Hence, if the moving mass be constantly kept in a straight line by reactions against the air, its inertia prevents it from developing the result of the pull of gravity, and hence it had practically lost its weight. Consequently the reactions necessary in keeping it in a straight line are those necessary to handle its mass only and not its weight.

Finally a man-carrying machine can be built weighing not more than 80 lbs., which with the weight of the aviator, 140 lbs., makes in all 220 lbs. The question is, has man power enough to get 220 lbs. into the air and maintain it there? At first sight the answer to this question seems obvious enough, and the answer is, no.

But if we consider that a soldier can put 75 or So lbs. on his back and inarch all day with it, we see that a man has power enough to handle his weight and the weight of a machine as well.

Again a man weighing 200 to 220 lbs. can handle his weight, although possessing no morel nower that a lighter and more sinewy man. I In order to accomplish this a man must bringl his whole muscular system into play, in oper-j ating the wings: and this must be done alsol to the best mechanical advantage possible.

)J^» ,|i «fr «|t i|« i|« tfr i|« ■!« Jfr t|« Jfc ■!« »fr Jfc »|« ofm »fr »fr tfr »fr el» a tfr afr »ft

+

The World's Record altitude Flight

by" w. r. brookins

Humidity and :: :: Flight :: ::

by dr. a. f. zahm

x preparing for the high nights at atlantic city i had put on a sweater and heavy gloves and was sweating to beat the band when i started. after passing the three thousand foot lark 1 began to get much cooler. over the land

would be a little bit warmer than over the sea. nd at six thousand feet i actually shivered, eginning at three thousand feet i had to fre-ueutly yawn to reduce the air pressure from ithin on the ear (hums. over the ocean i could >e absolutely nothing below me but mist, al-tough on the ground the atmosphere seemed per-tctly clear. the sky above wits perfectly clear ud the sun was just setting, but 1 had to circle ver the land to get my beatings. down on earth le sun had already set. 1 had to follow the "feel" f the machine to determine whether i was clirub-lg. at that height one cannot tell whether he is leering down or up except by the "feel."

i had to fly over a certain spot, a bout anchored ut in the sea beyond one of the piers, in order iiat the engineers might follow nie for their meas-rements. just as i was crossing the line of the each, coining in shore, 1 heard the engine miss (vice and 1 immediately turned for the stake oat. in order to let the engineers catch me. and weled the machine so as to allow some of the asoline to run forward and down the pipe to the ugine. this kept me going beyond the boat when he engine went dead and i turned and circled own. from a thousand feet high i had to figure ow to reach the landing between the piers on he beach.

"Humidity has a great ileal to <lu with the success of ti flight. If the pevcentage of moisture in the atmosphere is hitr, it is much more difficult to fly. The engine gives less putrev. the propeller (jives less thrust and the surfaces have less lifting effect."—Statement credited lo Glenn II. Curtiss.

If it be admitted that the engine gives less power, it naturally follows that the propeller gives less thrust, and the surfaces have less lift than they would have with larger power. but it would be wrong to assume that the propeller gives materially less thrust at the same speed in dry air than it does in moist, or that the lifting surfaces, at the same speed and inclination, give less support in dry air than in moist. on the contrary, at a given pressure and temperature the density of dry air is slightly greater than the density of moist air : it may be its much as 1 per cent greater. now. for a given speed and angle of impact, the thrust or support varies directly with the density. hence, at most it could vary but i per cent due to moisture, all other conditions being the same.

reference should also be made to "flying and humidity." by charles f. willard, in the june, titlo, number.

This has been done in the ornithopter men-oned above. Hand and foot levers have a echanical advantage of 4 to i in their attach-ient to the front edge of the wing. The |perator stands on the foot levers and grasps le hand levers. These two sets of levers at-ch to the front edge of the wing on opposing des of the main bearing of the wing upon le frame, so that the weight of the operator thus thrown alternately upon the levers the up and down stroke, the weight being in ict constantly supported by the opposing pulls the hands and feet, around the bearing i the wing upon the frame. The weight to lifted is 220 lbs. This is then to be lifted / striking the air with the wings in an up id down stroke, so that only a no-lb. reac-on needs to be developed under each wing in •der to lift the machine as a dead lift. The )plication of a 30-lb. pull between the hands id feet brings a 120-lb. pull to bear on the iug in order to depress it. This is 10 lbs. ore than necessary in order to balance a o-lb. reaction under the wing necessary to ft the machine. Under these circumstances cperience has shown that the wing can be -iven fast enough to develop this reaction. 1 fact the wings on the above machine will }t have to make more than 60 half beats per inute in order to develop this reaction. With le wings made a trifle larger, tne speed can be try materially reduced. Experiment has al-;ady demonstrated that the pressures can be anually developed and that with a 30-lb. pull ,1 each side or 60 lbs. in all.

It must be recognized that this pull is the maximum pull necessary to get the machine off the ground. After getting on the wing no such pull will have to be maintained. The only remaining thing to be determined is as to whether the wing is a very efficient transformer of motion or a very inefficient one. If it be very inefficient then man cannot hope to fly by manual power, but if it be a very efficient one then in my judgment men will fly by the exercise of their muscles as a bird does.

The wing when operated displaces the air as before shown, and in so doing creates air currents toward it, and these air currents produce a pressure upon the wing in proportion to the mass of the air displaced, hence there is practically no slip; because the greater the stream of air driven to the rear, the greater the pressure returned to the wing by the incoming air. On tin's account all the energy expended on the air comes back again in the shape of pressures which drive the machine forward and give it lift. There are frictional losses of course.

In this paper some of the principles only are considered. There are others that we can hope to attack with some intelligence only upon the completion of experiments now in progress. Experiments only can furnish the data upon which to base the calculations.

The ornithopter above described is fully protected by pending patents.

{Concluded)

+

%

*

! Flying Meets ill

% Height Records Broken

^.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4^^

Indianapolis, June 12-18.

bv 11. e. scott.

turai

Tho Exhibition Department of the Wright Bro crs Company made its initial bow to the gener: public at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway durirfl the week of June !.">-1 <S. Several important poinB were demonstrated at this meet ; points of intereM to promoters as well as to aviators.

So far as the flying itself was concerned, the meet proved pretty conclusively that the WriglH aeroplane is a very steady and dependable machine. There were about sixty flights during til six days of the exhibition, and there was no suggestion of an accident.

In the tranquility of the performances—the invariably successful starts, and quiet, uneventffl landings—lay the chief beauty, from the writerH standpoint of the meet.

But in just that same tranquility lay its chiM drawback from the standpoint of the box-officH I'eace and quiet are all very well in their wal but after a man has loafed around a railroad station thirty-eight minutes waiting for transport^ tion to the held, has quietly sat on a plank up-bolstered bleacher divan at a temperature of 120 Fahr. for three hours waiting for something to happen. and with equal peace of mind Anally watchdB —at 'a distance of half a mile or more—thesJ great white birds rise gently into the air and sail placidly around the track until fancy moved theB to descend, that man is apt to lean toward soniH thing more stirring than the prospect of quietB walking two or three miles along a country road to where he can find a suburban trolley to take him back to town.

Walter Brookins furnished the incidents of mo3« spectacular interest during the week. The tirst day, after several races against himself arounB an unmeasured course, Brookins made an atteniM at an altitude record. Ilis altitude was taken by A. B. Lambert, of St. Louis, with a combinaticH of yard-stick and two pin-points an inch aparM Attached to the aeroplane was also an instmmeiM for recording altitude. This was hung betwew the planes on, a strap, but is said to have hoem put out of commission by striking guy wires as it swung about.

new world recoup.

Brookins climbed for twenty-four minutes, at which time Jlr. Lambert announced the altitudH of the machine as 4.MS4 ft., as against Pnulhanfl Los Angeles record of 4.K!." ft. The descent lasteB about six minutes.

Brookins, in an earlier attempt, had ascendeB 2,003 ft. It was the greatest altitude attained by a novice and the greatest ever made in an Aiuel ican-constrnctcd aeroplane.

Brookin"s flights were a revelation, lie cuH sharp circles, mounted quickly as a bird, shot to the ground, swooped and dived, bringing out enthusiastic applause.

Twice during the day Orville Wright flew, onj one occasion taking up Carl O. Fisher, of tlm I'rest-O-Lite Co.

up 2.0S3 feet.

The altitude record was again assaulted on Tuesday. June 14. Brookins climbed for 12 mill utes. The engineers who took the altitude by triangulation. figured his altitude at 2.083 ft., and these figures were corroborated by the recorM ing Instrument which on this occasion was prom erlv fastened. The descent lasted six minutes.

Center—Brookins (left) and Hoxsie Bottom—Orville and Wilbur Wright

4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4^4. ^.t^.*******.****

Many States £

Sensational Flying 4.

4-

^4.^^4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.«

A feature of the second day was a "contest"' between a Wright aeroplane and an Overland 40 h. p. automobile rigged as a "wind wagon." A stock car was stripped and driven by a wooden propeller S ft. long, at 750 r. p. m. Official figures are lacking but the Overland company states that 5 miles were made in 5:20 (5H miles an hour), while a figure gleaned from another source gives the time at 4 :5S for 2 Ms miles. The car weighed 1.800 pounds. The drive shaft was not connected with the differential. The propeller was driven by a chain from a driving sprocket having 17 teeth attached to the shaft, the chain running over an overhead shaft with a sprocket of '¡1 teeth.

Johnstone made his longest flight. 55 minutes, on this day. going up to 020 ft. altitude.

Orville Wright flew again on the 15th making beautiful maneouvres in the dusk, after the program had been delayed by rain.

liROOKI.N's' MARVKLLUt'S TURN'.

Perhaps the most sensational event of a thrilling-week was Brookins' quick turn on June 10. He made a complete circle in 0 2/5 seconds, and his main planes assumed so nearly a vertical position that many thought ho was falling. Only one of the many photographers on the field had enough presence of mind to snap a camera at him. This one picture was caught when the machine had begun to take its normal position, but the angle with the ground is still a very sharp one. This is reproduced in this issue.

".S7G fekt high.

Arch Iloxsie's motor stopped while Halph Johnstone was making a 44-minute flight and ho had to land outside the Speedway. Then Brookins went up for another altitude flight and after climbing 45 minutes, reached an altitude of 3.870 ft., officially measured by oily surveyors. The flight lasting 54 minutes 20 seconds. The barometer carried on the machine registered but ::.700 ft.

ANOTHER NEW RKCORD.

Again on Friday, June 17. Brookins made another try for the record. lie carried two instruments—-a barometer within plain sight and the recoi'ding instrument—and his altitude also was taken by reputable engineers. Brookins climbed steadily for 55 minutes, and his barometer showed him; to lie about a mile high. The engineers had no opportunity to catch him at his greatest height because he was then so far from the earth that he could not exactly locate the Speedway and consequently sailed, still climbing, twice across the course out of range. The duration of the flight was 1 :04 :O0.

As if the climb in itself were not sufficiently sensational. Brookins" motor stooped at an estimated height of P..000 ft. lie then was perhaps four miles from the center of the Speedway, and the spectators, not realizing that the engine was no longer running, wondered why lie was making the long descent in almost a straight lino. The aeroplane just made one long streak for (he earth, and landed beyond a clump of trees at some dis-tanoe from the track. There was a rush of excited newspaper correspondents and spectators [towards the automobiles, hut it was stopped when some one with a field glass announced that the landing was safely accomplished. The altitude was officially measured as ^^ji)ft., a new world's record. During this flight Johnstone and iioxsie each wore flying.

Brookins Turns Complete Circle in 6 2-5 seconds

Numerous good flights were made during the week by lloxsey, Johnstone. La Chappelle and Coffyn, but they were uneventful because of the lack of competitive features. A number of races were scheduled but none were actually attempted. Ten flights with passengers were made.

To Captain C. I,, Rumba ugh belongs the credit of making the first flight on the Indianapolis Speedway. On Friday, proceeding the opening of the big meet, and while the Wright forces were engaged in assembling their machines, the engine for Captain U. L. Bumbaugh's machine was delivered on the grounds. Carl A. O. Fisher, owner of the machine, offered to wager Roy Knab-ensluie. of the Wright Co.. that Captain Rumbaugh would be in the air before any of the other "planes were ready. The wager was accepted and both sides hustled to get their machines in readiness. Captain Run.haugh's engine, an Ivlbridge "Featherweight" 4o (Mi h. p., was hastily installed and the aeroplane brought out of the tent. At the first attempt Captain Bumbaiighs machine rose from the ground, after a run of about 100 yards. But the Captain underestimated his power reserve and the machine shot into the air about "o ft. before he thought to reverse the elevating plane. When this was done his descent was as rapid as his rise had been. Skimming the ground Captain Rumbaugh again rose and on this attempt flew for about half a mile before the tricky elevator plane again brought him to the earth.

Such repairs as were made necessary by this rapid descent were completed by Monday, the first day of the meet, and early in the evening Captain Bumbangh prepared for another try. This time he was over cautious in the other direction. Realizing that the powerful engine might drive him into the air faster than he cared to go, he deflected the elevator planes befor the start. The machine got away with a rush. A slight obstruction was encountered, just enough to jolt the machine clear of the ground; with the deflected plane in front and1 the thrust of 50 h. p. behind, the aeroplane keeled over onto its head, burying the aviator in the ruins. The engine continued running, the pro-pellor threshing the guy wires, until Captain Rumbaugh recovered sufficient presence of mind to kick loose his ground wire. To the immense relief of the spectators Captain F.innbaugh a minute later rose to his feet and waved a reassuring hand. The damages to aviator and machine looked serious hut fortunately wen- of fitch nature as to be easily repaired.

Several short flights were attempted during the weeks by J. W. Curzon, bur his big Yivinus motor did not deliver power enough to offset its own weight, and carry the machine into the air. Mr. Curzon announced his intention of replacing it with an Elbridgo "Featherweight."

Lincoln Bcachey had his monoplane, and there was the Marquette and the Shaw biplanes but none of these flew.

RESt'LTS.

The accumulated duration of the flights made during the Indianapolis meet total as follows :

W. R.

Brookius.....

.....7

nr.

50

min.

Ralph

Johnstone....

.....1

hr.

Til

min.

A. L.

Welch........

.....1

hr.

"_!5

min.

Arch

lloxsey.......

.....1

hr.

!)!/_,

min.

F. T.

Coffyn........

   

20

min.

D. La

Chappelle.....

   

1%

min.

ongest

duration single

flight :

     

W. R.

Brookins.....

.....1

hr.

4

miu.

High altitude flights:

W. R. Brookius, June 1" (world's

record! ....................4.::s4 ft.

\V. It. Brookius. June VI........L'.oiK! ft.

W. R. Brookins. June 14........2.0*:? ft.

W. R. Brookins. June I(5........:i,S70 ft.

W. It. Brookins. June 17 (world's

record i ....................4.ÍW.1 ft.

Ralph Johnstone. June 14...... 020 ft.

Flights of which official record

was taken..................55

Atlantic City, N. J., July 4.

BY R. I'\ PATTERSON'.

The series of exhibition flights organized by the Atlantic City Aero Club, composed of the hotel and business men of the town, costing .$25,000. was a great succ.ss A section of the beach wis set apart for the use of the aeroplanes, and everything was free to the public. The flights were sanctioned by the National Council, represented by Augustus Post and Henry M. Neely.

On July 4 Curtiss made his first flight on fhe beach between two piers in a stiff breeze. The enormous crowd made flying dangerous.

The next day Curtiss made three flights, the longest being S minutes. This was made over the long piers, up and down the beach at a height of about 200 ft. and out over the sea.

On the (>lh it was necessary to run close to the water to get hard sand. The tip of the propeller was caught by the incoming waves and broken at the ends. With another propeller a flight of 15 minutes was made, circling over the piers and the boats anchored near the shore. Then a short flight.

No flights on the 7th.

On .Iulv S Curtiss made a 10i/>-minute flight at a height of 500 ft. Then Brookins got off with a 40(kft. flight, cutting various capers and making a sharp circle similar to the one at Indianapolis. This flight lasted about uy2 minutes. While he was in the air Curtiss started again and flew above him, for 5% minutes. Starting again, inside of 6 minutes Curtiss was lost to view, having gone down to Hugh L. Willoughby's grounds, some four miles away. Lauding there he waited for his men to come and start him back. Rumors of all kinds circulated, as he was gone 1 hour 1G minutes.

BROOKINS .MAKES SHARP SPIRAL.

A few minutes after Curtiss got away. Brookins started and went to a height of l.SOO ft., making beautiful curves and evolutions all the way up. lie was up some 15 minutes, coming down in a spiral to a height of about "00 ft., the diameter of the spirals being not more than 200 yards. This was very spectacular. After waiting a half hour for Curtiss. Brookins started off again 011 a (i-minute "every clay flight." Curtiss caused great excitement, as all thought he or his machine was damaged. There was cheering when someone said "Here he comes." and a speck could be seen about 4 miles away. 500 ft. up.

On July 9 Curtiss took the air first and Brookins followed in a preliminary flight, Brookins going lo about soo ft. back and forth across the piers. These flights lasted 0 and H minutes, respectively. A half hour later Curtiss started on a 5M>-minute flight for a moving picture man. Again Curtiss started, before Brookins was ready for his altitude flight, but flew only from one pier to the other. On Sunday Curtiss made one flight of 4% minutes.

BROOKINS .MAKES ANOTHER WORLD RECORD.

Shortly after this landing Brookius started on his wonderful altitude flight. In 53 minutes he had reached a height of 0,175 ft., the highest yet attained bv aeroplane. The previous official altitude flight ' is also held by Brookins, being 4.9"0 ft. fhe latest foreign record. 4.015 ft., was made recently by Latham" in France. This day's flight exceeds all attempts by 1.2.'!C> ft. His descent, without power, f »• lac k of gasoline, took 10 minutes, having been in the air 1 hour :? minutes. After landing he joyfully rushed to telephone through cheering crowds to 'phone the news of his success. This reccrd won for him the $5,000 offered as a height prize.

While he was making this flight. Curtiss started again and made short flights of two or three miles, circling between the piers several times before landing for the last time during this day of exhibition work.

On Sunday. July 10. Curtiss gave an exhibition of a flight in a wind estimated by himself and others to be 20 miles. But for the enormous crowd, estimaled at 100.000, along the board walk, piers and housetops. Curtiss would not have attempted the flight owing to strong wind and high seal rolling.' He received great cheering for his 5-1 minute t'i^hl. circling between piers and over the

August, ioio

o

ocean. Curtiss reached a height of about 300 ft. during flight. The Wrights will not fly. or allow their own machines to be flown on Sunday, so Brookins did not fly this day.

curtiss flies 50 .miles.

July II. Curtiss started flying for the $5.000 50-mile prize at 3:24 o'clock. After finishing 30 miles, or ten 5-mile laps around piers, he circled Atlantic City. Entire flight lasted 1 hour 21 jminntes. The average height was 700 ft. During the flight quite a southwesterly breeze was blowing, making a record speed' flight impossible. 'The aetunl time for the 50 mi'es was l:ij:00. The fastest lap was 6:01 4-5, a speed of 49.s.h miles per hour. The lime made wa« not as good as previous records held by Curtiss machines. This won for him $5.000, as the Wright machine did not try for it.

Brookins made the next flight and for 15 min-'rtes gave a fine exhibition of the control ho has pf the Wright machine, twisting and turning at llmost impossible angles.

Curtiss then flew from the Million Dollar Pier :o Old Pier to get ready for his record-climbing light. Before this was started. Brookins attempted flying with Mr. Coffyn, another Wright pupil, lis passenger. At 0 o'clock the machine ran down he monorail, but failed to rise. It was pushed 'pack to starting point and another trial took the nachine up to an altitude of 300' ft. at times. A very fine flight was made for 15 minutes with hort turns and dips. After the descent, Curtiss aade the most notable flight of the day—the uickest time for reaching f.OOO ft. He actually cached between 1.500 and 1.000 ft. in the remarkable time of 5 minutes 5i seconds, traveling a a straight line for about two miles, turning hen and descending to earth. Shortly after land-ng he flew back to the Million Dollar Pier, carry-rig Lincoln Beach»y as passenger. While hauling lie Curtiss machine up the platform to house it, F. Coffyn made a short exhibition flight in the Tright machine used by Mr. Brookins. This lasted

minutes, reaching about 150 ft. at times. This nded the last intended day of the aviation meet t Atlantic City—but the aviators had been pur-jaded to remain over another day.

brookins' machine stands ox end.

July 12. At 3:30 P. M.. Brookins started for a ight and rose to a height of from 000 to 1.000 . and remained in the air some 20 minutes doing [most the impossible at times in his turns. At ne turn his machine stood close to an angle of i degrees, and it appeared that he had turned >o far by mistake. All held their breath and Ohs" were heard all through the crowd.

An hour later Curtiss went up to bombard a life-boat with oranges from a height of 400 ft. Out of six ornnges three would have hit a battleship, the last bomb landing within 12 ft. of the boat. lie circled around between piers till his orange bombs were exhausted, then landed. Five minutes later he was in the air again flying down to Old Pier to interview Mi-. Shackleford." After a half hour's wait the crowd saw him in the air again firing bombs at the reporters and photographers. This caused great laughter among rhe audience to see them dodge from being struck by a flying orange which was merely a juicy spot after striking the ground or water.' This flight ended his last exhibition at the Atlantic City meet. The machine was housed and "knocking-down" began.

Brookins. however, made one more flight, doing his usual quick turns, and fooled all by coming down to earth as if to land and then shooting out to sea again, as if he had forgotten something, which eventually proved to be true, for he shot up to 30o ft. and then came down close to water. 25 ft. from shore, bringing the machine so low that the skids seemed to rest on two waves and followed them to shore. Eventually he actually struck the water near shore, rising again and then landing at his eamp.

It is a strange fact, but during the entire week there was not a single accident of any kind, except the first day, when Curtiss landed in deep sand and ran into a hole, breaking one post, outside of that not a wire, nut or any part of the machines had to be altered from the fist, day of "setting up."

The weather proved ideal, except one day. and the crowds were enormous. The largest day Atlantic City ever had was July 4, when, it is claimed. 300,000 attended. The entire meet was a success in every way. thanks to the management and the whole-hearted way in which it was carried out—free to all.

Montreal, June 28-July 5.

by h. k. hitchcock.

The "meet" was from one viewpoint, the scientific, eminently successful, and as a direct result an impetus to the interest in and study of aeronautics has been started in this great country. Financially the meet was a failure, the expenses running to some $40,000. but the flying was good continuous every day of the meeting, all done by the Wright and Dleriot machines. J. A. D. McCiudv only got up once in the early morning and quite wrecked their Baddeck 11 in land ing with the wind. Mcdii'dy was unfortunate

The Overland "Wind Wagon" at Indianapolis 45

the whole week. lie had trouble getting his machine on the grounds to begin with, and assembling was delayed by reason of no shelter. O. fl. Hubbard, of Boston, was induced to come at a late date with his monoplane. built by the Canadian Aerodrome Co. of P.addeok. without an engine, which had to be sent for to P.addeok and it did not arrive until the last of the week.

The Wright team. Brookins. I.a Chappolle. Johnstone and Coffyn. all flew well. Count de Losseps was a striking feature with his two P.leriots. n 50 h. i). Gnome engined type XII and the smaller XI with the Anzani 30 h. p. motor. His 30-mile trip to and over the city of Montreal in 40 minutes was the great event of the exhibition, lie used the big "Searabee" with air bags, the same equipment he used in his cross-Channel flight. Prod (•won and Cromwell Dixon, with their dirigible attracted small attention. Dixon tried a new propeller on the advice of Knabenshue and increased its speed. The airship escaped and burst, on the fourth day of the moot. This made quite a stir, as the people could not toll whether he was in it or not. lie stopped the motor by accident, descended, jumped too soon and missed the guide rope. Johnny Mack and one of Ed. Hutchinson's men made daily parachute drops from hot-air balloons.

Wm. Carruthers. vice-president of the International Aviation Association, which promoted the meet, bought a Blcriot XI and imported one Milt-jon from France to tly it. aliltjon's experience at flying was evidently obtained at a correspondence school. On his first and only flight the machine jumped into the air and then gracefully dug its nose in the dirt. Cromwell Dixon, who had never been in an aeroplane before, then tried it and made a highly sensational and wild flight, narrowly escaping accident, but brought it safely down.

so.mk of the flights.

The feature of the first day was Brookins' 2.000 ft. altitude flight, while do l.essops and Johnstone wore the other aviators. On the second day do Lessons in a trial for speed lost to Da Chappolle, while Brookins made another altitude flight of 1.050 ft. On the 2Sth Johnstone was up 45 minutes, and Brookins flew to a height of 1,."5(50 ft., and was up 20 minutes. The start on the rail was timed, too. at 5% seconds till the machine was in the air. On June 20 Kalph Johnstone flew for 40 minutes and Brookins was up 21 minutes, flying to a height of 2.450 ft. This was after carrying up do I ossops for a 13-minuto trip. Early in the morning McCurdy made a flight, in the "P.addeok II." but. landing outside the grounds in the tall grass, the machine was partially wrecked. P. Timberlakc, who had bought a Bloriot XI. essayed his first flight. With a novice's inexperience, after getting off the ground, could not stop in time to save hitting the grandstand. The next day Johnstone flew for 25 minutes and Brookins took up Count de Lessens' brother to a height of 1,140 ft. in a flight of 25V> minutes. Then he made a trip alone up 2.000 ft.

3.130 feet ix ain. On July I Brookins again made a high and sensational ascent, reaching 3.130 ft. in a flight covering 45 minutes.

he lessers flies over city.

The most sensational flight of the meeting was do Lessens' journey over three bodies of water and alt. Koyal in a continuous flight around Montreal's City Hall and back to the aviation grounds, a round trip of 3o miles. The flight lasted 49 minutes. His face was screened from the oil of the (Jiionio engine by a thin wire gauze mask.

brookins skis cavaoiax rfcoro.

On the same day Brookins aseended to 3.51o ft. The meet closed on July 5. with small attendance and few flights. Some of the Wright machines were going to Toronto, hut two had to be rushed away, so these were flown from the .aviation grounds to the railroad station, over the hills and trees. The landing spot had not been investigated and when Brookins and passenger

flew over they saw they had but a very small place to land. Steering sharply down into tall grass, the latter caught in the wires and corners, turning the machine face down and breaking the front construction. The second machine they flew over made a safe lauding.

nashville, term., june 21-26.

Unquestionably among the most spectacular flights that have been made may be numbered the two night flights of Charles K. Hamilton during his exhibitions at the Military Tournament at Cam]) Dickinson.

flies with searchlight.

The first flight was in the dark of the early evening, with the moon obscured by clouds. Hamilton flew over the electric light studded grounds, almost touching the siring of bulbs, then shooting up into the air and gliding down. Someone suggested a searchlight and immediately there was hustling to attach a Prest-O-l.ite tank under the seat and the headlight on the front framework. About 11 o'clock in the night he was ready and the sighi of the big automobile lamp flashing np and down through the semi-darkness, the moon having deci led to show her face, was a thrilling one. Aftei flying about a quarter hour a cylinder head blew out and he was forced to land.

louisville, june 18th and 19th.

On June IS. Curtiss lowered his own record ol quick starting to four seconds flat, with flu Albany-Xew York S-cylindor biplane, starting 01 very rough and grassy ground. Hamilton did i' in 3 4-5 seconds at San Antonio last April.

On account of a very choppy and high wind neither Air. Curtiss nor "Bud" Mars was able t< make any very nice flights until after 5 o'clock when above a crowd of nearly !0,0001 people. Mr Curtiss carried a local newspaper man for a shor flight.

A stiff wind until late the next afternoon pre vented any circular flights. However, after I o'clock Mars, at an altitude of 20 to 40 ft.. racet against Curtiss around the circular track lo times Curtiss keeping about 200 to 300 ft. above Mars and at all times was directly over him.

For quick starting. Curtiss got off the gronik in 87 ft., and Mars, with his 4-cylindor 25 h. p. got off in Km; ft. Both of those distances an behind past performances of Curtiss machines.

The total attendance for the two days was ii the neighborhood of 17,000 people.

The moot closed when Mr. Curtiss carried It. O Buhel. Jr.. local agent for the Curtiss biplane, foi a short flight.

minneapolis-st. paul, june 22 25.

At the Twin City meet there wore Curtiss. Wii lard. alars, Klj. \Vhipple Hall. Lincoln P.eachoj with his monoplane and two dirigibles. Curtis? flew, of course, his S-e.vlinder machine. Mars hai his 4-cylindor Curtiss and Willard had a nen Curtiss with a 4-eylinder engine of somewhat greater power, the new engine having slightlj larger cylinders. Hall had the old 4-cylindei Curtiss sold to Frank II. Johnson in Los Angeles Ely had the machine of Henry Wemme of Portland a 4-cylindor Curtiss. Charles J. Strobel furnisher one dirigible with Ointner as aeronaut, while Horace B. Wild flew the Yager airship.

The track was a bad one for aeroplane flight: and the attendance small. The track was linet 011 nearly all sides with buildings or trees anc there was onlv one spot on the grounds suitabh for landing. Every flight of any length had to iii made out beyond the grounds and return to land ing inside. The dirigibles wore up every day. bill the first. Hall did not get np. all during the meet

.Ml the aeroplanes, except Beaehey's and Hall's made short flights the first day. On the second ilif two dirigibles and Curtiss were in the air at thf same time. Besides 1he short flights. Curtiss madf one verv pretty flight outside the grounds and b-io'-. Boachov got off a short distance without his controls on.

Aeronautics

August, içiô

Curtiss and Brookins Flying at Atlantic City

On the third day Curtiss. Ely aud one of the rigibles were up simultaneously, lieachey had nt his elevator and ailerons on and made a short ght. In the evening lieachey made another trial id ran into the fence, smashing up. The fourth ty it rained. After the showers, Curtiss made a icctacular flight. Willard and Mars also flew.

Kansas City, July 3-4.

Willard and lieachey went from Sioux City to ansas City. Willard only flew. Rcachey spending time assembling the Curtiss machine. This Bet was also unsuccessful from an attendance landpoint.

Willard made eight or ten short flights each day. The Omaha meet has been postponed to July 2.T2S.

Willard is working his way to Mineola. where he will fry out a machine of his own make. Curtiss type, with greater spread, the end of July.

Providence, R. I., July 4.

Joseph Seymour was scheduled to fly his Curtiss at Providence. July 4. lie circled the track sev eral times at a height of •_'<> ft. The conditions were ideal but (he spectators left before the exhibition was concluded, owing to the repeated delays caused by making minor repairs.

Mars Flies Cross Country.

at topekn, kans., j. 0. mars, tlie only aviator at the meeting, as willard did not go. as planned, on june 15 attempted to-fly <io miles cross country to kansas city. a landing had to he made at grantville after nine miles, breaking a couple of ribs. these were repaired and a second start was made. after going on for four or rive miles the engine went wrong and another landing was made, at newman. after an hour's stop he pluck-ily went on for a short distance tinally coming down at midland.

Pittsburg, Kans., July 2-5.

by paul w. 1ia11vey.

arch iloxsey made fourteen flights during the 4 day wright meeting at pittsburg, kan. in the last flight, which was to close the exhibition, the wind was blowing very hard and iloxsey while some .'¡00 ft. in the air shut off his motor intending to glide to the ground, which he had frequently done before. on account of the smallness of the ground he saw that he was being carried in his circles towards the bleacher, which was filled with people. having no motor power to direct his course beyond the bleachers it seemed to him best to point the nose of the machine directly towards the ground in front of the stand. this he did with a result that the forward steering planes were badly damaged, lie fell almost vertically about 40 or 50 ft. but he was not at all injured. the motor and transmission parts were found in good order.

iloxsey made good flights each day. on the second he made three low flights, circling the lield several times and having his machine under perfect control at all times. the first day he left the ground three times when a storm interrupted the exhibitions.

on the third he made four flights. the first three were spectacular exhibitions, lie did the "koller coaster" flight and turned the figure eight several times. he had wonderful control of the machine at all times and as a climax to the afternoon work he made a beautiful ascent of 1.000 ft.

on the fourth iloxsey duplicated his exhibition of spectacular flights and also gave some of the feats that aeroplanes are supposed to do in times of war. he made some short and fast short country flights and in the finish carried a passenger three times around the field for a total distance of about two miles.

on the last day iloxsey made his usual short spectacular flights. in the last one of these he carried mayor hoyt and did some beautiful work. Up to that time iloxsey had not had a single mishap and every attempt that he had made was a success.

Sioux City, Mo., June 29-July 1.

by p. m. m'cabe.

due to a wind which r.inired from 5 to is miles an hour the flights given here by mars and ely june 29, 30 and Aulv 1 were far from successful

on june 21) mars attempted to circle the mile race track, attaining a height of from 10 ft. to 40 ft. meeting adverse air currents he did not make the circle, stopping several yards short. ely made a similar attempt but he. too, was compelled to alight without being successful. two other atfeirpfs were made to get into the air but were failures.

on june .10 after fi o'clock mars made another attempt and succeeded in getting from 40 ft. to 50 ft. high and went with the rapidity of an express train for a short distance but was compelled to let down because of the winds.

on jnlv 1, in the evening after the wind and the crowd had departed. mars made a fairly good flight ascending to a height estimated between 100 ft. and 150 ft. he circled the mile course iy., times and went at a good speed. ely made one circle of the field the same evening but his ensines were not working well and he was compelled to give up before doing anything of a sensational nature. following ely. mars made two other flights in one circling the field twice and

concluding his performance with his "mars glide,! dropping from a position of about 75 ft. in the air to an eagle like sweep and then alighting.

Ely is flying now for curtiss, using the machine sold henry wemine, of portland, ore.

Aurora, Ills., July 2-7.

by flta.nk ii. bevleii.

a. l. Welch was the wright aviator who filled! the aurora date. on the 5th after a 20-minutl flight he had to land in an oat field. the startinm track was brought, and in leaving the rail one side of the planes hit the oats which had not been cut low enough and broke several ribs. on the 7th he (lew for 55 minutes going up to 512 ft. the win! was bad and manager f. ii. Knssell, of the WrighH co.. kept the machine over two days in order to satisfy the public.

Monmouth, Ills., July 4.

charles w. miller, who bought a machine froml c. & a. wittemann tried for an hour and a hall to get his machine to fly but failed.

New Britain, July 2.

chas. k. hamilton made a sensational flighm over the main street of his home town, ne>l p.ritain, conn., on July 2, after a discouraginl day. the flight was most sensational. thl streets were crowded with people, trolley carl and automobiles. crowds had come in fronl nearby towns and the governor of oonnecticul with his staff was present. the conflict betweeH two factions of the business men marred hamib ton's efforts. on his first flight he landed' in a swamp and broke parts of the machine whicB necessitated some hours to repair. still anothel short flight was made. on the third trial, he went through a series of hair-raising feats for which he is noted and then sailed on his spec* taeniar flight over the main street.

St. Louis, Mo., July 11-16,

st. louis, July 10: the first aeroplane meetl ing to be held in this country where entrants havfl been required to pay a fee to compete and in which there are no hired airmen to take parti will open to-morrow afternoon on the temporary aviation field of the aero club of st. lonis at washington i'ark, hi., and continue for six days! ten, machines have been officially entered and it is expected that all will be on the starting line at 3 :30 monday afternoon.

the coming event, known as the first national aviation meeting for novice's which was organized! by the aero club of st. louis to promote thl science and sport of aeroplaning in america, is a'lscB unique in the respect that none of the entrant! has ever made a public flight for pay or received cash aviation prizes of more than $250. the aenbj club has announced that no flights will be guar! anteed, but as nearly all of the machines ar| built along established scientific lines there is little doubt that there will be flying every day thai weather permits full details will be given in the next issue.

thomas, bergstrom and w. c. itohinson failedj to arrive and are disqualified.

the following will compete: h. w. gill, biplane ■ c. w. curzou. farman : J. n. sparling, monoplane ■ J. n. sparling, biplane (shneider make) ; ii. a.I itobinson, monoplane; charles kuhno, monoplane■ w. f. s. zehler, fore an aft monoplane; clandm harris, biplane.

Army News.

from June 1 to June 7 lieutenant FouloiM made five flights at fort sam houston, texas, in gusty winds up to 15 miles per hour, varying in length from 5 to 14 minutes. no flights werM made after June 7. as the aeronautical detachlj ment was sent to leon springs to assist in install! ing the annunciator buzzer system at that plaeelj

captain a. s. cowan. signal corps, now hasH charge of the aeronautical division, relievinsi captain chandler on June 1. 1010.

AERONAUTICS

Brookins Flying Over the Ocean at Atlantic City

Curtiss Drops Bombs from Aeroplane.

Ilammoiidsport, July 1.—Under the auspices of the New York World and in the presence of officers of the army and navy, who acted unofficially as observers, yesterday. Glenn II. Curtiss carried out some tests with dropping lead missiles with colored streamers attached at a target representing a battleship 500 ft. by 90 ft.

Then, of 14 record shots. 10 hits were made and 4 misses within 5(> ft. of the target. Six hits were made running at 218, 232, 240, 200, l.">5 and !"!> ft. respectively. The seventh and eighth, at 107 and 191 ft., were misses. Next, at 250 ft., hit. At 208 and .-¡12 ft. shots were misses. Last three, at 302, 20S and 2G0 ft. altitude, were hits. These shots were made moving at right angles to the greatest length of the target. After these tests the officers left.

At sunset four more shots are reported, with three hits and one miss, the latter being from an estimated height of 900 ft., the machine traveling lengthwise the target.

To-day no bomb tests were carried out. but several circles over the lake were made and a landing made in the water. A small hydrocnrve surface is affixed .just forward of the front wheel for assistance in keeping the machine on an even keel when hitting the water.

RESt/LTS OE TESTS.

Mr. Curtiss gives it as his opinion that to accurately drop bombs in actual warfare one man would have to lie carried for the purpose besides the aviator, as it was impossible for him to make accurate calculations of angle and speed, and suggests the proper method is to have some kind of a gun to fire the projectiles instead of merely dropping them.

Dr. Greene Hits Tree Head On.

Rochester. June 30.— Rochester can now claim to be an aviation city from more points of view than that of engine construction. I»r. Greene, who has, in the past, made several successful (lights at Mineola and New York City, and who has recently moved to Rochester to open an aeroplane factory, made his first flight in Rochester to-day.

The biplane which he used was constructed for

G. E. He Long of the Elbridge Engine Co., and was equipped with a 4-eylinder Elbridge featherweight engine and a Reo,ua Gibson 7-ft. diameter by 4-ft. pitch regular propeller.

After making his thrust test with the machine tied, and succeeding in developing considerably over 200 lbs. thrust. Dr. Greene decided that h'e was ready to fly, and the machine was cut loose. After running over the meadow for a distance of less than 100 ft.. Dr. Greene rose at what seemed to be an angle of almost 45 degrees to a height of, approximately. 50 ft., and then flew directly down the field of the Rochester Aero Club for a distance of about one-quart or of a mile.

The start had. unfortunately, been made from a point in the field which was protected from the breeze by a large-sized hedgerow of trees, and the doctor did not appreciate the fact that a considerable breeze was blowing from his right, so that as soon as he reached the end of this hedge his machine was thrown to the left a considerable distance. When the doctor succeeded in righting himself, he discovered that he was headed directly for a tall elm tree, i if the two alternatives, dropping down and going under the tree or attempting to fly over it, the doctor chose the latter. It seemed for a few seconds as if he were going to make good, but when he was within a few yards he discovered that it was impossible, and the only thing left for him to do was then to stop the engine and attempt to glide rapidly to the ground under the tree. This also proved to be impossible, and the machine hit the tree head ou. at a height of about 30 ft. from the ground, breaking the front control and knocking the machine, of course, to the ground. The rear control was also broken when the bipane struck solid earth. It seemed to the spectators almost impossible that the doctor could be alive and whole. looking at the wreck at a distance of 20<> or 300 yards; but he immediately climbed out of the wreck and waved his hand in assurance that he was all right.

The flight, from some points of view, was unsatisfactory, inasmuch as il resulted in smashing Mr. Do Long's machine. However. Mr. De Long was more than pleased, inasmuch as it demonstrated that the engine had considerably more power than was actually necessary to fly with this type of biplane. hi the next flights that Dr. Greene makes in Rochester with this machine, in all probability, a 3-eylinder feather-weight engine will be used.

i aAt America's Flying Field |

Daily Flights at Mineola.

NOT a day now passes, scarcely, without flights by either Harmon, Baldwin, Seymour, Russell, Hamilton and others still experimenting. There are always several hundred people on hand to view the scene and on Saturdays and Sundays the number runs up into two to three thousand. Mineola is 25 miles from New York on the Long Island Railroad, and the grounds are a mile from the station and still further from Garden City.

Philip YV. Wilcox has finished and given one trial his Farman-type biplane, fitted with a Rinek S-cylinder 50 h. p. motor. Lewis Strang, winner of the Briarcliff race, will learn, to fly it.

The grounds have been fenced in by the owners of the property with a high board fence 2,500 ft. long along the road, with wire fences extending out across the plains at each. There is another inner wire fence, to keep people off the course and provide parking space for automobiles. A small grandstand has also been erected and an admission fee is being charged on Saturdays and Sundays. After the expenses have been met, I it is announced by the president of the land company, the income will be devoted to prizes for the aviators. The use of board fence has been sold to White & Wood, of 1777 Broadway, New York, for sign painting.

The next day Harmon and Russell provided the entertainment, but there was nothing unusual in the tlying.

russell begins practice.

On June 29, George Russell, who had never operated a machine before, made his first flight in a Curtiss machine, fitted with a llarriman engine. The machine had been exhibited by him during the spring over a theatrical circuit. After a few days he sold the engine to I'. Brauner to install in a Curtiss-type aeroplane sold to a customer and then got another of the same make. In five days Russell was proficient enough to fly a distance of about 5 miles.

On June 29 Mrs. Harmon was a passenger with Clifford B. Harmon on a lOnninute flight. This was the first time a woman has flown at Mineola and the third in this country.

Mrs. W. K. Vanderbilt, Jr., was a passenger with Harmon for a short jump of a minute on June 30. The motor would not mote, and a skid broke in landing. Further Hying was given up for the day.

Harmon Sets New U. S. Record.

On July 1 Clifford B. Harmon made a new duration record for the United States, 2 hours 3 minutes, beating Paulhan's record at Los Angeles of 1 hour 5S minutes. No official figures were taken.

After Hitting Tree

On July 3 the first admissions were taken in and a goodly crowd saw Harmon make a 10-minute flight alone and then a short one with a passenger. In the first he essayed the diving trick and quick rises which brought forth applause. William Watson tried out the machine he had just bought from P. Brauner, with Russell's llarriman engine, and got off the ground—and then lauded suddenly, smashing up the machine considerably.

however, of either duration or distance. The Mineola field over which he flew has not as yet been equipped with the proper markers. It is estimated that the distance covered was 100 miles.

harmon makes first cross country flight.

On July 11 Clifford B. Harmon attempted to tly from the Mineola aviation field to Greenwich, Conn., in competition for the Country Life trophy.

At 5 :49 the Gnome engine was got going after much trouble, but the machine did not go a quarter mile across the field before Harmon brought it down again. Hamilton, who had returned to Mineola from Atlantic City, suggested leaving off the pontoons which had been affixed for use in case of a forced descent in Long Island Sound. This was done and a new start made at 6:14:50, but he tlew no further than Roslyn, a distance of 4 miles, passing over roads and' trees and the settlements of East Williston and Albertson Station.

Stanley Y. Beach was practicing with his Rleriot-typ3 machine at Lordship Park, Bridgeport, irtcnding to try to fly across the Sound to Long Islrcd. After several efforts the mactire started foi the cliff, but Beach jumped out just in time to save from going over with the machine. The machine fell and was wrecked.

On July 12 Hamilton saw Russell fly for 20 minutes and then took Capt. Baldwin's machine, after w-eighting down the front end, and flew it for 8 minutes. Russell then went out and flew another 20 minutes.

ISRAEL LUDLOW BUILDING.

Israel Ludlow is building a biplane at Mineola which he states will not infringe anyone's patents. He claims it is a remarkable aeroplane, with its new patented applications of controls and promises it to be so stable that a man can take his hands' off the lever: that it is balanced so well that it will find its own level and will keep a level flight without attention on the part of the operator. The machine is expected to be finished by the middle of August.

B. T. Babbitt Hyde is having a shed 70 by 40 ft. erected by C. O. Conklin for the housing of his machine. John H. Tyson, Jr., has bought Greeley Curtis' Bleriot which he recently imported, and it is to he flown by Louis Strang.

On the Aeronautical Society Grounds.

At the present time there are 13 machines on the Aeronautical Society's grounds. Those in process of building, of the biplane type, are Miss Todd, Messrs. Diefenhach. Talmage, Watson and Stevenson, Mergatroyd, and Edick and Edwards: of the monoplane type, Messrs. Godley, Waldcn De Kilduehevsky, and Rosenbaum.

Creditable flights have been made by Joseph Seymour and George Russell in their Curiiss machine's. Russell is using a 30 h. p. Ilarriman engine, and speaks favorably of it.

Messrs. Edick and Edwards have had their Curtiss type machine out and succeeded in getting it off the ground several times for good distances. At the present time they are changing the angle of incidence of the planes and expect to have it in the field in the very near future.

Messrs. Watson and Stevenson have had their machine in the field with a 30 h. p. Harriman motor. On June 20 Mr. Watson made an abrupt ascent for 20 to 30 ft. and descended just as abruptly, smashing the entire ontrigging for the elevator control. Mr. Watson was not hurt.

Frank Van Anden has had his machine out several times in charge of Charles Nyquist. formerly with Hamilton. At present Mr. Nyouist is keeping the machine on the ground until they get it thoroughly balanced and he has learned to handle it. The motor is a Harriman.

E. H. Skinner, manager of South Beaeh. Staten Island, will soon be another addition to the flyers at Mineola. He has a biplane of his own design, fitted with an Elbridge "featherweight" 40-00 on gine. with which he has been making short flights for several weeks past in the vicinity of South Beaeh.

The Aeronautical Society is building a shelter along one side of its 13S-ft. shed. 30 ft. in width to accommodate the machines whieh are without protection except such as tents afford.

CONSTRUCTION AIDS XIV.

^********************************^

$ Ï

Î For Control of National Affairs |

National Council of the Aero Club of America Formed.

The "National Council of the Aero Club of America" was formed at the rooms of the Aero Club of America on June 23, following the breakup, through a shrewd political move on the part of the Aero Club of America, of the intended joint convention of the two organizations, the American Aeronautical Association and the Aeronautic Federation of America.

Twenty-six clubs compose the council. These are as follows : Aero Club of America, California, Kansas City. Kansas State, Dayton Aeroplane, Philadelphia (now extinct), Saratoga Springs, Illinois, Minneapolis, Utah, Springfield,^ Intercollegiate, Harvard, Baltimore, Washington, Atlantic City, Dayton Aero Club, Pittsfield, New England, Canton, Pasadena, Pennsylvania, Aéronautique of Chicago, South Bend, Buffalo and Milwaukee.

An executive committee and officers were elected to serve until the second Tuesday in December, when a convention will be called in New York.

The executive committee and officers are as follows :

Clifford B. Harmon (A. C. of America), chairman; W. B. Strang (A. C. of Kansas City), A. P.. Lambert (A. C. of St. Louis), Dr. J. C. Eberhardt (Dayton Aeroplane Club), Dr. Albert F. Zahm (A. C. of Washington); .Vice-Chairmen— George-M. Myers (A. C. of Kansas City), Chas. J. Glidden (A. C. of New England), James E. Plew (A. C. of Illinois), John M. Satterfield (A. C. of Buffalo), G. A. Richardson (Intercollegiate Association). Carl G. Fisher (A. C. of Indianapolis), Arthur T. Atherholt (A. C. of Philadelphia).

Henry M. Neely was made chairman of the contest committee, and Arthur T. Atherholt chairman of the press committee. Col. Jerome IT. Joyce was elected treasurer ; Jerome Fauciulli, secretary, and Geo. B. Harrison, field secretary. Harrison later resigned.

By the terms of an agreement made between the 'Council and the Aero Club of America, the A. C. A. authorizes the organization of the "National Council of the Aero Club of America" and the A. C. A. is confirmed as the representative of the International Federation ; all matters relating to national affairs' are to be referred to the Council, to be composed of one member from each affiliated club; the Council will construct an organization on the basis of state representation : the chairman of the executive committee shall be named by the A. C. A. ; the matter of location of international contests after the year 1910 vested in the N. C. ; a committee shall be constituted by the N. C. to deal with the question of sanctioning national meets, providing the A. C. A. agrees it will not make any agreements or contracts in national relations without approval of the N. C.

situation curious.

The situation is a curious one. As related previously in Aeronautics, the need for a national body was felt and iu response to letters signed by Hudson Maxim, president of the Aeronautical Society, sent out by Thomas A. Hill, a large number of clubs signified their acknowledgment of such need and in the course of events a convention was planned at some central city at which a really national body would be formed.

A temporary organization was formed under the name Aeronautic Federation of America to bring about this convention and to prepare drafts and plans for the proposed national body.

Observing the apparent strength of this movement, the Aero Club hastily called a meeting of its affiliated clubs. The majority of the affiili-ated clubs responding to the call of the Aero Club were disgusted, and then and there, on May 2.", formed the American Aeronautical Association. They found that the Aero Club was not willing fo give them any yoice in the affairs of

the Aero Club of America and its affiliated clubs, and, as will be noted from the strong statement issued at the time, the new body was clearly against the policies of the Aero Club of America as exemplified iu their action.

Leaders of both the Aeronautic Federation of America and the American Aeronautic Association immediately got together and planned a joint convention to be held in New York, June 22. Both organizations were to assemble in New York as many delegates of the clubs as possible. Both secretaries were to work in harmony and their letters were to be of the same general character. The Hotel Astor in New York was offered as a meeting place and accepted. The A. A. A. was advised that a meeting place had been secured, but unfortunately a misunderstanding had occurred and the A. A. A. letters had called the meeting at the Waldorf.

to work in harmony.

Previous to the June 22d meeting leaders in both these organizations got together and it was planned to call to order such delegates as assembled at either of the hotels, and then adjourn to a com-' rnoti meeting place. The A. F. A. was called to order in accordance with the programme and advised of the misunderstanding in regard to the hotels and it was with common consent that the meeting was adjourned and the delegates in a magnanimous spirit proceeded to the Waldorf to meet in joint convention.

a. f. a. delegates shut out.

The delegates who happened to come from the I Astor experienced the greatest difficulty to being] admitted to voting powers in the convention. All J sorts of demands were made as to the form 'ofj credentials. Many credentials were "lost" by thel credential committee. There seemed to be a planl to keep these delegates out. It was also found 1 that one of the delegates who was not empowered] by his club to secede from affiliation with the Aero Club of America at the time the A. A. A. was! formed, had seut out a day or two previous a great number of telegrams advising that the meeting place of the convention was at the Waldorf and not the Astor, with the apparent intention of stealing whatever delegates they might from the ranks of the A. F. A. despite the tacit agreement that both were working to the same end and in perfect accord. In response to these telegrams, manv delegates who had been working with thel A. F. A. went to the Waldorf.

convention at last down to business.

The session was a very strenuous one, and finally everything seemed to be working all right. The delegates had all been admitted and pdace had reigned for at least 30 minutes. The whole day had been employed in seating the delegates and the body was now ready for business. A motion was made and carried to adjourn for dinner, to meet again at seven-thirty.

One of the members of the Aero Club of America invited some of the delegates to dinner and a planl was laid at this meeting to withdraw from the con-l vention at the evening session and retire to thel Aero Club of America. What mess of pottage thel Aero Club could offer in exchange for the birth-1 right of the delegates is not apparent. At anyi rate, the scheme worked.

When the meeting was called in the evening, the presiding officer, Geo. M. Myers, of Kansas! City, asked Lee S. Burridge, former president of I the' Aeronautical Society and one of the prime! movers in the A. F. A., to take the chair while! he was out temporarily. No sooner was the tem-i porary chairman ready to receive motions than thel delegate from the Pennsylvania Aero Club got unl and' withdrew his club from the convention. In! rapid succession one-half of the other delégate» followed suit, showing that the plan so suddenly developed at the dinner had worked most sucB cessfully,

'AERONAUTICS

How men of self-respect could stoop to such methods as to place an innocent man in such a curious predicament, is difiicu.lt to understand. It also developed at about the same lime (through the auival of afternoon newspape s) tint a corporation had been formed at Albany under the name of the American Aeronautic Association, despite the fact it was agreed between the leaders h. month previous that even the name of the proposed national body would be left to the joint ■onvention to select. This showed a premeditated i)Ian to steal the convention. Even some of the lelegates who mel at the Hotel Astor, and who lad so much trouble in the morning in being ldmitted to the Waldorf meeting, deserted the rer.v ones who started the whole movement, and ,vhich made a national body possible at this ime.

The organizers of the. A. A. A. were frankly >itter against the Aero Club of America and ret they joined hands with their enemy to the lesertion of their own comrades.

where is the x. c. of a. c. a. at?

An officer of the National Council « f the Aevo 'luh of America states that the Aero Club of \merica is now but a local club on the same tanding with the others, that the Council will see o it that the club is kept in such position, that ii the future the Council will rule and that the nly thing the Aero Club retains is its name and fs international affiliation, that the A. C. A. is equired to represent the National Council in iternatioual matters and to carry out its mission

that the A. C. A. is "down and out."

On the other hand, it will be the chairman of ae National Council's executive committee that ; named by the Aero Club of America; the clubs ow forming the N. ('., it is said by the Aero

August, I0IO

Club, are but affiliated clubs of the A. C. A., coming meekly into the fold after rebelling, and in added numbers; and the A. C. A. never had any national control except over the old half-insurgent affiliated clubs.

The one inference to be drawD from the situation is that the Aero Club of America has decitT edly increased its strength by inducing the clubs forming the National Council to become affiliated under the name of the Aero Club of America and by naming its own chairman. In return, the A. C. A. allows the affiliated chilis now known as the National Council of the Aero Club of America to merely select the place of holding any national event which may be won by a representative of America.

THE A. V. A. MADE PERMANENT.

'., Those who remained in convention after the exodiis included the representatives of the aero clubs of Rochester, N. Y. ; Florida, West .Side Y. M. C. A., Canada. Amherst and Springfield. Mass.; Aeronautical Society of New York, Aeronautic Society of New Jersey, Philadelphia Aeronautical Recreation Society, the Y. M. C. A. Alumni Aeronautic Club, and the Southern Aero Club. Subsequently the representative of the aero clubs of Amherst and Springfield, Mass., withdrew and announced he would go with the other organization. The following officers were chosen by the Aeronautic Federation of America, which organization was made permanent :

President, Hudson Maxim. New York, N. Y. : vice-presidents, L. JT. Seeley, Rochester, N. Y. ; Oeorge W. Clark. Jacksonville, Fla. ; Dr. Thomas E. Eldridge, Philadelphia. Pa. : Wilbur K. Kimball. New York. N. Y. ; secretary. Thomas A. Hill. Xew York. N. V.; supervisor. Lee S. P.urridge.

Second Annual Aero Show of the Pacific Aero Club I

By- Cleve T. Shaffer +

The second annual aeronautic exhibition of the icific Aero Club from May 19 to 21. inclusive, at te Auditorium, San Francisco, was a great sue-■ss from an exhibition standpoint, the variety of achines giving a liberal education in aeronautics, o one who had seen the first exhibition of the ub. it gave a startling idea of the marvelous •ogress in the science in less than a year, and the emendous increase in public interest. At the \st show there were but two comparatively crude achines—the latest show filled the hall and even truded upon the model flying area, several of model flyers, disobeying their rudders, flew to the big machines like angry hornets and tore nts in their fabric.

Two of the large aeroplanes exhibited had ae-ully flown and attracted a large amount of invest on that account. They were the Curtiss-rring of Whipple Hall of the Pacific Aero Club \ the beautiful large monoplane of George ose of the Pacific Aero Club. The latter has t made extended flights, but is reported to have ared the ground for a short distance.

The exhibits composed four full-sized aeroines (three monoplanes and one biplane), a bal->n. a dirigible, gliders, models, kites innumer-|e. propellers, supplies and aeronautic accesses and a United States signal corps portable eless set.

i novelty on the Curtiss was the 3-ft. exten-n of each end of the upper planes, as shown photo. This was an idea of Mr. Hall's: he ims that the additional surface (30 ft.) permits much slower speed in rising. The short beams wing bars fit into the end sockets and a bracket ces them to the end strut.

The little "Demoiselle" monoplane, also exhibit by Mr. Loose, was the hit of the show, its Jail proportions being somewhat startling to the litor. The body (not imported) was equipped Mr. Loose with an extra pair of skids at the r of the planes. Power plant ; A 4-cylindcr Ell engine of 35 h. p.. 13S lbs., driving a Coffin rabolel" propeller, a small Curtiss type radi-

ator was placed at rear of motor, both being mounted on the single upper member of the triangular body, the motor being also guyed to the lateral wing bars. Dimensions and control similar to the original "Demoiselle" with the exception of lateral control, in which the Yendome front flaps are used. Single surface cloth tacked on with tape. Lateral beams underneath as in the Curtiss and Pfitzner.

On the whole, the machine lacked the finish and careful attention that characterized the liarge monoplane built by Mr. Loose himself. The latter machine was exhibited without the motor. Tts beautiful lines were admired by everyone. This was shown in the July issue.

An "all-steel" monoplane was exhibited by A. Soring, the ribs even being of small tubing. Surface, 240 ft. Weight. 20O lbs. without power plant, cloth or operator. Three-wheeled chassis, rear rudder turning with rear wheel, which also carries a supplementary surface, to the rear diagonal edges of which are attached the two separate flaps of the elevator. Lateral control by ailerons. One lever control.

A most curious oddity was the exhibit of Israel P.aylis : it might appropriately be termed the paradox of the show. Whereas all other exhibitors seeked to eliminate weight, in this case weight was a desirable factor. The model (see photo), about 2% ft. square, weighs 00 lbs. and has two wagon springs fixed to the base, between the ends of "which (one on each side) is pivoted a heavy pendulum. This is to he driven, at a high speed, by gears and chains from the motor. The inventor claims that a reaction of the machine from the rapid pendulum blows on the spring ends, which cause it to lift.

President J. C. Irvine of the Pacific Aero Club exhibited his battle-scarred balloon. "Queen of the Pacific." Capt. P. A. Van Tassel was early on the scene with a new S,O0O-ft. dirigible, 14 ft. diameter by 03 ft. long.

Gliders were exhibited by William Kreling. Ohrt Bros., M. Gunzendorfer and J. Musser, C.

Demoiselle Built By Geo. H. Loose.

Gray and E. Speycr. It. Hughson and L. Schultz, and the Shaffer Aero Manufacturing and Supply Co.

Kites, including a Philippine war kite, used as a target at 600 metres, were displayed at one end of the hall, while at the other were the large number of models. Several of the well-known "parabolel" propellers were exhibited by A. Coffin.

The Pacific Aeroplane and Supply Co. exhibited several samples of fine work in wing construction.

The Shaffer Aero Manufacturing and Supply Co.

had a large exhibit of aero supplies, includin gliders, wheels, tires, propellers, wire, laminate ribs, tanks, etc. The Aeronautics stand by tt above company was visited by many of its westei friends.

The Pacific Aero Club reception room and hoot were well crowded; many new members hai joined since the show.

William Kreling won the glider cup. His glith was a beautiful machine "do luxe."

Model contest winners wore Waldo C. Prow Fred Hotchner and Harold Willots.

Aeronautic Calendar for U. S.

July 9-16—Toronto. Can., aviation meet.

July 16-17—Grand Rapids. Mich., J. C. Mars.

July 16-17—Decatur, 111.. Chas. F. Willard.

July 23-2S—Omaha, Neb.. G. H. Curtiss, C*. l*r , W-rttatti, J. C. Mars, tict»T*y £1/ ,

. ^ AugrS-8— rittsburg, Pa.. J/C. Mars^l I

Aug. 12—Indianapolis. Ind., balloon race.

Sept. 5-10—Lincoln, Neb., exhibition flights by Wright aviators.

Sept. 5-10—-Hamline, Minn., exhibition flights by Wright aviators.

Sept. 12-16—Milwaukee, Wis., • exhibition with one Wright machine.

Sept. 17—Indianapolis, Ind., elimination race for Gordon,Bennett balloon race. •> . i

Sept. 19-24—Detroit, Mich.. Wright exhibitic flights.

Sept. 26-30'—Trenton, N. J., exhibition fligh by Wright aviators.

Oct. 1-8—Springfield, 111., exhibition flights I Wright aviators.

Oct. 3-S—Sedalia, Mo., exhibition flights 1 Wright aviators.

Oct. 8-13—St. Louis, Mo.. Aero Show.

Oct. 15-23—Mineola, N. V., Gordon Bennett air other aviation contests.

Oct. 17 -St. Louis, Mo., Gordon Rennett halloo race.

Dec. 1-S—Chicago, 111., aeronautical exhibitio of A. C. of Illinois.

I Chronology of For- $ I :: eign Happenings:: I

^*$><$><^<$><S><$><£<£>^^

June 3. Marcel llanriot, aged 15, flew a Hauriol monoplane cross-country, Betheny to Jlour-uielon, 35 kil.

June 5. Capt. l'.urgeat, French military llyer. using an antoiuette, flew i hr. 5 in. at Hour-melon and over surrounding country.

871 miles flown in three days.

June 0. The Anjou meeting closed this day. The total distance flown by six aviators was 1,403.4 kils. (871.5 miles I. Summer machines first and second ; Farmans third and fourth ; Bleriots fifth and sixth. O'eatesl distance flown without stop : Martinet (II. Farmani, 108.2 kil.; Taillette (Sommer), 125."J kil.; Dickson (11. Parmauj, 98.7 kil.; Legagneux (Sommeri, 97.8 kil.; Aubrun (Bleriot), 131.3 kil. ifS.tSOO in prizes divided. Martinet (11. Farman) won Angers-iSaumur cross-country race (42 kil.) in 31 in. 35 s. (40.5 m. p. h.j.

June 7. Marcel llanriot flew back to Betheny accompanied by M. Niel in a Voisin, and Lieut. Kequent and Capt. Mareonnet in a Farman. The Ifirsc two landed at Betheny, while the other, .bearing the officers, went on, over Bheims and hack to ;Chalous, covering 08 kil. in 1 hr. 37 min.

June 8. Leon Morane (modified Bleriot XI [fitted for two people i flew cross-country, Issy to [Toury, with stop at Ftampes, 03 kil., hi 72 inins. Iflyiug time.

Verstraten (Summer) carried a passenger for 55 mins.

June 9. Lieut. Bellenger flew a 11. Farman 1 hr. Mourmelon.

world cross-country --man duration and distance records.

June o. Capt. Mareonnet and Lieut. Fequent, two military pupils using 11. Farman machines, [flew from Chalons to Viueennes, 100 kil., time hr. 30 m. With oil and gas the weight carried Kvas 402 pounds, ('apt. Mareonnet held the map and took photos.

June 10. Dubonnet (Tellier) flew 120 kil. at Juvisy track.

2-man monoplane record.

June 11. Leon Morane (Bleriot) beat the iworld's monoplane passenger record, flying in a |circle over Toury for 1 :30 :00.

June 11. At Juvisy meet, Dubonnet flew 65.30 (kil. iu 1:14:00; Didier (11. Farman), 57.S kil. in 1 :04 :00.

two-hour flight.

June 11. Budapest meeting closed. Total time 10 machines flew, 50 h. 16 m. 48 s., and still other machines flew not entered for duration prizes. This time runs from more than 12 hrs. for Nicholas Kinet (II. Farman) to 2 hrs. for Mine, de la Roche. Longest flight without landing prizes awarded as follows: Wagner (llanriot), 2:03:40; Diner (Etrich), 1:45:40; N. Kinet (H. Farman). 1:44:50; Wachalowski (II. Farman), 1 :I3 :29. The greatest distance in one flight was 137 kil. bv Wagner.

June 12. Capt. Marie (II. Farman) flew for 1 :10 :00 and 1 :05 :00 on the same day.

June 10. The German Clouth airship sailed (from Cologne over the French and Belgian frontiers unnoticed, landing at Etterbeck, near Brussels, Belgium. The distance covered was about ¡125 miles and the duration 5 h. 20 m.

June 20. Labouchere (Antoinette) flew from Mourmelon to Betheny. Recently while carrying a companion, at Chalons, Labouchere proposed a drink and proceeded to fly to a cafe at Mour-■nelon. Served, the return was made to the ■camp.

Passenger car of the " Deutschland" Airship

Sommer has delivered his first military aeroplane to the French army after a demonstration flight of 2 :10 :00.

passenger airship makes long trip.

June 20. Leaving Friedrichschafen the new aerial liner "Deutschland" (Zeppelin VII.) sailed to Dusseldorf, a distance of about 311 miles, the trip lasting 0 hours. Count Zeppelin was in command, and there were a dozen others on board. The new Zeppelin is similar to its recent predecessors, except that there is an inclosed gangway connecting the two cars and between them is the compartment for passengers. The walls are of mahogany covered aluminum and the furniture consists of wdeker chairs. The length is 14S m. (4S5 ft.) and 14 m. iu diam. The capacity is 10,000 cu. meters.

June 21. Tableau (M. Farman) flew at Buc, covering about 10.8 kil. over ne;i

June 23. Lieut Fequeut flew from Issy ceunes on his H. Farman.

June 24. The "Deutschland" undertook its first'.— regular passenger trip, with a crew of 12 and 20\ passengers. Three hours were spent cruising around Dusseldorf. During part of the time there was wind and rain, but the elements seemed to have no bad effect.

2775 miles flown in a week.

June 25. Rouen meeting closed. The total mileage flown was 2775 miles (4400 kil.) divided among various machiues as follows: II. Farman 1095. Bleriot 900', Antoinette 713, Tellier 507, llanriot 4S9, Uemoiselle 201. Sommer 411. Breguet 36, Voisin 57 kils ; $30,054 distributed in prizes. The greatest total of flights by one man was 404 miles, by Bertram Dickson. The longest distance flown without stop was by Dickson (II. Farman), 141 kil., in 2 :27 :44.

airship "deutschland" destroyed.

June 2S. The Deutschland. carrying a crew of 12 and 21 passengers, left Dusseldorf for a 3hour trip. One of the propellers stopped after 2 hours, and a storm rapidly came up. Finding it

lew 1 :14 :00 jarby towns, i Issy to Yin-/

impossible to reach Munster, Osnahruck was made for. but as the ship had been in the air 0 hours, the gasoline supply gave out, and left the vessel at the mercy of the storm, it finally settled down on the trees of a forest, and the passengers escaped with their lives.

June 29. Lieut. Savoia made a cross country flight of 40 miles from Centocelle, Italy, and the day following one of 22 miles in his H. Farm an.

June 30. S. F. Cody tested his new biplane. The twin propeller system has been abandoned. Two engines have been fitted to drive a single propeller. Either can be operated individually. After making two circuits of Laffan Plain a gust of wind caused the machine to fall, and Cody was pinned unconscious in the wreckage. The two engines are of the 50 h. p. 4-cyl. Green type.

^ June 30. Labouchere (Antoinette) and C. L. Wachter^ (Antoinette) flew from Mourmelon to Betheny for the meeting there.

July 2. The Wolverhampton. England, meet closed. Grahame-White (Farman) was longest in the air in one flight. 1:15:3S; L. D. L. Gibbs (Farman) second with 1:13:5.

$5,000,000 FOR AVIATION.

July 2. The Italian Chamber of Deputies has granted about $5,000,000 for construction and maintenance of aeroplanes and airships.

FRENCH ENTRIES FOR INTERNATIONAL.

July 3-10. Seventy-six entries in the Bheims meeting. Monoplanes entered. 29. Leblanc, Latham and Labouchere were picked to represent France in the international at Mineola, L. 1. In Leblanc's flight he broke the 5, 10, 50, GO, 70, So and 90 kil. speed record.

BARONESS MEETS WITH ACCIDENT.

July S. Baroness de la Roche met with an accident at the Uheims meet, suffering severe injuries. She had apparently become unnerved by the close passing of two other aeroplanes. One of the passing aeroplanes flew directly over her. and it is thought that the draft from its propeller made trouble for the baroness.

ORAHAME-WIIITE FLIES 90 M. CROSS COUNTRY.

July 11. (irahame-White flew a distance of !)0y2 miles in to the Bournemouth aviation grounds where a meet was in progress, in 2 hours 35 minutes. On July 7 he. started from London to make the entire distance, but an accident compelled him to land after going but a short distance.

BRITISH ALTITUDE RECORD.

J. A. Drexel made two ascents on July 11 at the Bournemouth meet of 1950 and 2493 feet altitude in his Bleriot. On June 20 he went up to 1O70 feet.

New Prizes Abroad.

The London Dttily Mail has announced the conditions for its new $50,000 prize. The contest is open to the entire world, to be held the second week of July. 1911. The winner will be he who starts from a fixed point near London and completes a 1.000 mile course laid out over various cities in England and Scotland, and making a complete tour of Great Britain.

The Automobile Club of France offers a $30,000 "(Irand Prize" for an aeroplane flight from Paris to Brussels and return, divided between the three who cover the course in the fastest time before January 1. 1911. the machine to carry two people, or two with ballast enough to make up a weight of 150' kgs. Must be made within 30 hours, starting from Issy. One descent at Brussels is obligatory. To take not more than 3 hours.

$10,000 is offered for dirigibles over a course Paris to Rheims and back, given to the pilot making the best time before January 1. 1911. Start and finish at Vincennes. One descent obligatory at Bheims. where an extra passenger must be taken up of a weight of 75 kgs. Duration of landing counts as part of the time.

M. Lazafe Weiller. who was connected with the French Wright Syndicate, has offered the War Minister of France a $5,000 prize for a dispatch carrying competition between military aviators, carrying a passenger.

The II. Farman instruction biplane covers pracJ tically every day a total distance of 200 kils. with! two on board.

AEROPLANE RISES FROM WATER.

Henri Fabre. with a monoplane of 50 h. p.l Gnome engine, mounted on 3 hydroeurves. haJ been able to fly a distance of 5 kils.. rising and alighting on the water. The speed attained was 100 k. p. h. The speed is 14 m.

One hundred and eleven aviation pilots here] received licenses from the Aero Club of France! These are divided among various makers of mal chines, as follows: (Mine, de la Roche is tha sole woman pilot.)

Bleriot 24 : Curtiss 2 : R. E. P. 1 ; II. Farman] 30; Voisin 15; M. Farman 1 ; Wright 10; Antoinl ette 9 : Demoiselle 2 : Sommer 4 ; Hanriot 2 ; Tel-lier 1 ; Nieuport 1 ; Breguet 1 ; Sanchez-Bcsa 1 I Goupy 1 ; Unnamed 0.

Aeroplane and Airship Casualties.

VICTIM OF HIS OWN COURAGE.

June IS. Thaddeusi Robl, who learned to fly a Farman, was killed at Stettin, Germany. The wind was blowing and no aviator would fly. The crowd] became angered, and called for Robl. who atl tempted a flight. Descending from a height of 20(| feet, a gust caught him and he was buried under the wreckage, with his neck broken. lie expired in a few moments^

QVACHTER'S^EROPLANE FALLS.

At the oífPn4+Mí--rn* an aviation meet at Rheims, July 3, Chas. Louis Wachter met his death in an Antoinette aeroplane. The wings seemed to frildi up. letting the machine drop without resistance to the ground from a considerable height.

Oscar Erbsloh

DIRIGIBLE EXPLODES.

On July 13, Oscar Erbsloh. the winner of thJ Bennett balloon cup at St. Louis. 1907. with foul companions fell from the non-rigid dirigible "Erhsl

nautic sport. When the automobile came into being he was an ardent supporter, winning several races. lie has made more than a hundred balloon ascents, and last ,year took up the aeroplane. Recently he jumped to the front with hour flights and more, crossing the English Channel and returning without stop. ^_

other deaths in power .machines.

Sept. 17, 1908, Lieut. T. E. Selfridge, at Washington.

Sept. 7, 1909, E. Lefebvre, Juvisy, France. Sept. 22. Louis Ferber. Boulogne, France. Dec. 0. A. Fernandez, Nice. France. Jan. 4, 1910. Leon Delagrange, Bordeaux. France.

Apr. 2, Hubert I^blon, San Sebastian. Spain. <z/(oS

May 13», Ilauvette Michelin, Lyons, France. June IS. Thad. Röhl, Stettin, Germany. July 3, C. L. Wächter, Rheims, France.

---, Zosely, Budapest. . --' r «. a a

.UiUr-Hr Daniel Kinet„Diussel.s, Uelgiuui. ' H-^'oX-d <^J r^y

«C*-e-3 .i\?H~T

THE NEW FARMAN MONOPLANE

Henry Farman has begun trials with a new monoplane. The spread is 23.0 ft., depth 0 ft. 0 in.: the tail measurements are 9 ft. 10 in. by 3 ft. 3 in., and the overall length of the machine is 20 ft. 2 in. The supporting surface is practically 190 sq. ft. So far as can be gathered from examination, the wing curvature is the same as for the standard biplanes. The tail is !>.S ft. by 3.2S ft. The total weight of the new machine is given as 6G0 lbs.

Lateral stability is secured by two ailerons of the familiar Farman type. The Farman is the only successful French monoplane employing ailerons, the Antoinette having abandoned them in favor of flexing the wing, Bleriot. Tellier and Ilan-riot never having employed them. The horizontal tail member has one half of its surface fixed and the rear portion hinged to form an elevator. On the more recent biplanes the extremity of the upper tail member has been made pivotable. to operate in conjunction with the front elevation rudder, but this movable surface was only about one quarter of the whole ; on the monoplane il is half the depth of the plane. The rudder is mounted entirely above the horizontal plane, and had ahead of it a triangular shaped pin.

The fuselage is a triangular structure united at the forward end by steel girder work in the form of a cross, the center of which serves to receive the mounting of the fixed shaft of the Gnome motor. The four main frame members are united by suitable stanchions, and trussed with piano wire; they are not united at the rear. The wings are not mounted directly on the fuselage, but itre carried almost two feet above it. This places the pilot., the motor, and the petrol and oil tanks on a lower plane than the bearing surface. A triangular structure receives the wings, and at the same time serves for the attachment of the running gear.

At right angles to the longitudinal frame members are two vertical members, attached to the

Photo by Edwin Levirk, AT. Y.

steel girder work on the fore end of the fuselage, and mounting above the level of the wing and descending considerably below the level of the frame. From the lowest point of these two "uprights are two similar members inclined towards the rear, attached to the two longitudinal members of the fuselage, and receiving on their upper extremities the rear transverse girder of the wing. This, as can readily be seen from the illustration, forms a triangle or really two triangles, one at each side of the fuselage—the apex of which is near the ground, and receives the axle of the running wheels and the base above the main plane.

The rear plane is mounted directly on the fuselage, with the hinged portion overhanging in order to allow free movement. The rudder and fin are mounted above the fuselage, and consequently above the horizontal plane. There are neither shock absorbers or skids, the aeroplane starting on two small diameter pneumatic-tired wheels mounted on a steel axle passing through the points of the two triangles already described. Towards the rear of the aeroplane is a simple type of skid to prevent the tail from trailing on the ground. The pilot's position is within the fuselage, just to the rear of and below the level of the wing.

The fuselage is not encased. The motor, of course, is in the usual position ahead, overhang ing the extremity of the fuselage. It is the standard type of Gnome, with a two-bladed Chauviere propeller. Placed below the level of the wings, the pilot has the advantage of being able more correctly to estimate his distances for landing than is possible when carried slightly above the wing level. Further, this advantage is gained without any loss of protective material in case of a roti'-di handling, there still being the motor and half the length of the fuselage ahead, the wings on each side, and the running gear below, to take the shock before the pilot can be reached. The machine's first appearance in competition will be Interesting.

lok" when it was at a height of over 900 feet. The cause is stated to be the bursting of one of the ballonets. It is thought possible that the expansion of the gas at the high altitude caused the bag to burst.

The airship had a cubic volume of 290O cubic meters, was 53.2 meters long and 10 m. diam., driven by a 125 h. p. Benz motor. The speed was 29 m. p. h. and could carry 0 people. The propeller was forward, of 2 blades, and 4.5 meters

t''am' DEAT-te-OF rolls.

The Hon. C. S{Uolls) met with his death at Bournemouth. Eng.NJ^ujyl2, while flying his Short-Wright machine in a contest for landing nearest to a" predetermined spot. Just what happened it is impossible to determine at this moment. The motor had been shut down previous to the glide down. -

The Hon. C. S. Uolls, son of Lord and Lady Llangattock. has been one of the foremost in a'ero-

Aeronautics August wo

International Aviation Tournament at Mineola.

The national and international aviation meeting for 191U will be held near Miueola, L. I., about one mile east of the present aviation field, beginning Oct. 15 and closing Oet. 23. The international speed contest for the Gordon Bennett trophy will take place on Oct. 22.

For this contest there will be at least 11 competitors—three from France, three from England, one from Italy and three from America. Elimination races for the selection of the French team were held in Itheims, July 5, when Latham, Leblanc and Labouehere were chosen. Latham uses an Antoinette aud the other two Bleriots.

Grouped about the international speed championship contest will be an interesting program of events, including many novelties and extraordinary feats for aeroplanes. This program is now being arranged, and will be announced as soon as possible. Cash prizes amounting to about $50,000 will be awarded for the most important achievements, with several special prizes for other events.

Contracts are soon to be awarded for the building of the grand stands, aerodromes, etc., and the field, two and one-half miles in length by one mile in width, is now being put in proper shape.

In addition to the regular challengers for the International trophy, it is expected that a large number of foreign and American aviators will take part in the general program. Inquiries have already been received from many European aviators, and uo doubt many machines will actually ily over the course during the meet. It has not yet been determined who the American cup defenders will be, but it is expected that Glenn II. Curtiss, winner of the trophy last year, will be one of the three.

Lawrence L. Gillespie of the Aero Club of America, chairman of the subscribers' committee, reports good progress in raising the $250,0>00 necessary to fiuauee the meeting. The committee has appointed Gage E. Tarhell as general manager and Byron K. Newton as assistant manager, with offices at 320 Fifth Ave. Announcement of the prizes and program will soon be made.

Aviation Treaty Between Mexico and the United States First of Its Kind.

By E. L. Ramsey.

THE Foreign Office confirms the statement that negotiations are under way for the celebration of a treaty between Mexico and the United States for the purpose of regulating aerial traffic over the border line of the two countries with the special view of preventing smuggling.

So within a short time it will be illegal for an American to visit Mexico in an aeroplane or dirigible balloon, because it would violate the treaty which is being negotiated between the United States and Mexico.

Charles K. Hamilton has already crossed the Rio Grande at Ciudad Juarez and El Taso in an aeroplane, and the long flights that are uow being made are sufficient notice that such events will not be remarkable iu the future. This makes it necessary for the two governments to extend the provisions of their treaties regarding immigration and the collection of customs duties so that inspections may be made in the interior as well as on the border.

The officials of the State Department have made many favorable comments on the advantages to be derived from such a treaty.

americans iu fly in mexico next fall.

Joseph Hidalgo and Sparks M. Berry, of Los Angeles, have made proposals to take part iu the centennial celebrations in Mexico City this fall. They propose to bring a number of aeroplanes, with expert aviators, dirigible balloons and several aerostats. This has given rise to new hopes on the part of Governor De Landa y Es-candon of the Federal District to make this one of the drawing cards of the event.

The matter will be discussed by the national centennial committee, of which Mr. Landa y Es-candon is the president, at the next meeting, and no reply will be given to either of the proposals until then.

Terms of Chicago-New York Flight Announced.

Dates have been set for the contest to be held under the auspices of the New York Times and the Chicago Evenxuy Post from Chicago to New York for a prize of $25,000. The race will start October S from the Windy City.

A resume of the conditions follows: Entries may be made at any time after publication of the terms. There must be at least three competitors or no race. The start shall be 10 o'clock a. m., or as soon thereafter as may be, and shall be simultaneous, if possible. In case of uad weather, the start may be postponed from day to day until Oct. 15. Each entered machine must be in Chicago by Oct. 3 and give daily trial flights until start. The race must be finished within. 168 hours from the start. Stops unlimited. Each entrant must have a verifled record of one hours continuous flight in Chicago between Oet. 3 and 8. Repairs may be made en route, but aviators must flmsh in the same machines they make the start. If the start is simultaneous, the tirst machine that reaches the finish within the rules will be adjudged winner, but in case the entrants start at intervals, due allowance will be made. A flight of equal or of greater length than the proposed course, Ijrior to the race in this country, shall serve to invalidate its terms. The promoters of the event reserve the right to delegate the management of the affair to a recognized aeronautical society if such a course is deemed advisable.

Public school 77 of New York celebrated a "safe and sane" Fourth by having a free balloon ascension in addition to kite contests. It was not intended to be of the free variety, but the bag-took charge of itself and sailed over to Mas-peth, L. I.

An 18-ft. balloon was furnished by A. Leo Stevens and a generating plant was installed iu the Central Park yard at 97th St. After inflation was complete, the balloon was guided over and under trees in a brisk breeze, up Eighth Ave. to lOGth St., sustaining smiall holes in the journey. These were patched up, and the balloon, decorated with flags, was sent up at the end of a 2,0O0-ft. rope. In pulling the balloon down in the late afternoon, the rope broke and the balloon slowly went out of sight. Not being quite full, there was ample opportunity for the gas to expand. When found, it showed signs of having burst at a great altitude.

Clifton O'Brien of the Pacific Aero Club is flying a Farman type biplane with a 60 a. p. Hall engine.

Aeronautics

August, ipio

St. Louis Aero Show.

That exhibits of complete aeroplanes and motors built expressly for aerial use will be the feature uf the St. Louis National Aero Show, in the Coliseum, Oct. S to i:>, is now assured by contracts for floor space which have been made by several well-known concerns, among them the agents for the Gnome motor, to which I'aulhan and Farman attribute much of their success.

Complete aeroplanes and a new aero motor will be shown by the Aerial Navigation Co. of Girard, Ivans. This concern has already completed three machines of the same type, which are reported to have been sold, and has now constructed three more.

The Aeromotion Co. of America (.St. Louis; has taken space in which to exhibit the Gnome motor, and has reserved additional room for exhibiting two types of foreign-made aeroplanes for the agency of which they have about completed negotiations. Marc tseguin of the Aeromotion Co. cabled to the French house of Gnome motors before taking space and learned that the company could furnish a motor for exhibition at the time of the show. It will probably be the first Gnome motor shown in St. Louis.

Another type of rotary motor, which works upon practically the same principle as uie French-made Gnome, wilt be exhibited by the nolines Rotary Motor Co. of Denver, Colo. The western Oil t'ump and Tank Co. (St. Mollis J has taiien space, and will exhibit its regular line oi lUuks and self-measuring pumps, but in addition 10 this, it is rumored that lhis company will snow something novel in the way of an aerial accessory which will be of considerable importance to airmen.

The Aeronautic isupply Co., which has just opened a store on Olive St. in the heart of the automobile district, will be auother St. Louis exhibitor, showing practically everything for the construction of complete planes as well as the finished machines. Tuis concern has already placed St. Louis in an important position as far as the aeronautic industry is concerned. It was the first aeronautic supply house in America, and it is said that its present number of clients is 3,000 people, embracing the entire country, Canada and Mexico.

The eight or ten airmen about to take part in the novice meet of the Aero Club of St. Louis are very much interested in the coming aero show, and have expressed their intentions to have exhibits there, provided they are successful in their work this summer.

Hamilton Tries Two Cycle Engines.

Charles K. Hamilton, who has split with Cur-tiss, has borrowed for temporary use the Curtiss type aeroplane built by Fred Shneider for G. E. DeLong of the Elbridge Engine Co. of Rochester, land expects to use it in demonstration flights at Mineola until his own high-powered racing machine is completed, which will probably be the first part of August. The De Long machine is equipped with an Elbridge two-cycle 40-00 h. p. engine, Bosch magneto and Requa-Gibson propeller, El Arco radiator and Ilarttord tires. This is the same machine which Dr. Greene flew at Rochester.

C. W. Bennett, who was associated with Messrs. Wilcox. McDonald and Carruthers in getting up the Montreal meet, has disposed of his interests and has joined hands with the Aviation Co. of Canada.

The Aviation Co. of Canada has been organized with offices at 201 St. Catherine St.. Montreal, with the primary object of promoting so-called "meets," supplying fairs, etc.. and has secured representation in the maritime provinces and the west.

John McGoveru on June IT delivered a panegyric an hour and a half in length, entitled "The United Brethren, Wilbur and Orville," at the Press Club of Chicago.

Rules for $15,000 Prize.

The rules for the Edwin Gould $15,000 prize have been formulated, and are, in short, as follows :

For the most perfect and practicable flyer designed and demonstrated 111 this country, having two or more power plants, capable of working independently or in conjunction. File complete specifications and drawings with contest committee, Scientific American, 301 Broadway, i\ew lork, on or before June 1, 1011. Contest takes place July 4, lull, and following days. Two machines must enter or no award. -i

Before competing, applicant must have made flight at least one hour, using but one power plant^iucl must also in same flight drive engines alternately and together. Open to any gasless apparatus. No entry fee. Location of place of trial to be announced about June 1, 1011.

Kite Contests at Mineola.

Edward Uuraut is directing kite flying and model contests every Saturday at Mineola. Two score boys started the first of the series on July 4th for a cup offered by Mr. Kurant. At the end of an hour many of the kites had escaped and the contest was brought to a close. The three prizes went to Frank Krug, John Kiusella and Car] Morehouse respectively.

Pennsylvania Club Has Grounds.

The Pennsylvania Aero Club is building six sheds at Clementon, N. J. Edward Augsberger is working on his machine in one shed, the Lesh aeroplane belonging to Herbert llazzard is another and Louis P.ergdoll who bought a Bleriot some time ago will probably use another shed. A meet is in anticipation for the Fall.

Armour Institute's Aero Course.

The rapid development of aerial navigation has led the Armour Institute of Technology to offer instruction in the more important branches of this subject. The object of the course is to prepare students for experimental and practical work in aeronautics.

The elements of what is known of the scientific principles upon which the art of flying is based are taught. Students are made acquainted with the work and results of the principal experimenters ; and also with the methods of construction now used in successful air ships and aeroplanes, including motors. These courses are elective and open to Juniors and Seniors of all departments.

The subjects of instruction are :

aerodynamics.

The work in this subject includes the study of fluid resistance, stream line forms, the economics of flight, the theory and efficiency of the screw propeller, and experimental aerodynamics. Published accounts of experiments, including the latest available, are drawn upon for data on which to base mathematical studies of the problems of flight.

Text-book: Lancaster, Aerial Flight, 1 ol. I. Aerodynamics, supplemented with lectures.

Two hours per week during the second semester of the Junior year.

aeronautical designing.

The studies include the stresses in the principal tvpes of balloons, air ships, and aeroplanes now in use ; and the designing and detailing of these structures.

Lectures with problems assigned for solution by the students.

Two hours per week during the first semester of the Senior year.

gas engines.

Elementary theory, construction, and practical working of fight weight gas engines.

Two hours per week during the second semester of the Senior year.

Death of A. L. Pfitzner.

a. l. pfitzner, who was employed by g. ii. cur-tiss to design the present 4-cylinder curtiss engine, then building and flying a monoplane of his own and later experimenting with the burgess aeroplane at marblehead, mass., on july 12, went out in a boat and shot himself, falling into the water. the boat was found adrift. in it was his hat and coat and a note asking the finder of the boat to return it to its owner. the reason for his act is thought to be despondency. his loss is keenly felt by all those who knew him.

mr. pfitzner had been fairly successful in flying the burgess aeroplane, and had made numerous flights on his own machine, as recorded in aeronautics. on july 9 he made a flight of about 3 miles. when directly over the river at plum island, where all of the flights are being made with the burgess machine, a gust of wind hit the machine and both the aviator and the aeroplane landed in the water.

on july s he made a flight of a couple of miles and then landed, due to the overheating of the engine.

Meets Death in Glider.

eugene it. speyer, of san francisco, calif., a young lad student, who with his "pal," carlton gray, had built a biplane glider, was killed on june i during his lirst experience at gliding, while towed by an automobile. evidently frightened by the speed and a contrary gust of wind, be turned his front rudder down and the machine hit the ground and turned a somersault, breaking (he boy's ribs and resulting in his death a few minutes later in the hospital. speyer was quite insistent on being the first to try the machine and would not even toss a coin for choice.

The Wright Suits.

new york, july 1. the p. s. circuit court of appeals yesterday denied the motion on behalf of the wright company asking that the curtiss concern put up a bond to protect the petitioner from loss in the event of winning the patent suit. the petition sets forth the loss being done the wright company by the flights of curtiss and hamilton and others using curtiss machines. in the last issue the dissolution of the injunction against paulhan and curtiss was announced.

the suit against saulnier has been dropped as he left the country. pressure of work that has seemed more important has prevented suits being brought against harmon and other alleged infringers but the matter is not being held open awaiting final decision on the original suits. the wright company in the near future will proceed against every infringer who is injuring its business.

the wright co. has filed a demurrer to the action brought by charles lamson alleging infringement, stating that the bill of complaint does not show whether the infringement was committed by the defendants jointly or severally, and that it does not aver execution of the letters patent according to law.

WR1UUTS .made DUCrOUS of law.

oberlin college has conferred upon orville and wilbur wright the degree of doctor of l.aws.

Balloon Races Off.

the balloon race scheduled at peoria, july 5-0. was called off. a storm upset the plans for the st. louis race on june c>-7 and the balloons had to be deflated to save them.

octave chanute, who was taken ill in paris last month, is reported in a cablegram to his son. c. d. chanute, no. g047 jefferson ave., chicago, to be better. the message says : "no cause for alarm."

CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING

typewriters.—all makes. caligraphs $g.00 ; hammond, densmore $10.00i; remington $12.00; oliver $24.00; underwood $30.00. 15 days' free trial and year's guarantee. harlem typewriter exchange, dept. f IS, 217 west 125th st., new1 york city.__I

aeroplanf—position wanted by woodworkeil and mechanic experienced in aeroplane and gad engine work. davis, care of aeronautics.

no infringement—i am patenting designi of aeroplanes, with no vertical rudder, whicll does not conflict with wright patent. need mod-j erate capital to build. experienced, care of]

aeronautics.___

balloon for sale—new, 35,000-ft. balloon in fine shape. full equipment and instruments. cost $750. what will von pay or trade? eugene brown. peoria, 11l___

farm an aeroplanf—for sale cheap. the] identical farm an aeroplane which won endurance prize at rheims, france, for flight of over three| hours. new power plant. j. w. cuitzon, hawthorne aerodrome. hawthorne, 111.

the "white rotary" engine will

make yoi'k model fly. write about i t.I

miniature aeroplane wheels, RUBBErI

tired. veky strong and extra lightj

supplies for your model. white aelto-

plaxe co., 15 myrtle ave., brooklyn, x. y.

for sale—one 110.000 cubic foot balloon] holder of world's speed record. also one 40,0001 cubic foot balloon complete. make offer. 0. a. coey. 1710 indiana avenue, chicago. I

wanted.— capital to develop or construct "man-carrying aeroplane," entirely original inl ventiou on new scientific principles. patent! granted in all civilized countries on miniaturel models which will be sent to interested parties] for the price of one dollar. xo other miniaturel flying machine stands comparison in its simplicity and stability of construction and wonderful acl tion. will iiv under any condition of wind. foil further information write e. eiciiexfeli). xol

11 south 7th sf, minneapolis, minn.__I

mechanical exgixfer wishes position al charge over aeroplane building; has 7 years' exj perience in aeroplanes, motors and experimental work. address m. e., c. o. aeronautics.

having developed a totally new device for automatically balancing and steering aerial crafts, i wish to co-operate with a party, willing to furnish a few hundred dollars for building and demonstrating the same in a flying craft of any make.

this apparatus embodies principles and features of the highest importance and value, and will become fundamental and indispensable to aerial navigation.

leading features of the apparatus :

size 10 in. x 10 in. x 20 in. balances the largest

craft, be it wright, curtiss, blcriot, any dirigible,

etc.

possesses a positive, iion-osciUatable, vertical] (fundamental requirement) controller at all timej that is perfect, and will never and can never be] radically changed or improved upon.

balances flying machines with their planes inl tilted, warped, ascending, descending positions with utmost accuracy.

all steering mechanism combined in one hand \\ heel.

flying in horizontal, ascending, descending, di-| rections, circular, spiral curves of any radius by predetermined action on this one hand-wheel without ever interrupting the automatic balancing operations.

patents applied for in several countries. an early demonstration of this invention, presented here without exaggeration, is the principal motive for advertising it. address :

g. cawlet. 231s sixth ave.. seattle, wash. (.Continued on page 75)

I :: BIBLIOGRAPHY :: j

fLYlNOMACniMfS

CONSTRUCIIOH&OPfRKnon

Flying Machines: Construction and Operation, is a new book announced by the Charles C. Thompson. Co., of Chicago. It will be ready for distribution June I. The authors are W. J. Jackman and Thos. H. Russell, both well k n o w n as writers on mechanical topics. Octave Chanute, C. E., a recognized authority on aviation, contributes a chapter on "Evolution of the Two Surface Flying Machine," which will undoubtedly be of interest and benefit.

While many valuable works on aviation are in circulation, the preliminary announcement of "Flying Machines : Construction and Operation," makes plain the fact that this is something different. In the words of the publishers it is a "show how'' book for novices who wish to construct and operate flying machines. With this purpose in view it is strictly non-technical and easy to understand.

For sale by Aeronautics at $1.50 in leather; $1.00 in cloth.

Les Aeroplanes de 1910 by R. de Gaston, secretary of the French Society of Aerial Navigation. Preface by M. J. Armengaud. and a study on propellers by M. V. Tatin. Librarie Aeronantique, 32 rue Madame, Paris. Price 4 fr.

A technical study of the principal aeroplanes of 1910, usually showing drawings, which gives in brief space very complete data, figures, scales and comparative tables. This is a work of real value to the experimenter and to the student of aviation.

The Sky-Man is the title of a new and absorbing book just brought out by The Century Co., Xew York. A pleasure yacht goes up into the wilds of the frozen North, searching for some signs of a lost vessel which contains an Arctic explorer and his party. On board the yacht is a young girl. Jeanne Fielding, the daughter of that explorer. Up into the same region of the North comes a young man, Philip Cayley, who has long been an outcast from civilization, because of a crime of which he was not really guilty. He has taught himself to fly with a pair of giant wings whose motive force is the muscular power of his own body. Wild chance and a quick succession of stirring adventures leave the "sky-man" and the young girl alone to fight privation and darkness through an Arctic winter. Of course, there is a villain in the case, a half insane Norwegian sailor, whose

stealthy appearances make life miserable for Philip and Jeanne.

It is a book which appeals to the imagination—a story not sociological nor with a problem in it, but of the kind of adventure that one finds in "Robinson Crusoe" and "Treasure Island." For sale by Aeronautics at $1.30.

The Epitome of tlie Aeronautical Annuul. Mr. .lames Means, who published the "Aeronautical Annual," in. ISOo, lS'Jfi and ISO", has completed an epitome of these volumes, all three numbers of the Annual being now out of print. Mr. Means' Annuals have been of great value to experimenters but are not so well known to present-day enthusiasts. A vast amount of good information will be obtained from this book. The principal articles of the three previous volumes are incorporated in the epitome, with several new ones. The article by Octave Chanute on "Soaring Flight."' printed in Aeronautics for April, 1009, has been substituted for Mr. Channte's two previous articles in the Annuals. Prof. A. Lawrence Kotch has written a chapter on the relation of the wind to aerial navigation, and the history of the Blue' Hill Observatory is given up to date. For sale by Aeronautics at $1.12.

The Art of A dation, by K. YV. A. Brewer, a "Handbook upon Aeroplanes and their Engines," with notes upon propellers. Svo., cloth. 253 pp. fully illustrated with 12 large plates. This is a very practical book and will be of value to anyone who can make use of higher mathematics, although the theoretical is done away with. The tables of weights lifted at various angles, wind pressures, etc., will be found of value. Contents include: Comparison of Monoplanes and Biplanes; Form. Support. Stability. Weight and Horse Power: Herson's Machine: Engine Problems (This is quite exhaustive); Descriptions of Engines (Many engines are described in detail) : Propellers. Relation between Pitch Speed. Thrust and H. P.: Efficiency of Propellers by Various Methods. Tables; Materials of Construction: Details of Manufacture: Successful Monoplanes: Biplanes: Wright and Voisin Compared. Tables of Leading Machines; Progressive Records; Art of Flying, eliding, etc. Price, $3.50. from Aeronautics."

Iloir to Build an Aeroplane. This is a new book translated from the French of Robert Petit by T. o'B. Hubbard and .1. II. Ledeboer. The author, who is an eminent French engineer, has made a personal study of the method of adopting by various European manufacturers, and has tried to incorporate in the book such knowledge of methods adopted by constructors as will be of benefit to those building.

The contents include : General Principles of Aeroplane Design: Theory and Calculation (Resistance, Lift. Power. Calculations for the Design of an Aeroplane, Application of Power. Design of Propeller. Arrangement of Surfaces. Stability. Center of Gravity, etc. 1 ; Materials; Construction of Propellers: Arrangement for Starting and Land ing; Controls: Placing Motor, etc.; The Planes (Curvature, etc.): Motors.

Lc Constructcur de Pctits Aeroplanes, par M. R. Petit. A large pamphlet containing working plans of four small easily flown aeroplane models with complete directions for their construction. Pub lished at .'!() cents by Librarie Aeronantique, ."2 rue Madame, Paris.

I/Aeroplane de VAvenir. par Henri Picq. A brochure with drawings ami plans of a freak aerial omnibus. Price 31» cents, at Librarie Aeronantique. ."2 rue Madame. Paris.

The Art ,of Flying, by Thomas Walker, is the third of the series of classics being published serially by the British Aeronautical Society. This may be had from King. Sell & Olding. 27 Chancery Lane, London, England, at 30 cents.

aeronautics

. August, ig i'd

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Sole Makers( and Exhibitors of the Famous

WRIGHT FLYERS

both 'planes and motors built entirely in our own factory

the wright company

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Lighter Gas for Balloons.

A new German invention of value for free balloons is reported by Consul Tbomas H. Norton of Chemnitz :

Illuminating gas is forced through long tubes, maintained at a very high temperature. Most of the carbon in the hydrocarbons is thus separated out and the percentage of hydrogen is largely increased, so that this gas constitutes SO per cent of the modified coal gas. At the same time it is deprived almost entirely of its characteristic odor, and freed from the presence of benzine, which exerts an undesirable solvent action upon the materials employed to render balloons impermeable. The most important change is that in buoyancy, as the specific gravity sinks from 0.44 to 0.225, or less than one-quarter the weight of air. This means that 1 cubic meter of the new gas can support a weight of 1 kilo (.2.2 pounds!, fn coal gas, 1 cubic meter supports O.T kilo. A balloon with a capacity of 7,000 cu. ft., when inflated with the new gas, has a lifting power equal to that of a balloon of 10,00.0 cu. tt. charged with ordinary coal gas.

Wellman in the Air Again.

It has been announced that Walter Wellman and Melville V'animan, who have made a number of attempts to reach the pole by airship without success, are now planning to sail from Europe to the States in the same ship, "America," used in previous expeditions. The London Telegraph and the New York Times are exploiting the attempt, agreeing to purchase all the news which Mr. Well-man can produce.

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% Trade Notes j

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TO OUR FRIENDS.—We would appreciate it very much if you would specify in writing advertisers that you suit) the ad. in AERONAUTICS. Ttiis will help us, and eventually be of equal service to yourselves.

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The Call Aviation Engine.

A decided refinement in aeronautic engine construction is that adopted by the Aerial Navigation Co. of America, with headquarters at Girard. Ivans., in the Call aviation engine.

This is a regular opposed two and four cylinder engine of the usual four-cycle type, water cooled, G-in. bore by 51,4-in. stroke; the two-cylinder engine developing 50 horsepower and the four-cylinder engine developing 100 horsepower at 1,900 revolutions per minute.

It is in the cylinder and cylinder head construction that the chief point of interest lies.

Even with the usual copper or other sheet metal water jacket, adopted by most aeronautic engine manufacturers to lighten the weight of iron cylinders, the great weight of cast iron either compels an unduly thin cylinder in order to keep down the weight, or, in case the cylinder walls are made of the requisite thickness for strength, the engine becomes very heavy.

�8090854

8

On the other hand, the employment of steel for cylinders, as has been attempted by certain manufacturers, both in this country and Europe, has not, to say the least, met with signal success. Whether from the extreme thinness of'the cylinder walls or to steel being less satisfactory in its (.earing finalities than gray iron, engines of this construction, while giving satisfactory short runs, have failed in endurance tests.

In the Call engine the cylinder walls, piston heads, valve cages, valve seats, as also all other parts exposed to the heat of explosion chamber, are constructed of a special high-grade vanadium gray iron, while the outer cylinders and cylinder

heads, comprising also the water jacket, are constructed of a special high-grade alloy of aluminum and maguesium called magualinm.

Unlike other constructions in which the use of an outer cylinder of lighter metal with an inner cylinder or bushiug of gray iron has been attempted, it will be observed from the accompanying illustrations, first, that the iron inner bushing is surrounded throughout its entire explosion chamber length by the jacket water, without any intervening metal or joints, and, second, that no part of the lighter metal of which the outer cylinder and cylinder heads are composed is exposed to the heat of explosion chamber.

With proper water circulation, all danger of the overheating of the outer cylinders is thus avoided, and the proper adjustment maintained between the relative heat conductivity and expansive qualities of the two metals.

The gray iron bushings are machined to a perfect fit both inside and out. and arc then pressed into the outer cylinder from the top. These bushings are of amnio thickness throughout the length of explosion chamber, and1 below that are considerably reduced in thickness. As will bo seen from the accompanying illustrations, an additional shoulder upon the inner cylinder at the top is machined to fit into a companion groove in the magnalium cvlincler in order to make a thoroughly water-tight connection, while the spiral nartitions of the magnalium water jacket extend inward to the iron cylinder, greatly strengthening it to resist the explosive stress encountered.

P.y the use of this lighter metal for the main outer cylinder, enormous strength of construction is permitted without undue weight. The magnalium cylinders are. in fact, of sufficient thickness to give a tensile strength of something like 1 ."0.000 lbs., while the cylinder base and cylinder heads are each secured by a dozen steel studs or cap screws % in. in thickness, having a combined tensile strength of 150.000 lbs.

In order to further lighten the engine, the valve cages, which are also of vanadium gray iron in one piece, are air cooled above the level of the cylinder heads; while below this and around the valve seats they are most efficiently water cooled. The crankoaso and fittings not exposed to the heat of explosion chamber are also made of magnalium, similar to the material used for outer cylinders and cylinder heads, and the crankoaso is thoroughly braced and ribbed in such a way as to give enormous strength combined with minimum weight.

Having thus secured lightness in the heavier engine parts, there has been no attempt made upon the part of the designer to secure lightness by the use of freakish material and insufficient sizes

Detroit Aeronautic Construction Co.

Builders of Light Weight, High - Power MOTORS. PROPELLERS and RADIATORS

OUR motors combining compactness, simplicity and power, are the result of twenty years of practical gas engine construction. A card will bring our circular with full description.

Detroit Aeronautic Construction Co. D0ETRO?TLcrcB„,AGvAEk

Four Cylinder x AYi in. 30 to 40 H.P., complete with radiator and 6-ft. x 3>Sft.-

DETROIT, MICHIGAN Four cylinder 5x5 in., Six cylinder 5x5 io., 40 to 50 H.P., com- 60 to 70 H.P., complete with radiator plete with radiator

pitch propeller,

$650

Weigh! per outfit 175 lbs. I Wgt. per outtil 200 lbs.

and 7-ft.x4-ft.-(57rn and 8-ft.x4-ft.-«nrn pitch propeller"'>JU pitch propeller«33U Wgt.per outfit 240 lbs,

LARGEST and MOST Complete

CATALOGUE

OF

AERO SUPPLIES

ever printed

37 models of aero motors alone

R. 0. RUBEL, Jr. & CO.

Louisville, Ky.

Mention Aeronautics When Writing

CHURCH

Aeroplane Co.

BROOKLYN, N. Y.

Working Models Flying Models Separate Parts

MODELS BUILT TO ORDER

From Working Drawings, Etc.

SUPPLIES FOR MODEL BUILDERS:

ArtrjuxuJi, Rattan, Bamboo, White-Wood, Etc.

Special Notice!

WE have received so many inquiries for agency propositions and orders are coming in so fast, that our mail has grown to such an extent, that we find ourselves unable to keep up with our correspondence, but will fill orders and answer all letters as quickly as possible until we have increased our facilities still further.

Price List of Models and Parts

is now ready, but it will be some little time before our

Supply Catalog for Full Size

Machines is ready for distribution as there are so many new things to list. In asking for catalog, please state which one you want.

CHURCH AEROPLANE CO.

Main office and factory 123 South St.,

BROOKLYN, N. Y.

Chicago office, 49 Wabash Ave., H. S. Renton, Manager.

in the construction of piston heads, connecting rods, crankshaft and other like parts. The piston heads and rings are also made of vanadium gray iron. The connecting rods are the best grade of vanadium phosphor bronze, specially designed for strength, and the crankshaft is of the best grade of vanadium steel, solid throughout.

The valves are of large size and have unusually large valve lifts. Both the inlet and exhaust valves are 2 in. in diameter, and the valve lift is % in., giving free clearance. In addition to the main exhaust valves, a %-in. (inside diameter) auxiliary exhaust port, thoroughly water cooled, is placed on the bottom side of each cylinder. This exhaust port is allowed to open somewhat in advance of the main port, and thus draws the fire, furnishing an additional safeguard against the overheating of the main exhaust valve seats and hearings.

Both the main and exhaust ports are silenced, not by means of the usual baffle and mufller plates, which crowd the exhaust back into the explosion chamber, but by a special silencer constructed of an inner casing of steel tubing, with V slotted mouth, over which an outer casing of aluminum tubing of considerably larger proportions is then fitted by means of a vanadium gray iron ring or thimble containing a large number of holes around its entire circumference. The force of the exhaust pumps the cold air through these openings, and by this means the gases are so cooled and shrunk by the time they reach the mouth of the silencer as to greatly diminish the deafening noise so pronounced a feature of other aviation motors.

engine details.

Fig. 1 is a central horizontal section of the cylinder and piston of engine. Fig. 2 is a vertical section taken on the line II-I1 of Fig. 1. Fig. 3 is a vertical section taken on the line III-III of Fig. 1. Fig. 4 is an enlarged section at the outer end of the cylinder on the line IV-IV of Fig. 2. Fig. 5 is a similar view on the line V-V of Fig. 2. Fig. 6 is a vertical section of a part of the cylinder on the line VI-VI of Fig. 1.

Especial attention has been devoted to securing the greatest possible cooling facilities. To this end the water jacket partitions are spirally arranged in such a manner that the jacket water passes four times around the cylinders during each circuit, and then over the entire surface of the cylinder heads. In addition to this, the engine is also equipped with a piston circulation pump instead of the usual centrifugal or gear pump adopted on automobiles, and copied by other

aviation engine manufacturers. This piston pump is positive iu its action, and in connection with the spiral cooling flanges forces the jacket water four times around the cylinders during each 15 seconds.

While the manufacturers of this engine have endeavored to put upon the market a moderate priced engine, they have spared no pains and expense to make the engine of the very best quality, both in the character of its workmanship and finish. Ail the exposed parts of the engine not constructed of niagnalium—a shining non-corrod'ihle metal— are nickel plated, and the whole engine is polished to a mirror finish. The demand has been so large that the manufacturers have been compelled to increase their shop and foundry facilities from time to time, until they are prepared to supply the engine on short notice and in any numbers. The prices of the above engines are .$1,(100 for the 50 h. p. and $1.700 for the 100 h. p. respectively. These prices include all accessories, such as carburetor, pump, ignition and radiator facilities.

Two Spark Plugs to a Cylinder.

Messrs. Unterberg & Ilelmle, who ' make the famous 1*. & 11. Master magnetos, have developed a new type of magneto, which meets with every requirement of speed service. In this new U. & II. raciug magneto, two armatures are employed mounted tandem, and running in the same armature tunnel on one shaft. These armatures are fitted with two complete sets of windings, each set consisting of a primary and secondary winding. The most unusual feature of the magneto lies in the fact that but one interrupter is employed to break the primary circuit of both armature windings, and it is obvious that this arrangement must produce the high tension current in each armature winding., and must produce these two impulses at precisely the same instant.

two plugs for each cylinder.

The magneto is equipped with a compound distributor, each armature winding being connected by conventional means with the distributor, one set of plugs is connected with one distributor, and the other set of plugs, of course, connects with the other distributor. Two safety spark gaps are provided, one for each high-tension circuit, so as to eliminate any danger of damaging the windings, should the cables, leading to the plugs, be accidentally damaged.

As will be seen, the above unique arrangement overcomes all objections heretofore found in the use of two magnetos on racing motors. It is immaterial as to the amount of wear which takes place iu the driving mechanism, or the amount of wear on the interrupter mechanism of the magneto, as the one break of the magneto interrupter operates for both windings. It is impossible to derange the magneto so that one set of plugs will receive the electric impulse before the other does, and tests made abroad with this new type of mag-

TO THE PROMOTERS OF THE

Coming Aeroplane Meets

YOU want exhibitions of Man-Lifting Aeroplane Kite Flying to interest the crowds while the aviators are not flying. C. High or even moderate winds will invariably keep the aeroplanists from flying until late each afternoon. Before then we will fill the air with hundreds of 9- and 12-foot Aeroplane Kites of every known kind. By flying these, dozens in tandem, enormous American flags, streamers and announcement banners about the meet can be lifted a half mile in the air.

C. These scientific kites will fly all day and the displays will be a great attraction in themselves and will keep the crowds quiet and contented, when for any reason the aeroplanes cannot fly. C. At the Meet of the West Hudson Aero Club at Arlington, X. J., June, 1909, New York papers said, "The hundreds of kites in the air were a decided feature."

SAMUEL F. PERKINS

110 Tremont St. :: Boston, Mass.

♦ ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦MM

NON-INFRINGING

AEROPLANES

Guaranteed to Fly

Ready for Early Delivery J

Easy Terms for Exhibitors

Manufacturer and Dealer in

AERONAUTICAL SUPPLIES

Aviators for Tournaments J

N.Y. Agent for Elbridge Engine Co.

FRED. SHNEIDER

1020 E.. 178th Street New York <

♦■♦♦♦♦»»♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦

aeroplane tires

Clincher type only, which Is the lightest and most satisfactory type for aeroplanes

SIZE Weight complete

20x4 in. 6i lbs.

26x2i " 6i "

28x2i " 7i "

28x3 " 8 "

28x31 " 8f "

Wheels also furnished for the above sizes Pennsylvania Rubber Co., Jeannette, Pa.

BRANCHES: New York-1 741 Broadway ; Boston— 167 Oliver Street; Chicago—1241 Michigan Avenue; San Francisco—5'2 Mission Street: Los Angeles—930 So. Main Street.

4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.******************

* î

* The acme of engineering skill |

THE WORLD FAMOUS

Whitehead Motor!

*

Designed by the Noted ♦

Engineer *

GUSTAVE WHITEHEAD 4.

No Bursting Cylinders—No Cams— +

* No Springs or Valves to Work Loose *

Construction of the utmost simplicity 4*

Vibration negligible jjj

Absolutely Nothing to get Out of Order i

* 4 Cylinders (vertical), 8 port exhaust, 2 cycle 4«

75 H.P. 200 lbs. 145 " 95 "

Price $1,400 " $1,150 $950

*

* * * * * * *

* 4«

X

* * 4»

Î

******************************

* *

* 40

* 25 *

* Including Bosch Magneto—30-day deliveries

* GEORGE A. LAWRENCE, Mgr.,

jjj Astor Theatre [Building, New York, N. Y.

* This motor has been exclusively adopted by + ^J, C.& A.Wittemann, Aeroplane Manufacturers

neto show conclusively that the principle of operal tion of this new U. & H. Master Magneto is corl rcct, and that while it is possible to secure fairll satisfactory results by connecting two separate magnetos to the motor, the use of the U. & Hi racing magneto assures the maximum efficiency on the motor at all times, owing to the fact that itl is impossible for the sparks in any cylinder to occur out of synchronism.

Aside from the principal features outlined above, the magneto is of the well-known U. & H. construction, employing the U. & H. non-adjustablel interrupter, which is another detail of great in-] terest to racing men, as it eliminates all possible! chance of ignition difficulties, due to breaking oil sticking of the pivots, springs, insulation, and! other parts used on other types of interrupters.i The armature and distributor of the machine are mounted on annular ball bearings, which effectually eliminates any possibility of trouble, due to lack of oil.

Buffalo Pitts Co. Building Aeroplane.

The Buffalo Pitts Company of Buffalo, N. Y.,| who are large engine builders, have under construction an aeroplane. In the course of their experiments with this machine over a number of years, they had occasion to try out certain models demonstrating new aerodynamic principles, and one of these models created so much interest in its operation, that they decided to make a flying toy novelty of it, which they have done, giving it the name of "Hi-Flyer" helicoptic flying machine, patented and copyrighted.

This little machine flies to a height of over 000 feet, and can be operated by any child. Shooting the "Hi-Flyer" is as much fun for grown people as for children, and is an excuse for outdoor exercise for everybody. It has been the sen-siation of the aviation meets throughout the country. It is used by aviators for determining the direction and velocity of the wind at high altitudes, and there is a special demand for it for this purpose at aero clubs, as well as for use on golf courses, and at amusement parks and beaches.i

Kites Now Feature of Meets.

The kites of Samuel F. Perkins were a con-j tinual source of amusement and interest during] the Indianapolis. Montreal and Toronto meets. These flew all the time and provided the public with something to look at when the 'planes did not fly. One Montreal newspaper featured an announcement of the kites on its news bulletins, illustrating the surprising value kites are lending to meets. These kites are sent up on many lines, singly, in tandem and other ways, and carry various banners, streamers and flags, advertising either the meet or articles of general use. If there is not enough wind for kites small balloons take the place of the kites and perform the same usefulness. The regular outfit numbers 100 kites of all kinds. A new stunt is a huge box kite made like an aeroplane, with rudders and propeller. In the air it looks exactly like the real thing and remains stationary in the air. In this it has it over its original.

Rinek Aero Mfg. Co.

The Rinek Aero Manufacturing Company of Easton. Pa., was recently incorporated with C. Norvin Rinek president and Frank Buckman. secretary-treasurer to conduct the light motor and aeroplane business heretofore handled by the machine department of the Easton Cordage Company. It was felt that on account of the rapidly increasing business handled by the machine department that a greater volume could be more efficiently handled by an organization devoted solely to aeronautics. The Rinek engine has found favor through consistent performance and good workmanship and material. Philip W. Wilcox, who has built a Farman-type machine at Mineola. speaks highly of the motor and the company's treatment of him.

Catalogues Wanted.

Manufacturers are requested to send catalogues l)f motors, propellers and accessories to Miguel l.ebrija, Ave. del I'alacio Legislative Xo. 42, Mex-co. I>. V.. Mexico.

J. W. Curzon Starts Aero School.

J. W. Curzon who brought the first Karman icroplane into this country and has made flights Ivith it at the Indianapolis motor speedway, has Istablished a training school where would-be avi-Itors build actual machines. Those who want 10 learn to fly only will be accommodated at the Hawthorne racetrack, Chicago, where he has as-lociated himself with M. L. Kasmar, author of I First Lessons in Aeronautics." An effort will be liade to furnish graduates of the school with positions as aviators. Owners of machines will also le taught to fly them.

I Three machines will be put out by the manu-lacturing end of the concern, all to be noninfringing and equipped with Elbridge engines, rhese are:

I Curzon No. 1, small biplane, main planes 2S by I ft.; box kite elevator, size 0 ft. by 2 ft. each; linglerplane stabilizer with slight camber; 17% Iq. ft. of surface; Curtiss lype chassis and rudder. I Curzon Xo. 2, main planes "2 ft. by G ft., single-llano stabilizer with I !S sq. ft. of surface, single-llane elevator in front. 15 sq. ft. I Curzon monoplane, main plane 35 ft. by 7 ft. Ihassis similar to Farman; aspect same as Far-lian. hut with bottom plane entirely removed with Ixception of middle section, which is made much larrower, and is lowered down so that the driver Its immediately above the wheels with engine at lis back and propeller far above the engine, chain Iriven, thus placing man and motor far below lie main lifting surface, which is 12% ft. high, in Irder to maintain stability in all kinds of weather, liiigle-plane stabilizer behind as well as hori-l^ntal rudder in front, 15 and IS sq. ft. respec-vely.

About Hartford Tires.

While to many people if may seem strange that flying machine is equipped with tires, never-Jiolcss in almost all oases this is true. The lurtiss machine used by Charles K. Hamilton in lis flight in Xew 1'ritain is fitted with three lartford aviator tiros 2<> in. by 2 in. in size. I Hartford tires have been used since the first liys of the bicycle, and have kept abreast of the rocession of now inventions, and when the Icroplane became pouular and tires were found a fcquisite part of their equipment, the Hartford lubber Co. had three styles of tires to offer. At he first aerial show held in Madison Square [anion the Hartford company was the only tire khibitor. showiiri at thut time its aviator, aero-lane and aeronaut tires. These tires are pneumatics, mostly in small zes and of special construction to afford all the >siliency possible, as this is necessary to aid the lachine in starting from the ground—and yet the •ead must be very durable and of a certain I'greo of toughness to withstand contact with pstacles which may come in the path of the 1 roplane.

There are already in this country more than a kindred flying machines fitted with Hartford tires, lecently a good-sized shipment was made to the [urtiss factory.

Shaffer Supply Co. Absorbed.

,The Shaffer Aero Manufacturing and Supply Co.

San Francisco has been absorbed by the Cali-Irnia Aero .Manufacturing and Supply Co. Roy pott, a well-known automobile man of San Fran-[seo, is now a partner in the rapidly growing lisincss.

The new salesroom, factory and office at 441 lid 443 (Jolden Gate Ave. is already a head-parters for the aeronautically inclined on the 'cific Coast.

AEROPLANES

Bleriot

Antoinette Sommer

AND ALL TYPES

E. N. V. GNOME ANZANI, Etc.

SPARES PARTS

Organization of MEETINGS in All the World

Aug.C.Gomes&Cie.

Trade and Export 63 Bd. Haussmann PARIS

MOTORLESS

THE next grent achievement in aviation may he Motor less Fi.niiT. Many eminent engineers and physicists believe it to be atta'nab'.e by man. We know that it is performed by the birds. Read the article entitled "Soaring Flight," by Octave Ciiancte, in the Epitome of the Aeronautical Annum.. This Epitome contains also articles by

CAYLEY, \Ve\I1 AM, LlLlENTIlAL, M AXIM,

Lanolev and others who laid the foundations of the science of aviation. ^J- pages, 18 plates. Price $1.00; postage 12 cents. W. H. CLARKE CO., L2C) Tremont St., Boston.

HOLMES ROTARY MOTOR

7 Cylinder

30-35 H. P. 70-80 H. P. 3 lbs. per H. P.

Superior to any Aviation Motor built in this or any other country.

A. D. Mackay

General Sales Agent First National Bank Bldg. CHICAGO

Roebling Aviator Cord

Made of the highest strength wire drawn from special steel

The strongest and lightest cord procurable

JOHN A. ROEBLING'S SONS CO.,

Trenton, N. J.

They report a large demand for their laminatel ribs, which are carried in stock and made to order, the four-ply o-t't.. ."-ft. (5-in. and G-ft. G-inl lengths being favorites. They are now filling aJ order for ribs of the exceptional size of 8 ft. (5 inl

The 20-in. aero wheel made by this company isi replacing a number that have "dished" its 7-inl hub. steel rims and heavy spokes, making it pracl tic-ally unbreakable. Regularly equipped with ball hearings. Friction bearings on order.

They are now placing on the market a knockdown plane, or rather a biplane, carrying surfaces 30 ft. by 5% ft. The outfit includes laminate* main beams and ribs, struts, sockets, joints anl rib connections, to which can lie attached any sorl of rudders and chassis, one of the three ' typB made by this company, or by the buyer.

Mr. Cleve T. Shaffer, whose technical descriotionsl Aeronautics' readers are familiar with, will be consulting aeronautic expert for the firm.

The following agencies have been secured: Whitehead motors, Detroit 2 <>-."> it motor, l'almer I Uoodyear aero tires. Bosch magnetos.

Elbridge Engines Improve.

Mr. A. P. Warner of Beloit, Wis., the first amn-l tour to fly in this country with a Curtiss machine! has announced1 his intention of building a new mal chine after ideas of his own during this sumnieil He expects to equip it with an Elbridge "feathetl weight" engine.

Very rapid advancement is being made in thl design and construction of the Elbridge "featheil weight" engines. Fundamentally the engines rM main the same, but drop forged steel connecting rods, new pistons and a more efficient system of manifolds have improved the engines in both appearance and efliciency. The engines now beinB turned out at the rate of one each day are said to deliver 15 to 20 per cent, more than rated powefl Regular deliveries are now being made in lo day! after receipt of orders.

Willis Co. Removes.

The E. J. Willis Co.. dealers in aero supplies* has removed to larger quarters at So ChambeiB St., New York.

Harmon Uses Pennsylvania Tires.

One of the Ilerreshoff brothers is building an aeroplane and is equipping it with the large diameter Pennsylvania'aeroplane tires. The Ppdb sylvania Rubber Co. has supplied Clifford B. HaB mon with rubber to renew the shock absorbers on his Farman. which is already equipped with PenB sylvania tires.

The Pennsylvania Rubber Co., whose works mil main office are located at Jeannette. Pa., and wlB are now giving employment to nearly 1.000 peB pie. have recently put on the market an aeroplanB tire peculiarly suitable to the advanced stage of aeroplane development.

Heretofore motorcycle tires of 21/& in. and 3 inl section have been largely used on aeroplaneJJ Such tires are not designed or adapted to stanB the shocks of alighting and have little cushiotB ing effect. It is therefore ofteu necessary to use four wheels on an aeroplane, resulting in a coM siderahle increase in weight and air resistance: ■

The Pennsylvania aeroplane tire is 20 by 4 ill in size and is of light but strong construction Two of these tires will carry a ten or twel\B hundred pound flyer, and will have sufficient cusBJ ioning effect to prevent the jar of alighting beinB transmitted to its delicate framework. ■

This tire is similar to the Pennsylvania clinchM automobile tire, but constructed with a view to its use on aeroplanes.

The 20 in. by 4 in. tire complete with tub! weighs only seven pounds. For lighter machinBJ thev are turning out a 2M>-in. tire in both 2u-nJB and 2S-in. diameter of the same light and strorBJ construction which may be employed where the use of a wheel of a larger diameter seems to he advisable.

Requa-Gibson Propeller Holds Record.

Clifford B. Harmon, who holds the United States amateur endurance record with his Farman, recently had the machine fitted with a Requa-Gibsou regular type propeller, sy2 ft. diameter by 2-ft. pitch. Referring to its performance, Mr. Harmon writes : -'With this propeller 1 broke the amateur record of America of 1 hour 5 minutes. It seems to be giving entire satisfaction."

With this propeller and the engine running at I.l'iki r. p. in., the pitch speed figures 2,400 ft. per niinute. Now, the aeroplane files at 40 miles per hour, or 3.520 ft. per minute, which is considerably more than the pitch speed of the propeller. Patrick Y. Alexander experimented with model propellers on a wire on board the steamer traveling between England and America, and found that these advanced into the wind. The Requa-Gibson company promises some startling information in the near future, as the result of present Investigations.

* *

! Club News ! % i

The Lincoln Aero Club is the name of a new body just organized for the purpose of discussing aerial navigation and promoting the sport in Lincoln, Neb. The six charter members are Dr. G. R. Brownfield, Joe Burnham, Commandant H. E. Yates of the University cadet battalion. G. W. Chowins, superintendent of grounds and buildings at the university ; E. C. Babcock. and Dean Richards of the department of engineering at the university. As soon as possible club grounds are to be established somewhere on the outskirts of the city where the necessary sheds and other equipment will be erected, and test flights will be made.

Dr. Brownfield is working on a 4-ft. model for a double bi-plane on which he has applied for a patent. He is to have two pairs of planes, one pair directly ahead of the other. His machine, according to the model, he has constructed, is to have at least two advantages over the Curtiss and Wright machines. Both of these operate in preserving the equilibrium of the machine. One is a controller operated by the engine and the other is a pair of wings lying on a horizontal plane on either side of the' machine. These are operated by means of a lever. If the machine should dip to the left, for example, the left wing being thrown out to offer resistance in the atmosphere, while the right wing is raised to relieve resistance.

Dr. Brownfield. of 1234 "O" St., is enthusiastic and has arranged for the club to visit the Omaha meet in a body.

McGill Aviation Club has been formed by students at McGill University. Montreal, Can.

The Aero Club of Colorado is requested to inform us of its address. A letter addressed to the club at 30 W. Colfax Ave., Denver, has been returned by the Post Office.

The Aero Club of Philadelphia, which has existed in name only for more than two years, has been dissolved. Some of its members have joined the Pennsylvania Aero Club.

It was also announced that Clarence P. Wynne, treasurer of the old club, had been elected secretary of the Pennsylvania Club. Henry S. Gratz, president of the old club, had been elected vice-president of the Pennsylvania club, and Arthur T. Atherholt. secretary of the old club, had been made nresident of the new club.

A Boys' Aero Club has been formed at the Omaha, Xeh.. Y. M. C. A. Sergeant C. F. Adams, of the signal corps at Ft. Omaha, gave the new club its first lecture.

The Aero Club of California held its election of officers on the 2Sth of June. The following; officers were elected for the ensuing year : Presiden. II. I.aY. Twining: 1st Yice-President, R. I. Blakeslee ; 2nd Yice-I'resident. W. H. Leonard : Secretarv, liuel II. Green; Treasurer. Chas. E. Rilliet: members of Board of Directors at large, W. S. Eaton and Yan M. Griffith.

California Aero Mfg. & Supply Co,

441-3 Golden Gate Ave. San Francisco :: Cat

Manufacturers of

Aeroplanes : Gliders : Propellers Wheels: Turnbuckles: Sockets: Etc.

Laminated Ribs and Beams in Stock and to Order

AUGUST SPECIAL—5 ft. 6«, 4 Ply,

laminated rib, aeroplane curve, 35C. 63Ch

Agents- Whitehead Motors, Detroit Motors, Palmer & Goodyear Aero Tires, Bosch Magnetos "Aeronautics"

Get our prices on Knock Down Planes, including Beams, Stmts, Ribs, Sockets and Rib Connections

t*UttiUH

CRAFTSMAN

Perfect Propellers

IMPROVED

Santos Dumont Type AEROPLANES äUÄ $1,000

Send for Specifications

All Kinds of Wood and Metal Work Made to Order. Gliders, Special Parts, % Spars, Struts, Ribs, Skids, Wheels, Etc.

ADDRESS

9626 ERIE AVENUE SO. CHICAGO, ILL. Successor to J. STUPAR, Pattern and Model Shop

M. STUPAR

30 and 60 H. P.

— AIR-COOLED AERO-

MOTORS

With Radial Stationary Cylinders

NICKEL - STEEL TURNBUCKLES Write for circular and prices

-PROPELLERS AND SUPPLIES -

BUEL H. GREEN, Auto Engineer 515 Delta Building, Los Angeles, Cal.

Auto & Aeronautic Supply Go.

C Aeronautic Supplies of Every

Description in Stock C Wood Cut as per Specifications 2100 BROADWAY (73rd SI.,) NEW YORK

'PHONE, 6948 COLUMBUS

HIGH-CLASS MACHINE WORK FOR AERONAUTICAL PURPOSES

We Accomplish Results where Others Fail Pedersen Lubricators have proven to be the most reliable

Pedersen

Company

(Established 1684. Incorporated 1906) 636-644 FIRST AVENUE NEW YORK

New York > Chocolates

Chocolate

Health Food

Most Suitable fop Aeronauts or those requiring a Non-Bulky Sustaining Food Office, 150-154 CHAMBERS STREET, NEW YORK

FOR ANYTHING IN AERONAUTICS

which you may desire from France, write to

Ladis Lewkowicz, Ervauville, Loiret, France

and prompt attention will be given your inquiry.

Specialty of securing reliable and successful motors. Any styles of aeroplanes. Quickest delivery and lowest figures. Manufacturers' guarantee. Full information can be obtained from my lawyer and resident representative, Eugene 1. Gottlieb, Esq., 140 Nassau Street, New York City.

PROPELLERS

C. SPECIALLY MADE

For Model and Full Sized Aeroplanes. C Prices on Application

L. G. DUQUET I07KlhrkSt-

TUB MASTER MAGNETO—F.& S. HEARINGS.

bowden wise. J. S. beetz co. times bldg. phone 345 bevant.

The South Bend (Ind.) Aero Club has been formed with the following officers: President, Colonel Jasper E. Brady; vice-president, George Cutter : secretary, B. S. Walters ; treasurer, Elmer R. Stoll.

The Aeronautical Society offered a prize for the most helpful essay. Seven members prepared papers and all were read on one of the regular meetings. The prize was awarded by popular vote to Eaurence Eesh. On July 14th Charles II. In-man addressed' the society on the subject, "Proving the Horsepower of Engines by Reaction Test." Mr. Innron's talk was most interesting. His device is intended to be capable of use on an aeroplane to show the aviator at all times just what horsepower his motor is delivering and what his propellers are doing. This paper will be printed in

aeronautics.

* Exchange and * :: Forum ::

I :: :: Forum :: :: i

starting device for sale.

D. D. Wells, It. F. D. 2, Jacksonville, Fla., has recently taken out a patent covering :a skid to assist starting on rough ground without employing any track.

In the sketch, Fig. 1 is a side view, Fig. 2 shows a transverse section of same, Fig. 3 is a detailed end view of one of the pulleys with the belt applied thereto and Fig. 4 is a detail side elevation of one extremity of the skid.

In operation the skid is positioned on the ground when the outer face of the belt (11) engages with the ground and the runner (10) is supported upon the upper lubricated face of the belt. When the skid is forced longitudinally, the runner is caused to slide over the belt and to cause the movement of the belt beneath the runner and over the pulleys (I.'!). The guides (10) engage the beads (15)

throughout the length of the runner, and holds I ho belt in concaved position to engage about the polished surface of the runner. As the" belt reaches the end of the runner at the rear extremity of the skid, the same is released from the guide (10) and permitted to engage over the flattened surface of the adjacent pulley. Mr. Wells desires to dispose of the patent at a reasonable figure, as he is financially unable to exploit it.

attractions wa xted,

E. F. Stephenson, 250 Vance Ave.. Memphis, Ten 11., wants to connect with aviators haviug successful machines and aeronauts with dirigible and free balloons.

center of presscre.

Question : Please inform mo how to find the center of pressure 011 a biplane whose surfaces measure 5 ft. fore and aft, with a curve of 1 :20. The angle of inclination is 0 degrees when the aeroplane is on the ground. Must not the center of gravity be just a little below and back of the assumed c. of p. when the aeroplane is not in motion, considering that because in flight the

32460�19

c. of p. moves forward, the center of gravity must be rather in front of the assumed c. of p.?

Answer : One can suggest no convenient way to find c. of p. of an aeroplane except by actual trial. The c. of p. of a small experimental plane having same depth of curvature would be for 6 degrees about 44 per cent from front edge, and if this held true for a large surface it would be 2 ft. 2 in. from front ; that is, for a circular arc. For a parabolic curve it would probably be further forward See discussion of Aerial Experiment .Association in June, 1909, number, pp. 175-7. The weight, or center of gravity, should in general be forward of the c. of p. This point depends somewhat on the method of vertical control (the disposition of elevator and horizontal rudder). See also ]). 15o. April, 1910, aeronautics, and article by M. 1>. Sellers, pp. 77-79, March, 1910.

how to maintain camber.

One method of maintaining the camber of ribs, though not generally used, is to use a thin span wire to join the tips, this wire forming the chord of the rib. Kibs are usually bent after steaming, dried and then made impervious to moisture by varnish. As long as they do not absorb moisture they will stay bent.

Laminated ribs can be glued and bent at once while the glue is wet, put thus in a form to dry and when dry taken out and varnished. These will hold their shape, even though they absorb some moisture, providing the glue does not soften.

ä£ Titees Fy-f-firs^

L----A'y^S ¿>/l£ -"^rc* v-

how to make rlts

Another method of making ribs is as follows: Take thin boards of the desired thickness and wood and glue them together, one on top of another. While the glue is wet place the laminated board thus made into a press or form the shape of the ribs you want. Clamp the form tightly together and place the whole in a drying oven for several hours. When dry the ribs can be sawed out of this curved board. A correspondent says that if ribs are wet or soaked, then bent on a board and help by bent nails, then dried and burnt a little by a gasoline torch on the concave side, they will say bent.

the willougiiby steering device.

Dear Sir :

1 was invited by Mr. Harmon recently to witness a flight in his "Farman" machine, lately purchased from Paulhan, who used it at Los Angeles last winter. 1 was epiite surprised to find that it steered in the vertical plane with my patent steering device (applied for on the 10th of June. 19u9. several of the claims having already boon allowed i.

This patent consists in steering an aeronautical machine in the vertical and horizontal planes by a combination of rudders. All biplanes steer up and down by the head alone. All monoplanes steer up and down by the tail alone. Tn my device the "War Hawk" steers up and down by both head and tail at the same time.

ADAMS-FAR WELL

the world's lightest and simplest

MOTOR

less than 3 lbs. per h. P. a. l. a. m. rating

self cooled by its own revolution

GET OUR CATALOGUE No. 15-A

the adams company

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specially selected for aeroplanes

ALL SIZES IN STOCK j. DELTOUR, INC., 49 Sixth Ave., New York

telephone 5565 spring

Weaver-Ebling Automobile : Company :

"WECO" OILS and GREASES

Ail Aeronautic Supplies 2230 Broadway at 79th St., - - - New York

farman type aeroplanes, elbridge

featherweight engine, $3,500

curzon no. 1 small biplane, elbridge

featherweight engine, $3,000

curzon monoplane, elbridge featherweight engine, - $4,000

a limiteo number only to be sold at the above price

All Machines are Positively Non-Infringing

using my original recently perfected lateral balance device. Demonstration Flights are given with machines, before they are delivered, at Hawthorne Park Aerodrome. Chicago; 1-s must accompany order.

invite the interest of capital preparatory to organizing exhibition company tor this season quick action big returns

Announcement: america's first aeroplane training school under the Auspices of the american aeronautical societv

■and ably directed by

Mr. M. L. Kasmar, Author of the book "First Lessons in Aeronautics" with J W. Curzon as instructor and Aviator-Dciiionslrator, opened beginning of July for actual practice in the art of flying and building at

Hawthorne Park Aerodrome

We intend to supply Ihc increasing demand for Aviators, and loaff'M'd an opportunity to those who desire to experience the delight fid. healthful, exhilarating sensations of riding through space. Learn to pilot your own machine. You will save twice as much as your fee by eliminating smish-ups and loss of time.

For Aeroplanes address j. w. curzon, hawthorne aerodrome HAWTHORNE, ILL. F«r particulars concerning schoi 1. applv m. L. kasmar, sec'y., american aeronautical socicly CHICAGO, ILL.

^of? STffUT Socrrar- &c?£T

By crossing the tiller lines of the forward and after horizontal rudders, an inverse action of the rudders is obtained, elevating the bow and de-

AERO ENGINES

WATER COOLED

Cylinders—Wrought Steel. Water Jackets—Wrought Steel.

WEEDED to Cylinders. Crank Case-Aluminum Alloy.

Shaft —Hammer Forged Steel. Bearings Drawn Phosphor

Bronze. No le;iky screw joints—every joint Welded. 25-30 H.P., Weight 80 lbs. $600 35-40 H.P., Weight120 lbs., $800 45-50 H.P., Weight "50 lbs., $11 >0

AEROPLANES BUILT COMPLETE READY TO FLY With Non-Infringing Equilibrium Device

25% cash with order, balance C. 0. D

the sanford mfg. co., bridg^orl conZ

pressing the st"tn. halving the surface required for each rudder The pressure on the upper side of one and on the under side of the other keeps the parallelogram of forces rigid until a slight directive force is given l.y the steering wheel.

Three years ago at Brighton Beach I described this patent to Mr. Farmian and: told him 1 was putting it on the "War Hawk." and I see he has now paid me the compliment of using it.

At the recent aeronautic convention in New York I was asked by sevei-al persons if it was my intention to sue on infringements. My answer was that 1 would not, and that I w.as more than pleased if 1 had added my little mite to the science of aviation. Yours truly,

Ilroir L. Willougiiuy.

paddle wheel device.

Dear Sir:

Dr. Greene of Rochester, who is building an aeroplane, kindly refers me to you for address of parties interested in the idea of a folding slat paddle wheel, which device, he says, has been patented, for sustaining aerial machines. I think I have a method of appreciably increasing atmospherical resistance to downward' movement of a paddle or wing and thereby increasing its lifting effect, and would like to get in communication with parties desiring to have such a device made more effective than it has so far proved to be.

John R. Graham. 24 Locust St., Rochester, N. Y.

safety device for aeroplanes.

Gentlemen :

The undersigned begs leave to suggest the following as a possible improvement in safety devices for machines used in navigation of the air, hut more particularly for heavier than air machines.

A combination in au aeroplane or air ship of a galvanometer, an electric battery or other device for generating and maintaining a constant electric current and devices adapted to connecting in electrical circuit with the galvanometer and battery or generating device the metallic wires, parts or members of the aeroplane or airship and their connections :

For the purpose of indicating, by means of the galvanometer, injuries or abrasions of said metallic wires, parts or members and their con-

AEROPLANE RADIATORS

-IN STOCK OR TO ORDER-

EL ARCO RADIATOR CO.

6 EAST 31st STREET NEW YORK

SAYS PHILADELPHIA HAS BALLOON RECORD

Dr. Thomas E. Eldridge Replies to Conyers Graham in , Controversy l\if

IN ' DISPUTE

The aeronautical controversy still continues. Dr. Thomas Edwin Eldridge sent the following letter to The North American yesterday, taking polite exception 'to some statements made by Conyers Graham in yesterday's issue:

"Apropos of the article in this morning's issue of your paper," he says, "I regret to say that Mr. Graham is again misinformed. Heretofore,Dr. T. C. Fulton, i president of the Ben Franklin Aeronauti- ' cal Association, has always claimed the record for altitude, distance amd time in the air for the Ben Franklin. The Philadelphia Aeronautical Recreation Society, therefore, must continue to claim for its balloon Philadelphia II the amateur record for altitude and distance from Philadelphia, this being proven by the records.

"Incidentally, commenting upon Mr. Graham's statement, please let it be understood that the only balloon ever used In Philadelphia for advertising purposes Is the Ben Franklin, inasmuch as on its first ascension there were distributed free beer checks, advertising a local brewery and the president of the association was with the party on this ascension. May I add further that the bylaws of the Philadelphia Aeronautical Recreation Society do not permit its air craft to be used for advertising purposes, nor do the rules of the society allow Its passengers or guests to carry intoxicating liquors."

BALLOONIST

Philadelphia II Has Amateur Long-Distance Record, Says T. E. Eldridge

QUESTIONS STATEMENT

In the controversy over rival claims to records between the Philadelphia Aeronautical Recreation Society and the Ben Franklin Aeronautical Association, Thomas Edwin Eldridge, of the - former organization, yesterday sent out a letter disputing a statement regarding a trip made by Conyers B. Graham, of the Ben Franklin association, in 1907. The letter says:

"The Philadelphia Aeronautical Recreation Society concedes to the Ben Franklin Aeronautical Association the record for time in the air claimed by Dr. T. C. Fulton for the balloon Ben Franklin on October 17, 1907, by twenty-five minutes.

"The Philadelphia Aeronautical Recreation Society, however, does not concede the record claimed by Conyers B. Graham for the balloon Ben Franklin on its trip to Dwight, Mass., and the statements made by Mr. Graham concerning this trip are not correct.

"The balloon Ben Franklin never sailed from Philadelphia to Massachusetts, but did sail from Aura, N. J., to Dwight, Mass., in 1907. This ascension was made on Saturday afternoon about 2.30 and landed at Aura, N. J., about 5.20. On this short trip were Prof. Samuel A. King, a professional pilot, with Dr. George H. Simmerman (then vice president of the Ben Franklin Aeronautical Association), Edward G. Rech (then its secretary), Henry Gratz, Mr. Longacre, George Mayer and Dr. Thomas Edwin Eldridge. From Aura, N. J., the following day, at 1.05 A. M., the Ben Franklin started again and from this point landed In Dwight, Mass., about 9.20 A. M., Professor King being the pilot, while the gehtlemen in the basket were Dr. George H. Simmer-man, Messrs. Rech and Mayer and Dr. Thomas Edwin Eldridge. Neither Mr. Gratz nor Mr. Longacre were In the basket when it sailed to Dwight, Mass., ais claimed by Mr. Graham, and as the records of the Ben Franklin Aeronautical Association will corroborate.

"The amateur balloon record for altitude, 17,050 feet, made by Dr. Thomas Edwin Eldridge, Dr. George H. Simmer-man and Welsh Strawbridge, on June 10, 1910, and the distance record of 250 miles, air line, made last week from Philadelphia to' Pascoag, R. I., by Dr. Thomas Edwin Eldridge, William S. Underbill and Arthur S. Underbill, are unquestionably held by the balloon Phila-

August, iqiö

rIE INVENTOR"»

fcbove book is an honest explanation of how the tor may guard against obtaining worthless nts, and is written with a sincere desire to place the Inventor-reader in a position to determine intelligently when he should not file an application for Patent. Sent FREE on request.

The business of experienced patentees and inventors solicited. Inexperienced inventors will be rendered equally thorough service.

HI WOODWARD PATENTS. Trad- Marks. Copyrights . Li. W UUU W J\t\U Food and Drug Registration

730 9th Street 0PP. U. S. Patent Office Washington, D. C.

PATENTS

ctiotis. such as would reduce their cross section materially reduce their strength and safety Ictor.

The purpose of drawing this claim and publish-g it is to prevent it from subsequently being tented, and to give all interested free use the suggestion, if perchance it should be found contain any elements of value.

Albert YV. Blel, 15 William St.. New York.

|»3xS><S><$*$xSX5>^ PATENTS

Ascensions |

PHILADELPHIA. .Inuo 10.—Dr. Thomas E. hlredge. Dr. Ceo. II. Simmertnan anil Welsh trawbridge. in the "I'hila. II." attained an amide of 17.05(1 feet. The lauding was near Poters-ille. Pa., after 2VL- hours: a distance of C>0 tiles. Dur. 2 hrs. ."."> tnin. It took but 18 mill. > droj) li.OOO ft. A new high ascent will be at-unpted, properly equipped with plenty of ballast nd supplies. The highest American official record K1.IW5. A. II. Forbes went up to 20.600 feet, as corded last month. There are 2n ascensions on cord higher than the llarmon-Post ascent of (•.(•IS, not including Forbes or Eldredge.

C L. PARKER

Late Examiner U. S. Patent Office

ATTO RNEY-AT-LAW AND SOLICITOR OF PATENTS

American and foreign palenis secured promptly and with special regard to the legal protection of the invention. Handbook for inventors sent upon request.

30 MCGlLL BUILDING WASHINGTON, D. C.

SECURED OR FEE RETURNED : : :

Send sketch for free search of Patent Office Records How to Obtain a Patent, and What to Invent, with List of inventions Wanted and Prizes offered for Inventions sent free. Patents advertised free.

We are experts in AIRSHIPS and all patents and technical matters relating to AERIAL NAVIGATION.

VICTOR J. EVANS & CO., Washington,D.C.

HAVE YOU AN IDEA?

IF SO. WRITE FOR OUR BOOKS:

"Why Patents Pay," '100 Mechanical Movements" and a Treatise, on Perpetual Motions—50 Illustration. - ALL MAILED FREE -

F. G. DIETERICH & CO. patent lawyers 803 Ouray Building. Washington. D. C.

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PATE NTS

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You gee it here at Minimum Cost. Also Working Drawings and Reliable Data for Flying Machines. AUG. P. JURGENSEN. M. E. 170 broadway, new york city

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AERONAUTICS

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August, ipic

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J. L. LUCAS, 2 Fox Street, Bridgeport, Conn.

AEROPLANE MATERIALS

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J. W. Roshon :: Harrisburg, Ça.

flmlËRS

laminated wood, true screw, any pitch,

I HOLBROOK AERO SUPPLY GO.

I joplin, mo.

st. louis, june is.—at 5.30 p. m. ii. e. honey-1 well and yv. f. assmann, left in the "ccnlennialb to make another attempt to win the lahm eun.1 the landing was made 6 miles south of bowenl ky.. on june it), at 0.30 p. m. just after landina a heavy storm broke. the distance is 354 miles. |

canton. june is.—j. ii. wade, a. ii. morgan' and yv. k. chisholm in the "sky i'ilot" to fair-i view, pa.

st. louis, june 20.—miss julia hoerner del cided to become a pilot. after half an hour an electrical storm came up and the aide, john p.erry, helped her make the descent. 9 miles fronl st. louis. the balloon was the "mclba."

pitts field. june 25.—wm. van sleet, wm.

dear and f. m. christie. 2 * . lowell, june 25.—charles j. glidden, mrsl m. n. glidden and j. j. van valkenburgh in the! "mass." to salem, n. ii. dur. 1 hr. 35 m. ; dist.l 12 m. ; alt. 4,100 ft.

... st. louis, july 2.—wm. f. assmann, qualified nf^as pilot, faking up two passengers. landing was near pattonville. mo. dur. 2 hrs. ; alt. 0,200 ft. ;l rained during part of ascent.

i'll i la., july 9.—dr. thomas li. eldredge. dr.j george ii. simmerman, dr. l. f. fifier and missl anna niitinger, in the "i'hila. ii," to mount llolivj x. .1. altitude reached 7,000 ft.

lowell, july 9.—chas. .1. glidden. john j.i van valkenburgh and edward e. strout in the] "mass." to andover, mass. up 40 min. ; (list. 41 miles; alt.. 2,100 ft. ; poor gas. this made mr. glidden's 47th ascent.

f. o. andreae

registered

solicitor of

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a specialty at home and abroad

patents

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PATENTS

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SPECIAL ATTENTION TO AERIAL NAVIGATION

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4« i have in my office copies of all patents granted for aeroplanes

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FNfiINF FOR ^Al F °ne new 30 H- p" fo,ir c>Iin(|er

LIIOIIIL run OHLL air-cooled aviation engine, equipped with Bosch magneto and Laminated true screw 6 foot propeller 200 lbs. thrust. Engine weighs ly" lbs. Outfit just cost us about $600: will sell for half or will exehange for 50-75 H. P. motor. Address, "Aero Dept.,"

STEBBIXS At GEYXET. Norwich. Conn.__

THE FUTURE FLYING MACHINE. This wonderful machine is automatically balanced in the air, it does away with the warping of the wings or tips, is operated by one steering wheel and is driven by two propellers which derive their power from a 50 h. p. revolving cylinder motor. Its wings have a spread of 3o> ft. and are 27 feet in length. The simplicity of this machine does away with accidents, and makes it very easy for anyone to operate. 1 wish to form a company of one or more to manufacture this machine. If you are interested, address Ralph Cole. Tipton. Ivans.

EQUIP YOUR AEROPLANE

WITH

Aeroplane Fabrics Aeroplane Tires Bumpers

Tell us what you need, and let us explain the superiorities of GOODYEAR Materials.

THE GOODYEAR TIRE & RUBBER COMPANY

Akron, Ohio

AEROPLANE WIRE WHEELS

20" x 2" Curtiss Type in Stock-WEIGHT 7 LBS. Monoplane Tail Wheel. 16" x 1 »2"—Weight 3 lbs.

Farman Type Axles ^2sLa«

14" Wire-Spoked Steering Wheels - - Turn-Buckles

J. A. WEAVER, Jr., 956 8th Ave., N. Y. L. B. REPAIR CO., Inc.

EXPERTS ON GASOLINE MOTORS REMODELING and OVERHAULING MOTORS, MAKING SPECIAL PARTS FOR EXPERIMENTAL WORK ON

AIR, LAND WATER VEHICLES

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now on exhibition at 735-7th oAvenue, New York.

Sole Agent

UNITED STATES. CANADA AND .MEXICO Yves de Villers & Co.

NEW YORK PARIS

PHILADELPHIA

Patent List.

Robert E. Green, New York, X. Y.. 900,539. June 7, 1910, filed June 22, 1009. AIRSHIP. An aeroplane consisting of a plurality of sails at the front and another set at the rear with a propeller intermediately between them. Both sets of sails are pivoted so as to be movable and in addition the rear set is provided with rudders movable laterally.

Louis L. Crane, New York. X. Y.. 000.831, .lune 7, 1910. tiled Dec. 21. 1909. FLYING MACHINE. A toy aeroplane the characteristic features of which are a frame composed of several rods Secured to a plate at the front and joined at the rear in the form of a tripod, in the center of which extends a rubber band operating a propeller at the front and a triangular tail piece at the rear.

Frederick W. YYnerth, Cincinnati. O., 001,925. June 21. 1910, filed March 15. 1910. ATTACHMENT FOR AEKOI'LANES. consisting of flexible wings attachable thereto and projecting outwardly therefrom. Means are provided for distending or collapsing the wings and changing the angle of incidence.

George D. S. Reece. St. Louis. Mo.. 902.380, .lune 21, 1910, filed June 10, 1908. AIRSHIP, the characteristic feature of which consists of sets of wings, each wing comprising a frame made up of a rod projecting at right 'angles from a shaft, and a series of arms projecting from the rod. This frame is covered with cloth and several such wings extend radially from the shaft in the same plane.

Samuel Montgomery, Stockton. Cal.. 902.052. June 2S, 1910. filed Dec. 14. 1908. FLYING MACHINE of the helicopter class, comprising a main rotative shaft used vertically from the cage or basket containing the motor. This shaft is provided with propellers and at its top a parachute is secured, so arranged that connections from the cage enable the opening or closing of the parachute.

CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING

(Continued from page

250 West 54th Street New York

Cable: Aeronautic, New York 'Phone 4833 Columbus

PUBLISHED BY

AERONAUTICS PRESS, INC. A. V. JONES, Pres't - — E. L JONES, Treas'r-SeC»

subscription rates United States, $3.00 Foreign, $3.50

ADVERTISING REPRESENTATIVES :

E. F. INGRAHAM ADV. CO. 116 Nassau Street New York City

NO. 37

AUGUST, 1910

Vol. 7, No. 2

COPYRIGHT, 1B10. AERONAUTICS PRESS, INC.

Entered as second-class matter September 22,1908, at the Postoffice New York, under the Act of March 3, 1879.

4T AERONAUTICS is issued on the 20th of each month ^ All copy must be received by the 10th. Advertising pages close on the 15th. :: :: :: :: :: ::

#T Make all checks or money orders free of exchange and payable to AERONAUTICS. Do not send currency. No foreign stamps accepted. :: :: ::

WE are forced to print all new material this month in. small type in order to make room. There is on hand considerable amount of material in type for which we have been unable to find space as yet.

Hour flights abroad arc so common that it seems useless to further chronicle them, and in the future we will merely try to print new records made, new machines, especially long flights and events of more than usual importance.

PROGRESS will certainly demand its toll of lives, but there is certainly no cause for alarm. Fatalities ha\e not been as numerous as those which occur in nearly every automobile meet of importance, and the entry list in the aviation meets has been fully as large as that of any motor race. Considering the number of flights made, both at meets and elsewhere, the restricted grounds at which many meets are held, one may feel assured that the percentage of fatalities is small.

A word of caution is necessary, however. Development does not appear to lie along the line of making safer machines, but in building faster and more varied1 types. Familiarity breeds contempt, and aviators should not take the fearful chances that some do.

IT is worthy of comment that aviation abroad has reached the stage where meetings may be held on the same basis as motor and horse racing, where competitors pay entrance fees returnable only on condition, say, three laps of the course are made, and where the sole remuneration consists in the prizes to be won.

Correction.

In the article, "How to Make a Propeller," in the .July number, the last two paragraphs, by mistake, were misplaced and put in the adjoining column. The last sentence of the article should read : "This will NOT duplicate, however, a Cur-tlss propeller, etc." The word "not" was omitted.

Permanent :-: :-: Exposition

THE Permanent Exposition at the office of Aeronautics is growing. People are com-l ing in every day to look over the various exhibits and immediate calls on the manufacturers! result.

We want to have every manufacturer of aero-| nautical material represented. If necessary, usel the Exposition as a stock room, as some are doing. We want motors, samples of sockets, oils, bear-J ings, magnetos, plugs, tires and anything thatj may be applicable to the new industry.

Manufacturers should send a supply of thciii catalogues and print on their circulars, stationery! and letters the fact that they are exhibitors inl Aeronautics' Permanent Exposition.

EXHIBITORS.

Hartford Rubber Works Co., Tires.

Wittemann Bros., Gliders and Supplies.

Warner Instrument Co., Aerometer.

Requa-Gibson Co.. Motors and Propellers.

Elbridge Engine Co., Engines.

Pennsylvania Rubber Co., Tires.

C. E. Conover Co., Cloth.

Edwin Levick, Photos.

Roebling Co., Wire Cable.

El Arco Radiator Co., Radiators.

J. A. Weaver, Wheels, etc.

Whitehead Motor Co., Motors.

Greene Co., Propellers and Parts.

Bosch Magneto Co.. Magnetos.

Auto-Aero Supply Co., Supplies.

R. I. V. Co., Ball Bearings.

.1. Deltour, Bamboo.

,1. S. Bretz Co., Magnetos, Bowden. Wire. Aero Supply Co., Supplies. Chas. E. Dre.ss.ler, Model Maker. Wm. P. Youngs & Bros., Lumber. Buel 1-1. Green, Turnbuckles. Profac Food.

What Bishop Says.

" 'Will the Wrights compete for the Intemationalj Cup?*

" 'No one knows as yet ; they refused last! year to compete and it is 1, Cortland Bishop,! who paid the expenses of Curtiss so that onei American aviator might compete for the cup and! he won.' lie adds with a practical and national] instinct; 'it cost me a great deal of money.'

"'It has been said that the International Cupl would cost aviators very dearly in expenses, etc.J and would only result in the winning of an artJ object of medium value."

'" 'No doubt, but French aviators are free tol come or not as they please.'

" 'Then your opinion is that apparatus of French! origin will win over the American's?'

" "I have not ridden with the Wrights but only! with Paulhan. The impression of security is perfect and must be much greater tban with thJ Wrights. These oscillate a great deal in the aiiB and I believe in the superiority of the French.'

"Mr. Cortland Bishop stopped and offered ainil ably to complete the interview when desiredB We* shook hands cordially and transatlanticall.™ and he renewed his walk towards the Tuileries." I

The above statement of Bishop with respect to CurtisB is not an accurate statement of the facts.

The above interesting item was printed in th<B French organ I'Aero. being an interview with the honored president of the Aero Club of America.

We Build Balloons That Win

HAVE WON EVERY CONTEST ENTERED AGAINST ALL MAKES

CHICAGO CONTEST — Balloon "Fielding-San Antonio" — 9 competitors Distance and endurance trophies, also water record of the world—350 miles one trip INDIANAPOLIS CONTEST — Balloon "University City" — 6 competitors PEORIA CONTEST — Balloon "Peoria" — 3 competitors ST. LOUIS CENTENNIAL CONTEST — Balloon "St. Louis III" first, and Balloon "Centennial" officially second for distance and endurance, 47 hrs., 4 1 min.—8 competitors Balloon "St. Louis III"—speed record of America—Lambert, pilot; Von Phul, aide JUST THINK OF IT, EVERY CONTEST IN THE LAST TWO YEARS.

Aero Club Grounds, Centennial Contest, St. Louis, Mo.

Cfl The longest voyage by a licensed pilot in the United States, in 1908, was made with the 2200 cubic meter "Yankee"—461 miles with two stops— a remarkable performance; 800 pounds ballast aboard when landing.

HONEYWELL, Builder

•J The greatest balloon trip of 1908 and 1909—850 miles in competition— made by the 2000 cubic meter balloon, "Fielding-San Antonio." Four American and two Foreign makes defeated by wide margin.

HONEYWELL, Builder and Pilot

AEROSTATS, AIRSHIPS AND INSTRUMENTS

in stock and made to order <i honeywell construction utilizes the latest and best materials —varnished or rubberized envelope with french-type valve, and italian hemp or linen nettings. cars equipped for comfort and convenience —light and durable..........

french—american balloon co.

H. E. HONEYWELL, Director

4460 Chouteau Avenue, St. Louis, U. S. A.

_e name

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Aeronautics August, ipw

I. V. RADIAL BALL BEARINGS

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THE HELICOPTIC FLYING MACHINE

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at Indianapolis. Actually flies (300 feet, four times as high as the tallest church spires, 2o city blocks. Aviators are using this apparatus for determining direction and velocity of wind at altitudes up to (100 feet. Recreation for old and young. Any child can operate it. Get one to-day.

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Weight 98 lbs

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AERONAUTICS August, igii

BALDWIN'S Vulcanized Proof Material

WINS

LAHM BALLOON CUP—697 Miles

Forbes and Fleischman, Balloon "New York"

BEST DURATION INDIANAPOLIS BALLOON RACE—

35 Hrs., 12 Mins. Forbes and Harmon, Balloon "New York"

U. S. BALLOON DURATION RECORD—48 Hrs., 26 Mins.

Harmon and Post, Balloon "New York," St. Louis Centennial

U. S. BALLOON ALTITUDE RECORD—24,200 Ft.

Harmon and Post, Balloon "New York," St. Louis Centennial

GORDON BENNETT AVIATION PRIZE 30-KILOM. AEROPLANE SPEED PRIZE GRAND PRIZE OF BRESCIA FOR AEROPLANES QUICK STARTING EVENT AT BRESCIA 2nd, 10-KILOM. AEROPLANE SPEED PRIZE 2nd, BRESCIA HEIGHT PRIZE—Glenn H. Curtiss

baldwin'S vulcanized proof material

Used in the U. S. Gov. Dirigible and Spherical Balloons

WILL last from five to six times as long as a varnished balloon. The weight is always the same, as it does not require further treatment. Heat and cold have no effect on it, and ascensions can be made as well at zero weather as in the summer time. The chemical action of oxygen has not the same detrimental effect on it as it has on a varnished material. Silk double-walled VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL has ten times the strength of varnished material. A man can take care of his PROOF balloon, as it requires little or no care, and is NOT subject to spontaneous combustion. Breaking strain 100 lbs. per inch width. Very elastic. Any weight, width, or color. Will not crack. Waterproof. No talcum powder. No revarnishing. The coming balloon material, and which through its superior qualities, and being an absolute gas holder is bound to take the place of varnished material. The man that wants to have the up-to-date balloon, must use VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL. Specified by the U. S. SIGNAL CORPS.

AEROPLANE MATERIAL A SPECIALTY

Prices and samples on application

captain thomas s. baldwin

Bj> Box Madison Square fl^x Hi

" W=4*J-iafc*l NEW YORK LJ_JJJ_lLte**j

LAMINATED TRUE SCREW ♦

PROPELLERS J

In Stock For Immediate Shipment +

LR 6-ft. Propeller delivers 200 lbs. J W thrust at 1200 R. P. M. c,Do + you want to get the best results? If 4} so get a "Brauner Propeller." ♦ cour Propeller has proven more than ^ satisfactory to those using it ::: ::: ]

6-ft., 6i lbs. - - §40.00 ♦

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8-ft., 11 " - - b'0.00 +

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Wittemann Glider In Flight

C. and A.

WITTEMANN

DESIGNERS - CONSTRUCTORS - DEVELOPERS OF

Aeroplanes, Gliding Machines, Models, Separate Parts

PRACTICAL LESSONS IN GLIDING Experiments Conducted Large grounds fot testing

. GLIDERS IN STOCK works:

17 Ocean Terrace and Little Clove Road, Staten Island, New York

Telephone, 390-L West Brighton

WE MANUFACTURE THE LIGHTEST WEIGHT AND HIGHEST QUALITY ENGINES IN THE WORLD

All working parts of Krupp and other German Steels of highest tensile strength obtainable.

THE EMERSON ENGINE CO.

Incorporated Alexandria : : Virginia

FIRST in war, FIRST in peace, FIRST in the hearts of its countrymen—By George! _ _

Bear In Mind—It's a combined Helicopter, Parachute, Gyroscope, FL Y-wheel, Monoplane. jos. e. bissell, box 795, pittsburg, pa.

AERONAUTICAL CLASSICS

= Published by ======

THE AERONAUTICAL SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN

now ready

1. AERIAL NAVIGATION.

By Sir George Cayley, Bart., with Portrait and Biographical Notice. First published 1809.

2. AERIAL LOCOMOTION.

By F. H. Wenham, with Portrait and Biographical Notice. First published 1866. #T Four more volumes in the present series will be issued during the course of the year, including the most important works of Walker, Stringfellow, Pilcher, Francis Lana, Leonardo da Vina, etc.

The originals of this valuable series are extremely rare, and practically unobtainable. All the illustrations are reproduced in facsimile.

Price 25c. each volume. Posf Free 30c.

Subscription for complete series of fix, $1.35 pott free On sale at the Publishing Offices of of the Aeronautical Society KING, SELL & 0LDING, 27 Chancery Lane, London, England

AERONAUT LEO STEVENS

Leading

BALLOON AND AIRSHIP CONSTRUCTOR

of America

Representing the

CONTINENTAL RUBBER COMPANY

of HANOVER, GERMANY

MAKERS OF THE FINEST AND STRONGEST BALLOON AND AEROPLANE MATERIAL IN THE WORLO

Rubber Fabrics for

Balloons,

Aeroplanes

and

Airships

*

Passenger Aeroplanes! and Flying Models

W. Morrell Sage

Models Developed

One to Fifty Passengers

Contractor to the United States Government

AND

Ninety-five per cent, of the Clubs in this country

American Representative

Carton & Lachambre

Balloon and Airship Builders of Paris, France

Also Representing the Santos Dumont Aeroplane

The Wilcox Propeller

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Madison Square

N. Y.

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AERONAUTICS A SPECIALTY

CImprovements in Aerostructures should be protected without delay. Thousands are experimenting, and your discoveries may be made and patented by ottiers. A seemingly unimportant point to-day, may control the Aeroplane and Dirigible in the future as the Seidell Patents control the Automobile. Do not give your ideas away; protect them with solid patents.

We render an opinion as to the patentability of any invention without charge. Send us a sketch and description, photographs or a model for immediate report.

booklets giving full information in Patent Matters, a list of needed inventions and a history of successful patents, mailed free. Write for them.

%m.^.**.m~.,..--m.m~. r. _ . . _ _ . _ . __ PROMPT AND PROPER SERVICE

WOODWARD & CHANDLEE 1247 F Street, WaTM^tonTDTc.

PARAGON

Design for CURTISS TYPE of Machine

Seven feet diameter bv 4.40 to 6.10 ft. variable pitch. Performance guaranteed—Sixty miles per hour on BO H. P. at 1400 R. P. M. We have these in the following styles :

k'o. 1. All edge-grain silver spruce, 6\n lbs. $50.00. No. 2. All quartered grain white oak. 9 lbs. $55.00 No. 3. Quartered white oak with spruce core, as illustrated, 7'^ lbs. $60.00 No description of these propellers can do them justice. In them theory and practice have been liar [lionized. They must be seen to be appreciated. Other designs in stock or furnished on short notice. AMERICAN PROPELLER COMPANY, Washington, D. C.

AERONAUTICS August, 191

Facts About Motors ♦♦♦*+*++*****+++++*+++*++++++**j

The Call Aviation Engine

* * *

a

a

* +

is

The

1st. -1 Four Cycle Engine. The type used on 00% of all automobiles and inotoreyles. type used by all prominent aviators here and abroad, and holding all aviation records.

'2nd. A Water Cooled Engine. The only kind that can be depended upon for extended runs without danger of overheating. Our spiral water jacket, together with piston pump circulation is the most perfect cooling sys em yet devised.

3rd. An Opposed Cylinder Engine. The construction conceded by gas engine authorities to be the nearest vibrationless type. By all odds the construction best adapted for aviation purposes.

•Uh. A Silent Engine. The only engine yet designed for aviation having both main and auxiliary ports silenced. Hence the only aviation engine adapted for permanent use. or for other than merely exhibition put poses.

5th. -1 "Fool-Proof" Engine. The utmost simplicity of construction, small number of cylinders, together with its being of the usual Pour Cycle, type, enables any automobile chauffeur to set and run it, not one in fifty of whom have any experience with Two Cycle, Revolving Cylinder, or V-shaped multiple cylinder engines.

tith. A Thoroughly Dependable Engine. Our Magnalium outer casing for cylinders and cylinder he ids permits of a remarkably strong construction with minimum weight ; while our Vanadium Grey Iron Cylinder and cylinder head linings, piston heads, valve cages, valve seats, etc., is the only dependable material for these parts.

7th. A Superbly Beautiful Engine. The entire design is thoroughly artistic; while all exposed parts not constructed of Magnalium-a shining non-con odihle metal—are nickel plated, the whole sin face being polished to a mirror finish.

8th. Phenomenally Powerful Engine. Thi-i result is secured by the use of a comparatively small number of cylinders of generous proportions, as distinguished from a multiplicity of cylinders with their numerous be irings, and consequent friction, and liability to derangement.

nth. An Exceptionally Economical Engine. It is a matter of common notoriety among gis engineers that economy of fuel, as compared with pnwer developed, is secured by large cylinder, few in number, rather than l)v a multiplicity of small cylinders—a consideration of paramount importance in aviation.

10th. A Moderate Priced Engine. While the material and workmanship of this engine is even superior to the very expensive foreign makes, and not to be classed with the cheap engines flooding the market, yet our aim has been to furnish aviitors with a moderate priced engine, cheaper than could be produced by themselves, except in large numbers, and with an expensive shop and found) y equipment.

model e-1: 2 cylinoer, 50 kor&epower, weight 150 lbs., pr. $1,000 model e-2: 4 cylinder, 100 horsepower, weight 250 lbs., pr. 81,700 prices include complete equipment, no extras

other aviation engines possess a few of these advantages. this is the only engine that combines them all.

delivery 30 da, s: terms, 35'/> cash, with order; balance sight draft against bill of lading write for particulars and price of our reversible aerial propeller

also of our combination radiator and heater, constructed of aluminum tubing. utilize the heat of your engine for the comfort of your passengers. weight, i lb. per gallon of jacket water.

send for catalogue c-2

I THE AERIAL NAVIGATION COMPANY OF AMERICA, Girard, Kansas

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ADAPTABLE ALSO FOR USE IN THE DRIVING OF

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EXPERIMENT with no EXPERIMENTS EQUIP YOUR AEROPLANE with

an ENGINE of PROVEN MERIT

and thereby avoid the unnecessary expenses, accidents and barriers to success that naturally follow in the wake in the purchasing of an untried product.

IT IS THE ENGINE THAT COUNTS MOST

More and more we realize this as brilliant success, and brilliant failure ^^too, are recorded. It is to the engine we must pin our faith to bridge that distance between us and a complete mastery of the air. To all who are putting forward a strenuous effort to achieve this end, a RINEK motor will prove of invaluable assistance. They are the lightest, practicable, water-cooled aviation engines yet produced, and run with faultless precision.

TYPE B-8

(id H.P., Eight C y1indevs, mounted "V" shape with a !)()" relation to each other. Weight, _>?S lbs. complete.

TYPE B-4

30 11.P., Four Cylinders, mounted vertically on a common crank case.

Weight, 130 lbs. complete.

Favored exclusively by the experimenter in the science of flight, as they insure to him the maximum of safety

American Builders of the STANDARD VOISIN TYPE AEROPLANE

"THE ARISTOCRAT OF FLYING MACHINES"

THE RINEK AERO MANUFACTURING CO. .

-- EASTON, PENNA. - §

CURTISS

USED

MOBILOIL

ON HIS

ALBANY-NEW YORK

FLIGHT

Solfi ilstor

fleuijBorlt

vacuum 011 company, dew york, b.y.

june 14, 1910.

3 ntlemen;

i wleh to let you know that the oil which befouled my spark pluge was not your oil. i UBed mobiloil going to philadelphia and had no trouble. owing to misunderstanding, i wbb supplied there with soma other oil, which cBused the trouble resulting in my deBoent. had i ueed mo-biloil on my return flight, i should, undoubtedly, have made the trip home without a stop.

HAMILTO

USED

MOBILO

ON HIS FLIG1

FROM NEW YORK

TO

se^Mobilpil

ANY

Vol. VII

SEPTEMBER, 1910

No. 3

THE AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERIAL LOCOMOTION

price 25 cents

38th issue

atisfied with Elbridge Engines?

——— H ■ 1 i i^i^—

BRIDGE ENGINES ARE ALL SOLD WITH c_A N unlimited jarantee BASED ON ACTUAL PERFORMANCE

iecent flights have •n made with L B R I D G E EATHERWEIGHT

ines by J. J. Frisbie Vlineola, Dr. Wm. ene at Rochester, t.G. L. Bumbaugh

Indianapolis, vard H. Skinner, ith Beach, and iy others. i-Jo one ever com-

ined that an ridge engine lacked rev or speed. Not \ do they represent e actual horse-

ver for weight J- J- Frisbie at Mineola' N" Y"

i any others on the market; but broken parts are practically unheard of. You need sr descend for "Lack of Power" if you use Elbridge Engines.

LBRIDGE ENGINE COMPANY

Culver Road

Rochester, N. Y.

AERONAUTICS September, ipw

HF

5 I

WE MAKE YOU FLY!

t ' t

* t

|| "that engine will fly any properly built plane " +

2j —Capt. Thomas Baldwin <•

% "i made a 25 mile flight (at mineola) yesterday (july 12), the *

% engine not missing once "—George Russell

t I

{ The HF Flying Power Plant !

! . J

* Four cylinder, vertical, four cycle, water cooled engine, 30 H. P. and J | 50 H. P.; 100 H. P., 6 cylinder |

% 1. Engine. |

* 2. Oiling System, force feed. $ % 3. Oil Tank, aluminum, integral with crank case. $ % 4. Carbureter (aluminum), aviation type. *

«|i *•*

J 5. Water, circulating pump. J

% 6. Radiator, special HF aviation type. %

% 7. Magneto, Bosch type or Eiseman Automatic advance. j

* 8. Copper Gasolene Tank. J j; 9. Propeller, laminated mahogany. |

* 10. Steel hub and thrust bearing. *

t 11. All necessary wiring; piping for gasolene, water and oil. J

+ t

% COMPLETE TOOL KIT—Water plug, wrench, socket wrench for plugs, |

£ screw driver, wrenches for all nuts used, monkey wrench, pipe wrench. +

Price, 30 H. P. Power Plant, $1250.00 1

| 50 " " " 1675.00 I

t . j

% the customer has no further expense except gasolene and oil 4.

i I

I HARRIMAN MOTOR WORKS, INC. j

I SOUTH GLASTONBURY, CONN. !

t *

AERONAUTICS September, ipw

+

iè Name £

BURGESS CO. & CURTIS

'- MARBLEHEAD, MASS. - f

Our Aeroplanes are Safe They Fly Well, Too

For a Convincing Demonstration

guarantees %

Excellence in Design and Workmanship

COur Model A flew successfully |

but our Model B beats it. t

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COur new Model C is even better. CThe price remains the same.

_,_ *

Call any Day—Weather Permitting

at our Aviation Grounds, f

*

Newburyport, Mass. f

Cheering Hamilton's Philadelphia Flight

the records of hamilton, curtiss, wilbur and orvill^ wright, farman, calderara and moissant were made in bosch equipped aeroplanes

Vol.

^pivvn^iiitiPQ

No. 3

VII.

 

Copyrighted, 1910, Aeronautics Press Inc.

 

roving horsepower—by reaction

DKLlVKRKI) BKH'ORE THE AKRONAITICAI. SOCIETV

By C. H. Inman.

o'l'f-j:—-the author of tliis paper has ilerised apparatus for iuilicut intj hie r. p. m. of an fir anil the propeller llirust at all times ilur-ifliaht. the paper contains much food for i/hl.—The Knrroi!.

Mlt a number of years 1 have noted the need of some reliable method of determining the horse power of small internal combustion and other portable engines, and lite the possible value of some device which [l be attached to aeronautic and other similar tes to show at all times the horse power loped by the engine while in actual service. I Iteam engineer can tell by a glance at his n gauge whether his pressure is high or low [knows at once if he is supplying his engine I the maximum pressure. The gas engineer knot this aid. but must trust blindly to obtain-| he right combinations of numerous conditions I then guess at the result. ***** lere are various methods by which (his may lone, of which 1 mention, three, besides the I I will describe later: and of which last-lioned method 1 believe 1 am the origin*****

lould my method prove of value. 1 will exact l/ondition that the same be called as ] have Itened it. "The Ueaction Test." to deter-I the horsepower of engines and other ma-Is where applicable; and further, that the le be accredited to me unless someone else I)rove a better and prior claim, le first of the three methods mentioned. I ■state, is the well-known "l'rony brake test." It you will later note that I seem to follow

Sp way. but a close analysis will show a ed departure in some respects, e second method in merit 1 will accord to (dynamometer." also well known among engi-One application of which is to attach' a lor blades to the shaft of the engine, said s being of a known area and set at a in distance from the shaft centers, at a sliced exert a certain amount of resistance, [ling to area, diameter, speed and atmospheric ty. From these we may calculate constants

used in conjunction with speed of engine. Je next method is an electric one or the In resistance of electric currents flowing Igh proper conductors, or magnetic effects, iese three methods are all of merit in certain |s, but none of them can be utilized, as far e writer knows, while the engine is develop-liseful work, possibly excepting some of the He devices. 1 will endeavor to show how a device may be applied to aeronautical and engines showing at all times the exact jr exerted by the engine without absorbing f>f the energy developed by the engine while Mini service. Said device. 1 think, need iveigh more than Hi pounds for a .~>o> horses' engine, and may be applied equally well to yolving cylinder type or the ordinary crank type. With the aid of another attachment pit weight the exact pull or thrust of pro-may be measured at the same time in a fir manner. This may be useful to aid in mining the variations due to changes in at-iheric condition and also in different alti. as well as showing at once the best mean ge speed, power absorbed and pull of propeller • varying conditions, absolutely doing away uesswork. With the aid of a suitable speed

indicator and a graduated strip or ribband of paper passing over a small, light drum driven by suitable means from engine shaft, it will lie possible to obtain an accurate record under varying atmospheric conditions.

Xow In describing my method I will follow for a way the "Prony brake" system, the same rules for calculating being used ; hut the method of procedure being diametrically opposite, there being no braking effect in my method and positively no absorption of power as in the other methods. 1 measure the power from the end of a lever practically in the same manner as may hi done on the l'rony system, but on the opposite side and contrary wise direction or in reverse direction of transmitted power.

Assuming a horse power to equal .'!.">.IHMi pounds raised one foot high per minute, a pulley :'.:> ft. in circumference rotating 1.(1(1(1 r. p. in. would, with a resistance of one pound at the periphery, he exerting one horse power; with a lo-pound resistance. K> horse power; :"(» pounds resistance our load equals r>0 horse power. If the pulley is rotating .">(•(» r. p. in. then our indicated horsepower equals one-half of the above stateil amounts. If speed of pulley should be l'.ooo r. p. m. then our reading would be doubled or 1\ Hi) and l(i(i horse power, respectively. This pulley, like the North Pole, docs not exist, so all persons are warned not to tit out any expeditions to search for it, but is used only as an illustrative point.

showing an application of prony 3iJke trzt. "jet c<mnt-ei-™isess io haance '/z of j>r&jte seam ¿4. jnm x to'ultrvm + firtcnsm. covnlerbalance ht of cc jnj afc&chmcn's to x pr?c*raty&y rvj-pisr nire

tension jtrewanj wheel l?zl£e'''szf ' «4

bolt

direction of pressure from cngine siafi

-H>^ , , ^e-rake seam — 33*- t=/0-5-r-z*raj.= s' srajce blocks cc are vs rally coye.-pj ■•nth j.ieet metal to prevent ihrops-ins o* »> ' itt ached not rhotrn clocifyrise

> s.'ieet metal to prevent tbros-s- , —^-yl

of water. b represent} pvl.'ey\ fto/ona jute M ■W t*en£in<r 'saaft. zngm'e (5) 7rj

hotyri bvt aszvmfj to rim r._r 1—^

1-1 lit we do nevertheless utilize a lever in the place of the pulley and for convenience sake in computation consider it to equal one-half the diameter of the pulley, although it may be in practice preferably shorter and also on that account compounded to reduce weight and pressure on the same principle as the platform scale, or a lever of the second order, therefore. .'!.'! ft. circumference — :;.141C. iph -h U = 5 ft. 2y2 in--radius of wheel or the length of our lever and the same pressure exerted at the free end of this lever will register the same results on the platform seal or calibrated spring as the weight or resistance on the pulley of same radius with corresponding speeds.

Now luagram \o. I will show the application of the Prony brake principle. Let A he the lever. P. the pulley attached fast to engine shatt. the exact diameter of pulley is not essential, but

the length of lever is; C the broke blocks, D the means to tighten the pressure on pulley, E the flow of water to prevent the ignition of wooden blocks and overheating of pulleys by friction. V the platform scale on which the thrust of lever is weighed. This thrust is in the same direction as the eugiue shaft and engine must be bolted down or otherwise well secured to prevent overturning. A speed indicator being used in conjunction with the apparatus as in the dynamometer method and a constant to assist iu the computations.

Now as the method is generally well understood and may lie readily observed from the diagram, it may not be necessary for me to go into further ' details of the Prony brake principle, therefore in Diagram No. 2 I will illustrate my method of "Reaction Test."

Let A represent the engine, B the support for engine which may include a ballbearing and slipped on engine shaft, but preferably a short, projecting part of hub supporting engine shaft bearing. At each end of crank case and concentric with shaft, permitting a free movement of the entire engine and crank case independent of crank shaft movement, through a small are of possibly r> deg. will be sufficient.

Connections to engine, such as water circulation and supply pipe must be made flexible, of course, to permit free movement of entire engine tbrouiih the small arc needed. Should eutine

of crank shaft, contrary to the other methr above mentioned ; my theory being that the foi exerted on the crank shaft is also equail by an opposed force from the crank case those types where crank shaft revolves and t reverse' order in the revolving cylinder ty< in the latter case we would merely attach, ci lever to one end of the crank shaft and in t' event allow free movement as before stated, onlv remains now to attach another small le" and dial to the thrust bearing of propeller determine the pull of same and a small sp< indicator attached to engine to complete c equipment. The power dial will now show <' torque exerted, the speed indicator the r. p. of engine and the propeller dial the pull pounds. If we do not wish to add extra mech; ism to compute our indicated horse power may do it easily mentally. For instance. sp<j indicator shows 500 r. p. m., power dial 40 pouu* we are securing 20 horse power. The propel dial speaks for itself and if propeller is prope designed should show a pull of not less than pounds per horse power developed, or in t' instance ISO pounds.

Should our speed dial register 1,000 r. p. | then our reading with the same pressure j power dial would be 40 horse power and I iuo-icP"!' should shew .'ICO pounds pull. Un^ favorable atmospheric conditions and engine 1 tails. Should there be a variation du? to a

Of reaction -

Unction Trst

N07E-J1,

be of a design which is top heavy; that is, the center of gravity very much above the crank siiaft, then we would probably have to counterbalance by attaching underneath the engine crank case, radiator or some other part of the equip ment: or it is permissible to make our engine supports large enough and eccentric to shaft to obtain center of gravity : in which event a flexible or universal joint would have to be provided for propeller shaft. This overbalance might not effect reading but a very small per ceut while on an even keel, but doubtless would if a violent locking motion were given to plane or wherever the appliance were used, but as it is intended solely for aeronautical work, we will not further consider outside effects.

In the type of engine which I am now developing and have patents pending, the cylinders are diametrically opposed in pairs and the center of gravity lies nearly on the crank shaft, therefore they normally assume a horizontal position. Lot (' represent our lever which wo will compound on to the indicator hand to reduce weight and power of calibrated spring required. C being bolted fast to crank case moves through the same arc of vibration. 1> represents registering dial on which are indicated the pressure of the lever in pounds, corresponding to the 10-ft. pulley first mentioned. It may bo noted here that the thrust of crank ease lever C is in the opposite direction

tude or change of atmospheric condition, the pol dial will indicate by the pointer if the euJ does not keep up the pressure, whether duel lack of fuel, or air, or other cause, as any ex friction due to sticking pistons or hot journ will not be registered, including also impro fuel mixtures, etc. Should the atmosphere very light and thin, then the speed dial d show the engine is turning over all right, with a corresponding reduced torque and a fall off or normal maximum pull of the propeller indicated speed, thus we may be enabled tol at a glance what is wrong. A wind anomonie may assist in securing positive data on wh| to 'obtain more accurate calculation as to cii and effect of various altitudes and changes ofl mosphere in the operation of aeroplanes and ot kindred subjects.

]>y utilizing the three indicators as previoti mentioned, we may further make note of ot phenomena which will be of value to the avi| and scientist alike. We can measure in act1 service the variations in propeller thrust due increased or decreased speed of plane, also < to variations of engine before inertia of macl) has been overcome. Also to variations due ascending and descending from elevations. ' effect when striking a gust or eddy of air. I effecf can also be observed independently engine, plane and propeller of the result ■ (Continued oiip. imge SS)

RONAUriCS

September, içio

The Bowden Patent Wire Mechanism

fOR the TRANSMISSION of iECIPROCATING MOTION 'HROUGH A FLEXIBLE lND TORTUOUS ROUTE

PHE Bowden Wire Mechanism is particularly adapted for Motor ar, Motor Cycle, Motor Boat and .irship Service as follows: For

rakes for Cycles, Motor Cycles.

rakes for Motor Cars, Light or Heavy.

alve Lifters for Motor Cycles.

nition and Throttle Controls foi Motor

Cars, Motor Cycles, Motor Boats and

Airships, irburetor Ticklers. >rags for Motor Cars, uffier Cut-Outs for Motor Cars, Motor

Cyoles, Motor Boats and Airships, lxiliary Air Controls for Motor Cars, Etc. larclipse Gas Lamp Shades.

hat it is.—The Bowden Wire Mechanism con-ts of but two parts—a closely coiled and petit-ally incompressible spiral wire, consti-ing what is teimed " the outer member," and vire cable, practically inextensible threaded ongh the above and termed "the inner mber."

hat it does.—Previous to the in I reduction of • Bi>\vd?n Mechanism the usual mechanical thod of transmitting power in other than a light line was by means « f angle I.'vers and Is, cables and pullf y«, an I other such devices,

of which necessarily imolve considerable uplieation. besides increased labor and expense

adapting them satisfactorily to the user's uirements Th' Bowden Wire Mechanism penses with these difficulties, while

ibling power to be transmitted by the mo t tuous route. The media■ isin h t o np'ete in ?lf, and requires only th it one member shall anchored to a stop at each end, and Ihat the er member shall ie attached to an operating er at one end and to the object to be moved the other.

The opportunities for the use of the wden Wire Meehanism are practical]}' limited, and in every case its employing is accompanied by decreased cost of ;uating mechanism, simplicity, instan-leous operation of actuated parts (due to solute lack of lost motion) and reliability. The Bowden Wire Mechanism may be pted to impart either a pulling or shing movement.

er Two Million Feet Sold Annually

S. bretz company

SOLE IMPORTERS

hies Building :: New York

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Sole Makers and Exhibitors of the Famous

.tfTTBoth 'planes TlJand motors built entirely in our own factory

The WRIGHT COMPANY

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TO avoid tvpo description in connection with "Construction Aids" has been the aim all along, making the sketches themselves fully explanatory.

Fig. fi illustrates an interesting article by Marc 1'aird in our English contemporary Aeroiuiuties. lie says :

"The carrying surfaces of a monoplane enter into two classifications: the rigid and the flexible. The former typo, which forms the rational solution of a light framework, is so expensive and so fragile that it has not been generally adopted. The latter type, on the other hand, has now been made to acquire a sufficient degree of rigidity.

"Instead of merely nailing down the cross ribs at their intersection with the main and secondary transverse spars of the wing, the joint at these' points is now stiffened by various bindings, small blocks of cork glued in the corners, and other similar devices. Small square strips of Irish linen, even, glued in every corner have proved to strengthen the Hleriot type of wing to a material degree. The saw-cuts made in the distance pieces of the ribs, by the use of a band-saw (instead of a fret-saw > have to be closed by some process of this kind. (Al

"The general arrangement of the framework of a large wing, measuring some l'O ft. span from root to tip. is shown in 11 >). Strips of wood, preferably spruce. 1 in. wide, are used for the cross ribs. These taper down at either end. since the greatest strain nearly always falls about the center of their length (C). The distance pieces are carved out of willow V4 in. thick (D). They are fixed to the ribs by means of linen tape bound three or four times round and glued down.

"The built-up transverse beams are made of two ash hoards. V2 in. thick and 2 in. wide. A small number of distance pieces are sufficient to keep the hoards together, since the ribs are placed only 1 ft. apart. In fact, three distance pieces for each beams are ample ; two are utilized for fastening the steel bands to the wings, as shown in (Ki, and one to strengthen the root.

"The construction of the fuselage of a monoplane has given rise to innumerable experiments, designed to produce a structure combining extreme lightness with very great strength. As a matter of fact, one may state without exaggeration that those structures that present the appearance of greatest finish and neatest workmanship are generally the heaviest and most liable to break. Heavy, if aluminum sockets are employed: breakable, if any holes are bored in the beams. These members of flu fuselage should never be pierced or weakened. They require a tight binding on their whole length, or at least in the vicinity of the struts. In this connection I may mention a useful tip, which is illustrated in K and Ci, and which has been found very successful in practice."

A valuable feature has been added to the aeronautic department of the 1 'hiladelphia Ini/uirer'x Sunday issue, consisting of a weekly article by an expert, who writes tinder the name of liirdinan. These articles are written in a bright, conversational style, and are replete with interesting facts and gossipy discussion of timely aeronautic matters. The Inquirer inaugurated a regular aeronautic department more than two years ago. at a time when many other newspapers were printing facetious articles about "present-day Darius Greens." belittling the efforts of aviators whom they now laud to the skies. The chief characteristic of this paper's aeronautic department is its sane editing. It wastes no space on fanciful schemes with absurd illustrations, but is a leader in the publication of real news and authoritative articles on aeronautic subjects.

The returns from the Louisville "meet" on .lune are of interest to show the results tinder proper management.

The sum total taken in was if.S3.U3u in two days. The affair cost about $11,000, leaving a profit of $^J.('.:!tj. Had Curtiss been able to fly an hour earlier 011 one of the days, it would have meant a considerable increase.

Ash 2Vs V

,1 " Mf/Lioy/

12 ^ //4 "Th'/Ctr

"s frame Woxk

A MONOPLANE OF +OFECT SPAN

PIECES OF CORK CI.UEO IN THE CORNERS.

LINEN TAPE CL UED

STEEL

thick

Henri Farmsn

(France)

J. Prentice. Captain, U. S. A., stationed at Fort Hancock, X. .1., lias been working for a considerable period on the structure and curvature of the gull's wing, building many models and a large .'!(>-ft. surface, made to scale to duplicate a gull's wing. It is Captain Prentice's theory that a surface after this pattern will prove much more efficient than the usual type of plane, and will enable flight at speeds down to 111 miles an hour, lie has had exceptional opportunity for studying these birds, and he has observed them in free flight in smoke to obtain data on the action of the air currents leaving the wing.

William Evans, S17-A East Fifteenth St.. Kansas City, Mo., has bought a Creene biplane equipped with a four-cylinder Elhridge engine. lie will give exhibitions with it.

Charles K. Hamilton's new biplane, of the Cur-tiss typo, is progressing. Walter Christie has the k-cycle "V" ion h. p. engine well in hand. This is intended to weigh less than L'uu pounds. The piston rods are of tubular steel, the wrist pins, connecting rods and heads being bored wherever possible to reduce weight. The controversy between Hamilton and (Jlenn II. Curtiss is still in flight. __

Lewis Strang, the famous driver of automobiles, has bought the imitation Curtiss biplane built by Fred Xhneider for <!. E. l>e Long, of the Elhridge Engine Co. This is fitted with an Elbridge 4-40 (¡0 •J-cycle motor. Bosch magneto. Sehehler carburetor.

The public interest in aeronautics has been turned to good account by L. E. Dare of 1'ltj West K)4th St.. New York, who recently returned from a tour of the country, showing principally in large department stores, lie gathered together'large-size working models of all the well-known flyers, with pictures, etc.. to decorate the exhibit. A lecturer demonstrated the models at certain hours every day and explained to all inquirers the business of every part of the machines. The stores featured the exhibition, which covered about 400 sq. ft., in their advertising, and great crowds were daily visitors. In some cities the public schools attended in classes.

Ward and lirodie are trying out the l'rof. J. .1. Montgomery monoplane in Chicago and are making daily flights in .lames E. Pléw's Curtiss machine.

Comparing the Cnome and the Adams revolving motors. Eric Walford gives credit for the early conception and practical work of the Adams-Farwell construction and finds them similar in principle. While the greater lightness belongs to the <;nome. the Adams has important constructive advantages. The power of the engine is controlled by varying the compression. A lever permits the adjustment of the inlet cam with relation to the revolving engine. For full power the cam operates as usual, but otherwise the inlet valve remains open during part of the compression stroke, so that part of the gas is blown back in

the inlet pipe and less is .....npressed. This has

the advantage that, when the engine is throttled down considerably, the pressure within the cylinders does not fall very low on the suction strokes, as in ordinary engines, and the lubricating oil will not be liable to be drawn past the piston rings into the combustion chamber. 3>y this pro vision one of the great diflieiilties of revolving motors seems to be obviated in the Adams type. It has no exhaust pipe or mutller. but auxiliary exhaust ports at the bottom of the stroke break up the exhaust into two portions and reduce the noise. The gas is not fed into the crank chamber, as in the (Jnoine. but into an induction chamber, and thence through live radial inlet pipe* to the tops of the cylinders, so that this engine does not resemble the radial flow turbine as much as the (¡lióme, in which the gas travels radially outward through valves in the piston head, and then expands inward, passing outward through the cylinder heads again on the exhaust stroke.—The . I hlocar. .Tune 4.

= ûîenn Curtiss Files from Albany ===

In a Bi-plane Equipped with tu NeW YOfk City

PALMER AEROPLANE TIRES

Hammondsport, N. Y., June 4, 1910

THE B. F. GOODRICH COMPANY Akron, Ohio

Gentlemen:—I have your letter of June 1st and thank you for your complimentary expressions.

The Palmer Tires, with which I equip all of my aeroplanes give the best of satisfaction for the purpose. The light weight does not greatly impede the lifting power% of the machine and the great resiliency enables me to land without shock on the hardest ground^ and to pick up speed quickly in starting*. I am glad to credit a part of the success of my aeroplane to the Palmer tire.

Yours very truly, (Signed) G. H. Curtiss.

* "Curtiss-jerked a lever. Themachine glided \ "Calm and cool, as unruffled as if stepping along the ground for perhaps fifty yards, and out of a street car. Curtiss, as he landed, called then rose steadily, gracefully in the air."'—The out. 'where's that oil and gasoline?' "—The OutOutlook, June 25. look, June 25.

t "There was a sudden whir of the engine, a dash, across the field, and then like a huge bird Curtiss, in his aeroplane, rose gracefully in the air. circling about so as to come within the limits of Albany."—The Outlook, June 25.

The Palmer Aeroplane Tire

Manufactured by

The B. F. Goodrich Company .... Akron, Ohio

EQUIP YOUR AEROPLANE

WITH

Aeroplane Fabrics Aeroplane Tires Bumpers

Tell us what you need, and let us explain the * superiorities of GOODYEAR Materials.

THE GOODYEAR TIRE & RUBBER COMPANY

Akron, Ohio

AEROPLANE TIRES

Clincher type only, which is the lightest and most satisfactory type for aeroplanes

SIZE Weight complete

20x4 in. 6i lbs.

26x2i " 6i "

28x2l " 74 "

28x3 " 8 "

28x3^ " 8f "

Wheels also furnished for the above sizes Pennsylvania Rubber Co., Jeannette, Pa.

BRANCHES: New York— 1741 Broadway ; Boston— 167 Oliver Street; Chicago— 1241 Michigan Avenue; San Francisco—512 Mission Street: Los Angeles—930 So. Main Street.

The Buen Tono Bleriot Monoplane Totally Wrecked.

THEKE was great enthusiasm displayed on the 24th of July to attend the trials of the HIeriot monoplane, made by Sr. Manuel Le-brija, the Mexican aviator, on the lands of the Kancho dc Valbuena. and 8 a. in., at which hour the trials were scheduled to commence, the field was filled wilh an immense crowd, that anxiously and impatientlv awaited the promised flights.

After several successful trials, which earned the daring aviator tremendous applause, and when the crowd had gone, quite a serious accident occurred, which, had it not been for the agility of Sr. Lebrija. might have resulted fatally.

This accident took place when the aviator was returning to the hangar after having made an excellent flight, which easily surpassed all others made thus far. making all the turns with ease and having maintained a good height from the time he started until the accident tcok place. As he was coming along, and on descending, he struck a place where the mud was extremely soft and sticky, causing the machine to skid along for quite a distance and to turn over on its right side, and as the wheels sank into the mud and'resisted the forward movement, the frame of the machine broke in two from the force of the impact, the part containing the motor and propeller sticking in the mud. Minor injuries were received by the aviator.

The Captive Balloon "Ciudad de Mexico."

The captive balloon which has been on exhibition in the City of Mexico closed its season the other day and will certainly be missed as an attraction. The ascensions were discontinued on account of the rainy season.

Great crowds would throng the streets to watch the numerous daily ascensions, and many of the most prominent people of the metropolis, including Vice-President Kanum Corral and Governor Guillermo de Landa y Escandon. had the pleasure of making the trip and enjoving the beautiful panorama presented by the Valley of Mexico when hooked at from a great height.' The weather was leenerally superb and the atmosphere so clear that ■the innumerable villages which surround the capital [and the cultivated fields and orchards which dol [the valley looked like a gigantic checker board.

On the last ascension the pilot. Sr. Manuel L°-[bri.ia. who has also made several short flights in |the Bleriot. monoplane, took up a party of his Ifriends. on which occasion the balloon was freed. iThe party descended near a railway station, where In lunch which was carried in the basket of the balloon was served.

[Mexican Aviator Makes His First Flight.

I On July S. in Ouadala.iara. on the large and level lands known as "Las Ajuntas." to the right of Ithe private road of the' Guadalajara Automobile [Club, where plenty of space is to lie had for the. [purpose, though a tree here and there makes it I dangerous for the aviator and machine should the latter not lie provided with guiding gear, the preliminary public trials of the aeroplane "Jalisco." Invented by Sr. Lopez Mejia. a Mexican youth, ■ivere held.

I The machine was run along the course several •"hues at a prettv .good clip in order to test the ■mgine. which was imported from Europe. Hum Ithe aviator raised his elevating planes slightly [and the machine rose about f! ft. and skimmed lilong. Einallv. after several attempts, an eleva lion of about 0V> ft. was attained, but on attempting to make a turn one of the main planes struck It tree and broke, which brought the trials to an imd until such ti ^e as repairs can be made, when Itnother demonstration will he given. I The trial was a success, and showed that the

machine would fly. The large crowd in attendance expressed its appreciation by hearty cheers and prolonged applause, and the voting inventor was warmly congratulated.

New Aviator Will Fly from San Antonio to Mexico City.

Henry Alfred Sohwob, a young French marquis who has come into prominence here through an inheritance of .fi.'OO.noO yobl, is the latest aspirant for aeronautical honors in Mexico.

Mr. Schwob states that a biplane- is being built for him at San Antonio. Tex., which will have radical features of his own design which are not used on any of the other aeroplanes, and will be equipped with a 140 h. p. motor, to allow 40 poteen t for the loss in power on account of the high altitude.

He also claims to have partially built a biplane with his own hands in Europe and has also made several successful flights in France, lie was contemplating flying from San Antonio. Tex., here in his machine, hut as he is afraid that there might be long stretches where water and gasoline could not lie obtained, and as his machine is a light experimental one and not equipped for carrying supplies, he has given up the idea and will have it sent by express, lie anticipates no ditliculty in flying with his machine at tliis altitude. Ho expects to lv ready to make his first flight in about a month or two.

The Monoplane as a Freight Carrier.

Perhaps the tirst practical adaptation of the aeroplane for freight-carrying purposes in the world is shortly to he made by A. A. Williams, an aviator of Douglas, Ariz., he having contracted with Dr. J. J. P. Armstrong, who owns a placer mine in the Chihuahua Mountains, in the Sierra Madre range, near the city of Chihuahua. Mexico, for the transportation of placer mining machinery from Douglas to his property, a distance of about 300 miles. The machinery in question consists of pieces which can lie made up into 100-pound lots. The machine which Williams will use is a monoplane.

When the above notice was brought to the attention of officials of the Mexican government, immediate instructions wore given to Sr. de la Barra. Mexican ambassador at Washington, to hurry the signature of the treaty for aerial navigation, which is at present being considered between the Fnited States and Mexico. The Mex ican government, when proposing such a treaty to Uncle Sam. not thinking, perhaps, that such legislation would lie required so soon for the purpose of regulating aerial freight t raffle.

Aeronautical Society Lectures Printed.

The Aeronautical Society I New York) has issued the first of its series of bulletins containing all the discussions and lectures held at the special twice a month meetings. Since last fall stenographic notes have been taken at each of these meetings with this end in view. The first bulletin contains the lalk of .lames 11. Scarr. head of the Weather Bureau in .New York City.

An abstracted aeronauticqfl dictionary has also been prepared for distribution and copies will be sent to the various newspapers of the country for their use. ft is hoped that this missionary work will result in the doing away with such absurd headings as:—

Airship Wrecked at Mineola.

Dr. Walden Injured in Monoplane-.

which appeared in several of the New York afternoon papers receully. Even in Philadelphia the Aeronautical Editor is up on the new Art.

aeroplanes and balloons in mexico

By E. L. Ramsey.

EXCEPTING power plant, Ibis machine would appear at first glance to be an exact duplicate of the Farman machine in which Paulhan made his height record at Los Angeles, but on closer inspection a number of modifications and some improvements may be observed. For instance, the diagonal cross stmt, or stay, on each skid. Curtiss lateral control by shoulder brace, and elevator and rudder control by wheel: skids on ends of plane; skids on rear cell, which on striking the ground allow the rear edge of the lower plane to swing tip and thus avoid injury in landing. One noticeable defect, to the writer's mind, is the flatness of the planes, the camber being only 1 in .°.fi, which, no doubt, accounts for the large horse power and high incident angle. It is claimed that this machine has flown with a flO-35 horse power motor, but evidently results were not satisfactory as a 00 horse power is now installed.

The machine is of very neat construction and workmanship, though the sockets appear cumbersome and have altogether too much head resistance. Except on rudder, elevator and aileron controls, where Itoehling "aviator cord'1 is used, oil-tempered steel wire is used throughout. No. 112 guying the planes. No. 0 attached to skids and No. 0 between skids. Ferrules are used in fastening. Efficient turnbuckles of their own design are used, a small one testing 1.14!) pounds, a medium and a large testing (stated) 4 tons. They consist of a MeAdamite body of suitable shape into which screws the eyes by right and lint-hand threads, a lock nut on one of the eyobolts is screwed against casting or body end and locks.

The skids extend out in front rjuite a bit further than in the Farman. ferruled end being gnved to frame in usual manner.

Spread is ">2 ft., length 42 ft., surface ?>72 ft., weight S50 pounds without operator.

/'lanes.—">2 x 0. lower cut out to beam for proueller, are double covered, ribs and beams enclosed with Naiad No. <i; beams are laminated, front 1 =4 x 2V2. rear 1 V2 x 214 : ribs are built up. nailed and glued to beams, camber 2 in.. .10 in. back from front edge; struts, oval. 1% x 1 in. center cross section: V.> \ %-in. ends. Incident angle very high for biplane nractice. though measured, is not to be made public as yet.

Chassis.—Resrular Farman type—Two skids and four wheels, with the addition of a diagonal cross strut from underside of lower rear beam to skids in front of wheels. Chassis struts are 1 V2 x 2Vi in., cross section oval. MoAdamito sockets of suit aide angle. Holes drilled into casting are used for guy-wire fastening: this is not very good practice unless some sort of a bushing is used, as the vibration of the wires wears the metal appreciably. Am indebted to Mr. Peters for t'Ms information, which I believe is not generally known. Skids are of hickory 1 in. wide. 2XA high. Wheels are 2S in. witli a 214-in. tire, steel rims, narrow hubs and babbitt friction bearings, are .°..n. in. apart on a 214-in. axle, held in place on inside by stay collar and outside by a cotter pin. An eyebolt set in the skid takes the ends of the two %-in. IS-gaugo stays, other ends fastening to collars on axle. The method of hanging skid is ingenious : the skid passes through two rectangular links of t4-in. iron, which engage grooves on bottom of skid, lleavv leather straps, adjustable by a buckle, fasten the links to two other links of 1*4-in. square-moulded rubber: those latter pass over axle and are held in place by wooden shoulders bolted to axle. Eight skids are pivoted from rear beam at each cud ; wires with a rubber elastic medium, to take up shock, run from middle of skid to front beam.

Controls.—The elevator axis is at a point 12 ft. out in front, a MoAdamile casting connecting the two spars and serving as a bearing for the shaft. This is placed a little forward of center of the double-covered plane, which is flat on the bottom, size .n, x S ft., and works in conjunction

with a flap hinged on the upper rear surface! Three posts are placed on the front and two or! rear. Tail pianos are S x 0 x G ft. apart, sup! ported by two skids (see general description)! The front edge is 14 ft. " in. from rear cdgl of main planes. Outrigger spars are two-pll laminated. 1 1/10 in. square section, struts saml size as in main pianos. 48 in. apart.

The rudder is 4 x (» ft., placed between plane! on front middle strut. A cord prevents more thai! lS-in. movement to each side.

Ailerons. 1V2 x 0 ft., hinged to rear beam bj| three hinges.

Steering wheel, automobile, spider bored oul to lighten, post pivoted at center (see photol between seat and engine base frame, to whicll are mortised and bolted the V's which hold the stationary foot rests. Aluminum treads arl placed on these, giving the machine a finished appearance.

The shoulder brace is laminated and the sea| of wickerwork.

rower plant.—A 00. horse power Hall-Scoti S-eylinder engine drives direct a 7 ft. S in. llalll Scott propeller of about 4%-ft. pitch—not \mm form; blade 12% in. wide with %-in. camber at this width. Thrust at 1.400' r. p. m. (stated* 2S0 pounds. Shaft approximately horizontal ill flight. Motor is equipped with a l'.osch magnetol Gear water and oil pumps. Oil tank fixed to base of motor. Radiator placed over and in back of operator. Gasoline tank, three-gallon, sum ported by wires. Engine and seat base clamped to beams by %-in. IT bolts.

On July 24 three flights of about a mile eacB were made without accident, including turns. ThH machine handled excellently with .1. W. Peters piloll

Akroxactics is greatly indebted to the courtesB of the owners for allowing its representative to go over the machine so thoroughly and secure thj above valuable data for publication. Mr. Don CM Prentiss and Mr. .1. \V. Peters were especially kind. -

O'Brien Flies Farman Type.

Clifton O'Brien, of the Pacific Aero Club, hal a Farman-type machine. Tie reports having inadt! several flights, longest being about a quartea mile. In his last flight hr> rose from the ground] in a run of 7.1 ft. and while flying along at a height of 20 ft. was caught in a downward eddJ that swirled around the grandstand and tippedj him over to the left at an angle of nearly 4pi (leg., despite his manipulation of the ailerons. He finally recovered bis lateral control, but irl the meantime lost in the fore and aft direction and the machine, which was probablv too lighllfl built, struck the ground violently and warn wrecked. Air. O'Brien escaped injury.

The machine is ">1 ft. spread by' 42 ft. fori and aft. Planes 31 by 0 ft., curvature 1 in :\2W Weight of frame without power plant, 370 pounds* Weight complete. S20 pounds.

The power plant consists of a llall-Scott S cylinder 00 horse power engine, driving direct a llall-Scott 7 ft. 0 in. by 4-ft. pitch propeller* The thrust claimed is 2S5 pounds. A "Sunset'E radiator of but 1 ."> nounds weight does the coolinsB

The. biplane is almost a duplicate of the WiseB man-Peters completely described in this issue. havB ing the same sockets, ribs, struts, control anc] general dimensions and power plant. As pointed! out by the writer in the description of the latteii machine, the small camber of the surface noeessi-1 tates a greater angle of incidence and a corre-l spondingly greater horse power.

Loyland I'.r;, ant and Louis Forlncy. of Sal Francisco, who recently completed a large Aifl toinetle typo monmilaue. wrecked the machine mi each of its two trials and are now at work dis sembling the remains, having given up aetivl participation in the conquest of the air. The! will soli the 00 horse power auto engine witB which the machine was equipped.

FLYING OUT ON THE PACIFIC COAStI the wiseman-peters biplane

By Cleve T. Shaffer.

BUILDERS OF

Complete Light-Weight Aeronautic Power Plants

4 cyl. 30 to 40 H. P.

4i"

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4 cyl. 40 to 50 H. P.

5"

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6 cyl. 50 to 60 H. P.

5"

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For prices and descriptive circulars, just write to

Detroit Aeronautic Construction Co.

M. Paridon In Machine July 2nd

TO PARIDON MACHINE

Do You Want a Reliable Machine ? Do You Want a Handsome Machine? Do You Want a Durable Machine? Do You Want a Powerful Machine?

If you do, we have it. Write or call on the

IBARBERTON AVIATION CO., :: Barberton, 0. !

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AEROPLANES

Aeronautical Supplies

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GET OUR LARGE

Catalogue of Aero Supplies

-37 Models of Aero Motors, 7 makes of Propellers. -

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R. O. RUBEL. JR.. & COMPANY

R. O. RUBEL, JR., & CO.

The Aero Supply House of America

132 N. 4th St., LOUISVILLE, KY., U.S. A.

A SCREW BLADE Laminated Wood Propeller

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Mail otTelegr^l 107c of ami. and wc will ship C. O. D. for balance

ALONZO C0FFIN

Sole Manufacturer

67 Main Street San Francisco :: California

©

Positive

CARBURETTOR

= G. & A. =

Automatic

A I MYFRS Tnr 244 West 49th St., NEW YORK **• 1T1 1 1111*. Soie owners U. S. Patent Rights

More Power- Less Gasoline- No Adjusting—No Priming- No Float Leveling—No Springs

AUXILIARY AIR THROUGH A SERIES OF BRONZE-BALLS IN A CAGE SPRAY NOZZLE: Automatically atomizing the pioportions of gasoline for high and low speeds. BALL CAGE: Automatically controlling the openings of auxiliary air for high and low speeds. ————Write for Booklet on Carburetion

All persons are cautioned against infringing on the ball cage for the intake of auxiliary air.

©

25 -30 h. p. c/lnzani oTVlotor

now on exhibition at UNITED STATES^'cANADA AND MEXICO

735-7th cytvenue, New York. Yves de villers & Co.

We suarantee delivery of any one of our motors between 19-15 fl.iv« after ie.eii-.t of Hi

NEW YORK PARIS

PHILADELPHIA

orrler. For failure of delivery

THE Stevens monoplane, built by Wm. Stevens, of Los Angeles, Cal., which lacks but the motor to go on its trials, embodies some new ideas in monoplane construction.

Frames. The framework consists entirely of steel tubing, except the ribs and lateral beams of wings. These are hollow wood, wrapped with muslin tape and glue, then wound diagonally with piano wire. All joints are brazed. The body is of hexagonal design properly braced by steel wires equipped with turn buckles.

Planes. The width of the main planes is 32 ft. over all with a depth of 10 ft. tapering to 3 ft. at the tips. Width of rear plane is 0 ft. 0 in., and depth 10 ft. The total length of the machine is 24 ft.

Runnlny gear consists of three caster wheels 20 x 2%, spread of the front pair being 7 ft. 0 in., all wheels being pivoted with spring suspension.

Propulsion. The diameter of the propeller is 8 ft. with 10 degrees pitch. The motor has been built by Buel IT. Green, of Los Angeles. The engine is an eight-cylinder set at 00 degrees, "V" type, 50 h. p. ; the bore is lOOm/m, the stroke is 13<Uu/m. The cylinders are made of high carbon steel, turned from the solid billet, the pistons are low carbon steel with cast-iron rings ; the cylinder jackets are of spun copper, and the cylinder heads are water jacketed cast iron; the valves are placed at an angle in the cylinder head, and are operated by a cross beam from the cam-shaft, which has four double throw cams, each cam operates the valves for two cylinders. Connecting rods and crank shafts are made of Vanadium steel, the crank case is aluminum, carrying at each end large

annular ball-bearings which support the crankshaft, F. & S. ball-bearings also are used to carry the cam-shaft as well as for rollers in the valve plungers. Mr. Stevens is also using a special turn-buckle which Green is making for the aeronautic trade.

Both inlet and exhaust valves are of generous proportions, being 50m/m diameter, so as to offer as little resistance to the passage of the gases as possible.

Control. The control of this monoplane embodies some new ideas, the lateral stability being maintained by the main supporting planes in this way: The planes are pivoted in their center of pressure and independently of each other, and can therefore be offset, viz. : one plane can be given a greater angle than the other. The scope of angles is from 3 degrees negative to IS d'egrees. Both the elevating aud offsetting of these planes is ingeniously effected by the movement of one handlebar in front of the aviator in such manner that swinging this handlebar upwards in a vertical plane gives a larger angle to the plane on that side, thereby righting the machine. By pulling the handlebar on the left towards you, gives the planes an angle of 3 degrees negative and the opposite movement gives IS degrees positive. As can be seen by the photograph, the aviator sits over the rear plane, back of the rear wheel and just in front of the direction rudder.

The weight of the machine when fully equipped and including aviator will be 1,000' pounds.

The double surface direction rudder is operated by the feet on a cross lever connected up by wires through pulleys.

The Stevens Monoplane 86

THE STEVENS MONOPLANE

By Chas. E. Schmerber.

Pf AR AG ON PROPELLERS

Diam. 8 ft. Pitch 4*2 to 5 ft. variable. Weight 103t lbs. This style of propeller yields over 450 lbs. thrust at 1100 revolutions per minute.

The following letter should interest those who have inquired about the standing thrust produced by our propellers:

THE EMERSON ENGINE COMPANY, INC. ALEXANDRIA. VIRGINIA. U. S. A.

American Propeller Company. August 10, l»lo.

Washington, D. C.

Gentlemen : We have the pleasure of reporting to yon that on July 215. 1910, we tested one of our (".-cylinder aeronautic engines, furnished for Dr. W. W. Cnristin is' biplane, using one of your PARAGON propellers of 8-fool diameter by 4,i> to 5 ft. variable pitch. The propeller gave a thrust of t'jti pounds at 1100 rev. per mil).

We also examined the propeller for accuracy of balance ami correctness of form and pitch on the opposing blades and found them very perfect The mateii 1, workmanship anil finish and your mode of fastening the laminations together are to be highly commended. Although the weight of the propeller was but 1()34 pounds there was no apparent deflection under the extraordinary strain.

Very truly yours.

The Emerson Knoine Company,

Victor Lee Kmerson. President.

We guarantee out propellers to be superior to others by every test rnd in every particular.

It is "tip to you," Air. Flying,- Man, to have your propellers scientifically designed for your machine or to take jour chances of success with the common kind. The cost is no more-Let us send you a printed form for information upon which we can make preliminary calculations and give yon an estimate.

AMERICAN PROPELLER COMPANY, :: 616 G Street, N.W., Washington, D. C.

Makers of the "Paragon" kind

LAMINATED TRUE SCREW J

PROPELLERS:

In Stock For Immediate Shipment \

P. BRAUNER & CO. J

335-339 EAST 102nd STREET ♦

Phone, 2189 Lenox ::: NEW YORK ♦

C")UR(j-ft. Propeller delivers 200 lbs. W thrust at 1200 R. P. M. C.Do you want to get the best results? If so get a "Brauner Propeller." COtir Propeller lias proven more than satisfactory to those using it ::: :::

G-ft., (>i lbs. - - $40.00 7-ft., 8i " - - 50.00 8-ft., 11 " - - 00.00

ROPELLERS

| LAMINATED WOOD | True Screw : Any Pitch

1 $30.2°

WHY PAY MORE?

I Aluminum Castings, Turnbuckles, $ Aeroplane Cloth, Wire, Bamboo

<| -Write For Particulars About-

I De Chene Motors

35 h. p., $650.

I holbroqk aero supply co,

I JOPLIN :: :: :: MO.

A BR OX AU TI CS

September, ipiu

PROPELLERS

IN STOCK FOR IMMEDIATE SHIPMENT

Our true pitch, laminated ash and mahogany propellers combine all the most valued and proven features of foreign and home practice.

t"hey are built in large quantities on the inter' changeable plan.

1a#e specialize. you get the benefit of our experience.

vou know the value of buying a stock article, one ■ which is past the experimental stage.

WRITE FOR CATALOG.

TERRITORY OPEN FOR AGENTS. $50.00 at our Works

6 ft. dia. for 20-30 H. P. «v>u.vv d uur vvunva .

(Thrust 200 ibs. @ 1,200 R. p. m.) larger

7 ft. dia. for 25-40 H. P. $60.00 at our Works sizes

(Thrust 250 Ibs. @ 1,200 R. P. m.) to

8 ft. dia. for 30-60 H. P. $70.00 at our Works

(Thrust 300 Ibs. @ 1,200 R. P. m.)

order

TESTIMONIAL

New York, July 9tb, 1910. THE REQUA-GIBSON COMPANY, No. 225 West 49th St., New York.

Gentlemen:—It gives me pleasure to be able to tell you that your propeller has given me entire satisfaction. I think the silk reinforcement on the tips is a great improvement, as 1 have had broken wires, etc., get caught in the propeller without doing serious damage to same.

Whenever I can say a word for the REQUA-GIBSON propeller you may rest assured that 1 will do so. Very truly yours,

(Signed), THOMAS S. BALDWIN.

small propellers for models 10-16" dia., $5.00 mail or telegraph 10' of amount and we will ship c.o.d. for balance, plus cratage.

when ordering state the direction of rotation of propeller when you stand facing the breeze made by the propeller, clockwise or anticlockwise?

if uncertain as to the size you require, state the horsepower of your engine and its speed.

the requa-gibson co.

225 west 49th street,

Phone 7200 Col.

- new york, n. y.

60th Street Subway Sta.

September, içio

at the los angeles aerodrome

By Prof. H.

Three machines now at the Los Angeles Aero drome are endeavoring to fly. J. J. Slavin, with his biplane, has made a flight of 50 ft. The aerodrome is one mile in circumference, thus making it 1,700 ft. in diameter, l'art of this distance is taken up by the motordrome track and the inner field fence. This leaves but 1,000 ft. clear space in length. This is too restricted a space for amateurs, as it takes a large part of the distance to clear the ground, and one must alight within a small distance to avoid running into the fence.

A track outside of the enclosure has just been completed. This track is over a mile in length.

LaV. Twining.

I'll to the present time a thrust of lso pounds has been obtained at 1.400 revolutions.

Uoorge Deussler has built a machine of the Farmau type, equipped with a Mitchell automobile engine of 30i> pounds weight and ."><! h. p. He has been off the ground with this machine and in a try out on July .'¡1 the front control broke. The wind blew it back into bis face and cut the bridge of his ruise. lie escaped other wise unhurt.

The Greer Kobbins machine is a monoplane of peculiar construction. This machine is equipped with an "X" model Ford automobile engine. It has made a flight of some 05 ft. This machine

The Aero Club of California's Aerodorr

and Mr. Slavin intends to try out his machine on this track on Aug. 5. Slavin's biplane differs from others in the arrangement of the main planes, in order to secure automatic lateral stability. The resistance under one plane causes that plane to shift the opposite plane automatically. The same is true of the fore and aft stability.

The Eaton-Twining machine has been running around on the ground endeavoring to fly. This machine is a monoplane of the Bleriot type. It differs from that machine in having sliding planes for securing lateral stability, instead of ailerons or warping. The machine is making daily jumps of 10 to 5o ft. On one occasion it rolled over on its back. Warren S. Eaton was driving the machine. The main planes had not yet been put on. In making a turn the machine skidded and turned over sideways, landing on its back. Warren escaped unhurt.

On another occasion the axle broke, and as the machine was traveling some 25 miles an hour, it pitched over on its nose. Warren Eaton was the driver and he again escaped unhurt.

Mr. Slavin's machine is equipped with a Werner motor, made in 1 os Angeles. It is a .'¡0 h. p. 4-cylinder water-cooled motor. The Eaton Twining machine is equipped with a Ford automobile engine. "T" model. 4-cylinder water cooled. 22% h. p. Total weight of power plant is 200 pounds. Weight of machine with aviator is 700 pounds.

The Eaton-Twining Machine

is probably the second machine belonging to a member of the Aero Club of California to leave the ground, the Gill biplane being the first. The Gill machine is a Farmau type so that the Greer-Robbins is the first monoplane invented by a member of the Aero Club of California to clear the ground. There are some ten other machine.*; at the "aerage" in various stages of construction.

Praise for "Aeronautics."

lUTAR Sit;:

I have read your editorial note for July with admiration and enthusiasm, and note your splendid advertising patronage, and its logical nature, with real astonishment. Your periodical bus been as complete, world wide and nearly as wonderful as the triumph of Wilbur and Orville Wright.

1 am only a literary man of 00: I have stuck to my trade and have beheld the death of nearly all illusions. Yet the scientific progress since 1S70. the phonograph, telephone, the dynamo, spectroscope, turbine. X-ray and radio-activity, and finally the Wrights, have kept me alive to the in-teresiing character of this otherwise unpleasant world. Wonderful ! Wonderful ! One may be an inquiring little child al CO!

John McGoveun, 032 North Central Ave., Austin Station.

Chicago. 111.

Curtiss Flies Over Mars at Omaha. Windwagon'at Detroit. Brookins Flying at Detroit.

Brookins Jusf Before his Accident at Asbury Park.

Curzon Flying his Farman at

St. Louis Novice Meet. The New Wright Chassis.

Asbury Park.

Aug. 15.—The success of the Wright Meet which opened at Asbury Park, August 10, under the auspices of the New .Terser Aero and Motor Club, was marred on. the very first day by the injuring of several spectators when Walter l'.rookins smashed his machine at one end of the grand stand. The machine used was the first Wright machine to be seen in public with wheels and the flight was the very first one that had been made. The wind at the grounds was very strong and at times the aeroplane almost stood still. Gliding down from a height with the engine shut off, Brook-ins was just about to touch the ground, so eye witnesses state, but right in front of him were newspaper men and photographers. To avoid these. Brookins. with the little headway he had, turned up again to clear them but he did not have speed enough. Turning the machine quickly Inward the most available spot, it landed on its nose and was smashed, and Brookins somewhat hurt. The spectators who were injured, and several quite seriously, were struck by the machine in making its landing. The highest wind velocity between 1 :00> P. M. and f> :00 p. M. that day, according to the nearest weather bureau station, at Long Branch, was 24 miles an hour, lloxsey. immediately after the accident, went up for five minutes, and one of the hot air balloons was sent tip.

The Wright aviators at the Meet are: Walter Brookins. Frank ("offvn. Duval La rhapelle, Arch lloxsey and Ralph Johnstone.

Up to " :00 P. M. every day there is an exhibition of kite flying given by A. E. Wells with bis outfit of all kinds of kites, and by the Signal Corps of the New Jersey National Guard using

Eddy kites. Every day that the weather permitted Fred L. Owens has been going up in his dirigible. Johnny Mack gives each day an exhibition of single and double hot air balloon ascents with parachute drops. The field is one of four acres enclosed* by a 15-ft. canvas fence.

The accident seemed to double the sale of seats! the next day when 10,000i persons were present. Wilbur Wright came on from Dayton to visit Brookins and saw Johnstone and lloxsey fly, and] in a contest, alight in a pre-arranged space.

PARACHUTE JUMPER KILLED

The third day saw the death of Benny Trinzj who was killed in making a double parachute drop, the second parachute failing to work. He must have fallen from a height of about 1.000 ft.I Two men were in the balloon. Samuel Uartland, and Prinz. Hart land had already cut loose from! the balloon and reached the ground safely in the single drop. Governor Fort was present and saw the flights, leaving just before the fatal accident.

On this same day Hoxsey and Johnstone were both in the air at the same time making shortI turns and dips, and cutting fancy figures. lloxsey went uii to 1,S00 feet, the highest that he has! yet been.

Johnstone made his longest flight Saturday. re-| maining up P.5 minutes and attaining an altitudoJ of .°,.!MiO ft., the end of his descent being at aj sharp angle with the engine cut off. During thisl flight the dirigible was sailing around and IToxseyj did "stunts" many hundred feet helow JolmstoiM Ooffyn also tlew.

Sunday there was no flying and to-day a rami storm prevented. The meet has six more days to| run.

MEETINGS COMING, GOING AND GONE

CHURCH

Aeroplane Co.

BROOKLYN, N. Y.

Working Models Flying Models Separate Parts

MODELS BUILT TO ORDER

From Working- Drawings, Etc.

SUPPLIES FOR MODEL BUILDERS:

Aluminum, Rattan, Bamboo, White-Wood, Etc.

Special Notice!

WE have received so many inquiries for agency propositions and orders are coining in so fast, that our mail has grown to such an extent, that we find ourselves unable to keep ii]> with our correspondence, but will fill orders and answer all letters as quickly as possible until we have increased our facilities still further.

Price List of Models and Parts

is now ready, but it will be some little time before our

Supply Catalog for Full Size

Machines is ready for distribution as there are so many new things to list. In asking for catalog, please state which one you want.

CHURCH AEROPLANE CO.

Main office and factory 12:3 Smith St.. BROOKLYN, N. Y.

Chicago office, 49 Wabash Ave., H. S. Renton, Manager.

OWN AN AEROPLANE f

{\UR large illustrated catalogue list of all materials for the construction of any type of aeroplane at moderate cost.

Our skilled workmen can build for you any special device or part that is not included in our large stock.

Our woodwork men are at your service for the construction of ribs and spars in the latest and most successful manner.

Our facilities are the best because we carry all materials in stock and are manufacturers as well as importers and dealers. Oval tubing for Demoiselles now furnished.

4» used, are usually on hand, ready for immediate $

■j* delivery. ■f*

^| Aviators for exhibitions are available through £

•fr our office. <fr

* *

* There is no want of an aeronautic nature that *

5 we cannot promptly fill. ^.

•!• Highest references from clients who have bought +

* from us, located in every state in the Union, and J .g, several foreign countries. 4,

* +

+ Send 10 cents for new complete J

J catalogue — No. 3, 50 pages. J

*__ *

* = +

! The Aeronautic Supply Co. !

2 3930 Olive Street St. Louis, Mo., U. S. A. %

First in all America" 4.

H. P. BY REACTION TEST

{Concluded from page 7S) hot. sultry atinospliere to dry, wet or cold, or the effect of rarified atmosphere at high altitudes; in fact, the combinations of tests which may be made are numerous.

Your author has not had the time or means to prove out his theories in actual practice, but cheerfully makes these suggestions of the possibilities with the simple little devices previously mentioned. Your author also contends that the horse power of a large majority of the present aeronautical engines rarely comes up to the rating quoted by the builders, and, still worse, cannot as a rule continue to run for an extended period of timo. Having no convenient means at hand to test liis motor, the purchaser often does not know the power his motor actually develops, although the fault may not always lie in the muter, but possibly due to numerous conditions and causes hard for the layman to locate.

Your author further contends that the present type of the four-cycle engine is not ideal for aeronautics and hopes at a later date to demon strate this theory by practice. The extreme light weight is not so essential as the propeller pull per horse power, as upon this feature in a large measure depends the ability to fly with the present type of plane, but do we get the pull on propeller desired at normal speed of engine? 1 think not.

AERONAUTICS

AERONAUTICAL SUPPLIES

AT MONEY SAVING PRICES

Elbridge Special Feather-weight, 2-CycIe Aero Motors (water cooled):

3 Cylinder, 30-45 H. P., 138 1-2 lbs. . $750.00

4 Cylinder. 40-60 H. P., 178 lbs. ... . 1050.00

Cylinders 4 5-8x4 1-2, copper jackets,

aluminum bases, hollow crank shaft. 4 Cylinder, 20-24 H. P.. 150 lbs. (air cooled) 610.00 Cylinders 3 1-2x31-2, flanges 1 5-8 in. deep.

20 x 2 Aeroplaoe Wheels with tires built with steel

rims and special hub, very strong, price, . . 9.50

E. J. W. Aeroplane Hubs turned from solid bar of

steel, drilled 36 holes, well-nickeled. . . . 4.00

E. J. W. Aeroplane Hub Brakes, enables aviator to stop his plane before or after alighting on ground, length 8 ins., outside cones 5 3-4 ins., bored 36 holes............10.50

Requa-Gibson Propellers, laminated wood, perfect screw :

6 ft., 6 1 -2 lbs...........50.00

7 ft.. 9 lbs............60.00

8 ft.. 12 lbs............70.00

The 6 ft. propeller gives 200 lbs. thrust at 1200 R. P.M. Model Propellers, laminated wood, 10 in. to 15 in.

perfect screw, . . 5.00

Galvanized Steel Cable for " Guying " :

1-32 in., 200 breaking strength, price per ft. .03 1-16 in., 500 breaking strength, price per ft. .03*2 3-32 in., 800 breaking strength, price per ft. .04 1-8 in., 2300 breaking strength, price per ft. .06 Rubber Bands for models, 15 ft. lengths, 1-8 in.

square, each............ 1.00

Complete catalogue of supplies, motors, gliders, and light metal castings mailed free, upon request

E. J. WILLIS CO., Dept. "F"

67 reade st. and 85 chambers st., new york

><jxsxs><j><j><$x^><jx«>^<s^^

California Aero. Mfg. & Supply Co.

441-443 Golden Gate Av., San Francisco

September Specials

*i " Loose " Monoplanes, 26 ft. spread, quickly assembled, guaranteed to fly, $350. 00 without power.

<i "Unbreakable" Aero Wheels, our own design, $6.50 each, 7" hub. Just the tlcng for machines without shock absorbers. Sidewise landings cannot harm. <i"Greene" Biplane, tine flier, $1,800.00 q 60 H. P. "Hall Scott" motor over 300 lbs. thrust guaranteed, in good condition, has flown 9701b. machine. $1,450.00. «J40 H. P. "Curtiss" air cooled, 8 cyl.. $650.00.

«J 20 H. P. "Curtiss" air cooled, 4 cyl., -

«1 Laminated ribs, 4 ply, v x 34" x 5V 35c. each.

6' 45c. each. Get our prices on Struts, Lam. Beams and Skids. We Figure and Construct on your plans. Aero sixes of Spruce in Stock; Turn-buckles, Sockets, Tanks, Etc. Knock Down Planes, including Lam. Ribs and Beams: Struts, Sockets, and Ferrules. Will take any type of chassis or rudder.

Distributors of the Coffin "Parabolel" propeller Agents : — Detroit Aeroplane Co. Motor9, Whitehead Motors, Palmer and Goodyear Tires "AERONAUTICS "

September, 191 NON-INFRINGING

AEROPLANE!

Guaranteed to Fly

Ready for Early Delivery

easy terms for exhibitors Manufacturer and Dealer in

aeronautical supplies

Aviators for Tournaments

n.y. agent for elbridge engine co.

FRED. SHNEIDER

1020 E. 178th Street New York

♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦1

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CThe best known cement for Aeronautics. Light as Aluminum. a* Stands all kinds and conditions 0. weather HOT! COLD ! DRY! WET! Holds better than nails, screws, bolts or the wood itseli. Used by a number of the best French Aeroplane manufacturers.

$1.50 per Pint 2.00 " Quart

satisfaction guaranteed or money refunded! two quarts will complete one aeroplane.

I International Aeroplane | Supply Co., ,777 grV'E

21�029

Omaha, July 23-27.

Br T. T. Tuttle.

The Omaha (Xob.t meeting, on July 23 to 27, was held under the auspices of the Aero Club of Nebraska, and was particularly interesting owing to the fact that every type of craft that navigates or sails the air participated. There were two hot-air balloons, a captive, a free balloon, 1 dirigible balloon and three Curtiss aeroplanes in the air each day.

The chief attractions, however, were aviators ^lenn H. Curtiss. .1. C. Mars. ,1. A. 1). McCnrdy ind Engene B. Ely.

The weather made it a difficult task for the iviators to open the first day with their best fork.

Weather conditions on the second day were lliont the same as the day before, but in spite >f this handicap all aviators made flights. The irogram closing with a spectacular race be-ween Curtiss and Mars. In the evening the i. S. Dirigible No. i left Fort Omaha with I,lent, laskell in charge and could be plainly seen rom the aviation field.

U. S. PIRIGIIS1.E BRKAKS CRANKSHAFT.

About G:3Q P. M.. July 24. Dirigible No. 1, t'ith Lieutenant W. X. Haskell, Signal Corps, as ilot, and Sergeant Ward as engineer, started from "ort Omaha. Neb., for the Aviation Field. A good tart was made and the balloon rose about 200 ft. n the air -everything apparently working in rst-ctass condition. A couple of circles over the 'ort were made aud then the balloon was headed >r the Aviation Field abont four miles away. The onditions were very good with only a slight wind ehind the balloon. Shortly after starting and fill while over the reservation, the engine stopped ue to a.jireak of the crank-shaft. This precluded ny fnrther attempt with the dirigible until re-airs could be made.

On July 20, captive balloon. No. 9. was inflated 1 the balloon house at Fort Omaha and towed lx>ut 2V2 miles across country to the Aviation ield. This was accomplished in 1 hour and 50 ■mites. Fpon arrival at the Aviation Field the llloon was put in operation and several ascents ade between 0 and 7 :30 P. M. Mr. Glenn Cur-ss made several flights in his aeroplane around te balloon while It was in the air. Ou Monday the wind increased in velocity and was impossible for the aviators to make any-ting more thau short straightaway flights.

NEW SHORT START RECORD.

The government captive balloon was blown ose from its moorings late in the afternoon id landed a mile from the grounds after the p cord had been pulled automatically when it rked loose from the winch wagon ou the •ounds. Many thousands of spectators stuck iitil the last announcement was made that "wind decks" would be honored the following day at e gate. It was in the face of this wind that ars rose into the air iu his four cylinder Curtiss -30 horse power machine after a ran of 53 ft.

in., establishing a new IT. S. record for short .art and earning thereby a silver trophy offered

a local paper.

Tuesday and Wednesday, the fourth and fifth ys, the weather conditions were more suitable r good flying, the wind velocity having dropped wn in the late afternoon on each of these days, irtiss, Mars and Ely drove their machines at II and each day Curtiss and Mars raced aronnd e field at a height varying from 100 to 300 ft. te attendance on each of the last two days is more than 10,000. On Tuesday evening e captive balloon was refilled and made an ascent th Mrs. Mars, wife of the aviator, and W. H. tton, of the Curtiss company, as passengers. At the close of the meet Cnrtiss was awarded one of the local papers a heavy silver water 1 pitcher for making the most daring and 'ctacular flight during the meet. This flight s made on the first day of the meet when rtiss flew out of the grounds and out over the tintry, which was covered with fences, gulleys d trees, in the teeth of almost a gale.

Pittsburg (Pa.), Aug. 4-6.

By Earl O. Gunther.

The Pittsburg Aero Club held its first meeting Aug. 4 to 6 at Brunot Island race track. There were four biplanes present, three Cnrtiss and the Baldwin. The aviators were Curtiss. Mars and Capt. Thos. Baldwin. The official timer and recorder was Augustus Post.

The first day of the meet there was only one straightaway flight made, by Mars in a gusty wind of 35 miles an hour.

The second day all three aviators made flights, Mr. Curtiss making the first and most spectacular. IDs first flight, in a wind of 25 miles an hour, circled the mile track twice, with remarkable skill at balancing in a gusty wind. His longest flight for this day was about six miles, lie also made trial for short starting, arising in SI ft. 2 in., officially measured. The wind was very gusty not allowing very much flying this day.

ANOTHER NEW SHOUT START RECORD FOR V. S.

Mars was able to get off the ground in 35 ft., making another new short start record.

The third day of the meet was windy and the aviators were hampered very much by it. Curtiss again made the most spectacular flights, flying out over the river. Mars made a series of short circular flights around the mile track. Capt. Baldwin made only straightaway flights. Great enthnsiasin was created by the flights of Cnrtiss and Mars, Curtiss flying above Mars and in the same direction and at the same time.

The last day of the meet broke all records for crowds at the track and thousands of people were on the snrrounding hills watching the flights.

Decatur (Ills.), July 16-17.

Charles F. Willard (Cnrtiss) flew before good crowds in Decatur, Ills., July 1G-17. On the first day he made a cross-country out of the field and back, estimated by local experts as 30 miles, in a flight lasting 40 minutes.

St. Louis Show Date Changed.

The date of the aero show at St. Louis has been changed from October to Xovember 17-24 to avoid conflict with outdoor events on Hempstead Plains.

Toronto, Canada.

There were nine days of flying, participated in by lialph Johnstone (Wright), Count Jacques Dc Lesseps (Bleriot), Duval La Chapelle (Wright), Walter Brookins (Wright) and Frank T. Coft'yn (Wright), July S-10, except Sunday. Count De Lesseps flew from the grounds, which were lo cated on the Trethewey Model Farm, about eight miles from the center of Toronto, over the heart of Toronto and back, duplicating his Montreal feat, and once flew to a height of 2.700 ft. Kalph Johnstone made two remarkable flights and seven in all, once battling an extremely high wind at an altitude of 3,400 ft., and on another flight executing all sorts of maneuvers of which the Wright aeroplane is capable, aerial "roller coasting," sharp circles and spirals, skimming the ground, etc. The newspapers divided the honors between Johnstone aud Count de Lesseps. Five thousand to fifteen thousand daily was the attendance.

bleriot lands IN tree.

The Carruthers "Bleriot." flown by Stratton. ran into a tree. He lost consciousness during his jump and when he cauie to his senses he found himself in the fop of a pine tree 30 ft. from the ground, lie said he did uot know how he got there, fit was funny."

Samnol F. Perkins, whose specialty is kite and banner flying, filled in all gaps in the program. The banners could be seen from incoming trains and indicated the location of the grounds. Before and during the flight the kites could be seen high in the air. These now are one of the necessities of aviation meetings. Harvard is the next on the list for the kite exhibition. Here he will attempt to lift a man up by kites. It is estimated the pull will be about 1,500 pounds, taking 10 or more 15-ft. kites.

st. louis national novice meet.

by e. percy noel.

Although eight machines were on the field the opening day of "First National Aviation Meeting for Novices," July 11. only two got off the ground during the week and the prizes were all won by one man on account of an accident to Howard W. Gill, while practicing on July 12. J. YV. Curzon (Farman) won $3()'0 in three prizes by flights made July 14 and 1."». There was no competition on July 12, 13 and 15. On July 11 Gill flew 25 yards and landed in a ditch disabling his n aehine for the day. On July 12 while practicing in the evening, Gill flew half a mile outside the field. .Something went wrong with his elevating control and in his inexperience he dropped from 40 ft.., smashing half of the machine, lie picked himself up but" was confined io the hospital for three days.

July 14 was a good day for Curzon, flying 92 yards on his first trial and 113 on his second, winning his debut prize of $100. Later he won the $100 daily prize for the first flight of 200 yards, traveling .",22 yards straightway after 113 yards and then touching. Kain interfered on July 15.

On July 10 Curzon made a flight of about 500 yards, winning the if 100 daily prize. The meet was continued July 17, but wind prevented flying until after official timing elosed, then Curzon flew ISO yards. Curzon and Gill have both made permanent headquarters on the Washington Park aviation field of the Aero Club of St. Louis.

On August 13. Ilillery F.eachey, Hying oue of Gills' biplanes without front elevator", made two circuits of the course without stopping, about iy2 miles.

Dr. J. J. He Praslin. of Nicaragua, has ordered material from the Aeronautic Supply Co. for the construction of an aeroplane here.

Chas. Kuhno had a monoplane that was equipped with a Curtiss S-cylinder 40 h. p. engine that looked very promising, construction and designing above the ordinary.

Robinson's monoplane of the Bleriot type, equipped with a 3-cylinder Flbridge motor, did not get up enough speed to make a getaway from terra firma. although the construction was very good.

Zehler's monoplane was a machine that differs from the general run of flyers, and if you are able to get a photo of it,'you could probably understand samv better than the maker. Equipped with a 4-cylinder 4-cycle marine engine, it was unable to make a speed of more than five miles per hour.

Sparling's Curtiss type biplane, equipped with a 4-cycle Elbrldge was very neatly made and looked promising. It was mounted on Farman type running gear.

Curzon's "Farman" biplane seemed as though it bad seen better days, although of the standard type of a past season was still in the ring. The big Vivinus motor does not give power enough to enable the machine to make extended flights. Those made have been but short ones.

seven aeroplanes smashed by wind.

A few days after the Novice Meet _at St. Louis, a terrific storm blew down the tent which housed the aeroplanes, demolishing 7 machines. Nothing was saved of Curzon's Farman but the engine and propeller. Howard W. Gill's machine was unharmed as it was housed in a wooden shed.

detroit.

At Detroit. La Chapelle, Hoxsey and Brookins made sensational flights and delighted the management and large crowds. The Wright machines will return to Detroit in September.

lexington, ky.

J. A. D. McCurdy filled the Curtiss date at the Lexington. Ky., State Fair, Aug. 7-13, making several flights'each day of the exhibition.

grand rapids.

Mars tCurtiss) was to have flown here July 10-17, but the high wind prevented flights both days.

new york, aug. 19-21.

Glenn H. Curtiss, J. C. Mars, J. A. D. McCurdy, C. F. Willard and Eugene Ely are sched-| tiled to give a .".-day exhibition at the Sheepshead i Bay racetrack. New York, Aug. 19-21.

Eugene B. Ely, a Curtiss aviator, began practicing at Sheepshead Bay racetrack in preparation! for the exhibition on the 19th, using for the first time the S cylinder Curtiss engine which is slowly being installed In all the exhibition machines.

J. A. Douglas McCurdy, former member of thej Aerial Experiment Association, who with F. W. Baldwin, another member, formed the Canadian! Aerodrome Co. at Baddeck, Nova Seotia, has signed! a contract with Glenn Curtiss to fly a Curtiss' machine. His first appearance was at Omaha, July 23-28. From there he went to Lexington, Ky., Aug. 7-13. Eugene Ely of Portland. Ore., who has been flying a Curtiss machine for E. Henry Wemme, Curtiss agent of that city, is an-!' other addition to the Curtiss troupe of aviators.

Augustus Post, former secretary of the Aeroi Club of America, has bought a Curtiss maehinefl under a special arrangement, and will fill exhibi-J tion contracts wherever they do not conflict with] Curtiss' interests, or will fill engagements obtained! by Curtiss. He will begin practicing under the] able tutorship of Charles F. Willard, using a machine which Willard has been putting in shape! in the Aeronautical Society's shed at Mineola.

Clifford B. Harmon has ordered a fast maehinel from Glenn Curtiss. in which it is expected he will! install his Gnome engine for trial.

harvard aeronautical society to hold avia-j tion meet sept. 3 to 13.

The Harvard Aeronautical Society, of CamJ bridge. Mass., will hold an aviation meet at AtlanJ tic. Mass., from Sept. 3 to 13th. inclusive, witla the exception of the two Sundays intervening The programme of events and prizes already schedl tiled are as follows :

Speed: 1st, $3,000: 2nd, $2,000; 3rd. $1.0001 Altitude: 1st. $3.000i; 2nd. $2,000; 3rd. $1.0,001 Duration. $2,000 aud $1,000. Distance. $2,000 anrjl $1,000; Slowest Lap. $1,000 and $500. Getaway! $100 and $50. Accuracy, $500 and $250.

$10,000 prize.

To which must be added the premier event oil the meet, for which the Boston Olohe offers a casll prize of $10,000 ; the condition of this contesl being a flight from Atlantic to Boston Light an<l return against time. For novices there will ]m additional events and prizes.

A large number of entries from the ranks of th<l leading aviators of America. England and Franc J have already been received by the Society, assurl ing the success of the meet, which is not only thJ first io be held in New England, but by far thrl most important attempted in America up to till present time. Additional entries will be received] and full detailed information furnished prospective entrants at the temporary headquarters of thl Society. No. 104 Washington St.. Boston, Mass. ]

The grounds cover 500i acres, on Dorchester Bay, and are surrounded on three sides by water]

special $5,000 prize. The announcement of a $5,000 prize and the. Harvard Cup is offered the aviator who, duriiQ the meet, makes the best record in dropping bombij on a battleship model, which Is to be set up or* the field, marks that event not only as one of thd most interesting of the meet, but one which thl Society deems most important from the standpoint of scientific investigation.

bennett race changed to belmont track.*

There are 10 entries in the Gordon Bennett, aviation race to be held at Belmont racetrack) near Jamaica. L. L. during the week of Oetj 15-23. -Vs follows: France. 3; Italy, 1 : Euglandi 3 ; and America has the naming of 3. France is the only country which has named her represent] atives, as follows: Alfred Leblanc (Bleriot), whd was a contestant in the 1907 ■ Gordon. Bennett ball loon race from St. Louis; Hubert Latham (Antoinette) ; Rene Labouchere (Antoinette).

Plans for the meet, and the events which arci

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promised to be held in addition during the week, have apparently not developed very far as yet. Not a single announcement of prizes has been made, and it is now very late for foreigners to figure ahead. Unless announcement is made very shortly, aviators of other countries will have made their arrangements for that period at various European meets.

Following on the heels of a disagreement witb Cage E. Tarbell. who was the Aero Club's general manager for the meet. Belmont racetrack was made the place for the Gordon Bennett aviation race and other events, instead of Hempstead Plains as at first planned. L. L. Gillespie stated to-day, Aug. 15. that the amount figured to be necessary. .$110,000, had all been raised. "This will be the biggest meet of the year." Gillespie said, ".$50,000 being offered by the committee in prizes"; and that the magnitude of the affair will be such that no aviator, American or foreign, whether for financial reasons or for the sake of glory, can afford not to take part. Referring to the rumors that Curtiss might not be on hand to defend the cup by reason of the fact that arrangements are alleged to have been made that the Wright company shares in the gate receipts, Mr. Gillespie said that Curtiss would, of course, be asked to take part, but that the acceptance of the invitation was up to Curtiss and he could do as he liked.

The meet will be financed by the Aero Corporation. Limited. August Belmont has been chosen president of the meet. The executive committee is composed of the chairmen of the various committees, as follows: L. L. Gillespie (Finance Committee), Allan A. Ryan (Arrangements Committee), J. C. McCoy (Aviation Committee), and Andrew Freedman. chairman.

Five Wright aviators will fly, and it is expected eight or ten foreigners will appear.

At the Aero Club of America no information could be had as to the foreign contestants.

fast wright machine.

The Wright company is building a special racing machine which may be entered to defend the cup. At the same time, Curtiss is also working on a machine designed to be capable of beating the speed expected to be made by others in the Gordon Bennett. It is very likely that to defend the cup successfully a machine will have to go 70 miles an hour. The 100 h. p. Bleriot made 00 m. p. h. at Rheims in July. Clifford B. Harmon has ordered a Bleriot, in addition to his Curtiss.

clifford b. harmon adds $1,000 to times race.

Cliftord P.. Harmon, chairman of the national council of the Aero Club of America, has offered $1,000 in cash or pl,ate to the contestant in the Chicago-New York race who first covers 500' miles in the first 50 consecntive hours.

gordon bennett balloon race.

Six countries have entered 14 balloons in the Gordon Bennett race on October 17. as follows: France ."!. Germany 3. Italy 2, Switzerland 2, Denmark 1 and U. S. 3. Only the German entrants have been named to date. They are: Hauptmann Von Abereron, who was in the 10(17 Gordon Bennett at St. Louis, Lieut. Vogt. Ing. Hans Gericke.

In the elimination race to pick the American team, Sept. 17, Alan R. Ilawley and l'ost will have one balloon. (\ P. Harmon and Capt. P.aldwin a second and possibly A. II. Forbes will be sufficiently improved in health to take part. A. T. Ather-holt from Philadelphia will be another. St. Louis is likely to have more than half a dozen entrants. A. B. Lambert is sure to go in. <!. I- Rum-baush, St. L. Von Phul. II. E. Honeywell and W. F. Assman are strong probabilities.

aero calendar for the united states.

Aug. 10-20.—Asbury Park, N. J.. Wrisht aviators, Owens dirigible, etc.

Aug. 17—Warehouse PL, Ct., Chas. F. Willard.

Aug. 10-21—Sheepshead Bay. N. Y., Curtiss exhibition, with G. II. Curtiss, Willard, Mars, Ely, McCurdy, Post and Baldwin.

Aug. 20—Quincv. 111., flights bv Lincoln Beachev.

Aug. 23—Bradford, Pa., C. F. Willard at Elks-Carnival.

Aug. 20—Curtiss to fly from Cleveland to Cedar Point and return, over Lake Erie, about 00 miles each way.

Sept. 3-13—P.oston aviation meet of Harvard Aeronautical Society. Curtiss, Willard (Curtiss), Wright machines and others.

Sept. 5-9—Hartford. Ct., Wright aviators.

Sept. 5-10—Minneapolis, Minn., Wright aviators.

Sept. 5-10—Ilamline, Minn, at State Fair. Wright aviators and J. C. Mars (Curtiss).

Sept. 5-10—Lincoln. Neb., Wright aviators.

Sept. 6-10—Parkersburg. W. Va., Wright aviators.

Sept. 12—Syracuse, N. Y., State Fair. J. A. D. McCurdy (Curtiss).

Sept. 12-16—Milwaukee, Wis., one Wright machine.

Sept.---Flights at Mexico City.

Sept. 12-17—Rock Island, 111., State Fair. J. C. Mars (Curtiss).

Sept. 17—Indianapolis, Ind.. elimination race to select representatives in Gordon Bennett balloon race.

Sept. 10-24—Detroit. Mich., Wright aviators.

Sept. 21—Olean, N. Y., State Fair, flights bv McCurdy (Curtiss).

Sept. 22-2S—Knoxville. Tenn., Wright aviators.

Sept. 26-30—Trenton, N. .1., Wright aviators.

Sept. 27-30—Rochester, N. Y., Wright aviators.

Sept. 26-Oct. 1—Helena Mont., State Fair, J. C. Mars.

Oct. 1-8—Springfield, 111.. Wright aviators.

Oct. 1-7—Sedalia. Mo.. Wright aviators.

Oct. 3-8—Spokane, Wash., State Fair, J. C. Mars.

Oct. 15-23—Belmont Park, L. I., aviation meet of A. C. A., including Gordon Bennett aviation race, latter on Oct. 23.

Oct. 17—St. Louis, Mo., Gordon Bennett balloon race.

Oct. -St. Louis, Mo., aviation meet.

Oct. 22-Nov. 5—Philadelphia, Pa., aero show of Penn. A. C.

Nov. 17-24—St. Louis, Mo., aero show, Coliseum. Dec. 1-S—Aero show of A. C. of Illinois.

simple conditions for n. y.-st. louis prize.

Official announcement of the stringless prize of the New York World and the St. Louis Post-Dis-liatch has been made, and follows :

The New York World and the St. Louis Post-Dispatch will give $30,000 to the first aviator who, between Aug. 15. 1010. and Jan. 1. 1911. flies from New York to St. Louis or from St. Louis to New York within 100 consecutive hours, using the same aeroplane from start to finish.

The only condition attached to this offer is that at least three days' notice of intention to start for this prize must be given to either the New York World or the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, in order that announcement may be made of the actual starting and finishing points, the approxi mate route anil other details as agreed upon.

book note.

Aerial Locomotion, by F. H. Wenham, and Aerial Navigation, by Sir George Cayley. are the first two of the "Aeronautical Classics'' which have been gotten out by the British Aeronautical Society under the editorship of Messrs. T. O'B. Hubbard and J. H. Ledeboer. The other four of the set will be published during the year. These cost but a shilling each, and may be had from King, Sell & Olding, 27 Chancery Lane, YV. C, London.

AERONAUTICS September, ig to

at the mineóla aviation grounds

NEW CURTISS AEROPLANE Willard Carries Three Passengers THE NEW BALDWIN Waiden Accident

THE now r'uriiss biplane, built especially to specifications of diaries Willard. tlie

assembling of which was completed a1 tlie Aeronautical Society's shed at Mineola. L. I., the 11th of August, differs from the standard Curtiss rnachin" only in size and minor details of construction. Tlie accompanying drawing gives complete measurements :

Main Plane*.- -These are 32 ft. spread by 5 fl. foro and aft. spaced ~> ft. apart. The other Cnrtiss machines spread 20 ft. 3 in. by 4^ ft. tlie other way. The main cell is divided into five sections for shipping purposes. These sections of the lateral beams join as shown in the following sketch : Tlie curve of the ribs is 1 in 20, the doep-pst point 3 in., coming 18 in. back from the front edge. The P.aldwin rubberized linen covering, placed on top of the ribs, is made in panels 5 ft. by t; ft. (fi ft. hv S ft. in the center panel) and laced to the large ribs ('winch come at strut pointsi through holes therein. The elolh is tacked on lop of the intervening smaller ribs with large-headed brass tacks through a strip of black tape. The whole main cell is stayed in the usual manner with Koebling "aviator"' cable. All ribs, even in the ailerons and rudders, are laminated ash and spruce. The spruce lateral beams of the main planes are solid. All ribs and beams of rudders and ailerons laminated ash and snruce.

lludders and Oilier Surfaces. There is the usual double plane horizontal rudder, or "elevator," in front, spreading 7 ft. by 27 in. by 27 in. The surfaces of this are douhle—i. e.. Ihe cloth is on hoth sides of the ribs. The same is true of Ihe vertical rudder in the rear. 3 fl. high by "0 in. the other way; and Ihe fixed horizontal plane in the rear, measuring 7 fl. by 30 in. The la I tor has

a slight curve, the depth of which is '% in. at a point one-third back. The elevator has the same curve running back from the front edge, but is cut off at 27 in.

Stability.—This is secured by ample-sized "ailerons," 10 ft. spread by 2 ft. t) in. length. Instead of having the customary two wires (L), top and bottom, running to one point, joining, and thence over the pulleys to the shoulder brace, double-sheave aluminum pulleys are tised and both wires run around the sheaves and then join, giving additional strength.

The control cables from the ailerons run through pulleys on top of the lower piano and under the upper plane to the hinged si eel tube back of shoulder brace. Leaning tp the high side of the

ßoi-r/so'E. /^of? STrtUT Soers T &0¿_ T

Beam Connection

machine when it tilts pulls the aileron on the low side down (and on the high side up), increasing Ihe lift on the low and decreasing it on tlie high.

Kiccriiu).—Steering up or down is by the usual movable column ; pushing forward steers down, and pulling back steers up. A bamboo rod runs from the column to a short mast at the front edge of the elevator for this purpose. The vertical rudder control cables run over pulleys at the end of the

Photo by Joseph Hurt, Mineola, L. I.

Piloto hij Joseph Hurt, Mineóla, L. I.

Harmon in His Farman. Russell in a Curtiss with Harriman Engine. Seymour Flying His Curtiss.

bamboo out riggers and through tlie lower ones to pulleys at the bottom end of the aluminum steering column or pillar, up through the inside of same, crossing, and twice around a groove in the wheel. Turning the wheel left or right, as in an automobile, steers the machine accordingly.

1'oirer Plant- -A t'urliss eight cylinder, rated (A. L. A. M.) r>].2 h. p.. "V water cooled engine drives direct a 7-ft. Curtiss propeller. Heretofore all of Willard's flights have been made with the four-cylinder 2.~>:;o motor. The cylindrical gasoline tank is placed in front of the engine on the same bed. as is the extra large El Arco radiator, which is just behind the front struts at the back of the operator. ruder the engine is suspended, by steel tubes from the engine bed, the oil tank. Hie oil feeding up by a small pump. A float has been arranged in both oil and gasoline tanks and gauges, to show the level of supply are placed convenient for the aviator's sight, tin the side of the steering column is a throtlle lever connected by P.owden wire system to the carburetor. At the left foot is also an accelerator, connected to the above l'.owden wire1 at a point on the inclined beam where the steering column hinges. A P.osch magneto, with set spark, furnishes ignition. The brake on the front wheel is operated by the right fool ami at the same time short circuit's the magneto.

Details of construction are shown (dearly in the drawing and sketches. The weight of 11k? machine is estimated at <i.">u pounds. Where several catiles eonie to a common point, linen cords are tied from one to the other (see sketch) to prevent their catching, say. in the propeller in case of breakage, which generally .....lies near the

Capt. Baldwin in Flight. Baldwin Close Up. Curtiss Copy of G. E. DeLong of the Elbridge Co.

sockets. This habit has saved many propellers in Willard's experience of a year.

Aug. 12.—The first flight, of 7 minutes, was successfully made over the Hempstead I Mains lasl evening.

Willard Carries Three Passengers—United States Record. Mineóla. Aug. 14.—Charles E. Willard to-day established an American record for passenger carrying at the Mineóla field when he look up with him K. E. Patterson. Harry Willard and A. Albin. Starting from tin1 Aeronautical Society's shed, he flew at about 1 ó ft. above the ground as far as the grandstand, a distance of a quarter mile. The machine, a Curtiss of larger size than usual (described in this issue I, had only been assembled two days before and made its initial (lights. The four men weighed ::7." lbs., the machine is estimated al r,.r><>, and with the balance in gas and oil, made up about 1.2<m lbs. total for .".2o sq. ft. of supporting surface. Other flights were made by Willard alone. The day before several flights were made, one of 12 miles across country, and he carried two passengers on one trip, .1. C. Mars and his brother, Harry Willard.

ItAUMii.N Ft.IKS nVElt HOliK.

Clifford P.. Harmon tlew for I hr. 1 mill, on this day, the longest flight that has been made ;it the grounds for the pusl month. .1. J. Frisbie made his first attempt at flight in his finely built Curliss copy, equipped with an Elbridge-40 engine, lie was flying nicely, when he turned the elevator up (Continued on paye '■)<'.,j

\wdoher >zed;âh( ï

tP05T \50QÎET\

Mnôeébâck toseat, mo redleft or rißt by operator leaning ^âjjerffn

CURTISS AEROPLANE

£jWarXI3- WlW

jOIüci eû

The contents of this magazine are protected by copyright in the U. S. 96

too quickly and shot up to 50 ft. in landing hard he broke a rear wheel, liy reason of lack of space the description of his machine is held over for another month. A feature of the Prisbie machine is the two El Arco radiators, placed on either side of the operator. This is the first time that two radiators have been used.

Philip W. Wilcox also made his debut in his Farman-type biplane with a Uinek 50 h. p. engine, lie circled the field at a height of 25 to 10O ft., and the machine appeared the most stable of any on the grounds. The machine was tried out twice before, by Lewis Strang and by Hamilton, hut each time the running gear gave way. Full details will appear later, (i. E. De Long, treasurer of the Elbridge company, had a slight accident, breaking a wheel, in his first trials on this day. W. L. Fairehild has received an Emerson engine and will shortly begin trials with his monoplane.

The Capt. Baldwin Biplane.

Captain Thomas S. Baldwin has made some chaises !n hisbipDne which be has been llyingut Mineola for >ome time. The Curtiss 4-cylinder engine has been replaced b> one of 8 cylindeis witlt an A. L. A. M. ratiiiK of 51.* h. p., though 01 h. p. has been claimed for a similar engine. The Curtiss propeller has been replaced by a Requa-Uibson driven direct. The engine, of course, has been placed higher up iiir-stead of being situated as formerly on the lower plane and driving by chain. Formerly the propeller was ahead of the main planes and the aviator sat on a level with and just back of the lower plane, as illustrated in the May number. The vertical stability surface above the upper plane has been left olf temporarily, Capt. Baldwin still believing in its possibilities.

Though larger in spread than the planes of the Curtiss machines, the ribs are standard Curtiss. The surfaces are single Baldwin rubberized silk, laced to the main ribs, and tacked to the front lateral beam. A wire runs through a pocket in the cloth to form the rear edge. The spruce lateral beams are 1 :,!4 b.V 1'4. tiat with half-round edges, which maues the cross section nearly elliptical. The struts are 2>4 in. by 1 in. fish-shaped of spruce. These narrow down to 1 in. round where they fit in the sockets. Koebling wire cable 1/10th diam. is used to stay the main cell, as well the forward and rein- eon si ruction. In place of the two rear center stru s stei 1 tubing is used and to these the horizontal beams forming

the engine bed are bolted. Diagonal steel tubing braces are also used at this point. The two front center uprights are in. by 1 in.

The front horizontal rudder, single surface, with a curvature of 1 in. in 32, is stayed by wire cable from lS-in. masts, one on each side. The frame of the rudder is covered both sides with cloth, tacked to the ribs. The ribs in the rear cell, or tail are covered both sides with cloth.

The rear three feet of the tail cell is so arranged that the angle of incidence may be changed by tightening one set of guy wires and loosening the others. This part is hinged on the front eighteen inches which remain stationary. The control of the ailerons is by a shoulder brace, and the rudder by turning a wheel, similar to the system employed by Curtiss. All wires running to the rudder and controls instead of passing over pulleys are run through copper tubes, bent to the required curvature, as described some time ago in Aeronautics. The weight is around (¡70 lbs.

The equipment includes Palmer tires, l'.osch magneto, and 101 Arco radiator.

Dr. H. W. Walden's Monoplane.

Dr. H. W. Walden gave .his monoplane—the third machine he has built -its first trial on .\ug. 3-7, with disastrous results. In just one short initial try three ribs and one collar-hone were broken. 'And then, to make matters worse, a none-too-kind female nurse at the local hospital insisted on plucking from his lips with unneedful force, a consoling cigar which had been given him at his request just after the accident. Then he lapsed into unconsciousness, which may or may not have been a direct result. Then, again, it was found the hospital was shy of bandages, all having been used up on the previous aviator.

In this first attempt the machine got off the ground all right and the new stability device seemed to work perfectly. The lateral beam of tubular steel on which rotate the two elevators was too weak and bent up, shooting the nose of the aeroplane quickly down, so that the aeroplane struck on its front wheel, with the tail vertically in the air, the front lateral beam pinning Dr. Walden to the ground.

description of the machine.

The main supporting plane spreads 20 ft. by 7 ft. in depth, and contains, allowing for the portion cut away for the propeller, 105 sq. ft. The lateral beams, of spruce, are in five sections, joined (Continued on page 98.)

together by sleeves of steel tubes. The ribs are of "I" cross section, the horizontal strips % in. wide, the whole rib tapering front and rear froni 3 in. at greatest height. The vertical part of the rib Is bored full of holes throughout its length. The strips on top and bottom are screwed and glued on. The ribs follow a parabolic curve from the front beam to the rear edge. For 9 in. forward from the front lateral beam the surface narrows to a point. The greatest depth of the curve is 4SA In. at a point one-third hack from front edge. . Tail Plane and Elevator.—At the rear is a fixed surface of 15 sq. ft., with a movable section at either lateral extremity, both totaling another 15 sq. ft. These are curved in the same ratio as the main plane. These latter pivot about a lateral steel tube one third back from forward edge. From a short mast running through each of these wires run along the "fuselage" and over the pulleys over the front wheel and fasten to the steering column. Pushing forward on the steering column steers down, and vice versa. All surfaces are covered both sides with Xaiad linen.

Rudder.—The vertical rudder has a surface of TVs sq. ft., and is operated by turning the steering wheel left or right.

Stability.—A new scheme for automatic lateral stability has been devised and patented. This consists of small planes inclined at an angle of about 45 degrees, placed on a rectangular frame on top at the extremities of the main surface. Each small plane is hinged near (H) its rear and near the forward end is a spring (S). If the machine starts to slide to one side or the other, the increased pressure is designed to cause the front end of the little plane to raise up against the spring's pull and present a greater angle to the wind. The spring holds the plane normally egde into the wind. This is illustrated herewith.

Power Plant.—An Anzani three-cylinder air-cooled motor of 25-30 French h. p., mounted or hung in a frame of tubing, placed below the rear lateral beam, drives direct a fi-ft. propeller. One of those used was a Requa-Gibson of 4-ft. pitch, and the other a Brauner of 4-ft. 3-in. pitch. There is no throttle to regulate the O. & A. carburetor, but a lever on the engine is utilized to lift the valves, permitting, when occasion demands, the propeller to turn perfectly free, with no explosion taking place. The moment the lever is let down again, the motor starts its usual work. This compression release is operated by the left foot. On the steering wheel is a spark cutout. The spark advance is on a right-foot pedal. Coil and battery ignition.

Chassis.—The running gear has for diagonal struts steel tubing pinned and brazed in sockets. The horizontal members connecting the hubs of the three wheels are of spruce. The axle of the two rear wheels Is of angle steel.

The wheels are of Weaver make. 20 in. rear and 10 in. front, fitted with nartford aviator tires

The fuselat/e is made up of spruce, with steel sockets, stayed with piano wire. In the next machine, which is to be finished by Sept. 1, this will be built of ash and stayed with Roebling aviator cord. The aviator's seat is suspended by piano wire.

The Month Past at Mineola.

Nearly every day during the past month flights have been made by Harmon. Baldwin. Russell and .Toe Seymour. .1. J. Frisbie on two Sundays made hot air balloon ascents and parachute drops.

MANY .MACHINES ON* THE GROUND.

Dr. William Greene will soon have one of his biplanes down at the Aeronautical Society's shed for flights.

The machines in the Aero Club sheds are: Clifford B. Harmon (Farman). Capt. T. S. Baldwin (Baldwin!, W. L. Fairchild (own monoplane, building). H. S. Harkness (Antoinette), and Philip W. Wilcox (Farman-type). At the Aeronautical Society sheds are : Miss E. L. Todd (biplane, not yet tried), W. Diefenbach (making). Frank Van Anden's light Farman-type with Harriman engine. Geo. Godley (imitation Curtiss, making). Dr. H. W. Walden (monoplane with Anzani motor, recently damaged at trial), M. P. Talmage (making Cnr-tiss-type), G. E. De Long (Shneider make of Curtiss type, with Elbridge engine), .las. Murgatroyd (biplane own design, with two Adams-Farwcll motors operating individual propellers, not yet tried), George Russell (one Curtiss with Harriman engine and one copy, former making almost daily flights), Elmer Rurlingame (own design monoplane. Harriman engine, not yet tried), Louis Rosenbaum (monoplane, owner's design, not yet finished), Edwards & Edick (small copy of Curtiss. well built, own make of engine). Paul Kilduchevsky (monoplane, owner's design, making).

The Society has added an extension 30 by 138 ft. to its already large shed to accommodate some of the machines which have been housed under tents.

AVIATORS SHARK PROFITS IN GATE RECEIPTS.

Some time ago the owners, a real estate concern, of the lands over which the flights are made, built a fence on three sides and began charging the public admission to a grandstand and the field. On Aug. 13 there was established a system of "points." each machine making an appearance on the field earning 1 point, a short jump a certain number, length of flight is rewarded, etc. The aviators share in profits according to the points earned. The two aeronaut ical organizations have nothing to do with the financial end of the enterprise, merely leasing shed ground and privilege of flight over the other lands. Each Saturday and Sunday large crowds view the flights of Harmon. Baldwin, Russell, Seymour, etc. Mr. Harmon objects to accepting money prizes and takes a cup or trophy instead.

PATENT LIST

Theodore Kornbrodt. Chicago, ill.. 902.004. .Tune 2S, 1910, filed Oct. 28, 1000. AIRSHIP. A dirigible balloon having an elongated air bag semi-circular in form which is inflated with heated air from the exhaust pipes of several engines. A plurality of propellers provide the motive force while the steering is performed by a "resident element" acted upon by an air blast from a tube at each end of which propellers are arranged.

August Richard Rieger. Chicago, III.. 002,077, June 28, 1910. filed Sept. 9. 1000. AIRSHIP. A chassis of tubular form on wheels, provided with a motor operating a propeller at the front which is ladjustab'e as to the plane of rotation. Reciprocating wings extend at each side and in addition gas containing cylinders are provided at each side to sustain-a portion of the weight. The cylinders are movable back and forth to maintain equilibrium.

Thomas Mortimer Crepar. Fargo, N. D.. 963,522, July 5, 1910, filed .Tune 2. 1908. FLYING MACHINE, the main characteristics of which are a plane of corrugated form, instead of the usual

flat surface, pointed at the front and diversing outwardly and down at the sides. A series of vanes are disposed on the plane adapted to be moved simultaneously at various angles and a spiral propeller supplies the motive force.

Harold M. Chase, and Minor F. 11. Gouverneur, Wilmington, N. C, 963,510, July 5. 1910, filed March 17. 1910. STABILIZING MEANS FOR AEROPLANES. A biplane provided with vertically arranged partitions located between the planes extending longitudinally of the machine. The rear portions of said partitions are movable manually.

Gerald Geraldson, Newcastle. Cal.. 963.54;;, July 5. 1910, filed May 14. 1909. AEROPLANE formed by stretching material over a continuous rim which may be elliptical in shape. A transverse rod passing substantially through the center of the ellipse secured at each end to the rim, serve as the supporting means by pivotal connections to standards rising from the oar. Means are provided for changing the angle of the plane and also the standards relatively to the car.

WE MANUFACTURE THE LIGHTEST WEIGHT AND HIGHEST QUALITY ENGINES IN THE WORLD

CRAFTSMAN

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All working parts of Krupp and other German Steels of highest tensile strength obtainable.

THE EMERSON ENGINE CO.

Santos Dumont Type AEROPLANES

Incorporated

Alexandria

Virginia

17 and 20 ft. <M (](](] COMPLETED 0 I fUUU

Send for Specifications

All Kinds of Wood and Metal Work Made to Order. Gliders, Special Parts, Spars, Struts, Ribs, Skids, Wheels, Etc.

ADDRESS

9626 erie avenue SO. CHICAGO, ILL

M. STUPAR

Successor to J. STUPAR, Pattern and Model Shop

R. I. V. RADIAL BALL BEARINGS

Used by Leading Aviators.

Light in weight — Strong and

Durable.

Variety of types and sizes in stock. Absolutely Guaranteed.

Send for Catalogue 19.

All Sizes Hoffmann Steel Balls on Hand.

R. I. V. CO. 1771 Broadway, New York

AEROPLANE RADIATORS

•IN STOCK OR TO ORDER-

EL ARCO RADIATOR CO.

6 EAST 31st STREET NEW YORK

2717

Curzon-Aviation Co., Inc.

-— AND FIRST-

American Aviation Training School

REMOVED TO

WASHINGTON PARK AVIATION FIELD

- EAST ST. LOUIS, ILL. -

Curzon No. 1 Biplane, Speed Machine, $3,500 Curzon No. 2 Karman Type Aeroplane, #3,500 Curzon Monoplane, - - - $4,000

All equipped with the Elbridge Featherweight Engines

The Fr, nch Gnome Engine will be furnished for the additional sum of $2,GOO on machines only at this combined figure

You can witness demonstration flights of your machine of at least 5 miles before accepting same.

Free tuition to purchasers.

Only a limited number of machines to be sold at the above figures, prices will advance shortly.

America's First Aviation Training School Open to the Public

Actual practice in the Art of Flying'. Aviators' diplomas issued on qualifying. Technical training; how to build, lectures, etc., by Prof. Harrison, motor expert, master of mechanics and profound student of aviation for the past three years.

Address all communications to

J. W. CURZON, ffif&.BKTff

TO THE PROMOTERS OF THE

Coming Aeroplane Meets

YOU want exhibitions of Man-Lifting Aeroplane Kite Flying to interest tin-crowds while the aviators are not flying. C. High or even moderate winds will invariably keep the aeroplanists from flying until late each afternoon. Before then we will fill the air with hundreds of 9- and Li-foot Aeroplane Kites of every known kind. By flying these, dozens in tandem, enormous American flags, streamers and announcement banners about the meet can be lifted a half mile in the air.

C These scientific kites will fly all day and the displays will be a great attraction in themselves and will keep the crowds quiet and contented, when for any reason the aeroplanes cannot fly. C, At the Meet of the West Hudson Aero Club at Arlington, N. J., June, 1909, New York papers said, "The hundreds of kites in the air were a decided feature."

SAMUEL F. PERKINS

110 Tremont St. :: Boston, Mass.

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Glenn H.

Curti

iss

Should Be Addressed to

New York

JEROME S. FANCIULLI

BUSINESS REPRESENTATIVE

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Aviation Headquarters |

1737 Broadway

Flights With Burgess Aeroplane.

William Billiard has been making a constant succession of flights with one of the Burgess Co. & Curtiss machines al Plum Island. Mass., having flown on one day alone 25 times without breaking even a rib or skid. The company's energies are being devoted to the Model C "Flying Fish" which is to have wheels as well as skids and to be driven by a Clement-Bayard 30 li. p. motor. The company has hitherto employed two different types of propellers designed by A. M. Herring, two designed by Mr. Pflitzner and two Chauviere. A new propeller is being developed to have the good points of these without the defects. This will be of the 2-bladcd type with uniform pitch and as symmetrical as the highest efficiency will permit. The general design will be adapted to different diameters, the standard diameter for light ma-

Harvard Biplane Flies.

The Harvard Aeronautical Society, numbering 400 members, lays claim to having the lightest biplane in the world, its weight being but 105 pounds, including wheels, but without engine.

The riding surface is 200' so. ft. and the control surface 35 sij. ft. Equipped with disappearing wheels and offset surfaces, it is constructed of hollowed and laminated air-dried spruce without bolts, screws or nails. The after cross-piece is on top of ribs, while the fabric is underneath the ribs.

The machine, which was built by S. L. Saund-ers and certain Harvard students, has made several 125-yard flights within Soldiers' Field, fitted with a regular Cameron 4-eyIinder, air-cooled automobile engine, at a height of S or 10 ft. However, the engine was not developing more than two-thirds

chines being G1,^ ft. The Pfitzner monoplane, now the property of the company, is at Garden City for sale at $4.000, with a Curtiss 4-cylinder engine.

The control device is novel in the "Harvard 1." There are two elevators in front, each operated by separate levers at the right and left hand of the aviator. In ascending or descending, both are moved to the same extent, but one or the other is moved individually to maintain lateral equilibrium. The levers lock automatically on being released. The vertical rudder is regulated by the operator's foot. The motor and direct-connected propeller is swung in a revolving cradle, with the axis of support passing through both the center of gravity and the line of thrust of the motor. B5' a simple movement of either hand or foot the operator can adjust the thrust angle at will. The device is self-locking and free from vibration. The norm of the line of thrust passes through the aeroplane's center of pressure. Detachable wheels equipped with spring shock absorbers are attached to the skids.

The "Harvard I" was designed, patented and flown by James V. Martin, manager of the society.

Navigates Over New York.

Thousands of residents of the village of Manhattan were startled on the evening of July 10 when Frank Goodale operated his dirigible balloon from Palisade Park across the Hudson to Broadway and then down around the Times building and return. The distauce is about 10 miles.

of its horsepower and weighed with equipment 25ii pounds. The engine itself weighed I'M pounds. The propeller was a Herring four-bladed, giving 200 pounds thrust at 1.200i r. p. m.

Trans-Atlantic Airship Ready Soon.

The Wellman polar airship. "America." is being assembled at Atlantic City, X. J., and before long trial ascents will be made. Previous to the cross-ocean attempt the ship will be navigated to Philadelphia and Xew York, it is promised.

Flight up York State.

Bath. X. Y.. Aug. 11!.—Fred Eells. who has been making several short flights in the Kirkham-Eells biplane here for the last week, this morning made a flight of one and one-half miles at a height of 75 ft., making a complete circle and returning to starting point. The machine is a biplane with a new system of control and is equipped with a 25-30 horse-power 4-cylinder Kirkham aero motor. A complete description will appear next month.

The Nashville Aero Club seems to be another "fly-by-night" club, as letters addressed to it as well as individual officers are returned by the post office. A chance for the national council of the Aero Club of America to do some work. An exhibition was recently held in Nashville.

FLIGHT PROGRESS OVER THE COUNTRY

TO urit FRIENDS M'e would appreciate it very much if you would specify in writing advertisers that you saw the ad. in AERONAUTICS. This trill help us. and eventually be of equal service to yourselves.

detroit aero. construction co. motor.

'file Detroit Aeronautic Construction Co. of Detroit. .Mich., realizing some time ago that the present type of automobile or marine motor was entirely too large, heavy and cumbersome for aviation work, set about to build the smallest, light est and most effective power plant which could possibly be constructed. Its :!0~H» h. p. motor weighs well inside of 1T5 pounds, including a double ignition system, carburetor and propeller.

In order to secure efficient service, ball bearings are used wherever the same are at all practicable or applicable.

With the exception of the cylinders, pistons and crank shafts, the entire motor is built of aluminum, including the Schebler carburetor, which is being made especially for this motor, thus reducing the motor to the very minimum of weight without sacrificing strength in any way.

The company has no hesitancy in saying that, in so far as size is concerned, it is building the most compact motor, for the power developed, in the world, the MO-40 h. p. motor occupying but about 1JS by 19 in. of space over all.

The cylinders on all motors are cast en bloc. The crank shafts are cut out of solid blocks of chrome nickel steel, and are carried on two large Hess-Bright ball bearings. All rotary parts are thoroughly balanced and in every way made as light as possible, without sacrificing strength for lightness. The intake, as well as the exhaust valves, are made especially large, to insure perfect intake of fuel, as well as absolute scavenging of cylinders. In the construction of the intake valves and manifold, the company has gotten away from the adopted form, and has adopted a system of its own, which is unique in so far as compactness and simplicity are concerned. The exhaust is effected by a peculiar cam operation, giving an easy rotary movement, combined with quick action, and is "fool-proof."

The company has also gotten away from the ordinary in its oiling system, which consists of a very small rotary gear pump built in the crank case, so as to be easily accessible in case a repair should be necessary. This forces the oil to all cylinder and connecting-rod bearings. The oil being pumped from a sub-base to the cylinders and to the crank case makes a splash system, a lever overflow pipe to the sub-base taking care of all excess oil.

Years of experience in building motors for racing boats has taught the company that in order to secure absolute ignition its motor must be equipped with a double ignition system. This system consists of a Bosch magneto and of a primary and secondary distributer with a single coil, and it is the claim of the company that it has the only perfect ignition system in present use.

The company states: "That the motors built by this company are a success is proven by the many orders which it has received from persons who have spent much time and money in experimenting with other motors, and who have discarded the same for the Detroit motor, and have found perfect success with it. References as lo successful users of this motor will be gladly fur nished by the company on application."

The company is now making arrangements for the building of a larger factory, in order to enable it to take care of its rapidly increasing business. Orders for more of the latest improved machines have already been placed, and negotiations for the building are now in progress. The

Detroit Aero Construction Co. Motor

company is always glad to see prospective customers and have them examine the plant and the motor. All motors are furnished with either aluminum flywheels or laminated wood propellers.

hall-scott aeronautical motor.

Two types of aerial motors of light weight are offered by the Hall-Scott Motor Car Co. of San Francisco, Cal., this concern having already delivered a number of them to western aviators.

One of the interesting facts about the successful flight of the Wiseinan-Peters aeroplane at Petaluma was the use of a Hall-Scott eight-cylinder, GO h. p. motor. Al Hall, the designer, is best known as an automobile man, being well known locally as the builder of the Comet automobile, which made all kinds of records on local California tracks for two seasons.

These engines are both of the four-cycle type, water-cooled : a four-cylinder. :ju h. p. and an eight-cylinder GO h. p.. both having cylinders measuring 4 in. bore and 4 in. stroke, and with the exception of the crank shaft and crank cases all the parts on both typos of motors being interchangeable.

The cylinder walls, pistons and heads are made of a special cast iron. The valves, of nickel steel, are seated directly in the removable heads and operated by push rods and rocker arms. The water jackets are of spun copper, a by-pass between the jacket and cylinder head being used as a preventative of any leakage into the cylinders.

The cam shafts are located in the crank cases, which are of the strongest known aluminum alloy. The crank shafts and connecting rods are machined from hand forgings of a low carbon machine steel, which it is claimed is best adapted to use where a propeller is employed, bored and milled and ground accurately to size. Main and connecting rod bearings are of larger size than ordinarily used, being 1% in. in diameter.

The crank cases are split, the bottom oil cases having an oil reservoir cast integral, from which

in the aerial

market place

$350 THE LOOSE

MONOPLANE

IN A DISTINCT CLASS BY ITSELF

Original in every respect but embodying the best principles now used on all successful monoplanes.

the improved "demoiselle"

A larger machine

150 Pounds for 150 square feet

a 26-foot span Designed for 5 pounds per squ re foot

Xo infringements—Ready for Power Plant

SPECIFICATIONS

!• ply laminated ribs Roebling steel cable

20n steel wheels Palmer tires

f steel axels Hartford varnish

Only a Limited Number at this Price

Send for circular

The g. h. loose monoplane co.

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL., U. S. A.

FOR SALE

Immediate Delivery If Unsold:

One 4-cyl. 40-60 H. P. Elbridge aeroplane motor complete, new - - - $900.

One 7-cyl. 30-40 H. P. revolving motor

complete, new - 750.

One 8-cyl. 30-35 H. P. V type motor

complete, new......... 750.

One Biplane complete, less motor - - - 500.

One Monoplane, complete, less motor - - 500.

Propellers and Aeroplani: Parts On account of tlie pressure of other business we have discontinued the manufacture of aeroplanes. The above prices are way below cost to close out quickly. If interested, write at once.

THE FISHER AUTOMOBILE CO., Indianapolis, Ind.

WOOD

for aeroplanes |

+ Long Lengths of Selected Straight Grain 4«

4. 4.

|| Spruce--Pines--Bass--Whitewood-- *

* White Cedar, Etc. *

£ FULLY EQUIPPED MILL— LOW PRICES %

Manufacturers Supplied |jj

± WM. P. YOUNGS & BROS. £

4» First Ave. and 35th Street - New York 4>

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c The strongest, lightest and most practical silk cloth in the market.

Especially adapted for Aeroplanes and Balloons.

^ Prices and samples on application. X

Address: THE H. M. H. MILLS

Dept. A, - Room 608 1 Union Sq., West, New York City

-f Western Office: MOFFAT BUILDING Room 508

'. Detroit, :: :: Michigan i

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Aeronautical Cloth

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Manufactured Especially for Aeroplanes

Light, Strong Air-Tight and Moisture Proof

Samples, Data and Prices on Request

The C. E. Conover Co.

101 Franklin St., New York

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MOTORS TESTED

Dynamometer tests of aeronautic motors made for inventors, manufacturers and experimenters.

Any size—Any speed Reliable, conclusive and confidential reports.

JOSEPH TRACY

Consulting Engineer 116 West 39th St. :: :: :: New York

steel tubing

All diameters and gauges carried in stock

Also Nickel Steel Tubing for Propeller Shafts

NEW YORK 130-132 Worth Street

PETER A. FRASSE & COMPANY,

PHILADELPHIA 408 Commerce Street

Importers of Piano Wire, specially up-set for use in Aeroplanes

BUFFALO 50-52 Exchange Street

Go L. BUMBAUGH

1029 N. Illinois St. :: :: Indianapolis, Ind.

Designer, Contractor, Operator Constructor

AIRSHIPS AND BALLOONS

Builder of the Balloon "Chicago" the largest in the world; the "Indiana," which holds the endurance record of the U. S.

For Sale—Four new spherical balloons, four new dirigible balloons, just finished. Will sell at reasonable prices.

MOTORLESS = FLIGHT=

THE liextgreatachieveinent inaviation may be Motorless Flight. Many eminent engineers and physicists believe it to be attainable by man. We know that it is performed by the birds. Head the article entitled Soaring Flight," by Octave Chanute, in the Epitome of the Aeronautical Annual. This Epitome contains also articles by Cayley, VVenham, Eilienthal, Maxim, Eangley and others who laid the foundations of the science of aviation. 22 1 pages, 18 plates. Price #1.00; postage 12 cents. W. 13. CLARKE CO., 2(> Tremont St., Boston.

EDWIN LEVICK

Aeronautical

AND MARINE

Photographers

Telephone 108 FULTON STREET Cable

100 John NEW YORK Photonews, N.Y.

Photographs of Practically every Aeroplane and Airship in the World

Lanlern Slides and Enlargements our Specially Wrile for Catalogue Agents Throughout Europe

NO GYROPLANE FOR HIM

"Stop Thief!! and Nature gave a yell

As Willie dove to Death and Hell--

Thou hast my choicest model ta'en—

How shall I ste to make a Fool apain?"

See the Hump ! It's a non-upsetable Helicopter, Parachute. Gyroscope, Fly-wheel Monoplane.

JOS. E. BISSELL, Box 795, Pittsburg, Pa.

a gear pump draws and keeps the oil in continuous circulation, constant level splash system of lubrication being used.

A ball-bearing thrust collar, integral with crank case end. is arranged to take a thrust in either direction, so that a push or pull propeller may be used.

Ignition is by I'.osch high-tension magneto, and a special aluminum Srromberg carburetor is regular equipment.

This company claims simplicity of construction and design, wiih as much lightness for the power developed as any other water-cooled motor that will stand up tinder the hard usage that an aeronautical motor has to contend with.

In addition to these motors this concern offers laminated elm and mahogniy propellers, which they believe have oriiinal lines, and which they claim give more thrust for the horsepower expended than propellers of other manufacture. Using a (i-ft. blade on their :_!<>■ h. p. moto". they claim a thrust of 220 pounds at 1.100 revolutions, and with an s ft. blade and their <;o h. p. motor a thrust of from :'>:!() to .•'.!»<> pounds at 1.20O revolutions.

They are also prepared to furnish radiators of light weight, but with liberal cooling surface, in two types, a .'{() h. p. weigbing 14 pounds and a 00 h. p. weighing .*!() pounds.

The Detroit Rotary Motcr.

The Michigan Airship Co. has been formed in Detroit. Mich., to make and distribute a new rotary online, called the •Ttotaeio." It is claimed by the makers that in this motor many of the aims of tin1 engine designer, great power with little weight, long life, simplicity, accessibility, freedom from repairs, etc., have been accomplished.

DESCRIPTION BY FREDERICK WEI XKCRU.

The engine is a 1-cylinder in principle, which

has been divided into two perfectly balanced units, and the different working phases of the cycle, as charging, compressing. e>plo*ion and expansion, occur in both units exactly at the same time but in opposite directions. This relieves the center of the engine from any bending strain under normal conditions.

Adverse, criticisms have been made against the multiple type of rolary engine for the simple reason that it requires a man of thorough technical knowledge to locate ignition troubles. In the revolving 1-cylinder type the difficulty of locating the ignition troubles of the multiple cylinder rotary typo is being eliminated, as both sparks must occur simultaneously in the same place, which is not the case in a multiple cylinder type of engine.

This engine has been designed in accordance with the 2-cyclc principle, because a 2-cycle engine gives more power for a given weight than the 4-cycle, and eliminates in the present design the intake valves entirely, and simplifies the electrical or mechanical timing arrangement to a great extent.

In the present design the .so-called, "straight-line" clearance has been introduced which is even of a greater volumetric efficiency than the 4-cycle principle, inasmuch as there is no non-scavenging space above the piston in which the burnt gases can possibly remain, which is often the case in the imperfectly designed valveless 2-cycle engines. The new charge, by aid of the crank case compression, fills the cylinder through the by-pass on the very lowest point and leaves through the head valves after the expansion stroke, and inasmuch as carburetor intake and exhaust ports are located in a radial direction to each other, the centrifugal force plays a very prominent role in the process of charging and discharging, helping to throw the charge into the crank case, transferring the same from there into the cylinder and after the expansion stroke into the air.

The engine may be mounled hanging from one bearing like the French Gnome motor, or it can

Detroit "Rotaero" Motor 101

preferably be located between two bearings while the propeller swings outside the front bearing.

The pistons describe a true circle around the wrist pins and form, during a half revolution of the engine, a vacuum in the crank case, drawing the gas and oil mixture through the hollow crank shaft and a mechanically operated poppet valve into the crank case where it is compressed during the next half revolution, then entering Ihe cylinders by means of the by-pass, filling same. A short time before the head of the piston clears the by-pass, the exhaust valve is opened mechanically and the burned gas rushes out, driven by its own pressure, mostly before the piston head reaches the by-pass opening and as the exhaust valve is still open at this moment, the new charge entering the piston gets a chance to assist in driving the remainder of the burnt gas out.

Touching on the constructional side of this new aeronautical power plant, the different parts of the engine are machined to fit within one-thousandth of an inch, and are made on the interchangeable plan through the use of precision instruments and fixtures. The crank case is made of aluminum, and is cast in one piece. Cylinders are made from cast iron machined all over. The pistons from the same grade of cast iron and contains three rings, of which two are above and one below the wrisfpin. The crank shaft is double throw, and bored out to reduce weight and to admit the gases. The exhaust valve is located

aid of all scientific means, and the results of these tests will be published in a subsequent issue. _

Church Aeroplane Co. Busy.

The Church Aeroplane Co. has completed a Bleriot, cross-channel type, for Cohan & Harris, theatrical managers, to be used this fall in the new play, called (he "Aviator."

A biplane is also building for Kramer, the former bicycle champion.

The Iforfd has bought an exact model of the Curtiss Albany-Xew York flyer, built to scale 12 in. to the foot, and all details are carried out very minutely. Seven of the principal type models have beeu shipped to Revere Bench. These were built to order for the Suffolk Amusement Co., and are on exhibition in connection with a daily balloon ascension.

The Church company recently moved to new quarters. 12." Smith St., Brooklyn, where there is room enough to build four machines at once.

Rinek Engines Two a Month.

The Rinek Aero Manufacturing Company have now secured the services of a first-class mechanical engineer, Mr. William Francis, and are now in a position to turn out two engines a month. Mr. Francis succeeds .T. E. Smith, who is no longer in their employ.

Detroit Rotary Motor

in Ihe head of I he cylinder and is made from (lie same grade of cast iron as the latter and is of sufficient area to empty the cylinder in minimum time. The magneto is driven positively at crank shaft speed which insures an easy starting of the engine direct, without the aid of battery ignition. The engine is held together by means of two tension bars terminating at each end in a valve cage retainer in which the valve is seated and held to the cylinder and with the same is held to the crank case. It is natural that the cylinder valves, etc.. exert an enormous pressure through the action of the centrifugal force, and keep the valves seated tight. Consequently in this way the cylinder is in compression instead of intention and as the tension bars are of sufficient size 1o take care i>f the pressure at a high speed with an ample factor of safety, there is no danger whatever for the parts to become loose or to be thrown off. American-made annular ball bearings have been used as main bearings. The connecting rod bearings are made from hest white brass. The lubrication system employed is the spraying system by which the oil is drawn into the crank case in form of a fine spray, oiling in this way all internal working parts. The testing experiments of this engine have nol been completed, at the time of going to press. However, arrangements have been made with one of the foremost universities to have this engine tested with the

New Books.

Modclcs d'Aeroplanes is the title of a recent hook on model building. It is well illustrated, with drawings of models, power plants, etc., and there are listed small propellers of various sizes, gasoline motors and rubber-band plants.

Price, 2 francs, from Librairie de YAvia lion Jlluslrce, 5, due Coetlogon, Paris (Vie), France.

F.ncyclopedic Acronautiquc, by L. Ventou-Duclaux. (Published by F. Louis Vivien, 20 rue Sattlnier, Paris. Price, 1 franc 75.) An 8vo brochure containing 300 aeronautical items and terms with definitions and comments. The various machines are concisely described and illustrated and the book is practically an extension of the author's popular "l'Aviation Kxpliquee."

AERONAUTICS September, low

BALDWIN'S Vulcanized Proof Material

m WINS

LAHM BALLOON CUP—697 Miles

Forbes and Fleischman, Balloon "New York"

BEST DURATION INDIANAPOLIS BALLOON RACE—

35 Hrs., 12 Mins. Forbes and Harmon, Balloon "New York"

U. S. BALLOON DURATION RECORD—48 Hrs., 26 Mins.

Harmon and Post, Balloon "New York," St. Louis Centennial

U. S. BALLOON ALTITUDE RECORD—24,200 Ft.

Harmon and Post, Balloon "New York," St. Louis Centennial

GORDON BENNETT AVIATION PRIZE 30-KILOM. AEROPLANE SPEED PRIZE GRAND PRIZE OF BRESCIA FOR AEROPLANES QUICK STARTING EVENT AT BRESCIA 2nd, 10-KILOM. AEROPLANE SPEED PRIZE 2nd, BRESCIA HEIGHT PRIZE—Glenn H. Curtiss

baldwin'S vulcanized proof material

Used in the U. S. Gov. Dirigible and Spherical Balloons

WILL last from five to six times as long as a varnished balloon. The weight is always the same, as it does not require further treatment. Heat and cold have no effect on it, and ascensions can be made as well at zero weather as in the summer time. The chemical action of oxygen has not the same detrimental effect on it as it has on a varnished material. Silk double-walled VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL has ten times the strength of varnished material. A man can take care of his PROOF balloon, as it requires little or no care, and is NOT subject to spontaneous combustion. Breaking strain 100 lbs. per inch width. Very elastic. Any weight, width, or color. Will not crack. Waterproof. No talcum powder. No revarnishing. The coming balloon material, and which through its superior qualities, and being an absolute gas holder is bound to take the place of varnished material.-The man that wants to have the up-to-date balloon, must use VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL. Specified by the U. S. SIGNAL CORPS.

AEROPLANE MATERIAL A SPECIALTY

Prices and samples on application

Captain Thomas S. Baldwin Box 78, Madison Square

NEW YORK

AERONAUT LEO STEVENS

Leading

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of America

Representing the

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MAKERS OF THE FINEST AND STRONGEST BALLOON AND AEROPLANE MATERIAL IN THE WORLO

Rubber Fabrics for

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Models Developed

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Contractor to the United States Government

AND

Ninety-five per cent, of the Clubs in this country

Also Representing the Santos Dumont Aeroplane American Representative The WilCOX Propeller

Carton &, Lachambre

Balloon and Airship Builders of Paris, France

Address : Box 181

Madison Square

N. Y.

Trade Opportunities in Mexico.

AEROXAUT]CS' representative in Mexico, Mr. Edward L. Kamsey, Box Xo. loo, Veracruz, V. C, Mexico, advises tuat lie receives inquiries almost Ideilv front! parties in different parts of the Republic, for information as to where aeronautical Supplies of all kinds can be obtained, and states that if the manufacturers and dealers will send ■im catalogues and descriptive matter of engines or samples, of supplies, etc., he will be pleased to forward same to parties making inquiry.

Independent aviators or exhibition companies .would do well to address .Sr. Don Guillerino de BLanda y Escandon, Governor of the Federal District, at Mexico, D. F., Mexico, who is also the President of the Xational Centennial Committee, With the idea of securing engagements for the aviation. Meet which is being contemplated and tvhieh will be held in conjunction with the Centennial Celebration in the City of Mexico during the month of September.

Barberton Aviation Co.

The Barberton Aviation Co., Barberton, O.. is offering a modified Curtiss type machine for general Sale, equipped with an Elbridge engine. 4u,-t>o h. p. fhe spread is 37 ft., by OVi ft. fore and aft the laain planes. The weight complete is about S0() Rounds. The equipment includes Bosch magneto ►tnd El Arco radiator.

Rubel Company Aero Catalogue.

A most pretentious catalogue having a full line pf aero motors and supplies, aeroplanes, etc., is hat just gotten out by R. O. Rubel, .lr. & Co., |)f Louisville. Ky. Xearly everything in the aeronautical line is" listed.

Many Engines Sold.

Many sales have been made the past month ly engine makers all over the country. The Hall-Scott motor, a new one on the Coast, has llready done a promising business. And in this Issue will be found some other new motors on Ihe market. The Rinek Aero Manufacturing Co.. hi Easton, the llarriman and other companies [eport demands up to the limit of output. Among Inrchasers of Elbridge engines are .John E. Clark p San Francisco, who is building two biplanes; Paniuei Barton, 1008 Herkimer St., Brooklyn, X. L'., a I'll h. p.. 2 cylinder, for a monoplane:" John Sevier, Union Mill. X. J., a 40-00; Glenn Ethridge, Vestbury, L. I., 40-G0>, for a Curtiss type biplane ; I. C. Cook, 128 West 125th St., Xew York, who ►as a 40-00 for his Curtiss type ; George Schmitt, Jutland, Vt., a 40-00, for a Curtiss type being Hit by YVittemann Brothers.

Nicaraguan to Buy Aeroplanes.

Dr. .7. .T. de Praslin of Nicaragua has been vis-ting various aeroplane exhibitions in this country ind is now in St. Louis. Me became interested here in the Curzon machines, and states that he aay possibly buy 12 and remain long enough to lecome proficient in operation, so as to teach iviators in his own country-

The Curzon manufacturing plant and training chool has removed from Chicago to Washington 'ark, East St. Louis, 111., where perfectly level rrounds are to be had. two miles long by one aile wide, with plenty of surrounding country ree of obstructions. A course five miles in length an be flown over.

L. Davis, both of Chicago : 111.: G. W. Dorsey, Jr., Wilmington, Del.

Detroit Aeroplane Co., Detroit, Mich., $20.000. Curt Weinburg, Fred Weinburg, Ray Wilcox, William Anderson, Alfred Brawn.

The Lateudorf Aerial Navigation Co., 34 East 28th St., Bayonne. The authorized capital is $50,000, divided into 1,000 snares of $50 each. The incorporators are Lowell ri. M. Hoig, of Orange; G. Edward Menzel, of Maplewood, and Howard W. Forsyth, of Mount Vernon, N. Y.

Chicago Aeronautical Exhibition Co., 2,500 ; exhibiting airships, aeroplanes, balloons, etc. Charles E. Hartley, Robert T. Laughlin, James E. Gilles.

The Aeronautical Society, New York ; promote aeronautics; capital, $10,000. Incorporators Thomas A. Hill, Lee DeForest, Hugo C. Gibson all of New York City.

Stella Aeroplane Co., Xew York City; manufacture and construct airships heavier than air; capital $50,000. Incorporators, Paul de Kildu-chevsky, ;iiè East 10th St. ; David Edelstein, 1605 Prospect Ave. ; Isidor Wolfberg, 841 Fox St., all of 2sew York City.

American Aeronautical Association, membership corporation, June 22, 1910. To form organization of representatives of lawfully organized aero bodies, organize other bodies, issue pilot licenses and generally supervise and regulate aeronautic endeavor, hold meets and contests, maintain club house, develop science of aeronautics, establish aviation schools, encourage helpful legislation, cooperate with manufacturers of aerial products on tue continents of .North and South America and adjacent islands. Directors named to serve until Hrst annual meeting: Joseph T. Adams (Xew York), Martin Bloomer (Westrield, X. J.J, William Borchers (Brooklyn), A. Franklin Callahan (Chicago), James K. Duffy (Xew York), Mayer C. Goldman (Xew York), Clifford B. Harmon (Xew iork), Joseph D. Havens (Kansas City), George

Chas. C. Bradley, of Pacific Aero Club, has tad some interesting results with his large pro-teller. This laminated propeller is 8 ft. in diam-■ter, with an S ft. 3 in. pitch; blade at widest iart is 24 in. Turned at about 400 r. p. m. by l 20 horse power 4-cyIinder, water cooled motor. ¡94 x 3% bore and stroke, the propellor going

to 2 of motor, a thrust of 230 pounds was ecorded on scale. This propeller is of very neat workmanship and was made by Mr. Bradley per-onally.

Incorporations.

National Manufacturing & Aerial Exhibition Co.; apital $50,000. Incorporators. Eric R. Mackay, James

seph Snyder (New York), William B. Strang (Kansas City), Albert F. Zahm (Washington).

Pelletier Aeroplane Co., $25,000, Xew York City. Manufacture of aeroplanes, motors, engines, etc. Incorporators are 11. E. Pelletier, E. J. Pierce and X. K. Green, Xew York City.

Burgess Company & Curtis, Marblehead, Mass. For the manufacture and sale of aeroplanes ; capital of $80,000. Incorporators : President, W. Starling Burgess, Marblehead ; treasurer, Greely S. Curtis, Rye, N. Y. ; clerk, John Xoble.

The Gallaudet Engineering Co., Norwich, Conn. ; $100,000. Incorporators : E. F. Gallaudet, Denisou Gallaudet and Grosvenor Ely, all of Norwich.

The Waiden Manufacturing Co., Xew York City. To manufacture and deal in aeronautic devices. $10,000. Incorporators: Henry W. Waiden, 37 St. Mark's Place ; Abraham Levin, 1020 Simpson St. ; Jacob Glass, G7 Second Ave., all of Xew York City.

America Exhibition Co., Atlantic City. For the holding of meets and the exhibition and flying of all types of air craft; $10,000. Incorporators: Charles B. White, A. T. Bell, J. Haines Lippincott, Harry B. Cook, I». S. White and Jacob Weikel, all of Atlantic City.

Aero & Motor Club of Asbury Park, $25,000; incorporators, Geo. W. Pittinger, A. R. Parsons. J. G. Warner, J. M. Ralston. M. E. Denegar, II. G. Rockefeller, C. A. Atkins, Milan Ross. J. L. Kiu-mouth, W. A. Berry, J. M. Ralston, C. R. Zacharias. Margaret II. Frost.

The William T. Thomas biplane has been making many good short flights at Hornell, X. Y. A full description of this machine appeared in a recent issue of Aeronautics.

the mott "kotaplane.'

To tlie Editor of Aeronautics :

The accompanying illustration is an amplification of the air runner or Botaplane set forth by the writer in the XcicnHfie Amciirnii ,SiipiJl('nivnl of Oct. 25, 1902. In that article will be found, 1 think for the iirst time in print, the recently much-used word aviator, to designate the operator of a heavier-than-air dying machine. The general subject of orthogonal flight was illus-uated and discussed by the writer in the above publications of Aug. 11. 1X91 ; Jan. 30, 1904, and the Elrclrinil Worltl of June 20, 1890.

As a replica or close copy of the device herewith illustrated is now under construction, it is thought a brief statement of the characteristics we will doubtless establish may be of interest to readers of the fast developing aerial art, and they are certainly more numerous than when the articles referred to were published. This device is especially designed for warships and kindred purposes, for the army, for explorations or for preliminary surveys, etc., it may be dismantled for compact transport. The design for' general commercial usage weighs less and appears somewhat different in aspect, as the aviators are seated and other expedients availed of for maneuvering, which will be described later. It may be flown from any place without a runway or other starting arrangements, and will alight at any unobstructed point where there is space for it to stand upon. It is intended for use as a ship's adjunct and flown from its deck. It may be flown from land; it may be flown from water. It will rest upon a sea of considerable roughness, when properly equipped therefor, and will rise therefrom with greater efficiency (less power) than from the land, because of lessened weight, due to partial submergence, and greater facility, because of the absence of drag due to vertical tilt as distinguished from forced translation through water and the consequent skin frictional resistance of any such attempts with monoplanes, biplanes or triplanes.

The modus operandi of the translation and direction of this machine is, curiously enough, the same physical principle that lends itself to the locomotion of land animals in- walking or running—viz., the center of gravity displacement. That is to say, when in suspension, the center of gravity of the machine is determined by the position of the load relative to the axis and the load is the operators, who are free to move together or separately about and around the axis or supporting pedestal of the machine. Obviously, then, Ihe machine is careened and the cant or tilt of tlie axis to the points of the compass determines the direction of translation through the air, and it takes iittle cant to make high speed. It is easily shown ihat gyroscopic action will not interfere appreciably in the operation of handling this machine. The actior of the gyroscope is only apparent when it is subjected to (ihlelc movements, or sudden precession, from its plane of revolution. The heavy wheels of a vehicle rounding a street corner, or the driving wheels of a locomotive rounding a ctuve, have a decided gyroscopic Vend-euey : but we ki>o\v if is negligible, duo principally to comparative moderate rotative speed and the yradual changing of their planes of revolution.

Instead of so-called automatic stability, it is apparent that this machine has inherent stability like a boat ; and this can be made adjustable by telescopic arrangement. Quite the same as a boat can lie made variably stable by the weight and position of the load relative to the water line or plane of buoyancy. Hence the long training to acquire specialized skill is not necessary. The mental and ordinary requirements of a competent auto driver would be all-sufficient Wind resistance is minimized by compactness, which, combined with weight, insures precision of movement when in the air. With proper equipment its shop cost would be. moderate.

I have shown how the; machine is directed by the cenler of gravity displacement. Other maneuvers, such as jockeying to attain altitude, are effected the same as we meet the up and down grades with our automobiles and other vehicles by

increasing or decreasing the molive power. B| utilizing the two expedients described, every mei tionable evolution can be made in the air, frol a stand-still or stationary suspension—even spil ning around like a top in either direction in su pension to a straight, curved or spiral path i<

or ('own at any angle to the horizon—or ve tically—without the impedimenta of tail, win! rudder, aileron or complicated mechanism, or tfl addition of a pound weight.

"The real future of flying, or rather the prjb tical solution of the problem of the air," ■ Channte thinks, "will come with the explosifl motor turned into a 'sustention' engine," folloi ing a statement that he does not foresee mini utility for aviation carried on along the preset lines. Doubtless the heart and key to all typj of flying apparatus lie in the motive power, an all types of engine will needs be adapted to tl different typos of machines, of which at the pre] ent time there are only two in evidence of tl heavier-than-air sort. Doubtless also the great h field for broadening and perfecting the aerial a] is for the theorists to get busy and evolve a lj liable fundamental power principle, or constructioi involving no reciprocating parts like the electr motor, for instance, which, unfortunately, is not prime mover. Then we will begin to see dayligh 1 know of at least two of some promise. Barrid this desideratum, we must do the best we can wit' existing systems.

The original arrangement of the two-cycle ei gine shown in the publication first referred to, c radially arranged revolving cylinders incorporate] at the hub, has been introduced substantially o the same linos by the American Adams-Parwe and the French Gnome companies for aeronautics work. These rotatory engines have features < air-cooling and lightness which are very stron factors and are likely to be controlling for som types of flying machines. In, the illustration hen with 1 have eight two-cycle cylinders groupe around and parallel lo the axis. The eight cy inders act as a unit, of course, through the trann mission. This makes a good arrangement in sonJ respects, but, for certain mechanical reasons, thj prime mover of the machine under construction i arranged as three twin-cylinders acting as a nni through a reverse motion differential speed tram mission of nickel-steel spur and internal gear; The maximum power developed is 90 horse; till normal power is 75 horse for the three engines-i. e., six cylinders of 12% horsepower each. Tli| engine has special features for clearing the cyl inder and purifying the mixture for perfect conii bustion. It. weighs about 202 pounds, or 2.J pounds to the horsepower. I have aimed in tbl present construction to make a full-sized machinil which can be considerably modified without recoil strnction for experimental data of which there il practically none extanl. With that end In view I

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RO NAUTICS

September, rçio

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EROPLANE WHEELS

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woodward &, chandlee 12*7 fsi^x,wasT^r^n7D7c

the diameter over all may he varied from 12 to 17 ft. It is believed, however, that with high power and efficient screw action diameters of around 12 ft. will be sufficient for the practical working; of liotaplanes of medium-load capacity.

The illustration shows superimposed screw blades supported by a tubular double-rim tangent wire-spoke wheel. This (rotary) biplane arrangement has not been tested out by the writer, but the machine under construction will determine the advantage or otherwise of this feature. The gasoline and lubricant are contained in the l/ol'-in. sheet-steel nedestal. The carburetor lias been changed from near the base to near the engine, so it will not be interfered with when alighting on the water. The total weight of the machine for two persons is about 4(i(i pounds.

The word aeroplane, or monoplane, or biplane, or triplaue, applied to the respective examples of present-day flyers, is a misnomer, because the supporting surfaces of all machines up to the present rime have been aerocurves exclusively—something (plite different. In view, however, of the hold these words seem to have on the popular imagination. I will venture to name the type of the machine illustrated herewith a rotary aeroplane or Kotapiane.

S. D. Mott.

Passaic. X. J., July 30, 1910.

HAS 'PLANE-WANTS MOTOR.

W. J. Diefenbach has finished a 4."-t't. Curtiss type biplane and needs a motor, lie is willing to part with an interest in his machino and requests aid to this extent. Letters will reach him care of the Aeronautical Society, Mineóla. X. V.

J. C. TRESS HAS FLEXIBLE AILERON.

John C. Press, 100 P.urritf Ave., South Xor-walk, Conn., suggests a device for the maintaining of lateral equilibrium by moans of flexible ailerons as shown in the sketch. These are fixed at an upward angle. To get increased lift on one side of the machine, the designer curves the aileron

Front View

down en that side and curves it up on the other, lie claims that no turning movement will he caused by this device.

A LETTER FROM SOUTH AFRICA.

Joe W. Xaude, Graaff Ueinet, Cape Colony, is industriously working out some novel features in Hying machines, not to mention an aeroplane that uses a small motor for starting only and a helicopter Combined with a biplane glider. The novelties cover lateral automatic stability, aero brake, means for changing angle of incidence main planes (luring night, shock-absorbing device and mono-wheel and skid combination, reversible propeller, vertical and horizontal rudders both fore and aft. cooling device for air-cooled motors in tropical climates, universal control, emergency second control, warmer for gas and oil in cold climates and at high elevations, tinting of under planes to prevent skidding.

WR1CUIT AND (TRTISS EqriLir.Rll'M CONTROL.

Dear Sirs :—■

I would like to give my idea of the difference between the Wright and Ihe Curtiss cqulibriuiu control.

When the Wright machine tips to one side, the low side is warped so as to increase its angle of incidence. In other words, the lift of the low side is increased anil that of the high side de-

decreased. The low side, having the greater angle of incidence, has more drift ; this would make the machine travel in a circle with the low side toward the center, this tendency is overcome by manipulating the rudders.

The ailerons in the Curtiss machine are analogous to elevator rudders. Then when this machine tips to one side, the low side is steered up and the high side is steered down by manipulating the ailerons or wing tips. In a Curtiss machine flying there is 110 very noticeable movement in these ailerons, which goes to show that they move through very small angles. Since these surfaces are flat their drift at small angles is very slight, so that any difference of resistance (if there is any) at the wing tips is so slight as to be immaterial, therefore the machine does not deviate from its course.

E. S. 1-OCKEj

1519 Oxford St., Iicrkeley, Cal.

riAS NEW STABILITY DEVICE.

To the Editor:—

There has been so much talk of late regarding tiie Wright patent and the danger of their monopolizing and hindering the advancement of the art that I take this opportunity of showing a few different improvements designed to be used on any make or style of aeroplane and render flying safer and soaring more possible.

My objective point has always been an instantaneous control under all circumstances and conditions, all possible accidents considered and provided for. in my improved auxiliarv plane system. I think I have accomplished all this and more.

Fig. I is a plan view of a machine with improved horizontal or elevating rudders, with which it is possible to steer up or down and to right or left and balance the machine simultaneously with one lever. The dotted line C. on main plan'e A, shows end of ribs and beginning of extremely flexible portion as shown in Fig. VI. A is rib: P, is beam; C. rear end of rib: V). flexible portion of rib which in itself is an euunlizer of pressure but may lie warped down on the low side of machine cither manually or automatically.

Fig. V shows two vertically disposed screens operating 1 ransversely of the machine, designed as an emergency or auxiliary lateral steering gear with which vertical cells or partitions must be used to prevent side drift as in Voisin type or may be used to stop machine when both are pulled out simultaneously. In construction they are simple and are practically the same as the ordinary roller curtain or window shade without rachets. The drawing represents a front view of both ends of machine : A. main planes : P.. adjustable screens ; C, cords ; 1'). wire in front of which the screens operate, thereby allowing the action of the springs on screen, which would be prevented by the pressure otherwise: the idea being to present a desired amount of surface on the side corresuonding to the direction (i. e. right or left) in wlib-li the machine is to lie steered, retarding one side of machine and permitting the other side The longitudinal action front and rear is simultaneous. There is 110 transverse action of rear rudders except for emergencies. The advantages to revolve around to any position desired, might also be used to restore euuilibrhim to a certain extent by presenting surface on (lie high side of machine.

Fi«r. II is a sectional view of improved horizontal or elevating rudder, dotted lines sliowiirr their Itnifiiliiilinnl action by means of which the eouilibrinin is maintained or instantly restored by tilting all auxiliary planes opposite the inclination of main planes: i. e.. if the ri^hl side of main planes are low, tilt the anviiiary uhines opposite so that the right sides of all auxiliary planes front and rear are high (Fig. 11). UK arc adjustable balls between which auxiliary planes operate: 1) is a guide passing through central support and preventing planes from getting out of their proper positions, is hinged on both sides of planes to allow transverse action : F. hinges.

1'Msr. IV is a side sectional view of rudder showing the transverse action common to all elevating rudders now in use.

1 5—

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1 Al

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Fig 5.

J.W Fuhr 712377 72

Í77veTÍTor

PäTEiITä Pending

2222I7ayTDTi 5T" Ch ica g□

Fig. Ill shows a roar view of front rudders when operator is steering up and to the left, shows result of combining the longitudinal action Fig. II. B, and the transverse- action Fig. IV. B. of this steering system arc many, some of which are that it automatically banks "machine and prevents side drift, the principle is identical to a bird's; it is safer and more practical; is more convenient, gives greater pressure 'and lifting power both on auxiliary planes and on main planes:; makes soaring 'more safe and dependable.; does not require any vertical surface or rear vertical rudder : it is a one lever control, gives instantaneous balance, is not liable to break or get out of order, is simple and cheap and is not. an infringement on any body.

The extremely flexible portion on rear of all planes is designed to copy as close as is possible

the feather, which has a rigid stem with very flexible edges which bend up under pressure as in Fig. VI 1). dotted lines showing various possible results of pressure. A slight propelling force would be derived from position K.

Fig. I- G vertical rudder post, if one is used. F is the various parts of framework which must necessarily he altered to suit different types of machines ; I), propellers: 10, main lateral beam; H, central support on which rudders operate.

I will appreciate all criticism and opinion of those interest I'd. 1 will gladly answer any questions and supply all further information at my command.

.1. YV. Fuhrmann. 2221 Dayton St.. Chicago". 111.

The monoplane of r. F. Gillette is nearitig completion. This machine is. in the main, a ••Bierint" type, but is considerably larger and hits a number of modifications. The spread is 34 by 2!) ft. fore and aft. wings are detachable with "Far-man" type ailerons on ends. A triangular body supports at the rear "Antoinette" type rudders, and carries also horizontal and vertical fins: two masts in center will support planes, which are (1 ft. G in. in depth. The ribs are of built-up construction and have the usual monoplane high camber; they will be double covered by Xaiad cloth. Wheels 2G n 21/&. Total surface. 20S sq. ft. Weight of machine without motor. 275 pounds; weight of en lire machine without operator, GOO pounds. This allows 325 pounds for

lite complete power plant. A 50 horse power motor will be used. Body will be all covered.

Tot] ("Slim" I Shriver. for many years Captain Baldwin's right hand man. and selected by Curtiss when he was abroad last year, with II. J. Dietz. the lamp manufacturer, has organized the Hempstead Aeroplane Co., of Mill Boad. Hempstead. D. I. Machines will be built for general sale as well as for exhibitions. The Kirkham G-cylinder engine will be used.

The Hendee Mfg. Co.. Springfield. Mass.. makers of Indian motorcycles, are working on aeroplane engines of a very light weight, waterproof tight, of 4 and s cylinder. 25 and 50 h. p.. respectively. The S-cylinder type is of the "V" shape.

THE SHOW THAT WILL ?

SELL YOUR GOODS. %

CWe have here a big, wealth}-, new territory that is booming big in J

aeronautics and aviation. There are six balloons here, many aeroplanes v

and numerous gliders. Our hangars have been rented for the winter for many 4.

more. We will start next summer with enough machines to he well ahead of |£

any other dub. +

LET US INTRODUCE YOU TO MEN *

WHO WILL TAKE YOUR AGENCY. % _.________________,_ *

+

For floor space, terms and all information regarding the show address the Manager

HENRY M. NE ELY :: :: :: Chairman Exhibition Committee

Aero Club of Pennsylvania, Betz Building, Philadelphia

Aero Show

Nov. 17 to 24 1910

MAMMOTH COLISEUM BLDG., ST. LOUIS, MO.

Complete Exhibition of Aeroplanes, Dirigibles, Balloons, Accessories and AH Articles of a Kindred Nature

•""THE BUILDING contains over 38,000 sq. feet of floor space, this has been laid out to give the public 1 -3 and the exhibitors 2-3. More than half the exhibition space has already been taken, but we wish to show our visitors the beet variety possible—so we would appreciate and do solicit communications from all interested.

ST. LOUIS NATIONAL AERO SHOW

I Coliseum Building :: :: :: St. Louis, Mo.

AMERICA'S GREATEST AERO SHOW

"The Three-States Aero Show"

Philadelphia, October 22—November 5, 1910, inclusive Held by the Aero Club of Pennsylvania

AERONAUTICS Septeml

The First Complete Book On Flying Maa

Art of Aviati(

By Robert W. A. Brewer

266 pages, 6x9, many illustrations and working drawings, $3.50 net, ]

It gives dimensioned drawings,

details of parts,

materials, etc.

It tc buih and

Mr. Brewer on a Blériot XI. Monoplane fitted with an Anzani Engine.

ROBERT YV. A. BREWER lias been an important figure in the development of the aeroplai He is manager for Grahame-YYhite, the British aviator. He is besides an engineer of wide e< perience, who has specialized in the aeroplane. The work deals with the practical aspects! flying machines, rather than with the theoretical side. It is essentially valuable because of tj working drawings and the practical guides for those who would build or study the construction aeroplanes. Machines of various types are described in detail. Engines are also carefully consider^ with details of propellers.

It covers also the art of Hying, including gliding experiments, steering, balancing and control, will interest the general as well as the scientific public.

liapter I.

11. III. IV.

V

VI, VII. VIII.

The Main Chapter Headings Are:

Chapter

A Comparison Between .Monoplanes and Biplanes. The Form of an Aerofoil. Early Models.

Engine Problems and Principles of Design. Description of Engines. Engines, continued.

Propellers. "

Efficiency of Propellers. "

Chapter XVII. Glossary of Terms.

IX. Materials of Construction for Aeroplai

X. Details of Manufacture.

XI. Successful Monoplanes.

XII. Biplanes.

XIII. Biplanes, continued.

XIV. Progressive Monoplane Records. XV. The Art of Flying.

XVI. Future Developments.

cJiERONAUTICS

250 West 54th Street :: :: New

Send for our New Catalog oj Aero Books

WONDERFUL ADVANCE IN FLYING -LE BLANC WINS 485-MILE RACE—45 NEW WORLD'S RECORDS IN MANY CONTESTS —SENSATIONAL FLIGHTS ACROSS PARIS—NEW HEIGHT RECORDS MADE AND BROKEN —CURTISS BEATEN.

Le Blanc Wins $20,000 Prize.

COVERS 4SO-M1LE COURSE.

Aug. 17.—Alfred Le Blanc arrived al lssy. in the suburbs of I'aris. at C> :4."> o'clock this morning and is the winner of the cross-country flight which started from there on August 7.

For the Matin's S2().oon contest over the "Eastern Circuit," a distance of 7N2 kil. (4N.V.H miles). :!•"> machines entered. The prize was offered to the first aviator who. leaving I'aris on the 7th of August returned by the 17th. after touching at the various points on the course. The various cilies and individuals raised prize funds, in all totaling !f.">2.."¡00 and contests for height, starting, etc.. were held at the various controls. Those who dropped out stayed to compete in the local events.

The race was divided into the following stages:

I'aris to Troyes, l.'io kil.

Troyes to Nancy. 1(>0 kil.

Xancy to Charleville to Mezieres. K>0 kil.

Mezieres to Charleville to Douai. l.'IO kil.

Iiouai to Amiens. 7N kil.

Amiens to i'aris. 110 kil.

On August 7 eight actually started and six got to Troyes—Alfred Le P.lane I I'.leriot I 1st. Emile Aubrun (Bleriot), Mamet (Bleriot 1. Lindpaintner iSommerj, Weymann (II. Carman i. and Legagueux (Sommer). Le Klanc's time was 1 :.'!.". :20.

Second stage. Aug. S.—Le I'.lanc. Aubrun and Legagneux arrived. Le Blanc was fastest in :i"4 :50.

Third stage. Aug. 11.— I.e I'.lanc and Aubrun arrived. Le I'.lanc best in 2 :04 :()(».

Fourth stage, Aug. 14.—Aubrun and Le Blanc reached Douai. Aubrun best in 2 :4() :oo. Le I'.lanc took 3 :00 :00.

Fifth stage. Aug. l.">. Le I'.lanc. Aubrun and Legagneux flew from Douai to Amiens. Le Blanc best in 1 :14 :29.

Sixth stage. Aug. li.— I.e Blanc. Aubrun and Legagneux arrived. I.e Blanc's time. 1:42. Total time of Le I'.lanc for 4S."> kil. cabled as 11 :5S :4'.L

French military on.cers tiew part of the way with (he contestants.

Le Blanc has been named for France in the Cordon I'.ennett balloon race. October 17.

.MOW SIIIHiT START RECORD.

Aug. 1.1.—Claude Graham-White made a new world's short start record of in ft. !> in. with his Carman.

Aug. 14.— Cither Louis I'aulhan or Grahame-White will be awarded the Daily Mail's .$."¡.000 prize for the greatest total of cross-country dying in France or Oreat Britain in the year ending August 14. I'aulhan claims 7.sn miles and White M2. _ ALU

Flights Day by Day

LATHAM WINS .^2.000 FOR FL1GII1' ACROSS I'ARIS.

Aug. 12.— Hubert Latham, coming from Bony, Hew over Paris at a high altitude and landed at lssy les Moulineaux.

By flying across I'aris. Latham won the Falco Prize of $'2.(ion. Latham's time was 2 hours IS minutes .jf> seconds.

NEW WORLD ALTITUDE HhCORl\

Aug. 11.—J. A. Drexel (I'.leriot) made a new world's height record of C>.7."io ft. at the Lanark,

Scotland, meet. This was recorded on his barograph which will be tested tor accuracy. Fog obscured the view of the ground and he landed 15 miles away, lie was up over 2 hours. The meet closed August i:t: S.'!.s.4."">0 were divided in prizes among 7 competitors.

I-I.IKS WITH 4G2 POINDS EXTRA WEIGHT.

Aug. 11.—At the aviation meet at .lohannisthal. Germany. Thelen. in a Wright machine, made a flight in which he carried 40:.' pounds extra weight.

P.U'LIIA.N FLIES 2<.IO MILES.

Aug. 11.—Louis I'aulhan to-day made two round trips by aeroplane between Brou and Chartres. with stops, lie covered iu all a distance of about 200 miles.

FLIES IRISH SEA.

Aug. 10.— Bobert Loraine (11. Carman, new type) flew from Blackpool meet across Irish Sea to Llandudno in Wales. Fog prevented returning all the way and a landing was made on Anglesey island, on August 1 he flew to Liverpool and back.

.lames Badley (Bleriotl who is coming to America to compete in the Times race and possibly the Gordon Bennett, made ."">S.o2 miles per hour. Cattaneo flew .'1 hours and 41 minutes. At a speed of 44.1 C> miles per hour. This was at the Lanark. Scotland, meet. August 0-1 o.

Aug. 10.—One of the propellers of a Wright machine broke at the .lohannisthal meet and the aviator. Ileim. was seriously injured.

LATHAM FLIES OVER PARIS.

Aug. (i.—Hubert Latham (Antoinette) tlew from Chalons-sur-Marno to I'aris. a distance of S7 miles, making two stops on the trip.

He passed over the city at an altitude of l.SoO tf.. circling twice around the Eiffel Tower before landing.

The enthusiasm caused by Latham's flight had scarcely waned before the whirr of another propeller attracted attention. It was Weymann (II. Farman). who left Chalons shortly after Latham. Both landed at lssy les Moulineaux.

(¡000 FEET HIGH

Aug. f>.—Ceo. Chavez at Blackpool meet. England, went up to .r).7oG ft. in his I'.leriot. On the same day. at Mourmelon, France, Weymann (II. Farmani tried to beat Brookin's record but came down after getting up to 4.100 ft.

FATALITY I.N EXHIBITION" UV WOMAN.

Aug. 1.—"Jlmo. Francke." while flying an II. Farman at Boldon, England, hit a flag pole with one of the wings of the aeroplane, turning trie machine over. .V boy was struck by the engine and killed. Mine. Cranck suffered a 'fractured leg aud some cuts.

WORLD RECORDS FOR 4-MAN FLIGHT.

Aug. 1.— Henry Farman carried three passengers at .Mourmelon tor 1 hour 4 minutes, the total weight carried including gas. oil and passengers was C>27 pounds.

On the same day. at Douai. De Baeder carried three passengers on a Bregi biplane. Total weight carried was 70S pounds.

GERMAN AIRSHIP IN LONG TRIP.

July 27. Herman airship "Cross 111" makes trip of 170 miles in night ascent lastiug 7 hours .">() minutes. Berlin over various cities to Cotha. Beturn was made on the .'30th. trip lasting ti'.j hours.

FLIGHT TO ALTITUDE S,47o FEET.

.Inly 27. Beports from Italy state that two Swiss aviators flew up a mountain which is said to be N,47."> ft. above sea level, circling above the peak and returning safely.

July '.». Maurice Tabutcau (Maurice Farman) Hew .'! hours .",;"> minutes at P.nc.

THE BIGGEST MONTH OF SPORT ABROAD

OVER PARIS IN AEROPLANES.

July 1."!. Champel (Yoisin I tiew from Juvisy to Paris to Sartroville. 50 kil., iu 45 minutes.

July 14.— G. Busson (Bleriot.i Juvisy-Paris-Baga-telle and return without stop.

The Aero Club of France has issued to date 150 aviation pilot certificates.

Germany is organizing a city-to-city race. Frankfort—Wiesbaden—Mayeuce—Mannheim, with prizes of 41,000 marks.

Postscript, Aug. 17.—John B. Moissant, of Chicago flying a Bleriot Monoplane and carrying a mechanic with him flew from Paris to Amiens and thence across to England in an attempt to fly to London. He landed near Dover.

big foreign meetings

brussels.

N. KINET KILLED.

Next the last day of the Brussels meet, July 23-August 4. was marred by the fatal accident to Nicholas Kinet when, on August 3, he was caught iu a squall in his 11. Farman biplane and dashed to the ground. Kinet and olieslagers were tied for the totalization prize with 10 hours 1 minute. The longest single flight was made by Jean Olieslagers on Aug. 3. 210.S kil. Prize money totaled $27.(>oo. cash"and trophies.

BROKE FRENCH HEIGHT RECORD.

On July 30 olieslagers broke the French height record, being credited with 1.40O m. (4.7SS ft.). The barograph showed 5.0S4 ft. Ou> August 1, .Ildes Tvek (II. Farman) went up to 4.S34, officially, though he claimed 0,641 ft.

caen meeting.

With prizes totaling $0.700. Caen meeting. July 27 to August 2. Bleriot machines won $3.200 and llauriot $2.000. balance divided between six others. Longest single flight was on July 30. by Paillette (Sommer) 3:13:5(5. On August 2. Morane (Bleriot) won height prize with 4.100 ft. llanriot (llanriot) won total distance prize with 9:57:56.

bournemouth (eng.) meet.

July 10.- Fifteen fliers at Bournemouth meet. July 11-10: $40.()(fO in prizes. Among other contests, L. F Morane (Bleriot) won the fastest lap prize at a speed of 5(1.04 miles per hour, while his time for 5 laps was 55.9 miles per hour. Hon. C. S. Polls (Wright ) won the slow speed test at 25.33 miles per hour. Morane also won altitude prize, going up to 4.107 ft. The longest single flight was 90 miles by Grahame White (Farman) at a speed of 35.2 miles per hour. In the weight carrying contest White was best with 425 pounds, including pilot. In alighting White was first, stopping within 7 ft. of the mark. The Bleriot machines had two sets of wings, one for lifting and one for siieed .1. A. Brexel and W. E. McArdle, who have a flying school at Beaulieu, flew their Bleriots to the meet and back again at its conclusion. On the return Dresel carried a passenger home with him. the trip lasting 3S minutes.

At the Lanark. Scotland, meet, August 0-13. the prizes totaled $40,000.

rheims' meet.

MANY WORLD RECORDS ESTABLISHED AND BROKEN.

July 10. Bhcinis meet closed after 7 days of flying. Of the 72 entered 40 competitors actually flew a total distance of S.50O miles and $38.000 distributed in prizes.

The Inn?est distance flown by one make of machine. 2.001 kil., by the Antoinette.

The best total distance by "le man was 1.093 kil. in 1'. Mhours, by Oliosl»\„..-s (Bleriot).

Longest single flight. 392.75 kil.. 5rs. 3 min. 5 1/5 sec, by Olieslagers (244.04 miles).

In Gordon Bennett elimination race to select French contestants, over 100 kil. course. L<« Blanc (Bleriot) 1st in 1:19:13.3/5: 2nd. Latham (Antoinette) in 1:24:58 3/5; 3rd, Labouchere (Antoinette) 1 :25:24.

The following new world's records were established :

Distance and Duration.—392.75 kil. (244.04 miles i iu 5 hr. 3 min. 5 1/5 sec, by Olieslagers (Bleriot).

Sprat Orcr Certain Distances.—5 kil.. Morane (Bleriot). 3 min. 14 3/5 sec; 10 kil., Morane. 5 min. 42 2/5 sec; 20 kil.. Morane, 12 min. 45 3/5 sec; 30 kil., Olieslaegers (Bleriot), 23 min. 31 sec: 40 kil.. Olieslaegers, 30 min. II sec; 50 kil.. Leblanc (Bleriot), 37 min. 50 3/5 sec: 6UJdl.. Leblanc.,45 min. 2S-3/5 sec. ; 70 kil., Leblanc. 53 min. 32 475~see:; SO kil., Leblanc 1 hr. 2 min. 22 3/5 sec: 90 kil., Leblanc, 1 hr. 11 min. 15 2/5 sec; 100 kil., Leblanc. 1 hr. 16 min. II sec; 150 kil., Olieslaegers, 2 hr. 3 min 49 1/5 sec; 200 kil.. Latham (Antoinette), 2 hr. 40 min.. 2 sec; 250 kil., Olieslaegers. 3 hr. 34 min. 53 4/5 sec.

Distance for Certain Period.—In % hr.. Leblanc (20 kil.) : in y, hr., Leblanc (40 lrilr)'; in 1 hr., Leblanc (80 kil.): in 2 hrs., Olieslaegers (145. il.) in 3 hrs., Latham (215 kil.)

8peed With One I'asscnger.—10 kil. : Ladougne (Goupy). S min. 14 2/5 sec: Aubrun (Bleriot): 20 kil., 19 min. 39 1 /5 sec.; 30i kil., 29 min. 10 sec.; 40 kil., 38 min. 51 sec; 50 kil., 48 min. 2S sec;

00 kil.. 57 min. 5S 2/5 sec. ; 70i kil., 1 hr. 7 min.

31 1/5 sec; SO kil., 1 hr. 10 min. 59 2/5 sec; 90 kil., 1 hr. 26 min. 33 sec. ; 100- kil., 1 hr. 36 min. 6 sec.

Distance With One Passenger.—Aubrun, 137.125 kil. Duration With One Passenger.—Aubrun, 2 krs<^

9 min. 7 4/5 sec.

Speed With Tiro Passengers.—Mamet (Bleriot) :

10 kil.. 10 min. IS 4/5 sec: 20 kil.. 21 min. 14 sec; 30 kil., 31 min. 53 1/5 sec: 4(1 kil., 42 min.

32 2/5 sec: 50 kil.. 52 min. 36 1/5 sec; 60 kil.,

1 hr. 3 min 20 3/5 sec; 70 kil.. 1 hr. 14 min. 30 3/5 sec. : So kil.. 1 hr. 23 min. 33 sec. : 90 kil.. 1 hr. 36 min. 4 sec.

Greatest Distance With Tiro Passengers.—Mamet, 92.75 kil.

Arcragc Speed per Hour.—106.508 kil. (60.IS miles). .Morane (Bleriot) with 100 horse-power, 14-cyI. Gnome engine.

The Leblanc Bleriot has 100 horse-power Gnome engine while the Antoinettes are of 50 horse power. The Olieslagers Bleriot was of 50' horse power and *he Morane Bleriot, 100' horse-power Gnome.

Anthony Castollane. the "loop-the-gap" bicyclist, has arranged to fly a Farman-type machine for Fred Shneider. and is now at Seabright. X. J., practicing. The Elbridge engine gave 190 lbs. thrust at 9S0 r. p. m.

Some propeller tests at Mineola recently showed no 300 lbs. on Harmon's 50 h. p. Gnome-engined Farman. and 300' lbs. with fhe Elbridge-40 on Joe Seymour's Curtiss. The propellers were Bequa-Gibson.

NEXT MONTH

Notes on Propeller Design and Construction By Spencer Heath

ASCENSIONS

.NOTE--ASCENTS MARKED (*) AKE OVER 100 MILKS

IN LENGTH.

Lowell. Mass., July 14.—Chas. J. Glidden. pilot, Col. W. M. Bunting and Ciias. A. West in the ••.Massachusetts*' to J'elhain, Is'. 11. Distance, 8 miles: duration. 1 hour; altitude, 3,300 ft.

ALL NIGHT TRIP.

*IIamiUon. O., July 18.—W. C. Collins and George Howard in the "Drifter" to Mt. Pleasant,

11 miles south of Anna. 111., the following day. It was planned to break the r. S. duration record. Duration. KD.£ hours; distance. 205 miles.

Pittsfield. July IP.—2s. H. Arnold, pilot. P. S. lloppin and George Yon L'tassy in the "Springfield." landing at Lenox. Duration '2 hours and 40 minutes : distance, 6 miles.

DR. ELDR1DGE MAKES RECORD PHILADELPHIA ASCENT.

"Point Breeze. Phila.. July 20.—Dr. Thomas E. Eldridge. pilot. E. S. Underbill and A. B. Underbill in the "Philadelphia II" to 2 miles north of Pascoag. B. I. Distance, 231.125 miles; duration,

12 hours 5 minutes; altttude, KX550 feet. Of Dr. Eldridge's it) trips, he says, this was the best of all. The beauties of the scenery were indescribable. For 0% hours during the night of the 20th only l'/i bags of ballast were used to keep the balloon at an average altitude of 1,100 to 1.400 ft. During the trip the states of Pennsylvania, New York. New Jersey, Connecticut, Massa-chussetts and Rhode Island were sailed over in this record ascent from Philadelphia.

St. Louis. July 24.—Andrew Drew, qualifying as pilot in the "Missouri" to Collinsville, III., going the 10 miles in 25 minutes.

Jackson. Mich.. July 2'.).—N. 11. Arnold, pilot, and L. E. ITayden.

Jackson. Mich.. July 20.—N. II. Arnold, pilot. II. W. Alden and Burns Henry. Distance, 4 miles: duration. 3 hours; altitude. 4.000 feet.

Jackson. Mich.. July 27.—N. 11. Arnold, pilot, W. W. Clarke, and Frederick Lewis in the "Mich. No. 1." Hie new balloon of the A. C. of Michigan.

*Pittslield. July 27. 101O.—W. II. Van Sleet, pilot, and Alton Parrel, in the "Springfield," landing at Wickford. U. I. Distance. H»7 miles; duration. 5 hours and 15 minutes

ANOTHER NIGHT ASCENT.

'Hamilton. O.. July 28.—W. C. Collins. George Howard and Jean A rent in the "Drifter" to 4 miles west of Marion. O.. on the 20th. Duration. 14 hours 25 minutes; altitude. S.OOii feet: distance, about 115 miles.

LONG TRIP FROM CANTON.

*Canton. O.. July 30.—J. ]]. Wade. Jr.. A. Leo Stevens and Jack Allen in the new Wade balloon "Buckeye-'' to 0 miles west of Denver, W. Va. Denver not on the atlas. Distance to county seat of Preston county is 132 miles.

Jackson. Mich.. Aug. 1.—Mr. and Mrs. Wedworth Clarke up in the "Michigan."

rittsfiekl. Aug. 3.—Wm. Van Sleet, pilot. W. M. Remington and S. II. Hancock in the ' Snringfiekl." to Grafton. N. Y. Distance, about 35 miles ; duration. 2 hours 40 minutes.

ANOTHER NEW PHILADELPHIA RECORD.

*Point Breeze. Aug. 3.— Dr. Thomas E. Eldridge. pilot, and Welsh Strawbridge left at 0:28 P. M.. in Hie "Philadelphia II" to 2V2 miles north of Danbury. X. II.. lauding at S :30 A. M. the following morning. After being in the air two minutes over 11 hours, covering a distance of 303.8 miles.

NIGHT TRIP.

*Loweil. Mass.. Aug. K».—J. B. Benton and J. Walter Flagg in the "Boston" to North Haverhill. X. II. Distance, 107 miles: duration, 5 hours 45 minutes.

Pittsfield. May 20.—Wm. Van Sleet, pilot. Messrs. Hunter and Smith, passengers, in the "Massachusetts." to Cheshire. Mass. Distance. II miles: duration. .".0 minutes.

Pittsfield. June 5.— Wm. A'an Sleet, pilot. J. B. Benton and a Mr. Parker, in the "Massachusetts," to Bennington. Vt. Distance, 31 miles; duration. 0 hours. 53 minutes.

CLUB NEWS

The Pittsburg- Aero Club has been formed at Pittsburg, Pa., with the following officers: \V. L. Smith, president; George H. Flinn, first vice-president; S. A. Pickering, second vice-president; C. A. Painter, third vice-president; J. A. Glesenkamp, fourth vice-president; H. P. Haas, secretary, and F. If. Richards, treasurer.

The Junior Aero Club of the Omaha Y. M. C. A. is encouraging model building. Each member is now building a model for a contest to he held during the aviation meet at Omaha July 23-27. A prize of $25 for first and $15 for second, with Glenn Cttrtiss as judge, is offered. The boys are given practical instruction in the building of models and the general principles of aviation, together with a detailed description of the leading models used to-day for flying. Sergeant C. F. Adams of Fort Omaha is instructor.

The Aeronautical Society was addressed by M. E. de .larn.v on the subject of "Aviation Motors" on July 28. On August II. the following subject was discussed by Messrs. J. Bernard Walker, editor of the Scientific American. Walter L. Fair-child. Bex. C. Norwood and Wilbur R. Kimball : "Cautionary Methods in the Trying Out of New-Machines."

The Aero Club of Blackstone Hill, Oakland, Cat. is another boys' club, though little has been heard in the East of it. It was formed about two years ago with W. R. Davis. Jr.. of 474 Prospect St., as president, and W. Moiler, as treasurer. It has devoted its efforts mostly to models and gliders.

The Aero Club of New England has sold its 50,000 cu. ft. balloon "Massachusetts." and will buy a rubber racing balloon of 80,000 cu. ft. capacity.

The Aero and Motor Club, of Asbury Park, has been formed to "promote aviation and motoring and to conduct exhibitions in these sports," with a capital stock of $25,000.

The National Council of the Aero Club of America has established its headquarters in the Engineers' Building. No. 20 West 30th St.. Xew York City, and members will always find a welcome in room 0IS at the above address where there is an office staff always in attendance during regular business hours.

It is proposed to keep on file all publications of interest to the members of the Council and Secretaries of the various organizations are re-nuested to send such publications as will be of interest in this connection.

At a luncheon arranged bv Clifford B. Harmon and Case E. Tarbel). before the hitter's falling-out with the Aero Club, at which affair a number of members of the Club and the Aeronautical Society were present, it was decided to ask both organizations to appoint a representative to meet and endeavor to arrive at an understanding with regard to the friction which the Club insists exists between it. as parent, and the Society, as offspring. It was suggested at the luncheon that the representatives be Mr. Harmon for the Club and Hudson Mavini for the Society. The Club, however, appointed W. W. Miller, an attorney, and the Society delegated Thomas A. Hill, also' a lawyer and It "rank insurgent" in the Club. Mr. Harmon was thought by the Club not to be eligible to the honor, as he is also a member of the Society, though sort of a non-resident. No conference hits been held, no ollicial communications have passed, and the idea is thought to have succumbed to dry rot.

What has become of the Aero Club of Philadelphia? Letters addressed to them arc returned by the post office. The same is true of the Aero Club of the Northwest, St. Paul.

MffiDO

250 West 54th Street New York

Cable: Aeronautic, New York 'Phone 4833 Columbus

PUBLISHED BY

AERONAUTICS PRESS. Inc.

A. V. JONES, Pres't — E. L. JONES, Treas'r-Sec'y

SUBSCRIPTION RATES

United States, S3.00 Foreign. $3.50

advertising representatives : E. F. INGRAHAM ADV. CO. 116 Nassau Street New York City

No. 38 SEPTEMBER, 1910 Vol. 7, No. 3

COPYRIGHT, 1910. AERONAUTICS PRESS, INC.

Entered as second-class mailer September 22, 1908, at the Postoffice New York, under the Act of March 3, 1879.

AT AERONAUTICS is issued on the 20th of each month ^» All copy must be received by the tOth. Advertising pages close on the 15th. :: :: :: :: :: ::

^T Make alt checks or money orders free of exchange ^> and payable to AERONAUTICS. Do not send currency. No foreign stamps accepted. :: :: ::

New Advertisers.

Each month marks the entrance into the aero held of well-known concerns who are taking up the new industry, or entirely new houses who see opportunities in various branches of aeronautics. Among these new advertisers this month may he noted :

Tiger Cvele Works.

Hall-Scott Motor Car Co.

A. .1. Myers.

Lincoln Square Novelty Works.

White Aeroplane Co.

O. II. Loose.

P.arberton Aviation Co.

Michigan Airship Co.

11. M. II. Mills.

Hopkins & I »e Kildnchevsky.

International Aeroplane Snpplv Co.

C. A. Coffin.

A. P. Smith.

W. P. Youngs & Pro.

M. Magee & Son.

K. O. Bubel. Jr., & Co.

G. II. Curtiss.

Corrected Figures New York-Philadelphia Flight.

Unfortunately for the standing of one of the first great cross-country flights in the States, that of Charles K. Hamilton from Governor's Island to Philadelphia and return, it seems evident that the official timers employed by the New York Times have1 made an error on the return portion from South Amboy to Governor's Island. The distances which were given out by that paper were far from correct, as we mentioned at the time.

Using flic flying time of the Times. Hamilton made *r>7.!',f> miles per hour from South Amboy to Governor's Tsland. doing the distance of 22.105 miles in 23 minutes. No doubt this time should have been 33 minutes, a speed of 40.10 m. p. h. In view of the speed made going to Philadelphia, without stop, when everyl bing was working well. 4".'20 m. p. h., it does not seem probable that the great increase was made on the second half of the return journey, when the engine was even missing tire.

It is not intended to detract one iota from the achievement, but merely to follow out our intention of having nothing in the magazine but that which is accurate, when accuracy is possible to be at tained.

Following are the e.rai-1 distances, computed by .Mr. Williams Welch, chief draftsman, office of the chief signal officer. IT. S. A., and the newspaper figures on the time. No accurate time was officially taken by any aero organization:

Governor's Island lo Philadelphia. 74..",14 miles. 103 minutes.

Philadelphia to South Amboy, 53.125 miles. SI minutes.

South Amboy to Governor's Island. 22.10." miles. 23 minutes.

Average speed to Philadelphia, 43.20 m. p. h. Average speed to South Amboy. 30.35 m. p. h. Average speed to Governor's' Island. *."i7.i'.0 m. p. h.

Total distance flown. 140.544 miles.

CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING

AVIATION ENGINE POP SALE QUICK.—30 h. p.. four-cylinder, equipped with Bosch Magneto and Laminated True Screw Propeller: 200 lbs. thrust: engine weighs 107 lbs. Whole •outfit, just new from factory. Will sell for half price or will exchange for 5u h. p. motor. A I condition. Benson for change, want more power.

STEP.P.INS & GEYXET.

Norwich, Conn.

poll SALE Curtiss 7 h. p. motor, complete, with propeller and all attachments. Price $200. C. .1. W. Koshon. 10 X. Third St.. 1 larrisburg, Pa.

POP SALE—Motor. 50 h. p.. 2 cyl. "V," complete, ready for running. P. rand new. Kl.ooo. X. G. II., care Aeuoxaitics.

APTOMOP.1LE—Cameron I'.HO runabout. 4 cyl.. 24 h. p.. air-cooled, Splitdorf magneto. Prest-O-Lite tank, pressure oil reserve. Warner Speedometer. Tires new: run 1.S0O miles. Perfect condition. Demonstration. Speed 45 m. p. h. Motor can be bored for auxiliary exhaust and used in aeroplane. Implicate has flown an aeroplane. Price .$500. X. AicnoNAfTics.

EXC1LVXGE What have you to exchange for a fine two-passenger gas balloon, good as new. fully equipped? Address E. Grown. Peoria. 111.

POSITION WAXTED with a firm building, or parties about to organize a company to build, aeroplanes. Advertiser, the designer ' of a practical monoplane, is a man of wide experience in the designing and building of automatic machinery, etc.. and the handling of mechanics. Inventive, resourceful. Five years' study of aviation. C. Hustler, care Aeronaiu'ics.

POP SALIC—At a sacrifice. Bleriot Monoplane, cross-channel type, made by Bleriot. recently imported from France. Anza'ni motor. E. M. W.. care of Aeronautics.

TYPEWUITEPS.—All makes. Caligraphs $0.00 : Hammond. Densmore $lo.oo; Pemington $12.00: Oliver $24.00: Underwood $30.00. 15 days' free trial and rear's guarantee. Harlem Typewriter Exchange. Dept.. F. IS. 217 West 125th St.. New York City.

AFPOI'LAXK—Position wanted by woodworker and mechanic experienced in aeroplane and gas engine work. HAYIS, care of Aeronautics.

NO IXFB1XGEMEXT- 1 am patenting design of aeroplanes, with no vertical rudder, which does not conflict with Wright patent. Xeed moderate capital to build. EXPKPIENCE1». care of A erox attics.

P. M.I.OOX FOK SALE New. 35.000-ft. balloon in fine shape. Full oonipment and instruments. Cost *750. What will von pay or trade? WPG EXE BUOWX. Peoria. 111.

FOB SALE—One Mo.noni cubic foot balloon, bolder of world's speed record. Also one 40,000 cubic foot balloon complete. Make offer. C. A. Coey. 1710 Indiana avenue. Chicago.

FAUMAX AEBOPLANW For sale cheap. The identical Farman aeroplane which won endurance prize at Pbeims. France, for flight of over three hours. New power nlant. J. W. OI'BZOX. Hawthorne. Aerodrome. Hawthorne, 111.

+

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Our Balloons have won every contest against all makes—here they are:

CHICAGO—9 Competitors—Won both Distance and Endurance

trophies by a big margin. INDIANAPOLIS—6 Competitors, 1st and 3rd prizes. PEORIA—3' Competitors, 1st Prize. ST. LOUIS—9 Competitors, 1st, 2nd and 4th Money. CAN YOU BEAT THAT!

How we do it : by using the very best material in the country ; building on safe, practical lines, with good workmanship.

AIRSHIPS—AEROPLANES—INSTRUMENTS

FRENCH AMERICAN BALLOON CO.

H. E. HONEYWELL, Director

4460 Chouteau Avenue, St. Louis, U. S. A.

+

* •I*

*

FACTS ABOUT MOTORS

+

A

e Call Aviation Engine

IS

1st. A Four Cycle Engine. The type used on 9!>% of all automobiles and motorcyles. The type used by all prominent aviators here and abroad, and holding all aviation records.

2nd. A Water Cooled Engine. The only kind that can be depended upon lor extended runs without danger of overheating. Our spiral water jacket, together with piston pump circulation is the most perfect cooling sys <m yet devised.

3rd. An (hiposed Cylinder Engine. The construction conceded by gas engine authorities to be the nearest vibrationless type. I?y ali odds the construction best adapted for aviation purposes.

Hit. A Silent Engine. The only engine yet designed for aviation having both main and auxiliary ports silenced. Hence the only aviation engine adapted tor permanent use, or for other than merely exhibition put poses.

:>th. A "Fool-Proof" Engine. The utmost simplicity of construction, small number of cylinders, together with its being of the usual Four Cycle type, enables any automobile chauffeur to sot and run it. not one in fifty of whom have any experience with Two Cycle, Revolving Cylinder, or V-shaped mnlbple cylinder engines.

titb. A Thoroughly Dejiendahle Engine. Our Magiialiuni outer casing for cylinders and cylinder he ids permits of a remarkably strong construction with minimum weight; while our Vanadium Grey Iron Cylinder and cylinder head linings, piston heads, valve cages, valve seats, etc., is the only dependable material for these parts.

7th. A Superbly Beautiful Engine. The entire design is thoroughly artistic; while all exposed parts not constructed of Magnilitim — a shining non-conodible metal—-are nickel plated, the | whole surface being polished to a mirror finish.

8th. A Phenomenally Powerful Engine. This result is secured by the use of a comparatively small number of cylinders of generous proportions, as distinguished from a multiplicity of cylinders with their numeroii-; parts and beirings. and consequent friction, and liability to derangement.

Oth. An Exception!illy Economical Engine. It is a matter of common notoriety among gas engineers that economy of fuel, as comp lit d with power developed, is seemed by large cylinders, few in number, rather than by a multiplicity of small cylinders—a consideration of paramount importance in aviation.

10th. -J. Moderate Priced Engine. While the material and workmanship of this engine is even superior to the very expensive foreign makes, and not to be classed with the cheap engines flooding the market, yet our aim has been to furnish avi itors with a moderate priced engine, cheaper than could be produced by themselves, except in large numbers, and with an expensive shop and foundry equipment.

Other Aviation Engines possess a few of these advantages. This is the only engine that combines them all.

MODEL E-l: Two Cylinder; 50 Horsepower, weight, 150 lbs. - Price $1,000 MODEL E-2: Four Cylinder; 100 Horsepower, weight, 250 lbs. - Price $1,700

Prices include complete equipment, NO EXTRAS

Delivery 30 da,s: Terms, 35 Cash, with order; Balance sight draft against Bill of Lading WRITE for particulars and price of our REVERSIBLE AERIAL PROPELLER Also of our COMBINATION RADIATOR AND HEATER, constructed of aluminum tubing. Utilize I the heat of your engine for the comfort of your passengers. Weight, lilbs. per gallon of jacket water. SEND FOR CATALOGUE C-2

THE AERIAL NAVIGATION COMPANY OF AMERICA, Girard, Kansas

AEROPLANE ENGINES

+

ADAPTABLE ALSO FOR USE IN THE DRIVING OF

Dirigible Balloons and High Speed Motor Boats

EXPERIMENT with no EXPERIMENTS EQUIP YOUR AEROPLANE with

an ENGINE of PROVEN MERIT

and thereby avoid the unnecessary expenses, accidents and barriers to success that naturally follow in the wake in the purchasing of an untried product.

IT IS THE ENGINE THAT COUNTS MOST

More and more we realize this as brilliant success, and brilliant failure ^^too, are recorded. It is to the engine we must pin our faith to bridge that distance between us and a complete mastery of the air. To all who are putting forward a strenuous effort to achieve this end, a RINEK motor will prove of invaluable assistance. They are the lightest, practicable, water-cooled aviation engines yet produced, and run with faultless precision.

TYPE B-8

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TYPE B-4

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Weight, ISO lbs. complete.

Favored exclusively by the experimenter in the science of flight, as they insure to him the maximum of safety

American Builders of the STANDARD VOISIN TYPE AEROPLANE

"THE ARISTOCRAT OF FLYING MACHINES"

THE RINEK AERO MANUFACTURING CO.

EASTON, PENNA.

tK TIMES. THURSDAY. JUNE 16. 1910.

WHÄTCÄÜSEDÄHÄLT IN HAMILTON ' S FLIGHT

Curtiss Finds the Quality of Oil Supplied in Philadelphia forced the Flier to Descend.

SOME PROBLEMS SOLVED

worn almost through. Had it he wayiit would have released fim me fleer's flexible seat.

impossible ever ice a sidewise. wind es gliding off on

f%und again when be landed at.Governors Island was that his oil tanl*|^^rubbed against a brace on ae-;ount of^MS^^^ine's vibration, and had ;urn a hcJF: in Its side, thus dropping his gauge^j ejjipty " when he still had a zen fam pelle' jse

pernors Island the aviation field full Ikes. Only the night befo Jwire on. one. of these st~.v^, ...

(king another chance.of spinning'safe' through them next, morning he -

Moot Points In Aviation Cleared and AcrlalTravel Thus Made Less Hazardous.

Glenn H. Curtiss, who -was a make bicycle engines before ho wa3* ->ked over Charte? K. HaJ -sterday and found ought the flying ^lle winging New Yorld

     
     
     
 

\&cuum

 
 

Mobiloil

■I ;

     
   

J

As to his second accident on the Ion? flight, Hamilton's mechanic had seen the? can of light oil that a Philadelphia con-fi cern had supplied Instead of the brandD ordered, and had refused to accept it. Al Times representative promptly dispatched a fast automobile for a can of the proper j brand. Terr minutes before the. automobile was due to return light, rain, began to fall and storm clouds appeared! in the west. Hamilton looked them over;! ho had set his heart on winning the* round trip flight from New York and ] back, and realized that every' minute: counted. He wasn!t willing to await fair] weather and exactly the right oil, so hef relzed tho ''can himself, filled his - tank,| land In a minute or two more was ur lie air and off..

Mobiloil

A Grade For Each Type or Motor

Arc You Using the Right Oil on Your Car?

The most important thing left entirely to the judgment of the owner in the operation of his automobile oraero-plane is the selection of a lubricant.

The discriminating carowner selects the grade of Mobiloil specially suited to his type of motor. Is it not significant that aviators generally, in this country and Europe, use Mobiloil exclusively?

To prevent substitutions see that cans are sealed.

VACUUM OIL COMPANY

Rochester, U.S.A.

Vacuum Oil Companyi 29 Broadway,

Hew York City.

Eear Sirs;

I am pleased to report the success we have met with in the use of "Mobiloil" in lubricating the engines in our aeroplanes, and to say that it maintained its reputation in my Albany-3en York flight..

Very truly yours,

June 6, 1910.

Vol. Vll

OCTOBER, 1910

No. 4

THE AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERIAL LOCOMOTION

PRICE 25 CENTS^^^^^>^>"

39th ISSUE

. City Am»<tl11' i„s in Mr 'fl'irt: Vive Mimiti'".

'DASHES PLANE INTO LAKE TO , ^unchAjr*,iit> Win ,' •••>• AVOID HITTIfi&^SPECTATORS1 T/li* rr£ft ^

lAvialor John J. Frisbie Compelled to Cut Short | Tr'Pla,le

| Successful Flight in Rochester Because ! PJ-7 a- ZUl^'a/T r ~' ~vr, r<-~?

of Crowds at Landing Place. wJ^^S^lhi^.^fftnc 9 f'l'Oht •/ V"0u

4tf

;::^.r:c:p-.;r| cTUMT^ WalshMakesfirst

E^- J Ccssl Flight With

'± M'aW H1 Special Aero Engiit ,n ¿«TOp/ai» 2f rnrf

■ ./'NEW ENGINE I

G/very tr/alí

G,« Th'" D" { --

r« s JVevv 4

ülliriftar Ictigiinr Utomp.-tuu

-•.fitly ln,i,lléd 1 Mondny mai|p¡

ipil MR. FI^ÍSBIE-S FLIGHT. |

f»J«>^'i.|Eldridge V. Won the Distant. ■ ■• 5*"*^;* Speedboat Race When Con]"«™ ... *'^^V'^™™".' ^V-y^.J oetitors Broke Down. ' ^

070266

| o D CWT T? M 11 is easy t0 fly with the

| Jl 1\ V/ V Jull right power, because I novices have flown successfully with

| Harriman Engines first attempts

|jj 30 H. P. Harriman Engine in Action at Mineola jj

+ If you are out to fly, equip your aeroplane with an j

+ HF Flying Power Plant and success is assured *

| 30 H.P. 50 H.P. I

* Complete Power Plant Complete Power Plant j

| Price, $1250.00 Price, $1675.00 j

! 1911 Models Now Ready For Deliver^ ]

j--- j

J. NOTE :—Mr. Geo. Russell in his endeavors to fly at the Richmond County Fair, Staten Island, did not use a Harriman engine J

+ -"-- -j

! Harriman Motor Works, So. Glastonbury, Conn. \

In answering adi'crliscincnts please mention this magazine.

2^-

Vi

7 Vvn*v&-$/\

/c- / ' ¿ -

/

-TT.

■pjj^ M^tiL taj r<^¿-

uW

frics

October, içio

................ .y^^<$^^^^

Cheapest Speed Indicator

is relative. First cost means little. It's the years of satisfactory service that deter-calue. Here the Warner Auto-Meter stands supreme—without a rival. It is so construction that it remains absolutely accurate, dependable and reliable for years ditions which would ruin a $2M) chronometer in Auto-Meters over 8 years old are as acenrate-as when new. We never yet have seen a |t *' Auto-Meter. Other speed indicators become in a short time, and must be replaced every months, yet they cost almost as much at first as

er

Auto-Meter

|is so much to do with satisfaction and the pleasure that ;t that even the owner of a moderate priced car should arner Auto-Meter. It's good business judgment to

r Instrument Company,

1020 Wheeler Ave. BELO IT, WIS.

BRANCHES :

£Jgewood Ave. Denver, l7l8 Broadway Philadelphia, 302 N. Broad St.

Boylston St. Detroit, 870 Woodward Ave. Pittsburg. 5940 Kirkwood St. Main St. Indianapolis.330-l N.IIlinoisSi. Portland. Ore., 14 N. 7lh St.

|0 Michigan Av. Kansas City, l6l3 Grand Ave. San Francisco, 36-38 Van Ness f>7 Main St. Los Angeles. 748 S.Olive Si. Sealtle, 611 E. Pike St. [Ave. 162 Euclid Ave. New York, 1902 Broadway St. Louis. 3923 Olive St.

Other Models up to $145

•<î*»<$><$><$x3xS><Î><îX^^

e Three-States Aero Show

^ account of the postponement of the International Meet and the subsequent conflict of dates, the ^EE-STATES AERO SHOW, announced to be in Philadelphia, October 22nd-November 5th, will eld November 2nd-12th, inclusive. As this is only ten days instead of two weeks, îs of floor space have been reduced 251 Attractive iivisions can now be made and arrangements closed showing small exhibits at low prices.

For all information, address the Manager ===== HENRY M. NEELY =====================

Club of Pennsylvania, Betz Building, Philadelphia, Penn.

Inanswrmg advçrtisenicnis t'-cse wention this magach

AERONAUTICS

October, iQio

$350 THE LOOSE

MONOPLANE

IN A DISTINCT CLASS BY ITSELF

Original in every respect but embodying' the best principles now used on all successful monoplanes.

The Improved "Demoiselle"

A larger machine

150 Pounds for 150 square feet

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No infringements—Heady for Power Plant

SPECIFICATIONS

4- ply laminated ribs Koebliny; steel cable

20" steel wheels steel axles

Palmer tires

Lia i±fw<4^vnrmstr

Only a Limited Number at this Price

Send for circular

The G. H. Loose Monoplane Co.

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL., U. S. A.

FOR SALE '"l^fery

One 4-cyl. 40-60 H. H

plane motor complete, new - - - $900.

revolving motor

One 7-cyl. 30-40 H. Pt

complete, new One 8-cyl. 30-35 H. rj. V/ype motor

complete, new One Biplane comple One Monoplane, cor

Elbridge/áero-

750.

750.

less motor ... 500. te, less motor - - 500.

Propellers/aId Aeroplane Parts On account of tire pressure of other business we hive discontinued thd manufacture of aeroplanes. The above prices are Way below cost to close out quickly. If/fnterestecl, write at once.

THE FISHER AUTOMOBILE CO., Indianapolis, Ind.

WOOD

For Aeroplanes *

Long Lengths of Selected Straight Grain

Spruce - - Pines - - Bass - - Whitewood - -White Cedar, Etc.

FULLY EQUIPPED MILL-LOW PRICES Manufacturers Supplied

WM. P. YOUNGS & BROS. First Ave. and 35th Street - New York

t AEREAL CLOTH!

t The Cloth of the Hour

C (Hi;ir;nitccd\ proofed against sun, rain, and \\jind>. -weighs (i^ oz. to X the yd., 8ti in. wide.

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Prices and samples on application. I

Address: THE H. M. H. MILLS t Dent. A. - Room 608

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+ Samples^- Data and Prices—on Request +

I The C. E. Conover Co. !

% MANUFACTURERS J

| 101 Franklin St., New York |

4- +

Curzon-Aviation Co., Inc.

- AND FIRST-

American Aviation Training School

REMOVED TO WASHINGTON PARK AVIATION FIELD

- EAST ST. LOUIS, ILL. -

Curzon No. 1 BiDiane, Speed Machine. - $3.500 Curzon No. J Farman Type Aeroplane. §3.500 Curzon Monoplane, / - - .*4.000

All equipped with the Elbridge Featherweight Engines

The French Gnome Kusine will be furnished for the additional sum of §2,600 on machines only at thi-i combined lVgure

You can witness demonstration tlights of your machine of at least chmiles before accepting same.

Free tuition to purchasers. /

Only a limited number of n/achines to be sold at the above figures, prices will advance shortly.

America's First Aviation Training School Open to the public

Actual practice in\the Art of Flying. Aviators" diplomas issued on qualifying. Technical training; howVto build, lectures, etc., by Prof. Harrison, motor expert, master of mechanics and ^profound student of aviation for the, past three years.

Address all communications to

J. W. CURZON, EAST ST. LOUIS, ILL.

CRAFTSMAN

Perfect Propellers

IMPROVED

Santos Dumont Type aeroplanes $1,000

Send for Specifications

All Kinds of Wood and Metal Work Made to Order. Gliders, Special Parts, Spars, Struts, Ribs, Skids, Wheels, Etc. ADDRESS

MOTIIPAR 9626 erie avenue i OlUrAll SO. CHICAGO, ILL.

Successor to J. STUPAR, Pattern and Model Shop

»»t»»t»»:»;»»»»t»»»»»»»:»»ttmmt»

To Aeroplane Meet Promoters

MAN-CARRYING BY KITES

was for the first time in America demonstrated as an attraction at the Harvard-Boston Aero Meet. C. There it was shown how easily a man could be sent 200 ft. in the air supported by from 6 to 15 enormous 18 ft. passenger carrying kites.

C^The height to which he can go (up to 1,000 ft.) varies only with the wind velocity and nerve of the operator. C. The Army officers present testified as to its great value for scouting purposes in war.

C. As this feature is at its best when the winds are so strong that the aeroplanes cannot fly, it is especially valuable as an attraction at Aeroplane Meets.

SAMUEL F. PERKINS, HO Tremont St., Boston, Mass.

AN AMERICAN BALLOON TRIP OVER ROME

Some Noted Events and Thrilling Experiences in Balloon Voyages in All Parts of the World, Written Especially for "Aeronautics."*

By Rufus G. Wells

IX 1S70, after winning a balloon race in London with an English aeronaut. 1 went to Paris to offer my services to the new Republic. There 1 was employed by the Defense Xationale to construct a balloon for taking General Bazaine with his officers out of Metz and carrying them over the German army and landing them'in Prance. Prom silk furnished by the government. 1 made a balloon two hundred feet in length. About the time that this was completed, the largest balloon at the time ever constructed, we were disappointed by the surrender of .Metz by General Bazaine.

A most interesting experience in my ballooning took place during the World's Fair at Paris in 1881). 1 made an ascension in company with William J. Hammer, electrical engineer and director of Thomas A. Edisou's exhibit at the Exposition, and Dr. A. Lawrence Rotch, director of the Blue Hill Observatory at Boston. Many interesting experiments, both electrical and astronomical, were made on tiie voyage. The balloon was in the air about four hours, traveling on an average twenty miles an hour.

On one occasion 1 made an ascension from a beautiful garden in Copenhagen. I was carried by the wind over to Sweden and landed in the sea. where I was rescued by men in boats.

On a visit to Italy I made an ascent at Milan during a festival. The balloon rose to the height of three miles, and I then made a descent in a parachute, to the great astonishment of the multitude, being the first exhibition of the kind they had ever witnessed.

From Italy I wTent to Constantinople, where 1 made an ascent over city, obtaining a magnificent view of the palaces, temples and mosques. (Mi my des -ent 1 was well paid by the Sultan, who also gave me some rich and splendid gifts.

On an extensive tour in India 1 made many ascensions in the most celebrated cities—Bombay. Delhi, Agra. Lucknow and Calcutta. The Maharajah of Cochin gave me a bag of money and took a diamond ring from his finger and made me a present of it. At Akyob. in Burmah. 1 made an ascension and was carried out over the sea. On being rescued by men in a boat and taken to land the people gathered around me, believing that one of their gods had appeared amongst them.

During a summer spent in the island of Java T made the first balloon ascension in Batavia that had ever been witnessed there. The balloon passed up through a cloud and the people thought it was the last they would ever see of me. I went off about 100 miles and landed on a rich tea and coffee estate, to the great astonishment of the natives at work there.

In South America I made ascensions at Lima, Peru; at Rio Janeiro and at Buenos Aires. At the latter place 1 descended in the La Plata River. On throwing out ballast the balloon rose so rapidly that the sun which had just gone down was seen rising about the horizon, in the west instead of the east.

On different visits to Mexico 1 made sixty ascensions, and received full remuneration and utmost courtesy from the people wherever 1 went. I was the first aeronaut to make a parachute descent in thai country.

*Rufus G. Wells, up to his death the oldest living American aeronaut, died on August 3d at his home in St. Louis, aged 80 years, while sitting in his chair, stricken with apoplexy. An account of Mr. Wells' experiences in ballooning was written by him for Aeronautics in the fall of 100-8. His most interesting story will be found in this issue.

Rufus G. Wells

wanted to cross the atlantic.

It was my desire to cross the Atlantic with an immense airship seven thousand feet in length and two hundred feet in diameter, inflated with hot air, and enough fuel to burn and provisions to last on the way. not only to cross the ocean, but to go around the world with some brave companions. I ought to have carried out my project long ago, and to have been the first one to reach the North and South Poles with a gigantic dirigible. If wealthy men would assist, immense airships could be made to carry a hundred persons with safety to any part of the world.

All governments should use great airships in war and to visit ail parts of the earth. T was very much pleased to carry the Stars and Stripes higher over Rome and other cities than any other person has ever waved them.

tub american flag over rome.

The Pope and Governor of Rome said I must not wave our flag over Rome—but I did wave it in spite of them, and they said I could not make another ascent from Rome.

{Continued on page ISO)

SOME remarkable results are being attained by the American Propeller Co. from their "Paragon" propellers, according to the report of the Emerson Engine Co.. of Alexandria. Va., which is putting a new (Vcylinder 2-cycle aeronautical engine on the market.

A "Paragon" propeller tested by them on one of their engines which they sold recently to Dr. W. W. Christmas of Washington. 1 >. C. for his new biplane. Ited Bird, now being experimented with at College Park. Aid., gave the extraordinary

thrust of 4."><•> pounds at a speed of 1,100. i\p.ni. The propeller was designed specially for the particular surface-weight ratio and other properties of the Christmas machine and the speed and power of the engine, the aim of the designers being to adapt the actual flying thrust of the propeller to the head resistance of the machine at its calculated speed of travel and that the propeller shall have the least disturbing effect upon the air when the engine is running at its most efficient speed of about 1.100 r.p.m.

The propeller in question is S ft. in diameter, by a pitch varying from 4% ft. to 5 ft. at different parts of the blade. The material is all edge-grained white spruce with five laminations in each blade, all of the pieces being spliced or scarfed

together at the hub in the manner characteristic of the "Paragon" propellers and all the glued joints throughout the blades being made doubly secure by numerous birch dowels regularly spaced. The hubs are faced with hard maple, The weight is 10-'!4 pounds.

It might readily he assumed from the great standing thrust yielded by the "Paragon" propellers that they are designed particularly with! this result in view, hut that is not the case, thel standing thrust being merely incidental to a good! design for giving thrust at speed.

The main feature of the American Propeller Co.'s work is to furnish propellers designed in-l telligently and scientifically for each individual! case, believing that no standard design can be evolved while there is such wide diversity in flying machine construction. This diversity is shown in the extreme variations in snrface-weight ratio, from about two to perhaps six and one-half or 'seven pounds per square foot of surface, to say nothing of the radical structural dissimilarities in different successful machines.

E'ach prcneller is designed with three conditions in view : The most efficient running speed of the] engine, the speed through the air at which, with proper propeller design the available power ought to carry the particular machine ; and the estimated head resistance at this speed. From this preliminary data is derived the winding or helicall path to be traversed by every portion of the blade, and every 6-in. section of the blade is designed with reference to the work it must do. while traversing this patli as an aeroplane (more properly "aerofoil") following a helical instead of a plane horizon. Each different blade section is' piven a suitable form and angle of incidence to its horizon, according to its particular speed, its necessary width and its relation to the other parts of the blade, and the entire number of sec-I tions so determined are combined into a single blade having harmonious properties throughout.! This method of design naturally results in a blade of variable pitch at different distances from the center. In the progress of every design this variable pitch and all the other important properties of the blade, such as the gliding angles, coefficients of camber, etc., for its different parts, are plotted in diagrams on special cross-section paper.

In determining the blade area the principal consideration is that it shall be sufficient to keep the percentage of "slip" within the limits of good practice at all points, and the width is apportioned in a manner to give a fair distribution of work over the principal portions of the blade. The varying gliding angles are arranged to take advantage of the inflow of air from the periphery and give it a sternward flow with the smallest amount of disturbance. The co-efficients of camber (percentage of curvature) for the principal portion of the blade are derived from a consideration of the width, gliding angle and velocity of each point—the elements of width and angle increasing the coefficient and the1 velocity reducing it.

The diagrams of these varying features are of great interest, showing as they do, at a glance, all tin1 different properties of the blade under its working conditions and making possible the very ready comparison of different designs.

Xearly all of the "Paragon" propellers have been designed in accordance wiih the principles already indicated with a view to their operation in actual flight, rather than their capacity to produce phenomenal thrust, although they seem to possess this capacity in greater degree than others. A few designs', however, have been gotten up for helicopter work, in which, of course, the standing thrust alone is the object sought. These designs proceed from a very different method of calculation and are not adapted to keep un their thrust at any considerable axial speed. We are not able at this time to give full particulars concerning tests of these helicopter designs but we

(.Continued on page 11.1)

PROPELLER DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION!

By Spencer Heath,

OF THE AMERICAN PROPELLER CO.

THE MAKE-UP OF A BIRD'S WING

By Dr. A. S. Rowe.

HAVINO made a study of bird flight for years, I have been much interested in tlie article published in your esteemed Aeki>napti<\s. written by Prof. 11. La V. Twining, of Los Anneles. entitled : "Can .Alan Ply With Wings."

These articles show a great deal of deep thought and close investigation into the science of bird flight, but have brought Prof. Twining to conclusions the reverse from those proved out by my investigations and experiments, i. e., that the air docs pass through the feathers of a bird's wings on the up or forward stroke, unci if you will kindly allow me space in the columns of Akuoxautics.. I will endeavor to give tlie experiments which ied me to this conclusion ; not for argument's sake but for the benefit it may be towards solving the problems of the science of aerial flight.

In the August number of Aeuoxaptics, i'rof. Twining, discussing the action of the up and down stroke of a bird's wings, says: "Much speculation has been indulged in as to the feathers opening on the upstroke to let the air through, .lust a little intelligent observation of an extended wing will show how utterly fallacious this assumption is: The feathers overlap so they shingle on top from the part near the body to the tip. On the underside they shingle the other way. In either case, as the air strikes the surface, the feathers bind together and present a solid surface to the air. The direction in which they shingle cannot make any difference in this respect. If we take up the wing and blow violently on top of it. holding tlie hand on the other side, no air will be felt coming through. If we blow against the under side the same result is obtained."

Xow, in order to arrive at an intelligent conclusion regarding the stroke of a bird's wing, and the action, of air upon it during the strokes, we must understand the following points.

First. The mechanical construction of the feathers. Taking the feathers of a turkey buzzard or pigeon's wing we find the barbs of nearly equal length on either side of the shaft near the body of the bird, and the barbs are of nearly the same

flexibility on both sides of the shaft, those on the farther side being slightly the stiffer : but from near the body the barbs become longer on the inside of the shaft and shorter and stiffer on the opposite side of it with each successive feather, until in the feathers near the tip of the wing the shaft is nearly to the outer edge thus forming a long valve, so to speak, with the shaft as an axis at one side.

Second.—The position of the feathers in the wing. They are placed in the first third of the wing nearest the body of the bird, or out to the second joint, parallel with the body and at right angles to the front edge of the wing at their insertion, and their flat surfaces are nearly horizontal with the front edge of the wing: also when the wing is extended. Prom the second joint they diverge outward from a parallel line with the body until, in the buzzard's wing, when extended they attain a position nearly at right angle to the bird's body.

Third. The relative position of one feather to another. The feathers lap or shingle nearly one-half their width out the first third of the length of tlie wing. The barbs on that side of the shaft of the feather nearest the body under the preceding one nearly their length. (>n the other two-thirds of the length of the wing they lap under relatively loss as the feathers diverge from each other.

Fourth. The relative proportions of the wing. Only about one-third of tlie length of a buzzard's or pigeon's wing is contained between the first two joints; the other two-thirds being made up from this point out. The feathers are much longer and wider in this section of the wing and the width of wing is about one-third its length.

Fifth. The direction of the stroke of a bird's wing in relation to its body. The stroke varies according lo the results to be obtained: as when in starting on flight the wing is raised much higher above the body and is brought farther below it, and the flexion of the wing is much less

than when the bird is in free flight, but on the up or forward, stroke it always moves upward and forward, and on the down stroke moves downwards and backwards: thus making a rotary movement on the whole. The tip of the wing traverses a cycle corresponding to a curved line drawn from the tip of the bird's tail to the tip of the wing when extended. (See sketch.) The wing is not thrust forwards and backwards extended, as though hinged at the bird's body, but is flexed at every joint including the one at the body, to a greater or less degree. From the second joint out is the area of greatest motion. The more rapid the flight the greater the flexion that takes place in the wing at each stroke. In every swift flight a pigeon closes its wing nearly against the body at each stroke. The action of the wing then is outward, upward and forward from the

body to the point of extension in the up or forward stroke, and the reverse in the downstroke. or downward, backward and inward towards the body. In the up stroke the front edge of the wing travels upward slightly farther than the rear edge, and the reverse on the down stroke. In normal straight-a-way flight the wing is elevated about as far above the horizontal line of flight in the forward stroke as it is brought below it in the down stroke.

Sixth.—The stroke of the wing relative to the line of flight. We see then that the forward stroke of the wing Is made at an augle outwards from the line of flight something like forty-five degrees. The elevation and depression of the wing above and below the horizontal line of flight varies according to the lifting power required, increasing with the greater light.

Seventh.—The rapidity of the stroke of the wing in relation to the passing air. The bird's wing moving through the air on both the up and down stroke is always swifter than the motion of the air through which it is passing. Were this not the fact, a bird would be unable to rise from the ground .and could not make headway against the wind.

Now, from the foregoing, understanding the mechanical construction of the feathers, their position in the wing, their relative position to each other, the relative proportions of the wing, the direction of the stroke in relation to the body of the bird, the stroke of the wing relative to the line of flight, and the rapidity of the stroke in relation to the passing air, we are enabled to make a test of the point in question, and will ttke up the experiment where Prof. Twiniug left off. by taking the bird's wing and directing a blast of air downward against it in direct opposition to the up or forward stroke, as described above, at the same time moving the wing toward the air current, the same as does the bird in flight. The air will be found to pass through freely between the feathers, and the air will pass in greatest voiume through the outer two-thirds of the wing. On the down stroke, the feathers lapping

under each other as they do, are pressed against each other, which prevents the air from passing through upward ; but on the up or forward stroke this pressure is temporally released owing to the rapidity of the upward movement—this movement being much quicker than the current of air passing creates a slight pressure from above causing the long flexible underlapping barbs of the feathers to spring slightly downward admitting of the free passage of air between them. Birds, such as the quail, grouse, wild turkey and humming bird, which have a heavy body relative to the amount of sailing surface of their wings and who make their flight with a greater up and down stroke of the wings than do those having more sailing surface, will lie found to have the feathers spread much farther apart in the outer two-thirds of the wings, the shafts of the feathers in this, section being quite to the out edge, with the barbs underlapping much less, all of which is conducive to the free passage of air through the wing on the up stroke. And, too, another factor conducive to a free upward stroke of the wing, is the fact that the thrust is made in such a manner as to present the edges of the feathers, to a greater or less degree, toward the line of motion of the wing. This is accomplished to a great extent by the forward edge of the wing' rising farther than the rear edge. There are! several reasons that prevent us from being ablJ to see the light between the feathers of a bird's wings when they make the up stroke in flight" when passing above us. Three of the main reasons are: That the stroke is made most too quick for the human eye to catch it; the depression of the inner edge of the barbs of the feathers cause the feathers to assume more of a' curve, the lower edge of one feather cutting off the line of light coming through the next; a portion of the bird's body and tail would obstruct the line of vision through the wing, owing to the angle of the wing in relation to the bird's body, and that of the position of the feathers in the wing.

Perhaps the failure of success of all the orni-thopters built up to the present time is due to the fact that they only partially emulate the different movements of a bird's wing when it is in flight, as by the foregoing we can see that it would be a very difficult matter to make a machine that would he capable of obtaining the necessary movements essential to extensive flight ; in fact, the complexity of such a machine would bar its usefulness. In Fig. 1, A is to represent an extended wing of a bird when in flight, B the flexed wing after the stroke, C the line traversed by the tip of the wing, if we were to look at it in the direction of the body during the stroke, should the bird's body not advance but remain stationary. When the bird's body is advancing in flight the tip of the wing describes a series of loops. D represents the line of flight, and me arrow the approximate angle of the stroke of the wing in relation to the line of flight.

In the glider built by Dr. Bowe it has been attempted to follow the shape of the bird, with the turkey buzzard as the pattern. The machine is 30 ft. G ins. spread, planes S ft. fore and aft, and the total length 15 ft. The weight is but 44 pounds. The depth of the curve of the pianos is 7 ins. at the central section of the machine, this depth being at a point one-third back from front edge. This curve diminishes in depth until out 10 ft. toward their tips the planes are flat. From this point they curve upward to their ends as well as enrving slightly upward toward the edges, in imitation of a buzzard's wing. The dihedral angle is in exact proportion. The perpendicular rudders curve downward in a position to take the place of the sides of the bird's body and extend the length of the planes with the exception of a space near the center of each, which gives room for the operator's arms. The situation of these rudders is designed to prevent the machine be-i ing turned around when going sideways to thJ wind. The bracing system makes the machine rigid at every point. After trials as a glider a power machine will be made of it.

The

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Special Notice!

WE have received so many inquiries for agency propositions and orders are coming in so fast, that our mail lias grown to such an extent, that we find ourselves unable to keep up with our correspondence, but will fill orders and answer all letters as quickly as possible until we have increased our facilities still further.

Price List of Models and Parts

is now ready, but it will be some little time before our

Supply Catalog for Full Size

Machines is ready for distribution as there are so many new things to list. In asking for catalog, please state which one you want.

CHURCH AEROPLANE CO.

Main office and faclory 12:) Smith Si.. BROOKLYN, : : N. Y. Chicago office, 49 Wabash Ave., H. S. Renlon, Manager.

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BOSTON NEWS BUREAU

[.—Main 5807. Tuesday, October 4, 1910. No. 68 W. Barron, Manager. EXCHANGE PLACE

[E OFFICIAL RECORD OF THE AVIATION MEET.

.Boston—Charles J. Glidden, chairman of the contest com-Itet of the Harvard-Boston Aviation Meet, has handed pager Adams D. Claflin a report of the events. I There were 14 trials for speed, 12 for altitude, 12 for get-Ly, 10 accuracy, 2 "slow," and 170 bombs thrown. The •planes in the contests were in the air 29 hours, 37 minutes [ 7 2-5 seconds, travelling 631 miles and 3617 feet. To this be added the exhibition trials and practice, bringing the time he air up to 48 hours and the air miles travelled to 1000.

Of the above Grahame-White made 23 trials and dropped bombs; Johnstone 3 trials and 11 bombs; Brookins 8 trials I 47 bombs; Curtiss 10 trials and 19 bombs; Willard 6 trials I 13 bombs.

Of the hours of duration and distance traveled in contests

credit to each aviator is as follows:

Duration Duration

in minutes in miles

Grahame-White.............612 232

Johnstone..................754 330

Brookins...................279 *20

Curtiss.................... 60 26

Willard.................... 70 21

* Brookins time was principally spent making altitude.

[Of the exhibition trials and practice Grahame-White can Credited with fully 80%.

During the meet three world's records were established,— bacy, (landing nearest a designated spot); *(slow,"^(longest } consumed three times around the comieeutSiSe the pylons)

getaway (shortest distan e run on ground before rising).

Aceuraey and "slow" were won by Wright biplane; geta-

by the Farman biplane.

AERONAUTICS October, ipio

HARVARD-BOSTON MEETING

RECORDS OP THE MEET.

Speed—3 laps (5V4 miles) in 6 min. 1 sec, by Grahame-Wliite (Bleriot).

Altitude—4,732 ft. in one night by Brookins (Wright).

Duration—3 hrs. 5 min. 40 sec. in air during- one night by Johnstone (American record), in Wright machine.

Distance—101 miles 389 ft. in one fliTlit by Johnstone (American record).

Getaway—26 ft. 11 in. from start by Grahame-White, facing- a stiff breeze.

Accuracy—Stopped 5 ft. 4 in. from centre after landing- within 100 ft. circle by Johnstone (world's record).

Slow Lap—3 laps (5^4 miles) in 13 min. 48 sec. (22.82 m. p. h. Ogilvie held previous record of 24.11 m. p. h. in a Wright machine), by Brookins (world's record).

Bomb-Dropping1—180 points on 81 hits at battleship by Grahame-White, 100 ft. altitude.

Boston Light Course—34 min. 1 1-5 sec. over 33 miles of water by Grahame-White.

Amateur Events—Clifford B. Harmon won the Harvard cup for bomb throwing, and the cups for speed, duration and slow time for three laps. His only rival, W. Starling" Burg-ess, was awarded second place for duration.

PRIZE MONEY DIVISION.

The prize money was divided as follows:

Grahame-White—

Boston Light Elig-ht____$10,000

Bomb Throwing........ 5,000

Speed, 1st prize........ 3,000

Altitude, 2nd prize..... 2,000

Duration, 2nd prize..... 1,000

Distance, 2nd prize..... 1,000

Getaway, 1st prize..... 100

$22,100

Contract price for entry 7,500

Total ........................$29,600

Johnstone—

Duration, 1st prize.....$ 2,000

Distance, 1st prize..... 2,000

Accuracy, 1st prize..... 500

Slow Lap, 2nd prize.... 500

$ 5,000

Brookins—

Altitude, 1st prize......$ 3,000

Accuracy, 2nd prize.... 250 Slow Lap, 1st prize..... 1,000

$ 4,250

Contract price for entry

of both.............. 30,000

Total for Wright Aviators .......................$39,250

Getaway, 2nd prize.....$ 500

Willard—

Contract price for entry 4,000

$ 4,500

Curtiss—

Speed, 2nd prize........$ 2,000

Contract price for entry 10,000

$12,000

Total for Curtiss Aviators .........................$16,500

Roe—

Contract price for entry....... 7,500

Total prize and contract money

for professionals ...........$90,6£Q

THE first event of its kind and the largest aero meeting yet held in America was that organized by the Harvard Aeronautical Society. Its official duration was from September M-IM, though flights were continued Sep tember 14-10.

The financial success of the aviation meet is not known officially.

Unofficially it was claimed there had been deposited in the bank $126,000 receipts for the meet. The expenditures have been about as much. Paid admissions totaled 67,241 for 11 days.

There was too much red tape in connection with the affair. Aviators found it more difficult to get to their machines than the public found it easy. Newspaper men were not treated very well, it is claimed. To get in one a reporter had to have a press badge good any place, one good somewhere, one not good anywhere, a grandstand ticket, a few ribbons and a health certificate.

Orahame-White did very well financially, outside of the prizes. He took up many passengers, and for each flight, it is unkindly rumored, his manager collected $500.—in advance.

LAST TWO PAYS.

Boston. Sept. 1G.—Claude Grahame-White, the English aviator, defeated Glenn FT. Curtiss in a special race at Scjuantum yesterday, thus bringing to a close the meet which has been on since September

The Englishman not only won over the American champion by a good margin, hut he made better time for the distance of five and one-quarter miles than he did last Tuesday when he scurried around the course three times in C minutes and 1 second. Yesterday he traveled an equal distance, or three times around the 1% mile course, in 5 minutes 47 4-5 seconds, while Curtiss made the distance in 6 minutes 4 :!-5 seconds.

Grahame White's time for the first lap was 1 minute 50 i'-5 seconds; for two laps, 3 minutes .'¡-5 seconds : for three laps. 5 minutes 47 4-5 seconds. The time of Curtiss for the first lap was •J. minutes 4 1-5 seconds ; for two laps, 4 minutes 4 4-5 seconds; for three laps, 6 minutes 4 8-5 seconds. Q A it •

r -Ty-i yr

By Greely S. Curtis?2? 9

In spite of many discouragements" and by persevering effort James V. Martin, a special 'student at Harvard University and the director of the Harvard Aeronautical Society, succeeded in obtaining the co-operation first of President Lowell of Harvard and then of Mayor Fitzgerald of Boston, and subsequently several Boston business men. The idea took root and soon an experienced manager was found in the person of Adams D. Oaf I'm.

All the aviators except Grahame-White were housed in two long canvas tents on opposite sides of the principal company street. The tents were 500 feet long by 50 feet wide and were adequate for their purpose.

One tent housed the following machines: Hubbard monoplane, Curtiss biplane, C. B. Harmon's Farman biplane, two Wright biplanes, fire apparatus, Gaines' Clement-Bayard-Santos-Durnont-Demoiselle and the Harvard biplane. In the south hangar were the Bleriot monoplane and Farman biplane of Grahame-White adjacent to the two triplanes of A. V. Roe. Next came "the high powered Burgess biplane operated by William Billiard and two more Burgess biplanes. Models B and C entered by the Burgess Company and Curtis. Next were the Curtiss biplanes, one owned by Augustus Post and the other operated by Charles F. Willard. Beyond these were housed the kites exhibited by Mr. Perkins. The Pfitzner monoplane and the Dixon dirigible wire established in separate tents, provided by their owners. An A. V, Roe triplane has been purchased by the Harvard Aeronautical Society.

Perkins' Man Kite

THE FIELD.

The choice of grounds fell upon the marshland a I Sipiantum. lying just across the Nopoiiset Kiver from the southeastern limits of the city of P.oston. The grounds are in the form of an island: a narrow salt water creek separates it from tin1 mainland and is bridged by a single road. While most of the island is low-lying marsh, soft and soggy even in character, there are two strips of firmer ground, perhaps seven or eight feet above the level of high tides. fine of ihese strips was assigned to the grandstand while on the other the hangars and sheds were located.

The Hying held lay to the west and north of the grandstand and included an area of irregular shape with a circumference of approximately two miles. The pylons were arranged for a circuit of one mile and three-quarters. While the field is probably the best available in the close vicinity of P.oston and is adequate for the work of professionals, it is not ideal for amateur aviators under existing conditions. The • space assigned for starting in front of the grandstand sloped slightly uphill and remained rough in spots in spite of the admirable work devoted to its improvement. Then the layout of the course required a turn to the left soon after starting in order to avoid (he walers of P.oston Harbor.' Unfortunately just to the left and a few hundred yards beyond the starling lino, there was n deep

gully in the marsh to trap the inexpert. It was this gully which brought the noted amateur, Clifford B. Harmon, to grief on the opening day and kept him from further participation till near the end of the meet.

PKOGUESS OP THE .MEET.

On Saturday, September the meet opened in threatening weather with a crowd of only moderate size in attendance. Grahame-White "started on his victorious career by setting a good mark in the speed event as well as by establishing an excellent average in the bomb throwing, scoring 21 points in 10 shots. The American professionals. Curtiss, Willard. P.rookins and Johnstone followed White into the air and gave exhibitions of plain Hying without attempting any sensational manunivers. By winning the duration and distance events on the first day .lohnstone laid the foundation for his final success in these two events.

On Monday the interest was increased by the first passenger carrying, Grahame-White and Willard each taking up a lady passenger.

On Monday and Tuesday. M r. "Grahame-White continued to increase his lead in spite of the rain and foggy weather, which prevailed, so that on Tuesday evening when the meet was one-third through he led the held with a total of 14.!) points against a total of 15S-17 points for Johnstone, Willard, Curtiss and P.rookins combined. \\y Tuesday White led in every event except for dis tance. and in that he was only a single point behind Johnstone. Brookius did sensational stunts. The best records for the three lirst days were as follows :

Speed—Grahame-White, 0 minutes 1 seconds for 514 miles.

Duration Johnstone, 1 hour 20 minutes 12 seconds.

Distance--Grahame-White. 45 miles G17 feet. Get-away—Grahame-White, fiG feet 10 inches, llomib dropping—Grahame-White, 20 trials, 50 points.

The system of scoring points was a novel one and well arranged to develop constant competition in all the events. Three points were awarded to the winner each day in each event, provided at least three entries were registered in thai event. Two' points were given for second place] and one point for third place. In case less than! three entries were made on any day, the winner! received two points and the second man one point! The events in which points were to be earned wen! speed, altitude, duration and distance-. In addi-l lion it was at first arranged to add the scoifl made each day in the bomb-throwing, but this was! subsequently changed so that only the average- score! per bond) thrown was added to the points wonl in the four events above mentioned. Pach bomll hitting the deck of a full sized outline of a balJ tlcship from the height of MM) feet or more counted! one point, while two funnels formed the bulls! eves of the target, and a shot in them counted! live.

By Friday evening. September J), when six ofl the nine days had been completed. Grahame-White] had still further increased his lead. His score- by points had totaled :'.:j.2 against IT for .lohnstone, his nearest rival. P.rookins had scored 10 points, while Curtiss and Willard were tied at s.

In the last half of the meet, however, the Wright operators started in consistently to earn points in altitude, duration and distance. P.rookins camel !"> lirst places in altitude in the last 5 days, while Johnstone accumulated IT points in the duration and distance events.

The final scores by points were as follows :

Bomb

Speed Altitude Duration Distance Average Total

15

12

Grahame-White

Johnstone ........

P.rookins .........

.Curtiss.....*. . . . 11

Willard ........ S

This score indicates thai

11

i:i

S.5

1.

0.5

l.i) 1.4 1.0

4S.7 2!».S

1 2.!) !).!)

White had won lirst

place in speed on five days: lirst place in altitudu on otic day; lirst place in duration three times! ijn distance' three times and had scored more 1ha» fw~<V" "points on every bomb thrown. Johnston! scored five wins in duration and tive in distancil P.rookhfs on live days made the best flight fo| height. 'Curtiss gained the speed prize on one d.il

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1—a. v. roe triplane. 2—grahame-white in his farman. 3—hilliard in the burgess-curtis. 4—claude grahame-white. 5—g. g. hubbard monoplane. 6—walter r. brookins. 7—pfitzner monoplane. 8—glenn h. curtiss flying new machine. 9—brookins beginning a sharp turn.

>

and was second in that event on four other clays. Willard won first in speed onee.

The special feature of the meet was the $10.000 prize offered by the Boston Globe for a two-lap flight around Boston Light and return. The course called for distance of approximately 33 miles, almost all of which was over the water of Boston Harbor. Granarne-White made his first attempt in his Bleriot monoplano on the fourth day of the meet and covered the course in 40 minutes 1 3-5 seconds. This relatively slow time was in part due to a detour caused by the aviator's lack of familiarity with the landmarks. On the next to the' last "day of the meet. White made a second trial with the same monoplane and cut his time for the 33 miles down to .">4 minutes. Making a fair allowance for the distance lost in the halt dozen turns rotini red, his average speed must have boon over CO miles an hour.

The only hope of defeating Grahamo-White for the Gioite prize lay in Glenn Curtiss' speedy flyer. The early days of the meet, however, had shown that the Bleriot with its 50 h. p. Gnome motor was faster than the Curtiss machine with its 5o h. p. 8-cylinder Curtiss engine. Curtiss had to look for a more powerful motor. This he found in the new Indian motor rated at GO to G5 h. p. power which was owned by the Burgess Company & Curtis. An arrangement was quickly made to transfer this motor from the Burgess biplane ilown by William Milliard to the Curtiss flyer, and it was installed during the intermission of Sunday, September Jl. Unfortunately there had been no time to test out the new motor and when Curtiss attempted to fly with it. unexpected carbureer troubles developed which were remedied only after two days of constant tinkering. The motor finally was put in running order on the last official day of the moot, and ho was enabled to overtake Grahame-Whitc in his speedy Bleriot. But unfortunately the delay proved fatal to Mr. Curtiss' chances for the Boston Globe prize, as the time limit expired before the motor was finally turned up. The Indian engine gave 430 pounds thrust on a spring balance attached to the Burgess machine.

Among the amateurs the most notable event was the accident to Harmon's biplane shortly after making a start on the opening day of the meet. The accident was in part due to the soggy condition of the grounds after the continuous rains. Harmon was unable to get up his usual speed before taking off, so that his machine was traveling at a comparatively slow rate when it reached the first turn. The act of turning brought one wing tip in contact with the ground, and the whole biplane was precipitated into a gully across the course, which wrecked both supporting surfaces, smashed the propeller and injured the motor itself. The running gear of the machine also was wrecked so that it seemed hopeless to attempt to replace it. However, W. Starling Burgess, a fellow competitor, placed the facilities of his Marble-head factory at Harmon's disposal and returned the biplane to its owner in better condition than ever several days before the end of the meet. Harmon, however, borrowed yir. Granarne-White's Karman biplane and succeeded I hereby in winning first prize for amateurs in speed, duration, bomh throwing and slow lap.

Second prize among the amateurs was won by W. Starling Burgess in a Burgess biplane. The other amateur entries included William Ililliard in a Burgess biplane, who made two or three circuits of the course, but did not officially compote because his powerful CO h. p. motor had not been properly limed up before it was loaned to Mr. Glenn Curtiss. A. V. Roe, in his Knglish| triplano, and II. F. Kearny in the I'titzner mono-l piano, both met with disaster on landing after! short flights. The only other amateur aviator, Augustus Post, made some short straight-away flights in his Curtiss biplane, but did not enter officially for any of the prizes.

The meet was attended by many officers of the Army and Navy, as well as a large number of persons socially prominent. President Taft was a center of attraction one day and on other occasions Governor Draper of 3N1 assaehuset ts with his staff and the mayor of Boston added a political touch to the gathering. Thanks to Grahame-White, Mayor Fitzgerald went up in the air to a

greater height than he had previously experienced.

The success of the meet as a who'le is a monu- • ment to the initiative of James V. Martin, to the ability and perseverance of Manager Claflin and the able committees in charge.

Perkins' Man-Carrying Kite.

So far as known, the first time that a man has been taken up by kites for the purpose of exhibition in this country was at the Boston meet, and this stunt is now the feature of the kite exhibitions which Samuel F. Perkins nas been booking at all the meets.

A series of monster kites are used, from :) to 18 ft. tall. Up to fifteen kites are employed, according to the velocity of the "wind and ' the weight of the man. It has be on found that a man can be lifted in a wind as low as 1G miles an hour. An LS-ft. kite is first started and sent up for about a thousand feet, or until it reaches a steady current of air. Then a number of the 12 ft. kites are put on the line, spaced about 100 ft. apart. These are added to as desired until the pull is found to be great enough to carry a man.

At Boston Perkins himself went up about 125 ft. on a little wooden seat slung by ropes, as shown in the picture. The rope used to hold the kites is one-half inch in size and of the best grade that can be bought. The reel has to be very strong and well anchored. Miss Emily Willard, a sister of Aviator Willard, also went up in the kite.

Kites have been used to some extent abroad for military measures. Not long ago experiments were made in England, it is alleged that the United States Army tried man-lifting kites some years ago, and Lieut. Wise actually went up a little way, but further investigations in this direction are said to have been given up. it will be remembered that the late Lieut. Thomas E. Selfridge, in I DOS, was carried up in a monster tetrahedral kite made by Dr. Alexander Grahatn Bell, but on this occasion the kite was towed in the air above the waters of Bras d'Or Lake, by a power boat.

Perkins has been sort of a stand-by at all the exhibitions that have been held thus far, as his kites provided something for the crowds to watch at all times, if there was any wind at a;i, and as those who have had the more or less pleasant experience of visiting some of the flight exhibitions that have been hold, know, a great deal of the time there is nothing but the kites to watch with the wind blowing too strong for the birdmen to do any "birding.'"

PROPELLER DESIGN

[Concluded from page 112]

have creditable reports that one pair of them recently tried strained very heavily at their moorings while lifting a weight of 780 pounds. They were driven by an engine rated at 50 to GO h. p.. but probably giving very much less during the test as it was running at only about 450 to 500i r.p.m.

In regard lo details of construction, the usual number of laminations is five, but four are used in the smaller sizes and sometimes six for the largest ones. The plan form for each lamination is accurately designed and each pair for opposite blades of the same propeller are sawed out together in duplicate to exact pattern and the holes for the dowels located by templates so that the registration of these holes makes it impossible to put the several pieces together in any but their correct relation. The corresponding pieces in opposing blades are selected from adjacent parts of the same edge-grained board, thus insuring the utmost similarity of weighl. grain and texture in the corresponding portions of the blades. The accompanying illustration shows a group of half laminations for a 2-bladed propeller ready to be assembled and glued.

As for the best material, we have tried many varieties of wood but have found nothing really superior to carefully selected edge-grain spruce, although we find ouarterod white oak. hickory and other hard woods very excellent, beautiful and durable for the smaller sizes in which a little more weight is desired or not objected to.

Curtiss Flies 129^ Miles Over Water.

On August Mist. (Jlt-mi II. Curtiss How in his 8-ojiinder machine from Euclid Iteaeh, just oast of Cleveland, to Cedar Point, near Sandusky. Ohio, air line distance of (><>."» miles in 1 hour and IS minutes. The distance is about equal to that between Poughkeepsio and the upper cud of Manhattan Island, which was one sta.ee of Curtiss" trip from Albany to Now York. The wind velocity was 12 miles per hour.

The II. S. Ilydrographic office at Cleveland figured the actual distance traveled one way as 04% miles. This gives a speed of 4!».S miles per hour on the outward trip.

BEATS l'HSKUXS OX HOME TRIV.

On September 1 the return was made but in much slower time, 1 hour and 11 minutes being consumed. The return was made, for part of the distance, in the rain, which stung the aviator's face. Some homing pigeons which were released at Cedar Point took 2 hours and 54 minutes to make the trip.

Euclid P.each and Cedar Point are amusement resorts. The flight was made possible by the Cleveland Press, which gave a prize of $5.000.

Flying With Four Horsepower.

We give some photos of aeroplane experiments of M. P.. Sellers in Kentucky. One of the pictures

shows a roar view of the machine with a vertical rudder which can bo made- to assume a screw shape as described in article on Lateral Stability in May. l'.HO. Aekoxautics. This was used long enough to prove the correctness of the principle. Note the keel, rudder and equilibrium plane, as originally designed and now used. The other pictures show machine in flight. In these flights the Dutheil & Chalmers opposed engine was used. Six yt in. auxiliary exhaust holes were bored in each cylinder, increasing the h. p. about per cent. The brake h. p. before" boring holes was about four. An Elbridge '2 eyl. 10 h. p. special motor has been ordered.

Harmon's Flight Across L. I. Sound.

Clifford B. Harmon made his long promised flight across Long Island Sound on August 20. lie started from the aviation field at Mineola about (< :.-;0 o'clock. Thirty minutes later he landed in (Jrecnwich, Conn., in a field next to the estate of his father-in-law. Commodore E. C. Benedict, an airline distance of W/o miles.

Mr. Harmon was unhurt, but his Carman ira chine was damaged. The flight won for Mr. Harmon the trophy offered by Country Life in America for the first successful aeroplane flight across the Sound. Before starting on his trip across the Sound he made a flight with Charles K. Hamilton as passenger to test Out his machine and to study the air conditions.

FLIGHT PROGRESS OVER THE COUNTRY

After making several laps he landed and announced that he would start out to win the trophy. The wind was blowing about fifteen miles an hour. In the flight to Itoslyn. where he reached the water, the Hying was over bad country. It was a struggle to keep right side up crossing Hempstead Bay. but he reached the Larehmont Yacht Club in safety and turned over the vessels in the harbor there at the international motor boat meet. From here he Hew up the Sound to the island just in fronl of his father-in-law's estate, landing on a sandy beach just across an inlet, and came down in tall grass, after fouling some telephone wires. That accounts for the wrecked machine.

novice flies 28 miles cross country.

William Evans, of N17A East 15th street. Kansas City, Mo., was aide to fly 2N miles across country on "his second day's experiment with the 30-foot Greene biplane fitted with an Elbridge four-cylinder engine. The first day he received tile machine he made several fights back and forth the length of the half-mile tield. with a propeller which was not designed to give a great deal of thrust. The next day ho changed the propeller and made his 2S-mile flight across country. Gliding down, he could not pick his landing and broke the front eonlrol. Percy Ilaslett, of Alameda, fill., and a man named Jones, of Tombstone. Ariz., which latter ought to be a good place for aviators, have bought Elbridge engines, so there must be something doing.

The Greene aeroplane which Hoy Crosby, of San Francisco, bought has now been taken over by the California Aero & Supply Co.

, the latest wright model.

At the Asbury Park meet the first public tost was made of the new long distance Wright. The machine is very similar to the standard type, with the rear horizontal surface: practically ' the only change being in the fact that the horizontal rudder in, front is left off. In the place of this, the warpablo horizontal tail serves to control the motion up'and down. The advantage of this arrangement is that there is nothing in the forepart, of the maclfjne fo bo caught by sudden puffs of wind. As heretofore constructed, wind striking the front horizontal trudder acted with a powerful leverage on the machine, due to the distance of (he rudder in advance of the main planes. >"n such effect is experienced with the horizontal rudder at the rear of the apparatus.

The forward small vortical pianos have been preserved in tile new machine and are mounted in the framework of the skids. This rear horizontal surface is rigidly guyed to the outriggers for the forward third of its length fore and aft. From one-third back it is flexible and warped up or down, for steering up or down respectively, by crossed wires from the usual lever.

The planes spread .'lit ft. (the older machines wore 41 ft. and the government flyer was 3(1 ft.). The engine has greater bore than usual, being ■i% by 4. The weight is around N00 pounds.

Wheels, flexibly mounted, are fitted to this machine, as we'll as to some of the other machines.

The machine is faster and can carry more weight. It has not. however, the quickness of action that the others have, and is not quite so well a'd.ipted for cutting fancy figures, though to the layman there seems to he no difference.

constant flying at dayton.

Then1 is almost constant flying at the Dayton camp, which is proving of great interest to all who have the opporl unity of seeing it. P. O. T'armeloe is a new Wright aviator. The Wright company has purchased a section of land in the west end of the city, and on the 7th instant, broke ground for a group of buildings which arc to form the new factory. A double force of men are now on the first building, containing 14,000 sq. ft. of floor space which is to bo used as the assembling room of planes and frames. The factory plan is of course of the most improved type, constructed of steel, brick and cement.

harmon changes his farman.

Clifford B. Harmon's Farman machine, which was badly wrecked at Boston on the opening day of the meet, was repaired in record time and altered so as to make shipping and repairs less troublesome than heretofore.

While the original dimensions and curvatures of tlie Farman biplane were retained, the wings were changed so that they are detachable from the central body in much the same manner as the l.urgess-Curtiss biplanes are arranged. The surfaces can thus lie packed in a space 12 ft. long, instead of requiring 35 ft. of space as before.

The alteration was made by the Burgess Co. & Curtis. By rushing the force on September 4th and 5th. it was possible to ship the new planes complete on September Sth, the time required having been four working days. The job was undertaken on a Saturday night, and there was no opportunity to obtain materials or outside assistance owing to the approaching Sunday and holiday. The men also had been given a vacation, with opportunities to attend the Harvard meet, as reward for several weeks of strenuous work. It thus became necessary to recall the force as far as pos.silde by telegraph and engage Messrs. Wilson & Silsby. the Boston sailmakers, to work overtime preparing the cloth for the surfaces.

latest curtiss change.

The Curtiss aeroplane used at the Boston-Harvard aviation meet by Glenn II. Curtiss presented a changed appearance from the machine formerly used by him.

Although the same engine was used as in his Hudson Flier the machine was altered to give it more sooed anil cut down head resistance.

The following changes were noticeable in the Curtiss machine :

Camber of planes slightly loss than in old stylo. Same surface as in Hudson-Fulton flyer. Ailerons, four, forming rear of outer sections of upper and lower planes, working upward and downward and not down only as in Farman machine ; less head resistance because behind planes; normal position downward toward rear in line with rear of planes which brings them parallel to current of air passing over and under plane surfaces; front control is a single surface, with diamond-shaped vertical plane set stationary half above and half below. Same controls otherwise and same chassis. Outer sections of wings covered both sides. Middle sections covered one side.

woman to fly curtiss machine.

Miss Blanche Scott, the young lady who recently completed a trans-continental trip in an automobile and was a passenger in a flight with C. F. Walsh in California, is expected to make her debut at flying a Curtiss machine during the exlii-biiion flights in Chicago, preliminary to the start of the Chicago-New York race.

new design biplane.

A new tvpe of biplanes is being experimented with by .lames B. Slinn. of Chillicothe. 111., in which the forward control is done away with, using the unper plane for this purpose. The lower plane is of loss spread than the upper and shorter fore and aft. The upper plane spreads 27 ft. by 5i(. ft., and the under one 15 ft. by 3 ft. Allowing for material cut away for propeller the supporting surface totals about 160. The rudder is 3 ft. by 4 ft. Weight without pilol 340 pounds. The machine is mounted on a 3-wheeled chassis. Materials, spruce and bamboo. An engine of own make will drive a G ft. propeller placed in the rear.

A man named Cooley is building in Rochester i monster mononlane of su-ft. spread. It resem liles nothing that has yet appeared in the aeri;! world. Two Flbridge engines drive two propel lers.

The Curtiss exhibition company now has a Curl tiss machine traveling as a "dead exhibit" around the country to fairs and wherever there are n<| facilities for flight. Moving pictures arc s'nowii and n lecture given by Carl 11. Carson.

Satisfied with Elbridge Engines?

"RECENT flights have been made with Elbridge "Featherweight" Engines by Dr. Wm. M. X. Greene, at Rochester; by Captain Bumbaugh, at Indianapolis; Edward R. Skinner, South Beach, aten Island; J. W. McCallum, Kansas City, Mo., and many others.

o one ever complained that an Elbridge Engine lacked power or speed. Not only do they represent ore actual horse-power for weight than any others on the market, but broken parts are practically iheard of. You need never descend for "lack of power" if you use Elbridge Engines.

Œfje Greene Company

Manufacturers of the Greene Aeroplanes

rochester, n. y., june

to the elbridge machine company, culver road, rochester, n. y.

gentlemen:—i wish to express my admiration for the performance of the 40-60 " featherweight" engine yesterday in the trial flight at the grounds of the aero club of rochester.

my machine was driven through he air at a rate of speed i had by no means anticipated. the effect feeling of speed and reserve power 1 can compare only to the exhilaration produced by a strong cocktail.

1 have used several different motors in my other machines, and to-day i am more than ever convinced th^t the elbridge "featherweight" is the only real flying machine engine on the american market.

cordially yours, (signed) wllj/greene.

Profit by \e Experience of Others

It is expensive and dangerous to experiment with Aeronautic Motors unless they have demonstrated their efficiency in actual service. The Elbridge "Featherweight" has made good.

The Best is Always the Cheapest in the End

ptalogue and prices for asking; our information bureau is at your service

LBRIDGE ENGINE COMPANY

kero Dept."

Rochester, N. Y.

In answering advcrliscmc-'ds please mention this magazine.

FACTS ABOUT MOTORS

The Call Aviation Engine

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3rd. an opposed cylinder engine. The construction conceded by gas engine authorities to he the nearest vibrationless type. By all odds the construction best adapted for aviation purpo=es.

4th. a silent engine. The only engine yet designed for aviation having both main and auxiliary ports silenced. Hence the only aviation engine adapted for permanent use, or for other than merely exhibition purposes.

5th. a "fool-proof" engine. The utmost simplicity of construction, small number of cylinders, together with its bjing of the usual Four Cycle type, enables any automobile chauffi ur to set and run it, not one in fifly of whom have any experience with Two Cycle, Revolving Cylinder, or V-shaped multiple cylinder engines.

6th. a thoroughly dependable engine. Our Magnalium outer casing for cylinders and cylinder heads permits of a remarkably strong construction with minimum weight; while our Vanadium Grey Iron Cylinder and cylinder head linings, piston heads, valve cages, valve seats, etc., is the only dependable material for these parts.

7th. a superbly beautiful engine. The entire design is thoroughly artistic ; while all exposed parts not constructed of Magnalium—a shining non-conodible metal—are nickel plated, the whole surface being polished to a mirror finish.

8th. a phenomenally powerful engine. This result is secured by the use of a comparatively small number of cylinders of generous proportions, as distinguished from a multiplicity of cylinders with their numerous parts and bearings, and consequent friction, and liability to derangement.

9th. an exceptionally economical engine. It is a matter of common notoriety among gas engineers that economy of fuel, as compared with power developed, is secured by large cylinders, few in number, rather than by a multiplicity of small cylinders—a consideration of paramount importance in aviation.

10th. a moderate priced engine. While the material and workmanship of this engine are even superior to the very expensive foreign makes, and not to be classed with the cheap engines flooding the market, yet our aim has been to furnish avi ltois with a moderate priced engine, cheaper than could tie produced by themselves, except in large numbers, and with an expensive shop and foundry equipment.

other aviation engines possess a few of these advantages. this is the only engine that combines them all. MODEL E-l: Two Cylinder; 50 Horsepower, weight, 150 lbs. - Price $1,000 MODEL E-2: Four Cylinder; 100 Horsepower, weight, 250 lbs. - Price $2,000

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delivery 30 da>s: terms, 35% cash, with order ; balance sight draft against bill of lading write for particulars and price of our reversible aerial propeller also of our combination radiator and heater, constructed of aluminum tubing. utilize the heat of your engine for the comfort of your passengers. weight, i nibs, per gallon of jacket water. send for catalogue c-2

THE AERIAL NAVIGATION COMPANY OF AMERICA, Girard, Kansas ]

New Greene Aeroplane.

A biplane built by Dr. William fircone especially for cross country flying and long distance racing is now ready. It is of the same general style as other Greene machines, such as already described in detail in Aekoxautics. It has a spread of ."!<» ft. with a chord of 7 Vi ft. and a curve depth of 27s in. A six-cylinder Elbridge engine is installed which actually gives on a I'ronv brake test f.l y2 h. p.

Two sizes of Greene machines are now being marketed with prompt deliveries, Jh) and :>7 ft. spread respectively. All the Greene machines are supplied with Elbridge engines and the Karman type landing arrangement, 20-in. wheels, 3-in. fainter tires, ISosch magneto and El Arco radiators. On the large machines the wheels are 24 in. in diameter. What are called "practice skids" are being used in trial flights. These are fastened to the regular skids, as shown in the photograph. The large machine has a chord of 0 ft. ~Ys in. and a depth of curve of 4 V± in. The ailerons. 1(1% ft. by 20 in., are attached to the rear struts instead of being between the surfaces as in the Curtiss machines. These ailerons are operated by the usual shoulder control.

Instead of using sockets as formerly, aluminum castings are now employed for connections. The surfaces are of Irish linen with a special preparation which is- put on after the surfaces are in place. The cloth is stretched as tight as a drum head and has a breaking strain of 71 lbs. per square inch. The front control is a little smaller than that employed in the former machine1 (of which full drawings were published in Aiouoxai-Tics. 1. Also, there is a flap attached to the rear of the back horizontal surface which works in conjunction with the elevator through crossed wires. The whole rear horizontal tail can be quickly shifted to various angles of incidence, merely by loosening a metal clamp around the short vertical posts at the extreme end of the outriggers and reelamping at the desired place on file post.

Baldwin Flights at St. Louis.

St. Louis, Mo. -('apt. T. S. l.aldwin made some tine (lights along the river front on September 10-12. These flights were his first real ones at an exhibition and no one can kick at the "young man" now. In one of these, taking 10 minutes, when he crossed over three and Hew under two bridges while in the air. including the time he was on the ground between the flights, it was thirty-six minutes from the time he started -until he landed 011 the aviation ground again.

Hill. l.eachey has assembled the Gill, machine bought by T. W. llenoist. of the Aeronautic Sup-lily Company, and made first trials.

Selfridge Monument Erected.

A monument to Lieut. TJhos. E. Selfridge has been completed, and was erected over the grave by E. A. Selfridge, father of Lieut. Selfridge. There will be no unveiling ceremonies or dedication of the monument. It has been a tribute of the family throughout, and will not be attended by any public recognition. The inscription on the tablet is as follows :

Eirst Lieutenant THOMAS E. SELFRIDGE, ist Reg't. Field Artillery, U. S. A. Killed in the Service of the United States in an Aerodrome Accident September 17th, 1908.

Ac.El) _>().

Review of the Month's Flying.

The past mouth at Mineola has not seen quite so much flying as heretofore since Harmon's flight across the Long Island Sound, as the machine was damaged on that occasion and later was shipped to P.oston. ('apt. Baldwin has been away and II. S. Harkness with his Antoinette has been doing nothing more than running over the grass, netting used to the grounds and machine, after being out of the game for some months. Joe .Seymour has been flying constantly right along.

Tod ("Slim") Shriver has brought out a new machine of a general Curtiss type, in which the ailerons are outside of the main cell and attached to the rear supports. Equipped with a Kirkham six-cylinder engine, he has been making some good short flights. The machine was constructed by Mr. Shriver for Howard Dietz.

The second week in September, P. Brauner & Co. brought out one of their stock machines of a general Curtiss type, oOx4'/2 ft., fitted with a British-American 20-h. p. stock automobile engine driving a Brauner 0 ft. diameter 4V2 ft. pitch propeller, giving at 900 revolutions 1.N5 lbs. thrust. Some short flights have been made in it by D. Mas-son, who was mechanic for Paulhan when he came to America. The front elevator is a single surface. Equipment includes the El Arco radiator, Bosch magneto and Palmer tires.

Frank Van Anden has another biplane ready for trial, fitted with a Cameron air-cooled automobile engine with auxiliary exhausts. ]t would be of interest to know how this cools and to see with what success flights are made, as the engine is rated at but 24 h. p. The running gear is similar to Capt. Baldwin's, with the front wheel off the ground. Pennsylvania 20-in. wheels and 4-in. tires" are used. The motor has a Splitdorf magneto and Breeze carburetor, as generally supplied with Cameron engines.

Dr. H. W. Walden is building a shed of his own and is progressing with the remodeling of his wrecked monoplane. The new one will have Pennsylvania 4-in. tires and the holes in the ground won't be so effective.

An innovation in cooling systems is employed by George Bussell and J. J. Prisbie. Two small El Arco radiators are used, placed one on either side of the operator, where they get all the air there is coming. These work very satisfactorily this way, and the head resistance does not seem to have been any objection.

G. E. DePong, designer of the Elbridge engine, has started a training school, using a Shneider-built Curtiss-type aeroplane, which he purchased some time ago. E. P.. Gaskell, 230S Seventh avenue. New York, and F. E. deMurias. Babylon, L. I., are the first pupils. Wisely enough, the school does* not undertake to pay the damages sustained in trials.

W. L. Fairohild is out mornings and evenings practicing with his big monoplane, fitted with an Emerson six-cylinder engine, about which he is enthusiastic. It drives by a chain two propellers.

The George Bussell machine has had its power plant changed over from a Curtiss to a four-cylinder Elbridge. The first part of September he gave exhibitions on Staten Island. One of the most successful experiences he had. was a collision with a cow. So far as we are able to ascertain, this is the first time that an aerial milking has been attempted.

Sam Barton, of 2?>S Dumont avenue, Brooklyn, is putting together in the Aeronautical Society's sheds a small biplane with a two-cylinder Elbridge engine. This more or less resembles a Curtiss machine. The elevator and the horizontal tail will work in conjunction. The machine is only partially assembled thus far. Hartford tires are being used on specially built home made wheels.

Miss E. L. Todd has a Kinek eight-cylinder engine.

Nicholas Rippenbein is completing the assembling of a light Farman type machine which was bought from Fred Shneider. The ailerons-in this machine are between the surfaces, and instead of being hinged at the struts and moved up and down, are mounted on a shaft running fore and aft between the main surfaces. At the end of the shaft is a grooved pulley over which crossed wires run,

Harry Chandler, of the Auto & Aeronautic Supply Co., and Glenn Ethridge, both of Westbury, L. I., are building a biplane of radical construction as regards sockets, engine beds, controls and angle. This is now ready for trial. The equipment includes an Elbridge four-cylinder engine, A-Z radiator and tank, and Hartford tires.

Philip W. Wilcox, of the Columbia University Aero Club, has had bad luck. His first trial some two months ago, resulted in smashing the running gear on the ground. Charles K. Hamilton flew it next time and broke up the landing arrangement again. After it was all fixed up anew, stronger, and with big 4-in. Pennsylvania tires, Wilcox attempted flight himself and succeeded at the first jump, with all the power of the Rinek eight-cylinder engine behind him. For some little time flights were made before the machine was" reduced to a wreck. He is now going at it again and will build two machines. With a Rinek propeller, 7%-ft. diameter by 4-ft. pitch, the engine gave over 350 lbs. thrust standing.

The Garden City Co., which erected a fence and grandstand around the grounds and now charge admission whenever there is a sufficient crowd of sightseers, has established a system by which the aviators receive a certain portion of the profits, proportioned according to the extent of the flights made by each.

The erection of the fence, the independent attitude assumed by the Company and the alleged nonfulfillment of promises made by it has resulted in considerable friction. The Aeronautical Society has given the Aero Club of America an opportunity to join in a protest and issued a statement of which the following is a part:

August 22d, 1910.

The Garden* City Company,

00 Wall Street, New York City, N. Y.

Gentlemen :—When you recently (without our consent) erected a high fence around the property which you leased to this society at Mineola and constructed a grandstand and ticket office, you argued it advantageous to us and promised to account for all funds and see that conditions were improved generally. You now refuse to account for what you have collected and spent and are continuing to force the public to pay money to you to witness the flights of members of this and other clubs on your property. You are also collecting money for other privileges, such as stands, sign spaces, etc., and the public are led to believe that we are the interested parties, although we never have been and do not wish to be interested in the receipts of your enterprise.

We object to this method of exploiting our members. Had you turned these matters over to a joint committee representing all interests, the members and their friends would not be repeatedly interfered with by the representatives of your real estate, and everyone legitimately interested in aeronautics Mould have been better satisfied.

In view of the foregoing we are obliged to notify you that if conditions are not improved we shall be obliged to restrain you from further interference with our rights on the property.

The Aeronautical Society.

AT THE MINEÓLA AVIATION GROUNDS

I !

I At Garden City, ILL !

+

+ + +

t

IT WAS WITH A

RINEK

50 H. P., 8 Cylinder Engine

flew

<=^>—that

philip w. wilcox

President AeroClub,Columbia University On Sunday, Aug. 14, 1910

On first attempt, making a complete circuit of the Aviation Field, at an average height of from 75 to 1 00 feet. The aeroplane was of the Farman type, and the speed estimated was about 40 miles per hour. Mr. Wilcox has since been making almost daily flights, duplicating the above.

R TIVFK* En§ines have within the past month or so come

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thj

.._ National /backing Comptny. the Jn\c\e of. tha alleged criminal testraint, Knd Edward Tllden is Its president.

[flies in home-made machine.

Philip Wilcox, the Columbia c .liegt ! student we-h recently built a hipUne. i'urouglit his machine out on tlie field yes,terday to rtest It. He had no nlea of l going in the ;iir. but when be had gone ! along, the ground a distance of .100 feel land ever.'lhing was running smoothly the I teniplajtion ra-as loo great and he turned l up Iris forward planes. He 5-hot flflty feet inlo the air. struck an ever keel and tlew for a quarter of a mile Not content with lhal lie again elevated his forward plane' and wen* to a heUht of 100 fe ' lie aoout a mile, returned and tm 'a mosr grnreful landlnj. .1 All tha a\ lators v*ej-e en'fhuslastlc o< this performance of a new man In „ 'home-made machine, and Captain Bald-as so pleased that he _ about Wilcox's neck ; klhim.

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In answering advertisement? plcasf mention this magasine.

1.—j. j.^ frisbie, flying. 2.-shríver-dietz machine.

5-6. frisbie machine.

i\ S. I'eets and 1). C. Tcetor. of the Iludsou-Fultoii Automobile Co., at 247 West 47th street, \e\v York, will shortly begin trials at Mineóla with a biplane, principally on Hie lines of a Curtiss. with Carman type running gears. Messrs. Poets and Teetor were members of the West Side Y. M. C. A., aero class of 1!)0¡). with Wilbur li. Kimball as instructor.

Wilbur II. Kimball is about to begin the construction of an entirely new type of machine, after a year of laboratory work and experimenting with the object of combining lifting power and the propelling force of propellers in connection with planes. A model has been constructed and successfully flown that shows remarkable properties of equilibrium and ease of control, and an increase in the thrust obtained from propellers.

frisbie new mineóla star.

.1. Frisbie has been the sensation of the Mineóla held, lie did not spend any time running around the ground, but attempted flight the lirst crack out of the box. and has been flying regularly every day, with the exception of the first half of September, when he arrived at Kochesior. lie has proven to be one of the most apt students of flight that has been seen at Mineóla.

TRIALS .VXD TRIBULATIONS.

Frisbie first appeared in the aviation camp at •Mineóla early in the spring. He had a few hun-

3.—w. l. fairchild's monoplane. 4. e. e. burlingame. 7.- harkness' antoinette.

drod dollars and the determination to become an aviiitor. Someone offered to sell Frisbie an aeroplane, all right from the ground, splendid motor, etc. And Frisbie spent weeks that ran into months waiting for the demonstrating flight,—which never came. After a long time a machine was alleged to be assembled and a thing called an aeronautic motor was installed. The outfit collapsed after a run estimated at eighteen seconds. Frisbie had spent thirteen weeks and all his money waiting for it.

lie returned to Rochester with five cents in his pocket, a number of obligations, among them the support of a family. About the only thing he had left was determination to win out, and a lot of friends.

After further weeks of trial he secured enough backing to insure the building of his own 'plane, and he ordered an Klbridge engine. In less than tt month he was ready for the air, and twenty-four hours later he had made five short flights.

If the affair had been less serious. Frisbie's first flights would have been humorous. Advised not to leave the ground for at least a week. Frisbie started virtuously to run across the field to learn the use of the different controls, but he reckoned without the thrust of the 40-h. p. two-cycle engine. It never occured to him to throttle down, so in a few seconds he was bounding across the field at a terrific rate of speed : a piece of rough ground jarred his arms enough to affect the front control,

and less than hall* a minute from the time of all his good resolutions ho was in the air, 20 or 30 feet above the ground. He wavered, he wobbled, the machine slanted from the torque of the propeller; Frisbie had presence of mind to straighten up and to try to got nearer the ground. No difficulty about that : he pushed the control forward half an inch and the machino dove for the ground like a falling skyrocket. Frisbie yanked back on the control to avoid the ground, and started up on an angle that suggested an attempt to loop the loop.

He landed unharmed, however, and started out again. Day after day he kept at it, practicing whenever the breezes dropped below 10 miles an hour. In two weeks he had successfully accomplished a 10-mile cross country flight, flying two or three times around the held as a preliminary, and then, without descending, starting out across country and flying over the polo field at the Meadow Brook Club, circled over the Motor Parkway, passed over West bury, and returned to the field iu 14 minutes front the time he started.

On another occasion, when Acting Mayor Mitchell of New York visited the field, Frisbie made several flights in the rain, lie also has made a flight of some miles after dark, and safely carried his son as a passenger on one of his early trips.

At Ontario Beach Park, near Rochester, N. Y., on Labor Day, J. J. Frisbie made his first appearance as a professional aviator, just about three weeks since he made his first tentative flight at Mineóla. There Mr. Frisbie, anxious to make good before his backers and fellow-townsmen, tried one of the most difficult things so far attempted by any aviator. The only place from which he could get any start was a bit of lawn about 2<>ü feet wide, bounded by poles, a hotel, a merry-go-round, and sideshows; in frout steep rollers piled themselves on the beach, driven by a high wind. Not counting the people who crowded around the machine, the actual space between material obstruc-

tions through which Frisbie had to guide his 'plane was exactly 40 feet. Minor embarrassments were two asphalt sidewalks he had to cross, each high enough above the level to smash the wheels on his tirst attempt to rise. Four times he started, and four times dropped into the lake, but the fifth time his nerve and perseverance triumphed and he rose safely to a height of 50 feet and sailed around the nark, only to be again obliged to land in the surf because the dense crowd left not a foot of space on the shore.

After being fished out of the water the first time, the gasolene valve was found to bo closed. The gasolene was turned on, and off the motor started. The Atwater-Kent coil was changed the next day for a magneto. One trial resulted in a smash on the sand, and he had to fly the next time with a split propeller patched up with tin on one blade. Vnothor time the motor short-circuited itself just as ho was out over the lake. The next time the propeller was smashed when it struck the water. '10 prove that lie can fly, Frisbie decided to stay in Rochester until he could either fly across the city or cross Lake Ontario.

The Frisbie Machine.

The machine of .1. .). Frisbie is a close copy of the Curtiss. The lower plane has 2<>1/i ft. spread by 4 % ft. fore and aft. The top plane overhangs on each side 32 in. They are spaced 4% ft. apart. The bamboo outriggers front and rear extend 1-Vt ft. The double surface front control measures (i ft. by 28 in., surfaces 2 ft. apart. The horizontal tail is G ft. by 2S in. The vertical rudder is 34 in. high by 28 in. the other way. The ailerons arc 02 in. spread by 30 in. fore and aft. extend 8 in. in front of the struts, and are pivoted on the outer front strut. The engine is an Elbridge 4-cylinder, 40 h. p. Two El Arco radiators arc used, situated one on either side of the operator.

some frisbie details.

124

AERONAUTICS October, 1910

FLYING OUT ON THE PACIFIC COAST

Flies With 5 H. P.

DOXADD II. GORDON, of Postonia, Cal.. lias a biplane with which he has been doing some remarkable work. The machine has a 5 h. p. cyl. motorcycle engine, and with 1 his -motor and a seared down propeller of his own manufacture, he claims to have made nights of up to 500 ft. in length. As the weight of the machine complete with operator is 3S0 pounds this would give a load carried per h. p. of 70 pounds, which is remarkable. The machine in general construction and detail reminds one of the Uoe tri-plane, inasmuch as the same low h. p. is used, and it has the same inverted triangular fusilago and general appearance. Following is a description : Top plane 20 ft.. lower 24 ft., chord 4 ft. Distance between, planes 4 ft. 4 ins. Angle of incident same on ground as in flight, about 7°. Planes are constructed with a view to automatic balance, and so far Mr. Gordon has never had an occasion to use the lateral stability device which he has also placed on the machine, even when flying across a 15-mile wind. He claims the machine would tilt to ."»0° angle when struck by gust, but would right itself automatically. Camber of chord. '2% ins. in 4S ins. 1'lanes in three block sections, semi-circular rudder operated by foot, lever, double front elevator, 32 sip ft. area. Power plant, 2 cyl. Curtiss motor-cycle engine, cyls. "'/ixSVi, weight 7S pounds with batteries and coils. Propeller, G ft. diameter, 5 ft. 8 ins. pitch, cedar and spruce of Mr. Gordon's own manufacture. The motor is speeded to 2,100 revolutions and drives a geared down propeller at a little over seven hundred. Weight of machine complete 240 pounds. M r. Gordon's weight is 14(> pounds. A three-wheeled chassis is used with a novel type of

suspension of the two rear wheels. The two-leaf spruce strips with axle attached in center are pivoted at the front and are attached to skid at the rear by springs. Mr. Gordon's longest flights have so far been from 450 to 500 ft., which is the longest distance engine will run at full speed without overheating, which of course causes it to slow down, lie is now putting in a cooling fan and exhaust ports to keep the motor cool for longer flights, lie is also installing a 7 ft. propeller to run at a slower speed than the present one. The fields are so rough around his vicinity that he claims that it is very hard to build a machine capable of standing the racking, lie has had very little trouble, however, beyond hreaking a wheel or two. Mr. Gordon has also had considerable experience with gliders, having made in the neighborhood of 50 flights of about 15o yards in length. In all of these, he says, he never had the suggestion of an accident and hardly broke a stick, reached heights of 20 ft. and flew in winds about 15 miles per hour, lie uses an inclined rail with his glider.

.1. K. Clark, of San Francisco, has a biplane of the new Farman type near San Jose. Cal., in which he is said to have made some very good flights, the longest of about a mile. The machine is 33 ft. spread on the top plane and 21 ft. on the bottom, by ('. ft. 3 in. chord, 30 ft. fore and aft, single laminated ribs. A Sommer type chassis is now used but will be changed to the four wheel Farman type. An Elbridge 40-00 h. p. engine drives direct an s ft. diameter propeller. 4 ft. pitch, thrust has not been measured. P.osch magneto is installed. Lateral control is by shoulder brace connected with semi-circular ailerons between the ends at. rear of planes, and the rest of the control is similar to the Curtiss with the usual wheel. Curvature of ribs 1 in 14. Angle of incident on the ground about 6 or 7 deg.; 5 cleg, approximate

flying angle. Planes are covered with Naiad No, 6 laced on in panels. Weight of machine complete 530 pounds.

Charles Bradley, of the Pacific Aero Club, an account of whose large, high pitch, propellor test was in the September issue of Aeronautics., got off the ground, for a short jump, with his biplane on September 5 in the presence of your representative. The clutch would not hold, however, machine came down and ran into a ditch, the axle bent in a semi-circle but the "Camsc" wheels did not "dish."

Mr. Bradley said that all he wanted to know was if he could get oft' the ground with his large propeller and small horsepower, and as he was successful in this, and the machine was of rather crude construction he demolished it and will now begin work on a new one.

By Prof. H. La V. Twining

In January, 1910, after the Los Angeles midwinter meet, Chas. K. Hamilton went to San Diego, Cal., and spent three days flying on Coronado Island. On this occasion he flew across the bay and down the beach into Mexico and return. At this time Chas. P. Walsh, of San Diego, had a monoplane which he attempted to fly. Instead of flying, the machine ran into a fence and became a total wreck. By May 2, 191 Oi, Mr. Walsh had constructed a biplane of the. Curtiss type, with which he is flying. Since that time he has made some 200 flights of 500 feet to 1^4 miles in length, reaching an altitude of from 10 to «0 feet. Mr. Walsh has modified the Curtiss method of control, using a design of his own devising. The machine is equipped with a 40 h. p. Elbridge engine. The aeroplane weighs ."SO pounds and has 400 sq. ft. of surface. It spreads 40 feet from tip to tip.

Mr. George Duessler has been making short flights in his biplane at the Eos Angeles aerodrome where the Aero Club of California has its headquarters. The flights average some 300 feet. On one occasion he covered 405 feet, just missing the winning of the Knabenshue cup.

The winner of the cup must fly 500 feet under power in a machine of his own construction. lie must also be a member of the Aero Club of California. The last of August Mr. Duessler blew out a cylinder head and is now repairing his engine. J. J. Slavin is also having trouble, but will soon be in shape to again try for the Knabenshue cup. after his accident of a few weeks ago. On this occasion he rose from the ground at too sharp an angle, to an altitude of 25 ft., where the machine lost headway, resulting in a crash to the ground. Several members were broken and the running gear was smashed. Mr. Slavin escaped unhurt. Slavin has a 3 cyl. 30 h. p. Elbridge engine.

On August 2S the Cannon brothers towed their Curtiss biplane behind an automobile. The machine rose some 10 ft. above the ground where it was maintained by use of its controls. This furnishes excellent practice, and as soon as they get their engine installed we can expect some flying. On several of their towed flights they carried a passenger.

The Twining ornithopter, number 3. was given a trial last week. This model weighs 115 pounds and the operator 150 pounds, making a total weighty of 205 pounds. The wings are 12 ft. long by i ft. wide, giving about 100 sq. ft. of surface. Mone powerful leverages were used in this model and (a good up stroke of the wing developed.

The experiment developed a slight drive along the ground, and on one occasion it rose bodily from the ground to the height of one inch, upon the down stroke of the wings. Early in the trial one wing was broken so that it became flexible around its front edge. In this condition the wing drove the machine forward but lost in lift.

This model is a great improvement over model No. 2, a lift of 205 pounds being obtained as against 120 pounds in the other one. Larger and stronger wings will be constructed and another trial be made this fall.

Hamilton Injured.

Chas. K. Hamilton, flying for his own account a brand new machine on the style of a Curtiss, but fitted with a 100 h. p. engine built to order by Walter Christie, met wdth an accident while flying at Sacramento, Cal., on September 9. In a previous flight the machine was damaged, but the aviator unhurt. lie was burned by the water from the radiator and severely cut and bruised. It is believed there will be no serious results.

INCORPORATIONS

Fisher Aero Craft Construction Co., of New York. New York; manufacture, deal in and lease air crafts of all kinds; capital .$100,000'. Incorporators. P. J. Fisher, Encoland S. Bates, Hie-ronimus A. Harold, all of No. 135 William St., New York City.

The Standard Airship Co., Cleveland, T. P. Howell and others ; $5,000.

Frankford, Intl., July 15.—The La Marr Aero Co.. of Frankfort. Ind.. organized to manufacture aeroplanes, $50,(iOO. Officers are W. B. Adams, president; Perry Gable, secretary, and Fay Cress, treasurer.

The Standard Airship Co., of Columbus, O., $5.(too. for the purpose of building airships. The company will build and sell aeroplanes constructed under patents held by II. J. Sharp. Incorporators of the company arc T. P. Horrell, C. A. Kicks. A. Y. Gowen, W. C. Saegcr and G. B. Collins.

Illinois Aviation Co., Chicago; manufacturing amusement devices; capital. $1,400. Incorporators, Leon S. Alschnler, Gabriel J. Norden; Chas. W. Steefel.

MacLeod Multiplane Co., Borough of Richmond, N. Y. ; manufacture and sell aerial machines ; capital. $10,000. Incorporators, Malcolm MacLeod, 26S Columbus Ave., New York City.; John T. Oates, 703 Bay St.. Stapleton, N. Y. ; James E. Forrest, 270 50th St.. Brooklyn.

The Aerovehicle Co., of Atlantic City, N. J., to manufacture and sell all kinds of vehicles for aerial transportation ; $125,000. Incorporators, James R. Greig and Samuel C. Fenner of Philadelphia and Eli II. Chandler of Atlantic City.

Aerocraft Co., Chicago, 111.. $10,000i; general manufacturing, commercial, exhibition and transportation business ; Benjamin I. Gates, H. H. Aber-nathy, J. J. Zinn.

American Aeroplane Manufacturing Co. ; New York; manufacture and deal in aeroplanes, gilders, motors, etc. ; capital, $100,000. Incorporators, Beni. E. Freed, 50« E. ISSth St., New Y'ork City; Peter J. Minck. 55 Beaver St., Brooklyn; Stuart J. Lebach.,50 Morningside Ave., New York City.

Atlantic City Riviera Parkway Ocean Pier Co., Atlantic City, N. J. ; to acquire premises to construct and operate aeroplanes, aerial transportation systems, airships, etc. Samuel J. Clark, Raymond B. Thompson and Graham Shaw incorporators. Capital stock $100,000.

Aerial Manufacturing & Supplies Co., New York ; manufacture aeroplanes, gliders, automobiles, hydroplanes, etc. ; capital, $50,000. Incorporators, Samuel Shethar, Great Neck, Nass. Co., N. Y. ; John Loughran, 155 2d Ave., Long Island City; Chas. II. Stoll, 55 Liberty St., New York City.

The Curtiss Exhibition Co., $20,000, Hammonds-port, N. Y. ; promoting exhibition flights with aeroplanes and the selling of aeroplanes for exhibition purposes. Directors, Glenn II. Curtiss, JeTome S. Fanciulli and Monroe Wheeler.

Bath Motor Mfg. Co., Bath, N. Y., $300,000, taking over Kirkham Motor Co.

Charliss-Wendling Automatic Aeroplane Co., of Houston, Tex., is being organized by C. F. J. Charliss and A. Wendling to manufacture aeroplanes.

The Zodiac Sky Advertising Co., Narragansett 1'ier, R. I. E. Stuart Davis is president and Sydney S. Breeze of New York is vice-president and general manager. The directors of the company are Edward S. Beade, James M. Satterfield and Benjamin Burgess Moore.

Asbury Park Meet Concluded.

The flying; by Urookins, Iloxie, Coffyn and Johnstone proved so satisfactory to the Asbury I'ark committee that the series of flights were continued up to and including August UTth. The nu>ot began on. August 10th.

To cover fully the various stunts performed by the Wright machines under the guidance of such skillful aviators would take a number of pages of the magazine. From P> o'clock in the afternoon till almost dark there was something doing every day. Flights were made out to the ocean and back, to various nearby resorls; on one occasion a landing being made on the Deal r.each Golf Links, the machine was started again and the return made. This flight was by Urookins and Coffyn, a passenger flight.

new world's record.

Walter Urookins. whose nose was seriously damaged when his machine was wrecked against the. grandstand on the opening day. was not out of commission long. On August i^.'id he shattered bis former record for a complete circle by making one in 5% seconds. Johnstone mule numerous high flights, going up to :;.u<m feet: and many of the flights lasted Mo to 45 minutes.

4,(100 FEET HIGH.

On the 10th Iloxie and Johnstone each made moonlight flights with none for spectators save the birds, and they were asleep. In the afternoon of the same day Iloxie was up for .">ii minutes, reaching an altitude of 4,000 feet.

AEKONATTICS* ED1TOK HIDES.

On two occasions novices were taken up for rides, only "joy rides." as the aviators call flights of ten minutes or so. The publisher of Aero-N.u-rics. K. L. Jones, was one of these two lucky individuals, and the star reporter on the New York the other. Urookins took the former

on the latest machine, minus the front control and mounted on wheels, up to Con feet, sailed around the field a number of times, made two of those short circles for which Urookins is so famous, then' shut the motor off and slid rapidly to the ground.

It actually makes one's heart almost stop beating to see Urookins start his aeroplane downwards, tilt nil on one corner and then make a hole in the air like a cork-screw in a cork; but to be a passenger on one of these whirls, find yourself slip-lung sideways off the seat, with the green grass showing in a nice little square patch down below through the end of the plane, is some experience. The passenger is likely to wonder if it is not possible that on this one occasion a puff of wind may carry the machine just a degree or two beyond 00. with a flnale in Davy Jones' locker.

This is real flying and a passenger's sensation in a flight like this varies considerably from those in a straight-away a few feet off the ground. After such an experience the passenger is likely to have considerably more respect for the capabilities of the expert bird-men. Vet one must consider that; this was but a commonplace "joy ride," for the intrepid Urookins is doing these stunts day after day. iu his efforts to "demonstrate.'' as he says, "the practicability and safety of the Wright aeroplane."

MEETINGS COMING, GOING AND GONE

Sheepshead Bay Meet.

BV FRANK S. TILLMAN.

New Yorkers were given their first real aviation meet the last two weeks in August, at the old Sheepshead Lay race track by Glenn 11. Curtiss. and his flock of birdinen. composed of J. C. ("Bud") Mars. Chas. F. Willard. Eugene I>. Ely. J. A. D. McCurdy and Augustus Post.

Several experiments that proved the «eropla r's value in a new sphere" were successfully accum-^pUshed during the six days the birdinen were flying at the field.

The greatest of these was the wireless telegraph message sent from an aeroplane, in flight by -I. A. I). McCurdy to 11. M. Ilorton. the designer and operator of a practical wireless outfit especially adapted for sending messages from an aeroplane in flight to a ground station.

Xext in importance, from a scientific standpoint, was the test for marksmanship with a regulation TT. S. Army Springfield rifle, by Lieut Jacob Earl Fickle, 20th Infantry, who fired and hit a target placed on the ground while aloft a hundred feet with Glenn H. Curtiss.

The meet opened on Friday, August 19. and was originally intended to last but Saturday, August 2»i. and Sunday. August 21. I die to the success of the first three days the meet was extended and lasted three additional days of Friday, August 2Gth and 27th, closing on Sunday, August 28th.

The opening day was featured by the number of passengers carried by Curtiss and Mars. A representative of every New York daily newspaper was given a ride either by Curtiss in his Hudson Flyer or by Mars.

It was on one of three trips when he had Frank D. Caruthers. a well-known New York newspaper man, as passenger, that aviator and passenger all but came to a disastrous finish. Mr. Caruthers has the distinction of being the heaviest man ever carried as a passenger in a Curtiss aeroplane, his weight being over 195 pounds. It was this fact, however, that nearly resulted in an accident.

As in all his passenger flights Mars started a^ the upper end of the field and after a short rui flew gracefully to the lower end. Instead of stopping there witli Mr. Caruthers. Mars determined

to make a turn and land his passenger at the starting point.

Half way around an extra stiff puff of wind caught the heavily-weighted aeroplane and in an instant the machine was thrown almost on its side. For fully a minute there followed a pretty bit of air jo keying. It required all of the skiil of Mars to regain control of his pitching, tossing, tumbling machine. Experienced aviators on the ground held their breath at the sight and when Mars finally succeeded in weathering the storm and brought his machine safely to the ground he was greeted with a round of applause.

The flight, which was Mr. Carnthers' first trip in an aeroplane, had not impressed the passenger as it did Mars. Carnthers, when he finally climbed out of his seat to the ground, confessed that he had failed to realize the danger he was in while Mars was having his struggle in the air. The real danger to Mr. Caruthers appeared to be at the moment of landing when the aeroplane bounded over the ground.

In addition Mars took his wife, Mrs. Ely, wife of Aviator Ely : Joseph Pulitzer, Jr.. of the New York World, and Capt. H. Kerrick of the U. S. Army, and others, for a short joy ride through space. Willard also took up passengers.

On Friday, the 19th, four machines were in the air over the same field, and all flying in the same direction.

on August 20. Lieut. Fickle, in service uniform with a full round of ball ammunition, first made a trial flight with Mr. Curtiss to determine if the vibration of the aeroplane would destroy his aim with a rifle. Finding that it would not, he placed a target in the center of the field of about three by five feet in size.

Then as a passenger with Mr. Curtiss he soared a bo nt 100 feet and fired downward while directly oyer his target and struck near the edge of the mark.

/ Notable was the sending of a wireless telegram /by McCurdy on August 27th, from his aeroplane while high over Sheepshead Bay, to II. M. Horton on top of the grandstand at the track. The message was received by Ilorton on the top of the grandstand and handed to the group of newspaper reporters.

In order to develop the aeroplane wireless Mr. McCurdy and Mr. Ilorton since the meet have been

j. c. mars and f. d. caruthers

at the Curtiss factory, at Ham.mondsport. N. Y.. whore they have been making daily trials with the wireless apparatus, which has resulted in unusual results, messages having beeu sent as far as five miles to the stationary set from the aeroplane in flight.

When the final tests had been made and Mr. McCurdy was ready to make a flight and try out the instruments he was given what was destined to be the first wireless message ever sent from an aeroplane. It had been written by Mr. Caruthers at the request of Mr. Curtiss a week before. Mr. Caruthers has carefully preserved the original of the message which he prizes as one of his most valuable possessions.

The flights on August 2<ith were featured by the narrow escape and sensational flight made by Augustus Post, the amateur aviator, in a Curtiss biplane when he hurdled two fences and made two complete short circles at the end of the field when he avoided a fence after a beautiful flight across the race track.

Post had never been up very high before, nor had ever made a complete turn. He is the latest Curtiss pupil.

Eugene Ely, Mars and McCurdy broke honors even on Saturday, the 27th, Ely by flying the longest and the highest of any aviator during the entire meet and winning the trophy .given by the Manhattan Beach Hotel for being the only aviator to fly over the bay to the hotel and alight on the beach, go in for his dinner and return to the field . late, in the evening.

Company. A receiving apparatus was placed at fflie top of the grandstand at the track and a .lending apparatus was secured in the machine and placed just behind the seat. It weighed about (Pf> pounds. The sending of the message was doue by J. A. D. McCurdy while in flight in his Jfour-cylinder Curtiss machine. Mr. McCurdy was a /wireless expert himself and will be remembered las one of the members of the Aerial Experiment Association.

by j. a. Jj>. m curdy.

"The telegraphic key was fastened to my steering wheel and was easily operated. For a ground wire from the machine, we used a wire about 50 ft. long, which, after I got well into the air, was thrown overboard and allowed to dangle behind the machine, with the one end fastened to the apparatus. The antena consisted of the guy wiring of the machine so that the whole system was very simple. I made certain, definite signals (certain letters) which were easily picked up by Mr. Ilorton from his position on the grandstand. I flew away for a distance of about two miles and circled at an elevation of about TOO ft. and within this distance the instrument worked extremely well. So far as I know, this is the first time that such an experiment has been performed and now that it has been already done, it will probably lie tried extensively by Governments abroad. Mr. Horton came up to ttammondsport from New York and he and I have been trying the wireless from the aeroplane here ever since, and have made very satisfactory tests."

Another chapteT in aexial achievement is aecoided in the sending

of "this wireless message ivom an aeroplane.

Mars on this day hurdled all of the steeplechase hedges iu succession in his aeroplane and also qualified for his aviator's license.

On the early morning of the 27th he dropped into the Lower New York bay from a height of 5UU feet, in his eight-cylinder machine, and was rescued by the wrecker Hustler and taken into Seagate, L. 1. The accident was due to a short circuit of the magnate, when the oil push rod came in contact with the cut-out.

Mars started from Sheepshead Park, flew out across the marshes towards Kockaway. then turned and flew over the ocean, passed in front of the Manhattan P.each Hotel, down past the lower end of Coney Island, at Sea Oate, then turned up the bay and dropped in the water between Swinburne Island and the Atlantic Yacht Club. The distance was about S or 0 miles.

The same afternoon at the Sheepshead P>ay meet he took Mr. Post's machine and made three flights of five kilometers each, which qualified him to become a licensed aviator.

The closing day of the meet was cold and dreary but the four thousand who braved the elements in hope of seeing some flying were amply repaid.

Long cross-country flights by Ely and Mars were the features, although Augustus Post furnished further thrills about sundown, when in a closing flight he could not see a fence at one end of the field and landed astride it with slight damage to the plane.

During the meet the aviators flew every day as scheduled regardless of wind conditions, and Mars who was at the track a week in advance of the opening of the meet flew every day for fourteen consecutive days regardless of wind or weather conditions.

Wireless Messages Sent from Aeroplane.

The wireless experiments at Sheepshead Hay were conducted by II. M. Ilorton, former wireless expert and chief engineer for the Do Forest

WIRELESS ON AEROPLANE*

WITn a NOTE by

Capt. Geo. A. Wieczorek, U. S. A.

THE question of whether or not wireless receiving set could be utilized to advantage on aeroplanes has been frequently brought up. So far as known, no attempt to use wireless in this manner has yet been made. At the Chicago automobile show a wireless system was installed in the army aeroplane which was used as an exhibit there, but it had never been operated during a flight. Successful results have been obtained operating a model dirigible, steering, stopping, starting, etc., by M. <>. Anthony, as has been previously described in Aeronautics.

An inquiry was made by this magazine of Captain (ieorge A. Wieczorek. of the Coast Artillery Corps at Fort Terry, N. V. In reply he says :

"Having followed the progress of wireless pretty closely for the past eight years, it appears to me that it would be rather difficult to get any practical result on account of the proximity of the spark in the cylinders of the engine. You see. the constant discharge taking place would set up a rattle in the receiver which would be practically continuous on account of the rapidity with which i he explosions take place.

MAY (iUlDE MACHINE HY WIRELESS.

"I believe, however, that it might be possible to arrange an apparatus on an aeroplane and to (bus guide its movements from the ground some distance away. In Cuba several years ago I had an apparatus set up only a few feet from an engine which used an electric spark to ignite the gas in the cylinder and after a little practice 1 had no difficulty in reading signals from Key West, '.Hi miles off. while the engine was running.

"An aerial for receiving could be easily and cheaply rigged up on an aeroplane and the lead from it could be run through the receiver and grounded on the runners or steel spokes of the wheels."

* Set in type for the September number but crowded out.

exhibition flying about the states.

"Warehouse Point, Conn., Aug. 17.—Charles F. Willard (Curtiss) made several nights here this •lay.

Bradford. Pa., on August 23, saw good flying )>y Willard. The grounds were exceedingly dangerous and the last flight ended in a damaged machine.

Greenfield, Mass., Aug. 27-20.—Willard filled the Greenfield date, with his large Curtiss machine making four fine flights, flying each day. He flow over the trees and the river and nearby settlements, and carried a passenger on two separate flights.

Hartford, Conn.. Sept. 5-9.—The flying at Hartford was of the usual Wright efficiency and consistency, and the meeting was entirely satisfactory. Frank'Coffyn filled the engagement with long and interesting flights.

Lincoln, Neb., Sept. 5-10.—Arch. Hoxsey (Wright) endeavored to fill a most difficult contract for flights between the hours of 10 and 12 in the morning, as well as two hours in the afternoon, lie found a small infield of a half-mile race track surrounded entirely by barns, grandstands and trees, as a place for him to fly. lu an endeavor, on the second day, to satisfy a large crowd, he went up successfully, but in landing was carried over asainst a barn and descended somewhat precipitately, lie was not injured, but the main planes of the machine were badly damaged.

Minneapolis. Minn.. Sept. .">-lo.— Conditions very similar to those at Lincoln were found here. However, Hoxsey came on from Lincoln and flew, to the great satisfaction of all concerned, completing the engagement which was interrupted by Welsh's poor landing. The weather was bad and there was but three days of flying. J. C. Mars represented the Curtiss type of machine.

Milwaukee, Wis., Sept. 12-10.—Arch. Hoxsey pleased the crowds at Milwaukee, though handicapped by poor grounds. He made a spectacular flight on'the opening day, going up SOo ft., cutting figure eights, diving, etc., in a 20-mile wind.

flying in.tuises eight spectators.

The flight of lloxsey's Wright aeroplane at the State fair on Sept. 10 resulted in an accident in which eight persons, five women and three men, were injured. The machine swerved sidelong from its course above the racetrack and plunged into the crowd in front of the gi-and stand.

The aviator was uninjured and the aeroplane was only slightly damaged.

Parkersburg, W. Va.—P. O. Parmelee, a new Wright aviator, filled an engagement here between the Oth and 10th inclusive, as a part of a celebration of a home-coming week. Upon arrival. Parmelee found that the small racetrack was not very adequate for flying, and he therefore selected an outside field for some work. This fact, however, did not prevent him from doing all of the flying within the small track, with the exception of but one day. On the last day of the exhibition he flew down the Ohio River and out over the town, returning and landing within the small infield. The Parkersburg committee wrote daily, expressing their delight and wonder at the wonderful exhibition Air. Parmelee was able to afford them.

other exhibition flights.

Charles F. Willard filled dates at St. Johns-bury. Vt., Sept. 15, and at llolyoke, Mass., Sept. 17-18. On Sept. 5-0 Eugene B. Ely flew at Kalamazoo, Mich. Augustus Post was at Canton. N. Y„ Sept. 13-10; J. A. L>. McCnrdv at Syracuse, N. Y„ Sept. 12th.; E. B. Ely at Rock Island, Ills., Sept. 12-17.

Aviator Eells. of the Kirkham-Eeils Aeroplane Company, at Bath. N. V.. made very successful flights before ten thousand people at the Naples. N. Y., fair on September 15 and 10. The machine, which is equipped with a Kirkham 25 to 30 h. p. 4-cylinder motor, gave evidence of extraordinary speed.

chicago-new york race.

There are ten aviators officially entered for Ihe Chicago 7'o.sf-New York Times Chicago-New York race for the $25,000 prize between the 8th and 15th of October.

Those entered are J. 0. Mars. Glenn 11. Curtiss and C. F. Willard. flying Curtiss machines, and either McCurdy or Ely in addition ; Capt. Thomas

S. Baldwin (Baldwin), James Radley of England (Bleriot), Todd Shriver (Shriver-Dietz), Joseph Seymour (Curtiss). Charles K. Hamilton (Curtiss type).

The winner of the $25,000 will be the man who first arrives In New York, provided he is there by the 15th. Starts may be made any rime after sunrise on October 8th.

At Chicago, from the 1st to the 7th inclusive, exhibition flights will be conducted by the Chicago Eveniitu Post, in which the competitors in the race itself are required to take part. The aviators will he given a percentage of the gate receipts. The first two days are open to anyone, but the remaining ones will be devoted to the flights of only those who arc actually starting in the race. Sixty per cent, of the proceeds from these exhibitions will be given the aviators taking part in the rare itself, as follows : The aviator who reaches New Vork first or the nearest point to New York in the time set for the race, will receive of this i'o per cent, a share amounting lo 40 per cent.; i he second besl man gets 20 per cent.; the third, 15 per cent., and the remaining 25 per cent, is divided pro rata among other contestants, with the provision, however, that no one of these "also rans" shall get more than the 15 per cent, allowed the third man in the race.

international aviation tournament.

Arrangements for the international aviation tournament, October 22-30', have at last assumed definite form, and energetic effort is being made to make the big meeting at Belmont Park the most successful event of the kind ever given in America.

The subscribers committee has raised about $125.oiio in popular subscriptions, and both the funds and the general business management of the meeting have now been turned over to the Aero Corporation, Ltd., which in turn has named several committees to take charge of the genera) work of organization. Allan A. Ryan is made chairman of the committee on arrangements and becomes the practical business head of the meeting. J. C. McCoy, as chairman of the committee on aviation, has charge of the programme, procuring of the aviators and all things that pertain to the sporting phase of the tournament.

Cash prizes lo the amount of $50,000 are offered and in addition to this a profit-sharing arrangement has been decided upon whereby the aviators will get a large part of the net receipts of the meeting after deducting the necessary expenses. Under this arrangement the aviators will receive 70 per cent, of the first $10o,()oo net profits, and 40 per cent, of all sums over that. The managers are assuming that with good weather and normal attendance there will be something like $20o.0oo to be divided among the aviators under this plan.

General business headquarters of the tournament have been opened in the Fifth Avenue Building at Fifth Avenue and Twenty-third Street, and a force of experts and clerks are at work there putting things into shape.

Belmont Park is undergoing such transformation as is necessary to make it suitable for the airmen and the big crowds. All obstructions have been removed from the infield where a two-and-a-half kilometre course is being laid out for the general events. A five kilometre course for the Gordon Bennett trophy race will extend outside of the park to the cast, but the start and finish of all events will take place directly in front of the grandstand.

The Gordon Bennett international race, which will doubtless lie the banner day of the meeting, will occur on October 20. and the elimination trials for the selection of the American team will probably take place October 20. Coming as it does after the close of all other meetings here and abroad, it is expected that the list of entries for the $50,000 prizes will be large. Nearly two months before the opening of the meeting, it is said by the management, that applications had been received from a larger number of foreign and American aviators than have ever appeared at any American meeting, and by October 15. it is expected that the aviation committee will be able to close its books witli as interesting a list of airmen as have ever appeared at any one meeting.

For the Gordon Bennett contest France has already named Alfred Le Blanc, Hubert Latham

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Complete Exhibition of Aeroplanes, Dirigibles, Sphericals, Parts, Supplies, Accessories and All Articles of a Kindred Nature

rT~'HE BUILDING contains over 38,000 sq. feet of floor space, this has been laid out to give the public 1-3 and the exhibitors 2-3. More than half the exhibition space has already been taken, but we wish to show our visitors the besT; variety possible—so we would appreciate and do solicit communications from all interested.

ST. LOUIS NATIONAL AERO SHOW

Coliseum Building :: :: :: St. Louis, Mo.

> tti titîtïîîlliliXllliitiî

In answering advertisements please Mention this magazine.

The Aero Club of St. Louis

announces the national aero show

November 17th to 24th, 1910

and Rene Labonchere. England has officially named as the British team Claude Grahame-White. .lames Radley and Alec Ogilvie. In addi! lion to these there are several other foreign i aviators who have made application to be entered for participation in the general events. Henry Weymann and J. Armstrong Drexel. two well-known American aviators, have sent over from Europe their entries for the meeting, and it is quite likely that they will enter in the elimination trials for the Gordon Bennett. Glenn 11. Curtiss. who brought the trophy to America, lias tieen offered the privilege of heading the American team without taking part in the eiiminatory trials, and if lie accepts this offer it will intensify the rivalry among the other American aviators for the other two places.

Barge sums of money are to be spent in advertising the meeting in all parts of the country, and the managers are preparing for the greatest crowds ever assembled for any sporting event in the vicinity of New York Pity.

Curtiss has still another new machine in the background in anticipation of the proper turning of the Aero Club tide for the international. Curtiss objects to entering into certain present arrangements as regards the race. If the Aero Club makes arrangements which, in Ills opinion will permit him with dignity to be one of the defenders of tlie cup. it is prophesied that Ci "tiss will be on the job with a machine expecti 1 to beat anything yet. In any case, it is pr ' ible .1. P. Mars will compete in the ejected eli nina-tion trials for the selection of the American team. There are available for this team those holding pilot certitieates of the A. C. A., the self-constituted judge of one*s ability to fly.

The following is a list of pilots to whom the Aero Club of America has granted aviation licenses up to September 1.

Glenn IP Curtiss. Wilbur Wright.

Frank P. Lahm. Clifford B. Harmon.

Louis Paulham. Capf. Thomas S. Baldwin.

Orville Wright. J. A. Drexel.

J. C. Mars made a successful attempt for an aviator's license at Sheepshead Bay, which license he will no doubt be granted at the next meeting of the governors. Tod Shriver has also complied with the rules.

Capt. Thomas S. Baldwin has begun the construction of an aeroplane in the anticipation of being one of those to defend the Gordon Bennett cup.

New York, Sept. PS.—The programme of events for the international meet at Belmont Park were announced today.

The summary of the programme for the meet follows : x f

Gordon Bennett Internal ional............ .$5.ODD

Gordon Bennett Elimination............. 1.500

Totalization of duration................. 0.000

■rand speed............................ 4.500

Grand altitude.......................... :!.ooii

Fastest flight ten kilometers............. .",.000

Passenger carrying..................... -"!.<_>< >0

Cross-country .......................... PiOo

Cross-country passenger carrying.......... 2.n0<»

Kilometer straightaway.................. 2.."¡50

Total ...............................!f:P",.S50

DAILY.

Dailv totalization of d lira 1 ion - — S days.

ipSoO each........................... .fO.SOO

nor in,v.

llourlv altitude, l:: hours. .$4oo each..... ,$5.2oo

Hourly distance—7 hours. $4oo each...... 2.son

Hourly sliced—5 hours. $400 each......... 2.000

Total ...............................S 10.000

General prizes..........................s.",.",S5o

Mechanics' general prizes................. 1.000

Daily prizes............................ Ki.OiHi

llourlv prizes........................... lo.ooo

Michelin prize.......................... 4.<)(>(>

Scientific American trophy...................

Total ................................< 55.05O

To better the present standing in the 1010 Michelin contest one will have to beat 244 miles and a duration of 5 hours and 3 minutes.

aero calendar of the united states.

Sept. 10-24- Detroit. Mich.. Wright aviators. "

Sept. 20-22- Pueblo. Colo., Ilillery Beachey in Gill biplane.

Sept. 20-24— Allentown. Pa., to Philadelphia and return. J. A. D. MeCurdv (Curtiss).

Sept. 21.—Olean, X. Y.. flights by Willnrtl (Curtiss!.

Sept. 21-22—Roanoke, Ya., K. I*. Ely (CurtissP Sept. 22-2S—Knoxville. Tenn., Wright aviators. Sjjjl ji-MB i"j WtitTHfr4piua^_e^Ft—\y»iHa~t( 1 (('irT-

tiss).

Sept. v20-30—Trenton. X. ,1.. Wright aviators. Sept. -27-30—Rochester. X. IP, Wright aviators. Sept. 27-30—Poughkeepsie, X. Y., E. B. Ely (CurtissP

Sept. 2.s — Montevista, Cal., Ilillery Beachey in (Jill biplane.

Sept. 2H—Boston. Mass.. ('has. F. Willard (Curtiss).

SepP2jP(2d-—1—^Helena. Mont., ,1. C. Mars.

Oct." 1-V—Chicago. 1111.. exhibitions by entrants in Chicago-New York race, and bv others.

(let. I-S—Springfield. III.. Wright aviators.

Oct. l-i — Sedalia. Mo.. Wright aviators.

Oct. 5—Danbury, Conn.. E. B. Fly (Curtiss).

Oct. 3-i—Washington. Pa., Wright aviators.

Oct. ::-8 Spokane. Wash.. ,). A. D. McCurdy (Curtiss).

Oct. 3-S—Richmond, Ya.. Wright aviators. Oct. 4-7—Cumberland, Md., Ilillery Beachey in Pill biplane.

Oct. 0-12- Birmingham. Ala.. Wright aviators.

Oct. JS-15—Chicago-New York race.

Oct. S-1S—St. Louis, Mo., aviation meet in conjunction with the international balloon race ; Wright aviators and others.

Oct. 12—Youngstown. <>.. E. B. Ely (Curtiss I.

Oct. 17—St. Louis. Mo., Gordon Bennett balloon race.

Oct. 22-30—l>elmon1 Park. L. P. international aviation meet, including Gordon Bennett aviation race, latter on Oct. 20.

Oct. 2.N-XOV. 1- Macon. Ga.. Wright aviators.

Nov. 2-12—Philadelphia, Pa., aero show of Pennsylvania A. C.

Xov. 17-24—/-St. Louis. Mo., Coliseum aero show.

UoLV/f-£-^Aero Show of A. C. of Illinois.

thirteen balloons in indianapolis race

Indianapolis. Ind.. Sept. 17. Drifting northeast from this city are thirteen balloons. Nine of them are sailing to win a chance to represent America in the International Balloon Race at St. Louis. 011 October 17. and four were entered in the free for all event for a diamond studded cup.

Pilot John Berry of St. Louis, who won the American championship race last year in the balloon Pniversity City, entered in the free-for-all.

The National championship entrants are 11. E. Honeywell. St. Louis. "Sr. Louis": William T. Assmann. St. Louis. "Miss Sophia'Vr Louis von I'lnil. St. Louis. "Million Population Club" : .1. 11. Wade, Jr.. Cleveland. "Buckeye" : Clifford B. Harmon. Xew York. "Xew York" : Alan II. llawley. Xew York. "America"; Arthur T. Atherholt. Phila X. Y., "lloosier." and C. G. Fisher, Indianapolis, delphia, "Pennsylvania"; Charles Walsh, Kingston. "Indiana IP"

The free-for-all race entrants arc Capt. John Bcrrv. St. Louis. "Pniversity City" : II. W. Jacobs. Topeka, Kan.. "Topeka" : Albert llolse. Cincinnati. "Drifter," and Dr. L. F. Custer. Dayton, "Luzerne."

international balloon race.

the Cordon Bennett balloon race at St.

following foreign enlrants

von A-be*erorr:-Lieut.

and Captain

For

Louis on Oct. 17, the have been named ;

(lermany. -1 lauptmann _Y-ut»K Ingenieur Hans Gericke.

Switzerland. Colonel Schaeck Mess nor. v

France.- A. Le Bla^ic and Jacques Faure.

Pe Blanc was a French representative at St. Louis is 1001. and Yon Abereron represented Ger many. Col. Schaeck won the P.»(kS race for Swit zerland. and established a world's duration record of 72 hours.

Lamson Issues Notice of Infringement.

Becker «.V Blakoslee, attorneys for Charles IT. Lamson, of Pasadena, Cal., have sent out a letter to various makers and dealers in aeroplanes, demanding that the recipients cease making, selling or using flying machines. The principal claims of the patent, with drawings, were printed in the July, 1010, issue of Akihix.u'tics. The letter follows :—

"This is formal notice to you of the issuance of Letters Patent of the United States, number (»00,427. dated January 22. 1001, to Charles 11. Lamson, which said letters patent you are infringing, in making, using or selling flying machines or mechanism or apparatus for navigating the air. We are directed by Mr. Lamson, the patentee, to demand of you and your agents, attorneys and servants, thai you and each of them cease and terminate any such act or acts of infringement of said letters patent, or acts of infringement of said letters patent of any nature whatsoever, and that you and each of them respect said letters patent and the monopoly and rights thereby granted and awarded to said patentee. Suit for infringement of said letlers patent is now pending against the Wright Company, of Dayton. Ohio, and further suits for infringement of said letters patent will in due course of time bo instituted against other infringers; and the court will be asked to enjoin any such act or acts of infringement, and to award to said patentee the damages and profits involved in and flowing from any such act or acts of infringement, and to grant such further relief as may in each instance be proper and warranted by the facts.

"Pending adjudication upon said letters patent, and in order that no person, firm or corporation engaged in truly promoting the sport and art of aerial navigation may be barred or interfered with in such efforts, we are prepared to issue proper licenses covering the manufacture, use, sale and attendant activities involving the use of the invention covered by said letters patent. The initial payments on account of royalties or license fees in connection with the issuance of such licenses, will be nominal in each instance: and the payment of the balances on account of such license fees and royalties will be made conditional upon such adjudication of said letlers patent as shall amount to a determination of the validity thereof." "Very respectfully.

"Becker & Bi.akksi.kk, "Attorneys and Counsel for Chas. II. Lamson."

National Council of A. C. A. Issues By-Laws.

The National Council of the Aero Club of America has issued its first booklet. Full details of the organization of the Council have already been given in Aehonautics.

The clubs now belonging to the National Council pay $25 a year dues and $1 for each member. New-clubs joining the Council must pay an initiation fee of $50 and $1 for each member. Though, if admitted between January 1st and July 1st. the rate is but 50 ceuts for each member.

It seems more than ever apparent (hat the whip hand is with the Aero Club of America, as one of its officers announced at the time of the formation of the new body. The by-laws provide lhat the chairman of the Executive Committee be named bv the Aero Club of America, and in addition, the Club has the privilege of naming another voting-

representative: the other thirteen composing the Executive Committee being made up of the other members of the Council. The Executive Committee, has complete control of affairs between semi-annual meetings of the Council, and the chairman exercises executive powers between meetings of the Executive Committee.

Following out the up-to-the-present-existing policy of the Aero Club of America, to have the whole, say so far as possible in matters aeronautical, the! plan of the National Council is to have but onel club in each State a member of the Council; thatl club in turn to have affiliated with it the local clubs of its State. The exception is made, however, of the clubs represented at the organization meeting. As many clubs in one State or Territory as were represented, are now members of the Council.

Tl:1 ConPst Committee has made out a very, com; ' 'o s< I < 1 conditions to be observed by those pron, ,''ng r 's. though there is no case on reeordJ where these 1 "\e been complied with as yet. On<| particular i;dc of interest provides for the prel venting of any performance by a contestant refusl ing to conform to the rules and regulations of thj National Council, and the inflicting of penal ciel and disqualifications.

The Contract and License Commiltee is to keejl in touch with the qualifications of all professional and amateur aeronauts and aviators and to seell to induce them to apply for pilot licenses.

The Academic Committee is supposed to be conl versant with the work done by the various gov! ernmenls, schools and laboratories, and to eo-oper-1 ate with educational authorities "with nower t<| receive donations and confer medals." The Aeni Club of America has always been gratifyinglj active in the awarding of medals, certificates of merit, the holding of banquets and participating in other strenuous labors. Perhaps the most inil portant committee is the one on publicity, amonÉ whose duties is the furnishing of news items tl the press.

Every affiliated club is entitled to one votinj member in the Council, though another représentai five is provided for and allowed the privilege of attendance at all meetings and the right to débat» but no vote.

Promoters of meets or exhibitions are asked to pay a fee of $100 to cover the first two days of the meet and $50 for each additional day.

Wheels on the Army Aeroplane.

Through the kindness of General James Allen. Chief Signal Officer of the Army, we are able to furnish some interesting details of the wheel arrangement on the Army aeroplane.

The original idea in equipping the machine with wheels was to employ a system whereby th# wheels would be used for starting and both skidj and wheels would be used in landing, thus minimizing the amount of reconstruction of the under structure of the machine, and reducing the wear and tear upon both wheels and skids in landings. This idea has been carried out with but slight modification and the results have been entire! sitisfactory. Five wheels 14 in. in diameter are' used. Four wheels in pairs under the machinf (one pair for each skid), and one wheel in frontI to support the weight of the machine in front of the main planes. All wheels have the same dimensions, are interchangeable and are equipped with steel rims and 2V£ in. single tube tires. Each pair of wheels under the machine arc operated on a steel shaft 12 in. in length, connecting its two wheels. 'Phis shaft rests on top of th#, skid, and is held down in place by means of ij1 vertical wooden block and two vertical tension | springs. Across the top of the wooden block is a

OUR FORMER ADVERTISEMENTS

Have inaugurated to some extent the thought, of standardization in aeronautic matters. They have evidently interested the aero man, for as a primary result, ive have received large numbers of inquiries and orders. As a secondary result, we can show many testimonials from men 7c/io are Jlying every day.

IN FUTURE

We shall advertise RESULTS—not promises, are hard to imitate.

RESULTS

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If you know what you want, we will supply it. If you are not sure, we will assist yon to decide. To get quick attention, enclose a small deposit, (l0°o usual). This gets your order on rile. You know our prices from former advertisements.

IF YOU HAVE ALREADY

Used our propeller, write and tell us about it at once. Your experience will undoubtedly help others. We will print your letter under this heading:

MEN WHO FLY EVERY DAY

John J. Slavin Esq. of Los Angeles, Cal., says:

Los Angeles, Cal., 8/31/10. To Requa-Gibson Company, 225 West 49th Street, New York, N. Y. Gentlemen:

Yours of the 26th inst. received, and in reply will say, that we have secured a 260 lbs. thrust with your propeller at 1,400 R. P. M.

1 have made several short flights with the propeller, the longest being 200 feet, when I met with an accident which the enclosed clipping will explain. 1 then wired you an order for a 7 ft. propeller.

1 can honestly recommend your propeller to anyone wishing to secure an efficient propeller, and take pleasure in giving you this testimonial.

Very truly yours, 1645 Maple Ave. J. J. Slavin.

(NOTE : The above propeller used was a 6 ft. Dia., by 4 ft. pitch.)

Captain T. S. Baldwin of New York, says

AIR BALDWIN'S QUIP

"California Arrow" »J1

New York, July 9th, 1910. To The Requa-Gibson Company, 225 West 49th Street, New York, N. Y. Gentlemen :

It gives us pleasure to be able to tell you that your propeller has given us entire satisfaction. 1 think the silk reinforcement on the tips is a great improvement, as I have had broken wires etc. get caught in the propeller without doing serious damage to same.

Whenever 1 can say a word for the REQUA-GIBSON propeller, you may rest assured that 1 will do so.

Yours very truly,

Thomas S. Baldwin.

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flat steel rod with ends turned up into which the ends of the springs are fastened. The other ends of the springs are fastened to the skid by means of metal bands. The two vertical springs and wooden block are enclosed within a .ight galvanized iron casing to prevent the springs and block from distortion due to lateral strains. In addition to the heavy vertical springs, four horizontal springs are employed to minimize the horizontal torque on the wheels resulting while running on the ground. These springs are attached to the shaft so that one pair exerts tension toward the rear, while the other pair opposes this tension. The single wheel in front is provided ■nth two pieces of Hat spring steel which constitute "a fork for the wheel. The pieces of spring steel are fastened to a cross bar and guyed in four directions with steel wire to prevent movement in any direction. These pieces of spring steel are designed to support a weight of about JSit pounds under a-7 inch deflection. This weight being sufficient to force the skids to the ground. The operation of the machine as regards the use of wheels is as follows :

With the engine running and the machine held stationary, the front end of the skids are fol'ced to the ground, dm' to the high thrust of the propellers. Upon releasing the machine it moves forward slowly at first. As soon as the front plane is elevated, the air pressure under the elevating plane raises the front skids and allows the front: wheel to do its work. As soon as the momentum of the machine, increases the weight of the machine upon the vertical springs decreases until finally all the wheels leave the ground. Upon

the latest gill biplane.

The Howard W. (Jill Curtiss type biplane which made its first appearance, with successful flights, driven by a stock J(> h. p. automobile engine, at the l.os Angeles meet, has been taken over by the St. Louis Aeronautic Supply Co.

The later type Gill machine, on Farman lines, and without any front rudder, has started on an exhibition career with Hillery I'.eachey as aviator.

The vertical control of the (Jill biplane differs from other biplanes by its location in the rear of the machine, where it also acts as a steadying plane as well as tin elevator.

As will be seen from the drawing it consists of two superposed planes which are pivoted slightly in front of their center of pressure about one-thin] of the distance from the front edge, both of which planes are connected front and rear by upright wires so that they work in unison.

To give added security the wires controlling the elevator are in duplicate and besides a safety wire is also placed in the rear plant. As these planes are hinged forward of their center of pressure should anything happen it would have the same effect as the operator taking his hand off the controlling lever in which event the rear planes would point down and start the ship climbing upward, in this case the safety wire comes into effect and only allows the machine to climb at a safe upward angle, so that by slowing down tin-motor the machine can be brought naturally and safely to the ground.

A landing of this nature was made necessary in the experimental stages at l.os Angeles, fal..

gill biplane control

landing, the machine is guided so as to land upon iue m,nt wu-el. I.'nder the force of impact the front wheel is deflected upward, allowing the skids to strike the ground. The pairs of wheels under the machine as they strike the ground are forced upward, allowing the skids to strike1 the ground. The reaction of all the springs after the initial impact raises the machine and allows it to run along the ground until it comes to a full stop.

One of the most unpleasant features in lauding on wheels is the difficulty experienced in stopping the machine after landing. This is extremely vital, particularly when landing in a small enclosure. This difficulty has been practically eliminated by means of the flexible front wheel and the use of the front elevating control. t'pon striking the ground the front control is depressed, the air pressure on top of it being sufficient to hold the skids on the ground, thus bringing the machine to a full stop in nearly the s.anie space as was formerly the case when using the skids alone.

During the month of August Lieut. Foulois made several short flights, aggregating in time "•"> minutes and 43 seconds. These flights were merely experimental, and for purposes of testing out the new system of control and the new system of wheels.

through a broken wire, and was made without any breakage to the machine, and in such a natural way that those who witnessed it were unaware until told.

A hand-lever placed on the right side operates the vertical control. A forward movement increasing the angle of incidence in the rear tail which raises the tail and steers the biplane downward. Pulling back on the lever reverses the' movement and steers the machine upward. This same lever also controls the ailerons. At first it was hinged in a universal .joint to secure both the forward and sideway motions. This was afterward changed to the T-joint shown as it was found to give a better control than by pivoting the lever on a universal joint. In the improved joint both the forward and sideway movements are more positive and distinct. With this new type lever a movement of the ailerons can be made without any tendency to work the elevator also, or vice versa.

At first the rear elevator was found to have a decided lag, a movement to raise the ship would apparently have no effect, which made the operator feel that the lever had not been moved sufficiently to raise the machine and generally resulted in and increased movement of the lever then as Hie flyer

would start rising duo to the first movement the lever would lie pushed forward to carry the machine level when on account of the ship still rising it would seem as if it was beyond control. P.y increasing the surface of the rear tail and reducing the weight this lag. nearly always apparent in an aeroplane controlled vertically from the rear, was to all practical purposes eliminated.

As it is necessary for good stability to have a machine with a rear plane it is a big advantage to use this tail as an elevator also. To leave off the front elevator not only makes a lighter machine by some 4n to so pound's, but makes the rest of the ship stronger by its not having to stand this added weight, on account of their being no obstruction in front. In ease of an accident the operator is less liable to be caught under the ma-citine and crushed. [t is bound to make a faster and therefore more stable flyer by the elimination of the head resistance of the front planes and their supports.

wellman airship.

Rapid progress is being made toward the preparation of the Wellman airship "America" for its promised attempt to cross the Atlantic. Since the last start for the pole on August 15. lit 10, the airship has been enlarged and improved and an entirely new steel car placed under it. It is anticipated that the voyage across the Atlantic will require from six to ten days, depending on the force of the prevailing winds.

Trials will be made at Atlantic City in which the equilibrium will not be used, sand and water ballast being employed instead. These trips are 1o test the machinery and get everything in running order.

The ''America" is the second largest airship ever built, and next to the Zeppelin in size, but has it larger carrying capacity than the Zeppelin. The ship has been built and perfected in Paris under the direction of Walter Wellman. and the personal supervision of Chief Engineer Vaniman, who designed most of the ship and constructed .many parts and accessories.

facts about the airship "america."

Length of P.alloon..........228 feet.

Greatest Diameter.......... 52 feet

Volume..............IMo.OOOi en. ft.

1 cubic foot of air weighs 1 1/5 oz.

¡545.0<m> cubic feet of air weighs 25,800 pounds. The balloon is inflated with hydrogen gas generated by using eighty tons of sulphuric acid and sixty tons of iron turnings. The gas is washed and dried to make it as light and pure as possible. This gas weighs one-tenth of an ounce per cubic foot and the :',45.imm» cubic feet required to fill the balloon weighs 2.15(1 pounds, the gas being twelve times lighter than air. The lifting force of the balloon therefore is the difference between the weight of the air displaced and the weight of the hydrogen with which the balloon is filled. The total lifting force of the "America" is 2."».050 pounds.

The balloon itself, composed of three thicknesses of cotton and silk gummed together with rubber to make it gas tight, weighs 4,850 pounds. Underneath the balloon is suspended by steel cables the car. which weighs 4.400 pounds. This car is built of the highest grade steel lubing and in places withstands stresses of twelve tons. The car is 150 ft. in length, and the steel tank at its base is 75 ft. long with a capacity of 1.250 gals, of gasoline. The engines, three in number, (two of SO h. p. and a service motor of 10 h. p.) are placed in the steel car. Each of the large motors drives a pair of twin screws, and each propulsion system is independent of the other. The motors and other machinery weigh about 1.500 pounds. Sleeping quarters are provided the crew of six men in the triangular parts of the car. An electric light system, a wireless telegraph equipment and a telephone connecting the different parts of the ship are being installed.

A specially built life-boat, constructed in England, will be swung underneath the car, fully equipped with provisions, water and instruments t'o

lie used by the crew in an emergency. This life-boat weighs less than 1,000 pounds.

Hanging from the airship by a strong steel cable is what is known as the "equilebrator," a, part of which will float upon the surface of the sea. the other being suspended vertically in the air. The purpose of this is to act as an automatic regulator of the upward and downward movements of the airship. When the ship rises, it must lift some of the equilebrator from the surface of the sea in order to go up, and this added weight checks the rising movement. Conversely, when change of temperature or accumulation of moisture causes the airship to descend, a greater part of the equilebrator is let down upon the sea, thus reducing the weight carried by the balloon and checking the descent. The equilebrator is! composed of thirty steel tanks containing gasolinej and strung together by a strong steel cable. TluJ gasoline thus carried is a reserve supply for the! engines.

The total supply of gasoline carried will bo 10.000 pounds, or about 1,800 gallons, which is considered sufficient to drive the airship from Atlantic City to Europe. The distance is about ri.OOO miles.i With one engine running, the airship will have a] speed of twenty miles per hour, and the quantity ofl gasoline carried would run one engine 200 hour*.] With both engines running, the ship's speed in still air will be about 20 miles per hour.

patents.

Fred Lincoln Gould. Peno, Nov.. assignor of onoJ quarter to John H. Dodd and one-quarter to Am-j brose M. Smith. Peno, Nov.. 0sg.452. July 2("1 1910,, filed Feb. 5, 1000. FLYING MACHINE o| the helicopter type comprising two vertical masts! one rotatable with the other, and each carrying a parachute having apertures therein, with blade! set in the apertures. Moans are provided to rocM the blades so as to present different angles of in! cidenee or close entirely the apertures in the] parach ute.

Clifford Broderick Cronan. Shelburne Falls.] Mass., 005.022, July 2g, 1010. filed Fob. 17, lOOoJ FLYING MACHINE consisting of a main frame! and a skeleton frame arched in its upper portion! and covered with thin pliable covering. The skeleton frame is so constructed that it may be rocket! longitudinally and laterally. There are planes anc! propellers on vertical axes within the structure for sustention.

John G. Stites. Willowbrook. and Frank Stitos. Los Angeles. Cal., 005.401. July 20. 101 o. filedj March 24, 1010. FLYING MACHINE SUPPORT! 1NG PLANE. -V double canvas surf ace sewed in such manner as to provide longitudinal and "trans] verse pockets. "Rafters" are inserted into tha side longitudinal pockets while a "ridge pole" isl inserted in the intermediate longitudinal pocket] and "ribs" are inserted into the transverse pocket sj

John Law Garsed, Elland. England. ¡MÍ5.2S9. Jul j 20. 1010, filed Nov. 11, 1000. Apparatus for operl ating planes or wings and rudders of aerial ma-j chines. Two shafts are arranged end to end unci are provided at their adjacent ends with bevel] gears into which a miter gear meshes, the latter! provided with a hand wheel. In addition to thf| rotation provided by the above there is also a handle attached to a rocking frame suspended from the shafts and foot pieces applied for giving slig-ht rotary or oscillating motions to shafts.

Leónidas Hamlin Barringer. Charleston. W. Val 9(15.082. July 20. 1!)10|. filed May 20. 190s. AIRSHIP, the characteristic feature of which lies in an open ended casing or cylinder extending- ceil trally and longitudinally through the cigar-shapefl gas bag. The cylinder is hold in place by pari! tion secured to it and to the envelope and these partitions serve in addition to form separate gas] containing compartments. The usual car is suspended from lhe envelope and transmission means are provided to rotate propellers in till central easing or cylinder.

I. S. A. - TRIACA

International School of Aeronautics and Albert C. Triaca, Aeroplanes

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Show in Washington.

l'nrter 11 o auspices of the Aero-Scientific Club of Washington. 1». C. an aero exhibit will be held at the i'nion Station, in that citv. week of October ::d.

An invitat'ou is extended to all persons having new id.; inventions, flying machines or any aero appliances to exhibit. There will be no expense to i xhilntors. beyond transportation.

Will also hold amateur aero meet at College Park, mar Washington, opening October 17th, and continuing ten days. All exhibitors having machines here on exhibition can have full week for try out and practice work at College Park aviation Held and grounds, before the meet, tints becoming familiar with field and grounds and be able to make credible showing at the meet.

All persons who desire to enter exhibit or wish particnlai in regard to meet, communicate with P. L. Ki i. sicretnry. 014 19th street. X. W.. Washington. 1) ('

Philadelphia Aero Show Changes Date.

The aero show which has been announced by the Aero Club of Pennsylvania, to be held in the First Regiment Armory. Philadelphia, has been postponed a few days and will now be hold November 2 to 12.

This postponement has been found necessary because a number of the aeroplanes which will be on. exhibition and which will be the principal attractions for the public will be competitors in the P.elmont Park meet, and as these races have been put off until October 22 to 2fl, the arrangements have boon made to open the show on the Wednesday following, thus giving plenty of time to ship the machines from Long Island to Philadelphia and to sot them up in the Armory.

In response to a -number of requests from exhibitors who arc also going to show their goods in St. Louis, the A. C. rf P. is arranging to have a special car engaged to bo packed with goods from the Philadelphia show immediately on the close, November 12, and to send this car by express to St. Louis, so that the exhibit can be sot up títere in time for the opening.

The Philadelphia show is attracting unusual interest among -dealers in aeronautic and aviation supplies because of the activity that has been recently shown by the Aero Club of Pennsylvania. This organization lias now gone into ballooning with weekly ascents scheduled. Its now grounds for aeroplane flights at Clementon. N. J., have been pronounced by those who have soon them to lie far ahead of most other grounds, both in their natural advantages and in the building which has been done on them.

The hangars on ihese grounds are three linn dred feet long and so constructed that there are six separate compartments, each 50 ft. wide and 40 ft. deep, and each containing a work-bench and' two sleeping compartments, to accommodate four persons. The club is also installing a complete machine shop to be run by a 5 h. p. gas engine, and the fact that every one of these hangars has already been leased for the entire winter is an indication of the busy days that are in store for members of this organization.

A largo percentage of the space in the Aero Show has already been taken by residents of eastern Pennsylvania. Southern Now Jersey and Delaware, of which Philadelphia is the natural center, those residents having turned in remarkable numbers to the manufacture and sale of aeronautic and aviation goods. The recent growth of the Aero Club of Pennsylvania has boon one of the most notable features of American aviation news and the club is being run upon a business basis which promises well for its futuro.

The •'Three States Aero Show" has been placed by the club under the management of Henry M. Neely, the secretary, who is also chairman of the committee on contests and exhibitions, and who lias had many years" experience in show management and publicity.

St. Louis National Aero Show.

Preparations for the St Louis National Aero Show, to be held November 11 to 24, in the great

Coliseum in St. Louis, under the auspices of the Aero Club of St. Louis, are rapidly progressing. The manager now believes there will be on exhibition from 12 to 15 full size aeroplanes and 40 or 50 flying models.

More than 35 concerns have already contracted for space at the show, among these are : AKKMN.u-Ties. Detroit Aeroplane Company. Aeronautic Supply Company. Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Aeromotion Company of America, Aerial Navigation Company of America, Leading Rrass Company, French-American Balloon Company. Missouri Stair Company. St. Louis Pattern & Model Company, Fnited Storage & Battery Com pany, Lawson Publishing Company, Phoenix Auto Supply Company. Western Oil Tump & Tank Company. O. K. Harry Steel Company, Erker Bros.

Among the complete aeroplanes to be shown will be a Wright machine which will occupy the place of honor at the main entrance, a Farman biplane, a Santos Dumont "Demoiselle," Gill biplane, Cur-tiss biplane. Baldwin biplane, and several other machines that have recently tried out, but have not yet made important flights.

A novel exhibit will be that of the Missouri Tent & Awning Company, makers of aeroplane hangars, which will show a model aviation field with a miniature grandstand, hangars and aeroplanes. Among the flying models there will be a novelty in the form of a ornithopter, which actually flies in much the same way as a humming bird.

The spaces devoted to the exhibits of inventors or those who will show plans, or specifications, or models of aircraft, in which they .desire to interest capital, are rapidly filling up.

G. L. llolton. manager of the show, with offices in the Coliseum building, reports that there is very little space left in the Coliseum and urges manufacturers who plan to exhibit there to advise him at once.

BALLOON TRIP OVER ROME

(Cox/innet? from jtage III)

I was seven hours on my voyage from Rome to Bonevcnto, going over the Apennines, whore I was well received by the Italians, who praised me very much, because 1 had courage to defy the Pope, who then had n bitter feeling for some cause against our nation. Several persons hailed me on my way. and wore highly delighted to see a groat balloon pass over their heads. 1 made the voyage of two hundred miles in the year 1SI!!> from Rome My American and English friends presented mo with a splendid flag in Rome, which they desired to see me wave over the city.

At that time only the Pope's flag was allowed to float over the Internal City, by orders of the Pope I Pius the Ninth) who reigned over the city, llis secretary. Antuuelli, and Governor Raudi. said I must not carry the Stars and Stripes over Rome. On my third ascent I put my flag in the car. and as ] began the ascent 1 took off the Pope's flag and put in its place the Star Spangled Banner and waved it in triumph. A tremendous shout from Americans and British and the admirers of Garibaldi was given as 1 sailed off towards the beautiful city or villa of Tivoli at the foot of the splendid Apennines.

I had to give away half the money received at the villa of Borghese. an immense garden belonging to Prince Borghese. who married Paulino, the sister of Napoleon the Groat. Aiioul four thousand dollars was taken at the gales. Garibaldi and Crispi were my friends, and seemed highly delighted with my courage and defiance of the Pope and Unman powers.

At Naples 1 received my fifteenth degree in Free masonry at the Garibaldi lodge. In the masonic lodge at Palermo, when- M. Crispi was the grand master of the lodge. 1 heard him ami others speak in favor of taking Koine by Garibaldi. The poet Longfellow and the 'Jnoen of Naples were among the twenty thousand people who saw my ascent at Rome.

TO OUR FRIENDS — We would appreciate it very much if you would specify in writing advertisers that you saw the ad. iu AERONAUTICS. This will help us, and eventually be of equal service to yourselves.

New High Powered Engine.

Owing to the demand for high powered engines of ()()-""> or even, more horsepower, the Detroit Aeronautic Construction Co. is contemplating putting on the market an S-cylinder engine. Their largest motor at present is a i> cylinder, 5 by 5, weighing complete about l!N." lbs., rated at (50-7.~i h. p.

Bosch Chicago Office Moved.

The oflice and headquarters of the Chicago branch of the l.oseh Magneto Company has removed from the former address at 12.">." Michigan Avenue, to 110-1121 Wast 24th Street. A two-story building midway between Michigan and Indiana Avenues.

Demountable Rims for Aeroplanes.

The Dorian Ucmountable Kim Co. has brought out a demountable aeroplane rim. The principle of the construction and operation of the aeroplane rim is the same as that of the automobile rim. the chief difference being that the felloe band of the automobile rim is shrunk on the wood felloe of the automobile wheel, while with the aeroplane rim. the wire spokes of the wheel are secured in the joint as per the general practice.

The five wedges of the aeroplane rim arc made of aluminum alioy. and the rims on which the tire is titted is of rolled sheet aluminum ; the felloe band is of steel.

The difference in weight between the rim and a regular clincher rim is about rc/o pounds per wheel.

To remove the rim with the deflated tire so that the rim with a properly inflated tire can be lifted in its place, it is necessary to merely remove three of the wedges by turning the nut "1!." which is held in tin- wedge by a plate so that it virtually forms part of the wedge; for this reason, it is i in possible (o lose a nut. The band to which the spokes of the wheel are secured is made of an alloy steel, and the rim holding 1he tire is made of steel aluminum alloy rolled to shape.

On Two-Cycle Engines.

At last even conservative Mineóla, the hotbed of aviation in the Kast. has come to accept the two-cycle engine of modernized type as one solution of the power problem for consistent aeronautic work, and none of the novice aviators there feel their chances for achievement are good without the now popular two-cycle engine.

In the Western States they found favor months ago. because Western users of gasoline engines know that all their fastest motor boats for the

past two or three years have been driven by lightweight two-cycle engines. And the winning of a great motor boat even demands from the power plant just what successful flight calls for.—an engine very light for its power, very simple in design, and one capable of turning a propeller at a high speed for considerable periods of time.

Automobile work is entirely different ; the motor must pull hard in starting or climbing hills, hut runs practically free on level ground.—except where extreme high speed is maintained. Frac-tically no "stock" automobile motor will stand maintained high speed; it overheats, connecting rod bearings pound to pieces, or, most frequently, the valves war]) and fail. The motors simply are not designed for indefinitely long runs at maximum sjieed. consequently no really successful flight has been made iu America with an and mobile engine. Two-cycle motors have been successful in motor boat work simply because they have been designed and perfected with but two ends in view, power for weight and long continued high speed.

Mineóla, however, knew little about boats or boat engines. Most of the men who formed the colony were graduates from the automobile school and they were sceptical concerning the alleged merits of the two-cycle engines.

"Nothing to it." they said at first, and then Dr. W. Greene made a couple of get-aways early in the season.

Dr. Greene's flights proved that the engines would fly, so Mineóla had to leave the general and come to the particular.

"Two-cycle engines are difficult to start." s;tid the "boys" ; but G. E. DeLong brought his Schneider 'plane to Mineóla with an Elbridge two-cycle engine, started it in two minutes the first time and on the spark whenever he liked for the rest of the day. The doubting Thomases were beginning to scratch their heads.

"Cut you can't keep a two-cycle engine cool with an ordinary radiator," they exclaimed, when a LM'i-h. j). radiator attached to a ."oh. p. engine boiled over after a ten-minutes'' run. Two or three days later .1. .1. Frisbie installed a four-cylinder Elbridge in his 'plane, used two small radiators so placed that they received an uninterrupted current of air. and not only did the two-cycle engine cool properly, but it was the only engine on the aviation field that could be run for twenty minutes at a stretch (standing) without boiling over.

"That's a nice little engine," said Captain llald-win to Frisbie, when the installation had been made and Frisbie was preparing for his trial flight, "but a man needs more power to fly with than you can get from four small cylinders."

"Great Scoft ! That's too much power for a novice to monkey with." said Captain Baldwin five minutes later, as Frisbie sailed by at a speed approximating fifty miles an hour.

"Anyway, you can't throttle down a two-cycle engine." was' their linal wail, quite refuted by different users, who throttled down the engines in their machines so well that the 'planes could be left standing alone with their propellers slowly turning.

That was the last straw, and the crowd bolted for two-cycle engines of the "Featherweight" type. George liussell. who has been using a four-cycle engine all summer installed a two-cycle and went away to fill an engagement. Frisbie. in three weeks, had learned to fly so well that he threatened the laurels of men who have spent more than months learning to fly, and lit- found easy money reaching out to him. Some half-dozen other's followed suit, until now there are more of one make of two-cycle engines being installed at Mineóla than all different four-cycle makes combined.

There now are literally dozens of them around New York. Their chief beauties seem to be strength, power and smooth-running. They have been in smash-ups of all kinds, but not a part of any one of the engines has been broken. Several

in the aerial market place

men report leaving the ground inside of 100 feet, which speaks well for their reserve power, and in summing up the operation of the engine the Eccnin;/ Sun of August 30 says it "runs like an electric motor."

At Buffalo on Labor Day an Elbridge "Featherweight" installed in the boat Klbridge V. won the $500 Buffalo Launch Chili trophy for the 25-inile championship of the "Great Lakes, under conditions so adverse that none of the other boats, mostly equipped with four-cycle engines of 250 to 300 h. p.. finished the race.

Kveu Europe has fallen victim to the seductions of the simple two-cycle engine, there are several new makes on the English market, aud the American manufacturers of the Elbridge "Featherweight"' engines are said to have declined to entertain a proposition guaranteeing $5o.ooo per year for European manufacturing rights.

Finest Workmanship Displayed on Burgess-Curtis Biplanes.

The Burgess Company & Curtis has good reason to be gratified by the many compliments the machines received for their construction and unequalled finish. Several of the aviators at the Boston meet have requested this concern to furnish It horn with spare parts or construct machines for them. The new Si-ft. propeller designed by W. Starling Burgess has attracted particular attention ever since it developed a thrust of more than 400 [pounds. While the power to produce such an enormous thrust was primarily due to the excellence of the eight-cylinder Indian motor, it is nevertheless greatly to the credit of the propeller itself that the power should be applied so efficiently.

IMPORTING CLEMENT MOTORS.

The Clement-Bayard motors, which this company is importing direct from the manufacturer, can be supplied at $1.5oo each. These motors when tested by Bleriofs engineers developed from 25 to 31 h. p. continuously and weigh less than 110 pounds. The well-known reputation of the Clement-Bayard factory is back of them.

The Burgess-Curtis machines at the Boston meet did not show up so prominently for unavoidable reasons. A (JO h. p. motor for the Burgess biplane owned by Messrs. Shoemaker and Milliard arrived only at the last moment before the meet, and Mr. Billiard has required a large amount of testing and adjusting in order to adapt the heavy motor and its s ft. propeller to a machine designed for a light 25 h. p. motor using a 0-ft. propeller. Then, again, the Clement Bayard motor for the Model C machine arrived only the very day on which the Model C was shipped to the aviation field. There were many delays in getting the motor set up and properly provided with radiator and other accessories.

In view of the fact that the company has not yet succeeded in securing the services of an experienced aviator. Mr. Burgess recently decided to undertake flying one of the Model B machines himself, lie has shown considerable proficiency in making short jumps on an even keel, but a's he keenly realizes that any damage resulting to the machine from faulty handling on the part of the aviator would lie attributed by the public to faults in the biplane itself, he is pursuing a conservative policy and making progress slowly.

Goodyear Four-Inch Tires.

Large size tires are coming more into favor, as they deserve. They ride holes and ruts in fields where small tires catch and buckle the wheels.

The Goodyear 'lire and Kubber Co. is now making 2o x 4-in. detachable and 20 x 2-in. single-tube tires, and expects to increase its facilities in this ' line shortly.

The Anzani Aviation Motor.

The 3-eylinder Anzani motor, which, since an agency was started in the Fnited States, has already sold well, is made in five sizes, ranging from lo h.p. to 45 h.p. Specifications of these motors follow here below.

The cylinders are radially disposed and are placed at an angle of approximately (50 degrees. Assuming thai the cylinders are numbered one, two, three, the explosions will take place first in number one cylinder, then in number three and

finally in number two. This distributes the explosions evenly over the circumference, which insures almost perfect balancing of the engine. The cylinders are cast in steel separately, the valve chamber being solid with the chamber wall.

The valves are of the well known mushroom type of nickel steel ; the inlet valves are operated automatically and arc situated at the top of the cylinders, while the exhaust valves are located at the side of the cylinders and are operated from a single timing gear.

The air cooling as used for the Anzani motors lias proved very efficient. As the motor runs all the time at top speed a tremendous circulation of air is obtained, which insures perfect cooling. Even if the motor is installed in the rear of the machine, the suction caused by the propeller is sufficient to create a draught, which in itself will cool the motor.

The pistons are cast in steel, and are extra light. The connecting rods are attached to a single throw of the crankshaft. The crankshaft is made of nickel steel and is balanced by counterweights, which are taking the place of the flywheel. No camshaft is used and a pinion is attached to the end of the crankshaft, which drives the timing gear, oil pump, and ignition timer.

The G. & A. carburetors have been adopted for the Anzani motors and an extra light model specially constructed for aviation is used. The carburetor operates entirely automatically.

The ignition by 0-volt storage battery and high tension multiple unit coil or by high-tension Bosch magneto.

Splash lubrication. The oil is distributed through all parts of the motor by means of a rotary oil pump.

All motors are fitted with a thrust bearing, which is placed outside of the ernnkcase. in case a pushing force is required, and inside of the crankcase when a pulling force is needed.

After the success obtained with the 3-cylinder motor Anzani decided to construct also 4 and .">-eylinder motors. The 5-eylinder motor has proved quite a success. This motor is furnished either in 5o or too h.p. The same principles of construction of the 3-cylinder motor have been followed for the .'-cylinder. The cylinders are equally distributed over the circumference. Special attention has been given to the lubrication system and the oil is forced by means of a pump through a system of piping to all the bearings of engine.

Anzani is one of the pioneers in the manufacture of aviation engines, and Bleriot's success in crossing the English channel with an Anzani engine established an enviable reputation for this engine.

Among the famous aviators which have used the Anzani engine we can mention the following: Bleriot, Delagrange. Morave. Molon, Olieslaegers, Leblanc. Masnet, de Lpsscps and IJalsan.

The following machines have been from time to time "Ansani installed:" Bleriot. Hanriot, Tellicr, Vendoine, Xieuporl and I>ubonnet.

aeronautics' permanent exposition

EVERY dav there are visitors to the PERMANENT EXPOSITION, wanting to see this motor or that, tires, magnetos, propellers, et cetera. The scheme has not been a complete success, by reason of the very fact that some advertisers are too successful in getting orders beyond the immediate supply. Not a single motor has yet been shown in the exhibition room.

Within the last week there have been added several most interesting exhibits, among them a propeller of the American Propeller Co., the Pennsylvania tire exhibit, a sample board of Roebling wire and cable, H. M. H. Mills cloth, Rubel Co. wood, Goodyear fabric, Vacuum Oil Co., etc. ■

The value of the exhibition to all is at once apparent, and every manufacturer is earnestly asked to send in sample products just as soon as it is at all possible.

Manufacturers should send a supply of then-catalogues and print on their circulars, stationery and letters the fact that they are exhibitors in Aeronautics' Permanent Exposition.

Every reader of Aeronautics is invited to call and inspect the exhibition.

Exhibits are either on hand or promised from the following:—

Hartford Rubber Works Co..............Tires

Wittemann Bros..........Gliders and Supplies

Warner Instrument Co.............Aerometer

Requa-Gibson Co........Motors and Propellers

Elbridge Engine Co...................Engines

Pennsylvania Rubber Co.................Tires

C. E. Conover Co........................Cloth

Edwin Levick.........................Photos

Roebling Co.......................Wire Cable

El Arco Radiator Co................Radiators

J. A. Weaver.....................Wheels, Etc.

Greenp Co................Propellers and Parts

Bosch Magneto Co...................Magnetos

Auto-Aero Supply Co.................Supplies

R. I, V. Co.....................Ball Bearings

J. Deltour............................Bamboo

J. S. Bretz Co.........Magnetos, Bowden Wire

Aero Supply Co......................Supplies

Charles E. Dressier..............Model Maker

Wm. P. Youngs & Bros................Lumber

Buel II. Green....................Turnbuckles

American Propeller Co..............Propellerl

Vacuum Oil Co...........................Oils

H. M. H. Mills..........................Cloth

Goodvear T. & R. Co....................Cloth

R. O. Rubel, Jr., & Co.......Woods and Joints

a simple way to draw a parabolic curve

TO construct a parabola (in a simple manner) draw the line AB ; and AC perpendicular to it. On AB lay off the points, equidistant, P. G, D, etc., as many or as few as desired, and at any arbitrary distance. Draw from these points the perpendiculars FP, GP. 1)1, etc. With F as a center lay off the arcs GP, DK, III, etc. Bisect AP at V. Take any point O between V and P, erect perpendicular OL and with

given point F; and all points on curve must bel equidistant from these two. Hence, all radii must! be taken from P. PE = AG, PJ = AH, etc. I

To duplicate a particular rib from printed! data (if same is a parabola), where the greatest! depth of curve and the length of the chord is given, one may follow this method :

If the greatest deptli (or the depth at a cer-l tain distance back) is known to be, say, 4Y2u

a v 0 f

V- Vertex F-locus

P as center and OA as radius cut OL at L. AO — FL. Then VLPE, etc., are points on curve. Draw a "fair" line through the points L, P. e, i, etc., and you have your curve. The chord VR may be drawn between any points, dependent upon the depth of curvature and place of greatest depth desired. Other methods may be found in text-books. The degree of curvature depends on the arbitrary distance AF, and this distance must be selected to give the desired curvature.

A parabola is defined as a curve, any point of which is equidistant from a given line and a given point. The given line is AC and the

in., and the chord is 4% ft. (54 in. divided byd 4% in. — 1 in 12). lay out a trial parabolal as shown in sketch, using some arbitrary distance! say, 3.0 in., for AF. When complete take a| straight-edge 4% ft. long and move along thel parabola until a T-square laid on the straight-l edge will show the necessary depth at the required | point. If incorrect redraw, using another distance for AF.

To draw a parabola to a scale of 1 in. to the| foot, with the greatest height 4V2 in. at IS in J hack, give AF a value of 8/10 iu. This can be drawn on cardboard and then cut out with seis^ sors and used thereafter in making drawings by! working around.

ŒR0NAUT1CS

October, iglò

tents to rent all sizes in stock

m. macee & son intents, flags, awnings

147 FULTON ST., N. Y.

Tel., 5635 cort.

AEROPLANE WHEELS

a 11 Qi^r^c built to order on extremely short Ol/SCb notice. (TWe do experimental ivork of all kinds. c,We are specialists in light, :ubular, frame construction work :: :: ::

the tiger cycle works co.

f82 eighth avenue - phone, bryint, 1268 - new york

AEROPLANE WIRE WHEELS

20" x 2" curtiss type in slock-weight 7 lbs. Monoplane tail wheel, 16" x Hàb-weight 3 lbs.

farman type axles kïïalws

14" wire-spoked steering wheels - - turn-buckles

I. A. WEAVER, Jr., 956 8th Ave., N. Y.

l. b. repair7 co., inc.

EXPERTS ONl.GASOLINE MOTORS REMODELING ahd OVERHAULING MOTORS, MAYING SPECIAL PARTS FOR EXPERIMENTAL WORK ON

MR, LAND^b WATER VEHICLES

^25 W. 5/th St., v Y. Tel. 6549 Col.

high-class machine work tOR AERONAUTICAL PURPOSES

We Accomplish Results where Others Fail 'edeisen Lubricators have proven to be the most reliable

Pedersen Manufacturing Company

(ESTABLISHED 1884. INCORPORATED 1906>

fc36-644 first avenue new york

Weaver-Ejblirig Automobile Company :

"WECO"/öiLS AND GREASES

all/aeronautic supplies J230 Broadway at 79th St., - - - New York

supply house offers trophies.

The R. O. Itubel, Jr., & Co., aero supply con-em, has offered twelve trophies, under various onditions, as follows :

To the purchaser (.club, private parties or man-ifaeturers) of any make of aeronautical motor hrough us. during the year of 1'JIO and the first hree months of the year 1911, we offer twelve ilver loving cups valued at #500, to the aviator cho remains the longest time in the air without ouching the ground ; rises from the ground in the hortest distance ; to the first ten aviators who fly 0(> yards or more without touching the ground v'ill be awarded silver loving cups. Awards to the rst ten aviators who qualify in making a 100-ard flight will be made commencing August 10, ¡110, in rotation of their qualifications.

Sworn affidavits together with two witness' sig-latures required in tiling report.

No other conditions are imposed except that the ngine be purchased through the company.

Auto & Aeronautic Supply Go.

c. Aeronautic Supplies of Every

Description in Stock cl Wood Cut as per Specifications 2100 BROADWAY (73rd St.,) NEWYORK

•PHONE, 6948 COLUMBUS

new york - chocolates

Chocolate

Health Food

most suitable for aeronauts or those requiring a Non-Bulky Sustaining Food office, 150-154 chambers street, new york

WIRE aviator wire of high strength—plated finish—easy to solder —aviator cord of twisted wire.

John A. Roebling's Sons Co., TR^ON>

FOR ANYTHING IN AERONAUTICS

which you may desire from Ffen*, write to

ladis lewkowicz, ervauville^oiret, france

and prompt attention will be giverjtour inquiry. specialty of securing reliable and successful*io\rs. any styles of aeroplanes. quickest delivery and lowest fcuresTk manufacturéis' guarantee. full information can be obtains from Tny lawyer and resident representative, eugene 1. gottlieb, esq., 140 nassau slteet, new york city.

PROPELLERS

<L SPECIAL^* MADE For Model arfl Full Sized Aeroplanes. c. prices on j application

L. G. DUQUET

Specially Selected for Aeroplanes

all sizes in stock J. deltour, INC., 49 Sixth Ave., New York

TELEPHONE 5565 SPRING

White Aeroplane Co.

= 15 Myrtle Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. =

FLYING MODELS, EXHIBITION MODELS, MINIATURE AEROPLANE WHEELS, ENGINES. PROPELLERS AND SUPPLIES.

Excellent facilities for experimental and model work catalogue for stamp

of every description made on short notice

PATENTS

20 Years Experience

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SPECIAL ATTENTION TO AERIAL NAVIGATION

Send for book telling how to obtain Patents and Illustrating 100 Mechanical Movements - BOOK MAILED FREE TO ANY ADDRESS -

CHAS. E. BROCK, patent attorney

913 F STREET, WASHINGTON, D.C. 256 BROADWAY, NEW YORK CITY

I HAVE IN MY OFFICE COPIES OF ALL PATENTS GRANTED FOR AEROPLANES

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PATENTS

Competent Patent Work Pays in the End.

You get it here at Minimum Cost. Also Working Drawings and Reliable Data for Flying Machines. AUG. P. JURGENSEN, M. E.

170 BROADWAY, NEW YORK CITY

—PATENTS that PROTECT—s

Our New Book PATENT-SENSE Mailed Without Cosine I

R.S.& A.B.LACEY.Washington.D.C. Estab. 1869. |

f. o. andreae

REGISTERED

SOLICITOR OF PATENTS

Aeronautic Inventions

a specialty at home and abroad

Pasadena, Calif.

PATENTS

H. L. WOODWARD, 730 9th St.

Opp. U. S. Patent Office. Washington. D.C.

Serious Work 100-Page Book

FREE

JUST OUT

First Complete Aero Book Catalogue

■SEND FOR COPY-

Aeronautics, 250 West 54th Street, New York

PATENTS

C. L. PARKER

Lale Examiner U. S. Patent Office

ATTO R N E Y-AT-LAW AND SOLICITOR OF PATENTS

American and foreign patents secured promptly and with special regard to the legal protection of the invention. Handbook for inventors sent upon request.

30 MCGlLL BUILDING WASHINGTON. D. C.

PATENTS

SECURED OR FEE RETURNED :

Send sketch for free search of Patent Office Records How to Obtain a Patent, and What to Invent, with List of inventions Wanted and Prizes offered for Inventions! sent free. Patents advertised free.

We are experts in AIRSHIPS and all patents and echnical matters relating to AERIAL NAVIGATION.

VICTOR J. EVANS & CO., Washington,D.C.

HAVE YOU AN IDEA?

IF SO, WRITE FOR OUR BOOKS: 'Why Patents Pay," "100 Mechanical Movements" and a Treatise on Perpetual Motions—50 Illustration: - all mailed free -

F. G. DIETERICH & CO. patent lawyers 803 Ouray Building, Washington, D. C.

"The Protective Patent"

This book for inventor* sent free, $35.00 required to file patent application. Total cost $65.00 trade marks registered BEELER & ROBB, Patent Lawyers 87-90 MeGill Building - - Washington, D. c.

ir% a ^^lephiik upon

WHAT YOU INVENT!]

JUL JB—m, M, JWm#JL IB A AERONAUTICS A SPECIALTY

CImprovements in Aerostructures should be protected without delay. Thousands are experimenting, and your discoveries may be made and patented by others. A seemingly unimportant point to-day, may control the Aeroplane and Dirigible in the future as theSelden Patents control the Automobile. Do not give your idea* away; protect them with solid patents.

We render an opinion as to the patentability of any invention without charge. Send us a sketch and description, photographs or a model for immediate report.

booklets giving full information in Patent Matters, a list of needed inventions and a history of successful patents, mailed free. Write for them.

1 M • ^ nil . . «, ^ . ■ j> at • n. ■ _ ■— PROMPT AND PROPER SERVICE

woodward & chandlee 1^7 f Street. WaihTn^tanTDTc:

SUBSCRIBERS EXCHANGE AND FORUM

HELICOPTER r ATE XT FOR SALE.

W. E. Colyer, Box ::01. Saranac Lake. X. V.. has a patent to dispose of. Xo. S0i.t:;s. Sept. 1. 11MIS. The machine covered therein is of the heli-i copier type, comprising two superposed screws or discs on'concentric upright shafts driven by bevel gears, and rotating in opposite directions. There is a framework upon which is mounted the engine, driver's seat. etc.. with means for shifting the center of gravity by a lever in order to tilt the lifting screws and give the whole apparatus a forward movement. Steering right and left is effected by a vertical rudder at the rear of the frame.

There are two claims in the patent, as follows : L A flying machine comprising a main frame, oppositely^j'otating^propellers carried thereby, a [supplemental ffam^susponded from the main frame, said supplemental frame comprising hangers pivot-ally connected with the main frame, a bottom bar pivotally connected with the hangers, and a link joining the hangers above the bottom bar, drive gearing supported by the main and supplemental frames for driving the propellers, and adjusting meaus connected with the bottom bar and link of the supplemental frame for shifting the portions of said frame to change the center of gravity of the machine.

2. A—flying machine-embodying a main frame. loxipiJIers carried-thereby, a—s-npplemontal frame suspended from the. main frame^ said supplemental frajno comprising hangers pivot-ally connected with the main frame, a bottom bar pivotally connected with the hangers, and a link joining the hangers above the bottom bar, drive gearing supported by the main and supplemental frames for operating the. propellers, and adjusting moans associated with two of the aforesaid portions of the supplemental frame for shifting said frame to change the center of gravity of the machine.

A NEW PRINCIPLE FOR AUTOMATIC STABILITY.

To the Editor.— Stability under all conditions is a necessity to a successful aeroplane, and an automat ie form of maintaining the equilibrium has an incalculable advantage over one that requires the constant attention of a skilled operator. A pendulum arrangement of the weight is cumbersome and awkward, as is also the gyroscope, and a complex superstructure is always at a great disadvantage. Neil her do 1 believe that any permanently rigid type of supporting surface, even such as Bell's tetrahodronaI cell system, can successfully meet all conditions.

I set out to lind some arrangement of the supporting surfaces simple in construction that would ritualize the pressure throughout the machine in ii 11 atmospheric disturbances. I wanted something snob that as one side of the machine would bo

tilted up under sudden uneven pressure, the pressure would lie equalized and equilibrium restored. I wanted the angle of incidence to alter itself lo meet changing conditions, and I finally worked out the following method :

IManes are hinged to each side of a central frame or chassis so that the lines of connection (B B in figures) will diverge sharply to the rear, giving the vertical projection of the central frame the form of a triangle with base to the front. At points near the extremities of the opposing planes a cable is fastened which runs through a pullov (A in Fig. 2) located below the level of the planes.

Xow you will note that swinging one of those planes down will increase its angle of incidence, and. as the two sides are joined by the cable, a movement on either side causes an opposing movement on the opposite side. As the cable runs freely on the pulley, extra pressure exerted on one side as by a gust of wind will force that side-up, but while doing so would decrease its angle of incidence (to the possible extent of forming a negative angle), lessening the pressure due to the advance of the machine, and not only would that alone tend to preserve equilibrium, but. the cable would exert a downward pull on the opposite plane, tending to increase its angle of incidence, consequently equalizing the pressure.

An additional effect may be secured if we raise the pulley; then both planes will be raised and their angle of incidence would be decreased, while lowering the pulley would have the opposite effect, thus transferring to the main supporting planes the function of extra elevator planes.

Still further is it to be noticed that if the pulley be held in place by a properly adjusted spring so that changes in pressure due to Iho relative speed of the machine would raise or lower the pulley changing the angle of incidence to meet the changes.

Bracing and trussing would have to depart from present methods, as the entire strain is concentrated on the cable and hinge connection, but after considerable experiment 1 believe that a machine of this type may lie built lighter, simpler and safer than a so-called rigid type. At least that has been my experience with gliders. The principle may be applied to either monoplanes or biplanes, though several inherent features of the biplane seem to favor its use with that typo. Financial circumstances have prevented me from experimenting in reference to the elimination of the rear auxiliary pianos, except in the case of gliders, but I think it can be done with advantage in a power driven machine.

Xote.—The principle is protected by patent right in this country.

.M. B. DUXKLE.

Moscow. Idaho.

r/g %

Hor/zon/a/ P/anc Va ma/ Aof/c

Figure 1. Figure II.

{Showing two methods of joining planes to central frame. Showing action of planes in maintaining lateral stability. work- A. Pulley.

A. Central frame. B. Hinged connection of planes.

B. Hinged connection of planes to chassis. C. Cable or connecting element,

CORRECTION.

To the Editor.—I beg to call your attention to the error in the specifications of drawings on pages 105-10G of September Aeronautics. On page 105. paragraph 4, lines 19, 20 and 21 ("The longitudinal action front and roar is simultaneous. There is no transverse action of rear rudders except for emergencies. The advantages"! should be in paragraph 1, page KKi, lines number 5, G and 7.

In paragraph 5, page 1U5. line it, you have "(Fig. u) B. E. are adjustable," etc., which should be (Pig. II B), etc.

Any one who is interested enough to make this correction will get a great deal more sense out of the three paragraphs. A number have evidently figured this out for themselves, as I have received several inquiries and will probably receive more.—Very truly yours,

,T. \V. FU11RMANN.

Chicago, 111.

Ladis Lewkowiez. who will he remembered in connection with the importation of a IMeriot machine into this country, has been able to make a flight of 40 miles in length in Holland.

James Montgomery's play, "The Aviator," was presented by Cohan & Harris in Boston, opening September 5. There were two boxes full of avi-1 ators, including Graha rue-White, Brookins, Ralph Johnstone, and others. The comedy is cleverly written and very funny.

The "Bleriot XI," which was built by the Church Aeroplane Company, made a big "hit" with the audience, as they were surprised to see a real live machine, which takes five men to hold when the engine is started up.

The Aeronautical Society of Great Britain is going to present Octave Chanute with its gold medal. The ceremony has been delayed by his recent severe illness, but he is expected to be ovci' in England in the autumn. The medal will probably be presented at a public dinner.

The list of aviation pilots of the Aero Club of Prance now totals 207.

CLASSIFIED ADVERTISEMENTS

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BACK NUMBER WANTED- Will pav $1.00 for copy of Aeronautics of February. 1910. Address A. C. A., cara-of Aeronautics.

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4ER0NAUTICS OTES

October, 1910

FROM ..ABROAD

PASSENGER SLOW AND FAST SPEED RECOIttK.

i Bouy, France, Aug. 16.—Lieut. Mailfert, with ', passenger, iu a Farinan machine, flew 12 kil. in minutes, an average of 17.00 m. p. h. ReI ruing, the distance was covered in 8 minutes, speed of 55.S m. p. h., the difference being le to the wind.

GERMAN CROSS-COUNTRY RACE.

Frankfort, Germany, Aug. 17.—Five machines started in a cross-country race from Frankfort to ^iannheirn. for ¡£10,000 in prizes. Thelen (Wright) with a passenger, had to land at .Mains on account of cracked cylinder. Weincziers (Antoinette) and Jeannin (Farman) also reached Mains. Two clays later the balance of the trip was made. Jeannin shipped his machine back and made the flight in one stage in 1% hours. Lochner and Lindpainter also covered the course.

FLIGHT CROSS-COUNTRY IN AUSTRIA.

Vienna, Austria. Aug. IS.—Adolf Warehalowski flew in his own type machine from Wiener-Neustadt to Vienna and back, covering 110 kil. in 1 hour and 30 minutes.

THIRTEENTH VICTIM OF POWER MACHINE.

Rome. Italy. Aug. 20.—Lieutenant Pasq.ua Vivaldi of the Italian army was killed this morning by a fall from his Farman aeroplane. He had made a trip in the early morning from the military aviation field at (Vntocelle to Civita Vecchia oh the Mediterranean sea. thirty-eight miles from Rome, and was returning to Rome when the accident happened. A few miles outside of Rome the machine dashed to earth, for some unexplained reason. At the time of the accident the aeroplane was 300 ft. high.

ANOTHER DEATH.

Flushing. Holland, Aug. 27.—Clement Van Maasdyck, flying at a height of 150 ft. when, machine stopped and fell perpendicular to the ground ; the aviator fell on his back, the full weight of the engine on his breast, and was instantly killed.

FLIES ACROSS LAKE GENEVA.

| Geneva, Aug. 2S.—Armand Hflfaux today won I the Swiss aviation club's prize for a flight across r Lake Geneva in an aeroplane. Starting at Xoville. four miles south of Montrcux. he flew to Cologne, near Geneva. \ »

The distance, about forty miles, was negotiated by M. Defaux in tifty-six minutes.

FIVE PERSONS ON A BIPLANE. mt ^ (

Lille, France, Aug. 20.—l^ouis Breguet, the aviator, took up four passengers in his biplane besides himself. The total weight sustained by his machine, including the gasoline, was 921 pounds.

This feat is lu-Kwrt-+o-4»* a world's record.

Paris, Aug. 20.— M. I'.ielovucci made a sensational aeroplane flight above Paris today, and circled above the Eiffel Tower at a height of 2,450 feet.

NEW WORLD HEIGHT RECORD.

Havre. France, Aug. 20.— Leon Morane, in his Bleriot, broke Hie world's altitude record, reach ing a height of T-,054 ft.

Ostend, Belgium. Sept. 2. Miss lleleno Dutrieu. the French aviator, established a new record for woman pilots in distance and altitude with a pas senger today. With a companion in her Farman areoplane Miss Dutrieu flew from this city to Bruges and returned, without alighting, a dis tance of about 2S miles. At Bruges she circled above the famous belfry of Les Halles, at a height of 1,300 feet.

ANOTHER FAST PASSENGER FLIGHT.

Oouai. France. Sept. 2.—A military aeroplane piloted by Louis Breguet and carrying also Capt-Madiot. who made observations, flew from here .to Arras and return today at a rate of 55% miles an hour, establishing a new record for speed with a passenger.

WORLD HIGH RECORD AGAIN BROKEN.

Beauville, France, Sept. .'!.—Leon Morane. broke the world's altitude record again today. He

smashed his own previous figure for altitude and made a new mark of S,40S^ ft. His propeller stopped at 4.500 ft. and the glide to earth was mfld^ without power.

FLIES FROM PARIS TO BORDEAUX.

Bordeaux, France, Sept. 3. M. Bielovucci arrived at 12:25 p. m. today from Angouleme, com pleting the final stage/rof his flight from Paris to Bordeaux. lie made the trip with only three intermediate stops. Bielovucei's time from1 Paris to Bordeaux was 0 hours 1 ^minutes of actual flying and the route covered is estimated at 335 miles. W It, 10

The first stage was to Orleans. 110 kil.. on Sept. l.A' The following morning he flew 170 kil. to Chatellerault in 1 hour and 45 minutes. After lunch he reascended and continued to Angouleme. 135 kiL*«.The next morning he completed the trip. The speed foa-jJu1 170 Irrfcsfge figures m. p. h. average. vIIis machine _is_ a Voisin.

lachine is a \ oisin. <.__v—■ v

FINALLY REACHES LONDON.

MOISSANT

London, Sept. G.—J6"hn B. Moissant. the American aviator who started from Paris on August 16 for a flight to London in his Bleriot. and who after crossing the English Channel with his mechanician as a passenger, met with several mishaps, finally reached the Crystal Palace at 5 :30 o'clock this afternoon. After circling the palace he flew off in the direction of Beckenham without alighting.

Moissant, with his mechanician. Albert Fileux. as a passenger, left Paris Aug. Id, and reached Amiens without mishap the same evening. The next day he left Amiens and crossed the Channel with a passenger, thereby making a new record, lie was compelled to descend at Tilmanstonc, about seventy miles from London, because of high winds. He resumed bis journey to London the next day, but was compelled to land at Upehureh, about thirty-five miles from Loudon, on account of the wrecking of his propeller and damage to his planes.

He started again, on August 20. but met with another accident after going about five miles and landing at a place between Gillingham aud Twy-dale. He made other attempts to reach London since that time, but was compelled to descend after .making very little progress.

Moissant started again this morning, but had to come down at Oxford, some twenty-five miles from London. He made slight repairs here and then started on the flight which brought hiin to his goal early this evening-

NE\V RECORD FOR HEIGHT.

Issy, Sept. S.—George Chavez, a young Peruvian aviator, broke the world's record for height, rising in a 50 h. p. Bleriot monoplane S.702 ft. in a flight taking 41 minutes.

DESTRUCTION OF ZEPPELIN VI.

Baden Baden. Germany. Sept. 14.—The Zeppelin VI., took tire after an explosion, while being warped into her shed.

The Zeppelin VI. during the past eighteen days has made thirty-four passenger trips, covering about 2.goo miles, and carrying more than 300 passengers. The flights of the dirigible were made regularly, often in unfavorable weather. The airship ascended at 11 :20 o'clock today with twelve passengers for a trip to Ilcilbronn. It had covered about twenty miles, when a motor In the forward gondola acted badly. It was Impossible to effect satisfactory repairs, and after some timo had been spent in the futile effort, the airship returned here.

The Zeppelin VI. will be best remembered by its notable flight from Fricdrichshafen to Berlin^ when it carried Count Zeppelin, the inventor, on a visit to Emperor William. The airship was built in 1909, but had since been altered and enlarged. Suspended from the center was a luxuriously furnished cabin. She carried a crew of ten men.

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NO. 39

OCTOBER, 1910

Vol. 7, NO. 4

COPYRIGHT,

AERONAUTICS

entered as second-class matter seplember 22, 1908, at the postoftice new york, under the act of march 3, 1879.

£\ aeronautics is issued on the 20th of each month ^ all copy must be received by the 10th. advertising: pages close on the 15th. :: :: :: :: -m] make all checks or money orders free of exchange ^ and payable to aeronautics. do not send currency. no foreign stamps accepted. :: :: ::

American Sportsmanship.

FOIt the sake of American sportsmanship, it must bo urged that, in defending trophies gained by Americans, apparatus of homo manufacture be employed. It is with sincere regret that one remembers it seemed desirable by some of our representatives to use foreign made balloons in the four past Gordon Bennett balloon races.

The lOUli Gordon P.ennett was won for America in a foreign made balloon, the only entry. In 1007. at St. Louis, but one of our three balloons was of American make. At Berlin, in lltos. two of the three American balloons wore made in Europe. In i'm'.) we had but one representative. Mix, who is looked upon in France as a Frenchman, and he used a French built aerostat.

It should be made a rule that defenders of American sports use apparatus of home make. Is it not a hollow victory to win from France an American cup in a French balloon?

Will the plaudits of In}- American people be very hearty if American Sportsmen see fit to use a foreign balloon or a foreign aeroplane in tin-two international events to be held hcie this Kail V

IT is sincerely hoped that our representatives in tlie aviation race will be picked after elimination trials. When, in F.h>7. Aeuoxautics urged elimination trials for the 10us Gordon Bennett, balloon race one of the officials of tin-Aero Flub of America raised holy protest at the hare suggestion of such a socialistic scheme. The idea! With satisfaction Aeronautics views the elimination race at Indianapolis.

Dr. II. W. Walden, a plucky would-be aviator, who recently had a rather narrow escape from serious injury in his first attempt at flight with a new monoplane, tells of an amusing incident relative to the accident.

After having his broken collarbone and throe ribs bandaged by the local hospital surgeons, he pro cecded to the railway station to take the train for New York. While waiting on the platform ho noticed a man walking nervously up and down and Anally the object of his concern addressed him.

"Are you not Dr. Walden?" said he. "Yes."

"Well, 1 thought you were dead.' I'm the undertaker of the town."

Personal. d. e. liiiquent, esq.

dear sir:—there evidently is a well-founded impression among* the aeronau-tically inclined in this country that 1 am publishing* aeronautics for the benefit of my health; or else they imagine the magazine is some wonderfully productive gold mine.

i freely admit that the financial health of the paper has improved considerably within the past year, and it might be now considered convalescent. i don't like to think of the possibility of a relapse.

other publications of an aeronautical nature have coine and g"one or have leanings in the latter direction. they never "'come back"—to stay. but aeronautics has always managed to pull through any sinking spells, thanks to the hearty support of its ever-increasing readers, who have appreciated what i have been trying to accomplish.

now, please don't think that your continued support is not desired—for it is. undressed pacts.

there is quite a number of unpaid renewals on the records. the delinquents have had several requests to come across, but they have not responded, either one way or the other—not even when there was inclosed an addressed postal with the official portrait of uncle sam in the corner.

if i can't g*et attention for my letters, there is only one thing left to do—and i have done it herewith. if anything is read through, it's aeronautics. i know you want the magazine for you be^an when it wasn't quite so good as it is now. i know many of you personally, and i am certain you do not mean to let your subscription cancel by default.

"do it now."

very truly yours,

National Balloon Race Results.

xew york, sept. 22—Unofficial figures were giver, out today of the standing of the contestants in the National Championship Race and elimination race for the Gordon Boiinett from Indianapolis. These are suhjeet lo revision by Mr. Williams Welch of the U. S. Signal Office.

A. R. Ilawley, to Warren ton. Va., 400 m.

11. k. Honeywell, to Brush Valley. Pa., 38,5 m.

S. L Von Phul. to Traflord, Pa.. ,?so in.

.). H. Wade, Jr.. to Shownlter, Va., :?75 m.

W. T. Assmann, to McFarland, W. Va., ;520 ni.

Chas. Walsh, to W. Milton, O , 295 ill.

A. T. Atherholt. to Dexter, O., 2:?5 m.

C. P. Harmon, to Powellsvillc, ()., lso m.

C. O. Fisher, no record.

Ilawley. Honeywell and Von I'hnl will represent America in the Cordon Bennett from St. Louis, Oct. 17. No records were broken.

THRILLING NIGHT BALLOON TRIP

By Dr. Thomas E. Eldridge.

TUB voyage from Philadelphia to Banbury, N. II., Aug. 3 and 4. was a brilliant success, aud surpassed any other (light I have ever undertaken. The peculiar feature of this trip was that it was made chiefly in total darkness, a rare experience, that has "peculiar charms such as are impossible to describe. Mr. Welsh Strawbridge and myself ascended from f'oint Breeze at 0 :28 on Wednesday night, rising immediately to an altitude of about 1.(100 ft., at which height we passed in a north-northeasterly direction over the city. As we left the city, we passed into total darkness—darkness so deep that we could not determine what were the particular points over which we were passing. Indeed, so far as locality was concerned, it was possible only to distinguish the general character of the country.

At 12:35 we passed over a number of mountains, which we realized through our drag rope catching. At 1 :lo a. m. we passed over another river, and at that point we found ourselves buried in the deepest and most oppressive darkness.

sailing over the mountains.

All through the night we passed over monn tains, lakes, towns and rivers

All this time we were enveloped in such darkness as is impossible for me to describe. 1 can only say that as we were passing through it. 1 thought of the first chapter of the Book of Genesis, of the chaos that existed before the world began and of the terrible immensity of space. it was a darkness overwhelming, and both Mr. Strawbridge and 1 were glad when we saw the first signs of daybreak. That was about 4 :10 a. m. Over the great chains of mountains we could see the inky blackness gradually fading into gray.

saw wonderful, sunrise.

And such a color effect as we saw in the transition of the black through the various shades of gray is something that cannot be described ; to be appreciated it must be seen. And when the daylight disclosed to us the world below, we agreed

that never before had we seen such wild, rugged scenery as that lying at our feet. Finally we saw the sun, a great globe of red tire, climbing over the mountains and shedding his light upon a beautifully cultivated region over which the balloou was passing. At 5 :lu we went over another river, and then we beheld all the beauties of sunrise, all the gorgeous tints and shades of red and yellow and blue.

All during the trip we had not suffered from cold, hut about 7 o'clock Thursday morning we were, obliged to put on a little extra clothing. At that time we passed through a hailstorm, the particles of which were about the size of sago kernels. That was at an altitude of 13.75n ft. About S o'clock we rose to a height of 15.loo ft., about which time, we afterward learned, we had passed over the Bugged Mountains and the Kear-sarge Mountains, the highest points in Xew Hampshire. At that time, too, there was a thunder storm going on beneath ns, and we could see the lightning flash and hear the thunder. After that we saw wonderful cloud effects.

All around us as far as we could see were immense towers of clouds, thousands of feet high, forming a gigantic basin, in the middle of which floated the balloon. These clouds gradually approached us from every side until we were entirely enveloped in them. So dense, indeed, were they that we could not see the balloon's bag above us. At the same time the clouds caused the gas in the balloon to condense and we then knew that it was time for us to descend.

From an altitude of 15,100 ft. we dropped into the midst of woods two and a half miles north of Danhury, Morrimac county, X. II. As we descended the balloon was caught between four trees and we were obliged to climb down to the ground. Mr. Maxfield. the proprietor of the farm, greeted us. and at once, with his men, proceeded to chop down the trees so that the balloon might be disentangled.

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ASCENSIONS

Note: Asterisk (*i denotes trills (if 10(1 miles or over.

*Point Breeze. Pa.. Au?. It;.— Dr. Thos. Edwin Eldridge, j>1 lot. Dr. George IT. Siuimerman and Ira L. Brown in the "l'hila. 11" to Negro Mt.. Md.. 222.37 miles. The party let'l at S :27 p. m. and rose above the clouds in Hie moonlight. The log says : "A most wonderful effect. The dull, sombre shades of gray contrasted markedly from the light, airy effect by day. Passed over Hanover and Gettysburg at 2 a. in. At :: a. in. crossed the Allegheny mountains. The sight was wild and picturesque at daybreak, when the sun lifted the balloon to 14,000 ft. The landing was at 1» :05 a. in." Dr. Eldridge now holds the Philadelphia record for altitude, distance and duration.

Hamilton. <).. Aug. IS.—Mr. and Mrs. George R. Howard. Mrs. Charles Trout man and Mr. and Mrs. Albert Ilolz in the "Drifter" to Dry Ridge, Ky. Distance 50 miles, duration 3]/2 hours, altitude 5.700 ft.

Pt. Breeze, Philadelphia, Aug. 25.—A. Leo Stevens, Arthur T. Atherholt and Conyers P>. Graham in the "Perm. 1" on a night trip, lauding at South River, N. .1.. at 4 :45 a. in., leaving at 3:25 a. m. Distance. 55 miles.

Lowell, Mass.. Aug. 27.—,T. Walter Flngg. pilot, John W. Harrington and Henry .T. Murch, to Haverhill. Mass.. a distance of about 17 miles. Duration 1 hour and 20 minutes.

Topeka Club Buys Honeywell Balloon.

St. Louis. Mo., Aug. 2S.—II. K. Ilonewell piloted Messrs. Emerson. Cole and Sweet of the Aero Club of Topeka on a demonstration trip. After making three landings, the last being near Jerscy-ville. 111., the party hurried back to St. Louis with the balloon. The Topeka men bought the balloon for the use of the members of the club. It. has a capacity of 40.000 cu. ft. In addition to the four people, 10 bags of ballast were carried and besides that, two landings along the way were made. At the inal descent, there were 10'bags still left,

Mr. Honeywell is using his balloon "Centennial" in the Iudianapolis race, and other entrants have Honeywell-built balloons. A new dirigible balloon has been completed by him along original lines which will soon be given a try-out. The gas envelope is flat on the under side. There is a large rudder for controlling the lateral movement o.* the balloon attached to the stern, while on the bow there is fixed a larger plane for horizontal steering. The machine is provided with an aluminum propeller and has a capacity of 0,000 cubic feet of gas.

The French-American Balloon Company, of which Mr. Honeywell is director, lias done a surprising business in the manufacture of balloons. The gas balloons have gained and hold many records.

Indianapolis. Iud., Sept. 3.-—Capt. G. L. Bnm-baiigh, Kay Harrouu and F. L. Galnaw to Millers-vllle, Ind.

Pt. Breeze. Philadelphia, Sept. 3.—A. T. Atherholt. pilot. II. H. Knerr and Clarence P. Wynne in the "Fenn. I," to Pipersville. Pa., a distance of 33 miles. The ascent svas made in a driviug rain. The balloon was allowed to go up to 0,000 feet without being able to get out of the clouds into clear sky. No land could be seen and even the statoscope failed to work and cigarette papers were used in its place.

.fackson, .Mich., Sept. 3.—.1. H. Wade, Jr.. and A. Leo Stevens in the new Wade balloon "Buckeye."

Indianapolis Speedway, Sept. 5.—G. L. Bum-ha ugh. Dr. L. E. Custer and Dr. C. VV. Mills in the "Indiana," had an exciting experience in an ascent at the dose of the auto races. A storm came up just after getting up and the rain came down in sheets. Up and clown the wind took the balloon and the aeronauts did not dare use the little ballast they took along. The drag rop.f caught electric light wires on descending and broke them. The (inal lauding was in the tree-tops. The trip lasted about 25 minutes.

Hamilton, 0., Sept. 6.—George R. Howard, George Mosner, Chas. Trautman and Edward Pen-rod in the "Drifter" to Newark, O.

CLUB NEWS

The Aero Club of Pennsylvania has had

delivered a new 35.000-foot Stevens balloon, called the "Pennsylvania I." A "Balloon Section" has been formed, to the treasury of which a limited uumber of members pay $2.50 weekly for ten weeks. Each week lots are drawn and three members have the privilege of an ascent. See "Ascensions" for records.

A series of flight exhibitions will be held at the club aviation grounds at Clementon, N. J., the first beiug on September 24-25, when Charles F. Willard will make his second appearance before l'hiladelphians. It is possible that Graham-White and Harmon will fly the following week.

The Aeronautical Society, at an extraordinarily well attended meeting ou September 8th, was favored with an interesting and valuable talk on autogenous welding, by Mr. A. Davis, of the Davis-Bouruonville Co. A complete apparatus was used for demonstrating. Holes were cut in thick steel, steel tubes welded together and plates of steel cut quickly in two by the 2,300 degree flame of an oxy-acetelin blowpipe.

On August 25th was held a discussion on "New Devices," Wilbur R. Kimball described his new model. G. L. Lawrence told of his experiences in aeronautics, beginning with the hot-air balloon. With his experience as an actor to augment his effervescent humor, his tale was well worth hearing.

The Aero Club of Long1 Island has been incorporated with the Secretary of State to carry on experiments in aerodynamics and to advance the science and sport of aviation. The directors for the first year are : Howard C. Brown and Charles Wald, of Brooklyn : Francis C. Willsou, of Flushing: Henry I. Newell. Jr., of Richmond Hill, and John II. Lisle, of Glen Cove.

Book Note.

Le no 12 de la Technique aéronautique (15 juin 1010) contient une étude expérimentale des hêliees propulsives par M. le capitaine Dorand, du laboratoire des recherches relatives à l'aérostation militaire. Ce travail, d'un caractère définitif, aboutit à des conclusions pratiques d'une grande portée au point de vue de l'agencement des aéroplanes.

Dans le même numéro, M. Riester-Picard, décrit un nouveau type d'aéroplane à vitesse variable. M. le capitaine Do. du bataillon des aérostiers militaires, établit la théorie du guiderope (suite et à suivre) : M. Rabbeuo émet des aperçus théoriques et expérimentaux sur les hélices au point fixe . . ., etc.

Prochainement la suite des papiers inédits Ou colonel Ch. Renard (hélicoptère et hélico-aéro-plane.)

L'Aéroplane Pour Tous, par MM. Lelasseux et Marque, Ingénieurs E. C. P., suivi de Les Deux Ecoles n'Ariatiou. par M. Paul Fainlevé. de l'Institut.—Un volume illustré.—Prix :2 francs.— Libraurie Aéronautique. 32. rue Madame, Paris. Voici le livre qui va permettre à chacun de se mettre eu quelques instants au courant de la grande question de l'aéroplane, dont il n'est plus permis à personne d'ignorer les principes; en un style qui sait être scientifique sans être ni rebutant ni fastidieux, par des raisonnements mis à la portée de tous, sans l'emploi d'aucune formule mathématique, ce beau volume contient une théorie excessivement claire de l'aéroplane et de l'emploi de ses organes de direction et de propulsion. Observant un juste milieu entre l'ouvrage de vulgari-| sation par trop banal et le précis scientifique de ''ingéuieur. cette étude renferme un tableau complot de l'aviation depuis son début jusqu'aux dernières prouesses de nos aviateurs. Elle permet a tout le monde de se faire une idée nette de la locomotion nouvelle et d'en causer sans commettre d'erreurs.

De nombreuses photographies, des dessins schè-1 matiques et des tableaux d'ensemble complètent cet I ouvrage dont la valeur est ailirmée par son tirage, I qui atteint aujour-d'hul la 24th édition.

AERONAUT LEO STEVENS

Leading

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of America

representing the

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of HANOVER, GERMANY

makers of the finest and strongest balloon and aeroplane material in the worlo

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Also Representing the Santos Dumont Aeroplane American Representative

[Carton &, Lachambre

The Wilcox Propeller

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address : box 181

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OWN AN AEROPLANE !

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Our facilities are the best because we carry all materials in stock and are manufacturers as well as importers and dealers. Oval tubing for Demoiselles now furnished.

A few complete aeroplanes and motors, new and used, are usually on hand, ready for immediate delivery.

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Highest references from clients who have bought from us, located in every state in the Union, and several foreign countries.

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! The Aeronautic Supply Co.

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"First in all America"

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Should Be Addressed to

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1737 Broadway New York

jerome s. fanciulli |

business representative %

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U. S. Balloon Duration Record 48 Hrs , 26 Mins. Harmon and Post, Balloon "New York," J

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U. S. Balloon Altitude Record 24,200 Ft. Harmon and Post, Balloon "New York," St. Louis %

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Gordon Bennett Aviation Prize ju

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2nd, Brescia Height Prize Glenn H. Curtiss 4*

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New York World Prize, $10,000 Albany to New York. Glenn H. Curtiss *

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AERONAUTICAL SUPPLIES

AT MONEY SAVING PRICES

Elbridge Special Featber-weight, 2-Cycle Aero Motor) (water cooled):

3 Cylinder, 30-45 H. P., 138 1-2 lbs. . $750.00

4 Cylinder, 40-60 H. P., 178 lbs. . _ . . 1050.00

Cylinders 4 5-8 x 4 1-2, copper jackets,

aluminum bases, hollow crank shaft. 4 Cylinder,20-24 H. P., 150 lbs. (air cooled) 610.()0 Cylinders 3 1-2x3 1-2, flanges I 5-8 in. deep.

20 x 2 Aeroplane Wheels with tires built with steel rims and special hub, very strong, price, . .

E. J. W. Aeroplane Hubs turned from solid bar of steel, drilled 36 holes, well-nickeled, . . .

E. J. W. Aeroplane Hub Brakes, enables aviator to stop his plane before or after alighting on ground, length 8 ins., outside cones 5 3-4 ins., bored 36 holes............10.50

E. J. Willis Propellers, laminated wood, perfect screw :

6 ft., 6 1 -2 lbs...........40.00

7 ft., 9 lbs............50.00

8 ft., 12 lbs.............60.00

The 6 ft. propeller gives 200 lbs. thrust at 1200 r. P.M. Model Propellers, laminated wood, 10 in. to 12 in.

perfect screw....... _ . . . .

Galvanized Steel Cable for " Guying" :

1-32 in., 200 breaking strength, price per ft. 1 -16 in , 500 breaking strength, price per ft. 3-32 in., 800 breaking strength, price per ft. I-8 in., 2300 breaking strength, price per ft. Rubber Bands for models, 12 ft. lengths, I-8 in.

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Complete catalogue of supplies, motors, gliders, and light metal castings mailed free, upon request

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Loose Monoplanes, ready for motor $350, crating for shipment extra. Immediate delivery.

Greene Biplane, with 8 cylinder Curtiss motor, $2500. Fine flyer, shipping cases included, guaranteed in excellent condition. Immediate delivery.

Farman Type Biplane, with Elbridge 40-60 motor, will give 5 mile flight. $4500 including packing cases and extra propeller. Immediate delivery.

Aero Wheels from $4.50 up.

"Camsc" Unbreakable Wheels, $6.25.

40 H. P. Curtias, $650, 8 cyl.

20 H. P. Curtiss,-----4 cyl.

60 H. P. Hall-Scott, motor in good condition, has flown a 970 lb. machine, $1450.

"Camsc" Knockdown Planes from $150 up.

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Space NEXT ISSUE

This will interest you

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printed in bank street, number fifty-nine, on the presses of eaton & gettingfer.

B. F. ROEHRIG FLYING AT SAN DIEGO, CAL.

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I- CATALOG ON REQUEST----

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Winning Motors the World over are Lubricated with

A Grade For Each Type or Motor

curtiss

Vacuum Oil Company, ¿9 Broadway, New York City. June 6, 1910.

Dear Sirs:—I am pleased to report the success we have met with in the use of MOBILOIL in lubricating- the engines in our aeroplanes, and to say that it maintained its reputation in my Albany-New York night.

Very truly yours,

GLENN H. CURTISS.

Vacuum Oil Company, "¿9 Broadway, New York City. June 14, 1910.

Gentlemen:—I wish to let you know that the oil which befouled my spark plugs was not your oil. 1 used MOBILOIL going to Philadelphia and had no trouble. Owing to misunderstanding, 1 was supplied ha1vtii TON there with some other oil, which caused the trouble resulting in mv descent. I lad I used MOBILOIL on my return flight, I should, undoubtedly, have made the trip home without a stop.

Very truly yours,

CHAS. K. HAMILTON.

Famous Aviators Who Use Mobiloil:

baldwin, bleriot, brookins, cody, curtiss, farman, fournier, frisbie, hamilton, johnstone, latham, paulhan, radley, roe, sommer, willard, orville wright, wilbur wright, ogilvie.

Builders of Aeroplanes and Aeroplane Engines Who Also Use Mobiloil:

antoinette freres, voisin freres, wright brothers, glenn h. curtiss.

Are YOU Using the Right Oil on Your Car?

the most important thing left entirely to the judgment of the owner in the operation of his automobile or aeroplane is the selection of a lubricant. is it not significant that aviators generally, in this country and europe, use mobiloil on their motors exclusively ?

WARNING—To prevent substitution of inferior oils, see that cans are sealed.

VACUUM OIL COMPANY

Rochester, U. S. A.

::n;ns:n::t?s?;s

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ÌERONAUriCS

November, igio

The Cheapest Speed Indicator

Price is relative. First cost means little. It's the years of satisfactory service that determines real value. Here the Warner Auto-Meter stands supreme—without a rival. It is so refined in construction that it remains absolutely accurate, dependable and reliable for years under conditions which would ruin a $2.50 chronometer in an instant. Auto-Meters over 8 years old are as accurate-to-the-hair as when new. We never yet have seen a "worn-out** Auto-Meter. Other speed indicators become inaccurate in a short time, and must be replaced every year or 18 months, yet they cost almost as much at first as

Warner Auto-Meter

Quality has so much to do with satisfaction and the pleasure that goes with it that even the owner of a moderate priced car should afford a Warner Auto-Meter. It's good business judgment to use it.

Warner Instrument Company, ^s^wis4""

BRANCHES:

Atlanta, ll6Edgewood Ave. Detroit, 870 Woodward Ave. Philadelphia. 302 N. Broad El Boston. 925 Boyliton St. Indianapolis. 330-331 N. lllinoii Pittsburg. 5940 Kirkwood St Buffalo, 720 Main St. Denver. l5l8 Broadway [St. Portland, Ore., 14 N 7th St.

Chicago, 2420 Michigan Av. Kansas City, l6l3 Grand Ave. San Francisco, 36-38 Van f' ess Cincinnati, 807 Main St. Los Angeles. 748 S. Olive St. Seattle, 6ll E. Pike St. [Ave Cleveland. 2062 Euclid Ave. New York. 1902 Broadway St. Louis. 3923 Olive St.

Other Models up

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he ANDREW GREIS COMPANY, Inc.

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6651

AERONAUTICS

Vol. VII.

^Aeronautics

cJERONAUTICS

AND

WA R

By Lieut.-Col. W. A. Glassford.

signal corps, u. s. army.

PHILOSOPHICALLY, it would no doubt be interesting to trace the order of thought on the subject of man's flying hat obtained from remote antiquity down to he time of the invention of the hot air bal-Don in 1782, but it would not be of any use l a technical sense. The only advantage that tight be derived from such an inquiry would e a better understanding of the feeling which ctuates the public mind on this subject to-ay. The general notions that prevailed down ) the time of the discovery of the barometer nd of the air pump were not of a scientific rder, and their study would mainly lead to a Dntemplation of the superstitions that have starded the development not only of aero-autics but of man.

The Egyptians, 4.000 years ago, possessed te necessary skill for making a hot air bal->on with its equipments—cordage, basket and II, and so doubtless did Chinamen, and many ther peoples who then inhabited the earth. : seems very certain, however, that it never ccurred to any of them to try their skill i this direction. The Egyptians believed that ten flew at times, but when they did they first irned into birds; they certainly never believed lat man would ever be able to rise in the ir, unaided by occult or supernatural power, .nd this is true of all peoples down to the rventeenth century.

Man, down to a recent epoch, was not in the ossession of the necessary facts or natural rinciples to enable him to think on the sub-jot intelligently; furthermore, the kind of otions he cherished was frankly hostile to eery thought that might lead to the discovery f principles useful in the development of aerial avigation. He peopled the air with gods, ngels, spirits, jinns. devils and witches and a ost of other imaginary beings, and gave to |iem the absolute rule of it. The atmosphere

ing, in his imagination, the special realm of

e deities and of the evil spirits, might not be

espassed upon.

Allusions to man's flying are not wanting in re stories and legends of antiquity; but they e generally in some way connected with lystic or supernatural notions. Nowhere do |e find the simple belief that a man unaided by pernatural power would ever be able to rise the air. Among the legendary flying maines none^ occupies a more conspicuous place an the flying horse. Originating in India, its rformances are recorded in the stories of

Egypt and of Greece, of Persia and of Arabia; its career ending in the memorable ride of Don Quixote. We have, also, accounts of flying chairs and of flying carpets, and of other things, all capable of carrying passengers, when moved by magic power or by enchantment. During the middle ages many men, also, were supposed to have acquired the art of flying through their knowledge of magic and necro mancy.

Such were the ideas that prevailed on the subject of aerial navigation down to the discovery of the barometer in 1645. The few suggestions that are met with previous to this epoch, which do not fall into the category above mentioned, are so devoid of detail in their description as to make their consideration useless. Speculation concerning aeronautics gave rise to no tangible ideas on the subject down to the discoveries which led to the construction of the barometer and of the air pump, and the further discoveries which followed experiments with these instruments. The discovery of the barometer marks the dawn of knowledge that led to the development of aeronautics. Aeronautics has sprung from a purely scientific order of thought, and its development has depended in all its stages upon the progress of science and the consequent development of the modern industries.

The barometer brought to light properties of the atmosphere that are of prime importance in aeronautics, but they were of a nature so contrary to the then accepted notions that they gave rise to endless discussions as to the truth of the new discoveries. Nevertheless from this time on we meet with suggestions in which some of the. true elements of the problem are taken into consideration. A knowledge of the facts that the atmosphere has weight and that its density diminishes as the altitude increases and that it is possible to produce a vacuum, could not fail in time to influence speculation on aerial navigation.

In a comical history of a voyage to the moon, which appeared about this time, mention is made of smoke as furnishing the lifting power used in a flying machine. In 1670 we meet with a proposition to utilize a vacuum contained in large, thin, globular copper vessels, with a sufficient description of the apparatus to show that the author was totally ignorant of the pressure of the atmosphere and of course unaware of the fact that his vessels could not possibly contain a vacuum, and be light enough to rise in the air.

Nearly a century later, in 1755, we meet with a proposition to collect tine diffuse air above the highest mountains and to inclose it in a bag of enormous dimensions, bigger than the city of Avignon, and composed of the strongest sail cloth, with which apparatus the author thought a whole army with its munitions of war might be transported at one time through the air. These suggestions, however absurd, in part, yet show the influence of a better un-

derstanding of the true nature of the atmos phere as revealed by the then recent discov eries.

The discovery of hydrogen in 1765 brough into the problem of aerial navigation its nios' important factor, a gas fourteen times lightei than air. Nothing now was lacking in ordei to produce the balloon but to inclose this g# in a suitable vessel. The industries .of th< epoch furnished all the necessary materials fo| [Continued on page IS!,]

AERONAUTICS IN THE ARGENTINE

By Henry Helm Clayton.

THE Argentine Aero Club, like most aero clubs, began with ballooning. The club was founded the Kith of January. IimS, under the presidency of Engineer George Xewbery, who made his first ascension in a free balloon on the 25th of December of the preceding year, accompanying Senor Anchorena in the bailoon "Pampero" of 1.200 cubic metres capacity. The balloon rose from the ground of the Sociedad Sportiva in I'alerino. and after crossing the La I'lata river, impelled by a pampero wind, descended in the department of Conch I Has, Uruguay.

The "Pampero" made nine ascents, during which there qualified as pilots Engineer Xewbery. Dr. Edward Xewbery and Major Waldino Correa. In a night ascent made by Dr. Edward Xewbery, accompanied by Sargeant Edward Romero, this balloon was lost, and nothing lias since been heard of the pilot, his companion or the balloon. This occurred on the night of Oct. IT, 1!>o,8.

(•wing to this misfortune, the members of the Aero Club dispersed, and for some time aerostation was put aside, since all were impressed by this loss of a gentleman widely known socially rnd of a useful soldier. Nevertheless, one day Engineer Iloracio Anasagasti, one of the directors of the Argentine Aero Club, bought the lalloon "El Patriota." and made an ascension in the 24th of January. 1000. accompanied by Engineer George Xewbery as pilot.

Following other successful ascensions, the presi-lent. of the Club undertook to reorganize the issociation. audi his patient efforts were rewarded vith complete success, since the reorganized club las a full membership amounting to 20O members.

Slowly but steadily the Club grew stronger, pos-;essing at present a park for aerostation, a club muse, and four balloons, with all accessories. The •lub house contains a room for the secretary, a ;itehen. living rooms for the attendants, toilets, ind an ample aerodrome, where concourses of viation are held periodically.

The balloons "Edward Xewbery." "Uiienos Aires," •Patriota," and Uuracan." of 2.200. l.tioo. 1.200

and soo cubic meters, respectively, are in use every Sunday and holiday, when the weather conditions are favorable, for pleasure ascensions and for distance or point-to-point racing, etc.

Among the ascensions notable for the distance run. the hour at which it was made, and the fact that it has crossed foreign countries, mav be mentioned that completed by the president of the Club. Engineer George Xewbery. who in the balloon "Ilnracan" began a voyage at 11 p. m. on December 2.1, l'.iO'.l, from1 the grounds of the gas company. Rio de la I'lata, situated in P. el* grand, and impelled by a strong pampero wind, crossed the river La Plata into the Republic of Uruguay, crossed centrally over the entire length of that country and descended in P.agi, in the state of Rio Grande do Slid, lirazil. having run a straight line distance of .">o0 kilometers in 1.". hours.

An aviation meeting was held in April. 1010, under the auspices of the Club. At this meet there were entered several of the well-known French machines, as the Bleriot and Farman. and the meeting proved a great snccss. The president of the Club made the necessary flights to secure a pilot's license. Other members of the Club have in contemplation taking out a idiot's license, and it is possible that in a short time this will become a very important part of the Club's activity. P.ut at present ballooning continues to lie the most important sport, and in the point-to-point racing, which occurs very frequently, the four balloons belonging to the Club are usually seen in the air at once.

For the convenience of the members of the Club, most of whom live in Ruenos Aires, the balloon park is in the suburbs of the city only a

tefl to Righi Major WALDINO CORREA

Sr. H. ANASAGASTI Dr. EDW. NEWBERY

4 Mfm

r. tf 'yj

Pres. Geo. Newbery

few miles from the harbor in the mouth of the La Plata. A short distance to the eastward lies the ocean. Fortunately the prevailing winds are from the northeast .and the members of the Club have found by experience that they can float inland on this surface wind and then rise into a eontrary or eastward moving current and return almost to their Landing point. These (wo opposing currents are made inueh use of in the point-to-point races. In a recent contest of this kind some of the pilots went far out to sea in the upper current, and then sinking into the lower, returned to the land. But feats of this kind, and the nearness of the sea for other reasons, always subjects the pilots to more or less danger, and one of them has fallen into the sea so many times that he is called the "aquatic" pilot.

The Aero Club has rooms in the building with the Automobile Club, where they hold business and social meetings, and entertain their friends. This building is a fine house with ample rooms

for entertainments ; a good library, including a library of aeronautics and a splendid cuisine. Many of the members of the Aero Club are enthusiastic automobilists, and are now greatly interested in, the art of aviation.

Owing to the fact that he was a member of the Aero Club of New England and a pilot in- thel Aero Club of America, the writer was made an honorary member of the Argentine Aero Club, and| was royally entertained by the president, Engineer Newbery, and had the pleasure of meeting most of the prominent members, including St. H. Ana-sagasti and G. G. Davis, chief of the Argentine Weather Service. The members of the Aero Club make much use of the reports of the weather service in planning their voyages, and frequently carry instruments with them belonging to the service for obtaining records in the upper air.i The observations made by the pilots in regard' to the directions of the air currents at different heights are adding much to the knowledge of the air movements in the Southern Hemisphere.

AEROPLANES FLYING IN MEXICO

by e. l. ramsey.

The new airship now being constructed in San Antonio for the Marquis de Casanova of Mexico City, met with an accident in the building shedi, according to a letter received by the Marquis, and its completion will probably be delayed for three or four weeks, as it will be necessary to send to France for duplicates of the parts injured in. the mishap.

The Marquis expects to go to the Texas city to bring back the new flyer sometime within the next month, and immediately thereafter will make flights about the city.

Among the many new devices attached to the machine will be a rudder of novel design partly built from the plans of the Marquis, who has had considerable experience with aerial craft in France. The entire control of rudder, planes and engine will be from the steering wheel. The engine being situated immediately back of the driver's seat, and all parts within easy reach of the aviator.

Miguel Lebrija, the aeronaut who made an| ascension last Sunday morning, descended about 0 o'clock that same evening at a place about three kilometers from Cuatitlan on the line of the National Railway of Mexico, having covered during the six and a half hours he was in the air a little over fifty kilometers.

Lebrija said that he obtained a height of about 1,000 meters above the height of the Valley of Mexico, which would make his height above sea level about 10,500 feet. He is enthusiastic over the trip and claims that with his larger balloon) he will establish a record for twenty-four hours.

Captain Nicholas Martinez of the Mexican Army, and who is one of the attendants of General i Bernardo Reyes, who at present is making a tourj of France, made a very successful flight in anj aeroplane, accompanied by a captain of the Spanish! Army, Sr. Samaniego, and by the Spanish aviator,] Laygori.

WHO WILL WIN THE GORDON BENNETTH

The newspaper man ran across a pessimist the other day who seemed in great distress. The P. unburdened himself to the N. M. in this fashion :

"Do yon realize," said he, "that the prospect for American supremacy in the Gordon Bennett aviation race, at least, is apparently very poor? Now, in other events during the Belmont Park meet we have a chance for duration and height records with machines already making flights. There is no question that a Wright machine will stay in the air as long and go as high as any other machine which may be brought into competition. It might be said, without any suggestion of a 'knock' that none of the Curtiss aviators have shown thus far form enough to warrant beating on duration and height performances, comparable with existing records. And none of the Wright machines at present known to the public can vie with the latest foreign speed record, although the Wright company is reported as building a special fast machine. Curtiss' fastest speed yet made with his machine figures 52.58 m. p. h., at the Boston meet."

"How about the amateurs"? asked the N. M.

"Clifford B. Harmon seems to be the only amateur in this country who has done much flying, and thai has been done with a foreign machine. He certainly stands no chance in a speed contest, such as the Gordon Bennett is. His two-hour flight entitles him to consideration in duration flights."

"How about Hamilton?"

"I'll admit," said the pessimistic one. "that there you have something. Hamilton may find his 111» h. p. Christie motor of sufficient power to bring him into the lists as a possibility."

"It is now quite certain that Curtiss is building a special machine and motor capable of great speed," vouchsafed the N. M.

"Yes, but it is not at all certain that he will even fly it at Belmont Park. He has been invited to defend the cup with two others to be selected but has not yet given an answer to the club. The Aero Club of America, it is said on good authority, has offered to provide a 'retainer' fee, but it wias not prepared to state the amount.

"If Curtiss should find his new machine to be faster than the record made by any other aviator in the meet, he may challenge the Belmont Park fastest flyer to a speed duel. Such a race, undoubtedly, would result in bringing a tremendous crowd to whatever spot Curtiss and his opponent might select for the scene of the conflict."

Here the P. O. brought out a table of figures he had been working on and offered them in evidence.

"The speed record of the world," he said, "is. now 66.18 m. p. h., made in a Bleriot machine with a 100 h. p. Gnome engine, by Morane. The fastest American speed records are:

"52.5S in. p. h., Curtiss, Boston, 1010,

"47.4:; in. l). h., O. Wright, Washington, 100!).

Here the X. M. excused himself and sought more congenial company.

NICHOLSON MONOPLANE-. ■

CHOSD C'-fe"

Wing Sections

The above diagrams afford an interesting comparison of the wing sections of aeroplanes xhibited at the recent British Show. They are all drawn to a common scale, but have been set at n arbitrary angle of incidence, which does not necessarily represent that of the aeroplane in actual iight.— Courtesy of our esteemed and vahtable contemporary "FLIGHT," of London.

ADAPTED fro.m AN ARTICLE

By O. Ursinus, C. E.

IN USELESS flying machine constructions, or other, some little item will he found which may he turned to good account by the experienced hand. Wood is used principally thus far in building; aeroplanes, though very recently some structures both in America and abroad have been built of steel tubing. The advantage of wood is its light weight, great strength and easy-working qualities.

Lately some efforts have been made to improve on solid wood construction, by using wooden tubes, for instance. In Boston a hollow spar (Fig. 7) is being made and put on the market.

A man by the name of Wolf, in Germany, has invented a process for making wooden tubes of various cross-sections. This wood tubing consists of veneers ."> mm. thick, glued together. This method was described recently in Fluysport, an esteemed German contemporary. The grain of the veneer (A) runs in the direction of the axis; B~is diagonally laid linen. C, D, E and F are veneers with counter-crossing grain. These constructions possess enormous firmness, as the following table will show :

No.

Diameter in

Thickness of Wall

Weight for Running

Pressure Resistance

Limit of Flexibility

Power to Resiste

Millimeters

in Millimeters

Meter In Grams

in Kilograms

In Kilograms

Kilograms

1

20

4

225

150

70

85

1

25

4

275

200

85

105

1

32

4

410

300

130

145

1

45

4

530

500

200

230

1

55

S

1280

1000

500

530

2

36-16

4

290

250

120

135

4

36

4

375

300

135

145

The Wolf patented tubes may be lr.ade in any cross-section. Planes or whole bodies can be made from these veneers.

Steel tubing of various shapes has also been

produced, as shown in Figs. ] lo ('.. Figs. :> nui 4 are used for constructing ribs. Fig. 5 is used! for body work, and may be used double or treble, as shown in Fig. G.

Aeronautics in the Far East.

James W. Price, of California, who is traveling with a balloon, airship, hot air balloon, parachutes, etc., in the Far East, reports that the art is still in a somewhat backward state, in Hong Kong he made a balloon ascension in the presence of 15,000 people. From there he went to Medan in Sumatra, where he intended to make an ascent with his airship at the invitation of the "so-called" Medan Aero

Club, but the club could not get together the necessary 4,000 guilders (about $1,600) to pa} for the inflation. Sulphuric acid cost 6c. a pound and iron filings 3c, which is of interest to our own airship people. So the Medan Aero Club had to be contented with a hot air ascension. Subsequently he made a hot air trip for'H. H. the Sultan of Lang Kat. From here his route lay through Penang, S. S., the Federated Malay States, Singapore and Java, where airship trips will be made.

NOTES ON FRAMING OF AEROPLANES

THE ETEVE AUTOMATIC STABILIZER

TRANSLATED FROM "L'AEROPll i LE."

By D. R. Hobart.

ANUMBER of investigations in tho attempt to attain automatic longitudinal stabiliza-„ tion in aeroplanes have been, made up to the present time, but one has been carried out on a machine in full flight. A public experiment made in this direction consisted of trials made at the military aviation grounds at Satory. near Versailles. France, under the direction of Captain Eteve. of the Sapper-Balloonist battalion, the aeroplane used being a Wright, with the addition of ajilfliqatic stabilizers after the~oresh7us Of ffie" Til plain, constructed in me workshops of the Military Aeronautical Laboratory at Chalons-' Meudon.

The first arrangement tried out at Satory was composed of two planes. A and B, movable on their axis EE. The axis EE is carried by a framework C, V>.5 meters in length, attached to the rear transverse members of the aeroplane surfaces. A horizontal vane D, movable on an axis /•' is connected to the planes AB by rods K.J and KL. The axis of the vane is firmly fixed to a tube H, controlled by a rod MI through a bell-crank MIIF,

those resulting from (lie manœuvre made by the pilot of the aeroplane : moreover, the vane has the advantage over the aviator of acting simultaneously with the cause that produces the disturbance of equilibrium. In a word, the Eteve stabilizer opposes all variations of the angle of attack of the aeroplane as would be the case if a very long, light and instantaneously-acting empennage were fitted.

Under certain circumstances, it is necessary to be able to vary the magnitude of the angle of attack of the aeroplane, as when the inclination of the trajectory is to be modified, for example. To preserve the automatic action of the stabilizer, prior to, during and after the manœuvre effected by the pilot, the axis F of the vane can be raised' or lowered by the aid of a lever under the control of the aviator. All displacement of F involves a change of equilibrium of the vane and consequently a modification of the angle of attack of the planes AB (Pig. 3, d and e). This indirect control of the stabilizer offers the great advantage of rendering the vane sensitive to exterior in-

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this rod being in turn operated by a lever manceuvered by the pilot.

When the lever is fixed, axis F is immovable and the stabilizer vane struck by the wind, moves sensibly in the belt or layer of wind immobilizing the planes AB, which are compensated; the angle of attack of these planes is, then, invariable when the direction of the air current is constant. But when this latter varies, the movement of the vane is modified and the planes AB turn in a direction contrary to that of the vane.

In the "rearing" (cabnu/c i of an apparatus fitted with the stabilizer, the vane J) is tilted and causes the planes AB, to turn in a direction contrary to their proper movement. This tends to correct or straighten out the aeroplane : when it plunges, the I reverse effect is produced and the manceuvre is executed without interference, owing .to the simplicity of the mechanism, a quality indispensable to an automatic stabilizer.

The planes AB, considered as depression rudders, automatically partake of the same movements as

tlttences: the apparatus playiug the role of depression rudder and stabilizer at the same time.

As will be seen from the figures, the rear vertical rudder of the Wright machine has been removed and replaced by two hexagonal planes GG. borne by tho stabilizer framework and controlled by the spring-returned cables n, b. c. d, and nor- bb cc. dd (Fig. 11). Wheels with spring shock-absorbers are fitted to the skids of the aeroplane.

When fitted to the aeroplane, the weight of the entire stabilizer "tail" is 2f> kilogrammes (tJO.o pounds i. the additional weight carried by the aeroplane being 11' kilogrammes CJt>.4 pounds). The total surface of the stabilizer planes is four square metres (4:{ sq. ft.J, half of the surface of the depression rudder of the Wright aeroplane, consequently if the stabilizer plaues are rigid and will be as equally unstable as a Wright aeroplane when one of the two surfaces of the forward rudder have been removed. The flights at Satory have demonstrated in a complete manner, the importnut role played by the stabilizer.

(.Continued on page 1$S).

AERONAUTICS November, :,:çio

THE PRESSEY AUTOMATIC CONTROL

ASYSTEM for automatically maintaining the equilibrium of an aeroplane lias been patented by Dr. 1>. .1. I'ressey, of Newport News. Ya., in several foreign countries, and patents are pending in others as well as in the United States.

in I he patent drawings reproduced herewith the device has been fitted to a biplane using ailerons for lateral, and horizontal rudders for longitudinal, stability. The system is designed to be adapted to any type of aeroplane.

The aeroplane is equipped with a manually oper. ated. vertieal rudder, o. at the stern, and a horizontal, manually operated, front control. 4. in front. At the ends of the main plane, and about midway between the upper and lower sections thereof, there are supplemental planes. 5.

In connection with these supplemental planes 5, there is employed a gravity influenced weight, the aviator in his scat, for holding them in a horizontal, or substantially horizontal, position when the main plane is traveling on an even keel : aud for causing them to tip when the main plane dips laterally, to port or starboard, the planes 5 having a lifting effect upon the depressed

supported from the main plane: and the other arms of the port and starboard bell-crank levers ](», are connected by rod 17. which has an eye IS, for receiving the segmental rod 19. seenrcd to and projecting from cross bar on seat supporting yoke 7. When therefore, the main plane tilis downwardly on the starboard sid«", the rod 17 will be moved bodily to starboard, and the starboard balancing plane 5. will bo inclined so as to raise its forward edge and depress its rear edge, while, at the same time, the port balancing plane 5, will be inclined so as to depress its forward edge, and raise its rear edge, thereby causing the starboard balancing plane to exert a lifting effect, and the port balancing plane to exert a depressing effect upon the main plane, with the result of restoring the main plane to an even keel, at which time the balancing planes, 5, will have resumed their normal, horizontal position.

When the main plane dips downwardly on the port side, a reverse action takes place, with the like result of restoring the main, plane to an even keel. In order to correct forward and aft dip of the main plane, fore and aft balancing-

end of the main plane, and a depressing effect upon the lifted end of the main plane, so as to correct such lateral dip of the main plane, and restore it to an even keel.

The aviator's seat. (i. is carried by yoke 7. suspended from a fore and aft shaft, S, the latter being pivotally mounted in bearings at ends of bar t) which is secured to a transverse shaft. 10. pivotally mounted at its end's in suitable bearings attached to the main plane 1, thus providing a gimbal joint, which permits free tipping movement of the main plane in any direction, in respect to said seat; the icaj^lniving a -tmrmal tendency to hang vertically-—by reason of (Tîc~^f4t:«»rt:—oî gTâvitauoiî ïïpon the weight, represented by the seat and its occupant. Lateral tipping of the main plane is caused, to effect corrective movement of the balancing planes 5. in the following manner: Each of the balancing planes 5, is pivotally supported, somewhat forward of the centre by bearings 11 located in bracketed arms 12, which arms are rigidly connected with uprights, which connect the upper and lower sections of the iinain plane.

To the forward, upper edge of planes 5, connection is made by means of rod 1.'!. to one arm of a hell-crank lever, 14. the latter being pivotally mounted upon a fore and aft pin 15.

planes, 20 and 2.'! are provided. These planes are carried by transverse rock shafts, which may he pivotally mounted in any suitable way, upon structures carried by main plane. In the present instance, the forward balancing plane is pivotally mounted in extensions 21 of the frame 22 which carries the forward, manually operated, horizontal ascending and descending plane 4.

The aft balancing plane 2" is pivotally mounted in extensions 24 from frame 25 which carries the vertical steering plane .'!. Projecting upward from bar 9 is an arm 2C>, which is connected by rod 27 to an arm 28 projecting upwardly from forward balancing plane 20 and by rod 29 to an arm .'!<>. projecting downwardly from aft balancing plane 2.'!.

When, therefore, there is a downward tip of the forward part of the main plane, retention of its vertical position by the arnn 20 will cause the forward balancing plane. 20 to tip so as to raise iis forward edge and depress its after edge: while at the same time the after balancing plane, 2.'!, will tip so as to depress its forward edge and raise its after edge, with the result that there will he a lifting effect on the fore part of the main plane, and a depressing effect on (he after part of the main plane, which will restore said main plane to an even keel. A

AERONAUTICS

November, rçiu

reverse action takes place when the after part of main plane has a tendency to dip. In case the aeroplane departs from an even keel, and dips for instance, forwardly and to one side, all four balancing planes would immediately be brought into action.

In ascending and descending, however, departures from the normal inclinations of the main plane are necessary and in order that the forward and aft balancing planes 20 and 23 shall not interfere with voluntary descent or ascent, the aviator*s seat should, in making such ascent or dvscent, virtually be locked to the main plane, so far as allowing forward and aft motion of seat.

To secure this result, there is employed what may be termed a sliding-bar 31, firmly secured to lower section of main plane and parallel to the lateral swing of the aviator's seat. To the ordinary foot rest 32, connected- with the aviator's seat, a supplementary foot rest 33, is hinged and this supplementary foot rest carries an extension which ends in a lug 34, which lug normally swings just above and free of the sliding-bar 31, being held in this position by a light spring 35.

In case the aviator wishes to ascend, he places his foot upon the supplementary foot rest: the weight of the foot overcomes the force of the spring and allows the lug to be carried down and in front of the sliding bar, thus rendering neutral for the time being the forward and aft balancing planes. I Hiring such time, the forward and aft balance would be under the operator's control by means of the manually operated plane 4. In case of voluntary descent the lug 34 is dropped behind bar 31. until such voluntary descent is ended.

It is absolutely necessary, in making a turn with an aeroplane, if that tarn is to be made in safety, that the main plane shall be inclined or "banked," to a degree proportional to the radius of the curve and to the speed of the aeroplane. Each different curve, at the same speed, demands a different inclination, as is also demanded by each variation in speed in rounding like curves. This invention is expected to give the desired result with absolute certainty.

If the aviator desires to make a turn to the right, he would first manipulate the vertical rudder 3, by means of lever 30. The aeroplane would begin to make the turn.

At this instant, centrifugal force would come into action and cause the aviator, in his seat, to swing outwardly to an extent just in proportion to the radius of the curve, and the speed of the aeroplane. The outward swing of the aviator's seat causes the port balancing plane 5, to be so inclined as to present its under surface to the air pressure, whereas the upper surface of the starboard plane is presented. This would immediately cause an inclination of the main plane to the degree where said main plane would he at right angles to the suspended weight, the aviator in his seat, thus allowing this special curve, at this particular speed, to be negotiated with safety.

If it is desired to make a curve of less radius or at a greater speed, centrifugal force, acting upon the suspended aviator's seat, will cause it to swing out to a correspondingly greater extent, thereby causing the main plane to be banked to a greater degree.

LETTER TO AERO CLUB MEMBERS

Till-, following letter was received just before going to press. Aeuonautics will gladly devote such space in subsequent issues as'mav be required for letters of suggestion or aid m co-operating with other members for a betterment of conditions in the Club, and for the making of it a more serviceable institution.—The Editor

New York, Oct. 15. 1910. To the Members of The Aero Club of America :

The article which appeared in to-day's papers stating the view expressed by Mr. Moissant, who declares that this country is far behind France in Aeronautics, is so eminently well founded upon ract that it naturally causes one interested in the idvaneenient of the art in this country to pause md think. It appears that hundreds of aeroplanes pave been made and sold as well as hundreds of lilocs' licenses issued in France. Can it be that here are so many of those things which have >cen done which should have been left undone ind so many of those things which have been left liidone which should1 have been done in the short

■ story of American aeronautics that we are at ast. forced to the realization of our own shortcomings by the advanced condition of aeronautical tffairs in France?

Concerted effort is naturally dependent for suc-:ess upon proper organization. The real head of ie art, the Federation Aeronautique Internationale, s recognized in France through the Aero Club of Prance, and is recognized in the United States hrough the Aero Club of America. This seems o put it up to the Aero Club of America to ex-lain why they cannot accomplish as much with imeriean genius and capital as has been accomplished with Frenchmen under the same system of peration. In the solution of the problem the fol-jwing questions arise :

Can it be that the form of government of the *ero Club of America is too autocratic tq be onipatible with the democratic spirit of our

■ meriean institutions?

Why is it that the Aero Club of America never holds regular meetings for enabling its members to get better acquainted and to co-operate?

Is the International Aviation Meet to be held at Belmont Park under the auspices of the Aero Club of America ; and if so, why is it the members have not been enlisted or consulted?

Why does the Aero Club of America not own and control its property directly instead of through the Aero Corporation, which is governed by the same five men who originally owned and controlled all the property of the Club to the exclusion of the members?

Why did the Aero Club of America assume the responsibility of entering into such an important contract as that which was made with the Wright Company considering that it might have seriously checked progress in the art of aviation, without first consulting the members?

Why has a democratic National Organization of flubs not been encouraged?

Why have the members not been invited to take part in Club affairs?

I take this means of reaching the members of the Aero Club of America as there seems to be no other way of bringing these vital points before them. Yours respectfully.

Louis It. Adams.

P>r. Luzern Custer, of Dayton. O., has presented Leo Stevens with one of his new design statoseopes, which Dr. Custer described and illustrated in a recent issue of Akroxai'tics. The article of Dr. Custer was translated and printed later in one of the German aero magazines. Stevens used this on the first occasion and pronounced it the finest instrument of its kind yet invented. Clifford B, Harmon also tried it and with great success.

CONSTRUCTION AIDS AND DIGEST, XVI.

PUBLICATIONS which, a short time ago, searched the dictionary for conservative words, when they touched on aeronautics, now give full play to their imaginations, and seldom fail to work in something like this : "We have the aeroplane now only in its infancy. One may be sure that improvements will be made in the machine such as tire not now dreamed of," etc., etc. However, they never commit the indiscretion of naming any general lines along which this miraculous development will take place. The modest purpose of this article is to point out precisely that opportunity for development. The facts will speak for themselves.

It seems almost incredible, but it is, nevertheless, true that some very homely and everyday laws of Mother Nature have been studiously ignored by the elect, like the ugly duckling, because things have prospered very well, so far, without them. I refer to Inertia, that property of all ponderable bodies (including air; ; and its accompanying factor, Accelerating Velocity. These two potent influences are destined to play a very important part in the development of all aero-cars—helicoptere and flapping-wing devices, as well as the aeroplane. Consideration for your patience constrains me to limit my comments to the aeroplane, alone.

Does the present aeroplane exhibit that graceful impression of reserve strength that stands forth so strongly when a touring car purrs lazily over a small hill? Verily, I trow not. Rather let us think of a seven passenger ear, equipped with a bicycle motor, nearly stalled on the car tracks in front of a rapidly moving street car. Where is the exhibition of magnificent reserve power for emergencies? I submit that the mental attitude of the driver in either ease is very similar. They both must win out by virtue of personal skill alone.

Suppose for a moment that the 50-horsepower Curtiss biplane required but one horsepower in level flight. Wouldn't this solve all the essential problems of safety, reliability and commercial usefulness simply because of the tremendous, fifty-nine hundred per cent, reserve power absolutely under the operator's linger? The mastery of adverse elements would be unutterably simplified. This is not an idle supposition. It is advanced merely to illustrate graphically the truly marvelous advance which will accrue from any considerable economy in horsepower consumption over the present figures.

The most efficient aeroplane of to-day carries about 50 pounds for every horsepower actually delivered at the propeller. A 25-pound bird, however, instead of expending half a horsepower, exerts scarcely a tithe of that energy. Let us investigate this discrepancy.

Motors have reached practical perfection, as far as small weight per horsepower is concerned. Lighter motors cannot be expected to exhibit the reliability so vital to the successful aeroplane. Instead of crowding the motors, let us look rather to the sustaining planes and see why they are so inefficient when compared with their prototypes in nature.

In the standard plane of to-day, the approximate angle of incidence is about ti degrees. At 6 degrees, the drift or head resistance developed during flight (exclusive of framing, etc.) is about one-tenth of the total weight carried. To be exact, for every 1206 pounds lifted, there are '21.1 pounds of drift, which, multiplied by speed of the machine, and figuring Jin allowance for loss in transmission, etc., represents the horsepower required to carry the 200 pounds. It is perfectly clear that if we can design a sustainer capable of producing the necessary lift, with speed and wing area remaining the same, at only a fraction of 6 degrees angle of attack, we will need only a fraction of the horsepower now required to carry the weight with planes set at 0 degrees.

Such a sustainer is described below :

In the first place, the vitally important factor, that which every flying creature employs to sustain itself, rarefaction over wings, bodv and tail, is almost totally disregarded in the present design. I This does not appear quite consistent in view of the general acceptance of the fact that there is rarefaction over the tops of aeroplane surfaces.—Editor.) A study of the transverse vertical section of a bird's wing will show that defective pressure must exist during flight, over a large portion of its upper surface, after a certain forward velocity is attained. The wing moves edgewise through the air, and the air passes parallel with the under wing surface. The air stream divides at the thick front edge of the wing, and the portion of the air stream represented by the thickness of the wing, is deflected upward and over the upper surface by the wing's curved forward section, the extreme forward edge of which is nearly on the same plane as the under surface of the wing. This air thrown upward by the wing's curved edge, cannot reverse instantly and maintain close contact with the upper surface of the wing, on account of its inertia. The air pressure, therefore, drops below atmospheric, between the passing current of air and the wing's upper surface, the space between being filled by eddies at a pressure below that existing in the free air (to be found underneath the wing] the degree of rarefaction depending on the speed and the degree of their inclination to each other. This, of course, somewhat resembles the "slip" of a propeller.

How slight the degree of rarefaction, required for flight is at once apparent when we remember that we require only two to four pounds lift per square foot, whereas an absolute vacuum, were it possible to obtain it, would yield about one ton to every square foot of surface.

A satisfactory demonstration of the importance of defective pressure may be obtained by taking an ordinary box kite and removing the vertical planes, thus allowing the outer air to be drawn into the ratification forming over the lower planes. The loss in lifting power of the kite will be apparent. On the other band, by extending the vertical keels a slight distance above the upper horizontal planes, thus protecting the rarification forming over the upper planes, from any side currents, the increase in lifting power òf the kite will be noticeable.

In the face of the above, we must agree that proper conservation of the rarification above a sustainer is essential to eeonomv of energv in flight.

Now we come to a factor in the proposition, which seems to, have been ignored heretofore, viz: The efficiency of a sustainer varies inversely as the fore-and-aft dimension.

Referring to diagram : The dotted curve 2 :: represents the line of equal rarefaction, produced by the air stream in flowing over the wing 4. The space 5 indicates the useful rarefaction, which corresponds somewhat to the "slip" of a propeller. This line 2 must represent an increasing downward velocity, because air possesses weight, and consequently, inertia. This is self-evident. As this is an accelerating downward velocity, the distance 6 7 must be only one-sixteenth of thè distance S 9 because it is one-fourth as far back from the front edge of the wing. If the accelerating velocity factor is admitted (ami it cannot well be denied) the distances 6 7 and S 9 must compare as the squares of their distance back from the front wing edge.

The expansive power of air affects the rate of acceleration, but it has nothing to do with the ratio, and it is the ratio with which we are dealing.

The distance S 9, being sixteen times as great as the distance f> 7, the average angle of incidence for the large wing is four times that re-

THE MISSING LINK IN AERONAUTICS

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quired by a quadruplane, consisting of four planes measuring the same as 2 7, superimposed. Though the distance S U is sixteen times the distance 6 7, the radius of its are 2 8 is, of course, four times the radius 2 G, henee the degree of incidence is not sixteen times as great, but only four times.

Inasmuch as the efficient angle of incidence for the quadruplane is only one-fourth the angle required by the monoplane, it will lift an equal weight, at same speed, but requires only one-fourth as much horsepower as the large monoplane.

Reference to the diagram will show that an octoplane would yield eight times the efficiency— requiring but ono-e.ighth the horsepower to per-froni the work, etc.. etc.

Therefore: Efficiency of a s'ustaiuer varies inversely as the lore-anil aft dimension.

sustaiuers will require but one horsepower for every twelve in the present machines—quite a saving, we must admit. The 206 pounds mentioned above, would be levitated with only 1.8 pounds head resistance, instead of the 21.7 pounds required with the larger plane. And this, too, with no increase in wing area or speed. This means we can figure about GOO pounds carrying eapaeity to each horsepower—which opens up vast possibilities in the commercial machine.

As an angle of incidence equal to hut one-twelfth of the original G degrees—namely, one-half degree—would prove impractical with the present form of aerocurve, we substitute the natural design found in a bird's wing. The flat lower side is to pass parallel with the lower air stream; the thick forward edge divides the two air currents, and the sloping upper surface

Or: The angle of iucidence varies directly as the fore-and-aft dimension of a sustainer.

Also : A number of corollaries, but they are so obvious that I will not take space to set them forth. (Jne would deal with Prof. Langley's paradox (V) of economical high speeds. That is, a plane driven at quadruple speed requires only one-fourth the angle of incidence (we see why from above diagram), therefore developing four times the speed at no additional expense in horsepower.

In other words, there is an intrinsic advantage derived from the narrow planes—and no apparent disadvantages—even constructional, for stronger machines may be built by reason of their cellular compactness.

Constructional limitations will discourage the use of planes much under G inches deep. Compared with the present G foot deep planes, these

corresponds to the angle of incidence, yielding the lift, through rarifaction and minus pressure. And it is this minus pressure that does the work, anyway. This thick wing cannot be taken aback at the front edge, when held at small angles, like the present aerocurve would be.

A multiplane possesses intrinsic fore-and-aft stability. P.y designing the "vertical" bracing like the sustainers, and arranging them at dihedral angles, we may practically eliminate idle head resistance in the wings, and the lateral stability will also be automatically increased.

With moderate application of the proposition : "Efficiency varies inversely as the fore-and-aft wing dimension," and its corollaries; together with proper conservation of the rarifieation above a wing, we usher in the era of true flight. The commercial llying-maehine is now a probability. Excelsior !

Aero Calendar of the United States.

Oct. 17.—St. Louis, Mo., Gordou Bennett balloon race.

Oct. 22-23.—Ft. Wayne, lnd., 2 Curtiss machines.

Oct. 22-3<»—Belmont Park, L. L. international aviation meet, including Gordon Bennett aviation race, latter on Oct. 20.

(Jet, 22-2"—Novice meet of A. C. of California.

Oet. 2S-Nov. 1—Macon, Ga., Wright aviators.

Nov. 1-3— Norfolk, Va., 3 Curtiss machines.

Nov. 2-8—Baltimore, Md., open meet.

Nov. 2-12—Philadelphia, Pa., aero show of Pennsylvania A. C.

Nor. 17-24—St. Louis. Mo.. Coliseum aero show.

Dec. 1-8—Aero Show of A. C. of Illinois.

-Streator, 111., Chas. F. Willard.

—Mobile, Ala., Curtiss aviator.

Chattanooga Wants Meet.

The Chamber of Commerce, of Chattanooga. iTenn., is desirous of communicating with aviators I for the organization of a meet or exhibition. Correspondence is solicited.

$32,700 For Baltimore Flights.

Baltimore has arranged for an aviation meet Nov. 2 to 8.

The aviation committeee has arranged the tentative list of prizes as follows: Lord Baltimore prize, $10,000: greatest speed, $5,000; altitude, $5,000; duration of flight, $3,500>; longest distance flown. $3.500.; slowest flight, $1,500; getaway, $200; accuracy. $50(); bomb throwing, $3,500; a total of $32,700. In addition to these, prizes will be offered for amateurs, while J. Barry Ryan has offered the Commodore Barry Cup for bomb throwing, this to be open only to members of the Aeronautic Reserve anil foreigners.

Dinner to Curtiss.

The best aeronautical dinner that has yet been given was tendered Glenn II. Curtiss and his flyers, .1. S. Mars and ,T. A. 1>. McCurdy by the Aero Club of Cleveland (0.1. on October 12. Forty-three people attended the banquet, ineluding the Mayor (if Cleveland, president of Chamber of Commerce, and other leading men. E. W. Roberts, of the Roberts Motor Co.. was one of the speakers.

AS wo go to press the arrangements are about completed for what promises to be the most extraordinary meeting yet held in America. The "International Aviation Tournament" at Belmont Park, Long Island, New York, from Oct. 22 to 30, inclusive, offers total cash prizes amounting to $07,300, to be competed for under the rules and regulations of the Federation Aeronautique Internationale.

The Gordon Bennett race, perhaps, is the principal feature of the meet and is the primary cause of its being held. A year ago, Aug. 28, G. H. Curtiss won the cup at Rheims, France, making the fastest time for 2U kilometres, 15 minutes 50 3/5 seconds, a speed of 47.0(3 m. p. h.

In the 1010 Gordon Bennett cup race, Oct. 29, .$5,000 cash goes to the winning aviator (and the silver trophy to the club of the country represented by him) making the fastest time for 100 kilometres (02.1 miles) flown over a course of 5 kilometres (3.1 miles).

LIST OF ALL CONTESTS.

BY AX PRIZE, .$10,000. Donated by Thomas F. Ryan, to be awarded to the aviator who shall make the best elapsed time in a flight starting at Belmont Park, around the Statue of Liberty, in New York Harbor, and return to the starting line; open to all competitors who shall have remained in the air in one continuous flight one hour or more, during the previous contests of the tournament. This contest is scheduled for Thursday afternoon, October 27.

GORDON BENNETT ELIMINATION RACE, first, $1,200; second, $S0U; third, $500; total, $2,500. To select representatives of America in the Gordon Bennett race. Open only to aviators having pilot licenses. Distance 100 kilometers, over circuit of 5 kilometers. Three machines making fastest speed to represent America.

HOURLY DISTANCE PRIZE, first, $250; second, $100 ; third, $50 ; for each one of 12 hours, total, $4,800. One hour set apart each day lor hourly distance and altitude contests.

HOURLY ALTITUDE PRIZE, first, $250; second, $100; third, $50; for each of 12 hours, total, $4,800.

DAILY TOTALIZATION OF DURATION PRIZE, first. $500; second, $250; third, $100; for each of seven days, total, $5,050.

FASTEST FLIGHT FOR TEX KILOMETERS, first, $1,500; second, $1,000; third, $500; total, $3,000. Over four laps of 2,500hmetre course.

GRAND ALTITUDE PRIZE, first $2,000; second, $1,000; third, $500: fourth, $250': total, $3,750. $1,000 additional for world's record.

AERO CLUB OF AMERICA ALTITUDE PRIZE, $5,000. Altitude must be 10,000 feet or more.

GRAND SPEED PRIZE, first, $3,000: second, $1,000; third, $500: total, $4,500. Distance, 25 kilometers (10 laps).

CROSS COUXTRY FLIGHT, first, $500; second, $250; third, $100; on each of four days, total, $3,400, awarded for best speed.

CROSS COUXTRY PASSENGER CARRYIXG PRIZE, $2,000. Awarded for best speed with passenger weighing not less than 125 lbs.

PASSENGER CARRYIXG PRIZE, first, $1,000: second, $400; third, $200 ; total $1,000, to be awarded to aviator carrying greatest weight of passengers twice around 2,."iO<Mnetre course.

TOTALIZATIOX OF DURATION PRIZE, first, i $3,000 ; second, $1,500; third, $l,O0O; fourth, $500; . total, $0,000. Awarded for greatest total duration ( during meet.

TOTALIZATIOX OF DISTANCE PRIZE, first, $1,500; and second, $l,00O; third $500 : total $3,000. For greatest total distance during meet.

MECHANICS PRIZE, $1,000.

DISTRIBUTION OF PROFITS. Aviators participate to the extent of 70 per cent, of the first $100,000 profits, and 40 per cent, of any sums beyond ; the aviators sharing this on a system of points.

OTHER PRIZES. Scientific American trophy for the longest flight made in 1910 In America. Michc-liu tropin- and $4,000 cash for the longest flight In

In answering advertisements please ifie)\tion this magasine.

Heiio! ei Arco! Hello! El Arco!

FORMS CLOSING!!! COPY PLEASE!!! and not a line written! Not a cut ready!

and we had intended to have a picture of Curtiss on his flight from Albany to New York when he used an EL ARCO RADIATOR with perfect jf results, and another picture of J. J. Frisbie with the first twin EL ARCO RADIATOR installation, and a well-worded advertisement asserting in terse, crisp sentences that the EL ARCO was the lightest, strongest, most & efficient radiator ever devised and that the sharp cutting edges of the tubes and the compactness of the radiator minimized the obstruction to the air, and that therefore there was no other radiator so well adapted to cooling jj» aeroplane engines as ours. *

We had intended to claim that we were the first in this country to |j show a radiator especially made for aeroplane work with special metal |J throughout and individual caps and fittings, and to remark that E. R. Hewitt, |J a member of this firm, the well-known designer of engines, who has been $J experimenting scientifically with the problem of engine cooling for years, £ laid out the formulae which we adopted for determining the sizes of EL |J ARCO RADIATORS for aeroplane engines. |

In fact, we proposed to blow a very loud blast indeed on our own 5 trumpet, and impress on your mind the facts that Baldwin, Beach, Curtiss, $ Frisbie, Gill, Dr. Greene, Russell and Wilcox, to name a few of the well- * known men, all use the EL ARCO RADIATORS, and the Boulevard $ Engine Co., Elbridge Engine Co., Emerson Engine Co., Rinek Aero Mfg. Co. % are some of the engine builders who have adopted the EL ARCO as part of their standard equipment.

All over now—You won't read this—No hope of your remembering that the EL ARCO RADIATOR is absolutely what it is represented to be as regards weight, efficiency and workmanship; that its guarantee is absolute and that our services in any problem of radiation are entirely at your disposal—And all because we were too busy keeping our promises to attend to our own interests. Just look out next time !

el ARCO RADIATOR COMPANY

6 East 31st Street :: :: :: New York City

— ~--------™--, TEL. 4260 MADISON -"'

P. S. We forgot to say that we carry aeroplane radiators in stock and make up specials in three days.

P. S. S. - We also forgot to say that our automobile radiators are just as good as the ones for aeroplanes, and that we repair and retubc automobile radiators promptly.

HARTFORD TIRES

ARE

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All the leading aviators use them They are the right tires for your machine

For Sale by Jobbers Everywhere

Made by The Hartford Rubber Works Company, Hartford, Conn.

Branches: -57th and Broadway, New York; 863 Boylston St., Boston; 1425 Vine St., Philadelphia; 725 Main St.. Buffalo; 1831 Euclid Ave.. Cleveland ; 256 Jefferson Ave., Detroit; 12th St. and Michigan Ave., Chicago; 1564 Broadway, Denver; 19 Houston St., Atlanta; 624 3rd Ave., So., Minneapolis; 719 E. 15th St., Kansas City, Mo.; 497 Commerce St., Dallas, Tex.

FOX AERO MOTORS

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C, Fox Aero Motors are the simplest, most reliable and most powerful Aeronautic Motors yet produced. They are two-cycle water cooled, and are guaranteed against overheating under all conditions. They are equipped with the Fox Fourth Port Accelerator, the greatest improvement ever made for increasing the speed, power and flexibility of two-cycle motors.

C, Remember Fox Marine Motors hold the world's endurance record for motor boats, and even our first aero motors have commanded instantaneous attention by their remarkable and consistent performances. C Fox Aero Motors are made in six sizes, 24 to 150 H. P., four, six and eight cylinders. Full details and prices on application. Deliveries guaranteed.

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FOX DE LUXE MOTOR, FOUR CYLINDERS Yore—Fox De Luxe Aero Motors have radiator attached at the forward end and are without fly-wheel

closet! circle during the year. It is necessary to :ceed 244 miles made by Olieslagers at Kheims st July. Silver cup, value $1,000, to the amateur liose total duration for nights during meet shall greatest providing it exceeds five hours.

entries.

France—Count Jacques do Lcsseps (Bleriot), fred Leblanc (Bleriot), Hubert Latham (100 h. p. itoinette). Rene Harrier (Bleriot). Emile Aubrun Jleriot), Uene Simon (RIeriot). Koland Carros Clement-Bayard Demoiselle), C. Audemars (Nieu-rt).

England—C. Orahame White (Farinau and Ble-Dt), James Radlev (Bleriot), Alec Ogilvie fright).

America—Ralph Johnstone (Wright), Walter •ookins (Wright). Arch lloxsey (Wright), Chas.

Hamilton (Hamilton). Capt. T. S. Baldwin ialdwin), Tod Shriver (Shriver), John B. Mois-nt (Bleriot), J. A. Drexel (Bleriot). C. B. Hariri (Farrnan), 11. S. Harkness (Antoinette), C. F. illard (Curtiss). J. C. Mars (Cuiiiss). J. A. D. ■urdy (Curtiss). Eugene Ely (Curtiss). The majority of the Bleriots are fitted witli 5o p. Onomes. Barrier is bringing over the loo

p. Gnomie-engined Bleriot used recently by irane in making his world speed record of 00.1 s les an hour. Hamilton has a llo h. p. engine. Curtiss has built a new engine of 04.S h. p. I. L. A. M.) and there are some new machines

Hammondsport.

The Wright Company is known to have a fast ichine. Ogilvie has been at Dayton for smne-ae practicing on a Wright.

All are monoplanes except the Farrnan. Wright, imilton, Baldwin, Shriver and the Curtiss males, if any are entered.

Five Wright machines are promised for the meet m the Wright Company. Three are sure of being >scnt.

Garros is a new aviator. His first notable flight s on Sept. 0, when he flew some distance across intry; with another of 15 kil. on the next day.

gokdox uk xx ext eli m i nation.

Entries for this made to date, October 14. hide Hamilton. Moissant, Drexel. one Wright mane, Harmon, Baldwin, and Darkness, n the Cordon Bennett race. Leblanc, Latham and | yet to be named, possibly Simon, will fly for nice. England has named White. Radlev and Ardle (Bleriot).

XHIBITION FLIGHTS OVER THE COUNTRY

SPRINGFIELD, Mass.. Sept. 17.- Louis G. ickson. of Springfield, Mass.. made several flights

the Sturbridge Fair on Sept. 17. in his Cur-< typo machine. Four short flights were made •oss the Meld of the race track. The condition

the lield was horrible, with a pond, a swamp 1 bumpy grounds to run over. The flights were do with a propeller, which had a piece knocked

of it by a wrench which dropped into it while motion.

CNOXYILLE. Tenn.. Sept. 22-2S. P. (>. I'arme-ono of the new Wright aviators. Hew at least co every day at the Appalachian Exposition. lETROlT, Sept. 10-25. lloxsey and Johnstone : their Wright machines every day according the schedule.

'has. .1. Strobel had a dirigible there. Parmelee ■< a great success as a flier. Some of his flights ted ;>(> minutes, and in all of them he indulged "roller coasting" and other stunts. [lLENToWN. Pa.. Sept. 20-24.- G. If. Curtiss 1 J. A. D. McCurdy were scheduled to, fly. On mint of the dangerous grounds Curtiss refused allow McCurdy to fly. Curtiss flew over part the town. It' was advertised that he would to Philadelphia. The only possible route, with-going over the mountains, was full of dan-

gers and 12o miles in length, so (he flight was given up.

OLFAN, N. Y., Sept. 22-2.",. ('has. F. Willard (Curtiss) gave exhibition flights. In starting a flight, a piece was Hiipped out of his propeller, but bad ground made it necessary to keep going. The loss of blade surface on one side rocked the machine so that every wire was loose on landing.

TRENTON, N. J„ Sept. 2fi-30.- Ralph Johnstone flew every day in accordance with his contract, meeting with the greatest enthusiasm on account of his wonderful control.

HELENA, Mont., Sept. 2G-Oct. 1. J. C. Mar's flights at Helena wore very successful. The governor of the state presented him with a gold watch and nugget fob. Helena has an altitude of 4.100 feet. This is the highest that a Curtiss machine has flown, as far as known.

Mars essayed a flight across the Rocky Moun tains for a prize offered by Kingling Bros., the circus men. After some hours searching parties found the dismantled machine near the top of the range. Fortunately. Mars escaped injury. The right hand plane, front wheel and propeller were smashed in alighting, but the machine was brought back. His altitude above sea level is reported to have been 7.500 feel, a new American record.

Trial flights of the Latham 100 h. p. Antoinette showed uj) a speed of 00.5 miles an hour.

the field.

On the flying field, with its two miles of grassy level, 14 gayly colored pylons trace the aerial course. Starting in front of the Grand Stand the flying gladiators will give a near view of their airmanship. Each aviator has his distinctive style of launching and alighting. The machines, after turning the last pylon, will approach the grand stand at a speed of a mile a minute, increasing this as they sweep past the crowds.

A brilliant period of preliminary flying will occupy the three or four days before the Tournament. The hangars, or sheds, in which the racing-monoplanes and biplanes will be housed, have been finished. Aviators have begun "tuning up." trying-out motors and testing the stability of their craft, in the air. Three-quarters of a mile across the green flying field1, the :;o hangars and repair shops are lively with corps of expert mechanics, who will live there during the entire flying season. "These stables" have already become a center of interest for hundreds of experts on flying.

The cross-country flights will be out and around captive balloons furnished by Leo Stevens.

cost of seeing the show.

A number of boxes and parking spaces are reserved for members of the Aero Club of America and tickets for the same can lie obtained of the Aero Corporation, Ltd., Room 1101, Fifth Avenue Building, New York, at the following prices : Boxes seating six or eight are $.">0.00 and $40.00 respectively per day. Club-house badges with full privileges of the house and grounds with one lady guest, are $50.00 for the entire meet. Reserved seats. $2.50 per day; admission to grand stand $2.00; admission to field stand, $1.00. Barking spaces $5.00 per day and $2.00 per person, including chauffeur.

Curtiss Machine in Gordon Bennett.

New York, Oct. 17, 1010.—It is now definite that there will be a Curtiss aeroplane in the Gordon Bennett race. This will be a single surface machine, with a new S-eylinder engine. G. 11. Curtiss will not fly the machine himself. Curtiss has the privilege of defending the cup without entering into the elimination trials, but as he will not fly the machine it is indefinite whether the aviators who do fly it will be permitted to go info the race without going through the trials. There will be at least two other Curtiss machines of regular type. Willard. Mars, McCurdy and Ely have all been entered.

CHICAGO, Oct. 1-9.—Curtlss. Ely, Willard. Mc-Curdy and Post were the flyers at an exhibition conducted by the Chicago Post on a profit-sharing basis. Willard and Curtiss both made fine flights. Willard made a sensational one over a part of the city and went to a height of 4.000 feet. He slowed up his motor and swooped down over Jackson Park, then up again to the grounds at Hawthorne track. Augustus Post did here his best flying to date. Two days of rain prevented flying.

ELY STARTS FOR NEW YORK—GOES BUT 10 MILES-

ATTEMPT GIVEN UP OX ACCOUNT OF LACK OF TIME.

Eugene Ely, with the new S-cyl. machine used by Curtiss at Boston, left on the 0th on an attempt to reach New York. After going about 12 miles at an altitude of 1.500 feet, the carburetor gave trouble and a landing had to be made at Beverly Hills.

This was fixed, the motor started and spectators helped to start the machine. In getting off the front wheel hit a hidden rock and smashed the wheel.

The next day, the 10th. he did not get off the field when the gasoline feed pipe broke and he landed in a brook, smashing the whole front construction. This was fixed in a hurry and he got going again and flew for 25 minutes'. The motor went dead in the air and he glided down from a height of 2,000 feet. In landing he smashed the front control again, and the distance from the start was but 19 miles, at East Chicago. So much time had elapsed that it was not deemed advisable to try to continue.

Miss Blanche Scott made her debut with a Curtiss machine during the week.

The time limit of the prize offered by the New York Times and the Chicago Post is up on October 16. Present plans do not provide for keeping the offer open after that date.

S EDA LI A, Mo., Oct. 1-7.—J. C. Turpin, the latest addition, to the Wright staff of aviators made his first public flight at Sedalia on the 1st, and flew every dav but one during the week.

STRING FIELD, 111.. Oct. 1-8. IToxsey took the machine Brookins used in his Ohicago-Springfield flights and created great enthusiasm during the week. On the last day he made his great flight to St. Louis.

RICHMOND, Va„ Oct. 3-8.—Ralph Johnstone filled the engagement successfully, rain preventing his flying on the 5th and 6th. A rather peculiar accident happened while flying on the 5th. The Mayor of Richmond, as passenger, in his enthusiasm' in waving at the crowd struck the motor control with his arm and shut off the motor just as they were rising from the ground. Johnstone made a successful landing but broke a few spars, which were repaired on the following day.

SHRIVER HAD BAD SMASH.

WILMINGTON. Del., Oct. 4-7.—Tod Shriver and J. J. Frishie filled this date. Frisbie made only some short flights. "Slim" Shriver made a magnificent flight on the 3d. over part of the town, and was up 15 minutes in a strong wind. He landed with the wind behind him, did not shut off the motor in time, he hit the ground, bounced, then landed nose on and the machine rolled over. He crawled out and the first thing he asked was, "Can you fix it up for to-morrow?" The doctor found a bone broken in his leg.

The machine is one built by himself, and is called the "Shriver-Dietz" : it is of the usual Curtiss type, but fitted with a 30-50 Kirkham motor of a weight of 288 pounds. Bosch high tension magneto, Livingston radiator, Shebler carbureter, propeller 6 ft. 6 in. by 3% ft. pitch, which gives up to 340 pounds standing push at 1,360 r. p. m.

BIRMINGHAM, Ala., Oct. 6-12.—P. O. Parmelee, a Wright aviator gave an exhibition at the Alabama State Fair. The first day a flight was made in a drizzling rain ; the second day there was no attempt at flying made on account of the wind being high.

KANSAS CITY, Mo.. Oct. 7-8.—Capt. T. S. Baldwin and William Evans flew at Elm Ridge i Park. One of the contests was a race between the two machines for .$500, offered by the Kansas City Post.

Evans is a new-comer who recently bought a biplane from Dr. Wm. Greene of Rochester. HeJ sprang into prominence by his sensational flights! at Overland Park in his first trials, with a 40 h. p.l Elbridge engine. His longest flight was one ofl about 2S miles across country.

^9- m

William Evans of Kansas City 160</