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American Magazine of Aeronautics: Jahrgang 1909/1910 als digitaler Volltext

Die Zeitschrift Aeronautics war in den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika (USA) das Gegenstück zur vergleichsweise deutschen Zeitschrift Flugsport. Im American Magazine of Aeronautics wurde allerdings nicht nur über die US-amerikanische Entwicklung der Luftfahrt berichtet, sondern auch über den internationalen Luftverkehr, über Erfindungen, über Patente sowie über Flugwettbewerbe und Veranstaltungen. Als die Zeitschrift erstmals im Jahre 1907 erschien, hieß sie "American Magazine of Aeronautics"; der Name wurde mit der Ausgabe Februar 1908 in "American Magazine of Aerial Navigation" geändert. Abermals wurde der Name mit der Ausgabe September 1909 in "American Magazine of Aerial Locomotion" geändert. In den folgenden Jahren wurde die Zeitschrift nur noch als "Aeronautics" herausgegeben. Nachstehend kann der komplette Jahrgang 1909/1910 als digitaler Volltext eingesehen werden. Alternativ kann der komplette Jahrgang 1909/1910 frei und kostenlos als PDF Dokument (59,1 MB) heruntergeladen werden. Weitere Jahrgänge des American Magazine of Aeronautics stehen in der Übersicht zur Verfügung.


AERONAUTICS

published by AERONAUTICS PRESS, inc.

July 1909

No. 1

Aeronautics is issued on the 20th of each month. It furnishes the latest and most authoritative information on all matters relating to Aeronautics.

SUBSCRIPTION RATES.

One year, $3.00; payable always In advance.

Subscriptions may be sent by express, draft, money order, check or registered letter. Make all remittances free of exchange, payable to Aeronautics. Currency forwarded in unregistered letters will be at sender's risk.

Foreign Subscriptions.—To countries within the postal union, postage prepaid, $3.50 per annum in ■dvance. Make foreign money orders payable to Aeronautics. No foreign postage stamps accepted.

important.—Foreign money orders received in the United States do not bear the name of the sender. Foreign subscribers should be careful to send letters of advice at same time remittance is sent to insure oroper credit.

TALKS WITH INVENTORS.

Our readers—a great number of whom are inventors—will be interested to note in this issue the beginning of a series of legal articles on the patent laws of the United States and foreign countries. These articles are contributed by F. O. Andreae, a patent attorney, in the shape of short discussions written with the sole object of assisting inventors. The more important provision of our own laws, as well as those of countries abroad, will be dealt with as broadly as possible, consistent with limited space; and attention will be called to some points which, if taken advantage of, will save trouble and annoyance to patentees. Mr. Andreae has decided to make a specialty of aeronautic patents and all matters pertaining thereto.

THE AUGUST ISSUE.

The next issue, August, will contain the second propeller lesson by John Squires, M.E., Chief of the Physical Laboratory of the E. R. Thomas Motor Co. The first "lesson" was printed in the June issue and created a tremendous interest. Nowhere has there ever before been printed such a concise statement of what a propeller does when area, speed or pitch is changed. Basic laws were laid down in this first instalment. At the urgent request of many of our readers, Mr. Squires has kindly consented to give us the second of what we hope may be a series of most valuable data-giving propeller articles.

NOTICE.

Owing to lack of space in this issue, the list of "Ascensioi.s" and many interesting news notes will be published in the succeeding issue.

John Squires, M. E.

Piloto by Xussbaumer

GOVERNMENT AERO APPROPRIATION.

Charles Jerome Edwards, in his speech at the luncheon to the Wrights, expressed in public what thousands are thinking or saying in private. The New York "Times" on June 6th blew a blast of bully stuff on the forgetfulness of Uncle Sam when it comes to encouraging home invention. Even when Europe finances American appliances, commercial or warlike, our own govern-

ment is proverbially slow even to follow the sagacious footsteps of its sister countries.

Another appropriation will be asked for military aeronautics. When it comes up use all your persuasive powers to induce your representatives and senators to do something.

'AERONAUTICS" FIRST WITH NEWS.

"One of the most praiseworthy qualities of your magazine is the promptness with which you obtain your news. Several of the items which you had published in the January issue I found nowhere else until a month later. In my opinion, however, articles concerning the vital points of aeronautics, such as the best shape for the lifting surface of an aerocurve, or means of securing automatic stability or some other

such thing, would be of more interest to the reader than stories of balloon rides, etc., although these do tend to create enthusiasm for the sport.

As a whole, your magazine is very interesting to me, both on account of the great amount of information furnished and because of the fine and exact style in which it is written.—Subscriber.

AERONAUTIC CALENDAR.

June 15.—Herring should begin trials at Washington about now to complete by July 1.

June 17-18.—Wright celebration at Dayton, Ohio.

June 26.—Exhibition of the Aeronautic Society at Morris Park, N. Y.

June 28.—Wright Brothers must complete contract at Washington.

July 10.—Aero Exposition at Frankfort, Germany, till October 10.

Aug. 1.—Landing Balloon Contest, Aéronautique Club of France.

Aug. 3-7.—Balloon ascents at Milwaukee Nome Week Celebration.

Aug. 29.—Gordon Bennett Aviation Contest.

Aug. 22-29.—Aviation Week at Rheims.

Sept. 4-19.—Austrian Aero and Industrial Exhibition at Linz.

Sept. 5-11.—Daily Balloon Ascents during North Adams' Old Home Week.

Sept. 25-Oct. 9.—Hudson-Fulton Celebration, New York.

Sept. 30-Oct. 8.—Motor Exhibition of Aeronautic Engines at Paris.

Oct. 3.—Gordon Bennett Balloon Race at Zurich, Switzerland, twenty balloons entered.

Oct. 4.—Aero Club of St. Louis Balloon P.ace.

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS.

Q. In a storm blowing at the rate of 35 miles an hour, striking an obstruction presenting a surface one foot square, is there a known rule by which to calculate the pressure on the front surface and the influence it must exert at the back of the plane?

Ans. The rule for calculating rectangular wind pressures is to multiply the rate of speed, in miles per hour, by itself (square it) and by a known co-efficient. In reference books, wind tables give for a speed of 35 miles an hour a pressure of 6.125 lbs. per square foot, being based on the Smeaton co-efficient of 0.005. Hence, 35x35x0.005— 6.125 pounds. L:mgley's experiments, since confirmed by those of Mr. Eiffel, gave a coefficient of 0.00327. Hence, 35x35x0.00327= 4.00 pounds per square foot. It is not

known accurately how much of this pressure is on the front and how much rarefaction there is on the back.

Q. If it requires a strong man to exert a pressure of 250 lbs. evenly distributed over the surface of a chimney top (one side) to push it over, how strong a wind pressure will be required to push it over?

Ans. If to push over a chimney top requires a strong man to exert a pressure of 250 lbs. evenly distributed, it will also require a wind pressure of 250 lbs., as they are considered to be evenly distributed. The corresponding speed required will depend on the area of this chimney top. If it be 6 ft. wide and 10 ft. high a wind of 35 miles an hour would exert a pressure of 240 lbs., according to the Langley coefficient.

the joys of

ballooning

Christening of the "Cleveland" By Mrs. J. C. Hamilton.

If I could do anything like justice to my feelings, the following experience would hc.ve some merit.

The ascension I made from the North Adams Aero Park, April 29th, and the christening with these lines: ''When boys will be boys with fun out of sight.

We say in Kentucky 'they are flying their kite';

T>ut up in Ohio this will change soon, To 'up in a balloon, boys, up in a balloon." So with this wine which I hold in my hand, I christen this balloon the great 'Cleveland.' "

I consider one of the most enjoyable events cf my life. The big airship was well started on her maiden trip before I knew it. We left the ground at 1.15 o'clock, and drifted to the west, but soon struck a southerly current.

I felt no sensation whatever, save vigora-tion, due no doubt to the ozone in the purified air. I could not tell when we were poing up or down, or even moving.

After we had ascended some distance unconscious of the speed with which our balloon was so quietly moving, the city far below, other handy works of man became diminutive and insignificant; even the streams and railroads wore a small, serpentine aspect. At a thousand feet we struck a severe snow storm which lasted several thousand feet until we got above it into a warm current where it was clear and the fun was shining.

It was all like a beautiful dream, and. like a dream, it annihilated time and distance and finally the small things of this earth. We drifted over hills and dales, traveling about 75 miles, and the panoramic view we beheld is beyond description.

About five o'clock in the afternoon, the pilot, Mr. Stevens, found that we had a beautiful landing spot, and decided to come ''own, and as before, we were on the ground before I knew it. The big "Cleveland" rose to a height of 1,200 feet, and landed at White Creek, New York, near a farm house where we had dinner and were treated with generous hospitality.

In the basket besides myself were my husband, J. C. Hamilton, J. H. Wade, Jr., A. H. Morgan, and Pilot Leo Stevens.

The experience brought forcibly to mind the saying of the ancient philosopher: "On earth there is nothing great but man; in man there is nothing great but mind." And dy the inventive genius of the human mind, the speed of the fastest animal has been

surpassed, the power of the strongest has been minimized. He may cleave the waters of the sea with greater ease and pace than the swiftest denizen thereof, and last but not least, the mind's achievements—the eagle will soon have to turn over his sceptre and his sovereignty over the ethereal skies. Who may put a limit to the powers and the progress of the human mind? How soon may the planets and their satellites

Mrs. J. C. Hamilton Christening the "Cleveland," Stevens (left) Doesn't Like Getting Wet

cf our solar system have inter-communication? Who may be the first to convert the rays of light to messengers for us to conduct our correspondence with the inhabitants of other planets? Such fancies may soon become facts, if we may judge the future by the past.

On My First Balloon Ascension. By George Otis Draper.

We gathered at "The Wendell in Pitts-field. There were Glidden the globe-girdler, Ccmins the confident, and the present historian. We attended a lecture by Aeronaut Arnold, who told of his dip at dark in the

oank sea waves, and we supped with Stevens the intrepid, who discoursed nonchalantly of experiences that should have left him gibbering in a madhouse. Such preparation as 1 his piled on to the trembling thrills aroused by reading scared Scarritt's talc of balloon-?utical titivations should have brought a sleepless night; but nothing was known uni 1 Glidden rapped at the door at six-fifteen a. m.

From seven-thirty to eleven-fort y-iive, Stevens and a gas house corps labored untiringly to get the air craft ready. Jt is no small job to assemble the innumerable parts that contribute to the complete whole, bo much depends upon the positive working of valve, rip cord, trail ropes, etc., that great tare must be taken. The.bag itself is easily torn or stretched and constant oversight is necessary. We carried rations for four possible means, intending to make Montreal, wind and weather propitious. Instruments, maps and sand bags formed the rest of our cargo. After being snapped in various heroic postures by the camera fiends, we climbed the high car and unconcernedly awaited the ce m in g ceremony.

the christening.

' "I christen thee Massachusetts." From the charming lips of a lovely lady fell forth these words as she showered the blushing 1 assengers with Lawson carnations. As no such chronicle as this can be complete without the pertinent details, I now record that the wore the latest style of upset bucket hat and a beautifully fitting gown of elephants breath shade, directoire pattern. The big bag was now bursting with eagerness to ascend, and the extra sand bags were being cautiously removed. After repeating balancing and holding of many hands, a peremptory "Let go!" from Stevens, and \\ e rose rapidly in the air.

As we flew towards happiness, a sinister ^leam filled the eye of pilot Glidden as he defiantly unboxed a silver cornet and undauntedly prepared to blow. "Darn it all, my lips are dry," said our musician exaspérai edly. From an emergency pocket came forth a flask of blackberry juice and then from the funnel of the instrument came foith most dulcet melody (most of the time). Perhaps they never heard, and perhaps it was just as well, for we now understood why Glidden sought the silence of space so frequently there to commune with the soul-b'fting strains that shyly lurk within the turns of the trumpet. For twenty minutes Comins and the writer worked untangling some three hundred feet of trail rope.

Pittsfield was now far to the northwest. We followed above the railroad through Chester and Huntington, then veered off towards Holyoke. We crossed the Connecticut just above Springfield, and then Uinied abruptly and sailed directly over the city about 7,500 feet in the air. Since starting we had heard no noise but that of the

rumbling trains. At a 25-mile gait we entered Connecticut and explored a region that could not be easily deciphered on our route map. While about 2,000 feet up we had a queer experience, the balloon suddenly rising rapidly without loss of sand or change in clouds. Up we went to 9,000 feet, and vould have gone yet higher had not Glidden opened the valve. The day had been fine and the air clear. A little ring of clouds surrounded us at the 7,000 foot level, but at considerable distance.

Several times we yelled to staring countrymen enquiring the locality, but their answers did not reach us until we came nearer the ground later in the afternoon ; nd learned we were over Brooklyn, Conn. Near four o'clock the ropes got dragging on the ground, and as we were getting short of sand we looked for a possible landing. Ahead of us we saw a mill pond, a further field, and a railroad. We slowly passed over the pond and hoped to cross the tracks v, hen the wind suddenly shifted, and with considerable force drove us rapidly towards a farm. We got over the buildings without hitting them with the trailers, and then, with -cres of open country, gently alighted on the top of a small tree of a line that crossed the fields where the farm road ran between. The car touching the top of the tree, lightened the load, and the balloon rose again to crop in the field, the trail ropes serving little purpose in checking our progress— the anchor failing to catch. As we struck we turned, and dragged about fifteen feet. I realized that Comins weighed fully 202 pounds—for he fell on me. Glidden had pulled the rip cord, and the bag spread flat ahead of us. I only thought what a fool I was not to have taken off my glasses, but no harm was done.

In just one hour and ten minutes, with the aid of the villagers of Wauregan, the balloon was dissected and packed ready for shipment. We had been in the air just four hours and forty minutes, and travelled ninety miles air line. Wauregan is a part of T'lainfield, Conn., and we took train for New London, reaching Boston at ten. This was Charles J. Glidden's twenty-seventh voyage. After touring by automobile in every corner of the earth he now searches for the best route to heaven. Mr. Frank B. Comins, vice-president of the Aero Club of New England, had made an exciting previous trip, and the author had once been up in a cap-live balloon. As a novice he noted as peculiar the way the course could be followed and the speed judged by watching the moving shadow on the ground or looking at the end of the trail rope. There was no unpleasant sensation of any kind. The locality ;s best determined by noting the shape of fiie lakes as compared with the map. The stillness of the upper air is a feature and the change in temperature of course perceptible. I would suggest for consideration the adoption of a rope or hand hold at the bottom of the basket, so that passengers can cling to

the bottom with security should the basket tip and drag. To the writer the charm of the trip was much enhanced by the uncertainty. It is pleasant to be surprised and carried unknowingly into new territory. The machine driven aeroplane of the future may have its advantages, but not all of the romance of the wind-borne balloon. Those of us who ran automobiles in the early days miss greatly that delightful perplexity and resourceful necessity which the perfection of the present type has now outlawed. There is really nothing like it; one cries for more. Ir is bound to be popular, and it need not be dangerous. The uplift to the senses in being above the world is necessarily stimulating and valued in recollection. May the historian have many more trips to record!

struction, and the decorations were all that could be desired, and many congratulations ■were bestowed upon Mr. Stevens by the various members of the society.

"All is ready," said Mr. Stevens; then Dr. Thos. E. Eldridge, the president of the society, presented to Mrs. Lillian Clark a pretty basket decorated with the society's colors containing the christening bottle, •vvhich Mrs. Clark broke over the anchor and said, "I christen thee Philadelphia II."

After the christening, Miss Lillian Abra-hamson presented Mrs. Clark with a large bouquet of American Beauty roses, which she in turn distributed among the ladies present; after this, Mrs. M. E. Lockington, the secretary, presented to Dr. Eldridge and Dr. Simmerman on behalf of the ladies

Mrs. L. J. Minahan Christening "Massachusetts"— President Minahan Sees That She Doesn't Go Up

The First Trip of the "Phila. II"

By Dr. Thomas E. Eldridge.

The christening and ascension of the big balloon "Philadelphia II" at Point Breeze on Saturday afternoon, May 29th, marked the opening of the season for ballooning in Pennsylvania. The weather was ideal, and a large company of invited guests gathered to witness the ceremonies that are always of an interesting character when conducted tinder the auspices of the Philadelphia Aeronautical Recreation Society.

When the new bag was inflated by Stevens it was readily recognized that the balloon was of Ai character. The material, the con-

of the society a large leather mail-pouch for the purpose of carrying the instruments u4ed in ballooning. After this presentation, Dr. Geo. H. Simmerman, the vice-president of the society, on behalf of Dr. Eldridge and himself, presented to the society the new balloon which had been jointly purchased by them. The balloon was accepted on behalf of the society by Miss Elva M. Neville, the society's second vice-president.

Then, amidst the cheering of hundreds of friends, Mr. Stevens, who had charge of the inflation, started the new balloon adrift. After a run which was made in 75 minutes, a very successful landing was made at

(.Continued on page 3S)

talks with inventors.—i

By F. O. Andreae.

patent attorney.

Inventors, as a rule, are not familiar with the requirements of patent law, and on that account immensely timid. They hide their light under a bushel at a time when it would be more profitable to come out into the open and let all men see their good work.

There is a period when an inventor should observe secrecy. This period ends as soon as an application for patent has lawfully been filed.

ascertaining of value of a device.

Before spending money on patents, be sure you have invented not only something new, but something useful, for which there will be a profitable demand. Be very sure your ideas are sufficiently developed. Do not deceive yourself as to merits. Consider the facilities for manufacturing, costs, materials and all the conditions surrounding the trade to which your invention belongs. In short, criticise the product of your skill from every point of view, as would a stranger.

Having determined that the invention is a real improvement upon existing devices— and only, if this is the case—the inventor should proceed to make an application for patent. If his judgment as to the value of the invention is correct, the expenses involved are a reasonably safe speculation.

Anyone who desires to obtain a patent should, first of all, ascertain if his invention is new and capable of being patented. This preliminary examination by a competent attorney to ascertain the novelty of a device is called a search, and usually costs five dollars.

Do not expect your attorney to tell you that your invention is not practicable. He can only advise you on legal points, and secure for you all the rights to which you are entitled, irrespective of practicability.

Experts in the line of your invention can help you to arrive at a conclusion on this point, and from what they say, you can form an idea as to prospective profits. However, very frequently really meritorious devices have been turned down by those considered to be at the very head of the arts to which the improvement belonged. Therefore, let yourself be the judge; you must decide after considering carefully outside opinions.

The expenses of filing an application for patent are $45 in a single case. This includes the government filing fee, drawings executed in accordance with the provisions of the law, and attorney's fee for preparation and prosecution of the case. The filing ot an application for patent should end the per;od of secrecy. Your foreign rights are fully reserved for a period of twelve

months* by international reciprocity conventions. The advantage of this provision is obvious. During this year of grace the inventor should endeavor to confirm his belief in the merits of his invention.

The first official action on his application by the U. S. Patent Office in Washintgon may furnish him valuable guidance, and he should insist that his attorney supply him with a copy of the correspondence. From this the inventor can form an opinion as to possible infringement upon the rights of cihers. Free conversation with men familiar with the practical side of the art, consultation with manufacturers, public exhibitions of models and comparison with similar inventions, as well as the comments of the press, especially if adverse, may assist you to arrive at a true valuation of your invention. You may be saved the further useless expenditure of securing and maintaining foreign patents.

If your device is valuable, the expense of obtaining protection abroad is fully war-1 anted, and must not be neglected, but inventors should inform themselves as to the yearly taxes which most foreign countries impose upon patent rights. At the end of twelve months after filing an application for patent, the right to secure valid patents abroad becomes impaired.

publication of descriptions.

Publication of an illustrated description of the invention after an application of patent has been filed will do no harm. The inventor has secured for the time being all the rights and protection the laws of the world can give, and with confidence can proclaim himself the inventor. It is well that everybody should come to know he is the inventor, and not somebody else. Pub-kcity will decrease the risk of being robbed, and adequately place his invention before the public.

No correct idea as to the time required to obtain the granting of a patent by the United States can be given. Sometimes delays are unavoidable. Sometimes they are undesirable. For example, the Wright Brothers patent was filed March 23, 1903, and issued May 22, 1906, over three years Inter.

A final government fee of $20 is payable within six months after the patent is allowed. There are no further taxes during the seventeen years following, which constitute the life of the patent, on which there can be no renewal.

A few words regarding the requirements of an application for patent may be of service.

* There are unimportant exceptions. (Continued on page SS.)

latest wright patent.

The last patent allowed Wilbur and Or-ville Wright by the British patent office, No. 24076, application of Nov. 10, 1908, is of particular interest on account of the fact that it covers the application of anterior surfaces, or "wing tips" to aeroplanes for lateral stability. If the Canadian Aerodrome Co., in Nova Scotia, use wing tips in their machines as in the "Silver Dart," there may be some legal developments.

direction. To oppose the above rotary movement of the machine about a vertical axis, vertical rudders are arranged at the front and rear of the machine, and a fixed vertical surface at the front, and these rudders are set so as to compensate the injurious couple produced by the deformation of the wing.

Fig. i is a horizontal section; Fig. 2 a detail of mechanism; Fig. 3 a perspective

This patent is really precedent to that treated in the April issue of this magazine.

The use of the vertical rudders illustrated herewith is for the purpose of correcting the tendency of the machine to swerve from a direct path when the surfaces are flexed to maintain even keel.

In a flying machine comprising horizontal planes, the lateral balance is regulated by increasing the angle of incidence on the side which tends to descend and by decreasing the angle on the side which tends to rise, while avoiding the consequent rotary movement of the machine about a vertical axis by employing vertical rudders to produce a couple rotating in the opposite

view. The main principles and details of construction of the machine were described in the April issue. The planes 1 and 2 have rectangular frames 3, covered with cloth 4, and are connected to each other by rigid rods 5 fixed at their ends by universal joints. The front rods 5 with the frames 3 and the reinforcing cables a form a rigid framework; the rear rods 5 are only rigidly connected near the centre of the machine by the cables a; stretched cables c, near the centre, complete the rigid connection between the two planes. At the ends of this rear central rigid portion are mounted joints b; the parts of the frames beyond these joints may be "warped" by the cable 6 fixed to the rear corners of the upper plane and passing under guides 7 supported on bearings 8; traction is imparted to the cable by an auxiliary cable 8a, fixed to the cable 6 at 6a and 6b, and carried by a guide 9 on to a drum 10 mounted on a shaft 11 carried by brackets 12. The drum is provided with a handle 13 and can be held stationary on the shaft 11 by a brake consist-

ing of a split collar 14, a milled screw 15 regulating the friction between the collar 14 and the shaft 11. Auxiliary cables 16 are fixed to the cable 6 and the rear edges of the planes to prevent them from bulging. The cable 17 is fixed to the rear corners of the lower plane, passing over guides 18, and provided with auxiliary cables 19. In this manner is formed a rigid, yet deformable, framework.

To overcome the rotary movement of the machine about a vertical axis that would ensue from deforming the wings a vertical rudder 20 is fixed to the rear of the machine, moving on an axis mounted between arms 21; at the lower part of the axis is mounted a pulley 22 round which passes a cable 23 permitting the rudder 20 to be turned so as to obtain a pressure of air on the rudder on the side of the machine the wing of which has the smaller angle of incidence. A second vertical rudder 24 moves on an axis mounted on arms 25 in front of the machine. The crossed cable 23 passes round the pulley 26, thus turning the two rudders in opposite directions. The rudders are worked by the cable 23 passing over a drum 28 mounted on the shaft 11, and provided with a handle 29 situated close to the handle 13 so that both can be grasped with one hand. The drum 28 is provided with a friction brake consisting of a split collar 30 and a milled screw 31.

"It is known that the centre of pressure on aeroplane rudders does not maintain a fixed position for all adjustments. It is impossible, therefore, to hinge the rudder so that it will always be in balance. The pressure will sometimes assist and sometimes oppose the adjustment of the rudder by the operator, especially when passing the dead centre, and make accurate adjustments difficult. We have therefore introduced a friction between the operator and the rudder, so that the operator will be compelled to overcome resistance in making all adjustments. The amount of the friction is therefore preferably regulated to be greater than the disturbing forces produced by the pressure of the rudder, but less than that at the command of the operator for making adjustments." A vertical fixed vane 27 is mounted on a cross-bar d between the arms 25; it acts with the rudders; in case one of these is more powerful than the other, it assists the more feeble one to form a turning couple; in case one of the rudders is disabled it maintains with the remaining one a turning couple in the original direction. The horizontal rudder 32 is arranged in front; its axis carries a pulley 33 on which is wound a cable 34 passing over a drum 35 actuated by a handle 36 and fitted with a friction brake. Finally, instead of the rear portions of the wings being deformed, movements may be imparted to the anterior parts of the wings. In a general way the object of this invention is the balancing of these machines by the combination of horizontal surfaces movable at

variable angles of incidence arranged upon the right and left hand sides of the machine with vertical rudders and vertical fixed surfaces.

Following are the nine claims to the specifications, in full:

"1. In a flying machine, the combination with a single or multiple aeroplane having lateral portions capable of being adjusted while in flight to different angles of incidence on the right and left sides of the machine, of a vertical adjustable front rudder and a vertical adjustable rear rudder.

"2. In a flying machine, the combination with a single or multiple aeroplane having lateral portions capable of being adjusted while in flight to different angles of inciT dence, of a vertical adjustable rudder and a fixed vertical vane co-operating therewith to form a turning couple.

"3. In a flying machine, the combination with a single or double aeroplane having lateral portions capable of being adjusted while in flight to different angles of incidence, of vertical adjustable front and rear rudders and a fixed vertical vane mounted between the said rudders.

"4. In a flying machine, the combination with a single or multiple aeroplane and means for moving while in flight the right and left portions of the said aeroplane to face forward at different angles of incidence, of vertical rudders mounted in the front and rear of the said aeroplane, and means for simultaneously actuating both said rudders and said aeroplane.

"5. In a flying machine, the combination with superposed aeroplanes having a rigidly connected central portion and a guide or guides carried by said aeroplanes, of a cable secured at its opposite ends to the opposite lateral portions of the upper aeroplane and engaging the guide or guides carried by the lower aeroplane, and a second cable secured at its ends to the opposite lateral portions of the said lower aeroplane and engaging the guide or guides on said upper aeroplane, whereby one of the said cables is actuated to move one of said lateral portions of one of said aeroplanes downward, the opposite lateral portion is moved upward and vice versa.

"6. In a flying machine, the combination with superposed connected aeroplanes, of a cable secured at its opposite ends to the opposite lateral portions of one of said aeroplanes, a guide carried by the other of said aeroplanes and adapted to engage said cable, an auxiliary cable connected at one end to said cable intermediate said guide and the point of connection of said" cable with said aeroplane, and at its other end to said first-mentioned aeroplane at a point removed from the point of connection of the main cable to said aeroplane.

"7. In a flying machine, having tips adjustable to the aeroplanes and adjustable rudders, with means for operating the same,

(Concluded on page S9)

^^O-v____^

GOVERNMENT BALLOON

EXPLODES.

Capt. Chandler and Lieut. Ware Have Narrow Escape.

After a trip of 83 miles on May 10th, the Signal Corps balloon "No. 12" exploded almost at the moment of touching the ground.

The silk and rubber fabric balloon had a capacity of 19,000 cubic feet, and was made in France. This ascension was its first, and was the first to be made from the new balloon shed and hydrogen gas plant at Fort Omaha, just completed. The balloon had been in course of inflation for three days awaiting favorable weather. A six-mile wind was blowing when Captain Charles De F. 'Chandler and First Lieutenant James E. Ware stepped into the basket. Later a speed of 22 miles an hour was held for a while, after the aeronauts were almost becalmed for several hours. Photographs were taken and thermometer, barometer, etc., readings were kept during the trip for reference. The highest altitude was 4,400 feet, with a temperature of 39 degrees. Straight line distance, 83 miles.

On landing, the explosion came, setting fire to the envelope and completely destroying it. The detonation could be heard for several miles. In the hurried exit from the basket, Lieutenant Ware, who was crouched in the basket and facing the bag, received some facial cuts, but Captain Chandler, facing from the balloon, was unhurt. The basket and instruments were unharmed.

capt. chandler tells of accident.

In his official report to the Adjutant at Fort Omaha, Captain Chandler states:

"After passing over Homer, Neb., the course soon carried the balloon clear of the rough ground and over the flat lowland plains of the Missouri River valley, and at 6:17 p. m. the valve was opened (height, 3,112 feet), and descended to make a landing. Wind velocity latter part of the trip scaled off from map, and time of passing over known points was 22 miles per hour. This rapid descent was necessary, because a lake and the Missouri River lay directly ahead of us. While descending, the rip cord was taken out of its sack and hung down beside the pilot ready for use, but just as the guide rope neared the ground, the end fouled around a telegraph or telephone line and stopped the balloon with a jerk which threw me off my feet and also threw the rip

cord out beyond reach from the car. The guide rope soon released itself and the anchor was dropped. It bounded along the ground across a small field and caught in a wire fence. The valve was opened before catching the fence and was held open. The force of the wind was sufficient to break the appendix ropes, which allowed the balloon to parachute, but the anchor held, and very soon it was noticed that almost half the gas was out. While in this situation, the car settled down gently to the ground twice, rising a few feet again each time, but the gas bag did not get near the ground until after the car picked up the second time; then a gust of wind swung the half-empty envelope down toward the ground and the gas exploded and burned. The report was heard several miles. The force of the explosion broke the loading ring into three parts, tore the balloon into pieces, broke the valve and many of the ropes near the loading ring. The explosion ignited the envelope, and it was completely consumed, together with most of the net.

"At the time of the explosion of the gas, Lieutenant Ware and I were down low in the car holding the valve open, and thereby protected somewhat from the flame, but the force was sufficient to knock us and the car over, resulting in several bruises on each of us, the most serious being small cuts on the forehead and around the eye of Lieutenant Ware. (Lieutenant Ware was facing the bag.) The back of my head struck something and stunned me, but I regained consciousness in a few moments without assistance.

"The ignition of the gas was probably caused by a static discharge between the balloon and the earth as soon as the envelope came near the ground. The envelope of balloon No. 12 was made of silk and rubber fabric, and at 3.000 feet altitude might have acquired a static charge of electricity of different potential than the earth, retaining it during the rapid descent ; or perhaps the charge was acquired on account of the friction of the air against the silk during the rapid descent. There were no other people within 75 yards of the balloon at the time of the explosion, and it is not apparent how the gas could have ignited from any other cause than an electric spark. There were no flint rocks, stones, metal or timber where the bag exploded; therefore, it was impossible to have received spark from friction of two bodies striking together. Landing was on freshly plowed ground.

"To avoid similar accidents in the future, it is recommended that before making a landing (silk envelopes especially) balloons be maintained at a low altitude as long as practicable before touching the earth, so that any static charge would have some chance to be dissipated. Perhaps the object could be accomplished by carrying a loop of light flexible wire over the gas bag and connecting both ends of the loop to a small flexible wire woven into the guide rope, thereby allowing the spark to pass to earth at a safe distance below the inflammable gas."

An order has been given for a 540-cubic metre balloon to take the place of the one destroyed at Fort Omaha. Nebraska.

Ft. Omaha is becoming the principal army balloon rendezvous, and the dirigible and other balloons have been sent there. Several officers, some from the Signal School at Fort Leavenworth, are attending there for a course of instruction. Lectures will be given.

The plant for manufacturing hydrogen in use at Fort Omaha is the most fully equipped in the world. A heavy current of electricity is passed through water, disintegrating the fluid into its component parts, the hydrogen being liberated and passed into a gas receptacle, from which it is piped into the balloon.

other accidents of like nature.

April 26, 1903, the German balloon "Passewitz" was burned on grounding, and the phenomenon is noted as an electrical one. (See "Au Fil du Vent." Paris, 1909, page 296.)

Another catastrophe, apparently identical, took place at Civitacastellano, Italy, in March, 1906. The balloon in this instance exploded on reaching the ground, due to the fact that the balloon came down from a great height charged with electric potential acquired in the clouds, so that it exploded as it touched the ground.

Powdered aluminum has been used in Italy for the past twelve years, and triple advantages are claimed for it: preventing the cloth from being electrified; affording the cloth a semi-incombustibility; maintaining the hydrogen at a low temperature. (See July_ and August, 1908, issues for full discussion of this subject; also p. 130, March, 1909.)

Lahm and Foulois to Operate Wright Machine.

Gen. James Allen, Chief Signal Officer, has designated Lieuts. Frank P. Lahm and Benjamin D. Foulois as the student officers who are to be taught the art of manipulating the Wright aeroplane. The contract requires that the two officers be instructed how to pilot the aeroplane. The two officers, after attaining proficiency, are expected to act as tutors to others.

Herring Delivery Postponed.

_ A. M. Herring was allowed to waive delivery of his aeroplane on June 1st, as he

claimed that two of his foreign patents would be invalidated by an exhibition of his machine prior to June 15th. He promises to fulfill his contract by July 1st, the limit set at the time the last extension was granted.

The Wrights are due to begin flights at Washington on June 21.

Dirigible No. 1. /

Signal Corps Dirigible No. 1 was overhauled and inflated with li3rdrogen gas in the Balloon House, Ft. Myer, Virginia, for a thorough test before being taken out for flight. A heavy rain and wind at this time damaged the balloon tent, necessitating its being taken down, consequently no flights were made. The dirigible was deflated a few days later, and shipped to Fort Omaha, Nebraska, for aeronautical instruction and demonstration at that post.

Second Lieutenant John G. Winter, Jr., 6th Cavalry, was assigned to duty in the Aeronautical Division.

The balloon detachment and four officers assigned to duty in the Aeronautical Division, in charge of First Lieut. Frank P. Lahm, Signal Corps, have been transferred to Fort Omaha, Nebraska, on temporary duty, to operate Signal Corps Dirigible No. 1.

On May 26th, Lieut. Lahm, pilot, and Lieut. Foulois, made a flight in it at Fort Omoha, manoeuvering at will.

The demonstration before the officers and men of the 1st and 2nd Companies of the Signal Corps, N. G. N. Y., and a thousand interested spectators in the 71st Regiment Armory, New York, by A. Leo Stevens, was a great success. Mr. Stevens gave an illustrated lecture, and under his direction the Aeronautic Squad inflated one of his balloons. When the Signal Corps goes to camp this year, it will have practical lessons in ballooning. It is rumored that Mr. Stevens is to present the Corps with a balloon.

This demonstration was preceded by a visit to the Stevens' factory by several members of the Aero Squad.

The famous old "United States," which was bought last year by Dick Ferris of Los Angeles and has been the medium for some exciting ballooning in California since then, has been sold by Mr. Ferris to Park A. Van Tassell of Oakland. Mr. Van Tas-sell, who has been making balloon ascensions in California for 22 years, has equipped a balloon park in Oakland from which he will make ascensions with the "United States." The "American," which was taken west by Mr. Ferris last year, is now owned jointly by him and Mr. J. B. Lehigh of Los Angeles, and will be retained in that city.

The Aero Club of St. Louis has leased a plot of ground for the proposed aero meet on Oct. 4, and has arranged for piping, etc., for gas for the racing balloons. The appropriation committee of the Centennial Celebration has donated $10,000 towards the meet, and has set aside three days for the races and contests. On Monday, the 4th, the long distance balloon race will be started with probably twenty contestants; Friday and Saturday the contests between dirigible balloons and flying machines.

The annual meeting of The Aero Club of California held June 1st in Los Angeles. The following are the officers elected: President, H. Lav. Twining, A. L. Smith, E. A. Murch; first vice-president, E. J. Campbell, A. L. Smith, Geo. W. Throop, W. B. Cannon; second vice-president, E. L. Graves, J. H. Klassen, W. L. Wiggins; secretary, Parke Hyde, E. L. Graves, J. T. Dickson; treasurer, E. W. Murch, Geo. W. Throop, W. B. Cannon.

grounds for washington club.

The Aero Club of Washington.—Incident to the commencement of activities by the Aeronautical Division of the Signal Corps, the Aero Club of Washington is showing every indication of future progress. The enthusiasm aroused at the second meeting of the club, held at the residence of Dr. Alexander Graham Bell on May 13th, should be an inspiration to other organizations of this character. The Washington club has come to realize the splendid opportunities which it has, as well as the important responsibilities it has assumed; but better still, men of influence and position residing in the nation's capital are becoming greatly interested in the club.

The meeting was called for the purpose of electing a president, former Secretary of the Navy Newberry having declined to serve because of his European trip, which keeps him away from Washington. Thomas F. Walsh, one of the best known citizens of Washington, and famous for his silver mine holdings, was elected to fill the vacancy.

Consideration of plans for co-operating with the Aero Club of America in connection with the presentation of the gold medals to the Wright Brothers at the White House on June 10th occupied the attention of the members. Dr. Zahm, the secretary, read several communications from the New York club giving the details of the program. It was decided that the club should give further consideration to the matter at another meeting.

Gen. Robert Shaw Oliver, Assistant Secretary of War and vice-president of the club, presided at the meeting. He especially urged that the club secure suitable grounds where flights can be made. Dr. Bell suggested that there are many practical men in the various governmental departments in Washington who would like to belong to an aeronautical society where they could have the benefit of the encouragement and assistance which such a society could afford. He suggested that the dues of the Aero Club, which are fifteen dollars, including the initiation fee, are too high for these men. It was then suggested that a scientific branch of the club could be formed for the purpose Dr. Bell had in mind. A committee of the Board of Governors has this matter in charge.

Dr. Zahm announced the appointment of several sub-committees of the Board of Governors to take charge of various matters. He said that the membership of the club is now between forty and fifty, but that it is expected within a short time the full number of charter members, one hundred, will have joined.

That the club should purchase an aeroplane was the suggestion made by Dr. David Fairchild, of the Department of Agriculture. Henry Wadsworth proposed that modeds of flying machines and photographs should be obtained for the use of members. Lieutenant Frank P. Lahm, of the Signal Corps, discussed the practicability of purchasing a balloon for free flights, and suggested that by means of a nominal charge for ascensions the balloon would soon pay for itself.

Asserting that the Fort Myer drill grounds do not offer sufficient space free of obstructions for experimental flights and for the teaching of officers in the handling of aeroplanes, Gen. Allen said that the Signal Corps is endeavoring to obtain more suitable grounds for an aerodrome near Washington. Indian Head, on the Potomac River, and within easy access of Washington, is being considered. OttovH. Tittmann, superintendent of the Coast and Geodetic Survey, said that he would endeavor to aid General Allen in locating a suitable place for the proposed aerodrome.

The announcement made by Gen. Allen is particularly significant, because he said that the grounds would be open to the Washington Aero Club for use in connection with its experiments. It is to be hoped that this aerodrome will become as popular with aviators as is Issy-les-Moulineaux near Paris. The Board of Governors of the club

will take up the various suggestions made at the meeting by the members. Those present were:

Dr. David Fairchild and Mrs. Fairchild, Mrs. Emmons, Dr. Alexander Graham Bell, Gen. Robert Shaw Oliver, Dr. Albert F. Zahm, Charles J. Bell, Edward McLean, Prof. Harry C. Frankenfield, Dr. J. Wesley Bovee, Otto H. Tittmann, Gen. A. W. Greeley, Prof. Wm. J. Humphreys, Geo. O. Totten, Willis Moore, Brig. Gen. James Allen, Major Geo. O. Squier, Lieutenant Frank P. Lahm, Lieutenant Butler, Henrj Wadsworth, C. H. Claudy, M. D. Porter, and Jerome S. Fanciulli.

The Philadelphia Aeronautical Recreation Society had a drawing for the next ascension, so eager were the applicants. In accordance with a rule of the society, the names of the fortunate women will not be made public. The pilot of the Philadelphia II on this occasion will be Dr. Thomas E. Eldridge, the newly elected president of the society.

The annual meeting has just been held Doctor Eldridge succeeds himself as president. The other officers, all re-elected yesterday, are Dr. George H. Simmerman, Miss Elva M. Neville, Dr. Ely S. Beary, vice-presidents; Thomas Rose, treasurer; Mrs. M. E. Lockington, secretary, and Miss Mary Carnell, official photographer.

The Aero Club of Dayton has arranged with G. L. Bumbaugh to go to Dayton in June and take some of the members ballooning. The membership of the new club is growing rapidly.

The International Aeroplane Club has

been organized in Dayton, Ohio, and starts off with a membership list of 500, amongst which are a number of prominent men of science from various parts of the country, interested in the exploitation of the aeroplane. The Wright Brothers have been elected honorary members.

The purpose of the club is to stimulate and foster scientific research in this phase of aeronautics, collect literature bearing thereon, and recognize meritorious contributions or achievements by the conferring of suitable honors.

On the occasion of their return from abroad last month, the Messrs. Wilbur and Orville Wright were given a most enthusiastic reception by their friends and townsmen, on which occasion they were presented with a laurel wreath containing a design depicting ]\Iercury invested, by the genius of the Wrights, with a beautiful pair of wings in addition to those bestowed upon him by the gods of mythology, flying through the clouds, a section of the earth being shown below, and the following quotation from Keats appearing in the center:

"Only the sward He with his wand light touch'd,

And heavenward, swifter than sight was gone."

It was this occasion which furnished the inspiration that led to the organization of this club.

Plans are being laid for the club's participation in the "Wright Celebration," to be held here on the 17th and 18th of this month, which promises to be possibly the most magnificent affair of its kind ever attempted by any municipality.

Those interested can obtain application blanks by addressing A. E. Estabrook, International Secretary, International Aeroplane Club, Dayton, Ohio.

The Pacific Aero Club has been organized in San Francisco with the following officers: President, J. C. Irvine; vice-president, C. C. Bradley; secretary, Cleve T. Shaffer; treasurer, J. N. Masten; board of directors, Prof. Bruno Heymann, A. Lowell Eisner, Prof. Joseph Hidalgo, F. J. Harrington and Prof. Geo. A. Merrill.

The club is formed of local enthusiasts who are devoting their leisure time to the study of aerial navigation, many of them having machines in the course of construction. The members believe that they will be able to interest a sufficient number of people to form the largest aero club on the Pacific coast, and offer prizes to the makers of the latest type of flying machines.

The formation of the club has certainly livened up aeronautics in San Francisco, and the membership is increasing daily. The newspapers are giving the necessary publicity to the club's meetings, and public opinion seems to be changing from the synical apathy that has characterized it—due to several failures of the Morrell type. A unique plan to stimulate a practical side to the interest of the members that do not own machines or balloons, is the giving of a prize by Prof. J. Hidalgo for models, which are inexpensive to make and at the same time give an idea of the problems to be met with in a large size machine.

California Balloon Club.—This club has been organized by a number of Californians primarily to encourage ballooning as a sport in this state, and to set before eastern bal-loinists the advantages of touring and winter ballooning in California. The club is designed to aid in every way the regular aero clubs, not in any way to interfere with their progress.

In a communication to the Pacific Aero Club the latter was asked to name the vacancies in the following directorate of the Cal. Balloon Club: President, Dick Ferris, Los Angeles; vice-president, to be named by Pacific Aero Club; vice-president, T. C. S. Lowe, Pasadena; vice-president, A. L. Crane, Sacramento; secretary, Geo. B. Harrison, San Francisco; treasurer, to be named by Pacific Aero Club; consulting engineer, Roy Knabenshue, Sierra Madre, Cal.; board (.Continued on page SS.)

CURTISS FLIES AERONAUTIC SOCIETY AEROPLANE.

"The Finest Machine" Now at Morris Park.

New York, June n, 1909.

Successful trial flights have been made with the aeroplane built by G. H. Curtiss at Hammondsport, for the exhibition of the Aeronautic Society. After the first two flights some minor detail changes were made, and then two flights of half a mile and a mile and a half each were made. The following morning two more flights of two miles each in a figure eight were made. The new machine is very speedy, the trials being at 45 miles an hour.

The machine is now at the Morris Park grounds of the Aeronautic Society, where Mr. Curtiss will fly at the Society's exhibition.

A biplane, the surfaces have 29 ft. spread, 4l/2 ft. front to rear, with the same distance between. There are only 260 sq. ft. of supporting surface and the weight, including the aviator, is but 550 lbs. The framework is of Oregon spruce. The curved ribs are laminated. The surfaces are made of Baldwin rubber silk stretched to the tightness of a drumhead. There is a horizontal control surface containing 24 sq. ft. placed 10 ft. in front of main plane and a smaller adjustable horizontal surface 10 ft. in the rear. A double front rudder is also used, if desired, but eilher one is ample for vertical steering. The rear horizontal rudder halves a vertical rudder of about the same area. The machine is carried on three specially constructed 20-in. pneumatic-tired wheels. The front wheel is fitted with a brake to stop the machine quickly after landing. Stability is secured by movable surfaces at either extremity of the main planes, each movable surface being half within the main cell and half without. K/zs-0-^

Driven direct is a 6-ft. aluminum propeller giving a thrust of 225 lbs., though 130 lbs. is enough with which to fly.

The operator sits in front of a Livings-

ton radiator, behind which is the engine. Pushing out or pulling in the steering wheel steers up or down. Turning the wheel light or left steers in the same directions. By bending the body left or right as the machine heels over, operates the stability planes through cables attached to a curved rod closely fitting around the shoulders of the aviator.

description of xevy curtiss engine.

This engine is of the new Curtiss type, four-cylinder vertical water-cooled by force pump, 334 bore and 4-in. stroke. The cylinders are cast iron with copper jackets homogenously welded on. Lubrication is bv a force feed system, the pump being built in the case and operated from the cam shaft, the oil being fed through the hollow cam shaft to the main bearings and thence t-e—the 4iollow^_crank shaft, to the crank and connecting rod bearings, the overflow from the case returning to a separate reservoir underneath the engine, from where it is again pumped through the system.

The crank case is of special aluminum alloy and the shafts are of Vanadium steel. The valves are both in the head and are actuated by single-push rod and cam. All of the parts of the motor are made of special materials secured expressly for this engine. The weight, including the oil and water pumps, is 85 lbs. Ignition is regular 1 y Bosch magneto weighing \2l/2 lbs., driven by enclosed gears. The engine develops 25 h.p. at T300 r.p.m. and has a maximum speed of 1800 to 2000, at which it develops considerably more power. The engine is built for long and hard usage, the hearings are of liberal dimensions, and the lubrication and cooling system is very complete. The motor ha> proven efficient ‘11 a ten-hour test.

Mr. Curtiss states: "We have been informed by good authority that thi^ motor develops more power per square inch of piston area than has ever before been secured from a gas engine. We claim that it

is the lightest practical motor built. ' A similar engine of eight cylinders is under way."

The Beach-Willard Monoplane.

Our photograph shows latest aeroplane to be built by a member of the Aeronautic Society. This new monoplane has been

the rear. (Mr. Beach holds patents covering the application of planes or wings to a triangular body in France, England and America.) The body framework is about one meter square at the front end, while at the rear it tapers down to about one-half meter in height. Its length is ten meters. The spread of the wings is 38 ft. and the

The Curtiss Aeropla constructed] lately at the [grounds of the Society at Morris Park by Messrs. Stanley Y. Beach, Aeronautical Editor of the "Scientific American," and Charles F. Willard, an engineer. The machine is patterned after the Bleriot and Antoinette monoplanes, it having a square body frame at the front end and a triangular frame at

ne and the Motor

width at the body 8 ft. This tapers to 6 ft. at the outer end. Triangular wing tips are placed on the ends of the main frame. These will be connected to the aviator's body, so that when he sways inward in making a curve he will automatically set ihc wing tips in the right position to incline the machine and cause it to take the turn.

There is a horizontal surface at the end of the body framework, the dimensions of which are 5 x 6 ft. This frame has movable wing tips 2 ft. square on each end, these tips being operated in unison by a single lever at the aviator's left hand. A vertical rudder is combined with the wheel at the rear of the body framework. Both the wheel and rudder are moved by a single lever at the aviator's right hand. A Q-ft. diameter, o-ft. pitch propeller, of special design is located in front of the machine at the level of the top of the body framework. The motor is placed in the bottom part of the body and drives the propeller shaft by means of sprockets and a chain, the speed reduction from motor to propeller being about zl/2 to I. The motor

i,6oo lbs. the machine made the trip over New York City and over the rough roads leading to Arlington—a distance of 50 kilometers—in good time and without mishap. The machine was brought back in a similar way.

Myers Airship.

The airship which Carl E. Myers has sold to the Society is one of his regular "pocket editions." The bag contains 7,500 cu. ft. of hydrogen gas, is 55 ft. in length and 18 ft. in diameter, in a regular symmetrical curve from front to rear. The fabric is cotton machine varnished seven times with a final weather coat put on by hand after being inflated with air. The first seven coats are put on before the cloth is sewed. Over the bag is a close-fitting

The Beach-Willard Mono

is a four-cj'linder, water-cooled, automobile type engine, of special design, having concentric inlet and exhaust valves and a high compression. It develops 50 h.p. at 1000 revolutions. The bore and stroke are 4 x 4li in. The motor weighs about 350 lbs. complete. The total weight of the entire machine will be about 750 lbs. complete with aviator.

This monoplane was completed May 31, arid was exhibited at the Aeronautic Carnival at Arlington, N. J. that day in competition for a prize of $500 offered for the best designed and constructed aeroplane, but contest was closed a half hour before the Beach monoplane arrived, the prize being awarded to the triplane of M. Bokor. Mr. Beach has protested the award and it is probable that the lists will be reopened. In order to take the monoplane to New Jersey, Mr. Beach placed it upon his automobile. With a total dead weight of about

net, with merely the extreme points of the bag not covered thereby. These points cut the air at a very sharp angle.

The frame consists of two gunwales and a keel, forming a triangle in cross-section. The car in which the operator works is rectangular, placed midway of the frame. In the front part of the car is a Curtiss two-cylinder, 7 h.p., air-cooled motor, driving direct a two-bladed, 4-ft., wooden propeller through an ingeniously simple friction clutch. The whole frame weighs but 36 lbs. and is 39 ft. long. It disjoints at four places, each section telescoping and all going into the fifth or car section. The shaft also disjoints and is packed inside the disjointed frame, the whole frame and shafting going into a crate, the size of an ordinary trunk, the engine being carried separately in a small trunk.

In front of the frame, just behind the propeller, is a small vertical surface, and

in the rear is the usual vertical rudder, operated by tiller ropes. The front rudder is for use in emergency. To steer up and down, the operator shifts his weight Tightly forward or backward in the car, by shifting the horizontal planes on each side of the operator, or by slight movements of the ballast carried just behind the rider.

The weight of the operator and ballast must come within 200 lbs., as that is the total spare lifting power of the little sky sailor.

The News of the Month.

The past month at Morris Park has been perhaps the most interesting in its career, although there was no flying.

The Society had again and again to postpone the date of its first exhibition on account of waiting for the Curtiss machine, and the month wore out without seeing the expected weekly displays make a start. But there has been no lack of excitement, and it was not always limited to the members.

To Mr. Kimball the first Sunday in the month was a notable occasion, which he probably entered up in his diary in red ink. For on that day he was able to prove that he had successfully solved the difficulty of his transmission. Practically every expert declared that he never would get those eight propellers agoing with the wire cable. He has won out. The introduction of a friction clutch, constructed for him by .Adrian Beckert, of the Mercedes Repair Co., has removed the sudden snatch which i.sed always to break something when the engine started, and now the whole works beautifully. During the month they have run for several long spells and there has not been the least sympton of trouble. When, on that Sunday afternoon, the eight propellers spun around for the first time without breaking, there was a goodly company of friends around and Mr. Kimball was heartily cheered.

It was an amusing occasion. Mr. Bokor was out on the track with his triplane— ihe machine which is now famous as the lirst flying^ machine to win in America a money prize, and the oidy machine on earth which has captured a big prize without flying. Mr. Kimball was out on the lawn. It became a great race between the two as to which should be the first to get into the air, and win the trophy which ihe Society has put up to honor that event. Mr. Bokor was the nearest ready. Then a tire came off one of his wheels. Quickly it was replaced and reinflated, and Mr. Bokor began to debate within himself as to how high in the air he should allow himself to go. But the tire went down regain.

Another try. The same result. Meanwhile the two machines had got within sight of one another, and Mr. Kimball was rapidly getting all in order for the

desperate moment when he would risk starting his engine. Mr. Bokor cast his damaged wheel aside and did the prettiest sprint of his life across to the workshop and begged Dr. Greene to lend him a new wheel. Just when Mr. Bokor believed he had everything as good as ready, the crowd around him heard the mighty voice of the Kimball engine and there was a rush from the track to the lawn. And then darkness came. The two machines were put back into their sheds. The crowd went home. It had been an amusing race anyway.

The next day Mr. Kimball got out and all was in good trim. The moment his machine was let go of after the engine had been cranked it whizzed up the track like a streak of lightning, turned into a bank, toppled over into the hollow below and i:iy there. The front rudder was wrecked, the front of the chassis smashed off, and ihe main frame was slightly damaged. Mr. Kimball was badly shaken up, but not much hurt though he was thrown with his back against the flywheel of his engine. Many 01 the onlookers were of the opinion that <he front and one side of the machine got off the ground, and that that was the reason why the steering by the front wheel failed.

Ten days later Mr. Kimball was out again. One by one since then he has been conquering each little difficulty that has ?risen, and lias got so that he can hold the machine under perfect control. But some changes were made in the blades of the propellers, and it is doubtful whether he has ever again had the speed which he obtained on the first occasion.

Meanwhile Mr. Bokor, having lightened his triplane by discarding the wheeled chassis in favor of skids and making a little truck on which the machine was placed loose for the purpose of gaining its initial tpeed, made almost daily practice. He could spin down the track at fine pace. But he never left his little truck.

Mr. Beach had a staff of seven men swarming over one another round his monoplane, and working even by candle light at such a rate that they patched up about three months' work in about twice that number of days in preparation for the Arlington "carnival." On Monday morning, fhe last day of the show, Mr. Beach bundled the various half-completed sections of his apparatus on to an automobile, and away he sped for Jersey.

About the middle of the month Carl Myers, of Frankfort, N. Y., brought down ihe little dirigible he was under contract to the Society to demonstrate with the view to the Society buying it if it proved lo be steerable. The making of the hydrogen gas and filling the envelope was watched with great interest. Mr. Myers' system of making the gas proved a marked success.

Everything was ready for the demonstration on Monday, the 3Tst. A very big

crowd of spectators made their way in and were allowed to remain. But it was only for a disappointment. Mr. Myers considered that the wind was never sufficiently calm to permit of him making a successful display.

But of the fifteen members who entered for the dirigible contest, only Kimball and Grout were in attendance next day when the weather was decently still. Mr. Kimball, whose entry was the first, took the first lesson. Rob. Hopkins, Mr. Myers' assistant, coached him well. But the ascensional power of the balloon had so much decreased in the cool of the evening that it was hardly sufficient to take Mr. Kimball up together with a bag of ballast. The first time it was let go it came back very quickly, and more ballast had to be discarded. The next time it sailed up nicely. But almost immediately afterwards it got its nose downhill, and shot to the ground. Despite his perilous position, Mr. Kimball 'tuck to his seat, though the bump with the earth nearly knocked him off it. In striking the ground the shaft «.napped just behind the propeller, and the rngine, relieved of its load, raced at a frightful pace. But Mr. Kimball, quickly recovering his balance, turned the motor off. Then, as he rebounded into the air, he threw out a line, which was caught: and further experiments and lessons were postponed till next morning.

Having had the propeller shaft repaired during the night, further lessons were taken about 5 A. M. when the warmth of the rising sun had expanded the gas and made things better. Both Kimball and Grout made trips about the grounds. The 1 ad weather that followed delayed rein-nation.

The next event was the working of the Society's motor. A satisfactory magneto having been obtained, Mr. Shneider got the wheels going round in great form. Before June is very old, Mr. Shneider will be making a tryout with his machine. He has been held up b\- a Philadelphia firm who took several weeks to supply some bearings. But now he has everything necessary, and, at the time of writing, was fixing up his propellers.

Much progress has been made during the month with all the machines building at 'he Park. Dr. Greene and Dr. Walden are shaping towards completion. The Brothers Lawrence will soon begin assembling. Mr. Ivickman is fixing up his outer ring of surfaces, and has hopes of soon being through. Mr. Beach, back from Arlington, is redoing all the work that was hurried over.

The sheds have also received two new and interesting arrivals. The first of these wis F. H. Lindsay of Chicago, a consult-

ing engineer practising in the Windy City, who has joined the Society and come to the Park to build. He has a small and unique machine on which he is placing great h< pes. It consists simply of two parallel planes of only 25-ft. spread, and will be driven with a 16-20-h.p. motor. There is to be neither front nor rear rudder. Steering is to be effected by simply manipulating the planes.

The other new arrival was W. H. Martin of Canton, O., well known to readers of this magazine. Mr. Martin is under contract to make a demonstration of gliding at the coming exhibition both by himself and by Mrs. Martin. He has brought his apparatus and is assembling it and making some alterations at the Park.

All Ready for A. S. Exhibition.

In addition to the Curtiss aeroplane, the dirigible and hydrogen plant purchased by The Aeronautic Society from Carl E. Myers is all read}r for the show. The Thomas windwagon is being rebuilt for the wind-wagon race and Louis R. Adams will have ready another one in a few days. The Thomas windwagon will be used also for testing the propellers in the efficiency contest. Mr. Adams is working hard on his aeroplane which has some novel features. William H. Martin, Mrs. Martin and the boy will all make towed flights in the Martin glider, while Win. H. Aitken will use a Wittemann glider in towed flight, and Charles J. Hendrickson one of his own design. Hendrickson and Aitken want to glide from the roof of the grandstand.

There will be a "hurdle race" to provide a freak event. Four contestants will have fastened to their shoulders small balloons filled with hydrogen and will race along the track and over obstacles. Those who have tried say that enormously high jumps can be made in this fashion. Three Mont-golficr balloons have been engaged to go up at the same time, with parachute descents.

Drs. Greene and Walden, Lindsay and Lawrence will have their machines completed in a few days, and, of course, hope 10 fly for the prizes announced last month. Beach, Kimball and Shneider are all ready now for trials. Fifteen possible flyers should show up on the day of the cxliibi tions besides the gliders. An exhibition of kite flying will be given by S. F. Perkins and a contest will be held between the schoolboys of Xew York.

JUXE 2<>

Everyone is working hard to get ready for the show June 26. Many (lying models are promised and new features are beinggotten up.

shows of the month.

FIRST SHOW OF THE AERO CLUB OF CALIFORNIA—

$1,000 PRIZE. By H. La V. Twining, Secretary. On the ist and 2nd of May, 1909, the Aero Club of California gave its first show. This show was purely aeronautical, and taking into consideration that this was the club's first effort, it was a success.

Fourteen models were placed on exhibition, representing various types—ornithop-ters, helicopters, gyroplanes, monoplanes, d'rigible balloons, and modifications of the Wright type.

Six entries were made for the glider contest.

Edgar S. Smith came first with his three decker. He attempted towing flights. A tow-line was attached to an automobile and he attempted to cut loose and glide after attaining the proper speed. Great difficulty was experienced owing to the limited space ^nd to the fact that the stadium was surrounded by a large brick wall. The wind came in gusts. On one occasion he rose ten feet in the air. On another trial he was towed 75 feet free of the ground, and for 25 feet of that distance he was free from the pull of the automobile. This won for him the Leonard cup.

The boys of the Aero Club of the Los Angeles Polytechnic High School, W. S. Eaton, president, came next on the list with a glider weighing 110 lbs. This is a modification of the Wright model. By means of a derrick 25 feet high and a launching apparatus similar to that used by the Wrights, they attempted to put their machine into the air for a glide. After several trials one glide of 24 feet was obtained. The machine developed a strong reaction when up to speed, sufficient on two occasions to tear the car loose from the track. On one trial the machine reared up in front and sat down on its rear edges, owing to a too great turning of the front planes. This glider won second place.

Van M. Griffith came third on the list, and made^many attempts at towing flight. His machine was a two-decker, having a rear tail consisting of vertical and lateral planes. He was not quite so successful as Mr. Smith.

F. L. Hetzel followed next in E. G. Ford's machine. This one was similar to Van M. Griffith's. He attempted one or two towing flights.

No power machines were entered. The club has offered a prize of $1,000 to any member of the club who, with a machine of his own invention, can fly under- power a distance yet to be set by the committee.

The Leonard cup is a challenge cup to

become the property of the winner only when won three times in succession.

No entry was made for the Roy Knaben-shue cup offered to the power machine that can fly 500 feet under power.

Geo. O. Wilson attempted a towing flight in D. J. Johnson's "aerofoil," but owing to a wrong attachment of the bridle the planes were jerked over the seat and broken.

This machine is constructed on unique and original lines, and bids fair to make itself known in the future. The machine without its engine weighs 120 lbs., and has 500 square feet of surface. It is a biplane, but the upper plane is about one-third the area of the lower plane. The planes are three feet apart, and are fixed rigid together at their front edge. Crescent shaped, they present the convex edge to the front. The engine and operator are suspended by two points on the front edge of the lower plane and by one point to the rear edge. At this rear suspension a large tail is hinged. A lever runs from this hinge to the operator's seat. By means of it the tail is depressed, at the same time elevating the rear edge of the lower plane, and rotating it around its front edge.

When the tail is raised the rear edge of the lower plane is lowered. By this means fore and aft stability is to be maintained. Lateral stability is secured by an ingenious arrangement whereby the side of the machine that is tilted up is automatically compelled to assume the whole weight of oper ator and engines, thus bringing the tilted side back again.

Mr. Cronkite conducted some kite-flying contests.

Three commercial companies have been formed by members of the club for building flying machines.

The club now numbers two hundred members, and it is in a flourishing condition. The success of the show and the present flourishing condition of the club are due largely to the energy and push of Mr. W. H. Leonard. It was through his initiative that the balloon "America" was rescued from its perch in the high Sierras where it had been left by Capt. A. E. Mueller and his party as related in the last issue of "Aeronautics." This balloon was run as a captive at the show, and it proved a great attraction. Capt. A. E. Mueller acted as pilot.

JERSEY'S AERO CARNIVAL.

Baldwin Flies New Ship.

Those members of the Automobile Club of America who followed the advice given in the club's journal under the title "Official Bulletin of the Aero Club of America," which read that from May 25th to 31st

I. Edgar S. Smith's Triplane Glider. 2. Cleve T. Shaffer at the start of a towed flight. 3. Glider of Polytechnic School. 4. A. L. Smith's modified Wright model. 5. Frank Steffan model. 6. D. J. Johnson's machine. 7. Gasless airship of A. L. Smith. 8. Gyroplane model of J. H. Klassen.

,t X

'members will have at Arlington an opportunity to see what is actually being accomplished in aerial navigation," must have thought that the art was still in swaddling clothes.

As a "carnival," the joke perpetrated by Ihe West Hudson Aero Club, so failed, upon the Aero Club of America, the Aviation Section of the Automobile Club of America, was a distinct success; but some hunting was needed to locate the aero part of it. Instead of a great held, one found an embryo city with theoretical looking streets ali laid out with nice little trees bordering the stone sidewalks. Here and there were real estate offices, and agents were industriously distributing circulars calling attention to the advantages of Arlington lots. Governor Fort, who "opened" the carnival, was assured that the affair was really aeronautical, and to prove it advance agents hastily' covered the real estate signs with American flags before the governor and his cavalcade arrived.

Thousands of people were on hand every day to eat peanuts, drink pink lemonade, have their fortunes told, palms read, and see "Little Egypt," "Salome," the tented vaudeville show, and the circus, or ride on the Ferris wheel and merry-go-round.

"A balloon on the ground is a great thing for the show business," said one of the Orientally garbed fortune-telling women, as she predicted for the twentieth time to an anxious io-cent client that in twelve months or less the citizens of West Hudson would enjoy the pleasure of sailing by an aeroplane rapid transit service direct to New York. "1 could prophesy bigger things," she added, confidentially, "if the price were bigger."

On the afternoon of May 25th, Governor Fort made an opening speech, followed by an Assemblyman, a Representative, and Evelyn Baldwin.

Capt. Thos. S. Baldwin made ascents in his dirigible every da)- but one, and Morris Bokor ran his triplane up and down the streets of the youthful city, while safely anchored to the ground was the "Jersey Mosquito" of V. L. Ochoa, a big metal "flapper." Samuel F. Perkins, with all his kites and banners out, really saved the day for the aero division, while the crowd waited for nightfall, when Capt. Baldwin could sail the dirigible free from the pitfalls of Arlington i-ephyrs. Captain Baldwin's flights weiie real ones, too.

The Baldwin Dirigible.

The Baldwin dirigible has been lengthened since it was used late last fall, but is substantially the same as described and illustrated in the April '08 issue. The bag is 87 ft, long, by 16 ft. in diameter at the front, tapering to 15 ft. at the rear, and holds 14,000 cubic ft. of gas. The frame work has been lengthened 12 ft. There is no horizontal rudd er in the rear, the one near the front being found sufficient. A

single n-foot wooden propeller, built by Glenn H. Curtiss, is driven by a 15 h. p. Curtiss air-cooled motor, and the pull is 205 lbs. A new Curtiss water cooled motor, one of the new type now being put out by the Curtiss company, will shortly be installed. The horizontal rudder is moved by a lever as shown in the accompanying photograph, while the vertical rudder is steered with tiller ropes. Later both operations will be done by a steering wheel. The double surface horizontal rudder measures 16 by 2l4 feet.

Morris Bokor won the $500 prize for the best designed and constructed machine. S. Y. Beach, who got there late in the afternoon of the last day, after the judges of the Aero Club of America had finished their work, with his new Bleriot-like monoplane has protested to the A. C. A., and states that his machine is the better, and that he was promised by the management opportunity to compete against the Bokor machine. The thousand dollar prize for a m mile flight is still to be won.

schoolboys' kites and aitken glider

William H. Aitken came up from Chester, Pa., on the last day with a Wittemann glider, and made four successful though short flights on the side of an adjacent slope.

There were probably two hundred young kite flyers in the contest May 29, and of that number 103 by actual count came from Public School No. 77, at Eighty-sixth Street and First Avenue, Manhattan. In that school kite-flying has been taken up with great enthusiasm by both the big and little bovs, who are under the guidance of W. H. Mohr, A. E. Horn and C. A. Bork-iand, instructors in the school. Naturally enough, most of the prize winners came from this large body of amateur experts.

The Arlington boys, using the ordinary try-shop type of kites, soon came to grief in the wind that blew nearly twenty miles an hour. Samuel F. Perkins replaced them with kites of his own. Pretty much every t}rpe and design of kite was in the contest, including Malay and Chinese, Dragon, French war, triangular, box, tetrahedral, mannikin and monoplane kites, also one kite just like a full-rigged ship.

The judges were: Samuel F. Perkins, kite expert; Edward Durant, A. E. Horn, Instruction or Science at Public School No. y 7, New York^City, and Walter M. Mohr, "IT. S. Signal Corps.

Gold medals were awarded as follows: Bryan M. Battey, 152 W. 49th Street, New ^ ork, for the best constructed kite, one made of cedar; Wilson Marshall, Jr., 48 W. 59th Street, New York, for the largest kite that flew successfully; Wm. Hanford Osborne, 27 John Street, Belleville, N. J., for a photo taken by a camera which was suspended in the air by 12 monoplane kites flown by Samuel F. Perkins. The photo was taken automatically by means of clock

work; John Doyle, adult, 645 Garden Street, Koboken, N. J., for the most artistic kite, a full rigged ship with all sails set; Eugene Levinsky, public school 77, New York, for the longest kite strung out, 12,380 ft.; Alfred Voilmer, public school 77, New York, for the highest kite, 10,107 fe.; William Krupp, public school 77, New York, for a kite that pulled 14 lbs.

Silver medals were awarded as follows: Jacob Borsurk, public school 5, Borough of the Bronx, N. Y. City, for a kite that flew with a string nearest to \l/2 miles; Sidney Kabinowitz, public school 77, N. Y. City, for having next the longest string out; Abraham Moscou, public school 77, Man-

mouth and 8y2 inches across the handles. On the face is a balloon, on which is etched "Boom Fitchburg," and in facsimile the badge used last fall when, on the day of the Glidden ascension, the "Boom Fitchburg" day was on. On either side of the balloon is the text of the date, September, 1908. In a semicircle beneath the balloon is "First, last, and all the time," this being the slogan of the organization.

Prof. Gill, of Osburn, O., has just completed a dirigible which gets its buoyancy from hot air which is heated by a heater of his own design. On the tryout, the en-

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Baldwin and His Airship at Arlington

haltaii, for next to the highest, 9,300 ft.; William Abrams, public school 77, Manhattan, for a kite that pulled 131/? lbs.

Bronze medals were awarded as follows: Louis Hollinder, public school 77, had siring out 9,675 ft.; Herbert Foeppel, public school 77, had string out 7,200 ft., third highest. Michael Gunther, public school 77, had a kite that pulled 10 lbs.

The Fitchburg Board of Trade and Merchants Association, appreciating the interest the "Boston Herald" has shown in ballooning, as especially evidenced by the offer of a silver cup to the man landing nearest Boston Common in a flight from a Massachusetts point, has supplemented this offer with a cup to the man winning the "Herald" cup and starting from Fitchburg. It is now on view in a store window.

The cup is a solid silver affair, standing 8l/2 inches high on an ebony pedestal 2]/2 inches high. It is 5 inches across the

The Forward Planes Tilted Up and Turning to the Right

gine did not work, though he states that he expects to have it in shape to come from Osburn to Dayton on the 17th.

Capt. Baldwin and S. F. Perkins will be in Norwich, Conn., with the dirigible and kites at the city's 250 anniversary celebration. President Taft will be present at the ceremonies and witness the airship ascents.

The United States Government has ordered a 540 cubic meter balloon and three smaller ones for signal work from Capt. T. S. Baldwin; are to be delivered July 1.

A prominent Boston society man has made application to the Aero Club of New England for use of one of their balloons in which to be married. The party will consist of bride, groom, pastor, a witness and the pilot. If the request is granted, Pilot Van Sleet of Pittsiield will have charge of the balloon.

aeronautism.

NATIONAL CHAMPIONSHIP BALLOON RACE.

Indiana Aero Club Handicap.

FORBES LOSES TO BERRY.

NEW U.S. ENDURANCE RECORD NOT ALLOWED.

The title "Champion American Balloonist'' was contested for at Indianapolis on the fifth of June, and was the first of the pimual "National Championship" balloon races inaugurated by the Aero Club of .America, and conducted under the rules of the International Aeronautic Federation.

A silver trophy is offered by the A. C. A. lor the longest distance made, and Carl G. F'sher, president of the Aero Club of Indiana, which made all the local arrangements, presents the pilot who remained in the air the longest time a duration cup.

The contest was open only to licensed pilots of the A. C. A., with balloons up to 2200 cubic meters capacity. Gas and ballast was furnished free through the courtesy of the Indiana Club.

University City, with Berry and McCullough.

During Inflation. The left hand picture shows three balloons in the air.

Photo by E. P. Noel.

Indiana Club Handicap.

Preceding the national distance race, the contest of the Aero Club of Indiana was started under the auspices of the A. C. A. This was a handicap affair, the first to be held in America. Balloons up to 600 cubic meters, 601 to 900, 901 to 1200, 1201 to 1600, 1601 to 2200 cubic meters were allowed under the rules to carry one, two, three, four and five passengers respectively, the winner to be the balloon going the greatest distance. C. A. Coey exceeded the size

limit in his big "Chicago," and it only carried two passengers, but he was given a handicap of three times the longest dislance made by any one of the competitors.

st. louis wins big race—forties lands place money—handicap for indianapolis.

Three balloons started in the handicap race: Dr. H. W. Thompson and Joseph Lilake in the Aero Club of Ohio's balloon "Ohio"; Dr. Goethe Link and R. J. Irvin in the "Indianapolis," and C. A. Coey and

"Jack" Bennett in Coey's "Chicago": the names first given being those of the pilots.

order of finish.

i.—Balloon Indianapolis, Link and Irvin, landed at Westmoreland, Tenn., distance 222 miles; balloon built by G. L. Bumbaugh, Indianapolis.

2.—Balloon Chicago, Coey and Bennett, landed at Scottsville, Ky., distance 208 miles.

3.—Balloon Ohio, Thompson and Blake, landed at Nashville, Ind., distance 39 miles.

In the championship contest six balloons started, with the following as pilots and aides: A. H. Forbes and C. B. Harmon in the latter's new rubber-silk balloon; Charles Walsh and Capt. T. S. Baldwin in the Indianapolis club's balloon; A. H. Morgan and J. H. Wade, Jr., Carl G. Fisher and G. L. Bumbaugh, A. B. Lambert and II. E. Honeywell, John Berry and Paul J. McCullough.

order of finish.

—Balloon University City, Berry , and McCullough, landed at Ft. Payne. Ala., distance 3S0 miles; duration 25 hours, 35 minutes.

2—Balloon New York. Forbes and Harmon, landed at Corinth, Miss., distance 357 miles, duration 35 hours, 12 minutes.

—Balloon St. Louis III, Lambert and Honeywell, landed at Kelso, Tenn., distance 321 miles.

4.—Balloon Indiana, Fisher and Bumbaugh, landed at Ruskin, Tenn., distance 261 miles.

5.—Balloon Hoosier, Walsh and Baldwin, landed at Greenbriar, Tenn., distance 234 miles.

C.—Balloon Cleveland, Morgan and Wade, landed at Columbus, Ind., distance 40 miles.

At the date of going to press exact data ij still lacking at the Aero Club. Pilots have not sent in maps showing landings, record sheets showing times, and barograph readings. The distances here given are approximate only. The close finish between Berry and Forbes will make necessary the porducing of maps and evidence. The Indiana. Fisher and Bumbaugh, stayed in the air 4Q hrs., 25 min., but was disqualified by the A. C. A. for coming down twice to get water. The aeronauts state that the first time they let down a rope; and the second time some men pulled the balloon down to rest on some rails. This ought to be a good test for the balloon and show skilful handling, for every descent means lost gas and ballast. Forbes and Harmon were awarded

Fisher's duration cup for 35 hrs. 12 min.

The races, while a success, were disappointing to some particularly interested therein. Bad gas and not enough of it reduced chances for long trips. The pipes should have been larger. Many of the balloons had to start inflating the day before, as was the case with the balloon "Ohio" representing the Canton Club. This balloon has seen a lot of service and should have been gone over, revarnished and put in good shape for a race. It is the same balloon that made a trip two days before the Gordon Bennett in 1907 frim St. Louis 10 Indianapolis with Hawley and Post, and which helped to interest that city in ballooning.

"Wade and Morgan did not inflate till the day of the race and got a poor run of gas," Stevens, the builder of the balloon, says. "The other balloons had all used the coal gas specially made and started for the race, but on account of shortage of gas toward the last the "Cleveland" got the regular city gas direct from the retorts."

Further details of the race will be given in a subsequent issue. We would like to hear from the contestants.

foul play claimed.

An examination of the bag of the balloon "Cleveland," which came down a short time after the start, has convinced A. Leo Stevens, the builder of the balloon, that the big bag had been slashed while anchored in the starting grounds the night before the race. Mr. Stevens has now cffered a reward of $1,000 for the arrest of the person responsible for the vandalism.

"Near the top of the bag," he said. "I found a long slash. The injury was where detection was not easy, and it was apparent that the man who did this piece of foul play intended serious harm to the aeronauts. Luckily the slit was too short, rod their descent was so slow that they escaped injury. The cut is in the ripping panel in the edge of the reinforcement, a place where its immediate discovery would not be likely."

Certainly if this matter is investigated and the charge found to be true a most severe jail sentence should be in order; 1 ut it is almost impossible to believe that anyone could perpetrate such a thing, that might lead to most serious consequences.

other balloon records.

World's distance record, 1,193 miles, held by Henry de la Vaulx, Paris to Russia. October 9, 1900.

World's duration record, 72 hours, held by Col. Schaeck, Switzerland, made in 190S, in the third Gordon Bennett contest, from Berlin, October 10.

United States distance record, 872 miles, made by Oscar Erbsloh in the Pommern,

from St. Louis, October 21, 1907, to Asbu.ry Park, N. J., in the second Gordon Bennett contest.

United States duration record, ^ hours, 1 y Alfred Le Blanc, from St. Louis^ October 21, 1907, in second Gordon Bennett contest.

Lahm Cup record, 475 miles, by Capt. Chas. de F. Chandler and J. C. McCoy, from St. Louis, October 17, 1907, to Walton, W. Va.

Long United States trips: John Wise, St. Louis to Henderson, N. Y., 809 miles; Dr. Frederick J. Fielding and PL E. Honeywell, Chicago to West Shefford, Que., 786 miles; A. B. Lambert and H. E. Honeywell, from St. Louis, November 18, 1908, to Tiger, Ga., 461 miles, but made two intermediate landings; G. L. Bumbaugh, C. A. Coey and C. H. Leichliter from Quincy, Ills., June 1, 1908, to Clear Lake, S. D., 431 miles.

The necessity for conserving gas on long voyages would seem to make the plan of Darwin Lyon, a desirable one. For the March, April and May issues, 1908, of this journal the subject of liquefied hydrogen was discussed at great length, to the end that it seemed feasible, though costly, to lemain in the air for a great length of time by utilizing a supply of liquid hydrogen. It is to be hoped that some day this will be tried out.

Dr. Randall Wins North Adams Trophy.

The "point-to-point" race between Dr. R. M. Randall, the challenger in the "Grey-lock," and A. D. Potter, the defender in the "North Adams No. 1" from North Adams on May 12th in the second contest for the Forbes cup was won by Randall, who landed within three miles of the previously selected landing place. Potter, finding he could not get within the required distance, decided to keep on and make a long flight. Dr. Randall's was at Leeds, Mass., about 30 miles, and Potter's at Mansfield, Ct., about 72 miles.

Balloon Races at Milwaukee.

Novel features in balloon flights and races are promised for Milwaukee's homecoming week, August 3-7, if offerings of the Milwaukee Aero Club are adopted. Ordinary flights of at least three balloons are assured and a more elaborate program rests only in the willingness to provide inducements for outsiders.

If visiting air crafts are to be secured, one of the events will be a hare and hound rr.ee. This will consist of a concerted flight of about six balloons, one of which will drop after having been in the air for an hour. Each of the others must follow suit and play hound to the hare balloon, the prize winner being that which lands nearest the quarry.

Another stunt is known as the fixed point

race. Each pilot announces his determination to land as near as possible to a certain spot, which may be 100 miles from Milwaukee, if desired. The capital prize goes to . the one who makes his landing nearest his announced objective point.

A long distance rac^e by three balloons not participating in any of the other events, also is a possibility. The club has arranged for A. Leo Stevens to come to the city with two other pilots and three balloons, and this feature would be the climax of a busy celebration of the aerial section of naval day.

The Great Loving Cup Presented by the Members of the Aero Club of America to L«o Stevens

Trophies for Balloon Sail to Montreal.

Members of the Aero Club of New England are much pleased over a communication received from Mr. U. H. Dandurand, Vice-President of the Automobile Club of Canada, at Montreal, which states that the Club will offer a valuable trophy to the pilot of a balloon landing first on the island of Montreal that starts from the State of Massachusetts, or a point in the United States south of the latitude of Poughkeepsie, New York; also that one of their directors, Mr. E. Tarte, one of the proprietors of "La Patrie," a leading daily of Canada, offers a trophy under the same conditions, that lands nearest their office building in the Dominion of Canada.

Both trophies are offered through the Aero Club of New England, and are opened to all pilots of clubs affiliating with this Club.

TAFT PRESENTS WRIGHT MEDALS.

Distinguished Assembly at White House.

On June 10, Wilbur and Orville Wright received from the hands of President Taft, the Aero Club of America's medals.

It was a notable group that gathered in the East Room of the White House at 2.30 o'clock. There were members of the Cabinet, foreign attaches, military officers and men and women distinguished the world over in art and science.

Hon. Herbert Parsons spoke of the Wright Brothers' work and their delayed recognition. He said: "This is the first time that a President of the United States has honored the science of aeronautics since President Washington in 1796 witnessed a balloon ascent."

The medals were then handed President Taft who said in part: "I esteem it a great honor and an opportunity to present these medals to you as an evidence of what you have done. I am glad—perhaps at a delayed hour—to show that in America it is not true that 'a prophet is not without honor save in his own country.' It is especially gratifying thus to note a great step in human discovery by paying honor to men who bear it so modestly. You made this discovery by a course that we of America like to feel is distinctively American—by keeping your nose right at the job until you had accomplished what you had determined to do.

"It has been said that this is the first presidential recognition of aeronautics since President Washington. Well, all I have to say is that I had a predecessor who, if aeronautics had proceeded as far when he left office as it has to-day, would not only have gone down under the water in a submarine boat, but would have gone up into the air in a flying machine. (Laughter.) No one had a more earnest interest, a more active interest and a greater desire to see into the things that make for progress than my predecessor.

"There may be some reason why some presidents have not figured in aeronautics. I see that these gentlemen who have flown in the air are constructed more on the plan of the birds than some of us. (More laughter.)

"I don't like to think, and I decline to

think that these instrumentalities that you have invented for human use are to be confined in their utility to war. I presume that the}' will have great value in war, and I suppose that all of us representatives of the various governments ought to look at this matter, following the rule of governments of to-day, from the standpoint of their utility in war; but I sincerely hope that these machines will be increased in usefulness to such a point that even those of us who now look at them as not for us may count on their ability to carry more than "thin" passengers in times of peace. (Laughter.)

"I congratulate you on the recognition that you have received from all the crowned heads of Europe, and I congratulate you that in receiving it you maintained the modest and dignified demeanor worthy of American citizenship."

Immediately beside Wilbur, Orville, and Miss Wright at the presentation, were: Colgate Hoyt, ex-President Automobile Club of America; J. C. McCoy, Charles Jerome Edwards, Alan R. Hawley and A. II. Forbes, officials of the Aero Club of America. William J. Hammer, represented the American Institute of Electrical Engineers with 6,400 members, and the Aeronautic Society. As soon as the President handed the medals to Wilbur and Orville Wright, he called them to another room, saying: "We must be photographed."

In the morning the Aero Club of Washington entertained the Wrights, visiting members of the Aero Club of America and distinguished guests at luncheon at the Cosmos Club.

Among those present both at the luncheon and presentation were, Vice-President and Mrs. Sherman, members of the Italian, Brazilian, French, German, British, Japanese, Austro-Hungarian, Russian, Turkish and Mexican embassies. General Nelson A. Miles, General James Allen, General Crozier, Major Geo. O. Squier, Speaker Cannon, Rear Admiral and Mrs. Self ridge. Lieutenants Lahm and Foulois, Representative and Mrs. Nicholas Longworth, James Means, Dr. A. F. Zahm and others. There were <.t least twenty- members of the Aero Club of America present.

As a public exhibition of the appreciation of the citizens of the United States of what the Wright l'>rothers have effected in the

development of the practical navigation of the air the occasion was recognized by every one present as historical.

The Brothers Wright announced that the aeroplane would be shipped in a few days, and that flights would begin about June 21st. Orville Wright will do the flying.

America's Reception of the Wrights.

mishap balks balloon welcome plan.

Leo Stevens and Dr. Julian P. Thomas, acting on behalf of The New York American, were the first persons to step aboard the Kronprinzessiu Cecilie on May 11 to welcome the home-coming Wrights. They had planned to take an inflated balloon down the Bay on the deck of a tug, greet the Wrights and then return to New York via balloon; but the tearing of the balloon in getting it from the gas works to the tug played the deuce with the novel scheme.

It was 10 o'clock the previous night before it was definitely decided that the flight was feasible. A big truck and two automobiles started for the Stevens works at No. 282 Ninth Avenue. Mr. Stevens notified the Signal Corps and members of the Columbia University Aero Club of the plans, and they gladly joined with him.

The basket, net, sand bags, gas envelope and other paraphernalia of the 18,000 cubic foot balloon "You and I" were packed on the truck and one of the machines started to gather the members of the party.

Meanwhile Dr. Thomas was engaged in the task of getting the gas. Finally it was arranged with the Astoria Heat, Light and Power Company.

Stevens and his helpers worked away in total darkness before lanterns could be obtained, and then until daylight he was busy laying out the net and making the gas connection. He was aided by the Signal Corps, and the young men from Columbia.

Many difficulties in the way of trees and wires had to be overcome, and the big balloon was carefully manoeuvred to the very water front, where it was necessary to jump it over a series of wires, through several enormous trees and a lot of telegraph poles, and yet retain it captive. This was arranged for by tying a second rope to the car, throwing it over all the obstructions, and then letting go of the main line.

Just as the main line was let go a sudden gust of wind caught the balloon and ' .ove it with great force against a tree.

ne destruction was instantaneous, the whole side of the balloon being ripped out.

"We can't let a balloon interfere with the reception to the Wrights," said Stevens,

and the party then boarded a fast tug, reaching the steamer and chatted with the Wrights before the revenue cutter arrived with delegates from the Aeronautic Society and Aero Club of America aboard. Robert Lee Morrell and A. H. Forbes represented the Aero Club, and William J. Hammer, the Aeronautic Society.

After the formal greetings were over, Mr. Hammer, an old friend of the Brothers Wright, had a pleasant talk until the boat docked, where other members of the Aero Club were introduced.

luncheon at lawyers' club.

The following day the Wrights were the guests of the Aero Club of America at a luncheon in the Lawyers' Club. Mr. Forbes presided. The others at the guest table were Colgate Hoyt, Colonel John Jacob Astor, W. P. Hamilton, Alan R. Hawley, Charles Jerome Edwards, Robert Lee Morrell and L. D. Dozier, of St. Louis.

When Wilbur Wright was called upon to speak, he acquiesced for about three-quarters of a minute. He said:

"Since I arrived yesterday I have noticed a tendency to wobble that 1 thought was from the boat, but now I know your welcome is to blame for the rocking of this floor. It is not the custom of my brother or myself to do much talking." Here was prolonged laughter. "Other people sometimes take it upon themselves to read our minds and tell why we do this or that, and express views and opinions which, of course, are quite at variance with our own thoughts. Among other things, they have sometimes stated we were compelled to go abroad in order to obtain sufficient recognition. Now those who know the real history know the first recognition we ever received was given to us by the Aero Club of America. (Cheers.) Within a few months after we made flights, in 1905, and within a few months after the Aero Club was organized, by action of the Board of Directors our flights of 1905 were officially recognized. In later times it has sometimes been said we had to go abroad to obtain official recognition. Our members have all known it."

Prolonged applause greeted this loyal statement. Then Orville Wright was called upon.

"Fellow members of the Aero Club of America! My brother has talked so long that there is no time left for me. (Applause.) I wish to express my universal thanks for the very kind reception you have given us and to tell you how pleased we are to be back again in our native country."

John F. O'Rourke proposed "a rising toast to the rising aeronauts."

edwards ravs congress.

Charles Jerome Edwards, treasurer of the Aero Club, said, in part:

"The men who have wrenched from the caverns of the earth her hidden wealth; the engineer who opens up newly discovered country, where the agriculturist follows to make the desert blossom with golden grains; the merchant, whose warehouses cover the land and whose sails whiten every sea; the manufacturer, who turns the ugly raw product into beauteous designs of every phase of necessity and luxury; the architect, who pierces the heavens with monuments wherein to house the business of a metropolis—each and all have only followed the examples of earlier civilization. But you have surpassed all these, even in your modesty, for you have created. Where others have scratched the soil of aeronautics, }'ou have solved the problem of aviation and brought forth a bounteous harvest of results.

"It is a shame that cries aloud that our nation should so force its sons to demonstrate on foreign soil, and seek support from alien hands for the product of their genius. This is exemplified anew in the failure of the recent Congress to make the appropriation of $500,000 which had been inserted in the Appropriation Bill in order that America might not delay in carrying to fruitful results experiments in aerial science."

Colgate Hoyt, ex-President of the Automobile Club of America, a native of Ohio, boomed that State in his usual delightful vein. L. D. Dozier, of the Aero Club of St. Louis, was the next speaker. Col. Bingham, New York's Police Commissioner, wras glad to "meet men who have done something. This is the class of men we would all like to be, and all love and admire." He regretted he wasn't "from Ohio," but that he was grateful to the Wrights because they had put up a machine that would fill a long felt want in the army, or in the army as it was constituted at the first battle of Bull Run. He was not there, but he had heard of an officer who was and who attempted to stem the tide of retreat. The officer met a man who was going toward Washington and said to him, "What are you running for?" The soldier kept on, but looking back over his shoulder remarked, "Because, by God, I can't fly!"

The affair was a most enjoyable occasion and enthusiasm ran riot among the hundred present. The famous bird-men left the same afternoon for Dayton, after a call from Laurence Lesh, the young man whose ankle was broken in a towed flight at Morris Park last Fall.

Wrights Welcomed Home.

The Wright Brothers, Orville and Wilbur, famous aeroplanists, arrived at noon

of the 13th in Dayton, their home city. Miss Katherine Wright accompanied her brothers. A reception was tendered them by their old friends and neighbors. The Wrights were met at the station by a committee headed by their cousin, A. L. Shearer of this city.

Outside the station in an open carriage the aged father, Bishop Milton Wright, waited. Beside him sat his favorite grandchild, Leontine Wright, daughter of Lorin Wright. In another carriage were Mr. and Mrs. Lorin Wright and their other two children.

A throng of townspeople cheered, whistles sounded, and cannon boomed a salute of thirty guns, while greetings were exchanged. A procession formed and moved toward the home of the Wright family by way of Fifth Street, one of the principal streets of the city. At the further end of the bridge over the Miami a band was stationed, and from that point to the home it headed the procession, playing "Home, Sweet Home." At the house a laurel wreath, executed in India ink, was presented to the aviators. The design shows Mercury flying above the world. At the top of the design appears Caesar's famous message, "Veili, vidi, vici."

Dayton Celebrates on the 17th.

Great preparations are being made for the celebration June 17-18. Thousands of dollars have been raised for the event and the entire city will be enveloped in flags and bunting. The story of locomotion will be told by floats in a pageant representing modes of travel on the land, sea and in the air. There will be parades of the militia, fire department, band concerts, receptions, bouquets, fireworks and the presentation of the Nation's tribute in the form of a Congressional medal. In a previous issue we gave the history of our National medals.

The Wrights will not make a flight, even for Dayton. A. Leo Stevens, however, is to take one of his balloons to Dayton and take up both of the famous brothers.

E. R. Thomas Building Flyer.

An experimental machine, on the design of which John Squires, M. E., has been serving as consulting engineer, is being built privately for E. R. Thomas, the head of the E. R. Thomas Motor Co., which built the "New York-Paris" car, and will be ready for trials about Jul}' 1st. The design is highly original, several very unusual features being incorporated in the machine for experimental purposes.

Mr. Squires has just delivered a glider of his own design at Glider Hill, three miles south of Roycroft, N. Y., for the Glider Club, composed of twelve department heads, including the manager, who desires

C. A. Zornes and His Aeroplane

<o get the "feel" of free flight. Glider Hi!' has a descent of about three-quarters of a mile at 25 degrees; clean pasture land without stones, fences, or trees.

It is now proposed that the Glider Club be enlarged an additional eight members and an aeroplane be built. In fact, the order has already been given to go ahead on the design.

These organizations are entirely independent of any connection with the factory, all expense being defrayed solely by the members, who are very enthusiastic indeed.

Aeroplane in Washington.

Harry A. Orme, of Washington, D. C, has completed the lightest aeroplane. This particular machine has never flown, but Mr. Orme has flown gliders built on the same principle, so he thinks there is no question about its working if the motor now installed is sufficiently powerful. The whole machine, including the motor, weighs less than 100 pounds.

The radical departure of the Orme machine is in the steering device, which it carries on top. The machine proper consists of two planes eighteen feet long. These are trussed with fine steel wire and are rigid, so they cannot be warped. There

is a horizontal rudder in front of the machine for elevating and depressing it, and at the rear is a double vertical rudder, apparently like the Wright rudder.

Over the top of the main planes there is a third round deck, much like a mushroom, or a very flat umbrella. It is in this that the chief peculiarity of the machine consists. This mushroom deck is set on springs and can be distorted in any direction—that is, the edge can be pulled down and thus will guide the machine like a bird's tail. Mr. Orme has built several gliders, using this system of control, and it has worked perfectly.

When it comes to the horizontal rudder in front there is another surprise in store. The movement of a lever from the aviator's seat bends the rudder in the middle along its longest axis and will act much like a skater sticking down his heel on the ice, giving a braking effect that could not be secured with a plain horizontal surface.

The double vertical rudder at the rear is also a surprise. By releasing a spring the vertical surface can be thrown up into a flat plane like the front rudder, so that a backward tilt of the machine is stopped as soon as it commences. The whole of the control mechanism is worked from a wheel and two levers at the aviator's seat.

The motor is an air-cooled affair of Bel-

gian make, of eight horsepower, and weighs only forty-five pounds. It is run by a high tension magneto and works as smoothly as a sewing machine. It is geared to two cog wheels at the back and drives the propellers by chains over two-to-one sprocket wheels. The engine makes about 1,800 revolutions, which drives the propellers at about 900.

The propellers are built of thin steel for the test and have movable blades that can be set at any pitch. No attempt has been made so far to determine the thrust of the propellers, but it is thought there is an abundance of power to drive the machine. The pitch of the propellers will be changed from time to time and when the most effective pitch is found there will be propellers cast of aluminum or built up of wood.

The work on the machine has all been done by Mr. Orme himself and is remarkably fine. The frame is built of spruce with the ends of strips only an eighth of an inch thick, steamed and bent to shape. The covering of the planes is of light canvas. The total supporting surface is 174 square feet.

English Helicopter-Monoplane.

by geo. h. loose.

At Fruitvale, California, which is a suburb of San Francisco, there is building a combined helicopter and aeroplane. Peter English and his son, W. P. English, are the inventors of the airship. Their design is the result of a number of years experimenting on different types, and in all the features in which it differs from the aeroplane proper it has been thoroughly tested.

The machine consists of a triangular frame of steel tubing, somewhat similar to the framing of our American dirigible balloons, tapering at the ends where the propellers are attached. Beneath this frame is suspended a square platform on which is the motor, operator, and any passengers. At each corner of this platform is a pneumatic-tired wheel supporting the machine when not in flight. At the top on each side, running parallel with the frame are the supporting planes. One plane on each side with a surface of 400 square feet. These planes are of especially prepared silk and are curved up at both the forward and after edges; also being curved from the frame to the outer edge as a bird's wing.

Mr. English believes that by curving the planes upward both in front and back, he obviates the danger of pitching, as the. curved portion will serve to right the machine should any failure of the motor cause it to lose headway, allowing the machine an opportunity to pitch forward or backward. At each end of the frame is a propeller of especial design. These are driven through bevel gears allowing them to be run in a vertical position or they can be moved to a horizontal position, while revolving, by a single lever on the operating platform. When in a horizontal position

one points upward while the other points down. The propellers revolve in opposite directions, but move from a horizontal to a vertical position or vice versa in unison, at the will of the operator.

The main driving shaft runs the entire length of the frame in the center of which are beveled gears, connecting a vertical shaft running down to beveled gears again, which connect it to the shaft of the motor on the operating platform. The motor is horizontal and parallel to the main driving shaft about 8 feet above. All the shafting is hollow steel and run in McAdamite and ball bearings. The propellers are 16 feet in diameter and are two bladed, or rather two disked, as two disks are used instead of blades. These disks are securely braced to a wheel, the rim of which reaches the center of the disk where the strain is greatest. Mr. English says when one of his propellers is driven at the rate of 200 R. P. M. it creates a lifting power of 830 pounds dead weight, which would make a total lifting power of the two propellers 1,660 pounds. As the machine is not expected to weigh oved 600 pounds, it will leave over a thousand pounds for gasoline, operator and passengers.

The rudder which is placed in front, midway between the operating platform and the forward propeller, is of a double elliptical design being moved in any direction by one lever.

The motor is an air cooled 8-cylinder V type 60 h. p., weighing 150 pounds. It was built at Hall's machine shop in San Francisco and is a beautiful piece of work. All the connecting rods are hollow as well as the crank shaft, all unnecessary weight being cut away.

In speaking of his machine Mr. English says, when a flight is to be made the propellers are moved to a horizontal position. The motor is then started and the machine will rise directly off the ground until the desired height is reached, then the propellers will be gradually turned while revolving to a^ vertical position. At this point the machine is converted from a helicopter to a monoplane.

When a descent is decided the propellers are gradually moved back to a horizontal position. Then when the headway or forward movement has stopped, the propellers being in a horizontal position, the motor is slowed down allowing the machine to gradually descend at the will of the operator.

Mr. English says he expects to make a trial flight the first part of July, as he will be finished with the machine in a few weeks.

One of the propellers was started in the shop recentlv and those who witnessed it say they were the nearest they had ever been to the starting point of a cyclone. The wind was terrific and the floor beams squeaked as the machine strained at the lines that held it down.

DOINGS ON THE COAST.

By Cleve T. Shaffer.

William Talbot, of Santa Clara College, Cab, is experimenting with a machine modeled after Prof. J. J. Montgomery's ideas.

Chas. C. Bradley's, of San Francisco, model incorporating several new features, has shown remarkable stability in flight. The weight complete, with fore-and-aft rudders, is only y2 pound for 8 square feet surface.

Cleve T. Shaffer is building a new glider with finer lines than the old machines, and will go for the gliding record.

H. C. Bulask is working with Prof. Hidalgo on a machine.

Roy Knabenshue's latest effort is the "Fairy," claimed to be the smallest balloon in the world. It has a Japanese silk envelope, netting of fine Irish twine. The whole outfit including basket weighs but 60 pounds. In the initial filling a strong gust of wind parted the thin net and but for the prompt work of the assistants the envelope would have escaped. Inhalation of the escaping gas, however, overcame for a short time Russell S. Mitchell, Grover Crall, Squire Chamberlain.

Working models of the Wright and other machines imported from France are to be exhibited at an aeronautical evening of the Pacific Aero Club this month.

The English helicopter met with disaster in a test for lift. It became unfastened from the floor, and the lift testing mechanism in its shed and the helices were wrecked against the rafters. It has never been tried in the open or free flight.

J. Zenon Posadas, Jr., of San Francisco, has almost completed his double deck machine, 35 by 4 feet. He will use a 7 h. p. motor, claiming that the peculiar form and great efficiency of the propeller will allow of the use of such low power.

Mr. Zerbe, of Los Angeles, has given up experimenting with his aeroplane and is devoting his time to dirigible construction.

G. H. Loose, of Redwood City, Cab, will be ready with his monoplane the first of Jul}r. Work on it is progressing rapidly.

The first test of the Zornes aeroplane will be made July 2nd or 3d at Lind, Wash., where a stock company has been organized and a factory secured for manufacturing these machines.

Messrs. John W. Hudson and Clifton O'Brien, both members of the Pacific Aero Club, are constructing a biplane 40 feet by 6 feet, supported on wheels, automatic balance to be a feature. They are building their own motor, 35-37. h. p., of special design, details withheld at present.

Bokor Gets Grounds.

Morris Bokor, who has put on the market a long-tied motor, has now 600 acres of perfectly flat, treeless, sandy land at West-bury, L. I., for the use of those inventors who desire to avail themselves of what Mr. Bokor has to offer. Two acres will be used for housing sheds at a small rental. A complete machine shop will be installed where construction will be carried on.

5,000 Wright Aeroplanes Bought.

The American Lithograph Company has gone into the aero industry and has already sold 5,000 Wright aeroplanes to the Chattanooga Medicine Company, away back as far as last July. If anyone says that Europe has more aeroplanes than America, you will know different. There is the objection raised to this order, however, that they are only on paper and made of printers ink in fancy colors.

Another New Aero Motor.

In the near future it appears flying ma-, chine inventors will have a long list of engines from which to make a selection. The latest to enter the field is Carl Bates of Chicago, who is building a 4-cylinder motor to sell for around $500. This motor, he says, will be built of the best material obtainable, copper water jackets, combination steel and cast iron cylinders, McAdamite crank case, nickel steel connecting rods, chrome nickel steel crank shaft. The valves will be in the head of the cylinders, mechanically operated from an overhead cam shaft, thus doing away with push rods. The engine is expected to weigh about 150 pounds, for 25 to 30 real h. p. The cylinders will have a bore of 4^ inches and a wide range of speed is promised.

New Bates Flyer.

Carl Bates, of Chicago, whose first aeroplane has already been illustrated in these columns, has started work on a new machine intended to be an improvement upon the former. It will be a bi-surface machine, of course, and will have something new in the way of lateral balance. There is a single rear vertical rudder, and a single horizontal rudder in front. The main supporting planes are about 42 by 6 feet. Baldwin's vulcanized rubber-silk will be used for the surfaces. The joints will be McAdamite castings quickly detachable so that the machine can be dismantled and confined in a small space. The motor will be one of his own design which is being built by a Chicago manufacturer, and it will be cooled by Livingston aeroplane radiator with an aluminum water bottom. The aeroplane is expected to carry two people, and will have many unique features for steering, starting and stopping, etc.

Patent List.

"Means for use with balloons and other air vessels, for indicating air currents," Chas. Davis, London, England, No. 921,515, May 11, 1909. Device consists of a bracket secured to the edge of balloon basket. A "captive device" is supported pendently by a gimbal ring permitting motion in any direction; an indicating mechanism records the motion of the "captive device" which is influenced by air currents. Means are provided to let out or draw in the device from the car.

"Flying machine," Chas. R. Culver, Springfield, Mass., No. 922,264, May 18, 1909. Unusual aeroplane construction consisting of a chassis on wheels supporting a frame provided above with a plurality of aeroplanes in two sets, each set consisting of several planes and one set superposed above the other, but all connected so that the angle of each can be regulated. A motor driven propeller at the rear and front and rear rudders.

"Airship," Ben H. Tingley, Hamilton, Wash., No. 921,915, May 18, 1909. Dirigible balloon of usual form, combined with a frame surrounding envelope and a propeller at rear of bag operated by transmission from car through center of gas bag.

"Airship," Michael H. Whalen, New York, N. Y., No. 922,228, May 18, 1909. Usual shape of dirigible gas bag surrounded by a wire cage supporting the car and motor below. Revolving rudder and rotating fans control motion. A canopy carried by gas bag provides flexible planes which can be raised or lowered.

"Airship," Samuel D. Wheeler, Chicago, Ills., No. 922,549. Propeller inside a large tube, supported in the air by a plurality of gas bags and sails.

"Launching apparati," James Means, Boston, Mass., Nos. 922,710; 922,711; 922,712. No. 922,710 covers a table, which may be revoluble, on which is a launching car, the latter operated by a power-actuated endless cable, means for holding table in set position and for its position held by utilizing the force of the wind. Nos. 922,711, 922,712 and 922,713 are for somewhat similar arrangements with variation in the controlling and actuating mechanism.

"Signaling System." James Means, No. 922,709. This is a plan for giving the exhaust gas from the engine of a flyer a distinctive color or shade.

"Flying Apparatus," Paul F. Degn, Bremen, Germany, No. 922,756. This patent covers a helicopter, yielding wings and method of connection to rotatable concentric shafts.

"Aerial Machine," John J. Rekar, San Francisco, Cal., No. 922,952. Cylindrical trussed gas bag with ends converging to vertical edges, propellers in a horizontal plane, and propellers in a vertical plane front and rear at corners of gas bag.

"Flying Machine," Geo. W. Thompson, Kingston, Okla., No. 922,972. Aeroplane with ovoid body, side planes, vertical fin on top, suction conduits in body, front of body open to receive front ends of central conduits, with fans or propellers for drawing in the air.

"Aeroplane," John Potts, Winchester, O., No. 923,975. Two parallel planes, with frame work for power plant below lower plane, plurality of propellers on either side of motor, and with a plurality of elevating and steering "fans."

Incorporations.

The "American Aerial Adv. & Navigation Co." at 311 Citizen's National Bank Bldg., Los Angeles, Calif., has been formed with a capital stock of $1,000,000. The purpose of the company is to take up aerial publicity for nationally advertised commodities. The company will also manufacture aeroplanes, dirigibles, and spherical balloons.

The "California Aerial Mfg. Co.," of 117 W. 16th Street, Los Angeles, has been incorporated for the manufacture of airships, flying machines, balloons and accessories. The prospectus states that the company has purchased the U. S. and foreign rights "for the construction and operation of a perfected aeroplane similar in detail to that now being manufactured and sold by the Wright Brothers in France, but with several new features which will make the machine more practical and easier to manage.

"Jean Flying Machine Co.," New York, manufacturing flying machines, etc.; capital, $5,000. Incorporators, Octave Jean, Jersey City, N. J.; Charles S. Horowitz, No. 1328 51st Street; Herman Weiss, No. 185 Reid Street, both of Brooklyn.

"Rekar Airship Construction Co." Incorporators, John J. Rekar, Will F. Spencer and Felix Fruhauf; capitalization, $150,000, Portland, Ore.

"Anderson Airship Co.," New York City. Incorporators, J. J. Harper, E. J. Forhan and H. M. Browne; capitalization, $25,000. The company will promote the dirigible balloon of P. Anderson, 668 President Street, Brooklyn. The plan is for an affair 200 by 300 feet, in two halves like an egg cut in half lengthwise, with air space between the two portions. Each half will be 40 feet high. Underneath is the car with power plant.

The "Fred J. Titus Co.," Newark, N. J., has been formed by that famous bicycle racer to build, buy and sell, etc., apparatus for aerial travel.

"Standard Aviator Co.," Detroit, Mich. Incorporators, O. W. Owen, F. W. Hemin-ger and J. H. Pray; capital stock, $20,000.

J

FOREIGN LETTER

Zeppelin Airship in Three-Day Trip—Monoplane Record Twice Broken and Sextupled —Wright Machine Makes World Record—Military Airship Race in Germany—New British Dirigible—England's Army Aeroplane Flies—Another Bleriot Monoplane—Flying in Japan —Aeroplane Track Racing Begins in France—French Government Prizes.

Austria.

Legagneux has not yet succeeded in getting much out of the old Farman. On May 23d he was to give an exhibition at Vienna, but was able to make only a few leaps of a hundred yards or so, and the big crowd was badly disappointed. But the grounds the syndicate behind him has provided are not particularly inviting. One is almost sure to get either into a ditch or the Danube. As a result of the failure to make attractive flights, the syndicate has been dissolved and the machine presented to the army.

The War Office has ordered a dirigible of the semi-rigid Parseval type, and it is to be delivered in September. The requirements demanded are not very onerous beside what has been accomplished in Germany. It is to have a speed of 25 miles an hour, be able to reach a height of 3,300 feet and fly 25 miles at that height, and do 150 miles without stop against the wind.

Belgium.

Much is in preparation, but there has been little flying during the past month. But while waiting for the appearance of the first all-Belgian machine, The Hague is hopeful of soon seeing some real flying. G. P. Kuller of that city has bought a Wright flyer in France, and has gone to Paris to take lessons.

China.

So far as is known, no native of China has yet joined in the modern movement, but the land of lanterns is now to figure in our news letter, for Professor Herbert Chatley of the Engineering and Mining College at Tang Shan, whose name is well known to students of aeronautics, is building an aeroplane.

Denmark.

Dr. Folmer Hansen of Copenhagen has purchased a Farman machine, and has been taking lessons at Chalons from Henri Farman. He is to fly at the Klampenborg race track, which is about 10 miles from the capital.

Delagrange has been engaged to make exhibition flights at an international exposition at Aartus Jutlands and also on the Amac military parade ground.

England.

The feature of the past month in England— except that Cody really managed to fly, after

all—was the unification of the three principal aeronautical bodies and the definition of their various spheres of work. By this agreement among themselves, the aerial societies have cut out the Automobile Club from the control of aviation. The Aeronautical Society is to be the recognized authority upon the scientific side of the art. The Aerial League is to do the work of influencing public opinion, conducting the patriotic movement and education. The Aero Club is to be paramount in sport.

Whether or not this will put an end to the "Aero Club League," which the Aero Club started in opposition to the Aerial League, is not quite clear yet; but it is believed that it will, the Aero Club having got all it wanted— the "control" of the sporting side of the art. But it is doubtful whether the club will have things quite all its own way. The Aeroplane Club was not consulted, and does not like being left out in the cold. But meanwhile the Automobile Club is holding aloof.

Another interesting feature of the month was the formation of a Parliamentary aviation party, in imitation of that in France. Lord Montague, editor of "The Car," is chairman among the peers. Arthur Lee is chairman among the Commons; Cecil Harmsworth, a younger brother of Lord Northcliffe of the "Daily Mail," vice-chairman, and Arthur du Cros, honorable secretary.

This was immediately followed by a waking up of the government; but the amazing condition of the public mind was chiefly responsible for the government action. England during the past few weeks has had fits of airship panic, which, were they not so pathetic, would be amusing to outside observers. The Ministry had to do something.

Premier Asquith, to bluff the populace into the belief that the government was doing something, has appointed a "special committee." Its object is "the superintendence of the investigations at the National Physical Laboratory and for general advice on the scientific problems arising in connection with the work of the Admiralty and War Office in aerial construction and navigation." This committee is presided over by Lord Rayleigh, who, on the death of Lord Kelvin, became England's leading scientist, and its members are Dr. H. T. Glazebrook, director of the National Physical Laboratory; Major-General Sir Charles Had-den, chief of the Army Ordnance Department; Captain R. H. S. Bacon, chief of naval ordnance; Sir A. G. Greenhill, who used to teach

mathematics at the Woolwich Army School; Dr. W. N. Shaw, chief of the Meteorological Office; H. R. A. Mallock, a member of the ordnance committee; Prof. J. E. Petavel, an engineer; Horace Darwin, a son of Charles Darwin, and F. W. Lanchester, the author of "Aerial Flight." Mr. Lanchester was included so that the public could see that there was at least one member of the committee who was well read on the matter. But his knowledge will make no odds. A "special committee," or a "royal commission," is the balm for all ills in England. Nothing ever results except a "blue-book," which nobody ever reads but the secretary who draws it up. But its appointment fills the awkward gap at a moment of excitement, and its efficacy lies in the fact that soon its existence is forgotten. This committee, however, will not result in a report even, for it is not to be initiative, but only to deal with problems put up to it by the army or the navy. In practice, therefore, it will prove an efficient bar to progress. It has, though, adequate funds, which seems more than the United States will do.

cody flies a mile.

None the less, England has some real flying at last. With indomitable courage, F. S. Cody, the American, stuck true to his aeroplane after the War Office had ridiculed it, thrown it back on him, and begged him to take it away and lose it. On May 4th he surprised himself by keeping up for over 100 yards. What surprised him more was that he landed without breaking anything! But Cody had never lost heart. After every smash he mended up again and started afresh with what he believed was some improvement. On May 14th Cody made it fly nearly a mile with perfect success. The height reached was about 30 feet. With one exception, Cody had never before succeeded in keeping it in the air for more than about 50 yards, and generally less. The Prince and Princess of Wales happened to be at Aldershot, nearby, on May 14th, and, hearing of the great flight, sent for Cody and asked him to fly for them. Cody consented, and, trying to better himself, by making a turn, drove into an embankment —and since then he has been repairing. Some alterations have been recently made. I The front horizontal rudder remains the I same. Above it has been fixed a vertical surface working in conjunction with the I double vertical rear rudder. The small stability planes have been changed to the rear of the main frame, one on each side. The box tail in front of the rear rudder has been removed.

(See page 78, Feb.; page 126, Mar., '09; and Nov., '08 issue for full description.)

But Cody's was not the first flight in England. On May 1st Moore Brabazon got into the air with his Voisin, The Bird of Passage, at Shellbeach, the Aero Club's grounds at Sheppey Island. The distance

made was only about 200 yards. The next day he managed about 500 yards. Short Bros., famous as balloon builders, have erected there a great shop, with no less than forty men hard at work. Thirteen machines are under construction, six to the order of the Wright Brothers, already sold. They are refusing to book further orders at present. The Aero Club has been able to arrange special railroad rates out to Shell-beach, $2 first-class, $1.25 third-class, about half fare.

Still the British authorities are doing something. They are doing it on lines explained by Minister McKenna: "We are not thinking; we are constructing!" The new Army dirigible, non-rigid, made its first appearance at Farnborough on May 4. Col. Capper and Capt. King gave her an airing— and many admiring glances—but did not attempt to fly her. When he was about to do so the people called out, "Don't; she is so young and so small!" She has been christened "The Baby"! On the 14th, however, a flight was made, and she averaged a speed of 15 miles an hour, and paid quite decent attention to her helm. Further tests were made on the 21st and 24th.

description of "dirigible iii."

"The Baby" is quite different from and one-third the size of the "Nulli Secundus," which a year ago in its hurry to get away from the Crystal Palace broke itself to pieces after rounding the dome of St. Paul's Cathedral. Instead of the lines of the envelope being parallel and stumpy at the ends, the new bag is fish-shaped. Its greatest diameter is about a qquarter of its length from the front end. From that point it curves off to a sharp nose for the front end, and tapers away behind to the tail, which is embellished with three curious triangular bags looking like cushions, two of them horizontal at the sides, and the third standing up towards the skies. It is 84 feet long, and has a capacity of 21,000 cu. ft. Two 3 cyl. 8 h. p. Buchet motors are used to drive a 6-ft. propeller. The balloonette has 1-5 of the total capacity.

Along the meridian of the envelope are attached, by a special method, a series of silk loops, each loop being independent of the next. Steel cables are attached to these loops, and the car is toggled on so as to be easily removable. The framework of the car is of hickory and steel tubing covered with silk. To the rear of the car is affixed the vertical rudder, the horizontal steering-planes extending on each side of the car immediately in front of the rudder. Motors and aeronaut are placed in the front of the car, which is mounted on skids; the single two-bladed propeller revolves between car and envelope.

The country has not been greatly relieved by the proof given during the month that the artillery can really blow the bag of r balloon to smithereens with shrapnel though

it be 2,500 yards away and 2,000 feet up in the air. For the poor old balloon was captive.

The Aero Show at Olympia resulted in a loss of $15,000.

Patrick Y. Alexander has presented the United Services College .at Windsor with a fully equipped laboratory for aeronautical instruction and experiment.

A Women's Aerial League has been inaugurated by Lady O'Hagan in connection with the Aerial League.

To consider the establishment of a school for the theory and practice of aeronautics a conference between representatives of the Army, Navy and Aerial League, has been called by the Army Council.

France.

wrights' pupil third on list of biplane pilots.

Although there has been but little flying in France since the Wrights left, apart from practice by new fliers on old machines at the different schools, among that little have been some notable achievements. More than one new record has been set.

On May 20, at Pau, Paul Tissandier, in the Wright machine, flew for 1 hr, 2m. 13s., covering a distance of 57.5 km., or nearly 35 miles. In making this splendid flight, Tissandier was never more than about 37 feet off the ground. The Wrights usually fly at about a height of 75 feet.

On May 28, Tissandier went up with the purpose of flying for just an hour, and he beat his own recoid. For, not able to judge the time more nearly, he came down 4 minutes after the hour, and had covered a distance of 59.65 km. But this was not officially timed. After Wilbur and Orville Wright, he has flown a biplane longest in the world.

monoplane record broken.

In the "Antoinette," on May 6, Demanest flew between 6 and 7 km., about 4 miles, at a height of some 10 m., at a speed of 72 km. per hour. The end of April saw several flights of 6-7 km., and one not measured lasted 13 min. 23 sees., on April 30. M. Bur-geat made trial flights in the "Antoinette VI."

another new monoplane record.

Hubert Latham, on May 22, in the "Antoinette IV,." flew for 37 min. 37 sec. at an average speed of 72 km. an hour. He was at a height of 30 m., and had the monoplane under perfect control, taking all the turns with great ease. A few days before he won the first A. C. of F. prize for a novice's flight of 500 meters. On June 5 he flew for 1:07:47, beating previous record of 11 minutes held by Bleriot.

In the early days of the month, Comte

de Lambert was at Pont Long teaching it German pupil, Ganz de Fabrice, an engineer and sportsman, in the old Wright machine, which has not yet got into the museum at Paris, for though the old machine is pretty decrepit by this time, it goes very well with the new engine. Later in the month, Lambert established himself at the Napoule race track near Cannes with the new Wright. On the 17th he made his first exhibition flights there, and the "Petit Chevaux" felt the effect, for all the fashionable mob deserted the tables to witness the flying. After about 400 m. straight, Lambert made several circles of the track and finished up with two figures of 8.

new bleriot xii.

Bleriot, giving his speedy No. XI. a rest, has been trying out his new No. XII. This monoplane is slightly larger than the racer. Its total surface area is 23 sq. meters. The length is 8.5 meters and a spread of 9 m. It has a single 2-bladed propeller, driven by chain from a 35 h.p. E. N. V. motor. The weight without operator is 300 kg.

Guffroy at Buc has got over most of his difficulties with the R. E. P. monoplane, and during the month has made several good flights.

Santos Dumont at Issy has been trying hard, but has not succeeded in making his little "Demoiselle" beat her record of 2J/2 km. Almost all his recent trials have ended in some slight damage. The most serious was on May 15, when in trying a turn he drove one of the wings against the ground and smashed it.

Henri Farman's best flight at Chalons during the month was on the nth, 8 km. On the 15th he took up a passenger weighing 200 lbs. and flew 800 m.

aeroplane racing begins in france—speed contests now supersede duration flights.

What was to have been the great event of the month turned out a great fiasco. This was the opening of "Port Aviation" as the flying grounds at Juvisy are now called. The syndicate of capitalists who are running it advertised nine entries, but only three machines actually came out on the track. Prizes were put up, railroads ran excursions and 30,000 people were on hand. Despite the wind Delagrange was out and made four straight flights and a round of the course. The people got insistent for a race and the crowd became unmanageable. Rougier tried to make a competition, but the crowd swarmed so thickly that he could not.

The last Saturday in May the second meet was held, and it was a great success. No less than nine flights were made during three hours' entertainment. Three aviators took part—all on Voisin machines. A prize

of 1,000 francs was won by Delagrange, who flew the circular kilometer in i min., 40 3/5 sec; De Rue won place money, 500 francs, and his time was a second slower; Rougier showed third in 1.532/5.

On the first round Delagrange was almost blown against the grandstand, but managed to steer away in time and get back over the course. The slowest time made by Delagrange was 1.53 3/5-

The following day saw more excitement. With machines exactly alike, with the same Antoinette motors, Delagrange and De Rue fought it out. The contest resolved itself into seeing who could cut the corners the closest. Delagrange lowered his kilometer to 1.18 3/5, beating De Rue's best by 5 sec. The course was marked by four posts outside which the flyers had to keep; each side of the square represented 250 meters. Delagrange thus beat his own record of the day before by 22 sec, and won at the same time the first, so far as known, speed prize, that of Ch. Stern of 1,000 francs to the man who made the fastest circular kilometer by June 3. _

Rougier is making rapid progress, and seems likely to take as prominent a rank as a flier as he held as an automobile racer when with the Lorraine-Detrich. On May 22d he made eleven circuits of the Juvisy course in his Voisin machine, covering about 30 km. at a height of 20 m.

The Ligue has ordered two new Wright machines for the use of its pupils.

Another Englishman has gone to France to learn to fly. This is G. B. Cockburn, of Taynton, Gloucestershire, who has bought a Farman and is at Chalons.

french government prizes.

The French Government has decided to offer the following prizes out of its grant of $20,000 for aviation: $2,800 to the French aeroplane making the longest flight of the year ($1,000 to the pilot, $800 to the builder of the apparatus, $600 to the builder of the motor, and $400 to the designer of the propellers); $1,800 to the aeroplane which has stayed longest in the air, and $1,600 for the dirigible making the best voyage.

a. c. f/s prizes.

The Aero Club de France is offering out of the government subsidy $1,000, $500, $200 and $100 to the four aeroplanists who shall stay longest in the air. The entrance fee is $20. The Club just now is very proud of itself. It has been granted by the President of the Republic the coveted decree of "recognized as of public usefulness."

Not to be behind the T. C. F.. the A. C. F. has appointed a committee to study the question of route signs for fliers.

Another new society, the Union des Aviateurs de la Seine, has been formed.

Adolphe Clement has entered his new

Clement-Bayard dirigible to compete for the prize of $2,000 put up by Henri Deutsch de la Meurthe in 1906 for the first airship which could make 200 km. in a closed circle.

Tests were made at Gennevilliers on May 19th of the 80 h. p. engine which the Dietrich firm has made for Walter Wellman's airship "America." In addition to gasoline, a mixture of hydrogen and gasoline, an idea of Melvin Vaniman, was tried, and it was found to give more effective results than the gasoline alone. If Wellman keeps to his program he ought soon to be on his way to the North Pole.

The "Wright Craze" has taken a new form now in France. Visitors to the places where Wilbur flew are paying extravagant prices for the privilege of sleeping in the same bed, eating from the same plate and drinking from the same glass as Wright used. Nothing like it has been known since the days of the great Napoleon.

Germany.

The honors of the month belong to Count Zeppelin. In his new dirigible, "Zeppelin II," he amazed the whole world by a flight of 850 miles in 38J4 hours. Starting from Friedrichshafen on Saturday evening, May 29th, he set a course apparently straight for Berlin, distant away about 500 miles on the airline. Whether he intended to go to the capital is not known. All he will say himself is what he said to the Kaiser, "I never said I was coming to Berlin." But the general belief is that he really intended to fly to that city and back again. For some reason, however, when he reached Bitterfeld, about 80 miles short of the capital, he turned back. There are some who think that he merely intended to give a demonstration of what he could do, and would not allow the German Army to share in it because they have now turned the'r back on him.

Count Zeppelin was himself in charge, and he had with him two engineers and a crew of seven. Not a word had been sj-id beforehand that he had any intention of attempting a sensational trip, and hardly a soul was out at Friedrichshafen to give him a parting cheer. The weather was distinctly bad, rain was falling and kept on most of the night, and there was a strong headwind. All through the night, however, despite this, the great airship kept speeding on over Wurtemberg and Bavaria. On the way he passed over the towns of Treuchtlingen, Nuremberg, Erlangen, Bayreuth, Munch-berg, Hof, Plauen, Werdan, Zickau, Gera, and Leipsig. Leipsig was reached at 5.20 p. m. on Sunday. It may be that it was then that Count Zeppelin saw that he could not make Berlin until after nightfall, and so determined to give up the effort to get there. It is also possible that by this time it had become obvious to him that he had

Fl w

AERONAUTICS %

not started with a sufficient supply of fuel for a longer trip.

After maneuvering over Leipsig for close upon an hour to the great delight of the people, the Count headed on again towards Berlin. Bitterfeld was reached at 7.20. There he threw out a card, "I have decided to return." And the monster dirigible turned its nose to the south.

Meanwhile the Kaiser and all Berlin, having learned from the newspapers that trie Count was on his way to that city, were all out on the Templehof field awaiting his arrival. Wilhelm had the soldiers out, and a large space was cleared for Zeppelin to land in, and the only person in the city whose eyes were not glued to the sky was the chef who was preparing the supper that was to be the Emperor's welcome. When, just after dark, the news came that the airship had turned for home, the Kaiser, the Empress and the Princess left the field, but the crowd waited on till after midnight.

For the return journey Zeppelin took a different route and passed over Schweinfurt, Wurzburg, Heilbron, Stuttgart, Essingen, Plochingen, to Goeppingen. At the last-named place, which was reached on Monday morning, a descent had to be made for gasoline. Unfortunately, in landing, the airship was blown against a tree and somewhat badly damaged about the prow.

Unable to complete his journey without repairs, the Count telegraphed home for his workmen. The next day the men were able to patch the dirigible up temporarily and sail it home. They left Goeppingen at 3.20 on Tuesday afternoon, followed by the Count in an automobile. About 40 miles from home another descent had to be made for supplies, much having had to be ehrown overboard in order to keep up in the air. The trip could not be resumed until after midnight, but Friedrichshafen was reached by daylight Wednesday morning. The trip lasted about 3^ days. The airline distance to Bitterfield and return is 609 miles, but the circuitous route probably adds something to this.

Count Zeppelin received a telegram of congratulation from the Kaiser in which his Majesty said "Thousands of soldiers missed their holiday (Sunday) waiting to assist you, and I trust you will make up for the disappointment. I had hoped to see you a guest at my palace, where rooms had been prepared and a meal with a loving cup was ready for you in the officers' mess. I hope to see you soon in Berlin."

The Count replied: "1 never said I was coming to Berlin. Somebody sent a fraudulent- despatch. The reason for my nonappearance in Berlin was fear that the supply of benzine would not suffice to take me to Berlin and back to Friedrichshafen. I hope in six weeks to be able to report to you in Berlin with my repaired airship."

The Kaiser suggested August 26th for the next attempt.

This flight entirely eclipses the last big flight of the Count made in the "Zeppelin I," on April 1 and 2 last, when he sailed from Friedrichshafen over Munich to Din-golfing and back, and was in the air for 18 hrs., 28 min. The trip lasted 39 hrs., 39 min. Deductions are made for all night at Din-golfing and luncheon at Munich. On April 5th the "Zeppelin I" was up for 11 hrs., and on the 6th for 11^2 hrs., without stops.

Whatever may" be its cause, and several explanations have been suggested, some serious disagreement has arisen between the German War Office and the Zeppelin Co. The War Office has now definitely refused to purchase more than two "Zeppelins." The company has, during the month, been approaching various towns with a view to selling for passenger traffic the Zeppelin airships now under construction. Cologne, Lucerne and Düsseldorf are said to be purchasers. Two "Zeppelins," it is declared, are to take up a regular service between Lucerne and Düsseldorf. A third is to be used for excursions round the Riga. M. Colsman, Zeppelin's agent, states that 600 trips a year could be made at a cost of $425,000.

german airship race.

The first race between airships has taken place in Germany this month. On May 22d the/'Gross II" and the "Parseval II" had a six-mile-and-back contest together over Berlin. The result was a dead heat. Each airship took exactly 30 min. in doing the 12 miles and the turn.

On the 25th both the "Gross II" and the "Parseval II" were flown for the inspection of the Kaiser. Wilhelm was reviewing cavalry at Doberitz, and the airships were sent with despatches from Tegel 10 miles away. The trips were quite successful. The "Gross II." it is said, has now been fitted with wireless telegraphy apparatus, but that so far the experiments have not been a success. None of our correspondents say what precautions are taken against the spark.

The new "Gross III" is 70 m. long and will have two motors of 100 h. p. each. A new smaller airship with one motor of 100 h. p. is to be built for dispatch service.

A company, called the Flugmaschine Wright Gesellschaft, has been formed in Berlin with $75,000 capital to build Wright machines. The Krupps, Allgemeine Elec-tricitats Gesellschaft, the Motorluftschiff-Studien-Gesellschaft and the bankers, Delbrück. Leo & Co., are the chief shareholders. The Wrights sell the company for 15 years full rights for Germany, Sweden, Norway,

The Eulers of Frankfort have bought the Voisin rights in Germany.

In connection with the exhibition at Frankfort in the fall, the Technical-Scien-

Bleriot XII

lilic Committee is arranging a competition which they hope will produce a new metal as light as aluminum but with greater "life," and therefore more suitable for aeronautical construction.

Italy.

Italy has solved the question of the "control" of aviation by the appointment of a mixed committee similar but even more representative than that in France. It is

formed from the Aeronautic Societ\', the Automobile Club, the Aviation Society and the Touring Club.

Japan.

According to the Japan "Times," Isaburo Yamada, who was in charge of the military aeronautical experiments in Japan away back in the Chino-Japanese War in 1894, has constructed an aeroplane and made Mights at Tokio.

CLUB NEWS

(Continued from page

of directors, officers and two members of Aero Club of California, two members of Pacific Aero Club, and one each from two other cities of the state.

Mr. Ferris, president of the club, is the owner of two balloons which he has placed at the disposal of the club members without charge for the service.

It is the hope of the organizers of the club to avoid using it in bringing personal profit to any individual member. The scientific and inventive progress which should rightly be encouraged it hopes to encourage only through the aero clubs, and should it ever vote money for that purpose it is to be handed over to the organizations in whose province it rightly belongs. In the main, the Cal. Balloon Club proposes to cooperate in securing data about air currents and similar information, and to establish, for the assistance of balloonists, maps and records which will save much time in preparing for trips.

The Air Craft Club of Peoria was

launched on May 4 at a meeting at the Creve Coeur club, and has started sailing under most favorable circumstances. The following officers have been elected: President, Eugene Brown; vice-president, Harold Plowe, and secretary and treasurer, Leslie Lord. The president, together with Dr. George Smith and Ross F. Walker, were appointed to draft by-laws. Those who signed as charter members of the first society Peoria has had to study the science of the air were: Eugene Brown, Harold Plowe, Leslie Lord, William R. Bootz, Ross

F. Walker, George E. Smith, Dr. Arthur

G. Smith, Deloss S. Brown, Dr. Frank E. Baldwin, Percy A. Folsom, W. N. Kilbourn, and L. C. Worley.

The club is organized to "engage in the pursuit of Aei onautics," the intention being to start interest in ballooning first and then take up flying machines.

TALKS WITH INVENTORS

(Continued from page 6)

requirements of application.

The application consists of a petition addressed to the Commissioner of Patents upon a printed form, and specifications embodying a preamble, statement of the object and nature of the invention, detailed description with reference to drawings, ending with summaries called claims, in which that part of the invention which is considered original is particularly described.

The preparation of an application is a task requiring practical skill and technical experience, of which any inventor can convince himself by consulting the book on rules issued by the Patent Office. The law

requires that drawings be furnished in all applications for patents, where the invent-on will admit illustration. The drawings must be made on pure white paper calendered and smooth, and corresponding in thickness to three ply Briscoe brand. The size of sheet must be 10x15 inches, with a marginal line of one inch around the same, leaving proper space for the printed heading, and for the name of the inventor and two witnesses. Every line and letter, signatures included, must be absolutely black, clean, sharp and solid. The scale in which a drawing is made ought to be large enough tc show the mechanism without crowding. Different views should be consecutively numbered, the letters measuring at least one eighth of an inch in height, and placed so as not to interfere with lines of the drawing.

Inventors make no mistake in having their inventions well illustrated. A well executed drawing brings out the invention clearly, will make the prosecution of the application much easier, and may secure more satisfactory results. It often plays an important part in cases of suits affecting the validity of patents. A well illustrated invention prevents its being confounded, and eventually assists the inventor in securing the aid of capital or to sell his invention.

An applicant or an assignee may prosecute his own case, but he is advised unless familiar with such matters to employ a competent attorney, as the value of patents depends largely upon the skilful preparation of the specifications and claims.

An inventor can, however, materially assist his attorney in enabling the latter to do justice to his client by furnishing an intelligent, clear and detailed description accompanied by a sketch or model.

(To be continued.)

TRIP OF PHI LA. II

1 Continued from page 5)

Woodbine, N. J. Dr. Simmerman acted as pilot, while in the basket as passengers were Dr. Eldridge, Mr. Thomas Rose, and Mr. Geo. Benz.

While traveling over mountain, hill and vale, river, lake and stream is in itself a treat most rare, not the least of the appreciated pleasures of ballooning is the royal and generous manner in which aeronauts are always received when landing in strange places. While the party was still in the basket, they were seized by the superintendent of the Baron de Hirsch Agricultural and Industrial School, Mr. Henry H. Gellor, who insisted that they be his guests, and seeing that they needed assistance, blew his whistle foi the boys of the school, who responded immediately to this call. Trees were cut sway and the land cleared in such a manner

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that they will ever remember kindly and gratefully the services rendered.

At the cottage, Miss Lidia Cantor, the matron, assumed the responsibility for the party, and such a generous hospitality I had never witnessed before, demonstrating that even when among strangers "the whole world is kin."

They stayed at the cottage for the night, and the next day were breakfasted by Miss Cantor and Mr. Gellor. And at noon were dined by the boys who had rescued them. In the afternoon a Russian tea and informal reception were given by Mrs. M. Z. Bayard, the charming wife of the mayor of Woodbine.

This with a carriage ride and banqueting from the time of our arrival to our departure makes us realize that as the sweetness of the woodbine is due to its inherent properties, so the graciousness and fragrance of the Woodbine of New Jersey is due to its charming people.

I would suggest that all aeronauts seeking a landing near the coast would select the town of Woodbine as a landing place, and especially the Baron de Hirsch Agricultural and Industrial School.

NEW WRIGHT PATENTS

(Contin ued from page 9.)

the application of friction-creating or holding devices for the purpose of holding the parts in the positions in which they are set, until moved out of such positions by means of the operating lever or levers substantially as set forth.

"8. In a flying machine, having aeroplanes with adjustable portions operated by a cable, and vertical rudders operated by a further cable or cables, connecting the said cables to drums mounted on a common axis, handles or other means for operating

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Rare Books.

Under this heading we publish each month a list of such rare and out-of-print books as can be secured. The demand at the present time for rare aeronautical works is great, and it is usually not possible to obtain more than one copy at a time of any one work.

TRAVELS IN SPACE (Valentine & Tomlinson), introduction by Sir Hiram Maxim; many illusts. 8vo., cloth, London, 1902 ............................... $4.00

ASTRA CASTRA (Hatton Turner), many illusts., royal 4tp., boards with leather back, uncut, London, 1865... $10.00

TRAVELS IN THE AIR (James Glaish-er, Flammarion, Tissandier. etc.), 125 illusts., roval 8vo., cloth, London, 1S71 $6.00

AERIAL WORLD (G. Hartwig), 8 plates, map, many woodcuts, 8vo., cloth,

N. Y., 1875......................... $4.00

Same, new ed., same illusts., London,

1892 ............................... $4.50

DOMINION OF THE AIR (Rev. J. M. Bacon), 24 plates, 8vo., cloth, London, 1004 ............................... $2.00

DONALDSON & GRIMWOOD, A True Account of Their Last Balloon Voyage and Tragic Death in Lake Michigan, thin, 121110., wrappers, illust., Philadelphia, 1875 (very

scarce)............................ $3-00

THIRTY YEARS IN THE CLOUDS, with Observations on Thunder and Lightning, Formation of Rain, Hail. Snow, etc. (John Wise), 8vo., pamphlet, 1S70.....$5.00

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said drums together or separately as desired, substantially as set forth.

"9. A flying machine having superposed aeroplanes with the tips of same adjustable, said tips connected together by cables, so as to work in unison in opposite directions in combination with front and rear vertical adjustable rudders, or one or both of them and a fixed vertical vane, substantially as described and illustrated in the accompanying drawings."

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club house of the Automobile Club of America, at which valuable discussions take place, and every assistance and encouragement given.

LECTURES — Well known scientists tell things worth knowing.

LIBRARY—Including a complete file of all aeronautical patents.

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will last from five to six times as long as a varnished balloon. The weight is always the same, as it does not require further treatment. Heat and cold have no effect on it, and ascensions can be made as well at zero weather as in the summer time. The chemical action of oxygen has not the same detrimental effect on it as it has on a varnished material. Silk double walled VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL has ten times the strength of varnished material. A man can take care of his PROOF balloon, as it requires little or no care, and is NOT subject to spontaneous combustion. Breaking strain 100 lbs. per inch width. Very elastic. Any weight, width, or color. Will not crack. Waterproof. No talcum powder. No revarnishiug. The coining balloon material, and which through its superior qualities, and being an absolute gas holder is bound to take the place of varnished material. The man that wants to have the up-to-date balloon, must use VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL. Specified by the U. S. SIGNAL CORPS.

AEROPLANE MATERIAL A SPECIALTY _

^^fl ^fe^ Prices and samples on application ^^fl

jJJ W Box 78 Madison Square P. O. ^

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gliders in stock works: 17 ocean terrace and little clove road.

Telephone, 390-L West Brighton.

g. l. bumbaltill

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A COMPLETE MODEL AEROPLANE that has Twin Screws and flies Twenty Yards. Being a true aeroplane is entirely different from airships of the helicopter and balloon types.

The most scientific, instructive and fascia nating model flying machine ever put on the market. Price, securely packed and express prepaid, $2.00.

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a genuine flying machine

Will fly by its own power over one hundred feet, in a circle or straight away. This wonderful toy was an original model, developed in the making of a successful man-carrying machine. Built on totally new scientific principles, and acknowledged by leading students in Aeronautics as the most wonderful invention of the age. Measures 14 inches across, 5 inches high, 6 inches long ; weighs less than one ounce ; will carry more than its own weight. Very

durable, amusing and instructive to both young and old. Interest increases with every flight. If started upside down it will right itself and continue flying.

Price $1.00 at your dealer's. If he cannot supply you we will send direct by express prepaid in the U. S. on receipt of $1.00.

H. J. NICE COMPANY

II N. E. 5th St. Minneapolis, iviidd.

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HONEYWELL, Builder HONEYWELL, Builder

In first national balloon race of The Automobile Club of America, Indianapolis, June 5th.

II The longest voyage by a licensed pilot in the United States, in 1908, was made with the 2200 cubic meter "Yankee"—461 miles with two stops—a remarkable perform= ance; 800 pound ballast aboard when landing.

HONEYWELL

BUILDER

If The greatest bal= loon trip of the year —850 miles, in com= petition—made b y the Z000 cubic meter balloon, "Fielding= San Antonio." Four American and two Foreign makes de= feated by wide margin.

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This picture from basket was made 3000 ft. altitude showing French staggard block system perfectly constructed, as all our balloons are made, giving safety and strength.

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H HONEYWELL CONSTRUCTION Utilizes the latest and best materials-varnished or rubberized envelope with French=type valve, and Italian hemp or linen nettings. Cars equipped for comfort and convenience —light and durable. .........

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H. E. HONEYWELL, Director

3958 Cottage Avenue, St. Louis, U. S. A.

I W fc. IN I Y-rlrTH I ö ö U E

HUBERT LATHAM AT THE CAMP OF CHALONS IN HIS "ANTOINETTE IV "

THE AERO WORLD IN REVIEW ^FJKS^'.

AERONAUT LEO STEVENS

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of the world

Representing the

CONTINENTAL RUBBER COMPANY

of HANOVER, GERMANY

Makers of the Finest and Strongest Balloon Cloth Ever Produced

Constructor of the United States Government Balloon No. 10 in which Captain Charles De Forrest Chandler, U.S.A., and Mr. J. C. McCoy, won the Lahm Cup for Distance

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Carton & Lachambre

Balloon and Airship Makers of Paris, France

Aeronaut Leo Stevens

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Curtiss 8 cyl. Motor used in "Silver Dart"

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1909

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BALDWIN'S VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL

Used in the U. S. Gov. Dirigible and Spherical Balloons

will last from five to six times as long as a varnished balloon. The weight is always the same, as it does not require further treatment. Heat and cold have no effect on it, and ascensions can be made as well at zero weather as in the summer time. The chemical action of oxygen has not the same detrimental effect on it as it has on a varnished material. Silk double walled VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL has ten times the strength of varnished material. A man can take care of his PROOF balloon, as it requires little or no care, and is NOT subject to spontaneous combustion. Breaking strain 100 lbs. per inch width. Very elastic. Any weight, width, or color. Will not crack. Waterproof. No talcum powder. No revarnishiug. The coming balloon material, and which through its superior qualities, and being an absolute gas holder is bound to take the place of varnished material. The man that wants to have the up-to-date balloon, must use VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL. Specified by* the U. S. SIGNAL CORPS.

AEROPLANE MATERIAL A SPECIALTY _

Prices and samples on application ^^fl

78 MaNdE'vOvn0RKUare P' ^

R. I. V. RADIAL BALL BEARINGS

Used by Leading Aviators.

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INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS

Founded 1908. by ALBERT C. TR1ACA

aeronaqtic pilot of aero ciubs of america, france and italy.

Aerostats Dirigibles and Aviation Courses. Home study and Resident. Model Hall, Shop, Construction Sheds and (•rounds at Morris I'ark Aerodrome. Write for Catalog.

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C. and A.

WITTEMANN

DESIGNERS - CONSTRUCTORS—DEVELOPERS OF

AEROPLANES, GLIDING MACHINES, MODELS, SEPARATE PARTS

PRACTICAL LESSONS IN GLIDING

Experiments Conducted. Large grounds for testing.

GLIDERS IN STOCK Works: 17 Ocean Terrace and Little Clove Road.

Telephone, 390-L WesI Brighton.

ST ATEN ISLAND, NEW YORK.

G. L. BUA 113 A UGH

1029 N. Illinois St., INDIANAPOLIS, IND.

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AIR SHIPS AXD BALLOONS

Builder of the CHICAGO—largest balloon in the world; the INDIANA, which remained in the air 4.' hours and 95 min., the ENDURANCE H KCOHD for the U. S.; and the INDIANAPOLIS, which won the Handicap Race.

ATo connection with any other concern.

AEROPLANE RADIATORS

A SPECIALTY Livingston Radiator Co., 6 e. 3ist St., New York Gty.

GLENN H. CURTISS

IF on a balmy summer eve Glenn Curtiss can't be beaten in You ever chance to spy A motor-cycle race,

A bug of most unusual size A score of trophies he displays

Above you in the sky, To show he set the pace,

Don't be afraid, and shut the doors But since he hatched the Gold Bug, lo!

And all the windows tight, It is his pet and pride,

It's nothing but the Gold Bug out And he delights upon its back To take a spin by night. To take a rapid ride.

AERONAUTICS

main office 17 7 7 broadway new york

published by AERONAUTICS PRESS. inc.

a. v. jones, president e. l. jones, treas.-sec.

304 no. 4th street st. louis

Entered as second-class matter September 22, t908, at the Postoffice, New York, N.Y., under the Act of

March 3, 1879.

Vol. 5

August 1909

No. 2

aeronautics is issued oil the 20th of each month. It furnishes the latest and most authoritative information on all matters relating to Aeronautics.

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Subscriptions may be sent by express, draft, money order, check or registered letter. Make all remittances free of exchange, payable to aeronautics. Currency forwarded in unregistered letters will be at sender's risk.

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important.—Foreign money orders received in the United States do not bear the name of the sender. Foreign subscribers should be careful to seud letters of advice at same time remittance is sent to insure oroper credit.

PROGRESS IN AVIATION SLOW.

Waive for the moment all this flying enthusiasm, and consider just what progress has really been made. Though the Wrights really began successful flying with their flights of 1903, the popular belief and interest in the art dates with the little jump of Santos-Dumont in the fall of 1906, when the world went wild over his grasshopper-hop as compared to the bird-flights of the Wrights three years before. Since 1906 how many men have really flown? Those who are known are only Farman, Dela-grange, Cody, Moore-Brabazon, Bleriot and now Latham and Count Lambert in Europe ; Curtiss, McCurdy, Selfridge, F. W. Bald-

win and the Wrights in America. In Europe there are one or two others who have made short nights, and then, too, Calderara, a Wright pupil, in Italy. At the moment there are only the Wrights, Latham and Bleriot doing any real flying. This does not seem much like progress in these three years and more. How far did the automobile advance in three years? Somewhat faster than this, indeed. One's enthusiasm easily flies away.

The prizes offered abroad have caused an enormous amount of experimental work, and it is to be regretted that such encouragement is not in America.

APPRECIATION NOT A LOST ART.

"I would like to praise fAeronautics' through its editor for its noble work, which has improved to the delight of its subscribers and those who perchance come across a stray copy. The instruction given every month is a meal that is indeed very palatable—and reaping a big harvest, which those interested in it have found out. Wishing you and your magazine continued success, I am, yours very truly, R. P. D."

"The way in which I wish to speak about "Aeronautics"' reminds me of the gentleman who was asked how he felt. His reply was, 'If I felt any better, I would see a doctor immediately.' That expression fits your magazine perfectly. All the rest of the magazines treating on aeronautics are in the shade. It does not treat too much of either ballooning or aviation. In every respect I think it is perfect.—S. A."

NEWS FROM THE PACIFIC COAST

By Cleve T. Shaffer.

The three upper pictures show the machine of Messrs. Babcock, Locke, Gleason and Robinson, of Hammondsport, N. Y. (See story elsewhere in this issue.)

The lower photo shows the Becher CS. Wolf Glider, of California.

EM. RAYBURN, of Sausalito, is^ex-Clande cle Haven, Robert Bergfeld • perimenting with a glider, and A. C. Watkins of San Francisco are also having a great deal of sport and experiment with a glider of the familiar two-decker type out in the sand dunes near the beach.

Membership in the Pacific Aero Club is increasing. The club expects to give an exhibition of moving pictures, gliders, models and large sized machines about the first of August.

An interesting feature of the weekly meetings, is the short talks or lectures and discussions that have been arranged; these add a great deal to the knowledge and entertainment of the members. Last week's very instructive argument was between Messrs. Geo. Booth and Chas. Bradley, the former arguing for the propellor to be placed in front of the aeroplane, and the latter for placing it in the rear. Both gentlemen have had considerable experience with models.

Messrs. Carl Wolf and August Becher of Oakland, are experimenting with a tri-plane, 220-ft. surface, planes 19 ft. 8 in. by 4 in. The machine has a double front rudder not superposed, each side capable of independent movement. Lateral stability is also had by warping the wings a la Wright. Launched on its skids from a hillside chute or track, flights up to 200 ft. have been m ade.

A. L. Smith of Los Angeles, has a biplane two-thirds constructed, 40 by 7, 6 ft. between planes; the engine is to be 60 h. p.

H. La V. Twining, President of the Aero Club of California, will build a large size man-carrying ornithopter this summer.

Mr. A. C. Watkins of San Francisco, is experimenting with a monoplane glider.

Mr. Claude de Haven will build an aeroplane with a patented equilibrium device of Mr. Watkins'.

Messrs. Wolf and Becher have repaired their glider -Tor flight.

Messrs. Arnold and Hiniker of the Pacific Aero Club, are building a large size model of a machine which will incorporate the principles of the helicopter, the aeroplane and the dirigible. The model, of neat workmanship and fine lines, is of fish shaped design. The helices revolve in two separate wells contained in the body. Additional aeroplane surfaces are placed on the lower sides.

Prof. Jos. Hidalgo lectured on Aeronautics at the meeting of the Pacific Aero Club, July 6th. The lecture of Cleve T. Shaffer on the state of the art and the application to aerial warfare was a great success.

WRIGHT CELEBRATION AT DAYTON

By Our Special Correspondent

DAYTON, June 18.—To-night closed the two-day celebration for which the whole of Dayton laid aside business to do honor to its two most illustrious sons. Buildings, both public and private, were profusely decorated, the streets were lined with pillars of staff, and at night the city was illuminated with thousands of lights.

diamond-studded medal by Mayor Burkhart.

The Congressional medals are gold plaques, designed at the Government mint. On one side are the profiles of the Wrights with their names and the inscription "In Recognition and Appreciation of their Ability, Courage and Success in Navigating the Air." The coat of arms of the United States also appears on this side.

Invocation by Bishop Wright, Father of the Famous Brothers, at Beginning of Ceremonies.

Aside from the presentation of the medals, the chief feature was a monster parade illustrating the developing of transportation. This was headed b3>- an Indian runner and ended by a Wright aeroplane.

To-day the nation, state and city paid tribute to Wilbur and Orville Wright. Amid a fanfare of brasses, surrounded by soldiers and the militia, the Wrights drove up to the platform where General James Allen, Chief Signal Officer, presented the medals authorized by Congress. At the same time were given the Ohio state medals by Governor Harmon and Dayton's

On the reverse side is an allegorical fi^ur^, carrying a torch of knowledge, flying through the clouds and the inscription fr un Isaiah, "Shall mount up with wings as angels."

Yesterday a reception was held, the Wrights lionized in public speeches, and the keys of the city presented by heralds. The closing feature of the day was the proclaiming to the four winds that the "festivities of the city in honor of her distinguished sons are now open and all men are bidden." Thousands cheered when, (Continued on page 70)

ON WRIGHT'S TRIALS AT FT. MYER

By Harold A. Brown.

TO one only casually interested in the science of aeronautics, it might seem that the trials of 1909 would only be a repetition of those of 1908, and that if one saw the earlier ones that there would be very little novel in the later ones.

However, a number of facts should be borne in mind. In the years 1908 and 1909 both of the Wrights have had vastly more experience in the practical handling of a power-driven machine than in all of their

On the last year's machine, a wire stay, or guy, led from the outward end of each strut to the plane on cither side. Thus the struts were stayed against sidewise motion. A wire stay extended from the rear end of the lower strut to the upper end of the front strut, and this stayed the rudder against vertical motion. To complete the vertical staying another stay led from the rear end of the upper strut to the front end of the lower strut. At the centre of this

Orville Wright's Machine at Fort Myer

previous experience. It is well known that no matter how perfect the design of any piece of machinery may be when first designed, that in good extended practical use that some small minor defects are bound to crop out; or to put the matter in another way, improvements are bound to- suggest themselves.

Then again, during the extensive sojourn of the brothers abroad they have had excellent opportunities to observe the methods of construction used abroad, and also to acquaint themselves with the practice in light weight gasoline motor building as exemplified by the foreign makers.

To the person who expects to see any radical changes, the first glance at the 1909 machine is disappointing. In fact, at first sight nothing seems to have been changed. However, a closer inspection will show that the method of staying the rear rudder has been modified, and that the skids have been greatly increased in height.

stay was placed a length of closed spiral spring, the object being to allow the lower end of the rudder to rise by the stretching * f this guy in case it struck the ground in landing.

This year a solid wire is used in place of the elastic stay, and the likelihood of the lower end of the rudder touching on making a landing is minimized by the use of much higher skids.

The horizontal bracing of the struts is also somewhat modified. The spread of the main stays is somewhat diminished, and two supplementary stays run 'from about half the length of the stays to the anchorage point of the main stays on the plants. A bridle crosses both stays midway between the ends of the short stays in order to prevent undue motion or sagging in case of loosening of the stays.

On an examination of the engine the system of cooling and carburetion will be found to be the same as last year. How-

ever, in place of the friction driven direct current magneto formerly employed to furnish current for the make and break igniters, a Bosch geared magneto with shuttle wound armature is employed. This is a decidedly practical improvement, since it allows the motor to be started without the aid of a storage battery. It may be remarked here that on the machines used by the Wrights abroad a high tension or jump spark magneto was employed, but experiments showed that the make and break system gave about ten per cent more power than the jump spark on the motor employed by them; hence as the motor used was equipped for make and break, it was decided to use this type of ignition. Within the last few days the make and break mechanism has been considerably improved. It is possible that in future motors spark plugs will be used.

The early trials of the machine at Ft. Myer certainly should serve as an object lesson in patience and perseverance to both inventors and experimenters. To begin with, considerable difficulty was experienced in getting the motor to run properly when first put in place on the machine. This was perhaps largely, if not entirely, due to the ignition, and almost two days were occupied in correcting this difficulty. Owing to this difficulty and unfavorable winds, the first attempt at flights did not occur until the 29th of June. At the first trial the machine went about two hundred feet and suddenly veered to the right, scraping the right wing. Orville immediately stopped the motor and descended from his seat. In striking the ground the cloth of the wing was torn, and Taylor returned to the aeroplane house getting a hammer and needle and thread. With this the injury was repaired in a couple of minutes. A council of war was held and the machine started again. This time it went straight forward about the same distance as at first, and as it showed no tendency to rise the motor was again stopped. At this point Wilbur returned to the shed and came back with some iron and a couple of clamps. The iron was then clamped to the front rudder struts, the object being to weigh down the forward end, which showed an undue tendency to rise.

The third trial was not much more successful than the first two. At this point the motor was started up where it stood, and the R. P. M. were taken by Orville

with a stop watch and counter. Then after some_ slight adjustments to the motor the machine was returned to the starting rail and the motor started. By this time it was well after sundown, and there was now hardly any remaining wind. The motor seemed to be running much better than it had at any of the previous trials, but as yet did not appear to be up to the speed that it showed in 1908. This trial, however, was somewhat more successful. Orville succeeded in making a complete circuit of the field, although the machine did not as yet show the life that had been shown in previous trials.

The next day the motor seemed to be running much better when it was started up preparatory to launching, and on the start it seemed to be going much better. However, as the end of the field was reached and the turn was being made the left wing struck the ground, and the power being shut off, the machine settled and broke one of the skids. This stopped the experiments for the day.

On July 2, however, the flights were much more successful, the motor seeming to be in its old time form, and two flights were made—one of seven minutes and the other of about twelve. In the second, either the motor stopped itself or was stopped, and O. Wright glided to earth. A large bush was mistaken for a clump of weeds, the wing was pierced, and the machine slewed around, breaking off the skids.

Although not apparent to the eye of the casual observer, the area of the planes have been materially reduced, to about 36 by 6 feet, so that at least three more miles per hour are necessary to keep the machine in the air than last year. The reduction in area is about 90 square feet. Since the first experiments were commenced two additional lengths of rail have been added to the starting track, or in all about twenty-four feet. The manner in which the many difficulties which the Wrights have encountered in this year's trials have been met, recognized, and one by one conquered is probably the secret of their success, and one cannot but feel that their efforts to fulfill the government contracts must eventually lead to success.

* A complete description and analytical discussion of the 1908 machine was given in the September and October, '08, issues.

propeller mathematics for the kindergarten class-11*

By John Squires, M.E.

chief of physical laboratory, e. r. thomas motor co.

IN dealing with the proposition that the fact of one propeller (or machine to which the propeller is attached) having a higher thrust per h. p. against a fixed point than another does not signify that the first propeller (or machine) will travel faster through the air than the one with the lower thrust per h. p., it will probably be easier to follow the demonstration if concrete values are assigned to the several variants to give them quantitative individuality, especially when considering the effect produced by changing the value of the variants.

It is of course remembered that the air-moving type of propeller is being considered, and before taking up the proposition of propellers in flight, it is advisable to analyze the function of each variant in utilizing the power put into a stationary propeller.

Let it be considered that all the power input is used in producing work, as to consider less than perfect efficiency would complicate the demonstration too greatly for the present purpose.

Accordingly, resuming consideration of propellers thrusting against a fixed point, and supposing that we have a theoretically correctly designed propeller that we can adopt as a standard for analytical purposes and a base from which to consider variations, and in the abstract this is simply a machine doing useful work in moving a certain weight (in this case the weight of the air moved) a certain distance (equal to the pitch multiplied by the speed of revolution) in a certain length of time, and, therefore, it is possible to take the algebraic expression for work and factor it to include the functions of all the variants (or elements) involved in producing this work.

The formula " reductum" for work being y2 m v* = W, (in which W represents footpounds) or a better expression for the present purpose, m^ — W. This can be functioned for the element of weight by converting the mass into its factors, and then becomes

-C - = W, or in its usual form, ™ ^ = W.

g 2 2 g

As w represents the total weight involved, this must necessarily be composed physically of a number of units; so let a cubic foot of air be considered as a single unit called w, and w then consists of wt multiplied by the total number of cubic feet of air moved in a certain unit of time. Let this total number of cubic feet be called C, and by substitution the formula becomes ^ W' V — W. 2 g

Before the formula can be factored further

to functionate the effect of the four variants, it is necessary that each of them be represented by a symbol.

The power involved (or its equivalent expression, work) is already represented by IV. Let the speed of revolution per second be represented by R, the area throughout which the propulsive effect is exerted by A and the pitch in feet by P, and we can proceed to factor for the functionate value of each of these in the formula.

Looking for an opportunity to factor further, it is seen that the individual symbols C and v in the formula are the results of combinations of sub-values. Factoring C for its components, it is found that the total quantity of air moved in a unit of time is dependent on the pitch, the area and the number of revolutions in that unit of time, and making the indicated substitution, the formula reads

(A P R) zv v*

—--= W.

2 g

As v equals the velocity at which the mass travels and is the product of the pitch multiplied by the speed of revolution, another substitution can be made and the formula completely factored out becomes

(A P R) w, (P R)1 _

2 g

which simplified is

A p3 R* ™> = W

2 9

or expressed as an equation A Ps R3 w, _

2 g W ~ 1

and we now have an equation which explains the function of each of the variants in converting the power input into work output, and permits the intelligent determination of the correct relative values of these variants toward each other in actual practice.

It is now possible to create an actual standard properly functioned propeller for the purposes of comparison and such values as are apt to occur in actual practice may be assigned to as many of the variants as possible. So, taking, say, 20 h. p. at 20 r. p. s. (1,200 r. p. m.) and an area of 50 sq. ft. (equal to about 8 ft. diameter), all of which are within present practical limits, and it is possible to determine the correct value for the pitch, by substituting the numerical values for the corresponding symbols in the equation.

* The first " lesson " was given in the June issue, 1909.

No value has yet been assigned to the symbol w\ in the equation, but as we are dealing with air in units of cubic feet, the value of «/, is, therefore, the weight of one cubic foot of air, which can be taken approximately as .073 pound, although in practice this may vary considerably, depending on barometric and ther-mometric differences, and the velocity with which the air is being handled. The numerical value of g is, as usual, 32.16.

Now having numerical values for all of the variants involved except the pitch, the equation can be stated arithmetically thus :

50 X P3 X 8000 X -Q73 64.32 X 11000

which solved for P3 = 24.2, makes P = 2.893 and completes the full set of correct proportional values for the elements of the standard propellers thus:

H.P. =20 R. P. S. = 2o

P. = 2.893

A. =50

To get complete data for comparison, let the thrust be calculated in actual quantity also, and, remembering that the propeller can be designed to give the effect of air blowing against a normal disk, the formula P = S V2 .003 can be used by altering the coefficient to correspond with V in feet per second, and substituting the symbols we are using here for the sake of uniformity and using T as the symbol for thrust it becomes

T = A v2 .00139.

Applying this formula to the standard propeller gives

50 X (2.893 X 20) * X .00139 = 232.67 lbs.,

or 11.6 lbs. per h. p. As the proposition under consideration requires two propellers of varying thrusts per h. p., another propeller having a decreased thrust per h. p. can now be prepared for comparison.

Noting from the table (Variation 7 in the article in June issue) that an increase of pitch reduces the thrust per unit of power, let the same h. p. and speed of revolution be maintained and it is evident that the area will have to be reduced.

As doubling the pitch without altering the power or speed of revolution would reduce the area to one-eighth of its previous size (this effect is not stated in just this way in the table, but can be deduced from Variation 7), it will do as well to increase the pitch any amount that will not vary the working conditions too greatly, and accordingly let the pitch be made 3 feet and solve the equation for A, thus

A X 27 X 8000 X .073 11000 X 64.32

and A is found to be 44.87 sq. ft., or a diameter of approximately 7J4 ft.; and calculating for thrust

44-87 X (3 X 20) * X .00139 = 224.18, or 11.2 lbs. per h. p.

With theoretically perfect efficiency, we now have the equivalent of two normal surfaces, one having an area of 50 sq. ft. and being moved at a velocity of 57.86 ft. per second with an expenditure of 20 h. p., and one having an area of 44.87 sq. ft. and being moved at a velocity of 60 ft. per second utilizing the same h. p.

Now, presuming that the total head resistance of the machine (whether composed of area and drift in a dynamically-sustained machine or area alone in a buoyancy-sustained machine) to which the propeller is attached, is equal to the resistance caused by a surface of 20 sq. ft. area, normally presented, this resistance is proportional to the square of the velocity of flight v2 and produces slip in the propeller.

Representing the factors of the initial propulsive force in the propeller by the symbols A for the area against which the force is exerted and v for the velocity at which A is being moved, it is apparent that this velocity will be decreased by any additional area moved in proportion to the added resistance which, as we know, varies with v2, consequently symbolizing the added area by a, the resultant velocity of the combined resistance is expressed by the formula _

' A + a

in which A represents the surface against which the propulsive force is exerted and A + a the surfaces presenting resistance to propulsion.

Stating arithmetically the resultant velocity of the machine with the standard propeller attached, thus,

1/50 X (2.893 X 20)2 _ v V So X 20

we find it to be approximately 49 ft. per second, and for the same machine with the second propeller

-t/44-87 X (3 X 2Q)3_7, r 44-87 + 20

a velocity of approximately 50 ft. per second, thus showing that it is possible for a propeller having a lower thrust per h. p. than another when the machine to which it is attached is held stationary, to drive the machine faster through the air in flight, than the propeller having the higher thrust per h. p.

I wish to specially comment on the common error of using the wind pressure coefficient in propeller thrust calculations. I have only used it so far for the sake of simplicity in laying down comparative effects. Before closing this series of lessons I will give it differentiating values under varying conditions. As noted above, its value not only changes materially

(Continued on page 79)

AERONAUTIC CONSTRUCTION AIDS

IN the articles on construction which have appeared in "Aeronautics," the endeavor has been to show how other builders do things, to show new ideas in the necessary details of construction, and in this way to allow improvements to be

F/G.l

thought from the ideas suggested by the work of others.

R. E. Pelterie has taken out a patent on the control of a horizontal rudder. (See Fig. i.)

This mechanism has been designed to

Fig. 8

enable a large and rapid adjustment to be given to the "elevator," as it is called in England, and also to allow it to be set accurately. The lifting plane A is operated by means of the lever B, which is connected by a link C to the centre of a pulley D. An operating cord runs round this pulley and is connected at one end to the control lever E at or near the fulcrum thereof, and at the other end to the control lever F near the handle. By moving the lever F a large movement is imparted to the pulley D and lifter A. Thus the lifter can be moved through a wide range rapidly by means of the lever F. To set the lever accurately and to provide delicate control the lever E is used. Owing to the attachment of the operating cord near the fulcrum of this lever a large movement of the lever results in but small movement of the pulley and elevator. The patent specification describes also a system whereby levers are used in place of the cord and pulley illustrated.

In Fig. 2 is shown the main beam construction of the Beach-Willard monoplane. A and B are the horizontal and C the vertical parts. These are fastened together

with glue and screws. Care must be taken with this form of building to prevent warping. The same system is used to separate the upper and lower half of the ribs, running at right angles thereto. (See Fig 3.) AA are two thin strips at front and rear of the main surface to which the ends of the ribs are fastened.

To tighten guy wires, F. H. Lindsay merely crimps the wires as much as may be necessary, (Fig. 4).

Dr. H. W. Walden uses the system of trussing shown in Fig. 5. D is the strut, EE are washers, F is a bolt, G is a piece of metal (thimble) bent as shown and H is the wire, run through the two ends of G. In Fig. 6 is shown a method of joining horizontal beams and vertical struts. I is the strut, J and ordinary "T" hinge and K the beam.

Fig. 7 shows another method. L is a strut, La a ferrule, M the beam and N a bolt, securely fastened inside the strut with glue and a hollow dowel through which the bolt goes.

The Wright's scheme of joining is shown in Fig. 8 and the curve of their surface is 9.

HISTORY OF TWO-SURFACE FLYERo

THE popular use of the two-surface machine has brought up the question of its origin. It will be of interest to refer to the article of Octave Chanute in the September and October (1908) issues of "Aeronautics" on the "Evolution of the 'Two-Surface' Flying Machine."

F. H. Wenham of England, in 1866 originated and patented a machine with superposed planes. Stringfellow showed a large triplane model in 1868. Others experimented with multiple superposed planes. Then Lawrence Hargrave used two surfaces only in his "box" kite, now so well known. In 1895 Lilienthal glided with a two-surface machine.

In 1896 when A. M. Herring was working for Mr. Chanute, the latter designed and built a triplane. The lower surface was later removed. Over 700 glides were made with this machine and this type of apparatus has since been universally known as the "Chanute," inasmuch as he was really the first to actually construct and extensively use a reliable apparatus of this design.

the first power flight.

Sir Hiram Maxim must be credited with the first flight ever made by a machine with a self-contained power plant. His "fearfully and wonderfully made" aeroplane flew for about 200 ft. on July 31, 1894. Then there is Ader, whose flight with a

steam power monoplane of about 1,000 ft. on October 14, 1897, has been pretty well established as a fact.

The Wrights are undoubtedJy the first men to have made a successful flight in a power machine (December 17, 1903.) Maxim, Ader, and Kress had also flown, but did not succeed in landing safely.

A. M. Herring claims two flights with compressed air power in 1898, but these were unwitnessed.

The Cuthbertson flying machine which was built at the yards of the Michigan Steel Boat Co., Detroit, was smashed the last time the inventor tried getting it into the air. The boat company is now building another one to be ready by the end of July.

G. Curtis Gillespie, 186 Prospect Park Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y., is building an aeroplane which will soon be completed. The delay is now with the engine. Many will remember the large-sized model and the full-sized machine shown by Mr. Gillespie at the first two shows of the Aero Club of America.

W. H. Holloway, 117 E. Hargett St., Raleigh, N. C, is in the market for a light motor.

IN THE WORLD OF AVIATION

AMERICA STEPPING FORWARD.

A. P. Warner Buys Curtiss Aeroplane.

ON Tuesday night, June 22nd, Mr. C. F. Wyckoff, of Wyckoff, Church & Partridge, New York, Eastern distributors for Stearns automobiles, arranged for the selling of Herring-Curtiss aeroplanes.

Within twenty-four hours Mr. C. Wm. Wurster, New York Manager for the Wyckoff Advertising Company, who takes care of the publicity and advertising for Wyckoff, Church & Partridge, sold one of the first practical aeroplanes ever purchased in this country by a private individual, to Mr. A. P. Warner, Vice President and General Manager of the Warner Instrument Company, of Beloit, Wis. Russell and Frederick Alger were, so far as known, the first individuals to purchase an aeroplane in America, buying a Wright machine.

For a number of years Mr. Warner has made a close study of aviation, and through "Aeronautics" has kept himself fully posted on the progress of the various American and foreign gasless machines.

Mr. Warner will probably soon enjoy the unique distinction of being the first private gentleman to have delivered an aeroplane which an amateur can readily handle in the air for an hour or more. The contract provides for delivery of the aeroplane within 50 days, and the assembling of the various parts will be begun at once.

Incidentally Mr. Warner is closely allied with the automobile industry through the manufacture of high grade speed indicators.

The problem of inventing an improved instrument which will register the speed of an aeroplane while in flight is just now of the greatest interest to Mr. Warner, and he proposes to begin experiments along this line just as soon as he has mastered the handling of the. machine just purchased.

The machine is to be shipped to Beloit where Mr. Warner will begin trials. In the winter, the adjacent lake will provide a perfect place for learning.

Curtiss To Go Abroad.

Glenn H. Curtiss has definitely made entry to represent the Aero Club of America, in the Gordon-Bennett aviation contest to be held over the Betheny plain in the champagne country of France on August 28. Gordon-Bennett offers for the winner's club a $2,500 cup, and $5,000 in cash to the aviator himself. The contest

is for speed, twice around a 10-kilometer course. Landings are permitted.

From August 22 to 29 a whole week will be devoted to aeronautics. There will be elimination trials for the Gordon-Bennett, speed and altitude contests, as well as balloon and dirigible events. In all $40,000 are offered in prizes, most of which sum is donated by champagne manufacturers.

Aeroplane In Washington State.

H. C. Richardson, Othello, Wash., is constructing an aeroplane, to be finished early in the Fall. A biplane, with the upper and lower surfaces forming dihedral angles and meeting at the extremities, the machine has a spread of 38 ft. over all. There is a movable tip at each extremity 2 by 8 ft., 3 ft. of which are flexible. Running back from the rear of the usual sustaining surfaces on each side of the backbone of the apparatus are two large surfaces at a dihedral angle, each 8 ft. wide by 26 ft. front to rear. The rear edges of all planes are flexible. The tail is two-surfaced, 3 by 8 ft., spaced 2 ft. apart, moving at every conceivable angle. Two levers control all movable parts.

Newman Aeroplane Makes More Glides.

More towed flights have been made by the Newman aeroplane, built by the Brownsville Aeroplane Co., Brownsville, Tex. A Curtiss motor was expected by July 1st and as soon as this is installed, power flights will be tried. If successful, the machine will compete for the World's $10,000 New York-Albany prize—at least, that is what the builders say.

W. H. Butler's Flying Machine Shed At Morris Park.

Plans have been filed with the Building Superintendent of the Bronx for a two-story "garage" for the sheltering of flying machines to be built for Wm. H. Butler at the south end of the Morris Park race track.

The affair is something brand new in the building line in this city. It is to be of wooden frame construction from designs by the Dixon Building Co., having rubberoid roof, the latter being practically fireproof and durable. It will have a frontage of 25 feet and a depth of 55J/2 feet, and is to cost $3,000.

Canadian Aeroplanes Ready.

Ottawa, July 10.—Trials of the new flyers of the Canadian Aerodrome Co., of Baddeck, will soon take place at the military encampment at Petawawa by Messrs. Baldwin and McCurdy.

Young America In Aviation.

At Hammondsport, N. Y., four young men, Messrs. Babcock, Locke, Gleason and Robinson, are making experiments in aviation. During the winter they made some great glides down hill on the snow and have since developed a more advanced apparatus about which they tell as follows:

"A monorail like a channel-section was laid on a gentle slope. The machine was taken to the grounds and a short flight was made at 5.30 p. m., but owing to motor trouble, it terminated in a broken skid.

"After repairs a trial was made another day before the surfaces were dry after a shower, and consequently they were not airtight. The machine was carried (as it only weighed about 150 lbs.) to the starting point and placed on the monorail. Then the motor was tuned up until it ran perfectly by an expert motorcycle tester, Chas. Locke, who is a very active member of our club.

"When all was ready the operator's seat was taken by Wm. Babcock and the signal to let go was given. The machine was held on the sides by men until it gained headway. Then it balanced automatically owing to the dihedral tips. When a speed of about 18 miles per hour was reached, the operator raised the front control slightly and the machine rose from the rail. It flew very steadily for about 75 ft., but slowly lost speed on account of insufficient motive power and sank slowly to the ground on an even keel. A few small pieces of wood were broken upon landing. This machine was of our regular type with the box tail covered on top and bottom only. The motor was a single cylinder 3 h.p. motorcycle engine. The propeller was of laminated construction 3 ft. in diameter. It was directly connected and it revolved at 1000 r.p.m. The aeroplane was supported upon two motorcycle wheels in the center of the machine, one behind the other. The flight was considered a success in every way except for insufficient power. A double cylinder V-type engine is to be installed and more flights will be attempted."

An Aerial Railroad.

Paul H. Pages, Borough Park, L. I., is working on an overhead monorail transit line, somewhat similar to the famous electric aerial trolley line now running in Germany. There are some additions, however, which make the plan truly aeronautical.

Above the car itself are aero-surfaces of such area as to lift nearly the entire weight of the car or train from the overhead monorail. There is also a propeller to each car to assist in the lift and to hasten the acquiring of initial velocity. The cars are to be very light, and as there would necessarily be less friction and fewer moving parts, greater speed is promised.

It is proposed to install such a system between New York and Long Beach.

The Aeroplane-Safety-Suspension Electric Railway was incorporated last April. The treasurer of the company is the Rev. John C. Welwood, pastor of the Bensonhurst Episcopal Church. The full list of officers is as follows: Paul H. Pages, president; W. W. Heroy, first vice-president; George Giller, second vice-president; Stephen W. Dodge, third vice-president; James P. Kohler, secretary; John C. Welwood, treasurer; Edwin D. Kenyon, general counsel. The capital of the company is given as $100,000.

Aeroplanes for Meteorology.

Dr. Weichert, of the German University of Gottingen at Hanover, plans to send small aeroplanes to great heights for the purpose of obtaining meteorological data. These would be steered by means of electricity. Some success has already been had with a small apparatus. This recalls Prof. Cleveland Abbe's article along the same line, printed in the February, '09, issue of this journal.

R. D. Herzog, of Harvard, Nebr., writes: "I tested a new form of propeller last night. I was present at Hammondsport when the engine and propeller were tested on the 'Silver Dart,' and I used the same method of testing, which I presume to be fair and correct. We obtained an even pull of 16 lbs. using one man power. This propeller made 59 revolutions per minute at time of 16 lbs. pull. Do you not think this is good? I ain confident that 20 horsepower will suffice to drive and fly my new aeroplane which is just being started, which, ready to fly, including engine and operator, will have to lift % lbs. per square foot. The planes of the aeroplane and propeller are the same design." (See April, '09, number for description of machine.)

And in spite of the fact that they have been wined and dined by Europe, the Wrights still remain the simple, unpretentious mechanics they were when they went away. The only thing that ever hurt their feelings got its sting from the fact that they are good mechanics. When M. For-dyce, representing the French government, looked them up in Dayton some years ago to buy the rights of their machine, he had to inquire of a prominent citizen where to find them.

"Don't pay any attention to those Wrights, Mister Fordyce," said the p. c. "I'll tell you the man you want to see. You look up Uncle Bill Hooley."

"And what has he done?" asked Fordyce.

"Why, haven't you heard?" asked the prominent citizen. "Why, dang it, he has discovered perpetual motion!"—N. Y. Globe.

AEROPLANE FLIGHTS AT AERONAUTIC SOCIETY EXHIBITION.

Martin In Towed Flight Barely Escapes Serious Accident.

CURTISS CIRCLES TRACK.

Wind Wagon Makes Fast Mile.

THE Morris Park aerodrome looked like a full fledged flying machine foundry the last half of June. Any one who had a machine of any kind was getting it in shape for the June 26 show, though the efforts made did not get some of the machines finished after all.

On the 13th the Curtiss aeroplane, for which the society contracted, arrived. Several days were spent in assembling it, and on the 16th a straight flight was made in the gathering gloom. This was the first aeroplane to fly at Morris Park. After returning from a trip to Hammondsport, Air. Curtiss made two short nights on the 19th, in one of which the speed was figured at 46.7 miles an hour. The rear horizontal rudder was set at an angle with the ground so as to cut down the speed by giving greater lift. On the 24th three more short flights were made, and a circle of the track.

In the storm of June 25th the Myer dirigible was blown against a post and put out of commission for the show.

june 26th exhibition.

Those visitors who were willing to brave one of the hottest days on record found much of interest in the exhibition, the first of its kind ever held in the world. Not only were there present machines, models and kites approaching in number the recent foreign aero shows, but in addition, real (lying, towed flights, balloon ascents, wind wagon demonstration, etc.

During the first part of the afternoon, when there was a slight breeze, Samuel J7. Perkins had in the air his display of kites

and banners, and over a hundred school boys, in charge of A. E. Horn and W. M. Mohr, contested with kites in various contests.

Dr. Win. Greene had organized a "bal-loonatic"' obstacle contest in which the competitors suspended themselves from small balloons and endeavored to run and leap over obstacles. The spectacle was a funny one, as more often the balloons pulled the competitors backward than they could pull the balloons forward.

On the lawn and in the sheds were the various machines and models of the members. Among these were the full-sized machines of Messrs. Beach-Willard, Dr. Win. Greene, F. H. Lindsay, Geo. A. Lawrence, Fred Schneider, F. E. Rickman, Dr. IT. W. Walden, and the remains of the Kimball machine: the Martin, Wittemann, Hendriek-son and Kimball gliders. Among the flying models were those of R. E. Scott, Edward W. Smith and F. O. Andreae. The Scott model made main- successful flights. Edward W. Smith, whose twin screw model has been described and illustrated previously in this magazine, won the first prize. The model shown herewith was launched from the hand and flew for 52 paces. The other model was launched from a little catapult and travelled 50 paces, with twin propellers. None of the gliding models were tried.

The Thomas wind-wagon had been completely rebuilt, and was very successful. Though really in an unfinished condition, it made a circuit of the mile track in 2.07. This is equipped with a 24 h. p. air-cooled Aero-car motor, driving by chain an 8-foot propeller. Prof. Pickering's man-power tricycle was also in evidence.

During the early afternoon Mr. Curtiss made two straight (lights. Next Wm. II. Martin, of Canton, Ohio, was towed in his big glider by a six-cylinder Kissel Kar automobile. The glider is a monoplane with large surfaces underneath set at a dihedral angle. It is provided with rudders and a boat shaped frame runs on three wheel-. The speed of the automobile was a little too

great, the bridle gave way, and the apparatus made a short and successful swoop over the fence. The machine was partially wrecked, but Mr. Martin was not seriously hurt. The dihedral angle is Martin's scheme for preserving lateral stability, and in his flying model it works perfectly, righting itself, no matter how started. But the big machine swings from side to side and oscillates considerably. Win. H. Aitken made another towed flight in a Wittemann glider, keeping on even keel and landing safely.

Two hot air balloons made ascents, with parachute trimmings. The aeronauts were Johnny Mack and Mary Hunter, the Stevens medal being awarded to Mr. Mack.

The Schneider machine was placed on the catapult and started, after long delay caused by a leaky radiator, but it did not fly._ The engine is much too heavy, for one thing.

It was nearly eight o'clock before Mr. Curtiss was able to make another flight, and in this one he circled the lower end of the track, but hesitated about taking the second turn at the north end. Criticism has been made of the size of the Morris Park track, the largest in the country, on account of its being too confined, but those who have seen the Le Mans course, where Wright started flying in France, say that Morris Park is considerably larger.

The attendance was very small, and the society faced a deficit running nearly into $5,000. Nearly every one seemed well satisfied, however, with the events of the day.

exhibition july 5TH.

At the urgent appeal of several of the members of the Aeronautic Society, a second exhibition was held on July 5th, which exhibition is now a thorn in the flesh of the Enthusiastic Ones. A larger crowd was in attendance, but lack of organization and co-operation, combined with the absence of promised events, disappointed a majority of the spectators. It was after dark before the strong and steady wind subsided enough to allow Mr. Curtiss to make two short straight flights, and a near-circle of the track. Those who remained felt repaid for their wait, but the general public, which does not appreciate the whys, wherefores and whims of aeronautics, grew annoyed, to say the least, when there were delays.

The first part of the afternoon was taken up by three long distance motor-cycle events and the wind-wagon demonstration. Wm. H. Aitken had erected in the infield opposite the grand stand a real perilous-looking platform 30 ft. high from which he promised to glide at intervals during the afternoon. The wind, however, blew from the opposite side to that on which he had his inclined rnnwaj-, and Aitken with his glider posed on the top of the tower the whole afternoon, amid the jeers of the crowd.

Dr. Wm. Greene took out the repaired dirigible and made a short flight. His weight proved too great for the miniature airship and it slowly sank to the ground.

The hot air balloon ascents and parachute drops, which were a novelty in New York, were one of the missing numbers on the program.

Later even than the Curtiss flights, Geo. Thompson made several excellent and stable towed flights in the Martin glider, and R. E. Scott made a successful towed flight in a glider of his own design.

One of the jokes of the first show was the Beach-Willard monoplane, which was found too big to be gotten out of its shed. Vt the second exhibition the machine was wheeled out all right, but in the Beach-Willard hustle-bustle way of doing things.

One of Edw. W. Smith's Models.

the engine was found to run the wrong way for the propellers. That prevented its first trial.

Entry had been made by Mr. Curtiss for the Bishop $25o-kilometer-prize, and it was announced that he would endeavor to establish a record in competition for the "Scientific American" trophy, but neither competition was held. Mr. Curtiss has taken his aeroplane to the Hempstead plains on Long Island for some demonstrations with the permission of the Aeronautic Society. After these are completed, the machine will be returned to Morris Park. While on Long Island Air. Curtiss will teach two members of the Aeronautic Society how to operate it—that is. if the machine withstands the first lesson.

Kimball Aeroplane Wrecked.

After man}- days of consecutive trials at Morris Park, the first part of June, the Kimball eight-propellered aeroplane met v\ith a serious accident which will delay further experiments for several weeks. At the later trials, while the novel type of transmission employed continued to give satisfactory results, some trouble developed in the ignition, preventing the engine exerting full power. In spite of this, however, sufficient speed was attained to lift the front and one side of the machine well into the air, and the remaining wheel in contact with the ground seemed to barely rest on the high points as it rolled along at about thirty miles per hour. Upon such an occasion, while intent upon operating the steering

I. Hendrickson Glider. 2. Martin Glider. 3. Glenn H. Curtiss making a straight flight. 4. The Beach -Willard Aeroplane sunning itself. 5. Wm. H. Martin and his glider in a towed flight. An instant after this photograph was taken the glider scaled the fence on the outside of the track. 6. Dr. Wm. Greene making an ascent with the Myers Dirigible. 7. Rear view of the^Shneider Biplane. 8. _ Charles M. Crout driving the Thomas Windwagon. 9. Lindsay's Aeroplane minus the motor. 10. The Rickman Helicopter. 1 1. Wm. H. Aitken at the start of a towed flight with a Wittemann Glider.

gear, one wing of the machine swung over an earth embankment at one side of the track, switched the apparatus sharply to one side, and before the speed could be slackened crashed into the earth, breaking some of the propellers and wrenching the frame. The work of repairing has been begun, and the opportunity availed of to make a number of minor changes in the control and operation, chief of which will be the changing of the vertical rudders from the ends to the rear center, and reducing the spread of the machine over all by about six feet.

Shneider Biplane a Wreck.

New York, July 13.—Last evening Fred'k Shneider made another trial with his aeroplane at Morris Park; in a few brief seconds it was a bunch of junk.

The machine was placed on the starting rail, the engine started, the weight dropped and off he went. His forward rudder was tilted up too sharply and a wind blowing head-on took the machine up at a steep angle for about 30 ft., then it lost all headway and started down backwards, in a manner similar to the Kimball glider accident (see April, '09, issue), striking the ground with the rear edge of the lower surface, breaking the propellers and smashing everything but the motor to kindling. While in the air the machine buckled in the middle, and each wing tilted up at an angle, showing lateral weakness. The motor was uninjured.

Andreae Model.

A curious-looking model has been developed by F. O. Andreae, of Central Valley, N. Y., and shown at the June 26th exhibition of the Aeronautic Society.

For a trial flight it was hoisted 300 ft. into the air by Eddy kites on a piano wire 2,000 ft. long, of which 1,200 were out when the model was released by means of a hook and ring. A small and old steam engine was used, horse power unknown. The engine worked badly but the propellor seemed to do better than ever before, and the apparatus reached the ground without injury. The flight lasted some minutes, exact time not taken. This model, called "A-i,"

measures 10 by 10 ft., and weighs with the engine 35 lbs.

The model was not expected to do as well as it did, and Mr. Andreae started immediately to build a new one, acting on the lessons learned by this flight.

F. O. Andreae after he got his model machine into the air said: "I believe the properly constructed machine, to be yet invented, will keep a stead}' safe balance

The Andreae Model in Flight.

without special devices, will not need extensive means of control and be a machine distinguished by the absence of upright struts and diagonal bracing wires. Machines are only hard to control because thejr are very imperfect attempts as yet. I am encouraged by the results attained, that's all. I hope to evolve something better."

aero calendar

July 10.—Aero Exposition at Frankfort. Germany, till October 10.

July 28.—Wright Brothers must complete contract at Washington.

Aug. 1.—Landing Balloon Contest, Aéronautique Club of France.

Aug. 3-7.—Balloon ascents at Milwaukee Home Week Celebration.

Aug. 15.—Herring must complete trials at Washington.

Aug. .—Exhibition Pacific Aero Club, San Francisco.

Aug. 22-29.—Aviation Week at Rheims.

Aug. 23.—Gordon-Bennett Aviation Contest.

Sept. _ 4-19.—Austrian Aero and Industrial Exhibition at Linz.

Sept. 5.-—Aero events at Motor Parkway, Indianapolis.

Sept. 5-11.—Daily Balloon Ascents during North Adams' Old Home Week.

Sept. 25-Oct. 9.—Hudson-Fulton Celebration, New York.

Sept. 30-Oct. 8.—Motor Exhibition of Aeronautic Engines at Paris.

October.—Aero Carnival in Pittsburgh.

Oct. 3.—Gordon-Bennett Balloon Race at Zurich, Switzerland, twenty balloons entered.

Oct. 4—Aero Club of St. Louis Balloon, Dirigible and Aeroplane Events.

1910.—Aero Show in Boston.

GLIDING FROM HOT AIR BALLOON

THE experiments conducted some years ago by Prof. J. J. Montgomery, of Santa Clara College, in which glides were made from considerable heights after the operator and machine had been taken up by a hot-air balloon, have been copied by U. Sorenson, of Berwyn, Nebr.

Describing the machine and his experiences in the air to a representative of 'Aeronautics," Mr. Sorenson says: "The aeroplane was double-decked, main planes 6 ft.

"Before cutting loose I hooked the rudder lever so as to right the glider as soon as it commenced dropping, but as the rudder was broken, it failed to right until it had dropped 500 feet or over, and then the sudden stop in the air broke the planes on the left about 4 ft. 6 in. from the end. The descent was made in about one minute. This caused it to up-end, and gave a spinning motion which was about 100 r. p. m.

Glider After the Accident. The Broken Planes on Left Caused the Spinning During Descent

x 30 ft., spaced 5 ft. 4 in., with rudder extending 10 ft. in rear. It was equipped with warping planes for balancing.

"The balloon was an ordinary hot air balloon, and was well inflated, and when cut loose raised swiftly to a height of 3,500 ft., carrying the glider edgewise, the hitch being made in front of the glider about 18 in. above the lower plane. In leaving, the box rudder hit the ground and was broken. This I did not notice, or I should have stayed with the balloon.

The Hot Air Balloon and Glider Just Before the Start

This gave me a chance to warp the plane on the right and balance the machine again. It w.is completely demolished when it hit the ground, about a half mile from tin start. I think the only thing that saved my life was my experience with the parachute.

I thank "Aeronautics'' for the good I have learned through its pages, and hope thus e> périment will help some one else along in this great field."'

STRIVING FOR PERFECT MACHINE

Arthur Holly Compton, of Wooster, Ohio, has evolved a system of equilibrium for which he claims great things. In tin-new Farman machine, described in the June issue, auxiliary surfaces are hinged to the rear of the supporting planes for obtaining lateral stability. The Wright Brothers warp the wing tips. These operations are in addition to the moving of the horizontal rudder.

In the Compton model are combined the apparatus for securing lateral and fore-and-aft stability, and he has reduced the number of moving parts to two. At some distance in front of the main surfaces, one at

either end of the wings, he has placed horizontal rudders which are large enough to maintain stability in any wind. In preserving fore and aft stability the rudders are moved simultaneously in the same direction; in keeping the lateral balance one rudder is turned up and the other down. This can be managed by a steering gear which is so simple and natural in its movements that no mistake could be made. He has secured fore-and-aft stability by placing the center of gravity a little in front of the center of air pressure and turning the rudder slightly upward, but has found that in gusty air the wings set at a dihed-

ral angle are not as stable as when they are perfectly straight, and lie believes that when there is an operator in the machine, it would be better to have the wings turned slightly downward.

By Arthur Holly Compton.

This method of securing stability has u3AO.idvery efficient, and is more economical than any other type. Economy depends upon the amount of power required to drive the machine a given distance, and the power required depends upon the ratio of the lift of the machine to its forward resistance. Following the planes are detrimental as they lessen the lift of the wind, for the planes in front impart a downward motion to the air on which the following planes must support themselves. It is this which makes the large tail of the Voisin machine such a drag. The Wright aerocurve has much less following surface than this type, and our machine has the same proportion of surface in the horizontal rudders as the Wright machine, thus losing no more lift than theirs and much less than Voisin's. Using two rudders for securing equilibrium also lessens the horizontal resistance when turning in a sharp curve.

Take the Wright machine for an example. When this is about to make a sharp turn, the wings are warped, one end turned up and the other down, and the horizontal rudder is turned upward. As an end ol the machine is turned down and the rudder up, these two surfaces counteract each other in lifting force, while at the same time they increase the forward resistance. This is also the case in the Voisin machine. With our method, however, when it is desired to change both the lateral and fore-and-aft angle, the two rudders counteract each other only enough to change the lateral balance. Thus we see that not only is the lift of the surfaces greater with this new system of balancing, but, also, that it produces less forward resistance than any other type, making the ratio of lift to forward resistance, upon which depends the economy of the machine, somewhat greater.

One important step which has been taken in the construction of our model is the use of three instead of two superposed planes.

There are several reasons why we consider this construction advantageous, the most important of which is the compactness of this style compared to that of the double surface type, making it more convenient for housing. A triple-decker has slightly less forward resistance for the same amount of surface, weight and strength, and in experimenting with different models the triple-surfaced machine seemed to be more stable on windy days than a double-surfaced model of the same size. Another advantage of using three curves is that in shortening the lateral dimension of the machine, the radius of the circle in which it can turn is also shortened. Also when the

Wright machine alights, the propeller and the vertical rudder are in danger of strik- • ing the ground, but if they use a tricurve its large vertical dimension would give plenty of room for them and avoid all risk of injury. Having considered all these points it has seemed advisable to us to adopt the triple-surfaced machine.

These two improvements, the use of three superposed surfaces and the new method of securing stability, have been embodied in the model shown in the accompanying photograph. This model is 39 inches long with the surfaces 6 inches wide and the same distance apart, curved in a parabola through an angle of nine degrees. We have tried several Wright models and one of the Voisin type, but even with the double surface the new system of balancing seemed steadier than the others. In order to secure automatic equilibrium in gusts it was

Compton Model In Flight

found necessary to use vertical planes between the supporting surfaces of our model. We do not however advise this in a machine where a person can control the balance, for a side gust carries such a machine out of its course, and if compelled to fly in a narrow course this would be inconvenient to say the least.

Besides these two devices which have been tried and found to work well, we have thought of an improvement which ought to do away with one of the great defects of existing flying-machines, that of their inability to alight and start from any kind of ground. Machines equipped with wheels can start from almost any smooth meadow, (Continued on page SO)

The Aero Club of America has appointed the following as its representatives to the F. A. I. congress in Milan this Fall: Col. John Jacob Astor, Cortlandt Field Bishop, Jefferson De Mont Thompson, Colgate Hoyt, Orville Wright, Alan R. Hawley, Robert Lee Morrell and Dave Hennen Morris.

The Aero Cub of Dayton has had two ascents under its auspices during June with Captain Bumbaugh's "Hoosier," as noted in the list of ascensions. Other trips are planned an da balloon will be purchased.

The Aero Club of California has elected the following officers: Pres., H. La V. Twining; First Vice pres., A. L. Smith; Second Vice Pres., J. H. Klassen; Sec, Parke Hyde; Treas., E. W. Murch; Directors, J. S. Zerbe and H. J. Parker. A new constitution was adopted, dividing the membership into the following classes: active members $10 a year; associate, $5; life, $200.

The Pacific Aero Club has definitely decided to hold its show about the third week in August at Dreamland Rink. The Junior Aero Club has asked for space to exhibit its members' models, gliders, etc.

The Aero Club of New England is

anxious to encourage ballooning and has inaugurated a very good plan. Chas. J. Glid-den will devote his time to instruction in piloting and a special rate of $50 per ascen-

sion has been fixed for members intending to qualify as pilots. Payment for the necessary number of ascensions, ten, must be made in advance. The number of ascensions already made by the applicant will be deducted at the same rate. The balloon "Boston" will be used at Fitchburg and for the night ascension, the "Mass." at Pitts-field. The club has now 100 members and it feels that to close the season without increasing its number of pilots would indicate a lack of interest.

The club has offered the use of their 56,000 cubic ft. balloon Massachusetts to pilots of the Aero Club of America at $35 for each ascension and their balloon Boston for $25. The "Massachusetts" is at Pittsfield and the "Boston" at Fitchburg. The Boston is a 35,000 ft. balloon. The Massachusetts costs $50.40 to fill with gas, and the Boston $31.50.

With the Aeronautic Club of Chicago,

things are going along very nicely. The club will have a big balloon race there in August, and expect to have one home-made aeroplane that will fly at the time of the meet. The membership of the club is increasing very rapidly. The Illinois National Guard is going to have an encampment at Elgin, and C. A. Coey's big balloon "Chicago" is going to be held captive there. After the maneuvers of the officers have been engaged in, Mr. Coey will have the honor of taking Governor Deneen and General Young for a little ride.

M. B. Sellers in the "Step Glider" Described in the June '09 Issue. On the Left is the Towing Tower

59

FUTURE AERONAUTICAL EVENTS

AERO TOURNAMENT FOR ST. LOUIS.

Aero Club There Plans Big Events.

0\T the occasion of the Centennial Celebration of the City of St. Louis, commencing- October 4, three afternoons have been set aside for the balloon events. On the 4th a long distance race will be held; on the 8th and oth aeroplane and dirigible competitions will be held. There will also be an "auto-aero" competition for members of the St. Louis club, who will follow in automobiles a balloon to be sent up. The first car to reach its landing place will be the winner. For all these and other events a large sum of money has already been raised.

spherical balloons.

In the long distance race Monday, October 4, from Club Grounds, beginning at 4.00 p. m., there are offered the following prizes:

First, $600 or cup; second, $400 or cup; third, $300 or cup; fourth, $200 or cup; fifth, 100 or cup. The endurance prize will be a cup.

Contestants will be furnished • gas free. The rules of the F. A. I. are to govern, and only licensed pilots are eligible. The entrance fee is $25, which will be returned upon starting.

aeroplanes.

The aeroplane contests are to be held somewhere in the west end of St. Louis on Friday, October 8, at 2.00 p. m. The first prize, $1,000 and gold medal; second prize, $500 and silver medal.

The grounds will be laid out with a starting square approximating 200 feet; then a get-away will be laid out a half mile from the starting point. Each aeroplane will be given three trials for a get-away and if the aeroplane does not pass the outer square in any of these three trials, it is disqualified for the race. If the aeroplane passes the getaway line on the first trial, it must continue its flight, 'as it will have no more trials. The aeroplanes are to maneuver throughout a given district, for instance, Forest Park, if the Catlin track is chosen for the starting point. The 'plane staying out the longest and returning to the 200-foot starting square wins the first prize; to win a prize, it must fulfill the following conditions:

Leave the starting point and in at least three trials get outside of the outer getaway line; maintain a continuous flight and return to the starting square. The first

prize will be awarded to the aeroplane remaining the longest in continuous flight.

advertising balloon race.

The start of the Advertising Balloon Race will take place at 2:00 p. m. from the Aero Club Grounds, on Saturday, October 9th.

dirigibles.

The race between dirigibles will be held from the Club Grounds, Saturday, October 9th, beginning at 3:00 p. m.

First prize, $1,000 and Gold Medal; second prize, $500 and Silver Medal.

The conditions of the race are that the dirigibles must leave the starting point and cover a triangular course as follows: Aero Club Grounds to Blair Monument, then to Mounted Police Station, returning to starting point. Each competitor is to have three trials and the best time out of the three trials is to count. No competitor can win two prizes as only one time is to be counted out of the three trials.

A special prize will be given for the best exhibition of maneuvering.

Aeroplanes and Dirigibles for Indianapolis

The new Indianapolis motor speedway will be the scene of a big event on Labor Day, Monday, September 5. Arrangements are being completed for a second big aeronautic event. On this occasion the contests are promised with aeroplanes and dirigible balloons. They are expected to form the biggest attraction ever booked for Indianapolis, and will be under the auspices of the Indiana Aero Club. The program for the Indianapolis meeting will be practically the same as that of the St. Louis Aero Club, of St. Louis, set for October.

The Indiana and St. Louis clubs will exchange courtesies. The Indiana club has agreed to send as many entries to the St. Louis meet as the St. Louis club sends to Indianapolis.

Aero Division for Hudson-Fulton Celebration

Hon. James M. Beck, former Assistant Attorney General of the United States, and at present Chairman of the Committee on Aeronautics of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission, has left for Europe. During his sojourn abroad it is his intention to get in touch with the leading aviators in France, England and elsewhere, with a view of securing their eo-operation in the proposed special features being inaugurated by the Aeronautic Department of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission.

The Hudson-Fulton Commission recently appropriated the sum of $25,000 to carry out the plans which have been formulated by the Aeronautic Committee. One of the

most important features promised are a series of spectacular flights and evolutions by aeroplanes at the time of the holding of the remarkable marine pageant which is to pass up the Hudson River headed by the replicas of Hendrik Hudson's "Half Moon" and. Robert Fulton's first steamboat. It is proposed to erect a large landing stage in the vicinity of Grant's Tomb and to arrange similar facilities on the Palisades on the opposite side of the Hudson and from these landing stages the aeroplanes will pass to and fro across the Hudson, over the marine pageant as it ascends the River. The Aeronautic Department has already received most encouraging word from prominent aviators in this country and Europe, and as the Chairman has it is expected that negotiations will be closed with a number of the leading aviators before he returns to this country. The Committee expects to render assistance to the foreign aviators who enter the Hudson-Fulton contests in enabling them to bring their machines to this country, and they will also give a substantial sum of money to each contestant actually making the flight. And in addition to this a large sum of money and a handsome trophy, to be known as the Hudson-Fulton Troplnr, will be awarded to the aviator who makes the most spectacular and satisfactory performance.

The Committee desire to secure entries from Various aviators of America and recommend that parties who are building machines or at present experimenting with machines should get in touch with the Secretary of the Committee, William J. Hammer, who will be glad to give the fullest information regarding the plans of the Committee. Mr. Hammer is a well-known consulting electrical engineer of New York City, who has given a large amount of attention to the subject of aeronautics, is a member of the Aero Club of America and Chairman of the Hudson-Fulton Committee of that organization, a member of the Aeronautic Society and also a member of the Hudson-Juilton Committee of that body. He was also the Chairman of the International Aeronautical Congress of the Jamestown Exposition and has attended aeronautical congresses in this country and abroad. His address is Room 902, Tribune Building, Aeronautical Department of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission.

The Aeronautic Society of New York City, which controls the Morris Park race track, wrote the Aeronautic Committee of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission some time ago offering the full use of its grounds at Morris Park for such preliminary tests and experiments as the Committee might care to carry out. And it is the intention of the Hudson-Fulton Committee not to permit the entry of any aviator who has not previously qualified either by well-recorded flights or by an actual performance such as making a com-

plete circuit of the race track at Morris Park; or, in other words, a flight of one mile with turns.

Arrangements are being consummated for holding a series of evolutions of dirigible balloons coincident. It is hoped to secure a number of the most representative aeronauts in this country, and possibly one or more from abroad, who will also pass to and fro across the Hudson forming difficult and spectacular evolutions and possibly accompanying the marine pageant a short distance up the Hudson. Plans are also being formulated for sending up huge man-carrying war kites.

The Hudson-Fulton Committee on Aeronautics hope at an early day to make further announcement of additional plans covering the aeronautic features of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration.

An interesting feature which is being arranged by the Committee on Aeronautics working in conjunction with Mr. Stoddard, Captain of Pagaentry. and which it is expected will be an important feature of the Historical Parade, will be a float typifying the inception and development of aerial navigation. It is expected that on this float will be shown a model of Professor Lang-ley's "aerodrome." There will also be the original machine with which the Wright Brothers made their first flight, a man-carrying machine with self-contained power; and a model of the Stringfellow machine now in the possession of the Smithsonian Institution, etc.

During Mr. Hammer's recent visit to Washington he saw the authorities at Smithsonian Institution and also Messrs. Wilbur and Orville Wright. And since the return of Secretary Wolcott from abroad he has arranged with the Smithsonian Institution for the exhibiting of models of these famous machines.

It is expected that various other interesting models of notable spherical and dirigible balloons, aeroplanes, etc., will be included in the plan for the proposed float. It may also be decided to equip a second float.

Aero Show for Boston.

The first National Exhibition of Aerial Craft ever held in \mcrica is contemplated for Boston next spring. It has been customary to hold aerial displays in connection with automobile shows in New York and elsewhere, but the affairs have been incidental rather than of primary importance.

Owing to the great strides that aerial navigation has taken lately, this exhibition will be exclusively of the air machines, and so much interest has been manifested upon the part of those concerned in the project that it seems a foregone conclusion that success is assured.

The proposed show for Boston will include exhibits of all known types of air

craft, heavier than air machines, dirigibles and balloons. Chester I. Campbell, of Auto Show fame, will have charge of the exposition, and Charles J. Glidden will be one of the prime movers in the project and has accepted the position of Chairman of the Executive Committee and of the Advisory Board.

The following gentlemen have already accepted and will serve on the Advisory Board, and their names speak eloquently of the interest being taken in the affair: Chas. J. Glidden, Chairman; Prof. W. H. Pickering, of Harvard College; Prof. David Todd, of Amherst College; H. Helm Clay-

ton, Lewis R. Speare, Hon. Geo. A. Hib-bard, Hon. Geo. H. Brown, Hon. H. O. Carpenter of Rutland, Vt.; Hon. W. H. Gannett, of Augusta, Me.; Prof. A. Lawrence Rotch, of Blue Hill Observatory; Mr. E. A. Tarte and Mr. U. H. Dandurand, of Montreal, Can.; Glenn H. Curtiss, of H.am-mondsport, N. Y.; Luke J. Minahan, Pitts-field., Mass., R. Lincoln Lippitt, Providence, R. I.; Herbert I. Wallace, Fitchburg; John Coughlin, Worcester, Mass. Messrs. Orville and Wilbur Wright and A. Leo Stevens have also been invited to serve on this board, and it is confidently expected that they will accept.

WILLIAMS HELICOPTER SUCCESS

WE have received from our Washington correspondent some interesting particulars of the important helicopter trials made recently by Messrs. Berliner and Williams at the laboratory and farm of Emile Berliner of Washington, D. C.

Mr. Berliner, whose fame is international as the successful electrical engineer and inventor of the telephone transmitter, the gramophone, the Victor talking machine, etc., has made a study of practical aeronautics for years, and has made some interesting experiments, particularly with the helicopter type of flying machine. Last year he had the Adams-Farwell people build him two light-weight aeronautical motors, of their revolving-cylinder type, of about 35 rated h. p. each, and with one of them connected to a single two-bladed propeller of 17 ft. diameter, and 40 ft. superficial aera, got a thrust of about 350 pounds.

J. Newton Williams of Derby, Conn., inventor of the Williams typewriter, the automatic bank punch, etc., has been a student of aeronautics for many years, and his experimental work was being carried on quietly before the Wright Brothers were known to the public. He has always worked, however, on the more difficult problem of developing the helicopter type. While awaiting the evolution of the lightweight motor, he built practical working-models that would lift themselves to the ceiling, fly horizontally in a straight line, could be set to fly in a curve to the right or to the left, would lift and carry an added weight as great as its own weight, fully demonstrating or indicating its dirigibility and easy control, and the possibilities of a large machine.

Between two and three 3rears ago, Mr. Williams built at Ansonia, Conn., a machine of man-carrying size and after trying a motor that proved quite inefficient in power, the machine was connected to the factory power, by belts and flexible shafting to test its propeller efficiency, and gave a thrust of over 550 pounds.

The machine was later taken to Ham-mondsport, N. Y., and an 8-cylinder Curtiss motor installed. Trials were made giving encouraging results, but the motor was not quite strong enough to lift the additional weight of Mr. Williams.

Last winter Messrs. Berliner and Williams discovered, on comparing notes, that unknown to each other, their work had been along quite similar lines, and that some of their experiments had been almost identical, in size and shape of propeller, methods of transmission, etc. Mr. Berliner haying the two light motors which had been overhauled and improved and tested at his laboratory, and Mr. Williams' machine being completed and of lighter construction, it was arranged to conduct some further experiments together.

A number of instructive experiments and tests were made, each of the motors lifting the machine with a few pounds of added weight, and developing about the same thrust they did in Mr. Berliner's previous tests with a single propeller of some larger diameter and area.

The last and most important trials took place on June 26 at Mr. Berliner's farm, when, with the two revolving motors mounted upon the helicopter, each geared direct to the oppositely revolving propeller shafts, and with Mr. Williams standing on the platform, it lifted him three separate times. The trial was abruptly terminated by an accident to Mr. Moore, Superintendent of Mr. Berliner's laboratory who was running the motors, receiving an ugly looking but not dangerous cut in the upper arm.

In this trial, the two motors, with their bed plates, counter shafts and pinions, weighed 124 lbs. each—total, 248 lbs., making the total weight of helicopter, with the two motors, 460 lbs.; and with Mr. Williams' weight added, the total lifted was 610 lbs.

As this helicopter was originally designed for a motor of about 100 lbs., weight, these two motors loaded it to the danger point, taxing the light and frail structure quite to the limit, it was not deemed safe to make

further trials. Mr. Berliner will immediately commence the construction of a motor some 50% stronger than one of these and only 25% more weight, and Mr. Williams will build a new machine some larger and some lighter, which, with his experience and knowledge of the progressive art of light construction, he can now do. The new machine with motor will not weigh over 325 lbs.

In this last trial, an extension was added to the propellor blades, increasing their superficial area to 80 ft., and the diam. to 18 ft. 8 in., which increased the general efficiency of the machine, the larger area giving greater lift per horse power.

Mr. Berliner is now on an extended trip in Europe, and Mr. Williams' experiments with him have terminated for the present.

The readers of "Aeronautics" are doubtless aware that the "Williams Helicopter" is of the type which has two superposed two-bladed propellers, on concentric shafts, revolving in opposite directions, driven by a motor resting on a platform that is suspended and supported by the shafts beneath the propeller. Its low center of gravity assuring automatic stability and perfect balance, it cannot be capsized, the operator having only to regulate the motor and steer the machine. As the method of steering and control are the subject of pending patents, they are not described. The machine carries a large folded parachute for emergency to retard its falling in case of stopping of motor, or other accident.

AERON AUTISM

POINT TO POINT BALLOON RACE.

The Pittsfield Defeats North Adams No. 1 in Twenty-Mile Contest.

Chester, Mass., July 5—In a twenty-mile point-to-point balloon race from Pittsfield over the Berkshire Mountains to this town to-day, the balloon Pittsfield, piloted by William Van Sleet, defeated the North Adams No. 1, with N. H. Arnold as pilot, by about five miles, the former landing close to the town line here, while the latter came down in Southampton.

The two balloons left Pittsfield about 11.30 a. in., with a strong northwest breeze blowing. At noon both were over the mountains, and at 12.20 p. m. the Pittsfield came down close to the Chester line. The North Adams No. 1 landed ten minutes later in Southampton.

Those in the North Adams, besides the pilot, were Carl A. Grout and E. L. Snyder, of Pittsfield, while with Mr. Van Sleet in the Pittsfield were Miss Mildred Hill and Daniel Cullen, also of Pittsfield.

Pommern Nearly Destroyed.

The balloon Pommern, winner of the 1907 Gordon-Bennett, and holder of the American distance record, was to have served as a captive balloon at Coney Island this summer. Dr. Julian P. Thomas, its owner, had fitted up at great expense a monster hydrogen plant, an elaborate windlass, and was about to make the first ascent when, on June 25, a sudden gale, which did untold damage all around the vicinity, tore the balloon from its moorings before any attempt could be made to secure or deflate it.

IN AMERICA

Later part of the envelope was recovered, when it was found that for 18 ft. up from the appendix the cloth was burnt. The reason assigned for this was that on its touching the ground a discharge of static electricity took place which set part of it afire. The netting was entirely lost. The unburnt cloth is marked all over with dark lines where the net had been, just as though a net had been painted on. Dr. Thomas is trying to rebuild it and carry out his plan.

Fourth Gordon-Bennett Balloon Race.

James Gordon-Bennett has come to the front for this year's race with another $2,500 prize to the winner. For the first three contests he provided in advance a $2,500 cup and three cash prizes of $2,500 each. This was to end his own giving, but he has changed his mind—our balloonists' thanks.

On Oct. 3 the fourth contest for the Bennett trophy will be started from Zurich, Switzerland. The gas works at Schlieren, on the outskirts of Zurich, will be in a position to supply 44,000 cubic meters of gas in two to three hours, under high pressure. The gas pipes leading to the grounds are a kilometer long and have been furnished free by a large iron works. The Zurich Corporation also supplies free all the gas for the big race and the various matches preceding it, beginning Sept. 30th

The first Gordon-Bennett race was from Paris in 1906, won by Lieut. Frank P. Lahm. representing America. The second from St. Louis the following year, was won by Oscar Erbsloh, who covered the greatest distance ever made in America. The 1908 race was won by Lieut. Schaeck on behalf of Switzerland, from Berlin. In this race he broke the world's duration record heretofore held by Drs. Kurt and Alfred Wegener, making a trip of 73 hours. The Wegener trip was of 72 hours.

Baldwin at Norwich.

Norwich, Conn., July 7.—Capt. T. S. Baldwin to-night concluded his ascents at the 250th anniversary of Norwich, making a long trip over the city. Yesterday he made two good flights and one the day before in a stiff breeze. The new Curtiss motor, similar in design to the one now in the Curtiss aeroplane, gives much more power and reliability than its predecessor.

Aero Club at Buffalo.

An aero club is being formed in Buffalo by E. M. Statler, proprietor of the Statler Hotel. A balloon will be bought for the use of members. Mr. Statler is enthusiastic over his recent trip with Leo Stevens.

Airship Crosses the Hudson.

Frank B. Goodale, a youthful aeronaut of Toledo, who is filling an engagement as chief attraction at the Palisades Amusement Park, New Jersey, near the Fort Lee Ferry, on June nth made a spectacular flight across the Hudson River to Grant's Tomb, afterward landing in the river.

His performance surpassed anything of the kind ever witnessed in New York, except the dirigible balloon flights of Roy Knabenshue in August, 1905, when he made a voyage lengthwise of Manhattan Island.

Goodale's airship is only 58 ft. long, has a gas capacity of about 8,000 cu. ft. and is equipped with a seven horse-power motor. Its ascensional power is barely enough to sustain the boy during a short flight.

In the nearly calm air it was easy for him to guide the craft, so he circled about over the United States cruiser New York, anchored in midstream, and lowered to the decks a message, which he had attached to a cord.

Sailors on the warships caught the message and shouted congratulations to the young aeronaut. After that he steered the ballon across to Riverside Drive and made a landing near Grant's Tomb. In coining down one of the propeller blades was broken, but he quickly repaired it and started back for Palisades Park.

Meanwhile a brisk breeze had begun to sweep up the river and that, together with the bad behavior of the motor, caused the balloon to swoop down into the river. Several boats started to the rescue and Goodale moved back-in the frame and buoyed up the forward end of the gas bag so as to keep it afloat. The balloon was not seriously damaged and the young aeronaut escaped with nothing worse than a thorough ducking in the r>ver.

Zeller Airship Makes Flight.

East St. Louis, June 5.—C. M. Zeller to-day made a successful inaugural flight in a new

dirigible balloon, invented by W. J. Smith of this city, but lost control of the gas bag after landing. The big cylinder shot up into the sky and at dark was a mere speck, traveling at a tremendous height.

The ascent was made from Edgemont, 111. Zeller guided the craft nine miles toward Belleville and then started to return. From the basket of the balloon trailed a long drag rope which caught in the branches of a tree. It became entangled in the propeller and was cut 15 ft. from the basket. The real damage, however, was to the propeller, which was put out of commission.

After landing the airship was being let over some electric wires when the ropes were burned off and the airship darted upward, landing some miles away quite unharmed.

June 21.—Another ascent was made to-day. After performing many evolutions and the ship was about to land, the motor stopped. The motor was got going again only to stop once more, and by that time the ship had drifted some distance away. The plucky one-legged aeronaut let out gas and made a fine descent.

Sensational Airship Flight Over New York.

On July 12 Frank Goodale sprang a surprise on little old New York by sailing his little airship across the Hudson at 130th St. downtown to 42d St., and back again, following Broadway closely both ways. It was 9 o'clock in the morning, when all the office buildings and stores along Automobile Row were awakening and no one could be found who was not looking up at the sky. Going downtown the ship made very good speed, but the head wind on the return prevented fast going. Not since Knabenshue sailed over New York in his dirigible has New York's sky held aerial craft, and Knabenshue is now outdone. Goodale was in the air 50 min. in all and traveled a distance of about 11 miles On the ground a gusty wind was blowing, but this did not seem to swerve the airship in the least from its course.

Stevens Sells "Continental" Cloth.

Leo Stevens has taken the exclusive agency for the well-known Continental balloon cloth, used in the great dirigibles of Europe, for the United States and Canada. He is also agent for the French balloon builders, Carton & Lachambre.

A 1600 cubic meter balloon has been sold by Stevens to E. B. Weston, president of the Ohio Automobile Co., of Dayton, to be delivered August 10th.

"Aeronautics" expresses its thanks to Mr. George H. Guy for his endeavors with the Press on its behalf.

FOREIGN LETTER

$240,000 for Aviation—Public Subscription in England to Buy a Zeppelin—Aero Exhibitions in Europe—Aviators to Fly Across the Channel—Cody Says Wrights Infringe —Monoplane Carries Three—Delagrange and Latham on Cross-Country Flights—Bleriot and

Voisin Get $20,000 Prize Wellman Polar Expedition Delayed Again— '^

Zeppelin Polar Trip—Spain and Holland Alive—Russian

Dirigible Makes Fast Time—French Government <^ce ^ } C

Divides $20,000 Grant.

jn.v 10th, 1909.

Austria.

The Austrian War Department is purchasing a dirigible of 3650 cubic metres capacity and similar to the La République.

Belgium.

The first volery to be established in Belgium was opened on June 5 at Brussels. No aeroplanes were ready for the inauguration, however, and the celebration had to be made with six balloon ascents.

Despite heavy rain, the first trials were made on June 27 of the ne,W dirigible "La Belgique," which Robert Goldschmidt built to the designs of Louis Godard. The La Belgique is 78 m. long and has a capacity of ^65eo~cubic metres. She is equipped with two ■ Pipe motors, each Î45., h. p. and weighing 290 kg. / ; ^ "I- Denmark.

Legàgneux, who has acquired a new Voisin, has been giving exhibition flights at Copenhagen during the month. On his first exhibition day thousands of spectators had to go away disappointed because the wind prevented flight. But they were all given tickets for the next day, and seemed satisfied. Several short flights were made, up to 4^/3 min.

England.

to fly across the channel.

All England is now awaiting daily the accomplishment of the feat of flying across the channel that separates England from Europe. Hubert Latham says he will certainly fly across the channel before August 1. On June 27 he was in England selecting a suitable landing place. He had wanted to land at Folkestone, "Because I have some cousins there and it would please them." But he chose a spot upon the Shakespeare Cliff near Dover, with an alternative on the south side of Dover Harbor. To have made for Folkestone would have meant a much longer journey. From Calais to Dover is the shortest distance across. It is about 33 km. Latham thinks of starting from Cape Blanc Nez, near Calais. Henry Farman, who has been at Boulogne, also says he will try for the cross-Channel prize and will start from Sangatte, which is between Calais and Cape Grisnez. Comte Lambert, the Wright's first French pupil, is also near Calais preparing. The French Government has arranged to have a

number of torpedo boat destroyers attend each attempt so as to be on hand in the event of need. The English Government will lend no such aid for a trifling event like this.

Lord Roberts has got into action quickly by calling upon the British public to subscribe $250,000 to purchase a Zeppelin to shame the Government, show it what to do, and have at least some protection against the dread aerial fleet of Germany. The "Morning Post," the fashionable two-cent daily, has opened its columns for the collection of the money. But very little is rolling in. Meanwhile arrangements have been made with M. Clement to send over an airship in September, and the Government has accepted the offer of the "Daily Mail" of $25,000 to build a shed for it.

cody flying again.

Poor Cody is making out finely with his much-despised army aeroplane. On June iS he flew about a mile and a half in a circle. Many changes have recently been made in the machine. Cody has weighted the front by moving the radiator forward on to the bamboo stays supporting the horizontal rudder. The controls of the wing tips are now connected with the steering gear. A single vertical rudder has replaced the double one. and the aft wheel of the chassis has given place to an ashen spring 7 ft. in length. It would seem as if Cody really has the Wright patents tied up; at any rate, sufficiently so t< put up a good fight if the famous brothers wish it. He claims priority on use of a plane warping, and has illustrated newspaper clippings dated Dec. 6, 1902, nearly four months before the Wrights' application of March 23. 1903, showing that he was using such a method in the apparatus, which subsequently he turned into his man-lifting kite. He also claims rights on the wing tips, and has photo graphs taken in 1904, three years before the Wrights' wing tip patent of 1907.

Henry Cockburn, of the Aero Club, has purchased a Farman, and has made his first flight at Chalons. When he tried to land he pulled the wrong lever, and shot the machine up into the air at so sharp an angle that the lifting plane gave way. The apparatus fell, but was only slightly damaged, and Cockburn was not hurt at all.

Capt. Windham is now building a tandem monoplane of his own design. The planes are square and placed point foremost. The machine is 50 ft. by 24 ft., and weighs only 125

lbs., of course without the engine. The propeller will be in front, and both rudders at the rear point. The framework is of bamboo.

Another new English would-be aviator is trying very hard to get into the air. This is A. V. Roe, who is experimenting vainly on Lea Marshes with a tandem triplane. The machine is of very light construction and has only a 6-h.p. engine. The propellers are in front of the leading set of planes, and the engine is between the lower and middle planes of that set. The aviator sits in the frame joining the two sets. Control is by warping and the two sets work in harmony.

France.

Hubert Latham has been the sensation of the flying world during the month. He has roused France to the wildest pitch of excitement and enthusiasm.

latham carries passenger in monoplane.

Following his records of 3~J/> min. on May 22, and I lir. 7 min. 37 sec. on June 5, Latham has kept things humming well all the month with the Antoinette IV at Chalons. On June 4 he made a new and curious record. While passing over the heads of the spectators in a 37-min. flight, he took his bands off the control wheel and rolled and lit a cigarette. On June 6 he won the Am-broise Goupy prize for a 5km. cross-country flight. Starting from the Chalons Camp, he flew over trees and houses to the village of Vadenay 5.9 km. away in 4 min. 33/5 sec, a speed of about 50 miles an hour, turned in the air and flew back to his starting point.

On June 7 he made still another record, being the first man to take up a passenger in a monoplane. He made four flights and took up a passenger each time. One was a correspondent for the "London Daily Mail," whose trip lasted 11 min. 56 sec, and he found it so easy he was able to make notes throughout. On June 12 Latham flew 40 km. in 30 min. and glided from a considerable height with his engine turned off.

The next evening there was a strong breeze, but he wanted to show a flight to his mother, who had been away on a visit and had not seen him, so he turned out rather than disappoint her. He had flown about 3 m. at a height of 10 m. or so, when a violent gust drove the machine, damaging the left wing and bending the propeller. Latham himself was only shaken.

On June 16th he rose to a height of 60 m. and turned off his engine and glided down, effecting a perfect good landing. On the iSth he was out in a wind blowing at 25 km. an hour and had an exciting struggle in some of the more violent gusts, but managed to maintain his equilibrium. On the 19th he buckled a wheel in landing. Subsequently hr devoted his time to preparing for the cross-Channel prize and the chance of winning the more than $10,000 that depended on that feat.

^t> * 'three fly in monoplane.

Bleriot at Issy also took up a passenger. Andre Fournier, on June 7 in the monoplane Bleriot XII, and on the 12th set a fresh record by taking up two passengers together, A. Fournier and Santos Dumont. But his best work during the month was on his small machine the Bleriot XI. While out with A. Fournier on June 15 in the No. XII he made too steep a landing and snapped his propeller shaft against the ground. On the 19th he got out the small and swift No. XI and flew 4 km. On the 21st he was up for 6 min. On the 25th he extended that to 15 min. 30 sec, despite a sharp 15 miles an hour breeze, and made a perfect landing. The next day, June 26, he started out to set a new monoplane record. But when he had been up for 36 min. 55 3/5 sec. over-lubrication caused his machine to start missfiring and he had to descend. On the 28th he took part in the opening day of the two weeks' meeting at Douai with No. XII, and was the first prize winner, but his flight was only about 2l/> km. at a height of some 20 m. The following day he carried a passenger round the -j, course. On July 3 he flew 26 min. 47'secTw'On ~ June 21 he nearly lost the small machine by fire. He started filling his tank after a flight and the gasolene caught fire. The spectators quickly lent a hand and buried the flames beneath sand.

Apart from Bleriot, there has not been much flying at the Douai meeting. M. Bre-guet has made several short hops with his biplane. Yet the Breguet machine will certainly fly all right for Jean Gobron. son of the Senator for the Ardennes, who has one at Issy, on June 26 flew 15 km. and on the 29th covered 10 km. at a speed of 70 km. per hour.

During the second week of the mouth Delagrange was at Argenton. On June 7 he flew against a post and injured a wing, and on the 8th broke a front wheel in landing. On the nth he made 65/> km. over trees and farmhouses. Four days later he was back at Juvisy and on the 19th made a couple of short flights. In the first he went twice round the course in 3 min. 50 sec. In the second he went three times round in 3 min. 55 s^c.

A good story is told of a Russian count and Delagrange. It is so good that to doubt it is a shame. Delagrange was flying at Savigny-Sur-Orge on June 20 when among the spectators was Count Jarl Hedberg de Caurnet of Moscow, who became so enthusiastic he wanted a flight, too. Delagrange would not consent. '"How much do you want for the machine?" cried the count. And right on the spot he placed the money and proceeded to get into the machine. He would listen to no warnings. He went up beautifully. And after he had returned they carried him to a hospital with a badly hurt knee, and all that was left of the machine made a heap in a corner of its shed!

New Russian Dirigible " Russie " Built By the Lebaudys—Returning From a Sortie.

Bleriot XII Carrying Three

Lambert has his Wright at Juvisy, but in his first flight met with an accident. The weight representing a passenger got out of balance, and the machine fell at the end of the starting rail. The left wing and propeller were slightly damaged. On the 19th he made another attempt and was in the air for 12 min. 52 sec, doing eight times round a circular course and a height of about 30 m.

Tissandier has also his Wright at Juvisy, and there will be no more flights on what is now known as the "Wright Aviation Ground" at Pau until September. M. Tissandier gave his last lessons there during June. The old Wright is still in the shed, but the new motor that was put on it is to be taken to Jovisy where the old motor is now in use in new surfaces.

"F. de Rue" is the "aviationym" for a prominent French sportsman who has taken to flying and has had an interesting month at Port Aviation. On June 5 he won the Archdeacon Cup from Delagrange with a flight of 6y2 circles of the course. It is said quite a high wind was blowing at the time. On June 13 while trying to make a record for the Rolland Josselin fastest 5 km., he made the distance in 5 min. 34 sec, and was gliding down with his engine turned off when by accident his elbow caught against the ignition lever and so restarted the engine. Before the motor could be turned off again the biplane was driven full tilt into the members' refreshment room. De Rue escaped unhurt but the machine was badly damaged—also the refreshment room. On the 27th, after a flight of about 2 min., the motor suddenly stopped and the machine landed heavily but only slightly damaged itself. De Rue then found that he had gone up without filling his gasolene tank.

Six to seven kilometers was about the best Farman could get out of his new machine at

Chalons without something going wrong. But 011 June 28th he managed to keep up for 21 min.

Santos Dumont had his little Demoiselle out 011 June 19th and she fell on her tail. The damage was not great and Santos Dumont was only shaken.

Ogier, a new aviator at Issy with a Regis Freres biplane, made several short flights on June 27. Then he soared up to a good height when suddenly the machine fell forward and came down with a crash. The motor, propeller and planes were badly damaged, but Ogier was not hurt any.

Another new arrival at Tssy. Paulhan has a Voisin and on June 28 made; several flights of about 200 metres, t n- , , iv*^ *~

$J40,000 for aviation.

Henri Deutsche de la Meurthe has given $100,000 and promised a further $3,000 annually to the University*of Paris for a department of aeronautics, and $140,000 for the same purpose has been donated by Basil Zakaroff, a great resident in the gay city. The French Institute has divided the Osiris prize of $20,000 between Bleriot and Gabriel Voisin. Daniel Osiris, who founded the prize, died only a couple of years ago. Eight years before his death he gave funds for a triennial prize of $20,000 open to all the world to reward remarkable works or discoveries of general value. He also purchased Mahnaison and presented it to the French nation.

At last the French Government has decided on the division of its $20,000 grant. $8-375 goes to the Aero Club de France, $7,600 to the Ligue Nationale Aérienne, $1,000 to the Société Navigation Aérienne, $1,000 to the Automobile Club de France for its aerodynamic laboratory at Lavallois, $800 to the Nancy exhibition^ and the balance in various t * * j

ways. The L. N. A. is buying two Wrights with its portion of the grant.

With Henri Kapferer as its pilot, the new dirigible Ville de Nancy made its first public appearance on June 27 with a successful trip from Sartrouville to Longchamps and back. It has been built by the Astra Co. and is similar to the Clement Bayard. A speed of 40 miles an hour is claimed.

Walter Wellman and Melvin Vaniman left Paris on June 20 for Spitsbergen to prepare the airship America for his second attempt to reach the North Pole. On starting he stated his hope that all would be ready for a start on the great trip by July 20, and he asserted his conviction that he would not fail to reach the Pole this time. But a woeful disappointment awaited him. On June 28 the ship Arctic put into Tromsoe from Danes Island and reported that on Boxing Day, Dec. 26, last year, a gale blew down the airship shed and killed Knut Johnson, one of the members of the expedition passing the winter there. Wellman was just on the point of starting on the Fram. He was greatly downcast by the news, and, puting his things back ashore, decided to wait until carpenters could go ahead and erect a new shed. It is thought hardly likely now that the expedition will be made this year.

The Aero Club de France issued its first pilot's certificate to a woman this month. The recipient was Mme. Surcouf, president of the woman's balloon club Stella, who made her 28th ascension on June 16.

Germany.

It is declared in Berlin that Count Zeppelin has obtained the protection of the Kaiser for an airship expedition to the North Pole under the guidance of Prof. H. Hergesell of Strasburg University. A ship is to be built for the purpose, the rumor says, and in it Prof. Hergesell will investigate the North Pole suburbs next summer from Cross Bay, Spitsbergen, preliminary to making the attempt on the Pole itself, possibly in 1911.

Zeppelin has announced that he will make his next attempt from Friedrichshafen in the Zeppelin II on Aug. 26.

On June 29 the Zeppelin I sailed from Friedrichshafen for Metz, where it is to be stationed. Some trouble arose with the motor and a delay of five days was made at Biberach, in Baden, about 100 miles from Friedrichshafen and half way to Metz. A battalion of soldiers was called out to hold the great ship down until it could be anchored. Part of Lake Lucerne is to filled in to form a foundation for a Zeppelin shed.

Major von Parseval, builder of the famous Parseval airship, is constructing a monoplane. It is, he says, 14 m. wide and 12 m. long, and will have a long floater under the center and two at each side for landing on water. The propellers will be placed in front driven by 100-h.p. Mercedes motor. The weight will be 1200 kg. and it is to carry three people.

The major holds that the monoplane has a better chance of righting itself in a fall than the biplane has.

The German Wright Co. has completed two machines and has ten under construction. One of the completed ones is to Frankfort Exposition.

The Parseval III which is to go to Frankfort to carry passengers on excursions during the exhibition made a trial trip from Bitterfeld June 2$ It passed over the town at a height of 700 m. and was perfectly under control. "V4T ^

It is said that one of the most interesting features of the new Schutte airship will be an arrangement whereby the gas which has to escape during the expansion of the wooden envelope will be retained by a compressor and so can be returned when necessary.

Holland.

On June 27 Comte Lambert gave a demonstration at Essen, near Breda, giving several flights over a circle of 1 km.

Italy.

Lieut. Calderara completely recovered from"1 his accident, resumed nights at Rome July 1 in the Wright machine which had been repaired. He is speaking of building on his own design. i»0

Japan. ~*"-v»

Charles K. Hamilton, who was at Brighton Beach last year and has since been in Japan, has been at Kawasabi during the past month making successful flights with his little airship.

Russia.

In its trial flights the new dirigible "La Russie," built by the Lebaudys for the Russian Government, made a speed of 60 km. an hour over a measured 10 km. at Paris.

On June 18 the army balloon burst at a height of 2400 ft. M. Palitzin, Court Chamberlain, was killed, Capt. Korbe broke a leg, Mme. Palitzin was seriously hurt also. A fourth passenger was unhurt.

Spain.

The Spanish Government has made a grant for aviation and Capt. Kindelan is to select models to be adopted for full size construction. Interest is manifesting itself throughout Spain. Two sons of the Marquese de Salamanca, Conde de Los Llanos and Don Carlos are building in Madrid. Other machines are being constructed.

Sweden.

Our esteemed and valuable British contemporary "Aeronautics" says that a Swedish engineer has constructed an entirely new airship in which he has utilized Mont-golfier's system of heated air. The new

{Continued on page 79)

langle;y's important work

By John W. Mitchell.

DURING the present revival of interest in the subject of aerial flight, but scant credit is given in the popular mind to the man who more than all others advanced the art to the position it occupies to-day, and who made the first model machine that actually flew by mechanical power without the aid of a gas bag. That man is the late Samuel Pierpont Langley, recently secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, perhaps the most eminent scientific position in America.

Prof. Langley began as early as 1888 to investigate the problem of mechanical flight, a problem that till then had been left almost entirely in the hands of cranks and visionary inventors. It is of interest to know that the first money for his experiments was given by William Thaw of Pittsburg, father of Harry Thaw. William Thaw was then one of the financial giants of the country. Carnegie, Phipps and Rockefeller were just coming into their own—or into other peoples', as one chooses to look at it. The Langley experiments were outlined to Carnegie as a matter of fact, and he laughed at them and refused to give any assistance. William Thaw gave $5,000, part of which Prof. Langley spent on his first whirling table. His important book on The Internal Work of the Wind is dedicated to William Thaw.

It was prior to 1895 that Prof. Langley built his first steam driven aerodrome. It flew in the presence of Alexander Graham Bell and a few other friends at Widewater, on the lower Potomac. Three steam driven models were built, and in 1896 Prof. Langley announced the general results of his work to the scientific world, saying that he had demonstrated the possibility of mechanical flight, and that he looked to other and younger men to take up the problem and develop it on commercial lines.

If he had stopped there, his scientific fame in that direction would have been unassailable. It was already established in astrophysics as every scientific student knows. But in 1898 when it was practically certain to government officials that this country would drift into war with Spain, Mr. Roosevelt, who was then Assistant Secretary of the Navy, urged that Prof. Langley should be commissioned to build a man-carrying flying machine as an engine of war.

This project was reported on favorably by a board of army and navy officers, and the work was done under the auspices of the Board of Ordnance and Fortifications. The general outline of what followed is known through the daily papers only in distorted form. The gasoline engine had been developed at that time, and Prof. Langley saw that it offered a better power medium than steam. After applying to all of the great engineering firms, he was forced to build his own engine along original

lines. It stands in the National Museum today, the most powerful and reliable motor weight for weight that has ever been constructed. It weighed two pounds to the horsepower, and developed 52^ horsepower on the brake.

The success or failure of the machine now depended on the launching. A new machine of any sort seldom works satisfactorily till after several trials, but Prof. Langley would not take the risk to the operator of having the machine launched over dry land. His models, one a quarter the size of the big machine, had all been launched and had flown from a launching machine rigged up on the top of a house boat. Charles M. Manly, who built the engine, and was to have the honor of driving it, was anxious to take chances and start on land. Several army and navy officers on the board were in favor of this course, but Prof. Langley let humane motives override scientific ardor, and insisted on the water launch as being safer for the operator.

This method was tried twice, and both times failed owing to tiny points of steel catching on the launching frame. The machine never really got into the air, and never had the chance to fly. Those on the inside knew this, but the spectators, all of them newspaper men, did not. Prof. Langley had vainly tried to keep them away from the trials, as secrecy had been imposed on him by the government, but they were there with binoculars and tele-photo cameras, and when they saw the apparent failure of the machine, they very humanly, though unchristianly, rejoiced in it. and did not even give the machine the benefit of the doubt. The ensuing newspaper criticisms not only hurt Prof. Langley bitterly, but had the effect of deterring Congress from appropriating any more money for experiments. Aid was offered to the Professor from private sources, but he replied that if the American people would not support a work carried on especially for their benefit, he would do nothing more.

The big machine is now in the workshop of the Smithsonian, partly dismantled, but capable of easy reassembling and repair. Whether it ever will be repaired and flown is a question. It is the joint property of the War Department and the Smithsonian Institution. Some of the army officers are anxious to give it a further trial, which would cost at the most three or four thousand dollars. The officers of Smithsonian, who feel that Prof. Langley was badly treated, are reluctant. The machine is there, however, and is one of the most marvellous pieces of workmanship ever constructed. But whether it ever flies or not, the preeminence of Prof. Langley as an aerial investigator is already recognized by the scientific world, and will eventually be recognized by the public

PAPERS OF THE

international aeronautical congress

President: Professor Willis L. Moore. Secretary: Db. Albert Francis Zahm. Chairman Gen'I Committee: Wm. J. Hammeb. Chairman Executive Com.: Augustus Post. Sec'y Committees: Ernest La Rue Jones.

AIRSHIP PROPELLER PROBLEMS

By Prof. Calvin M. Woodward

[The manuscript of following paper was received a few days after the program was printed.]

1. What is the Horse-Power Required to Produce a Given Pull or Thrust by Means of One or More Air-Ship Propellers, When the Frame is Anchored?

The net horse-power of the motor is measured by the kinetic energy imparted to the air acted upon by the propeller. I assume that an absolute velocity of v feet per second is given to a cylindrical stream of air, originally still, and that the cross-section of the stream (or streams if there be more than one propeller) is the same as the area of the propeller circle (or circles). Call this area A sq. ft., and let the given or required pull or thrust be P lbs.

Since the thrust forward, or pull upon the anchorage, must equal the backward push upon the air, we have the general equation

P = Ap.

•[I]

in which p is the average push or action in lbs. per sq. ft., upon the cylinder of air.

Hence the volume of air acted upon and set in motion every second is Av; its weight is Awv, in which w is the weight in lbs. per cu. ft.; its mass

. Awv; . . Awv3

is-and its kinetic energy is-, bemg the

9 2g

mass into half the square of its velocity.

Now v is determined by p in accordance with the laws for the flow of gases; but since p is small compared with ordinary atmospheric pressure, all changes in density and temperature may be neglected, and the flow of air may be assumed to follow closely the laws of the flow of liquids.

The pressure of p pounds per square foot in the cross-section of the cylinder of air produces a flow or current like the flow or current thru an opening between two indefinitely large tanks of air in one of which the atmospheric pressure is 2117 lbs. per sq. ft., and in the other, 2117+ p lbs per sq. ft.

Hence I use the familiar hydraulic formula v> = 2gh

in which 2g is approximately 64 and h is the "dynamic head" of the current whose value is

Hence v

if A =7tr2, and w = 0.08.

Substituting for v in the expression for the kinetic energy, we have the Kinetic Energy of the air-current, and hence the work done per second by the motor-driven propeller is

, „ Aw /2o P\l 16 a K.E. = —(— ) = — Pî = vP. 2g \ Aw J T

.[IV]

so that we have for the net horse-power~actualIy exerted, dividing by 550, the horse-power-woik in one second,

8P*

pi

v P

H = — = -= 0.0515 —............[V]

550 275r Ai 1 J

approximately.

This formula gives the horse-power required by means of a propeller of radius r to maintain a steady pull or thrust of P lbs. If there are two or more propellers acting without the least interference, then their combined area is represented by A = itr2.

In the formulas [III], [IV], and [V] r is the radius of the circle equivalent in area to the combined area of all the propellers.

The above case may be illustrated by a suspended frame carrying a motor and propellers with horizontal shafts in a yard or a large laboratory. The frame should be anchored by a cable attached to a spring balance, or passing over a light and easily running pulley be attached to an adjustable weight P. It is assumed that the propeller is correctly designed for the velocity v of the air-current. For discussion of the design of the propeller see § 10.

Instead of a motor driving a horizontal shaft, one may use an electric motor and a vertical shaft, with arrangements for measuring the lifting or depressing effect of the propeller when in motion.

2. What is the Horse-Power Required to Drive an Air-Ship in* Still Air Against a Known Resistance P at the Rate of V Miles per Hour.

If all the air acted upon by the propeller be given an absolute velocity of v ft. per second, it is evident that the volume of air acted upon per second is now A (y + v') in which v' is the velocity of the ship in feet per second.

To make this truth still more evident, it may be added that if we assume that the air-ship is drawn or towed thru the air by some other ship or motor, at the rate of v' ft. per second, our propeller standing still, the air would pass thru it, at the rate v' feet per second, or it would appear to do so, though really standing still. Now if the propeller be started and turned fast enough to press p lbs. per sq. ft. upon all the air passing, so as to give it an absolute velocity of v feet per second, then the relative or apparent velocity of the air passing thru the propeller would be v + v' ft. per second, so that the volume of air acted upon every second would be A (v + v').

22V

A speed of V miles per hour is tt~ feet per

15

second.

22

Hence v' = —V. feet per second.........[VI]

15

The mass of the volume actually acted upon w

per second is A (v + v1) —. and since the velocitv 9

imparted to this mass is v, the kinetic energy generated in the air-current second is

Awv1 , ,x Awvz AwVH' nrr^

— 0> + V) = —- + —--.......[VII]

The first term of this result is identical with the value of K. E. given in equation [IV], and its 16 3

value is accordingly — Pz; the second term, r

Awv'i* , , . , , 2g P

-, when we substitute for v2 its value-

2g Aw

from [III], becomes Pv', which is exactly what should have been anticipated; viz: the work done per second in overcoming the resistance of the air to the motion of the ship. Accordingly the horse-power required for the ship when in motion is

rn P flQVT 22V\ P(v + v')

#' = __(-+ — = —:-i. [VIII]

550 \ r lb J 550

The atmospheric resistance of still air upon a moving ship is taken to be the same as the resultant action of moving air upon a stationary ship, the velocity in the two cases being the same. The general equation for such resistance is in pounds

P = CtzRW2.

.[IX]

in which R is the radius of the maximum cross-section of the air-ship in feet; and V, as before, is the velocity of the ship in miles per hour. C is a coefficient dependent upon the shape of the

ship and the nature of its surfaces. An approximate value of C for a cigar-shaped air-ship with fairly smooth surfaces is 0.002. An exact method of determining P would be to measure the pull on a cable when the ship is anchored against a steady wind blowing V miles per hour. Probably no two ships would yield the same value of C hi formula [IX].

3. Discussion of Formula [V] for the Case of an Anchored Ship, with a Motor Driving a Propeller Whose Radius is r.

Sp? p%

H =-= 0.0515 —

275r jj}

For a given value of P it is seen that the horsepower required varies inversely as the radius of the propeller. This suggests the economy of large propellers, or of an increase in their number. There are of course practical objections to very large propellers, and also to a large number of propellers. I venture to suggest for a ship three propellers, one rather low at the stern, and one on each side, well forward, and higher up, abreast or above the uppermost member of the frame truss. In these positions, the propellers would create currents which would not sensibly strike the motor frame and car, or any part of its rigging, and hence would not retard the ship.

With given propellers it is seen that the horsepower required for a greater value of P increases more rapidly than does the value of P. For example, if P is made four times as great, the horse-power required is eight times as great. If P is multiplied nine times, the H must be increased 27 times. If however the face area of the propeller, A, increases equally with P, then the horse-power required to pull (or lift) will increase exactly with P. This appears from the equation above since

H ./P

P= 0.0515/-.

.[X]

P H

If — is kept constant, — is also constant. A P

4. Discussion of Formula [VIII].

H> = — + — 275r 550"

If the value of P given in [IX], and the value of v' from [VI] be substituted in the above, it becomes

h'=r

L

"8 (CirR2)* CirR1

275r

375

.[XI]

from which it appears that the horse-power required to drive an air-ship increases with the cube of its velocity.

(.Concluded in the September Issue.')

Incorporations.

"The Flexible Aeroplane Co.," of Newark, N. J., has been incorporated to manufacture automobiles, aeroplanes, etc., capital $100,000. Incorporators, T. Formanns, J. R. Murgatroyd and H. Taylorson.

"International Aerial Navigation Co.," organized with $5,000,000 capital stock by J. W. Oman and others; has purchased 35 acres near San Antonio and will establish plant for manufacturing aeroplanes.

"Bachmann Aeroplane Company," Newark, N. J., capital stock $30,000. The incorporators are Frederick Bachmann, Frank G. Dehe and John Mossman, all of Newark.

"Black Crow Mfg. Co.," Babylon, 111., to manufacture airships; capital $35,000. Isaac Hubbell, Fulton, 111.

Patent List.

"Flying Machine," John H. Wilson, Middlesex township, Cumberland Co., Pa. No. 926,-I59. June 29, 1909. Biplane construction having planes supported on trunnions provided on supporting frame so that angle of incidence is adjustable. Rear vertical rudder is provided between superposed propellers.

"Aerodrome," Harry H. Orme, Wesley Heights, D. C. No. 926,593, June 29, 1909. Triplane of which highest plane is the controlling one and comprises a series of radial ribs. Means are provided for moving the tips of the ribs both simultaneously or independently in groups. A plurality of front and rear planes are provided for additional control.

"Airship," Philip H. McConnell, Syracuse, N. Y. No. 925,494, June 22, 1909. Novelty consists in a propeller described as a fan comprising radial spokes with arms and webs so connected and operated by cams that these blades of the fan can be opened and closed.

"Flying Machine," Wallace A. McCurd, North Finchley, England. No. 924,813,_ June T5> 1909. Machine consists of a plurality of superposed planes adapted to be set at different angles of inclination. One-half of said planes are arranged to move in a direction opposite to the other half.

"Aeroplane," James H. Rogers, Hyattsville, Md. No. 924,833, June 15, 1909. Monoplane, the characteristic feature of which is a body composed of a central tube from which a wing extends at each side.

"Aeroplane Flying Machine," August Beri-ozzi, San Francisco, Cal. No. 923,936, June

8, 1909. A bird-like structure provided with sails on the body portion, from which is suspended a car movable from front to rear for the purpose of changing center of gravity.

"Airship," James M. Park, Pittsburg, Pa. No. 458,013, June 8, 1909. A vertical stem supporting gas envelope at upper end and car at lower end, both revolubly mounted. Means are provided in the car for imparting rotary movement. Also propeller operated by engine and suitable rudder in addition to the other control.

Aero Publications.

"The Conquest of the Air; The Advent of Aerial Navigation," by A. Lawrence Rotch, S. B., A. M., Professor of Meteorology at Harvard University, and Director of the Blue Hill Meteorological Observatory, author of "Sounding the Ocean of Air," etc., has just been published. The book considers the sensational achievements of the past year in their relation to the long history of past failures; it discusses some of the scientific possibilities of the future. Many illustrations. i6mo, $1.00 net.

Spon & Chamberlain, 123 Liberty Street, have just received a supply of a most interesting booklet entitled "Model Aeroplanes," by E. W. Twining, which is sold at 50c. The book describes and fully illustrates three different types of biplanes, and in addition to the book there is supplied five sets of full-sized drawings. This book should prove of great interest to the aeronautic youth of America.

"Aeronautischer Kalcnder," 1909-10, second year, by J. Riecken, published by Richard Carl Schmidt & Co., W. Keithstrasse 6, Berlin, German}', at 3 marks. The author, a well-known special writer in this line, offers in a 300-page, pocket size, cloth bound book, a great deal of valuable information on ballooning, together with a list of all the ascents made in Germany last season, prizes, etc., in addition to blank memorandum pages and ascension record forms. It gives a history of the prominent voyages last year, and contains an article on the practice of ballooning.

"The Aero" is the latest in aero journals, published weekly by Iliffe & Sons, Ltd., London at $2.08 a year. It might be called a revival of "Flying," published for six issues in 1901 by the same company. Here's to success!

"Encyclopedia de l'Aviation" is the title of a new and unique aeronautical monthly issued in Paris. We can recall no previous art the interest in which has been keen enough to produce a magazine of similar usefulness. Each month, under headings in alphabetical order, in the ordinary form of an encyclopedia, it gives an analysis of all the articles upon aerial locomotion which have appeared during the month in the aeronautical publications of the world. Similarly, it gives descriptions of all notable apparatus, notes on new patents, biographies of aviators, notices of books, and much other valuable information, such as methods of calculation and construction. It also gives a brief resume of the news of the month. The publishers are: Librairie Aéronautique, 32 Rue Madame; $1.40 a year.

"Flying, The Why and the Wherefore," is a title of an interesting little book published by The Aero, 20 Tudor St., London, E. C, at 35 cents, post free. It is not a "handbook" of flying nor an historical treatise, but a most invitingly written explanation of the why and wherefore of the various machines that have flown, of the theories on which their construction has been carried out, and makes suggestions for further improvement. It is the book for the onlooker, though it will prove of considerable value to the ex-perimentor. It puts in simple language the technical terms of the expert and brings flying within the comprehension of the laity. It is confined solely to dynamic flight.

The "Trouble Finder," published by Whitman and Cameron, 146 W. 56th St., New York, will be found a source of value and a joy forever by those who have anything to do with motors and automobiles. Every possible derangement of any conceivable part is listed with a notation opposite telling how to find and fix the trouble. If you do not know what is the trouble, look through the list of symptoms and you will readily locate the remedy. The price is 50 cents.

An aeronautical topic of interest is the early appearance of a book by Prof. T. S. C. Lowe, of Los Angeles, Calif., upon the balloon during the Civil War. In a letter from Prof. Lowe he says that the early publication of his work seems assured. He certainly is working away with all the vigor that his years permit. Prof. Lowe, as one will remember, was in charge of ballooning during the Civil War under the Quartermaster Department. He seems to have received very little encouragement, but nevertheless did some good work. He has become wealthy, and it was only last New Year's Day that he opened his box containing all the data of his Civil War experiences, since when he has been preparing his memoir.

Sky" Scrapings

Samuel F. Perkins, the expert kite flyer, is attracting attention with his kite and flag display at Coney Island, where he has a summer engagement. The most striking feature is the big banner 'Read Aeronautics' " flown at night with a beam from a searchlight thrown upon it.

Hiram Morgan, son of F. W. Morgan, or Morgan & Wright, the tire manufacturers, has built a glider weighing 65 lbs., 21 ft. spread.

The boys of Public School 77, First Avenue and 76th Street, New York, have taken up kite flying in earnest under the guidance and encouragement of the manual training teachers. A kite-flying contest was held by the enthusiasts on May 24th on the fields near Astoria.

Another glider is being experimented with by John Burton, of Hamilton, Canada. It measures 20 ft. spread. 4 ft. front to rear, and 3 ft. between surfaces, and weighs only 25 lbs. The first trial resulted in a crash on account of not tilting up quickly enough.

E. T. Odom, Birmingham, Ala., has applied for a patent for a flying machine, and is looking now for capital.

Daniel C. Shutt, of Chattanooga, Tenn., has built a dirigible balloon model, and is rushing work on a full sized machine to be ready by July 4th. It resembles much the Knabenshue airship.

Cheney Prouty, of the Iowa Automobile Co., Des Moines, la., has been experimenting with a glider. The first machine was wrecked in gliding flight.

John D. Pursell, of Chattanooga, Tenn., has brought out his aeroplane for tuning up. The government has kindly appropriated a shed for storing the machine, and one of the several parade grounds in the vicinity of the city is fine for trials. Mr. Pursell is figuring on a 4-cyl. 2 cycle revolving motor. He thinks that one of 40 h. p. could be built to weigh 80 lbs., and turned out commercially for less than $200. He is also interested in the Sirch idea for a hot-air dirigible, and is getting out a patent to sell Sirch when he starts building.

J. Clarke, of Chicago, is building an aeroplane.

Hugh L. Willoughby, who started work on an aeroplane last winter at his Florida place, is now in the north, and will continue construction on the sea coast. He has become a convert to the heavier motor, and is using a stock engine of the Pennsylvania Auto Motor Co., 30 h. p., weighing with 30 lb. flywheel, magneto and oiler full for 200 miles, 420 lbs.

Reuben Bassett and A. Carlson, two young men of Hartford, have been making trials with a glider on Prospect Hill. Bassett essayed the first flight of seventy feet, but in landing the wing tipped the ground and broke a rib and the rudder, so Carlson had to wait for repairs. The end of May further attempts were made. A broken rib unbalanced one side, and after four or five trials were made, more ribs were broken. The glider measures 20 by 4 feet, with 20 slender curved spruce ribs. Six upright struts space the surfaces 4 feet apart, and the whole, as well as the rear rudder, is covered with cambric.

A Mr. Bourdin, of San Francisco, is constructing a monoplane, the novel feature of which is the movable engine and directly connected propeller, which, being pivoted in front of the machine, it is supposed, will allow of direction control of all planes.

Roswell Northrup, 12 years old, and Floyd Nicholson, 13 years old, of Iola, Kans., have just completed their first attempt as builders of aeroplanes, having constructed a glider which is a great success and their first trial has recently been made. The machine 22 ft. long and 5 ft. square, is in the shape of a huge box kite, and is covered with a heavy cloth. While about 40 feet in the air pictures were taken, so as to prove to any doubting parties that the machine actually flies.

Cyril King and E. E. Butterfield, _ of Lewiston, Ills., have been experimenting with a glider. It is 20 feet in length and 4 ft. wide. Muslin is used in the construction of the sails or wings, and the framework is made of spruce and imported piano wires are used in making the braces. The weight of the machine as it now stands is about 75 lbs. The operator has a place in the center of the machine, and just back of him is a vertical and horizontal rudder which is fastened by bolts to the main part of the machine. The spruce frame work is held together with bolts, and these same bolts serve to hold the wire braces. After the trial flight it was necessary to go over the machine and tighten the bolts and braces. At this time there is no way of balancing the machine except by the moving of the legs and body.

Ballooning to Canada.

The prevailing winds six months in the year commencing about this time, make it quite possible that the trophies will be won during the year 1909. The air line distance from Pittsfield to Montreal Island is only two hundred and ten miles, and to reach this point the wind must blow from a direction about five degrees east of south. The 3,500-cubic-feet-capacity balloons have already covered one-third of the distance, and the "Massachusetts" and "Springfield," being 56,000 cubic feet, would have no difficulty in reaching a point even beyond the City of Montreal.

To accomplish this task the start would probably be made in the evening, possibly an hour before midnight, the balloons holding a low altitude and sailing northward taking advantage of the lower currents. A careful study of the weather map at the time the depressions were en route from the west would determine the time of starting. One familiar with air currents says with the depression designated as "low" over Lake Ontario would probably cause the wind to blow from the desired direction as this gradually moves easterly to the St. Lawrence Valley. The Committee on Balloons and Ascensions will arrange a few details of the contest to be submitted to the Canadian people for their approval.

Secretary W. S. Shrigley says this offer of trophies will do more to encourage long distance ballooning in New England than any move since aeronautics became so popular, and that he hoped to be in the balloon that wins the prizes. Mr. Glidden, of the Ascension Committee, who has had considerable correspondence with our Canadian neighbors on the subject, says he expects to make several attempts to reach the localities designated before the close of the season, and believes that the offers will create pleasant rivalry between members of the various clubs in the United States, as the contest is open to all clubs having starting facilities south of the latitude of Poughkeepsie and in Massachusetts.

Helium for Airships.

Helium is the ideal gas for all lighter-than-air airships, said Professor Erdmann the other day in a lecture in Berlin. Had Count Zeppelin used it. he declared, the catastrophe at Echterdingen last August would never have occurred.

While its lifting power is about 1.11 kilogrammes a cubic metre, or little less than that of hydrogen (which is given at 1.20 kilogrammes), it is neutral and non-inflammable, and can stand a cold of 268.5 degrees centigrade without liquefaction. The difficulty is to get the helium. The small quantity of 400 litres possessed by the Leyden University is cherished as a treasure.

FITCHBURG, May 4-—Chas. J. Glidden, pilot, and J. Walter Flagg made a two and a half hour trip to Atkinson, N. H., 38 miles, in the balloon "Boston." Highest altitude, 10,400 feet.

christening of club balloon.

MILWAUKEE, May 8.—Maj. H. B. Her-sey, John H. Kopmeier, and John H. Moss, president of the Milwaukee Aero Club, today made the first trip in the new Stevens-built balloon "Pabst," presented by Gustave Pabst to the Club. After it was christened with a bottle of Pabst "Blue Ribbon" by Miss Jane Fairweather, at 5.30 p. m., it left the ground for an hour's trip, landing about 28 miles from town, near Cedarburg, Wis. Mr. Pabst and his party followed the balloon in an automobile, and an hour after the landing found the aeronauts, and they all ate a bountiful supper at a country farmhouse. The highest altitude was 2,000 feet. This was Major Hersey's fifteenth ascension. Mr. Stevens was of course on hand to superintend the inflation and to see that everything was right. He's always around—you positively can't lose him! Four hundred thousand spectators were present, and more than a page in the daily papers was devoted to the event.

SAN FRANCISCO, May 8.—Roy Knaben-shue, A. C. Pillsbury, of San Francisco, and George B. Harrison, of Los Angeles, in the "United States," started to-day from the former site of the Mechanics' Pavilion near the ruins of the City Hall, and the balloon drifted over the business section until the bay was reached two blocks north of the ferry. There it was sent up through the sea fog, 1,000 feet thick, and the upper current took it southward three miles. While above the fog the "United States" attained an altitude of 11,400 feet. Only the top of Mount Tamalpais could be seen as a landmark, and when the balloonists descended into the fog and heard the sound of waves below them they did not know whether they were over the bay or the ocean. Their course rounded the government drydocks at Hunter's Point, and eastward across San Francisco Bay, Alameda, East Oakland and toward the hills. A descent was made in Redwood canyon after a voyage of twenty-three miles. Mr. Pillsbury obtained a number of photographs of the district of San Francisco rebuilt since the disaster of 1906, and of the fog as seen from above it. The trip was the first made by a balloon over San Francisco since the earthquake.

FORT OMAHA, May 10.—Capt. Chas. De F. Chandler and First Lieut. James E. Ware

left Fort Omaha in the Army hydrogen balloon "No. 12," of 19,000 cu. ft., at 11.12 a. m., landing near Jackson, Nebr., at 6.30 p. m., distance 83 miles. When within two feet of the ground the gas exploded. Elapsed time, 7 hours, 18 minutes. This makes the eighteenth trip for Capt. Chandler and the first for Lieut. Ware. (See article last issue.)

NORTH ADAMS, Mav 12.—Double ascent by Dr. R. M. Randall and A. D. Potter. (See July, '09, issue.)

WASHINGTON, May 12.—Lieuts. Lahm, Dickinson and Winter made an ascent in the "Signal Corps No. 11," landing twenty miles away at Cheltenham, Md.

CANTON, May 12.—A. H. Morgan and J. H. Wade, Jr., left about 3 p. m. in the new balloon "Cleveland," with the expectation of crossing Lake Erie, but the wind was not sufficient, and atmospheric conditions prevented. The landing was made near Ravenna, O., at 6.15 p.m., a distance of 26 miles.

NORTH ADAMS, May 15.—Wm. F. Whitehouse, pilot, N. H. Arnold, and R. Baldwin, in the "North Adams No. 1," reached Shelburne, Mass., about 22 miles away, in a night trip, made to qualify Mr. Whitehouse as pilot, with Mr. Arnold as critic.

PITTSFIELD, May 15.—Chas. J. Glidden, Geo. Otis Draper, and Frank B. Comins left here in the Aero Club of New England's new balloon "Massachusetts," of 1,600 cubic meters, on its first trip, at 11.45 a.m., landing at Plainfield, Conn., after 4 hours and 40 minutes. Highest altitude, 9,000 feet; distance, 84 miles.

NORTH ADAMS, May 16.—Wm. F. Whitehouse alone in the "Greylock," landing at Sunderland, Vt., after two hours, a distance of 31 miles. This completed the ascents necessary for pilot license.

WASHINGTON, May 17.—Lieuts. F. P. Lahm, Dickinson and Bamberger made a trip in the "Signal Corps No. 11" at 11.48 a. m., landing at Mullikins, Md., at 1.21 p. m. The greatest altitude was 3,700 feet; distance 20.5 miles.

INDIANAPOLIS, May 17.—The balloon season opened this afternoon, when G. L. Bumbaugh, Rüssel J. Irvin and Dr. Goethe Link made an ascension from the plant of the Indianapolis Gas Company, at Twenty-first street and Fall Creek. The ascension was the third of a series of ascensions by Irvin and Dr. Link in order to qualify as pilots for the national balloon race of June 5.

After a short trip over the city, the aeronauts landed four miles southeast of the start.

PITTSFIELD, May 19.—Win. Van Sleet piloted A. D. Converse on the latter's second trip for 3 hours 40 minutes from here to Huntington, a distance of 24 miles.

MILWAUKEE, May 20.—Second ascent of the "Pabst," Major H. B. Hersey, pilot; Prof. Warren B. Johnson and Col. E. P. Vilas, passengers. After a two-hour trip it landed near Palmyra, Wis., 38 miles. Highest altitude, 4,500 feet. President Moss, of the ;lub, who was following the balloon in an automobile, came upon a man aiming a rifle at the balloon, and stopped him just at the moment of his attempting to tire. The man will be prosecuted by the club.

SPRINGFIELD, May 20.—After being in the air four hours in the "All America," landing in a tree was made at Lake Onota, near Pittsrield, 42 miles distant. Piloted by A. Leo Stevens, the passengers were C. E. Wyekoff, Le Roy Taylor, C. B. Harmon, A. J. Pickard, and James H. Hare.

NORTH ADAMS, May 21.—N. H. Arnold piloted A. D. Converse, W. H. Richardson and C. E. Martin in the "North Adams No. 1" to Greenwich, N. Y., a distance of 34 miles. Duration 1% hours.

INDIANAPOLIS, May 22.—The initial balloon trip from the Indianapolis Motor Speedway was made to-day. Three "captive" trips were made before Carl G. Fisher and Capt. G. L. Bumbaugh "let 'er go."

Fisher has three qualification trips to his credit as the result of these experiences. Three landings were made, counting on his list of trips required by a pilot in the national race.

The first landing was made near Bridgeport. Roy Foltz, John Holtman, and Heniw Turlin were the witnesses. The second drop to earth was made five miles south of Bridgeport, in Decatur township. H. Moore of Valley Mills and George Wideley of this city were witnesses. The last landing was made near Valley INI ills. The witnesses were Charles Furuass, George Wideley and Clayton Pierce. Every landing was made without the use of the rip cord.

four ascents in one.

ST. LOUIS, May 23.—John Berry and H. E. Honeywell made a practice ascent for Berry to qualif3r as pilot, of 2% hours, landing about 20 miles away near Bridge-ton, Mo. Harry Grover, Constable John Mueller and a "Globe-Democrat" reporter followed the balloon in an automobile. As soon as the balloon landed, Honeywell got out and Grover and the reporter got in for a mile ride. Another landing, and Honeywell and Mueller went up for a short trip. Upon landing again Honeywell took up six boys.

another christening.

CINCINNATI, May 23.—Piloted by L. B. Haddock, "Jack" Pattison and R. H. Cox, a

photographer of the Cincinnati "Enquirer," made their initial ascent to-day in a new balloon, "The Wanderer," at 4.58 p. m. Of course it had to be christened with a bottle of champagne over the bow—no, the anchor in ballooning. The landing was at Nashville, Ind., the next morning, after a 14-hour trip. Self-heating canned supplies were carried, Thermos bottles for coffee, and a tank of water. The highest altitude recorded was 13,000 feet, just before landing.

PITTSFIELD, May 24.—Pilot William Van Sleet took up in the "Massachusetts" Dr. S. S. Stowell, H. J. Greene and D. H. Cullen on a little trip of fifty miles, landing safe and sound at Palmer, Mass., after 2 hours 15 minutes.

WASHINGTON, May 26.—Howard W. Gill left about 3 p. m. on a lone trip in his 22,000 cu. ft. balloon, followed by friends in an automobile. The latter ran out of gasoline at a critical moment after running a hundred miles. All track of the balloon was lost through the inefficiency of the telephone service.

girl goes up in a balloon.

PITTSFIELD, May 26.—The balloon "Massachusetts," after r trip of 40 miles from here, where it ascended at 2.50 p. m. to-day, landed at 6.12 p. m. on the town line between Amherst and bunderland. The highest elevation reached was 6,500 feet. The balloon was piloted by Charles J. Glid-den, of Boston, who was accompanied by Franklin Playter, of Pittsfield, the latter's thirteen-year-old daughter Phyllis, and Fredk. S. Osgood. This makes 28 trips for Mr. Glidden.

a christening again.

SPRINGFIELD, May 27.—Piloted by A. Leo Stevens, E. M. Stadtler, proprietor of the Stadtler Hotel in Buffalo, Charles R. Culver and Harlan T. Pierpont, of Spring-held, made the initial trip in the new Stevens-built balloon "Springfield," purchased by the Springfield Aero Club, after it was duly christened by Mrs. Charles T. Shcan, wife of President Shean of the club and Vivien Culver. All during the inflation there was a steady rain, which got very severe after starting on the trip, so that after two hours and ten minutes it was deemed advisable to land at Mt. Greylock, near North Adams, a distance of 46 miles. When the balloon was packed for shipment it was found to weigh several hundred pounds more, on account of the rain, than it did when the balloon was first shipped.

PHILADELPHIA, May 29.—Dr. Geo. H. Simmerman, pilot, Dr. Thos. E. Eldridge, Thomas Rose and Geo. H. Benz, started from here in the "Phila. II," just delivered to the Philadelphia Aeronautical Recreation Society- by A. Leo Stevens, landing at Woodbine. N. J., after a 2v2 hour trip. Mr. Rose sprained his ankle in landing, and all were haled to .1 Jersey "jug" for tearing up a potato patch. Such is ballooning life! Distance, about 52 miles.

NORTH ADAMS, May 31-—Dr. R. M. Randall piloted the "North Adams No. 1," with Thos. Ramsdell and C. E. Martin as passengers to Conway, 24 miles. Twelve ascensions have been made from North Adams this year.

SPRINGFIELD, May 31.—A. Leo Stevens piloted Henry E. Marsh, S. S. Plunder-son, L. J. Powers and H. T. Pierpont in the "Springfield" in a 3 hour 11 minute trip to Hope, R. 1., close to the water of Narra-gansett Bay, a distance of 61 miles.

PITTSFIELD, June 3-—Piloted by Win. Van Sleet, William C. Bramhall and Henry Usley, the sporting editor of the Boston "Transcript," sailed away in the "Massachusetts" at 10.25 a- rn. m the rain, landing in the evening near Westfield.

INDIANAPOLIS, June 5.—Nine balloons start on two contests. See July issue.

PITTSFIELD. June 3.—William Van Sleet, P. W. Page. Miss Lois L. Davidson and W. E. Colbv in the "Massachusetts" to Southwick, Mass., after 3 hrs. Dist. ;!(5 m. The three passengers were representatives of as many newspapers.

PITTSFIELD. June 11.—William Van Sleet, A. J. Petroupoulis and Eugene Dessureau in the "Pittslield" to Colona, N. Y., 4 miles west of Troy. Dist. 32 m.

PHILADELPHIA. June 12.—Dr. Thos. E. Eldridge, A. T. Atherholt. F. B. Cargill, Miss Anna E. Winnicoft' and Miss E. Katzniiller in the "Phila. II" to Vincentown, N. J. Dist. 25 ni. Dur. 4 lirs.

PITTSFIELD, June 13.—William Van Sleet, W. C. Bramhall and Edgar L. Bobbins in the "Mass." to East Alstead, N. II. A previous temporary landing was made at Dummerston, Yt. Dist. OG m.

PITTSFIELD. June Itj.—William Van Sleet, W. 11. Gannett, Dr. S. S. Stowell and O. B. Hutchinson in the "Mass." to West Springfield. Dist. 40 m. Dur. 2:33.

FITCHBURG, June 17.—Chas. J. Glidden and .1. J. Van Valkenburgh to Burlington, Mass., in the "Boston." Dist. 47 m. Dur. 2 hrs., 10 m.

CANTON, June 17.— Dr. II. W. Thompson, Col. W. S. Buhl and John Oliver in the "Ohio" to Osnaburg, about 5 m.

MILWAUKEE, June 18.—Maj. II. B. llersey. Miss Jane Fairweather and John II. Moss, president of the Milwaukee club, in the "Pabst" to Kansasville, Wis., 30 m.: 2 hrs. 3 min.

RUTLAND, Vt.. June IS.—In an attempt to balloon to Canada, as was announced in the June issue, William Van Sleet piloted Prof. W. II. Pickering and Jay B. Benton in the "Massachusetts" to Laconia, N. II.. about 70 miles away, near Lake Winnipesaukee. This was the first attempt to cross the great mountain ranges of Vermont and New Hampshire. A heavy wind was blowing and the landing was made at this point to forestall the possibility of a descent in one of the big lakes in that district.

DAYTON, O.. June 18.—A. Leo Stevens, E. P.. Weston, Geo. W. Schroyer and Bedmond Cross in the "All America" to Cincinnati. 48 m.

ST. LOUIS. June 20.—John Berry and M. A. Heimann in the "Melba" to Wrights. 111.

NORTH ADAMS, June 21.—N. 11. Arnold. Wm. E. Coffin and T. It. Coffin in the "No. Adams I" to West Kichmond, N. II.

DAYTON, O.. June 21.—A. Leo Stevens. II. L. Ferneding, John Mclntire, R. L. Devoe and Carroll Sprigg in the "All America" to Findlay. ()., 80 m.

PITTSFIELD, June 21.—Piloted by Wm. Van Sleet in the "Pittsfleld." Mr. and Mrs. B. N. Burn-ham started at midnight on a balloon honeymoon trip, landing at 4 :30 A. M. in Ilolbrook, a dist. of 122 miles, and only 14 miles from Boston.

ST. LOUIS, June 22.—John Berry and M. A. Heimann in the "Melba" to Bock Hill, near Webster Groves. Dist. 10 in.

CANTON, June 25.—Dr. H. W. Thompson and Geo. F. and Earl Knight in the "Ohio" to Louisville., O., about 7 m.

ST. LOUIS, June 20.—II. E. Honeywell, L. S. Yon l'hul, M. Schwarz, Lee and Lewis M. Itum-sey in the "St. Louis III" to Carlinville ; -47 m ; dur. 7 hrs.

PITTSFIELD, June 20.—A. H. Forbes, C. B. Harmon, Miss Mabel Herbert Urner and two friends in the "Massachusetts" at midnight, landing at Pomfret, Conn., S:15 A. M. Dist. 75 miles.

F1TCHBUBG, June 20.—Chas. J. Glidden and W. B. Clark in the "Boston" to Burrillville, It. 1. Dist. 50 miles; dur. 2 hrs., 15 min.

DAYTON, June 20.—The "Hoosier," G. L. Bum-baugh pilot, carried Cyrus Mead, Dr. L. E. Custer and Irvin Kumlos on all-night trip to 0 miles south of Louisville, Ky. Dist. ±40 m.

Newspaper Published from Balloon.

DAYTON, June 29.—Capt. G. L. Bumbaugh, pilot ; P. M. Crume. G. A. McClennau, Frank C. Carley, Howard Burba, Lucern Custer and B. F. Wendler, in the "Hoosier" 80,000 cu. ft., made a trip to N. Vernon, Ind., about 140 miles. Besides these men, a printing press was carried along, and 18 bags of ballast, landing with two. A small edition of the Dayton "Journal" was edited, type set and printed during the flight. Then, too, a farmer'took a shot at the balloon.

PHILADELPHIA, July 3.— Dr. T. E. Eldridge. Dr. E. II. Simmermau, Fred E. Eldridge and Miss Margaret Tonrison on a moonlight ascent in the "l'hila. II" at S :O0 P. M.. to Dennisville. N. J., landing there 3 hours later in a swamp during a heavy wind. Dist. about 50 miles.

ST. CLOUD, France, July 4.—Piloted by M. Melandre, Mr. and Mrs. Cortlandt F. Bishop. D. W. Bishop, Mr. and Mrs. Llojd, G. Grisconi, James Heering and Luigi de Chatillon in the "St. Louis."

SPRINGFIELD, July 5.—Harlan T. Pierpont, Harry Jones, II. W. Waters and T. L. Avery in the "Springlield" to Westford. Ct. Dist. 25 m. ; dur, 1 :15.

New New England Record

NORTH. ADAMS. July 11.—William Van Sleet. E. Desserault. Frank Smith, Dr. W. B. Sullivan and Charles (Latslick to TppshlTm, Me. 182 miles.

- <; ; • t .j >

Five Routes Projected by an Aerial Navigation Company.

The German Aerial Navigation Company, of Frankfort-on-Main, has established the first permanent airship lines in Germany. It is the purpose of the company at the start to connect fully 30 cities. It has already received patents for its turn halls for motor balloons, and it will erect the first halls in Berlin, Munich and Strassburg in Alsace. The extensive plans of the company have aroused the liveliest interest on all sides, and their execution appears to be financially assured.

The first line of connection planned is Munich to Dresden by way of Nuremberg, Plauen and Chemnitz. The second line is from Munich to Cassel by way of Ulm, Stuttgart, Mannheim, Mayence, Coblenz, Cologne, Dusseldorf, Elberfeld and Paderborn. The third line is from Berlin to L-ubeck by way of Bremen and Hamburg The fourth line is from Berlin to Königsberg by way of Stettin and Danzig. The fifth line is from Strassburg to Berlin by way of Metz, Trier, Mayence, Frankfurt, Erfut, Leipzig, Halle and Madgeburg.

POST PRESS BULLETIN.

Official Figures National Race.

The official figures of the National balloon race at Indianapolis, June 5th, have been given out as follows:

Balloon "University City,'' 377-9 "i., dur., 25:35; "New York,'' 357 m., dur. 35:12; "St. Louis III," 328.5 m., dur. 26:12; "Indiana," disqualified fur making intermediate landing; "Iloosier," 233.5 111 ■, dur., 22:10: "Cleveland," 40 m., dur., 2 :50.

John Berry has been awarded the long distance cup of the Aero Club of /America and A. H. Forbes gets the Fisher cup for duration. Each pilot gets the Club's silver medal and the aides a bronze medal.

No official figures have been given out of the endurance handicap. This contest, in which unlicensed pilots contested, is disclaimed by the Aero Club of America, although the circulars issued before the race stated that it was held under A. C. A. auspices.

Ladies Balloon Fete in Philly.

Dr. Thomas E. Eldridge, president of the Philadelphia Aeronautical Recreation Society, is arranging a ladies' balloon contest for about August 14th at the grounds in Philadelphia. It will be a sort of "balloon fete," with ice cream and other refreshments served on the lawn to the non-contestants as a sort of consolation, though to what degree that part of the affair is a consolatory success will have to be imagined.

Arthur J. Robinson, of Sheridan, \Vyo.. is building a flying machine to be equipped with a 20 h. p. Curtiss motor. The machine should be reach- in another month.

Wright Brothers Celebration.

(Continued from page iS.)

during the evening's fireworks display-, the profiles of Wilbur and Orville Wright, wreathed with laurel, blazed out.

the balloon's compliment to the aeroplane.

Just as General Allen was presenting the medals to the Wrights, the balloon "All America," with Geo. W. Shroycr and E. B. Weston, two prominent citizens of Dayton, and Redmond Cross and Leo Stevens of New York, passed directly over the platform where sat the Wrights and the officials. The da}- was ideal and just before the start it appeared quite probable that the balloon might pass directly over the fair grounds where the exercises were taking place. And that is what actually happened.

Propeller Mathematics.

(Continued from, page j,7.)

with barometric and thermometric differences and the velocity with which the air is being handled by the propeller, but also with the speed of the machine, to which the propeller is attached, through the air, its greatest variation being most noticeable in propellers designed for sustentation only, due to the increase in its value caused by the inertia of the air on the intake side of the propeller, and again in the opposite condition, of full flight, decreasing its value. This is true only of propellers revolving at constant speed, different values obtaining again when propeller and motor are so designed as to permit of the rotating speed increasing as the machine containing them acquires velocity up to the full flight maximum.

Foreign Letter (Sweden).

(Continued from page 69.)

machine comprises one or two shuttle-shaped receptacles or pontoons made of balloon cloth with a jacket of aluminum or magnalium, and divided into several compartments. These receptacles are filled with air, which, when compressed, is heated in a ball-shaped, double-walled heater placed in the centre of the pontoon. An isolating substance is placed between the two metal walls of the heater, which is fed from a receptacle with liquid air, and the heating is effected by an apparatus of the Primus system. The warm air from the heater is led into the hull of the pontoon, which for safety's sake may be filled with a number of smaller balloons, the air within which is heated by the hot air let into the pontoon. When the air has attained to a temperature of 60 degrees Cent., the specific weight of the machine will be about the same as that of the atmosphere, and it can consequently just float. An ascent is made by further heating the air, and a descent by letting in cold air. Ascent and descent can also be effected by two vertical air turbines placed in drums right through the pontoons, one on each side of the heater, which turbines, when worked, will make the machine rise, and when reversed make it descend. The airship is propelled by means of one or two horizontal air propellers, placed either under the pontoon or. if there arc two pontoons, between them. The motor is a rotary benzine motor, on the turbine principle, and it works both the vertical and the horizontal air propellers. The motor is of a novel and ingenious construction, and has already stood its test and given full satisfaction; it is an essential part of the invention.

Those interested in the new invention claim for it sundry distinct advantages which render it superior to the usual type of airship.

Striving for Perfect Machine

(Continued from page 08)

but great caution is required as to where they alight. Those equipped with runners on the outer hand, can alight practically anywhere, but are unable to start again without a special starting apparatus. If, however, we should make a combination of the two systems, a large part of this trouble would be eliminated. The machine would start on its wheels, and when in the air, these would be drawn up out of the way, so that it could alight on the runners. Such a system would make cross country flights much more practical and safe than they are at present.

This machine which we have described we believe to excel all others in regard to stability and economy, easy starting and landing, and in convenience for housing. The first two points have been shown by experiments with a model and the latter seem almost self evident. This type of machine, therefore, apparently fufills the necessary conditions of the perfect flying machine better than any other so far constructed, and should consequently be of more practical value.

m The

WAGÑE.TOS

Master

Magneto !

and F. S. Ball Bearings

Used on Voisin Aeroplane, 8 cyl. Antoinette Motor, driven by Hubert Latham <i* A1"

J. S. BRETZ COMPANY

Sole Importers, Times Building, New York

high-class machine work

FOR AERONAUTICAL PURPOSES

We Accomplish Results where Others Fail

Pedersen Lubricators have proven to be the most reliable

pedersen manufacturing company

(ESTABLISHED 1884. INCORPORATED 1906)

636-644- FIRST AVENUE NEW YORK

when YouyisiT MORRIS PARK

don't forgel to visit the aeronauts' retreat

Morris Park Cafe 866 Morris Park Ave.,

and Summer Garden _ near Moms Park

Special lunch served at moderate prices. Private rooms for parties with ladies. All bottled goods sold as represented. Telephone, 239 Westchester. John J. Dragnett, Prop.

SUCCESSFUL AVIATORS and THEIR INVENTIONS

Keyed blueprints and complete details of twelve of the world's most successful heavier-than-air flying machines, something of their inventors and some of their trial flights.

Besides embodying the ideas and actual experiences of the world's most successful aviators, these descriptions fully explain the principles upon which these machines fly.

IT IS PRACTICALLY A SCHOOL WITHIN ITSELF AND THE MOST THOROUGH, INTERESTING AND COMPREHENSIVE WORK EVER COMPILED ON

miS SUBJECT. :: :: :: :: ::

Price $5.00

norman land

327 Whitehall Street, Atlanta, Ga.

adams-far well

THE WORLD'S LIGHTEST AND SIMPLEST

motor

Self cooled by its own revolution

GET OUR CATALOGUE No. 14 A

THE ADAMS COMPANY

DUBUQUE, IOWA, U.S.A.

F. O. ANDREAE

REGISTERED

SOLICITOR OF PATENTS

Aeronautic Inventions a specialty at home and abroad

Central Valley, N. Y.

3219

Wf)e aeronautic ê>ocietp

MORRIS PARK, WESTCHESTER, N. Y.

Join Now at the Opening of the Season.

MEMBERSHIP AFFORDS STERLING BENEFITS.

W ORKSHOPS—Where members may construct their machines without charge for space or facilities.

MOTORS — With which members may make their initial trials at the cost only of gasoline and care.

SHEDS — In which members may house their machines, rent free.

GROUNDS—Where members may try out their machines, learn the art of flying, and make flights.

EXHIBITIONS—To which all members are admitted free, and in which they have splendid opportunities to make their inventions known either in model or full scale.

Weekly Meetings— Held at the

club house of the Automobile Club of America, at which valuable discussions take place, and every assistance and encouragement given.

LECTURES — Well known scientists tell things worth knowing.

LIBRARY — Including a complete file of all aeronautical patents.

Experiment Fund — A fund is

forming for the work of investigation and experiment.

CATAPULT — Apparatus provided for starting aeroplanes that are wheel-less or for gliders.

Gliding Mound—For the practice

and exercise of gliding.

Twenty-one Members of the Society ai~e now b nil din g Machines.

NO INITIATION FEE.

DUES -$10 A YEAR.

WRITE SECRETARY FOR BOOKLET.

FORM OF APPLICATION FOR MEMBERSHIP.

To the SECRETARY, The AERONAUTIC SOCIETY,

Morris Park, Westchester, N. Y.

I desire to become a member of the Aeronautic Society. If elected I agree to pay the membership fee of $10 per year, and to abide by the Rules of the Sociely.

Name..................................................

Profession or Occupation............................

Dale..................1909. Address ...............................

airship Motors

As used by Beachey, Strobel and others

CELEBRATED INDIAN HEDSTROM MOTORS

AND PARTS

Cheap—Light Weight — Simple—Reliable [Send for Data, Prices, etc.

EXPERIMENTAL MACHINE WORK A SPECIALTY

F. B. WIDMAYER. CO.

2312 Broadway New York

New York 3 Chocolates

Health Food Chocolate

Most Suitable for Aeronauts or those requiring ;i Non-Hulky Su-taining Food Office, 150-154 CHAMBERS STREET, NEW YORK

RARE BOOKS.

Under this heading we publish each month a list of such rare and out-of-print books as can be secured. The demand at the present time for rare aeronautical works is great, and it is usually not possible to obtain more than one copy at a time of any | one work.

TRAVELS _ IN SPACE (Valentine & Tomlinson), introduction by Sir Hiram Maxim; many illusts. 8vo., cloth, London,

1902............................... $4.00

ASTRA CASTRA (Hatton Turner), many illusts., royal 4tp., boards with leather back, uncut, London, 1865... $10.00 TRAVELS IN THE AIR (James Glaish-er, Flammarion, Tissandier, etc.), 125 illusts., royal 8vo., cloth, London, 1871 $6.00 AERIAL WORLD (G. Hartwig), 8 plates, map, many woodcuts, 8vo., cloth,

N. Y., 1875...............:......... $4-00

Same, new ed., same illusts., London,

1892 ............................... $4-50

DOMINION OF THE AIR (Rev. J. M.

Bacon), 24 plates, 8vo., cloth, London,

1904 ............................... $2.00

DONALDSON & GRIMWOOD, A True Account of Their Last Balloon Voyage and Tragic Death in Lake Michigan, thin, 121110., wrappers, illust., Philadelphia, 1875 (very

scarce) ............................ $3.00

THIRTY YEARS IN THE CLOUDS, with Observations on Thunder and Lightning, Formation of Rain, Hail, Snow, etc. (John Wise), 8vo., pamphlet, 1870.....$5.00 |

Aerial Development Company

<J This company is organized for the purpose of exploiting all business connected with aerial transportation, including the patenting of new devices, the purchase and sale of patents and patented apparatus, the establishment of laboratories for original research, the building of manufacturing plants for the construction of all types of flying machines and motors, the promotion of exhibitions, races, prize competitions. <I Models and experimental work of all kinds to order.

<[][ Materials and appliances used in aerial transportation offered for sale.

^ Estimates furnished for the construction and trial tests of all classes of aeronautical work. <I Write for prospectus.

45 West 34th Street, New York. KIMBALL AEROPLANE, $6000 UP,

WITH GUARANTEE OF PERFORMANCE

BOOKS

FOR SALE BY

AERONAUTICS

1777 BROADWAY, NEW YORK

BOOKS

A ERIAIv WARFARE;, by R. P. Hearne, with an introduction by Sir Hiram Maxim. First systematic popular account of progress made by the countries of the world in aeronautics. 57 views of airships and aeroplanes : Wright, Farinan, Delagrange, Bleriot, Ferber, Zeppelin, Patrie, Republique, &c. Profusely illustrated. $2.66 postpaid.

PROBLEM OF FLIGHT, by Herbert Chatley.

Especially written for engineers. Outline of contents : Problem of Flight, Essential Principles, the Helix, the Aeroplane, Aviplanes, Dirigible Balloons, Form and Fittings of the Airship. Appendix furnishes much instructive information. 61 illustrations. Price, $3 50.

y^STRA CASTRA, by Hatton Turnor.

This rarest aeronautical work in existence can be supplied to a few first inquiries at $15-All in perfect condition.

BALLOONING AS A SPORT, by Major B. Baden Powell. A handbook of ballooning and guide for the amateur. Full instructions for the equipment and management of a balloon. Illustrated.

Price $1.10.

]V/f OEDEBECK'S HANDBOOK, by Major x H. W. L. Moedebeck and O. Chanute The only handbook of aeronautics in English. All phases of aerial travel fully covered. Invaluable for the beginner aud a ready reference for the aeronautical engineer. Data on screws, pressure, ballooning, physics, etc. Illustrated. $3.25.

VyAR IN THE AIR, by H. G. Wells. The greatest fiction story in recent years. Unfolds a breathless story of aerial battle and adventure, a triumph of scientific imagination, possibly not beyond the realm of actuality. Illustrated. $1.50.

AERONAUTICAL ANNUAL, by James Means. For years IS95, 1S96 and 1S97.

Extremely rare.

Illustrated. $1.50 each.

M AVIGATING THE AIR, by members of the Aero Club of America. Interesting record of ideas and experiences of 24 distinguished men. Contributors: Wright Bros., Chanute, Pickering, Rotch, Zahin, Stevens, Herring and others. 300 Pages, 32 Illustrations- $1.25.

My Airships (Santos Dumont). Illustrated. Crown Svo., cloth.................. 1.40

Resistance of Air and the Question of Flying (Arnold Samuelson). Illustrated.

12mo., 42 pp., paper........................................................80

Flight Velocity (Arnold Samuelson). Illustrated. 45 pp., 12mo., paper.............80

Flying Machines, Past, Present and Future (A. W. Marshall and H. Greenly). Illustrated ................................................................. 60

Paradoxes of Nature and Science (W. Hampson). Illustrated. Two chapters on balloons as airships and bird flight. Svo., cloth, N. Y., 1907................... 1 50

Airships Past and Present, by Captain A. Hildebrandt; translated by W. H. Story.

Large Svo., cloth, profusely ill. Latest book on motor aerostation.......... 3.50

Aerial Flight: Aerodynamics (F. W. Lauchester). Large Svo., cloth, illustrated,

442 pp. Most complete work on the suhjeet; just out...................... 6.00

How to Make a Glider Artificial and Natural Flight

ILLUSTRATED

By SIR HIRAM MAXIM. With 95 lllus.

Cloth, illus., S vo., $1.75 net

A concise history and description of the development of rlying machines. Description of his own experimental work. Explaining the machinery and methods which enable him to arrive at certain conclusions. Fully describes the work of other successful inventors. Chapter on dirigible balloons.

AERONAUTICS 1777 Broadway, New York "AERONAUTICS." 1777 Broadway, NEW YORK

8-page illustrated pamphlet giving full details for the construction of a bi-surfaee glider, with diagrams and exact measurements. Every experimentor should have this valuable treatise. Price, 12 Cents (Post Free).

FOR SALE—Two complete captive balloon outfits, consisting of gas bag, net, valve, and car for 4 persons, controlled by motor windlass with clutch and brake, besides patent portable hydrogen gas works for inflation.

_ ALSO—One-man gas balloon ; one-man airship, 7 h. p. motor and gas works. Write for prices, inclosing stamp.

ß

RESIDENT TAFT has officially recognized the science of aeronautics. The

SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN

recognized it fifty years ago, and has ever been its advocate and ally, and ?. faithful recorder of the latest aeronautic developments

Aeronautic Patents

Having devoted especial attention to aeronautic patents, we ate exceptionally well equipped to advise and assist inventors. •I Valuable information sent free on request.

WRIGHT FLYING

 

^tfENTiFir American

 
     
 

x # *

 
     

~-

You must read the Scientific American, to keep posted.

$3 00 PER YEAR. SINGLE COPIES, 10c.

MUNN & CO.,

365 BROADWAY, NEW YORK.

Bokor Aeronautic Motors

50^60 H. P. - 26^38 H. P. I

THE HORSE POWER ABSOLUTELY GUARANTEED 2.

Aeronautic Supplies of all Description £

DESIGNING AND CONSTRUCTION WORK — 2 ACRES FOR HOUSING MACHINES ~

600 ACRES EXPERIMENTAL GROUNDS r

J. P. FlTZPATRICK, Sales Manager

x I MOTOR MART, 1876 BROADWAY, Corner 62nd Street, NEW YORK £

£ PHONE, 5039 Columbus Z

J.

more honors for

ST. LOUIS AND HONEYWELL

RECORDS PROVE IT

"University City" ("Yankee") "St. Louis No. 3"

Championship of America Third Place

HONEYWELL, Builder HONEYWELL, Builder

In first national balloon race of The Aero Club of America, Indianapolis, June 5 th.

The longest voyage by a licensed pilot in the United States, in 1908, was made with the 2200 cubic meter "Yankee"—461 miles with two stops —a remarkable performance; 800 pounds ballast aboard when landing.

HONEYWELL

BUILDER

^ The greatest balloon trip of 1908— 850 miles in competition — made by the 2000 cubic meter balloon, "Fielding-San Antonio." Four American and two Foreign makes defeated by wide margin.

HONEYWELL

BUILDER and PILOT

This picture from basket was made 3000 ft. altitude show-in g French staggard block system perfectly constructed, as all our balloons are made, giving safety and strength.

aerostats, airships and instruments

IN STOCK AND MADE TO ORDER

§ HONEYWELL CONSTRUCTION utilizes the latest and best materials —varnished or rubberized envelope with French-type valve, and Italian hemp or linen nettings. Cars equipped for comfort and convenience — light and durable. .........

FRENCH—AMERICAN BALLOON CO.

H. E. HONEYWELL, Director

3958 Cottage Avenue, St. Louis, U. S. A.

WATCHING BLERIOT Kdu-in Levick Photo

THE AERO WORLßJN REVIEW svsW'H^!

AERONAUT LEO STEVENS

Leading

BALLOON AND AIRSHIP CONSTRUCTOR

of the world

Representing the

CONTINENTAL RUBBER COMPANY

of HANOVER, GERMANY

Makers of the Finest and Strongest Balloon Cloth Ever Produced

Constructor of the United States Government Balloon No. 10 in which Captain Charles De Forrest Chandler, U.S.A., and Mr. J. C. McCoy, won the Lahm Cup for Distance

MR. ALBERT C. TRIACA, Sole American and Canadian Agent

American Representative for

Carton &, Lachambre

Balloon and Airship Makers of Paris, France

Address '.

Aeronaut Leo Stevens

Box 181 Madison Square NEW YORK

In answering advertisements please mention this magazine.

What Kind of a MOTOR Do You Want?

Let us answer

1st, A reliable motor 2nd, A powerful motor 3rd, An enduring motor

CURTISS MOTORS

Curtiss 8 cyl. Motor used in "Silver Dart"

THE KIND YOU DO NOT WANT

HAVE THESE QUALITIES

1st, A motor of "freak" construction. 2nd, A motor of extremely light construction. v 3rd, A motor of unproven merit. CURTISS MOTORS ARE NOT IN THESE CLASSES. Built in All Sizes. New Models of Highest Type and Greatest Efficiency. Send for Catalogue N. CURTISS MOTORS HAVE MADE GOOD

HERRING - CURTISS CO.,

ERONAUTIC

-Edited by-

Major B. Baden-Pawell and John H. Ledebaer

S

The first and leading paper in Great Britain devoted to Aviation, Aerostation, Meteorology, Aerology, Etc.

THE ONLY RELIABLE TECHNICAL JOURNAL

ISSUED MONTHLY

A special feature is a complete illustrated list of all Aeronautical Patents published every month

SUBSCKm-lOX^^ 27, Chancery Lane, London. W.C., England

The Aeronautical Journal

(The organ of the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain)

edited for the council by

Col. J. D. Fullerton, R. E. (ret.) , F. R. G. S., F. Z. S.

An illustrated Quarterly devoted to the Science of Dynamic Flight in all its branches. Annual Subscription : Publishing Office:

Six Shillings and Sixpence. 27 Chancery Lane, London,

Post Free England

INTERESTING AND USEFUL

The Aeronautical World

Illustrated Monthly—Published 1902-3 by W. E.Irish

Contains Important Information for

Experimenters in Mechanical Flight

12 Nos. Vol. I . $1.50 postpaid

Hammondsport, New York

Steinheil Lenses

ESTABLISHED

1855

and have been modern ever since

Orthosligmat F. 6. 8.

A UNIVERSAL ANASTIGMAT LENS.

Instantaneous Work Portraits Groups

Focal Plane Photography

A truly wonderful lens, having great covering power, even illumination and splendid definition. Have your dealer get one on 10 days trial FREE.

Our new catalogue, giving valuable lens information, sent on application.

Herbert <Sc Huesgen,

Sole U. S. Agents, ?1I Madison Avenue, New York City

R. I. V. RADIAL BALL BEARINGS

Used by Leading Aviators.

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Send for Catalogue 19.

AH Sizes Hoffmann Steel Balls on Hand.

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INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS

Founded 1908, by ALBERT C. TRIACA

Aeronautic Pilot of Aero Clubs of America, France and Italy.

Aerostats. Dirigibles and Aviation Courses. Home study and Resident. Model Hall, Shop, Construction Sheds and Grounds at Morris Park Aerodrome. Write for Catalog.

Garden City, Long Island, New York.

"WOODMANSTEN

= INN =

(Next to Morris Park Race Track)

The Leading Road House

THE BEST TO EAT — THE BEST TO DRINK

WESTCHESTER, N. Y.

GUS BE1SWENGER, Prop.

C. and A.

WITTEMANN

DESIGNERS-CONSTRUCTORS-DEVELOPERS OF

AEROPLANES, GLIDING MACHINES, MODELS, SEPARATE PARTS

PRACTICAL LESSONS IN GLIDING

Experiments Conducted. Large grounds for testing.

GLIDERS IN STOCK Works: 17 Ocean Terrace and Little Clove Road. Telephone. 390-L West Brighton. STATEN ISLAND, NEW YORK.

G. L. BUMBALGII

1029 N. Illinois St., INDIANAPOLIS, IND.

DESIGNER - CON TRACTOR. - OPERATOR CONSTRUCTOR. AIR SIIIPS AND HALLOONS

Builder of the CHICAGO—largest balloon in the world; the INDIANA, which remained in the air L4 hours and 2.5 min., the ENDURANCE RECORD for the U. S.; and the INDIANAPOLIS, which won the Handicap Race.

No connection with any other concern.

AEROPLANE RADIATORS

A SPECIALTY Livingston Radiator Co., 6 e. 3ist St., New York c;ty.

CAPTAIN THOMAS S. BALDWIN

NEW YORK'S LEADING MANUFACTURER

BALLOON

AND AIRSHIP

PILOT AND

MANUFACTURER

BALDWIN'S VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL

Used in the U. S. Gov. Dirigible and Spherical Balloons

will last from five to six times as long as a varnished balloon. The weight is always the same, as it does not require further treatment. Heat and cold have no effect on it, and ascensions can be made as well at zero weather as in the summer time. The chemical action of oxygen has not the same detrimental effect on it as it has on a varnished material. Silk double walled VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL, has ten times the strength of varnished material. A man can take care of his PROOF balloon, as it requires little or no care, and is NOT subject to spontaneous combustion. Breaking strain 100 lbs. per inch width. Very elastic. Any weight, width, or color. Will not crack. Waterproof. No talcum powder. No revarnishing. The coming balloon material, and which through its superior qualities, and being an absolute gas holder is bound to take the place of varnished material. The man that wants to have the up-to-date balloon, must use VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL. Specified by the U. S. SIGNAL CORPS.

AEROPLANE MATERIAL A SPECIALTY

^khk Prices and samples on application ^fc^

effl^T Box78Madiso„oSquareP.O.

THE WRIGHT BROTHERS

They take a tumble now and then,

These brothers brave and bold, When something in the rudder breaks.

Or wires refuse to hold. But after every swift descent

They're always game and say— "O, that was just because we much

Preferred to land that way.

If they should lose their legs and arms,

These aviators true, Would still continue their attempts

To navigate the blue. They love to soar aloft and match

The swallow in the flight. Their names are Wright because, you see,

They're nearly always right.

AERONAUTICS

MAIN OFFICE 1777 BROADWAY NEW YORK

Published by AERONAUTICS PRESS, Inc.

A. V. Jones, president E. L. Jones, treas.-sec.

E. PERCY NOEL 304 NO. 4TH STREET ST. LOUIS

CLEVE T. SHAFFER

302 holyoke ST. san francisco. calif.

Entered as second-class matter September 22, 1908, at the Posloffice, New York, N. Y., under the Act of

March 3, 1879.

Vol. 5

Septkmuer 1909

No. 3

Aeronautics is issued on the 20th of each month. It furnishes the latest and most authoritative information on all matters relating to Aeronautics.

SUBSCRIPTION RATES.

One year, $3.00; payable always in advance.

Subscriptions may be sent by express, draft, money order, check or registered letter. Make all remittances free of exchange, payable to Aeronautics. Currency forwarded in unregistered letters will be at sender's risk.

Foreign Subscriptions.—To countries within the postal union, postage prepaid, $3.50 per annum in advance. Make foreign money orders payable to Aeronautics. No foreign postage stamps accepted.

Important.—Foreign money orders received in the United States do not bear the name of the sender. Foreign subscribers should be careful to send letters of advice at same time remittance is sent to insure oroper credit.

CONTENTS—LEADING ARTICLES

HIGH EXPLOSIVES IN AERIAL WARFARE AS A SOURCE OF

ENERGY ....................... P

iipdson maxim

THE FUTURE OF AERONAUTICS

I.T. COL. WILLIAM GLASS FORI)

THE CURTISS AEROPLANE......

HAROLD II. BROWN

TALKS WITH INVENTORS, II.... F. O. ANDREAE

MOONLIGHT and SUMMER SKIES MARGL'ERETTA king TOl'RISON

AIRSHIP PROPELLER PROBLEMS

PROF. CALVIN M. WOODWARD

DOINGS ON THE COAST.........

CLEVE T. SHAFFER

CONSTRUCTION DATA IV........

W RIGHTS' ITY ....

AUTOMATIC STABIL

FRANKFORT AERO EXPOSITION

A NEW WORLD'S AERO CENTER

CLUB NEWS......................

CURRENT NEWS, PATENT LIST,

ETC.............................

HI, H7-HS, 101-101-, 110-120.

S2

si-

!).)

1(17

»0

io<; io.> 10s

H2-

WANTED—MORE ACTIVITY

The lack of active work 011 the part of Aero Clubs, the need for prize money to encourage invention and construction, etc., has brought forth the following interesting statement in a letter to Aeronautics.

" * * * is president of the * * * aero club. His letter repeats the same old story, and reveals the same condition of things that your good paper has been trying to impress upon the apathetic wealthy ones of your country. Perhaps continual dropping may wear away the stony hearted. Anyway, keep the fight going—the cause is worth it."

Xow that public interest is growing, it is certainly time that the clubs desirous of making progress should bend their efforts to en couragiug more and more work for the accomplishment of everyday flying.

NOTICE

Owing to lack of space we are forced to omit in this issue the following articles : SELLERS STEP A E R () FLA X E, ASCENSIONS, ANTHONY WIRELESS DIRIGIBLE and PERFECTING THE HELICOPTER, by Paul Corn 11. These will be printed next issue.

HIGH EXPLOSIVES IN AERIAL WARFARE AS A SOURCE OF ENERGY

By Hudson Maxim.

BEFORE we talk about employing high explosives in aerial warfare, and discuss the best and most practical ways and means of killing people and destroy ing property with them, we want to answer the question whether or not it is desirable to do this thing.

There are three very popular errors regarding modern improvements in war materials, implements and enginery, and these errors are: First, that they render warfare more murderous than it used to be; second, that their production has a brutalizing and uncivilizing influence, and, third, that human nature has changed so much lately that a meek and lowly spirit can replace gunpowder.

Every invention has been forged out of necessity, and there has been no incentive, and there can be no incentive, to invention so strong as the ever-present menace of enemies against property, life and home. The pursuit of happiness and high ideals has never been prosecuted gently and lovingly, but brusquely and strenuously, in boots and spurs.

Standing, as we do, upon the 'very threshold of aerial navigation, we naturally lean a-tiptoe and peer into the future with a questioning surmise. Will the flying machine soon become a serviceable actuality, and will it ever become broadly utilitarian, or is it likely to prove a

" * * * perfidious bark, Built in the eclipse, and rigg'd with curses dark,"

whereon hope alone takes flight, or death rides arm-locked with the helmsman?

If there prove a profitable demand for flying machines, we shall unquestionably see achievement run on so fast that the sight of flying machines threading their way across the sky will soon be commonplace.

The naval and military engineer and the strategist look with wide-awake concern upon the advent of the flying machine.

While the French multitude stare wonder-eyed at the exploits of the Wright brothers, and jar the firmament with their loud bravos, the British military over the channel shudder at the French trumpetings and tremble for their sea-walled Jericho. There is in England a heart-quaking realization that the Flying Dutchman may soon become a reality. Hypersensitive British conservatism may indefinitely prevent the construction of the Calais-Dover tunnel; but

the Frenchmen cannot be prevented from tunneling the air.

Unquestionably the demand for flying machines as scouting craft in naval and military operations, and for the transportation of raiders to rip up railroads, destroy bridges, cut communications, blow up magazines and le\y ransom upon communities and moneyed institutions, is bound to give the industry a very strong support; while the exacting requirements of government specifications will materially serve to develop and perfect aerial craft on safe, conservative and practical lines.

The element of danger in aerial navigation will be no deterrent to the sportsman. On the contrary, it will be an attraction. The element of danger is half the charm to the true sportsman. Men live bigger, broader, better, healthier lives who let the old war spirit still live in strenuous, daring, manly sportsmanship.

The opening up of the sky for practical business travel will come later; but it is bound to come. Then the remote will be made near; and scorning the ground, men will take wing from business to their homes as the birds go. The flying machine industry, by contributing to land values, will grow rapidly under the impulse of reciprocal contribution. There will be on the great skyway no bad roads problem, no laws against scorching and no obnoxious constabulary harassment.

Flying machines will never be able to work wide destruction by dropping explosives from the air. Even large quantities of high explosives dropped from an aerial fleet upon battleships, coast fortifications and in the streets of large cities would not be widely destructive. ,

There is a widespread popular error about the force and destructiveness of dynamite. An anarchist once tried to blow up London Bridge with a mere handful of dynamite; and another exploded a few handfuls of dynamite in the British House of Parliament, expecting to see that mighty structure brought down in utter ruin and all Britain shaken with terror; but he succeeded in spoiling merely a few flagstones in the hall, breaking a few windows and getting himself in a bad mess.

In order to do much damage, dynamite requires confining. Large high-explosive bombs dropped into the smokestacks of war vessels or close beside them in the water might do some wicked work.

The great field for operations with high explosives carried in airships will be in the raiders' outfit. The coming aerial fleet need not bother about coast fortifications or battleships. They cannot in the least bar the way to aerial invasion, and in war it is never policy to waste effort or ammunition on what does not stand in the way of entering the territory of an enemy.

Owing to the enormous energy pent up in high explosives, they have often been looked to as a promising source of energy for driving motors and engines of different sorts; but there are insurmountable difficulties in the way of their practical employment in explosion engines, owing to the difficulty of feeding them to the engine cylinder and exploding them there, without blowing up the supply reservoir as well.

But these are not the only difficulties and objections. The expense, in any event, would be absolutely prohibitive.

1 was once asked as an expert to give an opinion on the practicability of driving an automobile with an engne actuated by fulminate of mercury, exploded in suitable quantities upon the paddles of a sort of Pelton wheel. I pronounced against the system for the following reasons: Fulminate of mercury costs several dollars a pound. It is one of the most sensitive and most dangerous of all explosives. Although very powerful as a shattering agent, it is very local in its action. It has but little expansive or propulsive force, for the reason that the volume of its products of combustion are very small.

1 showed the prospective investor that even though the impossible engine could be made to work, it would cost about $10,000 to drive an automobile with it from the Batter}- to Central Park.

There is one way, however, that an explosive material may be practically employed as a source of energy for actuating a motor.

I have made a material, containing 70 parts by weight of nitroglycerin to 30 parts of guncotton. the guncotton being dissolved and combined with the nitroglycerin, forming a dense, rubbery material. This male-rial I called motorite. The motorite is made in bars, a little over 5 ft. long and about 7 in. in diameter, and they weigh somewhat over 100 pounds.

The rate of combustion of the motorite is perfectly regular under a given pressure, being about a foot per minute under 300 pounds, and each pound of motorite will evaporate somewhat more than two pounds of water, thereby yielding more than three pounds of mixed steam and products of combustion as a motive fluid for driving turbines, for each pound of motorite burned. Starting with the apparatus cold and the water cold, it takes somewhat less than one-tenth of a second to get up steam with the safety valve or escape nozzle blowing off full blast.

The cost of driving an engine with motorite is about $2 per horse-power hour—rather expensive to be sure—and as the energy developed by motorite in a Whitehead torpedo would be about 400 horse power, it would cost at the rate of about $800 an hour to run the torpedo; but as the torpedo is required to run but a few minutes, the aetual expense per run is immaterial, costing about a quarter as much as it does to fire a 10-in. gun.

An enthusiastic newspaper reporter who once interviewed me on the subject of my system of driving torpedoes with motorite, after he had returned to his sanctum, concluded, 011 his own hook, that motorite would be an excellent thing for driving-transatlantic liners, and he made me say so in. the newspaper next da}-. As a matter of fact, it would cost about $80,000,000 to drive the Lusitania across the ocean once with motorite at twice her present speed, which the newspaper reporter made me proclaim easy; and it would require four more Lusi-tanias to carry the fuel.

THE AERIAL

In ait article in "McChire's" for August under the above title, tlic authors. Carl Dienst-bacli and T. R. Macmechcn, make some statements "which are apparently cxtraz'agant. IVe naturally sought the highest expert opinion on tin- subject discussed. Mr. IU'DSOX MAXIM has kindly consented to correct si me of the fantastic ideas expressed.

August 1, 1909. To the Editor of Aeronautics, '777 Broadway,

New York City. Sir: In response to your request. 1 give it as my opinion that a more intimate acquaintance with gunnery and the use of high explosives would have enabled the writers of the article, entitled "The Aerial

BATTLESHIP

"ll'ar becomes wholesale murder." is the heading of one paragraph, zvhich goes on to s.ty that the machine gun can—well, any one hnozi's zehat a machine gun, oh. what's the use—get "McC lure's" for August. [Adz'g. M'g'r. McClure's: Please get our rates for read'ng notices.]

Battleship," in McClure's of August, 1909, to have avoided making some very wrong conclusions.

No doubt the writers intend to be serious and do not wish to sacrifice truth in order to appeal to the imagination. The writers have themselves been ensnared by the fanciful common opinion of the multitude that the advent of the Hying machine means the

annihilation of armies and the end of wars. Witness the following statement in the first paragraph of the said article:

"In secret trials by the German Government during March, a rapid-firing gun, capable of throwing nearly 60 1.9-inch shells a minute, was fired with entire success from the deck of the Zeppelin I. This menus the end of armies within the next 10 years."

Could anything be more absurd?

Such gunfire will in future doubtless become very efficient when a Zeppelin attacks a Zeppelin, but to assume that a Zeppelin by such gunfire could end all armies in the future is the acme of absurdity. Let us assume that an airship of the size and vulnerability of the Zeppelin should approach near enough to a body of troops to make its gunfire effective. What would the troops be doing? Would they lay down their arms, disband and go home, or surrender unconditionally? Or would they shoot back? Looking from the height of a New York skyscraper, one may form something of an idea of the appearance of a bod)' of troops as viewed from an airship. The soldiers would stand practically head-on to the line of fire and would thereby present a very much smaller target than they would standing side-on, as they do in the ordinary line of battle. It would conse-

quently take very man)' more projectiles to hit an erpial number of men. But there is a 'till more important consideration than this: Whereas in the ordinary firing line a projectile will not only hit one soldier, but will often pass through several men, a very important desideratum of gunfire is that the trajectory shall be as flat as possible and thereby widen the danger zone as much as possible.

In order to bring troops within effective range, an airship must itself necessarily come within range of the troops, and as the troops will be able to provide themselves with much more powerful guns and more destructive projectiles than the airship would be able to carry, it is impossible that the airship could ever become an effective weapon against soldiers in the field. The main function of the airship will, as I have already pointed out in several newspaper and magazine articles, and in several speeches, be confined to scouting and surveying purposes, in conveying bodies of raiders with a raiders' outfit to be landed in an enemy's country to destroy bridges, rip up railroads, burn magazines and storehouses and levy ransom on moneyed institutions and communities. But the fighting, as in the past, will be done mainly 011 land instead of between the sky and land.

THE FUTURE OF AERONAUTICS

By Lieut.-Col. W. A. Glassford.

IX regard to the future of aeronautics, it that airships and flying machines are may be well to keep in view the fact vastly more suited for use as instruments of rcconnoissance in war and for sporting purposes than for any other that we can intelligently conce-U^e_of_at present. To compare the navigation of the air to that of water, one should bear in mind that water is about a thousand times heavier than air, and that, whatever may be the future development of aerial crafts, their tonnage, or their carrying capacity, under otherwise equal conditions, could not come within a thousandth part of that carried by ships on the sea.

As to their uses for war purposes, it may be remarked that war is carried on at present by means of materials which have much weight. High explosives are things of weight, and their efficiency as instruments of destruction depend very much upon the manner in which they are placed. In war, this material is reckoned by the thousands of tons, and the traces of its effects when used for this purpose usually leave but very little effect upon the landscape. The dropping of a bomb now and then from a balloon might cause a little fright among the

inhabitants for a time, especially if they had not yet had the experience of such a bombardment, but the more frequent such necessarily very isolated bombardments take place, the less surprise they will create, until finally their effect upon the popular nerve would not be equal to that of an ordinary thunder-storm.

For sporting purposes, a wide field is opening for aeronautics. Although the future development of aerial crafts will no doubt be much encouraged by governments on account of their possible use for recon-noitering purposes in war, it is to sport that we must look for the greatest support which will be needed in the necessary experiments for the development of aerial navigation.

In times of popular enthusiasm, where so much is written for the purpose of entertaining the public, in the manner in which the unsophisticated public wishes to be entertained, there are so many false notions mixed with quoted scientific truths that have no bearing on the matter, together with the amount of poetry usual on such occasions, that a literature is fast being created which is capable of bewildering not only the masses, but even sometimes people who reason.

AT 8 o'clock on the evening of July 3 the balloon "Philadelphia II," recently purchased by the Philadelphia Aeronautical Recreation Society from A. Leo Stevens, cast loose from the U. G. I. athletic grounds at Point Breeze.

It was a perfect night. In the West, great rolls of rose-purple clouds hung over the Schuylkill River, and hundreds of people chatted together on the green lawn and on the p6rches of the trig little clubhouse.

The balloon rose quickly, carrying its passengers, Dr. George H. Simmerman, Dr. Thohias E. Eldridge, Mr. Fred Eldridge and Miss Margueretta King Tourison.

A good breeze bore the balloon swiftly over the Delaware River, and from the basket the passengers looked out upon the city of Philadelphia, fast disappearing to nowhere. It looked like a great cloud of black velvet, upon which were countless diamonds, set in orderly row.

The tanks at the Point Breeze oil works looked like fat red mushrooms; the battleships lying at League Island like models. Although our eyes failed to see a sign of men, up from the apparently empty decks came the voices of marines, cheering us on.

Then we passed "over on the Jersey side," and the darkening twilight gathered quickly about us. The moon, first blood-red, then gold, finally turned to silver, and in its white glow we saw distinctly the neat Jersey farms mapped out beneath us.

It grew cold, as we reached an altitude of nearly 5,000 ft., but not uncomfortably so. All noise, and dust, and care seemed left below on earth, and we Moated, lik< disembodied spirits, up there in the very heart of the lovely night.

We passed over Pittman, Clayton, F"rank-linville, Malaga, Vineland, Millville, Manu-muskin, and at nearly ever}' place were greeted by shouts of "Good luck!" from the people down among the green and the little lights, thousands of feet below. The voices which came up were most tin}', and Dr. Simmerman, who was familiar with the geography of the place, was the quickest to catch the names.

About 10:15 p. in. a streak of light, before us, yet somewhat to our left, which we had long been wondering about, resolved itself distinctly into moonlight on shimmering waves. Directly beneath us a large farm was sliding by. Beyond that lay a thick black woods.

"Where are we?" called the pilot through his megaphone.

"One mile from the ocean! Better come down!" a voice came back.

So, much against our wishes, the valve rope was pulled and the earth plunged up to meet us.

We stood on the edge of the car, holding on to the hoop above us, and although in our trackless descent we crashed into the top of that forest and went skidding some distance across the meadow, we were none the worse for the speedy scoop earthward.

All being well that ends well, we looked about to see what manner of ending this mig1 t be. The forest lay behind us; before us, a few hundred feet, the masts of small sail boats rose against the night sky; and all about us, between tufts of grass, the moon glowed in the pools of odorous water.

However, nobody seemed to feel the least bit peevish about it, and while Dr. Eldridge put away the instruments, his brother started out to explore.

Thinking we had come due south, he started north, guided by the stars. He soon came to deep water, and with ample proof about his clothing, he returned to the basket. Dr. Eldridge then went with him, only to fall in up to his neck.

By this time a stiff breeze was tossing the balloon about at a most uncomfortable rate, and mosquitoes were glutting themselves on our blood.

Finally the welcome voice of Mr. Sutton was heard from the south, and after a time he and the Eldridges managed to come together. Mr. Sutton said we were in Robin's Swamp, two miles from Eldora, Cape May County. Xew Jersey.

Xow we all set to work, squashing round up to our knees, to unfasten the bag and let out the gas. It was a merry chase, for that gay-minded bag, assisted by the wind, hopped us around that marsh at a lively pace.

At last, however, Dr. Simmerman ripped its neck off, and presently it lay, quite a distance from the basket, prone on the plain. Then Mr. Sutton guided us through the gluey ooze and water to his home.

There he hitched up a horse, and merrily, though with teeth chattering from the cold, we drove more than six miles to Woodbine, where, in a restftd paradise, lies the Baron de Hirsch School of Agriculture, and here, in the persons of Mr. Henry Geller, superintendent, and Miss Lydia Cantor, matron, reside two of the most hospitable spirits of earth.

As has been mentioned before in Aeronautics, the 'Philadelphia 11" landed once before in the grounds of this institution, and its occupants were most enjoyably entertained.

This time it was 3 a. m. when we let out a war whoop under their windows, but none the less they roused out of their sleep, made us hot drinks, got extra covers and bundled

(Continued on page 119

MOONLIGHT AND SUMMER SKIES

Margueretta King Tourison.

THE CURTISS AEROPLANE

By Harold H. Brown.

PERHAPS the first characteristic of the Cnrtiss aeroplane that strikes an observer is the finished appearance of all parts; and when it comes to an examination of the motor, the lack of "freak" features.

In the motor, lightness has been secured by the elimination of unnecessary parts rather than by lightening of all parts. The rocker arm actuating both inlet and exhaust valves is now a comparatively common form in good practice, being used on such cars as the Pope-Hartford, De Luxe, and other well-known types. In fact, if it were not for the absence of exhaust piping the motor when placed alone would appear not very different from any well finished automobile motor. The oiling system, too, is very well worked out, being practically the same as is used on the Pierce Arrow and Napier cars. Using a square A-Z radiator, similar to that used on automobiles, is somewhat of a novelty. Wind resistance, however, is minimized by placing it behind the operator. The setting of the angle of the planes with the wheels on level ground is slightly upward so that the machine will automatically tend to rise when the proper speed has been attained.

Tn many machines the propeller is placed to revolve in undisturbed air, as, for instance, in the Wright machine, the only obstruction to the How of air to the propellers being the struts and wires in front of them. In the Cnrtiss machine the propeller is apparently shielded by the motor, the radiator and the body of the operator. However. Sir Hiram Maxim in his treatise "Artificial and Natural Flight" claims that under running conditions this actually increases the efficiency of a propeller. Owing to the suction produced, the air directly in the rear of'these resisting parts moving with the machine gives the propeller increased thrust. In fact, it has been claimed in marine work that screws under conditions of this sort have been known to actually have negative slip.

The use of the rear horizontal tail is pretty well discussed by the Aerial Experiment Association, the discussion having been recorded in "Aeronautics." It is probable that this tail has a dampening action on any sudden changes in vertical direction, thus adding to the longitudinal stability of the machine.

The methods of control conform rather to European ideas than to those of the Wright Brothers. The pushing inward and outward on the steering wheel steers up and down; turning the wheel left or right, steering as in an automobile. The correct-

ing of lateral tipping by means of the braces around the shoulders is as natural a movement as in turning a corner on a bicycle. This would seem to be a desirable feature, in that many of the movements may be now considered reflex to the majority of people who have driven an automobile or ridden a bicycle; and readily become so to almost anybody with a little practice.

Unlike the Wright machine, the speed of the motor is under the control of the operator. A small pedal operated with the left foot closes the throttle, which is normally wide open. Again, the pedal which operates the brake on the front wheel', and which is worked by the right foot, short circuits the magneto and stopping the motor as a landing is to be made.

The front wheel of the chassis is immovable. This has the advantage of added strength but in landing it might be desirable to make a turn while running on the ground to avoid small obstructions. In this case a steerable wheel would come into play nicely, as in the machines of the Aerial Experiment Association. Then, too, the machine could be steered along a circular track in making preliminary trials and in tuning up. The brake on the front wheel might be placed to better advantage on the two rear wheels of the chassis. Greater braking surface would then be had. This change could be easily made. In landing, as Ctirtiss does, the rear wheels strike the ground first and the brakes could begin to work immediately.

In a test of the propellers made at Morris Park, a net pull of t6o pounds was obtained, though an aluminum propeller, a duplicate, is said to have delivered to 225 pounds. On the same occasion A. M. Herring tried one of his 4 narrow-bladed propellers, of about 5 ft. diameter, which gave but 115 pounds.

The center of gravity of the machine is apparently 3 in. back from the front of the lower plane.

specifications.

Main Planes—28 ft. 9 in., by 4 ft. 6 in., 4 ft. 6 in. apart, covered with Baldwin rubber-silk material. Total area of both planes 258 sq. ft. Ribs (22) spruce and ash, laminated, spaced 15 in. apart. Angle of incident measures 4 deg. T4 nun.,- on the ground, though it has been stated as 7 deg. on the ground; flying at 4lA to 5 deg.

Front Control—Double surface, 2 ft. by 6 ft. each, or 24 sq. ft. total. Pivoted horizontally 10 in. back from front edge.

Rear Control—Single horizontal and single

Stf

The Curtiss Aeroplane

vertical surface. The horizontal surface is 2 ft. 3 in. by 6 ft.; the vertical rudder. 2 ft. by 3 ft. 4 in. The horizontal rudder is pivoted 8 in. back from front edge.

Winn Tips—These measure 6 ft. wide in front and 5 ft. 5 in. wide at the back. The depth is ft. Operated by cables from a brace around the shoulders of the operator. Hinged at the center of the front on the outermost vertical strut and steadied by the guy wires

of the next panel toward the center going through a ring fastened to the corner of the tip at the point where the guy wires cross themselves.

Motor—Four cylinder vertical, water cooled by force pump. tf\ in. bore by 4 in. stroke. Cylinders cast iron with homogeneously welded copper jackets. Lubrication by force feed system, pump being built in the case and

{Continued on page 120)

CONSTRUCTION A IDS.-IV.*

CLEVE Thos. Shaffer suggests the following idea for a landing skid or "shock absorber" on an aeroplane: The accompanying diagram (Fig. i) will give an idea of how to construct an efficient and easily made arrangement by merely lengthening the front struts a few inches, the use of a couple of ordinary door springs, an extra bolt and a saw.

If the struts are very light, it is advisable to double them, putting one on either side of the end horizontal cross pieces, and passing the lower bolt or pivot through bolt uprights on either side of curved skid.

Should the springs "give" their whole length, the curved piece forms a good skid, the head being curved well out of contact with the ground.

A is the skid, B the doubled spring, C a screw, D a brace, EE the main beams, F a rib, GG upright struts, FI guy wires, I end cross piece, and J a pivot bolt.

In Fig. 2 is shown a combination of wheel and skid. The wheel touches the ground first, springs upward, and allows the skid to come in contact.

A guy wire tightener on sale in France is illustrated in Fig. 3.

Dr. William Greene, who is building at Morris Park, uses the device shown in Fig. 4. A piece of metal of the shape shown is placed between the end of the vertical strut and the main beams. SS are regular bieyele spokes run through the holes in the metal piece and held at the extremities by the heads of the spokes. W is a cross-section of a vertical strut. The manner of connecting the strut to the beam was shown in the August issue.

In Fig. 5 is shown a new patented device of Bleriot. The wheels AA are mounted on rods B pivoted to verticals C. Another stay-rod is D, which works against the coiled springs F\ The wheels are joined by the pivoted axle G and spring guy wires H. The curve and construction of the Antoinette wings are shown in Fig. 6.

Spruce has been found most valuable of the woods in aeroplane and airship construction, but one must have what is known as "clear" spruce. Ash is good where flexibility is required. In the Curtiss machine the ribs are of spruce and ash, laminated.

Curvature of the planes is a matter for individual experiment. Several works, however, will give valuable data on head resistance and efficiency. Short Brothers, London, who are building some Wright machines, suggest in "Flight" the use of a curve shown in Fig. 7, with the angle of incident as illustrated.

In designing the supporting surfaces, of course, a single surface is the simpler, as it requires but a single layer of cloth placed on the under side of the ribs. The ribs, however, must be covered with fabric forming a "pocket"

for the rib. In the double system a neater entrance is accomplished by the ribs being on each side of the main beam.

Water and airproof fabric is most in use for the covering of the planes, and this may now be obtained from several manufacturers in all weights.

In Fig. 8 is illustrated the Curtiss system of joining struts and beams. The tube B is split at the bottom, shaped and brazed to the metal sleeve. AA shows how the sleeve is cut and bent up so as to allow the guy-wire to be fastened.

A recent invention by a St. Louisan is a safety device for testing aeroplanes and training aviators. The inventor claims it will place on an absolutely safe basis all aeroplane tests and trial flights, and that all danger while training aviators, army officers and others who wish to acquire the art of flying will be eliminated. A company has been organized to promote the invention and to give exhibitions, train aviators and sublet privileges in different cties and sections of the country. The first exhibitions are promised to be given in St. Louis this fall during the centennial celebrations. After thorough tests and continued practice, such aviators as desire will cut loose and make flights without the safety device in the attempt to establish new records.

The device consists of a captive balloon, held by three wires or cables. The balloon is sent up 3,000 or 4,000 ft. high, and will have the usual basket in which a man operates a brake. Suspended from the basket is a strong thin wire, at the end of which is fastened the aeroplane or airship to be operated. This wire is amply strong to sustain the weight of the aeroplane, motor and the operator seated therein. Underneath the basket of the balloon, high in the air, is a pulley, over which the wire passes, and to the end of which is fastened a weight equal to the weight of the wire supporting the airship. As the airship rises, this weight, operating like a trolley on one of the cables holding the balloon captive, takes up the slack and holds the wire taut, thereby preventing entanglement or mishap.

Assume the airship is sailing around serenely 100 ft. from the ground and the motor gives out, or the propeller breaks, or the aeronaut loses control. Instead of being dashed to the earth, machine and all, the man seated in the basket of the balloon applies the brake, and the descent is gradual and harmless.

*Previous instalments in the April, June and August numbers.

41

TO arrive at the obtaining of control by mechanical means instead of by the quickness and ability of the aviator, has been worked on by many.

The Wright Brothers have applied for a patent in England covering a device of this nature which is described in our esteemed contemporary, Flight, as follows :

"Using compressed air, or other fluid pressure, as power, the action of the contrivance is controlled in one case by a pivoted vane acting under the influence of the wind; in the other case. _bvja_ pendulum. In both cases the controller is merely usccT to operate a three-way valve; its influence upon the manipulation of the steering gear or front control, as the case may be, essentially takes place through the agency of the relay mechanism which the opening of the valve brings into action.

"This relay mechanism consists of a kind of compressed-air engine which is linked up to the steering-gear or front control, as the case may be, by means of a connecting-rod. The engine itself is operated by a compressed-air reservoir, which would presumably be kept charged by an engine-driven pump.

"Regarding the compressed-air system as the principle, the patent covers two separate main and distinct applications of it to the same flyer. One of these systems is exclusively devoted to the automatic control of the elevator (i.e., front horizontal control), the other is likewise reserved solely for the manipulation of the rudder and for warping the main planes. Each of these systems has its own reservoir, engine, and controller, the latter apparatus being, as already mentioned, a pivoted vane in the case of the elevator-gear, and a pendulum in the other instance.

"As illustrating the mechanical arrangement of the apparatus, we give a drawing

showing how it is supposed to be applied, according to the patent, to the operation of the elevator, which is shown at A as a pivoted flat plate, controlled by a rope, A1, from a drum or pulley, A2.

"This pulley is a member normally under the control of the driver through the agency of a lever, but embodies such features in its construction as enable it to be coupled up at will through some form of clutch to the connecting-rod of the compressed-air engine, B, which is operated from the reservoir, C, to which it is connected by the pipes, C1, C". Of these the former is in permanent communication with the lower end of the cylinder, while the latter leads to the upper end through a three-way valve, D, which is operated by the automatic movements of a horizontal vane or aeroplane, E, mounted on an arrangement of beams, E1, E=, E3, forming a parallel motion mechanism.

"The frame, E\ on which the beams themselves are pivoted, hangs from brackets, F1, mounted on an adjacent pair of the main struts, F, of the flyer, and one of its members is prolonged downwards to form a handle, E", within reach of the pilot.

"The object of this arrangement is that the pilot may himself at any time reset the course or, as it may perhaps be better described, the neutral line, which means to say that if, after having flown along a horizontal course, he wishes to ascend, the automatic mechanism may still be retained in action to govern the machine against variations from its ascending path by merely re-setting the position of the frame, E4. Since the valve, D, is itself mounted on the frame, E\ and because the beams, E1, E2, E3, are independently in equilib Hum as a whole by virtue of a balance-weight, E", it will he evident that any alteration in the position of the frame, E4, will at once affect the state of the valve, D, that is to say, it may tend to 'dose it if it was open or z'ice versa. Thus, supposing that the exact connections are such that the valve being open, the elevator gets tilted for ascent, then, should the pilot wish to ascend permanently, he will move the handle, E"*, so as to open the valve a little way. This will have no effect directly upon the position of the controlling vane, E, because the balance-weight, Ee, serves to keep that horizontal irrespective of the position of the frame, E'. The change from the horizontal to an ascending flight-path, however, will automatically result in a change of the real attitude of the vane, E, to the relative wind, which will now appear to the vane to blow from above, and will thus cause it, when the wind is strong enough, to fall a little and thereby close the valve, D. This action would bring the relay mechanism into action, and so alter the angle of the elevator, until the

WRIGHTS' AUTOMATIC STABILITY

conditions are restored which allow the controlling vane, E, to return to its neutral position. Naturally the vane and its balance-weight are not dead beat, and consequently, if disturbed, oscillations are- set up which require time to die out, and it is thus more than likely that the normal state of affairs would be one in which the vane is constantly jogging up and down.

lateral stability.

"For regulating lateral stabilitxjLjgendnhjm^ is used instead of a vane, the pendtdunTTjeTng" suitably coupled to the valve, so that any canting of the flyer from its normal level causes the valve to be opened or shut according to requirements. The pendulum hangs straight down like a plumb-bob, under the influence of gravity, and it is thus really the movements of the machine as a whole about the pendulum as a fixed point which forms the control. In practice the normal state of the pendulum control would presumably be one of more or less continuous, although possibly slight, oscillation. In the same way that it is possible with the vane control to alter the neutral line, so can the same variation be- accomplished with the pendulum, and if necessary the flyer be made to travel on a circular path indefinitely.

"The patent No. is 2913 of 1909."

In sailing for Europe, Orville Wright stated to the newspaper men : "Among other things we have been working upon several devices to obtain automatic stability. We realize that if we can make the aeroplane balance automatically in the air while in flight it will be a very important step forward. It may be possible that I will try some of the devices m Germany. At any rate 1 think we will both demonstrate the devices when I get hack, if I manage to come back perfectly safe and sound.

"The device which the English have been making so much bother about is an old contrivance with which we planned to get automatic stability so far as five or six years ago. That was before anybody believed that even flying, as we have it to-day, was possible. Since then we have progressed beyond these devices. We have others which may be great improvements.

"The vane and pendulum compressed-air device is very simple. It can be adjusted to any machine in a very few minutes and theoretically works out very well. 1 may try it abroad. We have used it before, but I do not think that we have ever used it in connection with any big flights."

FLYERS ASSURED FOR ST. LOUIS

Five dirigible entries and one aeroplane are assured the contest committee of the At ro Club of St. Louis, in charge of the aerial carnival to be held at St. Louis, Oe-tcber 4 to 9. The committee expects to receive other entries, and is making a special effort, with prospects of success, to have one of the Wright flyers in the aeroplane competition, and possibly Glenn H. Curtiss, who by that time will have returned from abroad.

Besides the regular dirigible contest for two prizes of $1,000 and $500 each, a three-cornered race has been arranged between Roy A. Knabenshue, Lincoln Beachey and Capt. Thomas S. Baldwin. All three have declared their intention to participate. W. J. Smith of St. Louis is getting his dirigible, "East St. Louis," into commission again to

practice for the contest in which he is entered. John A. Riggs, of Hot Springs, Ark., has entered a new dirigible, which he claims to be the largest in America, the "American Eagle." He states that he will endeavor to sail his craft from Hot Springs to St. Louis before the air carnival takes place.

H. A. Robinson, the only St. Louisan with bright prospects for speed}' aeroplane success, has entered his monoplane, just assembled. The apparatus is so similar to a Bleriot 'plane that it would be hard to tell the difference in small photographs. Mr. Robinson spent some time abroad last year studying European practice, and has made a number of successful flying models. He will try out his craft on a five-acre farm about 40 miles from St. Louis during September.

Pittsburgh is to have an aero carnival in October, and it is promised to be the largest held in this country.

Air. S. Andrews of New Durham, N. J.,

has built a gliding machine and tried it out "with perfect success." It contains 160 s<j. ft. of lifting surface, monoplane type, weighing 30 pounds. The spread is 2_> ft. 2 in.

ORVILLE WRIGHT MAKES NEW TWO-MAN RECORD. Army Dirigible Damaged.

THE Wright Brothers completed the assembling and adjusting of their aeroplane at Ft. Myer, Virginia, on June 28. Since then Orville Wright has made 23 flights, varying in length of time from 15 seconds to 1 hour, 12 minutes, and 40 seconds. These preliminary flights were for the purpose of tuning up the machine preparatory to the official trials.

On July 27 at 5:36 p. m. the first of the official trials of the Wright aeroplane was made before the Aeronautical Board of the Signal Corps appointed by the Chief Signal Officer of the Army to observe these trials.

i hour, 12 minutes.

On this day Orville Wright, with Lieutenant F. P. Lahm, Signal Corps, as a passenger, made the world record flight of 1 hour, 12 minutes, and 40 seconds. He thus fulfilled the endurance test which calls for a flight of one hour with a passenger during which time the flying machine must remain continuously in the air without landing and return to the starting point and land without any damage that would prevent it immediately starting upon another flight.

The speed trial was to have taken place on July 28, but the weather conditions being unfavorable it was postponed. The Wright Brothers were then granted an extension of three days in which to complete this trial.

On July 30 was successfully made the second of the two official test flights, the 10-mile crosscountry trip.

The course was five miles each way from Ft. Myer to Shuter's Hill, near Alexandria, Va. Lieut. B. D. F"oulois was the passenger on this occasion. The elapsed time of the flight was 14 minutes, 40 seconds, but the official time is regarded as less than this as the turn around the balloon at Shuter's Hill is deducted.

results of speed test.

Speed from Ft. Myer to Alexandria end of the course, 37.735 miles per hour; speed from Alexandria end to Ft. Myer, 47.431 miles per hour; average speed, 42.583 miles.

The contract price for the machine, at a speed of 40 miles, was $25,000, with a bonus of 10 per cent, for each additional mile per hour. Thus, the Brothers Wright received the sum of $30,000 for "just a few sticks, a motor and some canvas."

conditions of contract.

On Dec. 23, 1907, the Chief Signal Officer invited bids from the public for a gasless flyer cajiable of meeting the following requirements :

Bidders must submit drawings and statements of speed, weight, surface, motive power, etc., and the machine must be capable of being assembled and put in operating condition in about an hour. The machine must be able to carry two persons of a combined weight of 350 pounds and sufficient fuel for a flight of 125 miles and have a speed of 40 miles in still air. An endurance flight of an hour must be made, returning to start without any damage which would prevent immediately starting upon another flight, and make a speed showing of more than five miles against and with the wind. (See Jan. 1908 "Aeronautics" for full details.)

The machine has not, however, been definitely turned over to the Signal Corps, as the part of the contract calling for the instruction of two persons in its operation has not yet been completed.

On one occasion, the day before the official duration flight, the aeroplane was started without using the weight, though it was used in both the official trials.

the cross-country flight.

It is a rough bit of country for falling purposes between Fort Myer and Alexandria; largely covered with half grown oak trees and little of it cultivated, roads few and far between and houses not frequent. The same thought, unexpressed, was in the minds of all who waited. What if the engine gave out or the complicated machinery balked at some point or other? The flyer would likely enough lie forced to descend amid tree tops or on rough slopes. After the machine got out of sight on its outward trip the minutes seemed to pass slowly.

Suddenly a boy yelled out at the top of his lungs: "There she is!" Every one looked, straining his eyes, though every one was not as keen-sighted as the boy. But in another minute everyone could see—so rapidly were they coming. There was the flyer, headed

9 2

Wright Just Leaving The Rail

Photo by H. H. Drown

home, going as fast as a locomotive straight through the air and, for the moment, as steadily as an old gray horse.

The steadiness, however, was rather an illusion. For suddenly the watchers had the shock of the day. Down, quickly and unexpectedly, went the aeroplane. It was now less than two miles away, perhaps hardly over a mile. But it sank and was seemingly covered over by the waste of tree tops, just as a small boat in wild water sometimes seems to be covered over by the waves.

To the general relief, the flyer reappeared just as the little boat usually does. It had been submerged for perhaps half a minute. Xow it was seen, flying low, and climbing, climbing to get back to a comfortable altitude in the air. 'There was a confused murmur, a sort of expression of relief, in crowd-language.

What had happened? It was explained later. There is a deepish valley, just south of the gradual hill that reaches its top at Fort Myer. The wind as it had been blowing curved down into the bowl of the little valley, following the conformation of its bottom, and so was caused a downward air current. The machine rode downhill in the air, as certainly as if it had been an automobile down below with a defective brake. Fortunately there had to be a rising air current mounting the opposite slope. By its help and with hard climbing the flyer won its way steadily up to the finishing point.

"I feel sure," said Orville Wright, "that had I continued at the same height at which I crossed the half way hill, or continued climb ing instead of gradually descending, 1 would have gained at least two miles an hour in my speed average.

"I turned Sliuter Hill too close to .he ground and this compelled me to climl up

again to clear the higher ridge between Alexandria and Fort Myer. This used up power which might better have been employed for propulsion."

up 450 to 500 feet.

Air. Wright was asked the greatest altitude he attained and replied that over the hill at Four Alile Run he had sailed at a height of 450 or 500 ft.

Wilbur Wright to Instruct Army Officers.

Washington, 1). C, August 4.—The flights for training the officers of the Signal Corps, Lieutenants Lahm and Foulois, will probably be made at College Park, Aid., about 10 miles from Washington. Wilbur Wright will be the instructor and Orville will stop by here for a day or two before he sails for Germany. A field is to be leased by the Signal Corps at College Park as a training grounds. It is much larger than the Fort Myer aerodrome, and contains 160 acres of ground.

Storm Damages Dirigible.

The new 540 cubic metre balloon ordered by the Signal Corps in May has been delivered at Fort Myer, Virginia. This balloon is to replace Signal Corps Balloon No. 12, which was destroyed in an ascension from Fort Omaha. Neb., May 12, 190a.

Ten gas cylinders have been delivered at Fort Omaha. Xeb., for use in making shipments of hydrogen in connection with aero nautical work.

Lieutenants Bamberger, Winter and Dickinson and 12 men of the aeronautical detachment, with Dirigible No. 1, reported at To-

il:}

ledo, O., for the military tournament held there during the week beginning July 5. On the evening of July 2 a storm broke over the camp, which caused the balloon tent to collapse and damaged the dirigible to such an extent that no flights were possible during the tournament. The dirigible and equipment, also the officers in charge and aeronautical detachment, were ordered back-to Fort Omaha, Neb., at the close of the tournament. The dirigible is now being repaired at that post.

Herring Contract Now Cancelled.

The contract with A. M. Herring was, on his request, extended to August 1 and then cancelled, although Herring desired more time. The reason assigned for the refusal to grant more time was that the money from which the aeroplane was to be paid for belongs to the Board of Ordnance and Fortifications, which has an annual appropriation for experimental purposes, and set aside about $50,000 for the Signal Corps aeronautical plans. The bond was not forfeited, the government having sustained no financial loss through his failure to carry out his contract.

General Allen is planning to issue new specifications for a heavier-than-air machine later in the year. The new specifications are to be based on the results of the various aero events throughout the world during the summer and fall.

Orville Wright Off For Europe.

New York, Aug. 10.—Orville Wright sailed this morning on the Kronprincessin Cecilie. He will stop in England a short while. While there he expects to run down for brief visits to Shell Beach, where Short Bros, are building six Wright machines.

From England he will go to Germany, where he will make some flights under the auspices of the "Lokal Anzeiger," a leading German paper. Other flights will be made under the auspices of the company which has bought the Wright rights in Germany.

When asked about this company, Mr. Wright said : "This company is capitalized at $150,000 in American money, and at its head is Capt. von Kehler, formerly of the

German Army. We have sold our patent rights in Germany to this concern, and hold some stock in it ourselves. There are a great number of scientific and financial men interested in the company, and not a few are friends of the Kaiser, although I do not know whether he is directly interested in it himself."

It was suggested that some, rash individual had declared lately that the Wright Brothers would have to take a back seat in flying in the future in view of the recent successes abroad. Mr. Wright merely smiled and said:

"We consider that our machine is the best in the world. We have reached the stage where we are not trying for record flights any more, but what we are constantly striving for is to make our aeroplane of practical use to the general public.

"This can only be done by increasing the fuel supply and making the engines as reliable as the steam engine so that after once starting it it will not stop until the operator desires to cease flying. At the present time we can carry enough fuel to support one man in the air for 25 hours, or if traveling at the rate of 40 miles an hour enough to carry him a distance of 1,000 miles.

"I am sure that we hold the record for speed at the present time. According to official figures abroad the best speed in an aeroplane has been 38 miles an hour over a marked course, while at Washington recently we made against time a record of 50 miles an hour on the level with a diagonal wind and 42^ miles an hour across country. The reason that we can do this is because our surfaces are arranged so as to give the highest possible efficiency. However, I shall attempt no record flights abroad or speed tests, as we have gotten beyond that, and desire now to fulfill our contracts and aim for reliability and durability."

"As to monoplanes," he went on, "they undoubtedly increase the speed by reducing the surface, but they lose much more in other respects. And let me tell you this: There never was a machine that would rise from the ground abroad until our plans became known abroad. All the monoplanes which have made successful flights abroad in recent years have been practically built upon the original Wright plans filed in Europe about 1903."

o4EROPLAN

World's Duration Record.—Roger Sommers, August. 1909, at Mourmelon-le-Grand, 2 hrs. 27 mins.

World's Tivo-Man Duration Record.—Orville "Wright, Ft. Myer, July 27, 1909, 1 hr. 12 mins., with Lieut. Benjri3.^F-o«4ois.

World's Passenger Record.—Louis Bleriot on June 12, 1909, carried Andre Founder and Santos Dumont in the "Bleriot XII."

First English Channel Crossing.—Louis Bleriot on July 25, 1909, in the "Bleriot XI," from Calais to Dover, 31 miles in 40 minutes.

E RECORDS

World's Height Record.—M. Paulhan, on July 18, 1909, in a Voisin biplane flew to 394 ft. at Auvours, France.

ll'orld's Duration Record for Monoplane.— Hubert Latham on June 5, 1909, in the "Antoinette IV," I hr. 7 mins.

World's Longest Cross-Country Flight.— Louis Bleriot, on July 13, 1909, from Etampes (France) to Artenay, 41.2 kiloms., in 44 mins. in *he "Bleriot XI."

WHILE the specifications of an applica of the claims, and even the validity tion for patent may affect the scope of the grant itself, the claims as finally allowed by the Patent Office form the backbone of the patent, figuratively speaking.

In describing an invention many things must be considered. For one thing, the description should not be longer than necessary. It must set forth the precise invention for which a patent is solicited, and explain the principle thereof, and the best mode in which the applicant has contemplated applying that principle, in such a manner as to distinguish it from other inventions. In case of a mere improvement, the specification must particularly point out the parts to which the improvement relate, and must in explicit language distinguish between what is old and what is claimed as new. The subject matter should be confined to the specific improvement and such parts as necessarily co-operate with it. The invention should be so described that the courts, in case of a contest, are able to properly construe the claims. Most patents of importance sooner or later are "thrashed out" in the courts. It is there where the final test as to the exact rights of an inventor takes place. The mere fact that an invention is patented, comparatively speaking, is of no more consequence than "the right to defend yourself as compared with " winning the figlit." Of course, so long as your patent is not challenged, you possess the sole rights as granted on the face of your patent. If your invention is of little or no value, no one will interfere with these privileges, but as soon as the value of your device becomes known, you might just as well make up your mind that the hour of battle is at hand. It is then that the strong patent comes to the front. The cost of obtaining the patent grant is a mere trifle as compared with the cost of litigation in the courts, which may involve thousands of dollars. The omission of a single word in a claim, the placing of a comma may decide a suit one way or the other, but fundamentally it will be each claim considered separately that will either stand or fall before the onslaught of the enemy's legal talent.

A well prepared specification makes it much easier for the examiner to distinguish what is new from what is old, and thereby makes it much easier to obtain a good patent. Two or more independent inventions cannot be claimed in one application, but where several distinct inventions are dependent upon each other and mutually contribute to produce a single result they may be claimed in one application. A reservation for a future application of subject matter disclosed but not claimed in

a pending application, but which subject matter might be claimed therein, is not permitted. It is not unusual for two things to look alike, and still be essentially different in the results obtained. A very little change apparently often results in a most valuable invention.

"It is these niceties and distinctions that test the ability of the attorney, and determine whether a valuable invention is to be well, or poorly protected, or entirely lost to the inventor." These are the exact words of one oi our leading patent attorneys, and no words were ever more true. A patent may have but one claim, and still be of greater strength and value than a patent ending with fifty claims. It is not the number or length of the claims that count. It is their scope which is of importance and the shorter and more concise and exact in its terms, due consideration being given to fullness and clearness, the stronger a claim is apt to be. Broad claims may, and usually do, cover different constructions, but it is well to also fortify a patent with claims of less scope, because should the broad claims be declared invalid by reason of anticipation or for some other reasons, the lesser claims might still give proper protection. These statements are sufficient for the wise to realize that there is more to the practice of a good patent attorney than there appears on the face of it. To cover the subject ot patents in the way it should be presented in order to give the layman a clear idea of its field, would take considerable space and ii.ll tjtiite a volume.

"As soon as the application is filed in the Patent Office, the applicant is protected against the grant, without his knowledge, of a patent for the same thing to another person," writes one of our New York attorneys, and while this statement is not absolutely true, still it may be found to work out in that way. To obtain an allowance of claims usually takes several months. The attorney is called upon to meet objections and references cited by the Examiner in charge of the division to which an application has been sent. The nature of the objection often depends on the care with which the application has been prepared. An amendment to the claims is usually necessary, and much care and skill and argument are required on part of the attorney to secure to the inventor all the rights to which he is entitled. In one of the guides to inventors, a firm of Patent Attorneys use this language: "The attorney's argument may raise new oh jections on the part of the Examiner, and sometimes new references to patents are found which have to again be met by the attorney. This is repeated until the attorney secures everything his client is _ entitled to, and he should not stop until this is accom-

talks with inventors-ii.

By F. O. Andreae.

plished, and when there is no further objection the application is allowed." I use their statement, because it cites not my own individual opinion, but the wisdom of years of experience, to which I can only acquiesce.

Certain applications have preference over all other new cases at every period of their examination. Applications wherein the inventions are deemed of peculiar importance to sonic branch of the public service and appli-ratious which appear to interfere with other applications previously considered and found !o be allowable, or which it is demanded shall be placed in interference with an unexpired patent or patents. In every case, the attorney should keep in close touch with his client, and frequently consult him as to the best means to conserve his interests.

A model is not required and not permitted except in rare instances of complicated machinery, and then must meet very rigid rules as to size and construction.

It would be quite useless for me to go into details of permissable amendments and the subject of interferences, or appeals, as the space allotted to me is limited, but I might say that changes in the drawings or specifications, and all additions thereto, must conform to at least one of them as it was at the time of the filing of the application. In other words, additional points of invention or changes in the invention itself, cannot be injected into cases that have been filed. A

new application is required in such cases. All amendments correcting inaccuracies of description are allowed. In every amendment the exact word or words to be stricken out or inserted in the application must be specified and the precise point indicated where the erasure or insertion is to be made. All such amendments must be on sheets of paper separate from the papers previously filed, and written on but one side of the paper. Amendments will not be permitted after the notice of allowance. The Commissioner of Patents cannot recall a patent once issued. Sometimes, however, it happens that two applicants are claiming substantially the same invention. As two patents cannot be granted on two co-pending applications for the same invention, it is necessary to determine who is the prior inventor. This is done by what is known as intereference procedures. The claims of the application must have been found patentable before the interference is declared. "There are so many intricacies and questions to be considered in such a proceeding that it should not be undertaken by anyone not thoroughly familiar with Patent Office practice and the taking of testimony." Appeals from decision of the Examiner to the board, and from there to the Commissioner in person, and finally to the courts bring us to still more complicated discussions, and each individual case must be treated on its own merits.

DENVER POST OFFERS $10,000. FIRST REAL AVIATION PURSE IN AMERICA

The first big cash prize in America for aviation open to all is the $10,000 purse of the Denver Post. This sum is divided into two parts as follows:

the free for all.

Five thousand dollars in gold for the first aviator to make a successful flight from a point in or near Denver, in a "heavier-than-air flying machine." Distance of flight to be twenty miles, and then return to the original starting point. This offer open to aviators of the world.

for western inventors.

Five thousand dollars in gold to the first Western man to invent a "heavier-than-air" machine that will make a successful flight from a point in or near Denver. Distance of flight ten miles, and return to original starting point. This offer confined to inventors living in Colorado, Wyoming, Xew Mexico, Montana, Utah. Idaho, Nevada, the Panhandle of Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska or the Dakotas.

conditions of contest.

All flights will be held under the conditions that control the government tests of "heavier-than-air" machines, except as to distance.

Denver, with its grassy plains, affords tin usually favorable conditions for successful experiments in aviation. Offer open till Jan. 1. 1910.

other american cash prizes.

Aeronautics.—Four prizes of $50 each to the first four aviators not having before made 500 meters in flight who during 1909 make this distance.

C. F. Bishop.—Four prizes of $250 each to the first four aviators who during 1909 make a kilometer. Other conditions same as above.

F. S. Lahm.—$250 to the first aviator to fly 1 mile out of Canton, O.

New Trophy Offered.

Frank S. Doubleday of Doubleday, Page & Co., publishers of various magazines and books, has decided to offer a trophy of value to encourage competitive sport. This trophy will probably be open to both airships and flying machines, though, as we have argued before, it is difficult to see how the flying machine can properly compete against the airship, and vice versa. The difference in the field of usefulness, range of action, speed, etc., make such a competition a little absurd.

CONTINUED ACTIVITY AT AERONAUTIC SOCIETY GROUNDS.

Three More Machines About Ready.

Activity continues at the Morris Park grounds of The Aeronautic Society, despite the Kimball and Shneider wrecks.

Dr. Greene is going along slowly with his big biplane and Shneider is well along on his second machine. The framework of the main planes is finished, the central part of the structure where the meter goes is nearly completed and another 30 days will see renewed trials, no doubt. He has purchased an Elbridge motor and results of this new motor for aviation purposes are awaited with interest.

The biplane of George A. Lawrence has slowly evolved itself into a complete machine and this will be ready for the motor hi a few days.

F. Raiche has nearly completed a biplane of about the size of the Curtiss machine, resembling it very much, though some modifications have been made. Instead of supporting the front control by two bamboo rods, only one is used, the necessary staying being done by wires. Charles M. Grout is rebuilding an automobile motor for use in this machine, and trials should be had by the time this issue is in the mail.

E. R. Ernst has built a big structure, exactly like a canvas box, open at the bottom, with two large holes in each side in which propellers rotate in a vertical plane. These are intended to draw the air in with great force against the top side of the box, exhausting it at the bottom. Mr. Ernst will soon be' confronted with a very concrete awakening, that is, if he gets his motor in and tries it.

Octave Jean has been operating his machine with a small 2-cylinder motor. He depends for lift and propelling force on the revolution of rectangular frames inclosing feathering blades.

The Lindsay biplane is still awaiting a motor.

R. E. Scott had another trial out of his unique glider following his successful towed flights on the day of the second exhibition, but on this occasion it was wrecked in flight.

The usual weekly meetings of the Societ\ have been held each Thursday night at the Automobile Club and have been attended by the characteristically large number.

Though Air. Kimball promised to rebuild, no signs of a start are apparent.

Dr. Walden is installing the Society's motor in his combination Langley biplane and is practically ready for trials.

The Raiche Aeroplane.

The details of construction are as follows: It is 33 ft. in width, and is 28 ft. 6 in. from front to rear rudder.

Each main plane is in 3 sections supported by 20 struts. The intermediate section is doubly reinforced by heavier struts, and rests on a square frame of oak 6 ft. x 6 ft. Under this frame in the rear is a truss of ^-in. steel tubing, 6 ft. in width. To this truss are attached 26-in. motor-cycle wheels with specially constructed hubs 8 in. in width. At the center and below this truss is attached a spruce keel running 9 ft. 10 in. to forward wheel and attached thereto. The runners of the main planes are 3 ft. 6 in. apart: the ribs are 4 ft. 6 in. and 4 ft. 10 in. in length, with a curve of about 4 in., brass tipped and make the planes escalloped in the rear. At each end of the main planes and midway between are stability planes 2 ft. x 6 ft.

The front rudder is of special design, supported on each side by a single length of bamboo, and piano wire. It consists of two horizontal planes 2 ft. x 6 ft., a center section of 18 in. having a peculiar curve to assist in rising quickly: a vertical diamond shape plane is placed between these planes. 2 ft. x

3 ft. The rear rudder has a single horizontal plane adjustible to any angle. 2 ft. x 6 ft.: a vertical plane intersects the horizontal planes and guides the aeroplane in flight and on ground. All the controls are by fine cable with an automobile steering wheel working on a drum. The propeller is a Rlcriot model.

The motor is especially made. 28-32 h. p.

4 cyl., turning over 1,400 r.p.m.: copper jacketed, water cooled, designed by Chas. Crout, and weights 130 pounds. The machine work

The Beach-Willard Monoplane with the Wings Off

and trimmings are from H. Von Hadlyn, Xew York City.

The weight of aeroplane complete for flight with aviator is about 497 pounds. Mr. Raiche has a prospective order for a similar machine which is to be completed within 30 days.

Biggest American Airship.

John A. Riggs and Joel T. Rice, of Hot Springs, Ark., will build at Morris Park a bigger airship than is in existence in this country. This will be about 100 feet long. After obtaining bids from all the American balloon builders it was decided to give the order to A. Leo Stevens, and construction work has already started.

Trial of Beach-Willard Monoplane.

On August 1st and 2nd, trials were made of the Pieach-Willard monoplane, minus the main

supporting surfaces. The engine ran at only 600 r. p. m., and the big two-bladed propeller ran at half this speed, being so geared. At a speed of 300 r. p. m. the propeller showed on a scale a thrust of 325 pounds.

At an estimated speed of 25 miles an hour, the rear surfaces lifted the tail and rear wheel off the ground. At the moment this occurred, of course, it was impossible to steer the machine on the track. Circuits of the track were made at a lesser speed, but on the last the engine speeded up itself, the rear lifted, and before the motor could be shut off, the machine ran into a fence, damaging the former somewhat. The rear vertical rudder will now be changed to the rear end of the framework.

A detailed description of the machine was given in the July number of Aeronautics.

A Westerner's Way.—R is infrequent that in the East that we always give credit where it is due. Leo Stevens has been one of the foremost in promoting ballooning, but his endeavors have often been attributed to mere business foresight. R remained for the city of Dayton to put on record a tangible bit of appreciation in an editorial in the Dayton "Journal."

"The gratitude of Dayton is surely due Mr. A. Leo Stevens, the intrepid balloonist, who made the ascension with a party of friends Friday and the story of whose successful flight was carried in the "Journal's" news columns Saturday morning. The ascension was perfect, the voyage was delightful, the experience exhilarating, while the descent was most successful.

"Mr. Stevens came to Dayton at his own expense and without a penny of compensation brought his balloon into the program and gave one of the most brilliant and interesting events of the long line in connection with the celebration. He did this to aid in honoring Dayton's sons, his friends, the famous epoch-makers in aeronautics. He did this to pay due deference to the historical importance of the occasion. He did it from pure love of science and interest in his profession. In doing so he showed himself devoid of professional jealousy, and a devotee to pure friendship.

"For all this Mr. Stevens is to be heartily commended and a liberal share of the honor of the great occasion should be awarded to him cheerfully and ungrudgingly."

airship propeller problems

By Prof. Calvin M. Woodward

(CONTINUED niOM LAST lSSl'lo)

If a certain horse-power with a certain arrangement of propellers will drive an airship 10 miles per hour, it will require S times as many horse-power to drive it 20 miles per hour.* This does not mean that the motor must make eight times as many revolutions per second, but the increased work of one revolution multiplied by the increased number of revolutions would involve just eight times as much mechanical work.

5. Discussion of [XI].

Given //', C, R, and r for a Given Ship and Motor, What Speed can it Attain in a Still Atmosphere?

S (OA'-)2 CwR2 - +--i .)>• 3 15 .

[XI I]

0. Another Formula for F When We Know the Value Pi, for a Particular Velocity Fi, with a Coven Ship with a Given .Motor and Propellers:—

From [IX] we have

P F2 Pi

- - = „r P = —. ra P, Yr IV

Substituting this value of P in [VI II] we have

U\ /uWPl 22\

■+ — ) Fa 15/

whence Y3

550F,2\ F,r 550F,2/P

.[XIII]

+

15/

[XIV]

The utility of this formula may be shown by substituting known values for Pi, Yi, r, and //'. Thus, suppose Pi is known to be 650 lbs. when

* It will be seen later that a propeller fitted to a certain speed of the ship and to the pressure p upon the yielding air, is not properly fitted to a different speed and a different backward pressure. It should also be remembered that while the value of the ratlins may be the same, the pitch of the helieoidal blades should be changed.

F, = 15 (miles per hour), then [XIV] gives for a 85.5 horse-power motor and a propeller area, A = 200 wi. ft. = r (8.1)2

Y3 =

(55U) (15)* [CO]

+ L1

650

'1()n/(j50

,15X8.1

whence Y = YAM nearly.

That is to say, a complete mechanism consisting of propellers and a GO horse-power motor, which when anchored can produce a thrust of 050 lbs.—that being the thrust required when a certain air-ship is moving 15 miles per hour— can actually drive that air-ship only 13.3 miles per hour, unless the limit of GO horse-power is exceeded.t

7. Numerical Results.

The following table is of value in estimating the power required with propellers of various sizes for pulling or lifting different amounts when the frame is anchored in still air. The propellers are supposed to be ideally perfect in design and construction, and no allowance is made for cross currents and for friction.

TABLE SHOWING HORSF-POWER WHEN P THE THRUST, PULL OR LIFT, AND THE RADIUS OF THE PROPELLER, OR THE TOTAL PROPELLER AREA ARE GIVEN.

- pull lift in lbs.

i— radius of equivalent propeller in ft.

.1 total area of all propellers in sq. ft.

// horsepower required.

Í 1

1

3.14

0.029

4

1

3.14

0.23

100

1

3.14

29.00

1

5

78.53

0.000

100

5

78.53

5 . S

400

5

78.53

40.4

400

10

31 1.12

23.2

G50

S.l

200.00

59 .5

900

10.4

339.93

75.5

t Throughout this paper I mean by one "horse-power" .550 foot-lbs. of real "work" per second. I make no use of a so-called "nominal horse-power."

!>!)

PAPERS OF THE

international aeronautical congress

President: Professor Willis L». Moore. Secretary: Dr. Albert Francis Zahm. Chairman Gen'l Committee: Wm. J. Hammer. Chairman Executive Com.: Augustus Post. Sec'y Committees: Ernest La Rue Jones.

IP

8. Numerical Applications ok Formula [VIII].

P /UWP 22 F> 550 \ r 15

550 v > A 15 P means the resistance of still air to the m>ti >n of an air-ship, moving V miles per hour, determined by experiment or calculated by means of formula [IX].

--

 

   

p

V

r feet

.4 sq.

ft.

if

101)

10

10

31 \

10

5 .5 ■!

101)

15

5

78

51

OS

(‘51)

15

X 1

2D(i

85 .5

100

2D

10

:u i

Hi

14 .51

ODD

30

10

31 1

111

150 5

1DDD

(‘0

2D

!25('>

n i

2Df>.

The above si.v eases apply to six different airships. The third is approximately that of Mr. Wellman, judging from the data he has published.

9. In the discussions of this paper, I have made no attempt to approximate the loss of energy due to friction in the mechanism, or to the friction of the air upon the blades; or that due to defective design; or to the impact of the propeller current upon the frame-work, its contents and connections.

Neither have I allowed for the energy spent fruitlessly upon diverging currents of air. To prevent, or rather to utilize such currents, I propose a short and thin enclosing cylinder for each propeller, with a slightly-flaring forward end.

I am preparing to experiment upon "lifting" fans (with vertical shafts) of various radii and various numbers of blades, and with enclosing cylinders of various lengths.*

Meanwhile, my formula? are published in the hope that others may find the best designs for the entire mechanism, and the several coefficients of efficiency.

10. Characteristics of the Ideal Propeller.

1. The radius must be as large as is pract icable.

2. The blade surfaces must be parts of right helieoids (i. e. like the bearing surfaces of a square-threaded screw).

3. Every blade must run to the central hub with full depth.

4. The "pitch" of the screw surface must be determined by the speed of rotation of the shaft and the velocity of the air through the propeller.

t In a_ recent number of "Motor" (London), Mr. Rankin Kennedy says: "It would be a simple matter to prove by calculation that the power required of a propeller to sustain cine pound weight in the air is 0 03 R.H.P. In any case, theoretically, 0.03 b.H.P. must be allowed for every pound weight to be lifted." Mr. Kennedy then goes on to say, that it would take only 12 II.P. to lift or sustain 400 lbs.! The statement is dangerously loose. It would be true only on condition that the effective area of the propeller be also increased 400 times! With the same propeller, it would take 240 horse-power to lift his 400 pounds! See Formula [x].

For Example: suppose the air-ship frame be anchored, and that the required thrust, or pull, of the propeller is 100 lbs., and the radius of the propeller be 8 ft.

Then A

201 P

A

100 201

-y v

so_

20 nearly.

That is, the backward current of air passing the propeller must be 20 ft. per second. If T be the revolutions per second and s the pitch of the screw we have Ts = v — 20 in the case assumed.

As T is generally known for a motor doing its maximum work we have

T

20

If T be 1, we have the pitch = 5 feet, if the ship is anchored.

If now the air-ship is moving 15 miles per houi, we have v' - - 22, so that the air passes the propeller at the rate of 20 + 22 ft. per second.

Hence the pitch of the helieoidal blades must be

s = pitch =

v + c'

42

= _ = H)i. feet.

If there are six blades, the depth of each should be 1.75 ft., or 21 inches, and each should subtend a circular arc of 00°.

The general formula for the pitch of the propeller of an air-ship is

.[XV]

10 22F

/VP + 1.5~ T

in which F is the speed of the ship (in still air) in miles per hour; P is the resistance to the ship's motion (or the thrust of the propeller); r is the radius of the propeller; and T is the number of revolutions of the propeller per second.

All helieoidal surfaces should be as accurate and as smooth as possible on both sides of the blades.

It seems reasonable that the number and axial depth of the blades should be such that no air would pass the propeller without being directly acted upon by the propeller, in other words the projection of all the blades on a plane normal to the axis should make a complete circle. That is however a matter to be experimented upon.

It is hardly necessary to add that if there are two or more propellers, the pitch of the blades p + v' .

should in every ease be - in which the values

of T and v may not be the same for all propellers.

While the ideally perfect propeller should be suited to a given set of conditions, it is reasonable to adopt as the given conditions those which obtain when the motor is making its regular working maximum effort.

* I learn from my friend, Dr. Octave Chanute, that experiments with enclosing cylinders have been made in Europe, but I have no access to their results.

AERONAUTICS September, ipop

IN THE WORLD OF cylVIATION

CURTISS MAKES NEW PERSONAL RECORD.

52-Minute Flight in Aeronautic Society's Machine.

w1llard making success of learning.

AFTER the second exhibition of The Aeronautic Society at Morris Park, the Curtiss aeroplane contracted for by the Society was taken to Long Island. Mr. Curtiss wanted to get some practice before going abroad to meet Bleriot, Latham and the other crack aviators of Europe in the Rheims contests, and he felt that the Morris Park grounds of the Society were too small.

Then, too, he had to teach two aviators appointed by the Society and the Hempstead Plains were deemed ideal to teach the young idea how to fly.

The balance of the contract price, $5,000, was finally made up by individual members of the Society, and the machine formally turned over to the Society. It was expected that the exhibitions at Morris Park would provide funds for the acquirement of the aeroplane and establish the long looked for but as yet unaccomplished experiment fund. In order to repay the subscribers to the purchase price of the aeroplane, the Society has leased the machine to a company composed of many of the contributors, which company will place the aeroplane on exhibition and make flights with it at various parts of the country.

Mr. Curtiss began flying, after the reassembling of the machine in a tent at Mineola, on July 13, making two short flights and one of 2 min. 26 sec. On the 14th he made one of about 5 min. On the second flight the propeller was found to be loose, through a defective bolt, and a landing was made. The following day two flights were made, the dense fog making a long flight inadvisable. As soon as the fog lifted, one flight of 15 min. was made.

On July 16 he made the first really "long" flight. After a 12-min. spin, he stayed up for 31 min.

fltgi1t for scientific american trophy.

On July 17, Curtiss made official flights for the Scientific American Trophy and the President's Prize of the Aero Club of America.

Charles M. Manly, the Official Observer of the Aero Club of America laid out a triangular course measuring 1.311 miles around. The President's Prize was competed for first. The distance flown in competition for this, was 1.35 mile, which was covered in 2 min. 30 sec

After making the first circuit in competition for the President's Prize, Curtiss started again and made 19 more rounds of the course, covering a total official distance of 25.002 miles in the. official elapsed time of 52 min.

30 sec. The actual distance travelled was some greater than this, taking into account the turns; and this, of course, would increase the average speed which officially was 28.68 miles per hour. The average height was 20 ft. with a maximum of 40 ft. The weather was ideal at the start. There was a calm for the first five rounds. A light breeze sprang up then and gradually increased, till eventually while he was making a turn only a few feet above the ground the wind blew him roughly down. This is the longest flight that has been made by anyone in America besides the Wright Brothers.

The President's Prize, which Curtiss won, amounts to $250, being the first of four offered by the President of the Aero Club of America to the first four aviators who, during 1909, cover a kilometer. The competitor, of course, must not have made that distance in the same machine previous to competition.

Curtiss In Flight At Mineola

The Scientific American Cup is offered to the aviator who make the greatest distance during the year 1909, with a minimum of 25 kilometers. This cup, however, will not be awarded to those who do not make formal entry, so that if the Wrights should stay up a week, they will have no more chance for the cup than the unfortunates who have to stay on the ground.

williams, pu1ml, smashes machine.

After a short flight by himself. Curtiss started in to teach the two men selected by the Aeronautic Society, Alexander Williams and C. F. Willard. After a toss-up for place,

Willard got in and made a successful flight of several hundred yards. Curtiss then flew the machine back to the start.

Williams' turn was next—and last. He got in the seat, the machine was started and quickly left the ground. Then it began to shoot rapidly upward and heel over. The few witnesses present seeing Williams apparently limp in the seat, began to get started on a run to the place where they saw the machine would probably fall. And sure enough it did. The front control struck the ground first and the: aeroplane fell bottomside up, with the engine still running. Williams was rushed to the Mineola hospital where it was found he had a broken arm and thumb.

The machine was pretty well done up and it was necessary to wait for a new front rudder, a few sticks, a propeller, etc., from the Hammondsport factory. "Never again," said Williams on regaining consciousness.

It was not till the night of Tuesday, Aug. 3, that the machine was in flying order again and Curtiss made several short flights. The following morning it was planned that Willard take his second lesson as on Thursday Curtiss was to leave for Europe.

After journeying on to Mineola in the midnight hours, the dawn found a breeze blowing, and though the machine was brought out, no flights were made. Rain followed the wind and next morning, Thursday the 5th, flight was again impossible. Curtiss left for his steamer very disappointed for he had taken down a 12-gallon gasolene tank and had the hope of setting a world's record before leaving.

willard teaches himself.

On the 7th, Willard made four fine little flights and on the 8th, five more. Chas. F. Willard is quite well known as an automobile expert and race driver. At one time he had a large machine shop where the F. I. A. T. place now is on Broadway and has driven in big races abroad.

On the 9th Willard continued trials, spending most of his time in practicing turns and landings. Practice flights will continue until the first engagement.

Curtiss Sails for Europe.

Glenn H. Curtiss sailed on La Savoie, with "Slim" Schriver, to represent America in the international flying machine contests at Rheims during the last week of August.

On the same steamer went an exact duplicate of the aeroplane bought by The Aeronautic Society, with the exception that it has 30 in. less spread and is fitted with a more powerful motor, about which there is much secrecy. Some say it has four cylinders, some say eight; employes of the Curtiss plant shut up like clams when the motor is mentioned.

Entry has been made by Curtiss in the Gordon-Bennett Aviation race over a 10-kilometer course, twice around. The fastest time takes down $5,000 in cash to the aviator and a $2,500 cup to his home club. There are still other contests for a purse totaling $40,000.

Willard Doing Great.

Mineola, Aug. 13.—This morning Chas. F. Willard, who is learning to operate the Aeronautic Society's aeroplane, made a magnificent flight. Unfortunately it was not officially timed, and therefore may not be officially recognized as a record. Starting from Mineola he flew across to Garden City, there turned to the left and made for Meadow Brook, turned again to the left and passed by Westbury, and from there went on to Hicksville, where he turned and made for home. When about two miles from his starting point he heard something go suddenly wrong with the engine. He immediately shut off and glided to the ground. At the moment he was about 150 ft. in the air. But he had both the machine and his nerves under perfect control, and effected a perfect landing. Examination of the motor showed him that the cam shaft driving the magneto was broken. He was in the air 19 min. 30 sec, and the distance covered across country was about 12 miles. It had been Mr. Willard's intention to continue his trip from Hicksville to Hempstead, to Floral Park, and New Hyde Park before alighting, and so to break the world's record for cross-country flight. The achievement was remarkable, seeing that this was only Willard's twenty-first trip in the air. During his voyage he passed over the telegraph wires five times, crossed eight roads, the Motor Parkway at three different points, several clumps of trees and two gangs of Italian navvies working on the extension of the parkway. On account of the roughness of the surface of the plains the machine was carried back to Mineola on a wagon.

On the night of the nth Willard made two short flights and was just on his way when a bolt broke. He borrowed one from an automobile and then flew a short distance in the dark.

Yesterday morning two fine trips were made lasting about five minutes each. The machine was well out of sight and bearing over the hazy plains. He flew over the automobiles present, the trees and houses bordering the grounds. On the third trial the wire to the rear rudder broke and the machine steered sharply around. Willard was quick and made a good landing on some rough ground.

It is curious to note the aeroplanes cropping up all over the country, in backyards, woodsheds, barns and outhouses. Nearly every boy in the country is building a glider and the books telling how to make them, published by Aeronautics, are nearly exhausted already. Almost every large city has its embryonic flyers. What all these will amount to is a question. They say every barefoot boy is a future President.

Howard Colby, brother of Ex-Senator Colby, of New Jersey, is anxious to buy a Wright aeroplane. E. S. F. Randolph, of Westfield, N. J., is another applicant for the privilege.

Testing Thrust on the Curtiss Machine — The Three to the Rear Are Noting the Pull On A Spring Balance

The Langley Machine on Exhibition.

The officials of the Smithsonian Institution and the National Museum at Washington take great pride in the collection of models and contrivances relating to aerostatics and aerodynamics, which are in possession of the joint institution. Charles D. Walcott, the secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, and who is a member of the Aero Club of Washington, is taking a personal interest in the plans for enlarging and giving prominence to the exhibits relating to aeronautics.

The Langley machine, the "Buzzard," which was wrecked in the unfortunate attempt to launch it from the houseboat used during the experiments made by Professor Langley on the Potomac River, has never been placed on public view. This has been largely because of the criticism that was made of Professor, Langley and because of the sentiment attached to his work, he having been secretary of the institution at the time he conducted his experiments. Now that the public has awakened to the full realization of the practicability of dynamic flight and is better able to give Professor Langley the credit which should have been his before his death, Mr. Wolcott intends to place on view the large machine, which has been rebuilt.

George C. Maynard, assistant curator of the National Museum, will have direct charge of arranging the aeronautical exhibit in the new building as soon as it is ready for occupancy. R. L. Reed, who did the mechanical work for Professor Langley, still guards the "Buzzard," which is stored in the old workshop where Langle}' did most of his work. This shop stands in the rear of the Smithsonian Institution, and is full of interest. The walls are literally covered with models of propellers—each of a different design and intended to indicate the most efficient type for flying-machine work.

Photographs of the various models used by Langley, showing them in flight, adorn the walls of the old workshop. A boomerang and other contrivances used by the famous scientist in his efforts to compter the air are there as testimony of the thoroughness with which he pursued his investigations. Parts of the framework which have never been used lie about on the floor. Most of them are hollowed spruce, strengthened with metal bands at intervals, making an extremely light and yet strong material for building the machine. Hollowed steel tubes were also used, and these are remarkable for their lightness and strength.

In the shop, displayed in marked contrast, but not nearly as interesting, is the basket and machinery of the dirigible balloon brought to this country by Sautos-Dumont. This was donated to the institution by the Aero Club of America, and

was placed in the shop because the present building of the institution does not afford space for placing it on exhibit there.

The three power-driven models successfully flown by Professor Langley are now on public exhibition in the museum. One is a gasoline motor driven machine, while the other two are steam-power aeroplanes. They were the first successful power-driven, heavier-than-air flying-machine models. The Manly motor, built especially for Langley's "aerodrome," is also on exhibition.

One of Lilienthal's two-winged glidng machines, a model of Hargrave's compressed-air flying machine, which made a flight of 319 ft., and Stringfellow's aeroplane model, which was exhibited in the Crystal Palace, London, in 1856, and the engine of which was remarkable for that period, are also on view at the museum.

Octave Chanute will present the institution with one of his gliders, and the Wrights intend to make a working model of their aeroplane especially for exhibit in the Museum. It is also understood that Dr. Alexander Graham Bell is to donate some of his tetrahedral kites as an example of that method of constructing supporting surfaces.

FLYING IN CANADA.

Petawawa Camp, Ontario, Aug. 6.—The Baddeck No. 1, built by the Canadian Aerodrome Co., the first aeroplane built entirely in Canada, is ready and will soon make flights in charge of Messrs. McCurdy and Baldwin. Military experts from various parts of Canada will witness the tests. If it is a success the aeroplane may be, as has been announced in these columns before, taken to England. . ,

Silver Dart Damaged.

Ottawa, Out., August 2.—The "Silver Dart," with which J. A. D. McCurdy made many successful flights at Baddeck last winter, was partly wrecked to-day at Petewawa Military Camp, where trial flights were in progress.

The aeroplane had made four successful short flights. On landing from the fourth trip, the machine struck a knoll, ricochetting and striking again with such force as to wreck the wings and controlling apparatus.

The "Silver Dart" was the fourth machine built by the Aerial Experiment Association, and the most successful. The longest flight was one of 20 miles.

Smidley Monoplane Completed.

John H. Smidley of Bridgeport, Ct, has been building his machine in Washington, and it is now ready for experiments. A Duryea motor has been shipped.

The present machine, of man-carrying size, has a bamboo framework, wth supporting planes of light canvas, painted with a rubber solution to render them impervious.

The spread of the main plane is 32 ft., with a depth of 5 ft. The rear plane is 17 ft. spread and is bow shaped.

The whole machine, including the motor, weighs but 225 pounds. It runs on four small wheels at the bottom of the frame. The designer says it will rise in a run of 50 ft. on an average smooth grass field.

There are several rather unusual features about the machine. The main frame contains a rectangular box of bamboo and is so split that it will contain the' propeller practically in the center of the machine.

The propeller is of built-up wood, 8 ft. 6 in. in diameter, with an increasing pitch from the tip of the blades to the center. It has but two blades, though some of the models with which Air. Smidley has experimented have three.

The propeller is so placed that the center of thrust will be on a line with the surface of the monoplane. This, he says, will do away with the torque that would otherwise

come from having a single propeller so large. It will run at a maximum speed of 600 revolutions.

The controlling planes consist of two horizontal rudders placed in front, not superposed, as in the Wright machine, but side by side. Raising one of them will turn the machine to the left; raising the other turns it to the right. Roth raised or lowered elevates or depresses the whole machine.

The rudders are worked from a single lever, which, the designer says, is a decided advantage, as things happen in the air too quickly for an aviator to be bothered with much mechanism.

The machine carries about a pound to the square foot of surface. The designer has some ideas of his own about the curve of lifting surfaces, and will try putting the maximum curve at rear of planes instead of at entering edge. He is also trying a knife-edge entering.

cA NEW WORLD'S AERO CENTER^

IN 1907 the international balloon race started from St. Louis. For a while the interest in ballooning was large, but it was not deep. It was a kind of interest that regarded the sport of ballooning as a thing apart—something for men who were willing to risk their lives. Nowadays things are different and even the uninitiated of the more than half a million people of St. Louis begin to see aeronautics in a different light.

Not so very long ago a balloon passed over the city after starting from the gas works. The comment was much the same as people make when they see a hot-air balloonist or a parachute jumper sailing high overhead. But the other day six men, in a racing balloon that traveled low—sometimes it seemed very close to the roofs of high buildings— drew thousands from their desks downtown. These spectators watched the balloon with a new interest and something like appreciation. I warrant you that a large percentage of these people envied the men in the air.

This all has to do with the truly remarkable advances in aerial sport that have been made in St. Louis within less than a year. In six days, recently, four ascensions were made and fourteen passengers carried. Three women—the first ever to ascend from St. Louis in gas balloons—went up with H. Eugene Honeywell one day, and two days later another woman ascended, a deux, with John Berry. Then followed quickly the cries of the women left behind, cries that begged for ballooning. At least a dozen women are scheduled to make balloon trips soon and a woman's balloon club is forming.

It was thought rather unusual several months ago that five men should ascend together in one balloon basket, but Honeywell,

who piloted the party, soon set a new mark by carrying six. Just to show that even this was not remarkable, he did it again and again, until now the thing is quite commonplace.

Speaking of organizations, the Aero Club of St. Louis is now only one of the clubs here, although, of course, the only recognized one. Besides, the South Side Aero Club has organized with 350 members, it is claimed, and a number of them have already made ascensions. Others are ticketed to go soon.

It has always been a lamentable fact—to all but the newspaper cartoonists—that L. I). Dozier, president of the Aero Club of St. Louis, has never made an ascension'. Now Mayor Kreismann, of St. Louis, has in a way challenged the Aero Club president to go, saying that he, the mayor, will try it, if the Aero Club head will go with him.

St. Louis now has three licensed balloon pilots—Albert Bond Lambert, who holds cards in the Aero Club of America, Aero Club de France and the Aero Club of St. Louis; H. E. Honeywell and John Berry. S. Louis Von I'hul has made nearly all of his ascensions to qualify for a license which he expects to earn before the aerial tournament of St. Louis in October. There are three other men who hope to have the license by that time so that they may compete in the balloon races, to be held under the rules of the International Aeronautic Federation.

These carnival events are open to the world, some $12,000 having been appropriated for the purpose, with every indication of that amount being raised to $20,000 before tlie events take place. The balloon race will occur October 4, and on the same day there

will be a minor race for 40,000 cu. ft. balloons. On October 9 there will be a dirigible contest, the winner to be the "dig" which makes the greatest speed over a given course. For aeroplanes on the day following, the test will be one of endurance, the prize going to the "plane" remaining aloft for the longest period. Besides, there will be other interesting air events.

The Aero Club of St. Louis has provided itself with private ascensions grounds in a desirable locality, where, in the near future, all of the ascensions of the club balloons "St. Louis Xo. 3" and "Missouri," and others that members may purchase, will take place. The grounds are surrounded by a fence and will

later be provided with a grand stand and a second enclosure. By fall there will be taps from the gas main on the grounds for 12 balloons; it is possible to make accommodations to inflate 18 envelopes at one time. At present there are three taps.

The officers of the Aero Club of St. Loujs are L. D. Dozier, president; D. R. Francis, vice-president; D. C. Xugent, vice-president; G. H. Walker, vice-president; A. B. Lambert, honorary secretary; H. X. Davis, treasurer. The names are those of the most prominent St. Louisans. The club is solicitous of entries throughout the world. Particulars and information desired will be forwarded upon application to the honorary secretary, 2100 Locust Street, St. Louis, Alo.

the frankfort aero exposition

By H. A. oMeixner

THE opening of the international aeronautic exhibition took place under very unfavorable weather conditions. The public has been waiting for the arrival of the Parseval airship, but the rain and wind prevented it from coming. It is now being shipped by rail.

On July 30 the Zeppelin II arrived here from Friedrichshafen. This airship now belongs to the German government and will stay in Frankfort only two days. On August 2 it will start for Cologne, where it is to be stationed. The third Zeppelin will come to Frankfort at the end of August, remaining for a couple of weeks.

The shed for the Zeppelin III is now under construction, the framework being of wood, covered with canvas. The other sheds, housing the captive kite balloon, system Parseval-Sigsfeld, built by the Riedinger balloon factory; the mushroom balloon of Gans-Rodeck, and the Parseval and Clouth airships are all of the same construction. The two latter airships arrived by rail two days ago and are not yet ready ■ for ascensions.

The flying grounds are removed from the exhibition grounds. There is a "take-off" hill for gliders but it is not well situated, as experiments are only possible when the wind blows from the southwest. Most of those gliders shown are of the "Chanute type." The arrangement consists of a large platform built upon the top of a sharp declivity, and sand or earth has been filled in so as to make a gradual descent.

The exhibits which have been brought together give a fair view of the present state of aeronautics. There are about a hundred

models of flying machines, most of which show how not to fly.

At the entrance to the hall is a full-sized machine, shaped like a bird. At the ends of the wings are pivoted blades to represent the feathers. To date no one has tried the machine. There are many freaks of this kind.

There are only two man-carrying machines here up to the present: a Farman and a Wright machine, both well known so that it is not necessary to give a description of them. One of the original gliders used by Lilienthal has been loaned by the museum of Munich. It is a birdlike structure and shows signs of considerable wear and tear.

The middle of the hall is filled with the balloon Preussen, which holds the record for height.

Several high angle guns are exhibited by Krupp and the Rheinische Metalwarenfabrik. The devices for bringing down balloons and aeroplanes seem to show that the means of destroying an aerial fleet are better developed than the art of building motor balloons and aeroplanes.

At Mannheim has been started the largest airship of the world, constructed by Prof. Schutte, of Danzig. The capacity of this huge dirigible balloon will be 4000 cubic meters more than the Zeppelin. The gasolene motors will develop from 500 to 600 h. p. The speed is estimated at from 50 to 60 kilometers an hour. The framework is wood, covered with balloon cloth. The gas bags are made of goldbeaters skin. The floor space necessary for the shed to house it will measure 60 by 130 meters.

1. The Shaffer glider an instant before an accident due to breaking of both wing lips and front rudder control lever. 2. Shows machine at start of flight in which high elevation was reached. 3. Wolf-Becher gliding chute.

For their experiments in gliding, Messrs. Wolf and Becher of Fitchburg, Cal., have built an inclined railway down which a car holding the glider runs and gives initial impetus. The start is 50 ft. high. On the first attempt the heavy car in some manner caught fast to the machine and the glide terminated but a few feet from the end of the chute. The automatic fore and aft equilibrium device was, consequently, not tried.

A successful test for lift is reported of Messrs. Arnold and Hiniker's 12-ft. model helicopter-aeroplane-dirigible. Power is delivered to the propellers by a flexible shaft from a stationary electric motor.

J. Zenon Posadas of the Pacific Aero Club will shortly try out his double-decker fitted with a Peugeot motor.

Charles C. Bradley, V. P. of the Pacific Club, has started work on a large-size double-decker.

L. C. Van Riper and J. E. Morhardt of Pasadena deserve plenty of credit for patience in their aeroplane work.

L. S. Dorland of San Francisco is at work on a helicopter of novel design. There are

eight propellers of 12 blades each, 24 inches in diameter, revolving in a casing with individual wells for each propeller. When completed the machine will weigh about 500 pounds. The motor is a Curtiss S-cylinder, 40 horse power.

At the Portola celebration in October it is possible that the Pacific Aero Club will take charge of aeronautic events, the Portola people to put up the purses.

Capt. P. A. Van Tassel, of California, has disposed of the balloon "United States' which broke away from its moorings July 4 and was recovered, and has just completed a fine new one built on the block system of 40,000 cu. ft. He expects to pilot a number of ascensions in the near future. On Aug. 22 he is scheduled to make an ascent, taking as passengers Miss Geneve Shaffer, sister of the Pacific Aero Club's secretary, and Prof. Jos. Hidalgo of the same club.

Mr. A. C. Pillsbury, of the Pacific Aero Club, has purchased the tiny balloon "Fairy" from Roy Knabeushue, and expects to make some ascents soon. He has built a special camera for taking photos while aloft.

Since Charlemagne Sirch of Los Angeles announced last year the principal features of his hot-air dirigible, Sweden has produced an apparatus using heated air for buoyancy, and one or two others have been claimed. It may be of interest to note that Mr. Sirch endeavored to have the War Department change its specifications to cover the use of heated air as well as hydrogen gas.

The Alaska-Vnkon-Pacific Exposition at Seattle has offered $25,000 for a contest between Bleriot and the Wrights.

Among the latest aspirants for aeronautic fame is Dr. Davenport Kerrison, of Jacksonville, Fla. Mr. Kerrison has been for many years a close student of the flight of birds, and thinks, if his theories work out in practice, that he has brought the art of flight a step or two nearer to success. He has just completed a working model on a scale of one inch to the foot. The full sized machine will measure 37 ft. in length exclusive of the horizontal control, which extends 16 ft. and the forward horizontal control which shifts forward about 4 ft., taking an upward angle as it does so. The horizontal and forward controls are operated with one lever and act simultaneously. There is another which Mr. Kerrison thinks is an important improvement involved in his machine, the particulars of which he will not divulge until he has applied it to a practical test.

AERO CLUBS GROW IN GLID-DEN'S WAKE.

New Organizations Spring up From Detroit to Denver as Result of Tour; One Coming in Nebraska.

A string of aero clubs reaching' from Detroit to Denver is one of the results of tin (Hidden automobile endurance rim which ended at Kansas City late Friday night.

It is said by those who have returned from the trip, of whom Charles J. (Hidden is one, that aeronautics has made great advances in the West because of the efforts made by the promoter of the endurance run to arouse an interest in the subject.

The first club was organized at Detroit, and was named the Aero Club of Michigan. After that the Aero Club of Minnesota was formed at Minneapolis, the Aero Club of Colorado at Denver and the Aero Club of Kansas City at the latter place.

While in Denver Mr. Clidden was the guest of C. P. Allen, treasurer of the Denver Motor club; his son, Dr. E. F. Dean, and Cordon L. Wands, secretary of the club. Mr. Clidden suggested the idea of an aero club, and after the close of the dinner the following membership had been secured: Cordon L. Wands. C. P. Allen, L. D. Mosier, F. L. MacFarland. W. H. Sharpley, M. D. ; W. M. Johnston. Harold Brinker, Edward V. Dean, M. D. ; Sam F. Button, W. W. Barnett, Maurice Letts. George E. Cartwright, Carl W. Ilurlbert, Thomas F. Daly, William F. Allen, R. R. Blair, M. D. ; L. E. Allmon, Morris Mayer. Major L. E. Campbell, Frank Burt and William 1). Nash.

The members of the new club are so thoroughly enthused over the proposition that they have already arranged for a balloon ascension Sunday afternoon at the White City through Mr. Burt, the manager of Lakeside, who is one of the members of the new club. The ascension will be in charge of G. L. Wands and Wayne Abbott, who will work together in giving the members instructions in handling a balloon and getting it ready for an ascension.

"Now what we want," said Mr. Wands, "is someone to offer an attractive prize to the first pilot who crosses the continental divide, which has never been done, but which can be accomplished easily with the proper-sized balloon, and the sooner an offer is made the sooner it will be done."

Mr. (Hidden has promised those interested in aeronautics in Nebraska that he will under-

take to start them in the right direction when he returns to Omaha.

to arrange for long flight.

Mr. Clidden contemplates making the trip within the next few weeks, when he will endeavor to complete arrangements for the flight from Omaha to Boston. These were begun while he was absent on the. automobile run, and it was practically decided that the start will be made from Fort Omaha.

In speaking of the matter last night Mr. Glidden said that he and H. Helm Clayton had previously considered this flight. While at Omaha Mr. Clidden discussed the matter with Lieut.-Col. W. A. Glassford and Lieut. Ware, both of whom evinced great interest in the proposed trial.

The Aero Club of Vermont has been organized at Rutland, Vt. Charles T. Fairfield, publisher of the Rutland News, is the president, and George S. Haley, secretary-treasurer. Though the club is in its veriest infancy, a meeting will be called at an early date to complete the organization, elect officers from other cities in Vermont and to receive members. Mr. F'airfield is the first Vermonter to take a balloon trip.

The Aero Club of Kansas City is another club formed by Mr. Glidden on his Western tour. Looks like a "trust." Hurrah for Charles T. Glidden! We ought to have a few more like enthusiasts and there would be a little more activity.

The Aero Club of Minnesota has been organized in Minneapolis with John F\ Wilcox president.

The Aero Club of Michigan, in Detroit, was started during Mr. Glidden's Western tour, with William E. Metzger at its head. About 50 members have come in so far and a meeting will be called probably about September T.

The Aero Club of Colorado was born July 24 at Denver, with Gordon L. Wands, secretary. These new Western clubs being started just at the time the Glidden tour is touring, it looks suspiciously like Charles J. Glidden has something to do with all this commotion.

The club will purchase a 75,000 or 100,000ft. balloon in the very near future, and is figuring with two parties for an aeroplane. Mr. Wands made several ascensions in a 40,000-ft. balloon, but found it too small, on account of the fact that at an altitude of 5,820 ft. to start with and as they are very anxious to cross the continental divide, it was thought better to have a fairly good-sized balloon.

The South St. Louis Aero Club has been

organized at the grounds of M. A. Heimann, Fourteenth and Rutger Sts.

The officers are Charles W. Nugent, president; Charles F. Wenneker, first vice-president; Sheridan Webster, second vice-president; William Fox, third vice-president; William Fox, secretary, and Henry Nuen, secretary.

The executive committee consist of George Fehl, Eugene Ringler. C. C. Nichols. David AlcArthur, AI. A. Heimann, Andrew Drew, Louis Shelke, J. Oheim, J. J. Parker, Vital Garesche, Herman Shapiro and John Berry.

A publicity committee, consisting of George Belcher, Al. A. Heimann and H. C. Nuen, was appointed.

The International Aeroplane Club of Dayton, O., has grown to over 500 members. The charter list closed July 28, and the club is to be incorporated within the next few days.

The Aero Club of America is still uncertain as to the location of its grounds, to be somewhere on Hempstead Plains. Committees have from time to time visited the Plains for the purpose of selection, but have come to no definite decision.

The Edwardsville Aero Club is about to be formed at Edwardsville, AIo>, by Dr. Geo. C. Sehwarz, who has offered the use of grounds for ascensions and a hydrogen plant is suggested.

The Phila. Aeronautical Recreation Society.

-—On July 13th a "cup party'' was given at the home of Miss Margaret Tourison, the winner of the Eldridge-Simmerman Cup. Miss Tourison made a trip of 51 miles on Juh' 3rd. All the members of the society who were in the balloon at the time the cup was on were present. Mrs. Lockington, the previous holder, made a pretty speech, telling how it was such a "painful pleasure" to part with the cup. The assemblage then supped from the cup a very rare vintage, preceding a dainty collation presided over by Miss Tourison.

On Saturday, Aug. 14. a complimentary ascension is being given to the officers of the Baron de llirsch School at Woodbine, N. J., Henry William Gellor and Miss Lydia Cantor, by Dr. Thomas Edwin Eldridge and Dr. Geo. H. Simmerman, president and vice-president of the 1'. A. R. S. Upon two different occasions during the past season boys from the Hirsch school have received balloon parties of the society, and because of the generous reception given them Air. Gellor and Aliss Cantor are the inviied guests, as public recognition of the society's appreciation. Air. Gellor has been made an honorary member and Aliss Cantor an active member. The ladies of the society will present Aliss Cantor with an appropriate souvenir. Dr. Eldridge and Dr. Simmerman will jointly look after the guests during the trip.

The International Dayton Aeroplane"^ Club

had an extremely interesting meeting in their permanent quarters on the evening of July 28. About 125 were present, 122 applications for membership were received, bringing the membership list above 500.

The Committee on Constitution and By-Laws submitted a draft which, after a general discussion, was approved and adopted.

Air. G. Harris Gorman, vice-president of the Davis Sewing Machine Co. and a member of the club, gave a very interesting address.

Dr. L. E. Custer, who some time ago was granted a patent for a steering device which can be utilized either on submarine torpedoes or other craft, or on dirigible balloons, by means of what is commonly known as the Alarconi wireless system, exhibited a working model of the device and demonstrated the value of utilizing the "Hertz" ether waves for accomplishing this. His address throughout was intensely interesting, and the discussions which followed it clearly demonstrated the vast possibilities of this, as yet unexplored field.

Air. Howard L. Burba, of the Dayton Journal, gave a most interesting talk of his experience in his recent balloon trip by night, in tbe balloon "Hoosier," in company with Col. AlcClellan. editor of the Dayton Journal, Capt. B. F. Wendler, G. W. Shroyer, and Pilot-Capt. Bumbaugh, during which he set up in type a short account of their trip and printed a miniature edition, which was distributed from the balloon along their route.

An interesting episode was that towards morning the air became so heavy and damp, and the lowering temperature so reduced the buoyancy of the balloon that they were forced to throw overboard all available ballast until there was nothing left but the toy printing press and the type. Burba tenaciously held on to the press, but finally permitted them to throw out the form and all the type, when the balloon rose sufficiently to clear the hills which they were approaching. Alany other amusing incidents were related.

The president authorized the chairman of the balloon committee to extend an invitation to Capt. Bumbaugh of Indianapolis to deliver an address at the August meeting, on "How to Judge Distances from the Balloon." Other speakers will also contribute to the program at that time.

The officers have received definite assurances of the delivery of an aeroplane from the representative of the Messrs. Wright; the one now in the course of completion will be shipped to the sou of General Alger.

Dr. J. M. Gibbous, St. Lawrence Park, Thousand Islands, X. V., is forming an aero club, to be limited to the members of the motor boat club. Fifty members have already given a start to the movement.

Motor Boats to Chase Balloon.

The Colonial Yacht Club is sending out invitations to all the yacht clubs within a hundred miles of New York to take part in a balloon chase. A. Leo Stevens will pilot one of his balloons from the gas plant at 155th Street, and at the moment of leaving all the clubs will be notified by telegraph. A silver cup will be awarded to the member of a yacht club who first arrives at the balloon on its landing and hands a specially provided card to the pilot of the balloon.

Any means may be taken to catch up, whether by auto, boat, or on foot. Thirty members have already entered their names as "hounds." Landing will not be made when water is sighted, but the aeronauts will continue on, assured of the assistance of the many motor boats which will be waiting or following.

This will prove an exciting event, and motor boats all around New York are getting their batteries recharged and everything shipshape for the event, which takes place the second week of September.

Smithsonian's Aero Bibliography.

Washington, D. C, Aug. 9.—A Bibliography of Aeronautics has been prepared by Air. Paul Brockett, assistant librarian of the Smithsonian Institution, which goes to press during the present week. This bibliography has been prepared in order to make available the material in the aeronautical literature at the Institution. Special effort has been made to make it as complete as possible, and it includes papers in all languages and has about 16,000 references. In addition to the citations made from available publications in Washington, bibliographies and lists of various kinds have been consulted. No special attention has been paid to securing titles of fiction, poems, music and the drama based on the subject, nor have newspaper clippings been included. The dictionary form of arrangement has been used, and while a classification of aeronautical literature has not been attempted, there are ample cross-references for such subjects as may prove of interest to the investigator pursuing any particular line of work. The date of (he publication cannot now be given, but the printing will be done as speedily as possible.

To Double a Motor's Horsepower.

Of particular interest to those building is the news that there will soon be on the market a remarkable motor, especially adapted to aeronautics. Hugo C. Gibson, an automobile engineer, has devised and patented a system for doubling the possible maximum horse power developed by a normal four-cycle engine so as to produce a greater mean effective pressure at a high speed of revolution. Thus, a "regular" 25-horse power motor would be developing twice that power at the same weight.

This motor will soon be brought out by the Requa-Coles Co., 206 Broadway, New York, of which Air. Gibson is consulting engineer.

New Patent Decision.

An interesting decision is rendered by Commissioner of Patents Moore, under date of June 25, 1909, in the matter of a pending application for patent of R. M. Viniello for an airship. The primary examiner rejected the claims on the ground that the device sought to be covered is inoperative and required a demonstration of operativeness, which should have been complied with within a year; instead of which applicant files an argument to show operativeness and utility, which was held irresponsive by examiner and accordingly application was regarded as abandoned.

Commissioner's present decision restores application to pending files and directs examiner to give full action on the merits of the case, so that all questions involved can be appealed to the next higher court — namely, examiner-in-chief—and not consider the points piecemeal in such manner that applicant would have no right of appeal in any disputed point.

Goodale Repeats N. Y. Performance Over Newark.

During his engagement at Newark, Frank W. Goodale made another sensational airship trip over the streets of a city, this time over Broad St., Newark. The success of the trip was marred, unluckily, by the forced landing on account of the gasoline tank working loose.

From Submarine To Airship.

Christopher J. Lake, of Bridgeport, father of Capt. Simon Lake, inventor of the Lake submarine boat, is at work on an apparatus of Ins own design and has secured an option from Stephen C. Osborne, owner of Hippodrome park, where the new flying machine is to be built and tested. Several men are now at work there to carry out the ideas of Mr. Lake, but their work is enshrouded in complete mystery, no one being privileged to give out any information in regard to it.

The Highest Balloon Ascension in America.

In correcting a recent statement made in a Xew York newspaper. Prof. A. Lawrence Rotch stated: "The late Professor H. A. llazen of the United States Signal Service, with three companions, rose from St. Louis to a height of 15,400 ft. in the year 1887. Professor Hazen was a trained meteorologist, and his calculation of the height attained is no doubt more trustworthy than a simple reading of the aneroid barometer, which usually requires a negative correction to be applied to the scale of feet, on account of the temperature of the air.

Patent List.

Lafayette J. Brown, Oaklyn, X. J., Xo. 926,804, July 6, 1909. Flying machine of the helicopter type. Two propellers rotating on vertical axes provided at top of a vertical frame, are composed of rims secured to hubs by spokes ami the blades consist of air-tight fabric to act as aeroplanes as well as propellers.

Percival V. Wadleigh, Xeedles, Cab, No. 926,913, July 6. 1909. Flying machine consisting of combined orthopter and aeroplane. The body is provided at each side with pivoted wings composed of hinged slides or shutters which "feather" on the up stroke.

Matthew B. Sellers. Baltimore. Md., No. 927,289, July 6, 1909. Flying machine. More properly an aeroplane composed of a plurality of superposed planes in step-form, each in advance of the next lower one. The rear edges are constructed to tilt for regulation and control.

John Seiler, Union Hill, XT. J., No. 927,605, July 13, 1909. Aeroplane consisting of cylindrical open frame work provided with planes stretched at various points and angles on the frame.

Ludwig Ruppin. Lancaster, Pa., No. 927,815, July 13. 1909. Aerial device combining a tiansversely corrugated member acting as a plane. A counterbalancing" weight at one side of the center of gravity and a rudder blade at the other side of said center.

Simon Lake, Bridgeport, Conn., No. 928,524, July 20, 1909. Airship. Gas bag designated a

hollow body section. Aeroplanes supported thereby and propellers arranged upon each side. Elevating rudders arranged both front and rear of the propellers. Vertical rudders at rear of body section. Means provided for controlling positions of all rudders. Car section, as usual, below.

Frank H. Newell, Terry, Mont., Xo. 928,687. July 20, 1909. "Aeroplane airship." Details of construction not clear from claims and illustration in Patent Office Gazette. Apparently a combination of aeroplane with airship, the principal novelty of which is the application of wings having larger concave curvature at inner portion and smaller convex curvature at outer end.

Oscar Heeren, Paris, 929,217, July 27. Aeroplane. The characteristic features are a supporting plane consisting of two outer wings or planes extending from a central axis on which they oscillate to change the angle of incidence. Two smaller inner wings fill the space near the center which is open in the outer wings. Inner wings operated separately and operated by articulated arm.->

Charles J. Berthel, Pinetown, XT. C. 929.37S. July 27. Airship consisting of an open ended tube provided with lateral wings extending therefrom at each side. A propeller is provided at each end of the tube; vertical and horizontal rudders at each extremity.

Francisco Fronz, Gorizia, Austria, 929,298, July 27. Paddle wheel, particularly for use on airships. Consists of paddles caused to feather by means of a stationary pivot to which they are attached eccentrically disposed with respect to the pivot of rotation.

Anton A. Zalondek, Oklahoma, Okla., 929,302, July 27. Flying machine of the orthopter type, comprising front and rear wings consisting of a series of blades caused to open on the up stroke and close on the down. Intermediate of the wing sections is an aeroplane surface.

Incorporations.

The Bostel Airship Co. of Cleveland, capital, $25,000. Incorporators: Carl Bostel, Frank E. Dellenbaugh, Allen Diemer, John \V. Farley and Thomas S. Fleming.

The Scientific Aeroplane and Airship Co., Xew York; capital, $50,000. Incorporators: 11. C. Beach, \V. A. Hayes, 11. C. Evans.

F. 1. A. T. Co. of Poughkeepsie; capital, $2,000,000. Incorporators: E. R. Hollander, Joseph A. Strauss, Albert E. Schaaf, S. K. Liechtenstein. William F. Ashley, Henry M. Wise and Hcurie Neuhauer.

Aeronautic Exhibition Co. of New York; capital. $7,000. Incorporators: Thomas A. II ill, C. F. Blackmore, Lee S. Burridge.

N. Y. Aerial Mfg. & Navigation Co., Brooklyn. Cap.. $25,000. Incorporators: G. E. Tinker, J. W. Hughes and F\ FYancis.

Ill

Trade Notes.

marine motors for aeronautics.

In a hunt for suitable and low-priced motors for flying machines, inventors have turned to the 2-cycle marine engine people. The latest instance of this is in connection with the El-bridge Engine Co., of Rochester, N. Y., who have never considered their engines in connection with aeronautics until they began receiving inquiries from inventors. During the past few weeks, their factory has been visited by several people, and in each instance the result of the visit was the placing with them of an order for an engine to be used in aeronautical work.

u. & h. macnetos on new antoinette motors.

Voison Freres, of France, builders of the famous "Farman" aeroplanes, have just completed and delivered two more machines, propelled by eight-cylinder Antoinette motors of 55 h. p., the propeller being attached directly to the crank shaft, and using a special, eight-cylinder IT. & H. high tension master magneto for ignition. The magnetos themselves weigh only about six kilograms each, or 13.2 pounds, the total weight of the motor being only about 265 pounds. The first meter of this light type fitted with the U. & II. master magneto gave entire satisfaction, and led to the ordering of a second magneto.

It is said that the Wright Brothers while abroad carefully examined the U. & II. high tension magneto system used on these motors, and it is expected that they will have occasion to use one of these magnetos very shortly in their experiments, a magneto of this style now being on the way to this country for this very purpose.

The new motors present marked difference in design from the Antoinette creations of previous years. The cylinder and head containing the valves are cast separately and in two pieces, it being found an advantage to use this construction, as it made machining easier and a considerable degree of lightness obtained. The new motor departs radically from the former design, in that the cylinder and valve chamber form a single piece, which makes for an entire absence of joints in the construction. This piece is of steel, but owing to the difficulty of securing a light steel casting, which would have uniform wall thickness, a drop forging is employed. The cylinder is machined inside and cut. The valves are placed one above the other in the chamber, the inlet valve being automatic and the exhaust valve mechanically operated from a single cam-shaft located in the top of the crank-case between the cylinders. The exhaust pipe extends upward, while the inlet pipes are simply short vertical elbows to each of which a small copper tube is attached, extending to one or the other of the plunger pumps, which serve to inject the fuel to the portion of the cylinders over the inlet valve, in this manner dispensing with a carburetor. These pumps are operated by variable throw eccentrics, and the stroke can be varied by a

simple control wheel. The speed of the motor and amount of gas inspired can be changed by varying the fuel supply. The water jackets are of copper, and in the separate head construction are mechanically applied, while with the single piece cylinder they are deposited by electrolysis, there being no joints.

stevexs ski.i.s wf.stox ha1.i oox.

A. Leo Stevens has sold to E. B. Weston, Dayton, O., a 56,000 cu. ft. balloon to be named the "Delight," after Air. Weston's daughter. Delivery is promised about August 20.

Correction.

"Dear Sir:

"In your last issue it is reported that owing to the lateness of the train which brought the Wright Brothers to London on the occasion of their last visit, there was no one present to give them an official welcome.

"As this would look as though we in the Aero Club did not take much interest in the arrival of such distinguished men, I would like to point out that the report is incorrect and that several members of the committee of the Aero Club were present to welcome Messrs. Wright at Charing Cross station on their arrival, and also to bid them farewell on their departure from Waterloo station.

"Yours truly,

(Signed) "THE HON. C. S. ROLLS."

Encouraged by the success with the Williams helicopter, recorded last month, Messrs. Berliner and Williams will build, though separately, a new apparatus, which is expected to actually fly. It is suggested that a successful helicopter must be a compromise, based purely on empirical experiments, and very little on mathematical theories, which can only be applied after full development of the practical machine.

The aeroplane which is being built for E. L. Thomas of Buffalo on designs of George Francis Myers of Hammondsport is about finished. It was erroneously stated last month that this" machine was for E. R. Thomas.

William Van Sleet, of Pittsfield, Mass., who has made more than 35 balloon ascensions since lie started in two years ago, is reported as building an aeroplane.

Mr. W. L. Man- of the Buick Motor Co. is building an aeroplane and a special motor.

foreign news letter

New World's Duration Record—Flies With 10 h. p. Motor Record Cross Country Flight—Farman, Tissandier and Paulhan Make New Records in Over Hour Flights—New French-Dirigible on Long Trip—Zeppelin I Again in the Air—Record Month in Aviation—French Aviation Meets Drawing Crowds at Juvisy, Vichy and Douai—Many Bleriot Machines Ordered—Australian Prize Fund.

Australia.

The Australian Minister of Defense has put up a prize of $25,000 for an Australian made aeroplane suitable for purposes of military defence. The Australian Aerial League is to add a further $25,000.

England.

Cody has made some slight alterations in his controls, and on July 20th succeeded in making a flight of four miles over the Laffan Plains. He has, however, not entirely overcome the great tendency of his machine to undulation.

Baron de Forest has offered a prize of $20,000 for the first British-made machine that crosses the Allaire. C M 1" 1 ^

Sir W. Hartley has put up $5,000 for the first flight from Manchester to Liverpool.

S. F. Edge, of the Xapier Motor Co. and Xapier motor boat, in each of which a few years ago he figured as one of the pioneers of daredevil driving, has offered to build the English nation a satisfactory airship for a guarantee of $60,000 to cover out-of-pocket expenses.

One of the largest "polytechnics" in London, the Northampton Institute, in Clerken-well, has entered aeronautics on its calendar. Beginning with its next session, which opens in September, it will commence a four years' course.

Tt is proposed to establish a school of flight at Portsmouth which is a great naval and military centre. One of the most active spirits in the movement is Patrick V. Alexander, one of the best known patrons of aeronautics in the world.

A. V. Roe has been able to make some 300-yard flights on Lea Marshes with a 10 h. p. J. A. P. motor, driving a 7 ft. 4 in. propeller.

hare and hounds balloon race.

In competition for the cup which Hon. C. S. Rolls offered, six balloons entered, at Hurling-ham, July 17. as "hounds," Mr. Rolls using his "Imp" as the hare, piloting himself. Three of the competing balloons were owned by ladies. After two hours and ten minutes of travelling Mr. Rolls brought his balloon down, followed quickly by Mrs. Assheton llarbord's "Valkyrie." pilot C. F. Pollock. 70 yards away. A. M. Singer did a little better with his "Satellite," landing within 12 yards of the hare balloon, thus winning the cup as the nearest hound.

France.

bleriot flies nearly an hour—makes record cross country flight.

Louis Bleriot.—After returning to Paris from Douai, where we left him last month, he flew the "XI" at Issy on June 30th, going to Douai again on July 2 to win a prize with the "XII." On the 3rd he flew 5 kms., and then made one of 47 mi 11. 17 sec, covering 47.27 kms., further flying stopped by motor trouble.

On the 4th at Juvisy, in the "XT." he was well on his way to a new monoplane record when the gas gave out after flying for 50 min. and 5 sec.

Tilt CROSS COUNTRY fl1cht.

On July 13th. early in the morning. Bleriot started at Etampes on an officially observed cross country flight for the Prix de Voyage of the Aero Club of France, the conditions of which allowed an intermediate landing. Starting at 4.44 a. 111., he flew over trees, wires, railroad train and villages to a voluntary landing near Barmainville at 5.40. The officials started him off again after a little wait. Toury was the next place passed, then Chateau-Gail-lard, Dambron, Artenay to the selected spot at Chevilly, near Orleans. The distance figured 41.2 kms.. and the net time 44 min. 30 sec.

By this flight Bleriot won $1,000 as pilot. $800 as constructor, Anzani $600 as maker of ergine, and Chauviere $400 as builder of the propeller. Half of the money has been paid and the other half becomes available if the record is not beaten before January 1 next. After the flight, it took hut 35 minutes to dismantle the machine and start it on its way to the Bleriot factory.

‘11 a speed trial at Douai on the 18th. his best time was 2 min. 29 sec for 2 kms., while on the 8th he was able to make it in 2 min. flat.

Bleriot has undertaken to build 36 machines on order by November i, at $2,000 each. Al fred Leblanc gets the first.

i hour 23 minutes for farm \x.

Henry Farman has jumped to the fore again, beating all his previous recfords in an

IIS

i hr. 23 min. flight at Chalons on July 19, late in the afternoon. On the 21st he took up M. Cockburn, the Englishman whom he is teaching to operate the flyer he has purchased from Farman, for 3 kms. The total weight of the occupants of the machine, with gas, was 206 kilos., for the 50 sq. m. of surface. The power is 50 horse. On the 22nd Farman made a 15 minute cross country flight, and Cockburn got so he could fly for 11 kms. Then on the 29th he flew 22x/2 min.

roger sommers now at the top—makes new world record.

Roger Sommers, the latest in the field, began his trials at Chalons on July 3rd with three good flights of 2-3 kms. in a circle with his Farman machine. The next day he increased his time to 30 mins. After flights of 15 and 19 mins. on the 13th, and 27 and 12 mins. on the 15th, 30 mins. on the 17th. he flew for 1 hr. 4 mins. on the 18th. More flights up to 18 mins. on the 20th, while on the 22nd he jumped to 1 hr. 5'/ mins., followed by one of 38 mins. On the 2yth he beat Farman himself by flying 1 hr. 23 mins. 30 sec.

On August 7th Sommer wrested from Wilbur Wright the laurels gained in his record flight of 2 hrs. 20 min. on December 31 last, by flying 2 hrs. 27 min. 15 sec. The moon was still shining when he started on his early morning flight.

When he had been up two hours there was a demonstration by the few spectators who had gathered. Soon he equaled the Wright record, but he made no move to descend until his superiority was beyond dispute. When at last the machine touched the ground at a quarter to six he was seized and carried off the field in triumph, stiff with cold and fatigue, but otherwise none the worse for his exploit.

Sommers took his seat in an aeroplane for the first time on July 3. Since then he has been flying daily on the Chalons moors, gradually increasing his distance. He first came into prominence July 27, when he made a flight of 1 hr. 23 min. 30 sec; this at once ranked him among the most prominent aviators. On August (i he remained in the air

1 hr. 50 min. 30 sec. August 4, his thirty-secoud birthday, he celebrated with a flight of

2 hrs. and 10 sec. This is "going sum."

On the 8th, after a short flight, he stopped the motor too soon and landed roughly, damaging the machine.

That he is almost a thorough master of his machine is shown by the fact that on one occasion he made a moonlight flight of ten minutes with Chinese lanterns hanging from the corners of his aeroplane, and a cross country flight.

The meeting at J'ichy, with $6,000 offered in prizes. July 18-25, proved rather a fiasco, and ended in disaster through a terrific storm which blew over the grand stand and damaged several machines. During the week the only aviators who met with any success were Tissandier and PauHiau. Tissanclier on a Wright took the Grand Prix de Vichy with 20 km. in 23 min. 29 sec. The race across the

River Allier on the 21st resulted in a close contest between Tissandier and Paulhan. the latter doing the 2.5 km. across the river and back in 5 min. 1 sec, beating Tissandier by only 2-5 of a sec. During one of Paulhan's attempts at crossing the stream something went wrong while over the water; but he managed to alight on an island. In the prize for the greatest aggregate of time in the air, Tissandier, with a total of 1 hr. 23 min., beat Paulhan by less than 2 min. For the fastest time over a circuit of 1.666 km., Tissandier won in 1 min. 52 sec, beating Paulhan by 27 sec.

Delagrange has been taking lessons at Juvisy from Count Lambert on the Wright machine, after the latter's return from exhibition flights in Holland. Delagrange talks of attempting to fly the Wright across the Channel.

M. Demanest was out at Chalons on July 9 in the "Antoinette IV," and on the nth made a couple of flights of 16 min. duration each. In the second one a sudden gust of wind struck him heavily down, and the machine was much damaged.

three in a voisin biplane.

Beginning with short flights the end of June, on July 3,41/. Jean Gobron, at Chalons, made at once a sensational performance and a novel record in his Voisin machine. He took up two passengers together, one of whom was a lady. They were Mine. Colliex and d'Al-meida. The trip lasted 5 min., and was at a height of about 5 111.

On July 9th Gohron won one of the Aero Club de France 500 m. prizes, flying 5 minutes. On the nth he increased his time to 10 min. On July 13th he was up at Chalons 7 min. in a 20 km. breeze. He was entered for the events at Rhehns, and will at least put up a good showing against Bleriot in the passenger-carrying contest.

Paulhan.—In France more encouragement is given short flights than in America, it appears. For instance, Louis Paulhan, formerly one of the mechanics of the "Ville de Paris," who is flying a Voisin fitted with a 7 cylinder 80 h. p. Gnome motor, made many flights before he attempted to stay up any length of time, yet his flights were duly chronicled as great successes. At Douai, July 10th, he managed 2 kms., and on the 13th ran up to 15 min., repeating this the following day. On the 15th he added his contribution to the sensational

one hour seventeen minutes.

flights of the month by remaining continuously at a comparatively good height for 1 hr. 17 min.. 19 sec, over an official distance of 47 kms. On the 18th he beat Wright's height record (no m.), clearing by a wide margin a balloonette at 120 m. altitude. The next day he added a cross-country flight to his accomplishments, covering 20 kms. in 22 min., from Douai to St. Nicholas, making an intermediate stop about a kilometer out to adjust the carbureter. On the return from St. Nicholas the wind freshened and the motor began giving trouble. The landing was rough, in a barb wire fence, damaging the machine somewhat. Paulhan in his Voisin and Bleriot in his

monoplane had a little brush at Douai, Bleriot doing best for the kilometer in i min. 9 sec., Paulhan doing it in 1 min. 37 sec.

"Dc Rue" (Capt. Ferber). at the July 4th meet at Juvisy, captured the second of the La Gatinerie prizes of $500 for a 3 km. flight at Juvisy; the first was won by Bleriot. De Rue made the 3 km. in 3 min. 47 sec. which was 12 sec. better than Bleriot's time. Other events were a hot air ascent and towed flights. It is now an open secret that the name of De Rue covers the identity of Capt. Ferber. The captain has been practising with a 50 h. p. Voisin during the past months, but has made only short jumps. After making short flights at Douai, he went to Belfort, continuing short flights.

There are apparently some enthusiasts in France who, however, hesitate at the high speed of the aeroplane. One of them has anonymously given a prize of $200 to the Aero Club for the production of a low speed machine.

The Ligue National Aérienne, which has control of the Weiller $200 for the defeat of Wilbur Wright's height record, has decided that competitors must clear a balloonette anchored at a height of 110 m.

During military mam envers at Longchamps, July 14. the dirigibles "Ville de Nancy" and "Republique," advancing from opposite directions, took part in the mameuvers.

A long trip was made by the "Ville de Nancy" from Paris to Nancy on the 16th-18th. One descent was made on account of a damaged propeller. Another forced descent was made to reinflate with hydrogen. During the last stage of the journey 175 miles were made in $V2 hours.

The 'A'ille de Nancy" was constructed by the Société Astra. The volume is 3.300 eu. m., 10 m. in diam., 55 m. long. A 1.000 eu. m. balloonette is provided, and there are in the rear the four appendages as in the Clement-Bayard, of which this new ship is practically a duplicate. The motor is a Bavard-Clement, 115 h. p., driving a Chauviere "Integral" propeller in the front end of the tubular frame.

After arriving at Nancy practice ascents were continued.

The new French military dirigible, "Col. Renard," began its trials July 14 at Meaux.

The Aéronautique Club de France has organized monthly gliding competitions, using its school's glider.

During October the Aero Club de France will organize an event at the Juvisy flight course, with $1,000 in prizes.

The "République" made a 130 mile journey from Chalais-Meudon on August 4, lasting six hours.

At Issy, on the 21st., Fournier. in his Voisin, made six flights oPabout 0 kins. each. Capt. Burgeat in his Antoinette made some short flights.

The same dav CrjHje>ianade a circuit of the course in his Voism.

The School of the Ligue Nationale, at Juvisy, has not yet produced any aviator of mark* but it looks as if M. Gaudart, one of

the latest students to be beard from, will do well. After quite a few lessons he managed to circle the track three times, and that in a wind so gusty it eventually blew him down. By August 1 he improved so he could fly 7 min. for the benefit of Bleriot. V01£ u_ < ,

Alfred Leblanc, the famous balloonist, has begun trials with his Bleriot. a copv of the "XI."

Count de Cournet, whose first experience with the Delagrange machine was recorded last month, has now got acquainted with his Voisin biplane, and was about to circle the Juvisy course with ease.

Germany.

A company with a capital of $250.000 has been formed on Frankfort-on-Maiu under the auspices of the Disconto Gesellshaft of Berlin to work the new patents of the DellwikFleischer Hydrogen Co., and it is believed that hydrogen of 99 per cent, purity will be produced at a price of 4 cents per cubic metre by the new plant which this concern will put upon the market.

The military "Zeppelin I" is now completely repaired after the accident mentioned last month, and on July 3 the trip was continued to Metz. Count Zeppelin issued a statement calling attention to the fact that, the ship being now nearly four vears old, the covering is not now entirely waterproof, though it has until of late withstood heavy showers. Ascents were then made at Metz. The Zeppelin I. the old "Til" of 1907, modified and elongated, is the fifth airship built by Zeppelin. The count has been negotiating with the Prussian railroad administration for a working arrangement between his proposed airship passenger lines and he suggests that the depots should be enlarged so as to afford shelter for the dirigibles. .

On its third attempt to reach Colognerfrom Frankfort the Zeppelin 11 was successful, and arrived on August 5. after having been delayed by unfavorable weather. The big airship left Frankfort, cheered by a crowd of 50,000 people. Its progress was reported by telegraph as it sailed down the Rhine. At Limburg, Neu-weid. Remageu and Bonn great throngs as sembled to watch it. As it approached Cologne, however, it ran into a thick fog and went off its course some ten miles to the southwest. At Dueren it got its bearings again and headed straight for the city. After circling the tower of Cologne cathedral it made a safe landing at Bickendorf, a suburb. The distance between F'rankfort and Cologne in a straight line is no miles, but the airship covered considerably more than this. Its average speed must hav been about 25 miles an hour.

The Zeppelin II flew from Friedriclvshafen to Frankfort on Julv 31, a distance of 2-") miles, with Count Zeppelin himself at the helm. On August 2 it made its attempt to reach Cologne, but when within 30 mile> of its destination was forced back by strong head winds. On August 3 the ship wuit but a short distance when two of its propeller dades came off.

The Zeppelin II has been acquired by the War Department, and is to be stationed at Cologne.

Berlin, Aug. 5.—The military dirigible "Gross II" returned here at three o'clock this afternoon after a flight to Halle and return. The distance, 217 miles, was covered in-~"i5 "hours and 40 minutes.

Holland.

M. Lefevre has been experimenting at The Hague with a Wright bought in France. His longest flight so far has been 3.5 km.

Italy.

L. Calderara has, on the advice of his doctor, given up flying. He suffers from some heart trouble. But before giving up he made a flight of 40 m. in the Wright machine during the first week of July, and showed that iu.ther his accident nor his weak heart affected his nerve and skill.

A new dirigible has had its first trials. It is 130 ft. long, 78 ft. diam., and the speed is^ stated as 30 m. p. h. /-n* . . ~> 1

bleriot crosses english channel

The dates July 19, 25 and 27 will ever remain monuments of progress, for on these days attempts were made to fly across a large body of water, one of them resulting in complete success.

Three aviators had been waiting on the French shore of the English Channel for a favorable moment to fly to England. There was Hubert Latham, a newcomer in the public eye, with his Antoinette IV monoplane installed at Sangatte, near Calais; Count Lambert, in his Wright biplane at Wissant; and Louis Bleriot, in his own monoplane at Les Baraqucs, near Calais.

The French government had placed fast torpedo destroyers in the Channel ready to follow the aviators at any moment, and the Marconi Co. had established wireless communication between Sangatte and a hotel in Dover.

The attempt for the Daily Mail's $5,000 prize was made by Latham on the 19th, and resulted in a splendid non-success. After man}' days of weary waiting, the weather was at last propitious. At 6._|8 a. m. the start was made, running down the slope at Blanc Nez. After going six or eight miles the engine began misfiring, and at last stopped altogether. At the moment of its stopping Latham was a thousand feet high, but he glided safely down to a wet "landing," the machine striking the water at good speed and floating. In the interval before the boats reached him, perfectly dry, Latham calmly lit a cigarette and fiNed himself for a wait. The machine was later hoisted on a tug and the return made to Calais. The same evening Latham left fo'-Paris to get another machine, the 100 h. p. "Antoinette VII." and the next night it was on its way. The new machine is identical, except for its slightly increased surface.

liLERIOT's WONDERFUL FEAT.

On the morning of July 25th Louis Bleriot flew across the English Channel from Calais to Dover, England, in his monoplane, and won the $5,000 prize. The distance is about 31

miles, and he was in the air thirty-seven minutes. The flight was accomplished without incident, and apparently with the greatest ease.

Bleriot left the Terminus Hotel, at Calais, at three o'clock in the morning and drove out in an automobile to Baraques, where his aeroplane was housed. As the weather seemed favorable, he notified the torpedo boat which the I'rench government had assigned to him, and began preparations for the flight. The aeroplane, which is Bleriot's eleventh, was found in good condition; the motor ran smoothly and powerfully. At four o'clock he mounted his seat and made a short trial flight of a quarter of an hour, landing near the edge of the cliffs. There he waited for the sun to rise. The weather was foggy, so that the coast of England could not be seen, and there was a light southwest breeze.

At 4.30 Bleriot, clad in a khaki suit with a ciose-fitting cap. again climbed into the car. \nzani. the designer of the motor, himself cranked it, and at 4.35 the aeroplane shot into the air. Bleriot rose rapidly to clear the telegraph wires strung along the edge of the cliff, and sailed out over the water at an elevation of about 250 feet.

The torpedo boat put on full steam and headed for Dover, but Bleriot, making over forty miles an hour, quickly passed it. In his own story, printed in the London Daily Mail, he says that after flying for about ten minutes the chalk cliffs on both sides and the torpedo boat were completely lost in the fog, and as he had no compass he was compelled to let the aeroplane take its own course. As a consequence the wind took him out of his way, and when the English coast became visible he made out Dover Castle far to the west. He had to turn the machine almost at right angles. Now, too, the air currents set up by the cliffs began to be troublesome. This was by far the most difficult part of the trip.

However, he reached safely a green meadow two miles east of Dover, which had been marked with a big French flag as a suitable

IK)

landing" place. A sudden wind whirled the machine around, and Bleriot shut off the motor and descended sharply from a height of sixty-five feet. He struck the ground with a severe bump, breaking the propeller, but without harm to himself. Two Frenchmen who had been expecting his arrival were the first to welcome him and to help him from the machine. An automobile quickly took him to Dover, where the torpedo boat, with his wife on board, had just hove in sight. lime. Bleriot came ashore in a small boat, and Uncouple were heartily cheered.

A guard of police was necessary to protect the aeroplane from souvenir hunters, who would quickly have wrecked it and carried away the last fragment. " As it was, the wings were covered with autographs. Soon the enterprising city officials erected a tent over '₯ and charged sixpence admission

Bleriot and his aeroplane reached London on the 26th, the aeroplane to go on exhibition and the aviator to receive the £1,000 prize of the Daily Mail which he won by his flight. The prize was awarded at a luncheon at the Savoy, and Air. Haldane, the Secretary for War, was the principal speaker. The Aero Club has decided to present M. Bleriot with a gold medal similar to that which it conferred on the Wrights. M. Bleriot received his honors modestly, and managed to stammer "Thank you" in English.

The manufacturers, of course, come in for their share of the honors. Anzani motor, Continental cloth, Bowden wire control.

LATH All's SPLENDID SECOND ATTEMPT.

Hubert Latham, whose gallant attempt to cross the Channel prepared the way for Bler-iot's successful trip, was caught napping, liter-

ally as well as figuratively, and lost by a few minutes his chance to tie with Bleriot for the Daily Mail prize. The two aviators had agreed that if both made the flight the same day they would divide the prize, regardless of which was actually the first to touch English soil. When on the morning of the 25th he found that Bleriot had actually started, he ^ made a desperate attempt to follow, but the risiiiP' wjncl conipelle^JImri to descend. fie swallowed his disappointment as be"st he could, and when the news of Bleriot's landing was Mashed across to Calais he sent back the message: "Hearty congratulations. I hope to follow you soon."'

True to his word, Latham made a second trial on July 27, and moreover announced his intention of continuing straight on to London if he succeeded in crossing the Channel. A great crowd gathered on the cliffs and roofs of Dover when the wireless announced that he had left Calais. Presently those with glasses made out a black spot in the sky, approaching rapidly. Tt was Latham, and he seemed headed straight for the landing place that had been prepared for him. The ships in the harbor set up a terrific din with their whistles. But suddenly the machine faltered, recovered for a moment, then settled swiftly down on the water, still two miles from its goal. Instantly the sea was alive with all sorts of craft to the rescue. The aviator was picked up, wet through and with a cut caused by his goggles breaking. The cause of the failure was the motor, which stopped for no apparent reason.

The aeroplane easily floated, though a little down at the head. The following day it was towed to Calais and hoisted out by cranes.

flying assured for hudson fulton

Hon. James M. Beck, former Asst. Atty. Gen. of the U. S., Chairman of the Aeronautic Committee of the Hudson Fulton Celebration Commission, has returned from Europe where he has been negotiating for flights in New York by the most prominent foreign aviators. MM. Bleriot, Delagrange and Latham are willing to come provided satisfactory financial inducements are offered.

While Mr. Beck was abroad, Mr. Hammer, the Secretary of the Committee, has been industrious and has secured Curtiss' signature to a contract. Then, too, the Wrights, while no promise has been made by them and though they have turned down every request and proposition for flights here thus far, it is believed, look with favor upon the request of the Commission and if not interfering too much with their own plans, will consent to take part.

In the proposed plan, the Wrights and Curtiss will not enter into competition at all but make purely exhibition flights. They may.

however, elect to enter the international competition which is proposed.

Chas. F. Willard will, by that time, be making long flights and can be considered as another big feature. It is not at all unlikely that such flights as are made will be somewhat sensational.

Dr. Julian P. Thomas is working on a marine "windwagon" of greater power than the one he had at Morris Park which made 30 miles an hour. This will he used in the naval pageant.

Tt is expected that a number of American dirigibles will lake part. The expense con nected with the securing of any of the great foreign airships was found too great.

The aeronautical features of the celebration will, with one exception — the New York ii'oiid's N. Y.-Albany tlight, which is under the control of that paper and the Aero Club of. America—be in charge of the commission itself and all aero organizations ;rc asked to co-operate towards making the affair a success.

the bleriot xl

The Bleriot XI has been changed eonsiderahly since the description given in the March issue. The surface has lieen increased and the motive power changed from the It. K. I'. .'!•">. Its characteristics are as follows :

(.s. The spread of the machine is •J.'.I'.s ft. with I ."><>.5 sij. ft. surface. When lirst built it had but l-U si|. ft. The wings are composed of single inemhcrs, independently detachable' from the chassis, set at a slight dihedral angle. The main cross beams m<asure. in cross section, about " by •)\ ins., and the ribs, about VI in. cross section, arc spaced 7 in. apart on these beams. Some of these ribs, however, are strips of aluminum reinforced in front by a strip of wood. The main rib on each side next the chassis is of wood, built up in channel section. From the front and rear edges, which are both sharp, the maximum thickness between the upper and lower surfaces is about .'iVi ins. 'the covering, top and bottom, is Continental fabric. The planes are capable of being warped, and the angle of attack is slated at 7 deg.

Frame.—The ash and poplar frame is square in cross section and measures about I'.'! ft. in

length. It is braced with w.....1 struts and piano

wire ties. It weighs 45 lbs. and will bear UC.o lbs. in the center without bending. The pilot sits inside the frame .just at the rear edge of the main surface. lie rests his hack against a leather strap, while his feet are placed on a pivoted cross piece which operates the vertical rudder. Vertically in front of the aviator is the lever for warping the wings and controlling the wins;- tips at the rear end. This lever occupies the left hand, while the right is free lo control the throttle and spark levers, or to increase the pressure in the oil tank by pressing a rubber bulb. A two-

wheeled chassis supports the front part of the apparatus and the rear part rests on a single wheel of smaller diameter.

The two front wheels are mounted on castor brackets. The chassis to which these wheels are attached consists of two tubular steel columns

braced together with two w.....len beams, on one

of which the front end of the whole frame rests. This beam is fastened to the heads of the columns by a steel strap so arranged that the frame rests in a kind of cradle. The upper beam is merely a strut between the two columns. A clever combination of springs and rubber bauds take all the shock in lauding.

SltibHiti/ Device. In the rear are the four horizontal stabilizing planes. The center ones, of about 17 s<|. ft. surface, are fixed. At the outer edge of each of these is a movable tip operated in conjunction with the warping' of the wiugs by means of the lever and gear especially invented by lileriot. Thirteen feet from the rear edge of the main plane there is a vertical rudder, of about 4 V. si), ft. surface. These rear planes drive the aeroplane up or down in place of the usual front horizontal rudder.

Mullir.—Anzani. 3 cyl.. air cooled. h. p..

weight t.'i'J lbs., controlled by liowden wire. It has auxiliary exhaust ports. It drives a Chau-viere "Integral'* directly connected propeller at I.SoU r. p. m.

Pro/idler.—IVo bladed. wood, C.N ft. diam.. L'.7i> ft. pitch, pull about "J20 lbs. at full speed. Cliau-viere claims 00-07 per cent, efficiency for this propeller.

Totals.—Length L'C.iM ft., weight with pilot and gas for .'! hrs.. CCn lbs. The machine lifts 4.:iS lbs. per sq. ft., and the weight carried per unit of power is ."><) lbs. It flies at '!4 in. p. h. One authority gives the weight with pilot and fuel as 715 lbs., 4N4 lbs. for the machine alone.

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MOONLIGHT AND SUMMER SKIES

(Continued from page 85)

us into beds—just about the time the first birds were beginning to sing.

After breakfast (later in the morning), Mr. Geller, about twenty of the young men students, some guests of Mr. Geller's, Miss Cantor, the Suttons and the "balloon people" went to the swamp to see about the health of the balloon.

Here we spent the day, and here Miss Cantor spread a delightful and delectable lunch. Imagine being seated mi life preservers, in the middle of a swamp, feeding nn fried chicken and ice cream.

It was lots of fun watching the men struggle round. "Follow me!" commanded Mr. Geller, and he straightway fell in up to Ids waist.

Toward evening man}r hands and willing hearts had the entire outfit off the swamp. We drove back to the school, where we were most excellently entertained during the evening and the next morning, and about 11:30 on Jul}- 5 we said our good-byes.

They tell me I am to have the Eldridge-Simmermau cup for long-distance ballooning by women out of Philadelphia. After such a delightful adventure, this seems like getting the penny and the cake.

F. J. Cornick, of Grand Haven, Mich., ha^ about completed a glider.

FOR SALE.—11 h. p. 2 eyl. Peugeot motor at $200. Address: Peugeot,care of Aeronautics.

UNIVERSAL AUTO SUPPLY CO.

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WANTED.—Aeronautic motor, 25 to 35 h. p., new or second hand, in first class condition. State all in first letter. Address : Frof. U. Sorenson, Berwyn, Nebr.

FOR SALE

Balloon "INDIANAPOLIS"

Has been used one time, breaking world's record for duration of flight for 40,000-cubic-foot-balloon.

Won National Handicap Race;

Also

Indiana Endurance Race,

remaining in the air 19f hours, carrying 2 passengers, Dr. Goethe Link and Russe Irvin, regular equipment and 640 lbs. of sand.

Wish to sell on account of buying dirigible. RUSSE IRVIN 10th and Canal Sts. Indianapolis, Ind'

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Pedersen Manufacturing Company

(established 1884. Incorporated 1906) 636-644 FIRST AVENUE NEW YORK

when you visit MORRIS PARK

don't forget lo visit the aeronauts' retreat

Morris Park Cafe and Summer Garden

866 Morris Park Ave., near Morris Park.

Special lunch served at moderate prices. Private rooms for parlies with ladies. All bottled goods sold as represented. Telephone, 239 Westchester. John J. Dragnett, Prop.

F. O. ANDREAE

REGISTERED

SOLICITOR OF PATENTS

Aeronautic Inventions a specialty at home and abroad

Central Valley, N. Y.

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RESIDENT TAFT has officially recognized the science of aeronautics. The

SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN

recognized it fifty years ago, and has ever been its advocate and ally, and a faithful recorder of the latest aeronautic developments.

Aeronautic Patents

Having devoted especial attention to aeronautic patents, we are exceptionally well equipped to advise and assist inventors. *J Valuable information sent free on request.

WRIGHT FLYING

 

Scientific American'!

 
 

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You must read the Scientific American, to keep posted.

$3.00 PER YEAR. SINGLE COPIES, 10c.

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In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 120

THE CURTISS AEROPLANE

(Continued from page 87)

operated from the cam shaft, the oil being fed through the hollow cam shaft to the main bearings thence to the crank, and connecting rod bearings, the overflow from the case returning to a separate reservoir underneath the engine, from where it is again pumped through the system. The crank cast* is of, aluminum alloy, McAdamite, and the^ shafts' are of vanadium steel. The pistons and connecting rods are of aluminum alloy. Valves both in head actuated by a single push rod and cam. Weight, including oil and water pumps, is 85 pounds. Ignition is by Bosch magneto, weighing 12V2 pounds. Power developed, 25 h. p. at 1,300 r.p.m., with a maximum speed of 1,800 to 2,000. Weight of complete power plant, motor, radiator, magneto, oil and water pumps, about 192 pounds. The shaft of the motor coincides with a line drawn from the pivot of the front control to that of the rear; 2 ft. 3 in. above rear beam.

Propeller—Wood, 6 ft. diam., 7 in. wide at extremity, 4 in. at the center; pitch 17-18 deg. Direct connected on engine shaft.

Framing—Principally clear Oregon spruce, though bamboo is used as shown in drawings ; fish-shaped spars. Distance front to rear struts, 42 in.

Jl'eight—Total weight, with operator, 550 pounds.

®f)e aeronautic é>octetp

MORRIS PARK, WESTCHESTER, N. Y.

Join Now at the Opening of the Season.

MEMBERSHIP AFFORDS STERLING BENEFITS.

WORKSHOPS—Where members may WEEKLY MEETINGS — Held at the construct their machines without club house of the Automobile

charge for space or facilities. Club of America, at which

valuable discussions take place,

MOTORS —With which members and every assistance and en-

may make their initial trials at the couragement given.

cost only of gasoline and care. T „^ T„ ,, , -

y LECTURES — Well known scientists

SHEDS —In which members may tell things worth knowing.

house their machines, rent free. LIBRARY —Including a complete

-TT , file of all aeronautical patents.

GROUNDS—Where members may try

out their machines, learn the art EXPERIMENT FUND—A fund is of flying, and make flights. forming for the work of investi-

gation and experiment.

EXHIBITIONS—To which all mem- „ , . , ,

i i j r i • CATAPULT — Apparatus provided

bers are admitted free, and in 1F F

which they have splendid oppor- fo,r s™mZ "rop anes that are

tunities to make their inventions wheel-less or for gliders.

known either in model or full GLIDING MOUND—For the practice

scale. and exercise of gliding.

Twenty-one Members of the Society are now building Machines.

NO INITIATION FEE. DUES-$10 A YEAR.

WRITE SECRETARY FOR BOOKLET.

FORM OF APPLICATION FOR MEMBERSHIP.

To the SECRETARY, The AERONALTIC SOCIETY,

Morris Park, Westchester, N. Y.

I desire lo become a member of the Aeronautic Sociely. If elected I agree to pay the membership fee of $10 per year, and lo abide by the Rules of the Sociely.

Name..................................................

Profession or Occupation............................

Dale..................1909. Address................................

III The

magnetos

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Used on Voisin Aeroplane, 8 cyl. Antoinette Motor, driven by Latham.

Bowden wire for controls

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RARE BOOKS.

Under this heading we publish each month a list of such rare and out-of-print books as can be secured. The demand at the present time for rare aeronautical works is great, and it is usually not possible to obtain more than one copy at a time of any one work.

TRAVELS IN SPACE (Valentine & Tomlinson), introduction by Sir Hiram Maxim; many illusts. 8vo., cloth, London, 1902............................... $4.00

ASTRA CASTRA (Hatton Turner), many illusts., royal 4tp., boards with leather back, uncut, London, 1865... $10.00

TRAVELS IN THE AIR (James Glaish-er, Flammarion, Tissaudier, etc.), 125 illusts., royal 8vo., cloth, London, 1871 $6.00

AERIAL WORLD (G. Hartwig), 8 plates, map, many woodcuts, 8vo., cloth, N. Y., 1875......................... $4.00

Same, new ed., same illusts., London, 1892 ............................... $4.50

DOMIxNION OF THE AIR (Rev. J. M. Bacon), 24 plates, 8vo., cloth, London, 1904 ............................... $2.00

DONALDSON & GRIM WOOD, A True Account of Their Last Balloon Voyage and Tragic Death in Lake Michigan, thin, 121110., wrappers, illust., Philadelphia, 1875 (very scarce) ............................ $300

THIRTY YEARS IN THE CLOUDS, with Observations on Thunder and Lightning, Formation of Rain, Hail, Snow, etc. (John Wise), 8vo., pamphlet, 1870.....$5.00

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BOOKS AERONAUTICS BOOKS

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A ERIAL WARFARE, by R. P. Hearne, with an introduction by Sir Hiram Maxim. First systematic popular account of progress made by the countries of the world in aeronautics. 57 views of airships and aeroplanes : Wright, Farman, Delagrange, Bleriot, Ferber, Zeppelin, Patrie, Republique, &c. Profusely illustrated. $2 06 postpaid.

]\/r OEDEBECK'S HANDBOOK, by Major H. W. L. Moedebeck and O. Chanute. The only handbook of aeronautics in English. All phases of aerial travel fully covered. Invaluable for the beginner and a ready reference for the aeronautical engineer. Data on screws,-pressure, ballooning, physics, etc. Illustrated. $3.25.

PROBLEM OF FLIGHT, by Herbert Chatley.

Especially written for engineers. Outline of contents : Problem of Flight, Essential Principles, the Helix, the Aeroplane. Aviplanes, Dirigible Balloons, Form and Fittings of the Airship. Appendix furnishes much instructive information. 61 illustrations. Price, $3.50.

VyAR IN THE AIR, by H. G. Wells. The greatest fiction story in recent years. Enfolds a breathless story of aerial battle and adventure, a triumph of scientific imagination, possibly not beyond the realm of actuality. Illustrated. $1.50.

^STRA CASTRA, by Hatton Turnor.

This rarest aeronautical work in existence can be supplied to a few first inquiries at $15-All in perfect condition.

AERONAUTICAL ANNUAL, by James Means. For years 1S95, 1896 and 1897. Extremely rare. Illustrated.

$1.50 each.

BALLOONING AS A SPORT, by Major B. Baden Powell. A handbook of ballooning and guide for the amateur. Full instructions for the equipment and management of a balloon. Illustrated.

Price $1.10.

"NJAVIGATING THE AIR, by members of the Aero Club of America. Interesting record of ideas and experiences of 24 distinguished men. Contributors: Wright Bros., Chanute, Pickering, Rotcli, Zahm, Stevens, Herring and others. 300 Pages, 32 Illustrations. 95

My Airships (Santos Dumont). Illustrated. Crown 8vo.( cloth..................

Resistance of Air and the Question of Flying (Arnold Samuelson). Illustrated. 12mo., 42 pp., paper.......................................................

Flight Velocity (Arnold Samuelson). Illustrated. 45 pp., 12mo., paper............

Flying Machines, Past, Present and Future (A. W. Marshall and H. Greenly). Illustrated .................................................................

Paradoxes of Nature and Science (W. Hampson). Illustrated. Two chapters on balloons as airships and bird flight. Svo., cloth, N. Y., 1907...................

Airships Past and Present, by Captain A. Hildebrandt; translated by W. H. Story. Large Svo., cloth, profusely ill. Latest book on motor aerostation..........

Aerial Flight: Aerodynamics (F. W. Lanchester). Large Svo., cloth, illustrated, 442 pp. Most complete work on the subject; just out......................

How to Make a Glider

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AERONAUTICS J777 Broadway, New York

Artificial and Natural Flight

By SIR HIRAM MAXIM. With 95 illus.

Cloth, illus., S vo., $1.75 net

A concise history and description of the development of (lying machines. Description of his own experimental work. Explaining the machinery and methods which enable him to arrive at certain conclusions. Fully describes the work of other successful inventors. Chapter on dirigible balloons.

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Balloon Race

AERO CLUB OF ST. LOUIS

October 4th, 1909

Limited to 80,000 cubic feet capacity. Open to pilots of the Aero Club of America and its affiliated clubs.

First Prize $600, or Cup

Second Prize $400, or Cup

Third Prize $300, or Cup

Fourth Prize $200, or Cup

Fifth Prize $100, or Cup

Endurance Prize

&

SAME AFTERNOON Race for balloons, limited to 40,000 cubic feet

First Prize, St. Louis Centennial Cup Second Prize, Cup

Gas will be furnished free ^ For further particulars write to

to all contestants the Aero Club of St. Louis

MORE HONORS FOR

ST. LOUIS AND HONEYWELL

RECORDS PROVE IT

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Tn answering: advertisements please mention this magazine.

HEMS CONTESTS AND HUDSON-FULTON NUMBER

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motors — With which members may make their initial trials at the cost only of gasoline and care.

SHEDS — In which members may house their machines, rent free.

grounds—Where members may try out their machines, learn the art of flying, and make flights.

exhibitions—To which all members are admitted free, and in which they have splendid opportunities to make their inventions known either in model or full scale.

Weekly Meetings — Held at the

club house of the Automobile Club of America, at which valuable discussions take place, and every assistance and encouragement given.

lectures — Well known scientists tell things worth knowing.

library — Including a complete file of all aeronautical patents.

Experiment Eund—A fund is

forming for the work of investigation and experiment.

catapult — Apparatus provided for starting aeroplanes that are wheel-less or for gliders.

Gliding Mound—For the practice

and exercise of gliding.

Twenty-one Members of the Society are now building Machines.

NO INITIATION FEE. DUES -$10 A YEAR.

WRITE SECRETARY FOR BOOKLET.

FORM OF APPLICATION FOR MEMBERSHIP.

To the SECRETARY, The AERONAUTIC SOCIETY,

Morris Park. Weslchesler, N. Y.

I desire to become a member of the Aeronaulic Society. If elected I agree lo pay the membership fee of $10 per year, and lo abide by ihe Rules of the Society.

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ERONAUTIC

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FOR SALE—Two complete captive balloon outfits, consisting of gas bag, net, valve, and car for 4 persons, controlled bv motor windlass with clutch and brake, besides patent portable hydrogen gas works for inflation.

ALSO—One-man gas balloon ; one-man airship, 7 h. p. motor and gas works. Write for prices, inclosing stamp.

cALBERT BOND LAMBERT

And he hovers o'er the city

With his heart so full of pity For the hum-drum walking people

In the town. And along the Milky White Way

He does transcendental golf play Or he motors swift and gayly Up and down.

Out in staid and proud St. Loui-ee,

By the "show me" old Missouri, There's an aeronautic skipper

With a cloud defying craft. He sails up around the dipper

So he'll hear the music better As the heavenly choir is picking

Many tunes out up aloft.

AERONAUTICS

main office 1777 broadway new york

Published by AERONAUTICS PRESS, Inc.

V. Jones, president L. Jones, treas.-sec.

E. PERCY NOEL 304 NO. 4TH STREET ST. LOUIS

CLEVE T. SHAFFER

302 holyoke ST. san francisco. calif.

Entered as second-class matter September 22, 1908, at the Postoffice, New York, N.Y., under the Act of

March 3, 1879.

Vol. 5

Octobkr 1909

No. t

Aeronautics is issued on the 20th of each month. It furnishes the latest and most authoritative information on all matters relating to Aeronautics.

SUBSCRIPTION RATES.

One year, $3.00; payable always In advance.

Subscriptions may be sent by express, draft, money order, check or registered letter. Make all remittances free of exchange, payable to Aeronautics. Currency forwarded in unregistered letters will be at sender's risk.

Foreign Subscriptions.—To countries within the postal union, postage prepaid, $3.f>0 per annum in advance. Make foreign money orders payable to Aeronautics. No foreign postage stamps accepted.

Important,—Foreign money orders received in the United States do not bear the name of the sender. Foreign subscribers should be careful to send letters of advice at same time remittance is sent to insure t>roper credit.

aero forum and market place

With this issue is inaugurated a new department called "Exchange."

Progress in Aeronautics would be materially assisted if those interested could and would gather together, discuss their ideas, hold model contests, form clubs and bring organized endeavor and influence to bear on the popularization of this new sport and science and the encouragement of it through education and governmental co-operation. For one thing, strong pressure should be put upon Congress to appropriate ample sums for the carrying on of experiments, and the purchase and operation of airships and flying machines.

With the rapidly increasing realization of what aerial locomotion means, there must be few large cities in America where there are not 20 or 30 enthusiasts... These should get together, and those who are willing to meet others with a view to mutual profit and co-operation are asked to write a post card to "Aeronautics," 1777 Broadway, New York, and we will do our best to put them in touch with others. We would like to see a club in every large city.

We will print in this new department all such requests. If you know of anyone in-

terested, won't you give us his name, and we will do our part.

If you have a suggestion which you think will aid a constructor of a machine, write it out for printing in this mutual aid forum.

If you have a new idea for a flyer, describe it briefly, and send it in. If you have invented a new device, part, attachment or complete machine give us a concise description of it. In this way you may interest capital in your plans.

If you have money to invest in aerial apparatus, let us know it and we will print a note with whatever conditions you may wish to impose. If you do not desire your name used, please so state in your communication.

If you have suggestions as to the part the government ought to take, if you want any information, or have it to give, let "Exchange" be the medium.

The idea in this department is to bring together every force which will make for advancement. We want to make "Exchange" an aeronautical forum and market place.

Let us have your help to keep this of ever-increasing benefit to all.

EDITOR'S NOTE.—All interested in the advancement of aviation have zvclcomed the suit brought by the Wright Brothers, and aviators all over the world slwuld commend the Wrights for taking the initiative towards establishing "the limits to zvhich other inventors may go" zvith respect to their particular patent. Of course, nothing the courts may say will establish any limits beyond those contemplated in the claims of the Wright patent, as the courts have no jurisdiction of anything not covered by said claims in the present suits.

We have asked Mr. Hill, who has made a special study of aero patents, to give his un-

biased viezvs of the legal aspect of the case. This article should not be considered as forecasting the action of the courts, but only as the expression of professional opinion. .Of course, exception zvill undoubtedly be taken to Mr. Hill's statements, as mind is never infallible, but zve wish it understood that the position of AERONAUTICS, in this instance as in all others, is one of strict impartiality.

The only papers in the suit to zvhich access zvas possible were those in the action brought against The Aeronautic Society, but it is improbable that the other papers in the other suits differ materially.

IHAVE carefully inspected the file wrapper at Washington in the Wright Brothers' case, and also their bill filed in the Unitea States Court for the Southern District of New York in action brought against The Aeronautic Society, and am at a loss to find the motive for such a suit at this time.

It may be laid down as a general principle that it is always advisable for a patentee holding a valid patent to prosecute infringements without undue delay. On the other hand, assuming that his claims may fall down in whole or in part, it would hardly seem good policy to prosecute a suit at an early stage in view of the fact that weaknesses in the patent would thereby become so generally well known as to bring about competition which might otherwise be intimidated under the supposition that the claims are perfectly valid.

The procedure in a suit of this kind usually begins with the filing of a bill by the Plaintiff, an answer by the Defendant, and so on until issue is joined. These pleadings usually contain the opinions of experts in an art and reference to exhibits in further illustration of the contentions set up. Following this, the usual testimony is taken on both sides. The patent itself is only prima facie evidence and its invalidity may be established by the Defendant upon many grounds. In the case in question, many issues of fact remain to be determined from the evidence and the adjudication is subject to appeal to the United States Circuit Court of Appeals.

In the event of a successful issue in this suit for the Wrights, its effect upon the industry is uncertain. In the first place success by the Wrights is somewhat doubtful, as will more fully appear hereinafter; and in the second place, should they be successful, it may be upon grounds which will not insure success to them in a similar subsequent suit.

The Wrights Brothers' claims, as read and interpreted from the content of their file wrapper, do not cover supplementary surfaces, and it is difficult to understand how supplementary surfaces can be brought within what was intended to be covered by the patent granted to them. .

More particularly with regard to the issues involved in the present suit, the claim has been based upon United States Letters Patent numbered 821,393, dated May 22, 1906. It appears that the application upon which this patent was granted was filed March 23, 1903, by Orville and Wilbur Wright as individuals, having retained no attorney at that time. The application does not seem to have been received very kindly by the examiner in charge of the case, who rejected all the numerous claims upon the following patents:

220,473, Greenough, Oct. 14, 1879. 397,647, Holmes, Feb. 12, 1889. 542,100, De Los Olivos, July 2, 1895. 606,187, .Butusov, June 28, 1898. 133,046, McDermott, Nov. 12, 1872, and German patent 84,949, to Rentzsch.

A quotation from the examiner's action reads as follows:

"The claims are furthermore all rejected as based upon a device that is inoperative or incapable of performing its intended function. The examiner is unable to understand how the machine is supposed to operate."

In a letter from the Wright Bros, dated May 4, 1903, in response to the above action, on page 2 thereof, the following statement (which is quoted therefrom) seems indicative of the scope and limit of the invention as understood by the Wright Bros, more than six years ago.

status of the wrights' suit

By Thomas A. Hill

"The tivist is in the surface itself, and has no reference to a variation in the angular inclination of a plane to a car or body suspended beneath it."

In the second action by the Government Examiner, dated July 14, 1903, the case was again rejected as inoperative and on the grounds previously stated, and the Wright Bros, were advised to get an attorney.

On February 16, 1904, counsel appeared on behalf of the Wright Bros, by filing a Power of Attorney, and on July 14, 1904, filed an amendment on behalf of the Wright Bros, in which it was particularly set forth that the structure had been successfully used as a soaring and as a flying machine for several months.. The argument of counsel in this amendment is particularly interesting at this time. It is as follows:

"In other words, the lateral balance of the machine is controlled by this twisting of the ends thereof as contradistinguished from the method usually employed of shifting a zveight for this purpose. The Greenough patent, and others of that type cited, employ a rigid plane which tilts as a zvhole, none of them being provided zuitli means for controlling the angular position of the lateral margins so as to present them to the wind at different angles. This is the main feature of applicants' invention, and as a means for attaining this end, the further feature of connecting the planes by uprights, of zt'hich the end ones at least are connected to both planes by flexible joints, is employed."

In the next action of the government, dated Nov. 8, 1904, the following additional patents were cited against the Wright Bros.' application.

338,173, Jongewaard, March 16, 1896.

728,844, Boswell, May 26, 1903.

And British patent to Moy, 15,221, dated June 25, 1897.

This action contains suggestions from the examiner as to phrasing for claims in the Wright Bros.' patent.

On January 13, 1905, an entire new set of claims, following the suggestions of the examiner, were incorporated in the case, and the claims were generally restricted to the bending or warping of the plane.

The next government action bearing date May 9, 1905, does not show much progress. The examiner said:

"On reconsideration of this case with the substitute claims in view, it is found that the ambiguities, inaccuracies and imperfections of the specification, drawing and claims (some of which have already been noted) are such as to preclude intelligent action upon the merits of the claims until the defects in question have been remedied."

The next amendment was entered on behalf of the Wright Bros, as of August 17, 1905, and contained entire new drawings, substituting three sheets for the original one sheet of drawings and substituting new specification and claims. In the meantime counsel for the

Wright Bros, had had a personal interview with the examiner upon the case.

In the next action of the government dated Dec. 2, 1905, objections as to new matter and wrong description in the new specification were alleged and further suggestions by the examiner were offered. The case was then further amended on December 6, 1905, with explanation, and on January 26, 1906, the examiner further objected to the condition of the application. Finally, on April 13, a final amendment complying fully with the examiner's requirements was filed, and the case was formally allowed on April 21, 1906.

The above data is limited to the first patent obtained by the Wrights in the United States, the only other patent in this country obtained by them is numbered 908,929, dated January 5, 1909, and has no reference whatever to the present suit.

In the patent of the Wrights upon which suit has been entered against The Aeronautic Society, the claims are based upon the movement of the marginal portions of a normally flat aeroplane about an axis transverse to the line of flight or upon an axis perpendicular to said lateral margins, or to different angular relations to the normal plane of the body of the aeroplane. These different forms of expressing the flexing movement substantially establish the limitations of the eighteen claims in the Wright Bros.' patent referred to, except claims 12, 13 and 16, the claims 12 and 13 having reference to a flexible rudder as an element independent of the main planes of the aeroplane, and claim 16 having special reference to the rearwardly extending arms free to swing upward at their rear ends.

There is nothing in the Wright patent contained to warrant the inference that they at any time intended to use supplemental surfaces for accomplishing substantially what they accomplish by warping, flexing, bending, twisting or otherwise distorting the lateral margins of their main planes. From an inspection of the Curtiss machine, it will be seen that it is quite impossible to flex, warp or otherwise bend or move the main planes and that a similar effect to that produced thereby is obtained in the Curtiss machine by supplemental or auxiliary surfaces, planes or rudders, which are pivot-ally mounted and at all times under the control of the operator. It must be clear from the arguments of the Wrights and their counsel in prosecuting their claim for the patent, that it was clearly not their intention to "employ a rigid plane which tilts as a whole." This is precisely what Curtiss has done. Indeed, the Wrights could not have claimed such construction, as it is well known in the art, and if Curtiss has at any time attempted to obtain a patent on such construction, this fact has long since been well known to him. It must be clear that what the Wrights did apply for and were granted were claims limited to the distortion of the lateral margins of the main

important contests promised in st. louis events, oct. 7, 8 C& 9

Although the money prizes offered to winners in the aerial contests to be held by the Aero Club of St. Louis, October 4, 8 and 9, on the occasion of the celebration of the Centennial of the founding of St. Louis, do not compare with the large amounts offered abroad for similar events, a large number of aeronauts and aviators will take part. The Contest Committee has supplemented the prizes by offering cash for the appearance the day of the aeroplane contests, of Curtiss, Bleriot's machine, Delagrange and other successful aviators.

The success of the balloon races is assured by eleven aerostats, nearly all of which have been definitely entered; three of these are small balloons to compete in the event for 40,000 cubic footers, the same afternoon as the race for full-sized balloons.

eight probable starters.

The tentative list for the big race, to which others may be added, follows :*

Aero Club of America—"New York," entered by Clifford B. Harmon; pilot not named.

Aero Club of Indiana—"Indiana." entered by Carl Fisher; G. L. Bumbaugh, pilot; "Hoosier," entered by Aero Club of Indiana; pilot not named.

Aero Club of St. Louis—"St. Louis No. 3," Albert Bond Lambert, pilot; "Centennial," H. Eugene Honeywell, pilot; balloon not named, John Henry, pilot.

Aero Club of Ohio—"Ohio," Charles Walsh, pilot.

Aero Club of Milwaukee—"Milwaukee," pilot not named.

six dirigibles entered.

Six dirigibles have been entered in the contest to be held October 8, and of these three are positively expected to appear: namely, Thomas Scott Baldwin in his new airship; Roy Knabenshue in his new airship, now nearly completed at Toledo; Lincoln Beachey in his Californian machine. The others who may not be definitely counted on as yet are the 110,000 cu. ft. airship being built by G. L. Bumbaugh at Indianapolis for Carl G. Fisher; the W. J. Smith airship, "East St. Louis," of 25,000 cu. ft. capacity; the "American Eagle," of John Riggs, Hot Springs, Ark., the envelope for which has been delivered to the inventor by Leo Stevens.

Two St. Louisians are expecting to get their aeroplanes in the contest, although neither of the machines had been in the air as late as September 10. One is H. A. Robinson, with the Bleriot-type monoplane; the other Frederick Kubno. with a Farman style biplane. It is probable that a few others now unknown, will come forward at the last minute.

There will be at least .one. though probably

more, well-known successful aviators in the events, October 9. If Curtiss cannot appear, Willard probably will; besides, Delagrange is expected by some members of the committee.

st. louis has six pilots.

The Aero Club of St. Louis has leased a large tract of land adjoining its permanent ascensions grounds, and the fence has been extended to embrace the new tract. It doubles the former size of the grounds and gives ample room for sphericals and dirigibles. A small grand stand of 3,100 people capacity has been built for the use of club members and invited guests. There will be no admission fees. Store rooms and temporary hangers are to be arranged for contestants' use. Thomas Scott Baldwin will make the hydrogen gas for dirigibles at the expense of the club.

In the race for small balloons the new Air Craft Club of Peoria has entered the 38,000 cu. ft. "Peoria," and the Aero Club of St. Louis, the "Dauntless" and the "Missouri." Other entries are expected to bring the total number up to five or six starters. These with eight balloons in the big race would make a total of 14 balloons inflated on the ground at the same time. There is ample provision for this. A 16-in. gas main is now on the club grounds, and it requires only about 40 minutes to inflate a 78,000 cu. ft. aerostat. At present there are only three connections from the main, but as many as needed will be provided in time for the race.

Because a number of the clubs which wish to enter balloons have no available pilots, the Aero Club of St.„ Louis will furnish the men as far as possible. The club will, by the time this issue of Aeronautics is published, have six licensed pilots, as follows: Albert Bond Lambert, H. Eugene Honeywell, John Berry, S. Louis Von Phul, James W. Bemis, Harlow B. Spencer.

to reach grounds.

The ascension grounds of the Aero Club of St. Louis, where the balloon and dirigible events will be held, is between Taylor and Newstead avenues, with frontage on Chouteau avenue and Papin street. Cars, known as the Taylor line, run north and south on Euclid avenue, which is one block north of Taylor. Other surface cars run east and west on Chouteau avenue, .past the grounds. These cars, marked "Chouteau" and "Market," can be boarded as far downtown as Fourth street. All other lines, north of the railroad tracks which divide the city, connect by transfer with the Taylor line.

It is planned to start the aeroplane contests from what is known as Art Hill, in that part of Forest Park which was used for the World's Fair grounds, but has since been re-parked.

balloon race that woke a city

By E. Percy Noel.

ON the evening of August 18 the citizens of Peoria, 111., who passed by a small open tract of land on the water front, saw three white cloths laid out close together and along the edge of each, rows of white canvas bags filled with sand. As dusk came on something round with a netting spread over it was seen. Somebody said "Those are the balloons." "Huh," returned another; "think they'll go up?" "Big fake!" was the rejoinder, with a laugh.

The next afternoon these deflated envelopes of the night before stood plump and taut, snugly held close to earth by encircling ballast bags from the lowest loops of the nettings. The levee was lined with 50,000 persons, who had earlier in the day been watching fast motor

Afterwards I tried to get their point of view. To do so I had to imagine that I had never seen a gas balloon, and I couldn't quite manage it. The trouble with that great crowd which could not believe in balloons as easily as they might in fairies was, not one out of 1,000 had ever seen a gas balloon before.

The Aero Club of St. Louis united with the Air Craft Club of Peoria, which at that time consisted chiefly of Eugene Brown, and showed them. Now Peoria is glad, and, I am told, wants more ballooning. All of three of the balloons came from St. Louis, and H. Honey-

LAMBERT & BE MS

boats on the river. They looked at the balloons in much the same way that a casual spectator might have looked at a "flying machine" twenty years ago. The majority of the people expected to see "professors" in tights appear on the scene to ride the balloons skyward. The others had an idea that these balloons before them were some new kind of "airship" and had their very frank doubts about their being able to ascend from the ground.

I know, because I walked through the crowd and I caught such snatches of conversation as, "They can't get 'em off the ground." Mothers made their children behave with a new bugaboo—"I'll put you in the balloon and they'll take you up," but they themselves did not believe the balloon was reasonably sure of getting off the ground. You might understand such an attitude the night before the balloons had been systematically inflated and made ready, but up to the very moment of the first start it seemed incredible.

well, the builder to whom credit is due, inflated them and got them away without a hitch of any kind. "Beautifully done," was the opinion of all present who knew anything about ballooning. /r\

The starters were the "P^qpia," of 35,000 ft., which proved the winner—a new balloon bought by the Air Craft Club of Peoria and piloted by H. Eugene Honeywell with George E. Smith, the first Peorian to make an ascension, as aid. The "Missouri," of 40,000 ft., was piloted by Albert Bond Lambert of the Aero Club of St. Louis, with James W. Bemis, also of the St. Louis Club, as aid. In the "Illinois"—the "Dauntless," renamed—35,000 ft., were S. Louis Von Phul, who had just been granted his license by the Aero Club of St. Louis, and Harlow B. Spencer, another St. Louis club member.

The "Illinois" is a heavy balloon and the occupants of the basket were heavy. The result was that the mixed gas provided would

not lift more than one and one-half sacks of ballast besides the complete craft and aeronauts. Of course, the balloon was out of the race from the start. It landed nine miles from the starting point after 35 minutes in the air.

But "Peoria" and "Missouri" gave a good race. Of only 35,000 ft. capacity respectively, these aerostats carried their teams through the night and into the next day, making runs that set new official records for balloons of less than 40,000 ft. The winning "PA>ria" travelled 230 miles, landing seven miles south of Dixon, Mo., at 11.15 a. m. on the second day, after 17 hours 5 minutes aloft. The "Missrjuri" accomplished 165 miles, landing near Mct«ssa, 111., at 10.15, after 16 hours 5a minutes in the air; and the "Illinois" at Gr<^\W,and, 111.

But to return to the incredurous fifty thousand massed on the Peoria levee, within a few blocks of the center of the principal business district. They saw the basket hooked on to the deep yellow colored envelope of the "Missouri"; saw Albert Bond Lambert and James W. Bemis, with the expensive Richard instruments hanging from the ring and rigging, ready in the basket. But did many of the fifty thousand believe then that for these men it was a simple matter, that there was really not the shadow of a doubt about their aerostat being a safe and stable craft? I think not.

When Mr. Lambert, who had calculated his ballast to a nicety, weighed in very quick time, he sailed away heavy, as is his practice, and headed southeast to cross the Illinois River. The crowd was deadly still. There was not even an "Ah" to relieve the quiet. Suddenly Mr. Bemis, who had been very busy with a hand camera, flung out his arm and gave a good American yell that sent an echo of triumph along the valley. For the echo was the answering roar of the multitude.

When over the Illinois River Lambert threw over his 300-ft. drag rope. The crowd cheered again as the big ball unwound and let the rope out to its full length. The wind was blowing at about six miles an hour on the ground, and for a time the "Missouri" appeared almost motionless. Then ballast could be seen going overboard, and soon the aerostat rose to an altitude of perhaps 2,000 ft., where a better air current was caught that took the envelope out of sight in a little more than half an hour.

CROWD SPOILS VON PHUl/S START.

Von Phul experienced difficulty in getting away because the crowd, unkept by the police, massed about the basket, rendering weighing a difficult process. He tried several times to get away with more than four sacks of ballast, but was finally unsuccessful—it w.as all he could carry. This was because the balloon he used was the old Dauntless, several times varnished and originally a heavy-fabric balloon. Besides,

he and his aid, Spencer, were the heaviest pair in the race. He started several hundred feet from the ground cloth, the open space on the levee, one solid mass of struggling people. The balloon was carried by the wind close to the ground for several hundred feet, Von Phul discarding ballast. Finally she lifted and sailed free, following course a few points nearer due south than the "Missouri." When beyond the river Von Phul let out his drag rope, and when it had unrolled it appeared to be not more than a hundred feet from the ground.

Before Honeywell got the "Peoria" ready to start, the "Illinois" dipped out of sight beyond a clump of tree in the distance. The "Missouri" could then be fairly seen, a dim speck in the distance. Honeywell had superintended the hooking up of the balloon of his two competitors, while the "Peoria." which he was to pilot, was still close to the ground, with the ballast bags on the end of the netting.

VON PHUL LANDS AT GROVELAND.

In half an hour after the Illinois started he slid the ballast bags down to the foot ropes, hooked up and got away in spite of the fact that at the last moment it was discovered that his valve cord was fouled. This made it necessary to pull the envelope down by the foot ropes so that Honeywell could reach into the appendix and straighten the .cord. Honeywell weighed promptly by putting on, instead of taking off, the ballast, and seemed surprised at the lifting power of the gas. To avoid the crowd, he allowed the balloon to get away "light," so that it rose straight into the air and did not attain equilibrium before it had reached an altitude of some 1,800 ft. It followed the course of the two that started first, with fourteen sacks of ballast aboard.

CROSSED OZARK CREST.

The Peoria crossed a crest of the Ozark range at an altitude of 6,000 ft. and landed five miles beyond, in a field on the farm of John Riddle. The balloon was deflated near the banks of the Gasconade River. So sequestered was the spot that it was twenty minutes before the farmers, who had been following the balloon as best they could, through the hills, reached it. After much delay a farm wagon was procured and the deflated envelope, basket and aeronauts went up to the hill to Dixon. They did not arrive there until 6 o'clock last night.

The voyage of the Peoria establishes a new record for the West, and probably for America. Never before has a balloon of 35,000 or 40,000 cu. ft. capacity traveled so far. The record is only forty-seven miles behind the distance made by John Berry and Paul McCullough, when they won the national balloon race from Indianapolis last June in the University City. The Peoria is 8,000 ft. less than half the capacity of the victorious balloon in the national race.

After landing Honeywell stated that he could have kept the balloon up longer, but the appearance of the rugged country ahead made him seek the first landing place. Whether or not he believed that he had Won the race before he landed he did not say, but was content to take what distance he and his aid had been able to make rather than to get farther from the railroad in the rough Ozark country. No map was carried in the balloon, and the aeronauts did not know where they had landed, or what the prospects were farther along than they could see at their high altitude. Each aeronaut slept an hour on the voyage. Smith had never been in a balloon before, but he kept watch successfully while Honeywell got his rest.

Both Honeywell and Lambert traveled a fairly straight course, somewhat southwest at an average speed of about 15 miles an hour. The Peoria crossed the Mississippi River at Louisiana, Mo. At 4.30 a. m. it went over the Missouri River at Morrison.

The Missouri was reported at about 9 a. m. at Coulterville, 111., and at 9.20 a. m. at Til-den, 111., through a message dropped by Lambert and Bemis. This indicates that the balloon had begun to travel north when Lambert landed at Marissa. Lambert said that he had only one sack of ballast left before he came down.

peoria club not long formed.

The Aircraft Club of Peoria, under whose auspices the race was held, is a new organization with a small membership. The active head of it is Eugene Brown, who made arrangements with Honeywell to get together three balloons for a race from Peoria. Brown also sought the assistance of the Aero Club

of St. Louis, through its honorary member, Lambert. Brown agreed to purchase, on his responsibility, a new 35,000 cu. ft. balloon from Honeywell, to be named the Peoria, though confident the Aircraft Club would afterward purchase it. The Peoria Club supplied the gas and facilities for inflation, and Honeywell and the Aero Club of St. Louis provided two other balloons and three licensed pilots, and obtained the sanction of the Aero Club of America. The Peoria Club offered a trophy to the pilot making the greatest distance.

Honeywell did not receive the definite order for the balloon "Peoria" until scarcely two weeks. He carries balloon cloth in stock, ready for hurry orders, and so was able to build the balloon and deliver it at Peoria in time for the race. But to do so he found it necessary to work day and night at his Cottage Avenue workshop. The basket was ready first and arrived at Peoria Monday. The envelope and netting, with the valve and appendix holder, was not finished until Tuesday, when it was promptly shipped to the Peoria Club. To hurry the work the fabric was dried in the sun after being varnished, which made it a slightly darker color than the "Missouri," which was dried in a cool, dry cellar, but equally efficient. All three balloons in the race were made by Honeywell in his own shop. Honeywell superintended the inflation of each at Peoria, beginning the night before the race, and it was accomplished without incident.

Honeywell got the cup offered by the Brown, Page and Hillman Co. It measured 33 in. in height, decorated with the wings and wheels indicative of the new mode of flight, the aeroplane, valued at $250. Peoria is very enthusiastic on the subject of aeronautics.

cABRO show during hudson-fulton

An aeronautic exposition will be held in Madison Square Garden, Xew York, from September 25 to October 2, during the period of the Hudson-Fulton celebration, when thousands of tourists and visitors will be in the city.

During the Hudson-Fulton celebration there will be held in and about this city flying-machine demonstrations, balloon and airship ascensions and world-famed men like Wright and Curtiss will give public exhibitions.

The show is expected to be a rendezvous of the student and lover of aeronautics, to stimulate the interest therein, encourage inventors and experimenters, bring together those working in the various fields of aeronautic endeavor, interest capital in construction work and en able those who have perfected machines and appliances to market their product.

There are promised exhibits of full-sized and

famous machines, airships, flying machines, bal loons, kites, gliders, windwagons, engines, models, plans, etc. This will unquestionably be a splendid opportunity for inventors to show what they possess and to see what others are doing. Ample space is allotted and there will be no charge for space in this show. Exhibitors will also be furnished with season tickets without charge. Trade exhibitors, approved of by the directors, can have space for demonstration and sale of goods without restriction.

The Gordon Bennett cup, just won by Cur tiss, has been promised by the Aero Club of America, and a Curtiss biplane will be the star attraction.

For information, address Alfred Chasseaud, 1 Madison Ave., Xew York,

lateral automatic stability device

By Dr. H. W. Waiden

LONG has the pendulum principle been considered as the possible, most probable and simplest agent for the solution of a lateral balance device for aeroplanes. Many-ingenious designs have been patented by inventors who proposed the use of an extra weight in addition to the weight of the machine; while others employed the operator's seat, or the radiator, the wheels, the chassis or a gyroscope to act as the suspended body of a pendulum.

In trying to solve the balancing problem, I

or suitable transmissions may be used to a single propeller for a single propeller machine (G) as well as to the two propellers for a double propeller machine.

The motor will hang in a vertical line with or without a load, or overload, on the propeller, as has been proven by my experiments at Morris Park. Any diversity from the horizontal of the machine will cause the weight of the motor to bring in action suitable stabilizing surfaces which will immediately bring the aeroplane to the horizontal position. The

concluded that the pendulum stabilizing idea should be right were it not to add an objectionable extra weight or complicate the structure to the impractical. Therefore, I resolved to use the motor itself as a pendulum, and have reached surprisingly splendid results.

The motor (M) is suspended from its own shaft (A), with ball bearings, D, D1 and D2 separating rods E and E1 on the second shaft B. Shafts A and B are parallel. On shaft B the propeller may be directly attached (F)

gyroscopic action of the flywheel and the heavy weight of the motor may allow us to consider this thus obtained pendulum as a fixed point around which the planes are swung; not as a pendulum suspended from fixed planes with undesirable oscillating movements that would tend to unstabilize rather than stabilize the machine laterally. Remarkable also is the total absence of vibrations on the machine itself due to this mechanical balancing arrangement.

*Patents applied for.

constructional aids-v.

CONTINUING this series of helpful notes, contained in the April, June, August and September numbers, there will be found on this page some valuable points in the building of the aeroplane.

Fig. i shows two cross-section views of the method of laying out a propeller. Layers of white pine or spruce may be used, or spruce and ash can be alternated.

ness, then varnish with shellac, rub down again and reshellac with a very thin coat. Some have covered the blades with strong linen after the first glue coat, with then a second coat of glue, after which the propeller was rubbed down and painted with zinc white. The cloth will aid in retaining original shape.

In Fig. 2 a method of attaching horizon al beams and vertical struts is shown, with guy

After having figured out the desired pitch and the angles at various points along the blade, with these records, a drawing and gauges at hand, the strips are coated with hot glue, placed in position and held by clamps till dry. Then the draw-knife comes into play to shape the blades, closely following the pattern and incessantly gauging.

When shaped, cover with a solution of hot glue, rubbing it well into the grain. When thoroughly dry, sandpaper to glass-like smooth-

wire plate. The latter is of steel, inserted as shown. Holes are drilled to take the bicycle spoke nipples which fasten in turn to the guy wires themselves. An ordinary wood screw is beheaded and a thread cut to take a nut.

In our British contemporary, Flight, arc given some schemes for fastenings, as shown in Figs. 3 and 4. The Howard-Wright biplane, in which tubes arc employed throughout, has (.Continued on jiage W>">

the sellers step aeroplane

MB. SELLERS, whose article on his step glider appeared in the June number of * Aeronautics, has been making some power flights.

Following is a detailed description of the apparatus used as a glider:

description of machine.

Fig. 3 is a sectional side elevation of the apparatus used as a glider. Figs. 4, 5 and 6 show the devices by which one secures a regulation or control of the machine. Fig. 7 is a

this: and also offers facility for the application of the regulating device to be described.

When a sudden gust strikes a compound aeroplane or when its speed is accelerated, it tends to tip up in front; and this tendency can be overcome by moving the center of gravity forward; or by diminishing the angle of incident of the planes, and especially the forward plane or planes. Mr. Sellers' method of increasing stability is to construct the planes or wings so they are held in their normal posi-

perspective view. Fig. 8 is a detail view illustrating the means connecting the spars and for securing the cover of the wing. Fig. 9 shows the coupling bar used to connect the wires. Fig. 10 is a detail sectional view of the casing. Fig. 11 is a detail view of the knee block used to connect the spars when the wings are placed at a dihedral angle.

The object of the invention is to produce a better arrangement of surfaces and framing; better stability, and control. In this invention the surfaces are arranged in steps, the highest surface being in front. This1 arrangement of the surfaces, it is claimed, gives greater efficiency than any other, but it is difficult to devise a frame for this particular grouping of surfaces, which shall be light, sufficiently strong and rigid; and have small wind resistance. This invention accomplishes

tion till the pressure on them exceeds a predetermined amount, when they tip up. Their action being independent, any one wing which receives an excess of pressure will tip up; and where there is no excess of pressure there will be no change. Furthermore, when desired, the operator may depress the rear of a wing by pulling on a cord or by some other well known device.

In the form of the device here shown are four aeroplanes, each consisting of two so-called wings, joined at the center by suitable couplings. Each wing, Fig. 8, is arched from front to rear and comprises two spars T and T', and a covering U having transverse ribs U' fastened thereto, the covering having pockets U= into which the spars are slid in erecting the wing as here shown. The ribs arc held in a bowed form by span wires.

tending from the upper end of the rod K, to the strut E resists the lift of the wing and holds the rod K down against the loop 2. When, how ever, the pressure on the wing exceeds the tension at which the spring is adjusted, the spring yields and the wing is allowed to tip up thus diminishing the angle of incident automatically. Furthermore, a cord 7 (see Fig. 3) is attached to the spar T, and is led in any suitable manner to a point convenient to the operator and attached to_any ^suitable leyeji or _hand]e; in • the drawing it is shown attached to a ring; it must however, be slack. When the operator desires he may depress the wing or portion thereof by pulling on this cord. It will be seen that here the automatic and the voluntary regulation are independent, or rather do not interfere with each other. Fig. 6 shows the same device as Fig. 5 except that the "voluntary regulation" is omitted and the spring 6 is attached directly to the spar T'.

Fig. 4 shows another form of the regulating device used 011 this machine. The fork L straddles the strut E and is fastened at its upper end to the spar T'. The springs 11 and 12 hold the fork and the wing in the desired position and the auxiliary spring 6, Fig. 3, together with the spring 12 resists the lift of the wing. This device, while accomplishing the same result as the one before described, does it in a different manner; and it is used on this machine, and is here described, because it has been found peculiarly applicable to the lower wings ; while the other device was found more suitable for the upper wings.

It will be seen that as the curvature of the wing is maintained by the span wires X, this yielding or tipping does not change the curvature but only the angle at which the wind strikes the wing, and in this sense the wing may be said to be practically rigid. The automatic regulation may be applied to any, or all of the wings as desired: also the voluntary regulation ; and where the regulating device is not used, the wing is supported by a post or stay.

the wright brothers

Little caring for the mad world's cry and hue,

They toiled in quiet, patiently and sure

they wrought, As building cautious on each lesson taught By failure, or by what their plans proved

true;

Little heeding that which others thought they knew, Step by step they proved what step by

step they thought, With each success one nearer what they sought,

Until at length their triumph came—they flew.

Ah! master men are they who quiet dare The task which by the world is marked

with scorn, Who reap at first but wormwood and the

thorn.

Vet patient, self-possessed, they toil with care,

Their eyes fixed on success's glorious morn.

"God grant us more such men!" should be our prayer. MERYL DUXKLE.

These four wings are supported by four transverse inclined struts which are suitably fastened to the front ribs of the respective wings where they cross said ribs. The rear spars T', form no part of the framework but are free except as supported by the devices K, L, M, N. The frame formed by the spars T and struts E, etc., is braced by the diagonal tie wires, and is supported in an inclined position by the posts F, F, and the base rails G, G. Stay wires R, R, connect the juncture of parts Q and G with the six lower spars T at points near the crossing of the struts E, E', etc. The fin in the rear is not absolutely necessary for all operations of the machine, but it is very convenient with a gliding machine, prevents sheering, and makes the machine face the relative wind. Of course it is stayed by wires. In fastening the various wires to their staples the hooked coupling rod, shown in Fig. 9, is used. In this construction of coupling rod, it will be noticed the coupling rod is bent between its ends forming an eye and having a shank beyond on the said eye, and a line wire is extended around the shank and through the eye and around the same and then wound around the shank toward the extremity thereof and twisted at the said extremity of the shank around the line wire and thence twisted back around the shank and wire and passed through the loop or eye and around the same.

A greater or less number of surfaces can be used. In the power driven machine a movable rudder of any suitable well known design may be added. Figs. 4, 5 and 6 show different forms of the regulating device. That shown in Fig. 5 is preferably used on the upper wings. A guide bar 1 projecting down from the lower end of the rod K slides freely in the loops 2 on the strut E. The upper end of the rod K has a concentric bore, and a slot at 3 intersecting said bore, and the rod 4 slides at the lower end freely in the bore; but its motion is limited by the lateral bend 8 at its lower end. The upper end of rod 4 is suitably fastened to the spar T' and it is forced out to its limit and held there by the spring 5. The spring 6 ex-

WASHINGTON wants the next International aviation meet and the members . of the Washington Aero Club are sparing no efforts to that end. The business men have given assurances that the money required to obtain the meet will be forthcoming and the question of a suitable aerodrome where a 10 kilometer course could be laid out has been carefully gone into. The result is that it has been found that Washington's surrounding country offers several excellent flying grounds.

The principal argument advanced by the Washington enthusiasts in favor of Washington for the next contest, is that the government is most interested in the present status of aviatio.i and that by selecting the national capital, the Aero Club of America could not be accused of showing any discrimination. Certain members of the Washington club, who hold membership in the Aero Club of America, strongly oppose the holding of the international meet in New York, contending the parent organization would show very bad taste in appropriating to itself the first opportunity that has come to this country to have the international aviation contests.

The success of the contests at Rheims have had a decided effect upon the military experts who have made a study of the application of aeronautics and aviation to military uses. A year ago it was held that the dirigible balloon would prove of greater value in time of war than an aeroplane, but with the stability of the aeroplane demonstrated as it has been, this view has been changed so that the aeroplane is looked upon with greater favor than the lighter-than-air type.

The work of the motor-balloons here and abroad during the past summer have shown that this class cannot be depended upon except under the most favorable conditions. There have been a number of accidents^ even to some of the large foreign air-ships, and these experiences, when compared with the splendid record which marks the more general use of the aeroplane, have mitigated against the lighter-than-air craft.

The principal advantages of the aeroplane, according to the Signal Corps officers who have devoted themselves to the study of the question, are that the heavier-than-air machine can fly closer to the ground and therefore distinguish objects better, and that the aeroplane is less vulnerable as a target than a dirigible, being capable of greater speed and having less exposed surface.

Emile Berliner, who is having a powerful rotary motor along the lines of the Adams-Farwell engine built at his laboratory here for use on the Williams-Berliner helicopter, is also working on an aerial torpedo. This new engine of destruction is built along the lines of

an aeroplane, and is to have a gyroscopic attachment that will aid in giving it direction.

The use of the College Park field is to be extended to private experimenters, according to Gen. Allen's plans. There are a number of local inventors who intend availing themselves of this facility. Sheds will have to be erected by those who intend to use the field for their private experiments.

J. H. Smidley, who has an ingenious monoplane, is ready to give his machine a trial almost any day. He has it at the Bennings race track. It weighs 225 pounds, and is equipped with an eighteen horse-power motor. The appearance of the machine is very promising, the method of control having many features to commend it.

Harry A. Orme, another local inventor, has a bi-plane which he hopes to try out in a short time. It is equipped with a Belgian motor and has a number of original features.

Samuel Luttrell, a local automobile enthusiast, has built a biplane which he is said to have tried out at Rockville, Md. So far he has given no public demonstration of his machine, and it is inferred that his tests developed the necessity for making a number of changes in its construction.

Lieut. Commander Geo. O. Sweet, of the Navy, who is in charge of the Bureau of Equipment, is looking after the interests of that branch of the service in aeronautics. Last year Lieut. Sweet drew up specifications for a machine to be used by the Navy. He conferred with Orville Wright before drawing up the plans. Victor Metcalf, who was then Secretary of the Navy, refused to approve Sweet's plan to purchase an aeroplane, although it is understood that the appropriation made for experimental equipment, and which is disbursed by the Bureau of Equipment, would have provided the funds necessary for the purchase of the aeroplane.

There is still a possibility of the Navy taking up aviation, but no action will be taken until the return of Secretary Meyer. He is understood to be in favor of action in the new field being taken by the Navy. It is probable that Lieut. Sweet will go to Hammondsport when Glenn Curtiss returns from abroad, and that he will witness further experiments with the "June Bug," with which Curtiss made a number of experiments in rising from the surface of the water. It is said that an aeroplane can easily be launched from the deck of a moving vessel without any other initial momentum.

washington for bennett meet

By Our Washington Correspondent

WHILE the estimates which the War Department has submitted to the Secretary of the Treasury for the appropriation needed for the next fiscal year do not include any provision for additional airships for the army, there is little doubt that a small sum will be included before the estimates are sent to Congress in December.

The Signal Corps still has about $25,000 available for aeronautical work, but with the rapid strides being made abroad, there is a feeling in army circles that something must be done by the Signal Corps which will insure for the army a greater aerial navy. It is possible that one of the first steps in this direction will be the equipment of the new aviation grounds at College Park, Md., with a complete experimental laboratory and testing apparati for the use of the aeronautical division.

A comprehensive, plan for an aerodrome and a complete experimental plant was proposed by Lieut. Selfridge just prior to the unfortunate accident at Fort Myer which resulted in his death. His plan was to conduct thorough tests of motors, propellers and the various materials which enter into the construction of an aeroplane as well as the materials from which balloons are made.

order that the Signal Corps officers may continue their work throughout the years.

By the time the use of the Wright aeroplane has become established in the army, the Chief Signal Officer will have received reports from the various military attaches of the United States in Europe regarding the progress and the events in aviation in the foreign nations. Together with the report which Lieut. Foulois will make after his return from the aeronautical congress in Nancy, the observations of the military experts will be used to determine the future course of the Signal Corps with regard to the development of an aerial navy for the army.

It is General Allen's intention to issue speci fications for an aeroplane later in the year, after the results of the various aviation events have been carefully studied. The requirements for the new aeroplane will be more severe than were those for the Wright machine. They probably will exact that the machine carry a small gun in addition to two passengers. Another requirement to which'particular attention is to be paid is that of the motor. Recognizing that the motor is the most important part of a heavier-than-air machine, the Signal Corps officers are devoting considerable attention to that feature.

There is a strong possibility that the instruction flights which were scheduled to take place early this month at College Park, Md., in which Lieut. Frank P. Lahm and Lieut. Benjamin D. Foulois were to acquire the art of flying the Wright aeroplane, will not take place until early in the Spring. This possibility is largely due to the length of time consumed in arranging for the leasing of the grounds, and then because of the time consumed in clearing the grounds of obstructions and building the shed for housing the aeroplane.

Wilbur Wright, who had determined to teach the officers, is to fly in New York during the Hudson-Fulton celebration, and it is therefore doubtful whether he will be able to take up the training of the officers until October. By that time it is feared that the weather in the vicinity of Washington will not afford much opportunity for the training of the officers. Gen. Allen, the chief signal officer, may, in this case, obtain suitable training grounds somewhere in the South. He has already announced his intention of having a permanent aerodrome in ore of the Southern states in

Lieutenants Bamberger, Winter and Dickinson have gone from Fort Omaha to Des Moines, Iowa, with Dirigible No. 1, which is to be operated there during the military tournament September 20-25, and it is possible that Lieut. Lahm may be sent out for that week.

Lieut. Benjamin D. Foulois, Signal Corps, leaves to-day for the Aeronautical Conference at Nancy, France, where he goes as the official representative of the War Department.

Four men from Fort Omaha, Nebraska, have been added to the Aeronautical Detachment at Fort Myer. The Aeronautical Detachment at Fort Myer is now receiving theoretical and practical instruction in aeronautics daily.

A tract of land containing 160 acres has been leased at College Park, Maryland. A contract was awarded on September 7 for the construction of a house on these grounds for an aeroplane. The aeroplane. Aeronautical Detachment and officers who are to receive instruction in operating the machine, will be sent to College Park as soon as the preparations there are complete.

THE success of the Pacific Aero Club's Show just held was beyond our expectations. Moving pictures and lectures added to the interest that the machines and models aroused. President J. C. Irvine, in an address told of the Club's formation and its aims to popularize the science and sport of aeronautics. Mr. Jos. Hasten, the treasurer of the Club, gave an excellent description of a balloon trip he had recently taken. The trip and experiences were vividly portrayed by pictures thrown on a screen. Moving pictures of the Wrights' and other well known machines were given with explanations by \'ice-president Chas. Bradley.

the exhibits.

The following were some of the exhibits: The balloon "Fairy," 10,000 ft., the smallest man-carrying in this country, weighing 64 pounds, belonging to Mr. A. C. Pillsbury of the Pacifi.c Aero Club and a panoramic aeronautic camera specially constructed by Mr. Pillsbury to use with his balloon. Mr. J. Z. Pozadas, Jr., exhibited a full sized aeroplane in the last stages of completion, lie expects to make trial flights very shortly. Capt. P. A. Van Tassell exhibited a pilot balloon. Messrs. Angus Beecher and Carl Wolf exhibited several large-sized kites for photographic work and lantern slides of their triplane glider were thrown on the screen. Mr. Cleve T. Shaffer exhibited his large aeroplane equipped for the show with only a 6 h. p. motor. Models were well represented, prominent among which might be mentioned those of Prof. J. Hidalgo, Mr. Chas. C. Bradley, Mr. Alfred Binritz and A. C. Watkins. Messrs. Zimmerlin Bros, exhibited a 14 h. p. Peugeot motor, weighing 64 pounds.

activity in aviation.

Prof. H. La V. Twining, president of the Aero Club of California, has completed his ornithopter No. 2. The machine weighs 100 pounds, has a spread of 26 ft. from tip to tip, each wing being 12 ft. long and 4 ft. wide at the base. Surface about 65 sq. ft., 32l/2 ft. to each wing. The wings are operated by hand and foot levers. A sweep of 18 in. between hand and foot gives a sweep of 18 ft. at the tips of the wings. Mr. Twining gets a leverage of 5 to 1 at the point where the power is applied; combining this with his weight, he can apply a pull of from 850 pounds to 1,000 pounds on each wing. 1,

He hie ;1 -,t attempted a flight as yet, but T^s bad i< out three times to test strength and develop weak points.

The wings are made of thin slats of maple tiussed, and finally trussed with piano wire. The main body is made of bicycle tubing, ball bearing throughout.

The machine runs on bicycle wheels and the idea is to run along the ground by beating the wings; when sufficient speed is attained the machine is supposed to rise in the air by displacing the center of gravity to the rear.

There is no tail, the fore and aft stability being obtained by a change of center of gravity. The lateral stability is obtained by beating one wing more than the other when necessary. If one wing is held still and the other is moved, it will cause the machine to turn. Displacing the center of gravity forward by leaning forward, causes it to pitch downward. Displacing the center of gravity to the rear by leaning backward, causes the machine to pitch upward.

The wing is covered on both sides by cloth sewed to the ribs which are first swathed in cloth. It makes a very strong effective wing.

Jos. Bettencourt, Bartram Aber and John Driver, of San Leandro, are experimenting with a 35-pound glider of their own make.

A. L. Smith completed the repairs on his aeroplane and expects to have it reassembled with motor in place for trial at Ascot Park shortly.

The Pacific Aero Club has challenged the newly organized Oakland Aero Club to a balloon race during Portola week. The challenge was accepted by Prof. A. Van Der Nail-len of the Oakland Club.

F. O. Andreae, who is now located in Pasadena, intends building a full-sized machine. In regard to same he states:

"My latest machine will be lighter than Cur-tiss' apparatus, need 20 h. p. engine, measure 28 ft. laterally, 28 ft. from front to rear. It is neither a biplane nor a monoplane, has no diagonal bracing wires, nor upright struts. It can be assembled quickly, and readily taken apart, and land safely on uneven ground."

Dr. F. O. Cates of Forth Worth, Tex., has taken out a patent on an aeroplane, and will start building at once.

James W. Price, of San Jose, Cal., has just returned to America after touring India, China, Japan, the Philippines, Java and the Straits settlements, with his two balloons, the "Mogul" and the "Mongolia," and a dirigible "Messenger" of 22,000 cu. ft. capacity. Thirty-seven balloon ascensions were made and two airship flights during the year's trip.

People of the Orient, Mr. Price says, prefer to witness the balloon ascents from a distance rather than pay the small gate fee so that the tour was not wholly a financial success.

pacific aero club's show

By Cleve T. Shaffer.

in the world of aviation

QUADROPLANE FLIES. Wright Brothers Bring Suits.

wiilari) fi tes iv cava da.

PAPERS have been filed by the Wright Brothers in three separate suits — one against the Aeronautic Society, brought in the Federal Court of the Southern District of New York; one against the Herring-Curtiss Co. and the other against G. H. Curtiss himself, the two latter being brought in the United States Court at Buffalo. The bills of complaint are answerable in October.

The suit against the Aeronautic Society is to prevent further exhibition and use of the aeroplane purchased by the society from G. H. Curtiss, and asks for redress from the profits alleged to have already accrued from exhibitions, on the ground that the machine is an infringement of the Wright United States patent, which is No. 821,393, dated May 22, 1906.

If the suits are brought to final hearing, the result will be the first complete review of the state of the art in patent law, and will settle the exact status of the various stability devices now employed in many aeroplanes. In case the claims of the Wrights are upheld, the infringements abroad have vastly outnumbered those in this country, and no doubt suits will be brought in Europe at the proper time.

The bill in the case of the Aeronautic Society is very general in terms, and it is probable that a more specific one will be demanded by the defendant. As all three suits are similar, it is possible they will be merged. The Society states that in the bill of sale of the machine Mr. Curtiss expressly guaranteed to hold it harmless from any suit which might be brought.

When A. M. Herring of the Herring-Curtiss Co. was apprised of the suit, he said, referring to the Wrights: "They have nothing to take action on."

Eight-Year-Old Girl Makes Aeroplane Flight.

Two successful flights were made on Aug. 27 by the W. H. Martin glider at the Martin farm at Canton, O. Miss Blanche Martin, aged 8, a grandchild of the inventor, was the passenger. Miss Martin had watched the previous flight during the morning's experiments and needed no coaxing to be induced M:o take the seat in the machine, ready for the trip above the heads of the spectators. On the second flight she was at her place almost before the machine was ready to start.

"That's more fun than a merry-go-round," she said upon alighting after the flight.

She laughed when 30 or more feet above the ground, as the machine soared from side to side in the grasp of the wind.

M. B. Sellers Flying.

M. B. Sellers, whose "step quadroplane" is fully described in this issue, has made about 50 flights thus far at his place in Kentucky. These were short, from 150 to 165 feet, and not high owing to insufficient thrust. The engine is a Dutheil-Chalmers of a nominal 7 h. p. The weight of the machine is 210 pounds. The flights made are incidental to laboratory work to confirm experiments made there. In the towed flights made with this machine, as per previous issues of Aeronautics, it was shown that a thrust of 40 pounds is required for sustained horizontal flight.

A Front View of Sellers' Machine

Willoughby Completes Biplane.

Hugh L. Willoughby's biplane is now finished and the motor has had trials. The propeller pull is being increased after every trial. Already, Mr. Willoughby says, the pull is enough to get the machine off the ground. The details are as follows:

Total weight, 975 pounds; spread, 44 feet; front to back planes, 7 feet; lifting surface of both planes, 588 square feet: forward horizontal rudder, 36 square feet; forward vertical vane, 6 square feet; after horizontal rudder, 24 square feet; after horizontal vane, 6 square feet; after vertical rudder, 24 square feet; after vertical vane, 8 square feet. Planes have an angle of 4 degrees with "line of flight."

Spruce, cedar, oak, steel and aluminum have been used in its construction. The surfaces are of unbleached cotton covered with aluminum paint. Aluminum paint also covers wood and steel.

A stock motor from the factory of the "Pennsylvania" automobile is used, generating

30 horsepower at 1,500 revolutions. The only change made was reducing the flywheel from 70 to 30 pounds.

The propeller has four blades of aluminum and steel, running at 1,200 revolutions. It is placed on a short shaft, directly connected, at forward end of machine.

The Willoughby patent steering device is used (for airships of any type), which consists in arranging and operating steering rudders (for steering in the vertical plane) at the forward and rear extremities of machine, so as to cause one rudder to operate inversely with relation to the other.

When the forward horizontal rudder goes up the after horizontal rudder goes up also, and vice versa, elevating the bow of the ship and depressing its stern (or the reverse) at the same time; the wind pressure holding the two horizontal rudders fixed at an angle (without the use of a brake) till a change is made with the steering wheel; also the combining with the after horizontal rudder an after vertical rudder (working like a rudder on a boat), both swinging as a unit on a universal joint/

This after combination rudder has a shape or the rear end of an arrow, with four feathers, giving the smallest amount of head resistance with the greatest amount of steering power.

The distance from the center of pressure of the two planes to the center of pressure of the forward and after horizontal rudders is equal.

Luncheon for Curtiss.

A luncheon will be given Mr. Curtiss on Sept. 22, the day after he is expected to arrive in New York.

Nothing definite has been settled in regard •to next year's race. Washington, Los Angeles and other western cities are all anxious to be selected, and no doubt the location will depend largely, after the question of suitable grounds, on which place can promise most in the way of arrangements and prizes.

Luttrell Completes His Biplane.

S. A. Luttrell, in Washington, has finished his biplane and has given the 50-horsepower motor a trial, driving the four-bladed canvas propeller at about 650 revolutions per minute. Mr. Luttrell told a reporter that he had obtained 400 pounds thrust.

The surfaces measure 35 by 7 feet. The propeller is set on a universal joint and is intended to control the vertical and lateral movement of the machine. It is said to have crumpled up on the first test with the big motor. Afterward he took this off, which was a two-cycle affair of his own make, and substituted one of 30 horsepower. The weight of the entire apparatus is given at "about 600 pounds."

Accurate details of the machine are not available.

Wrights Buy 700 Acres.

Springfield, O., Sept. 6.—Wilbur and Or-villc Wright have purchased more than 700 acres of farm land west of here, near Tippecanoe City, as a site for a park to be used in experiments with aeroplanes.

It is reported that the Wrights intend to erect an aeroplane factory on the land.

Foreign Aeroplane to Fly Here.

J. B. Curzon is looking for a place for some trial flights with a foreign-built aeroplane which, he says, is on its way here, with an aviator. The Hempstead Plains have been investigated, and it is probable that any flights made will be there, lie is anxous to have the machine take part in the Hudson-Fulton celebration.

Curtiss to Fly in Chicago.

' Preliminary arrangements for Glenn H. Curtiss to go to Chicago have been made by Thomas W. Ryley, of the Queen of the Moulin Rouge Company.

"I received a cablegram from Mr. Curtiss to-day (Sept. 9), from Brescia, Ita'y, accepting my offer of $8,000 for five successive flights in Chicago, commencing on or abonr Oct. 20, weather permitting," said Mr. Ryley.

"Mr. Curtiss is to make the flignts in the Mame aeroplane with which he won the international contests at Rheims. France. These will be the first flights of a successful heavier-than-air machine in the West, and I expect 200,000 out-of-town visitors to come to Chicago to see them.

"Several sites large enough :o accommodate the crowds have been offered, and the most convenient one will be accepted."'

The "Baddeck No. 1."

After the unfortunate accident to the "Bad-deck No. 1," built by the Canadian Aerodrome Co., at Petewawa military camp, with the "Silver Dart," it was shipped back to Bad-deck for repairs. In the short flights made with it, the Kirkham motor was used. The same motor was placed in the "Silver Dart" in its flight at Petewawa. The "No. 2" is understood now to be about_ready.

Aero Exposition at Paris.

Instead of the automobile salon, there will be held this year at Paris, from Sept. 18 to Oct. 8, an "international exposition" under the auspices of the Association of Industrials in Aerial Locomotion, a powerful organization which includes in its list of members all French manufacturers of balloons, aeroplanes, aerial motors, materials—everything connected with or pertaining to the manufacture and op-

oration of every device for navigating the air. The prospectus of the exposition contains an array of French notabilities. It will be held under the patronage of the president of the republic and the respective ministers of foreign affairs, war, the navy, public works, commerce and the colonies, sustained by the prefet de police and other high officials.of the municipality, so that the enterprise has the fullest support and influence of the French government.

The exposition will be under the immediate management of an executive committee, of which the president is M. Robert Esnault Pel-terie, and the general secretary M. Andre Granet, 62 rue Caumartine, Paris, to whom all applications for admission or space and other correspondence should be addressed.

development of aerial locomotion.

The extent to which the industry of aerial navigation is becoming developed in France is hardly realized by most people who live outside the radius of the aero clubs and the national association of France. Six months ago the builders of aeroplanes in Paris could be counted on the fingers of one hand. Now there are in full operation 15 factories devoted to the manufacture of materials and the construction of aeroplanes of all sizes, forms and designs, besides a dozen or more inventors who are making under cover and more or less secretly individual machines which embody their special and more or less original ideas of what the aeroplane or dirigible airship of the future ought to be. Three papers, established during the past six months, are devoted to aviation; societies, with many hundreds of members among the wealthy and influential classes of French citizens, are working for the encouragement of aerial navigation, and over $.300,000 will be given in prizes which will be open to competition during the year.

The coming exposition will mark the close of 12 months of phenomenal progress and interest in all that relates to aviation, and as such will be an event of world-wide interest and importance.

Los Angeles Bids for Gordon Bennett

LOS ANGELES, Sept. 9.—Los Angeles wants the Gordon Bennett international aeroplane race next year. President Booth of the Chamber of Commerce lias called a meeting for next week to consider the plans. This move is separate from any plans the local aero clubs may have.

Before the opening of the Rhcims meet, Dick Ferris started a movement to secure a second contest and headed a subscription list with $1,000.

Brauner-Smith Biplane Waiting for Motor.

A biplane, somewhat along the line of the Curtiss, has been completed by Pincus Rraumr and A. J. Smith, both of New York, and

members of the Aeronautic Society. They are now looking for a suitable motor. It is possible that this machine will be on exhibi tion at the aero show to be held at Madison Square Garden during the Hudson-Fulton celebration.

Miss Todd's Aeroplane Ready.

The aeroplane which Wittemann Brothers have been constructing for a long time for Miss E. L. Todd of New York is now completed, and was exhibited at the Richmond County Fair, at Dongan Hills, Staten Ishnd. Sept. 6 to 11.

Latest Curtiss Motor.

To the 8-cyliuder water cooled motor which Glenn II. Curtiss installed in the machine used in France, is due the success attained in the two speed races. This powerful new motor was especially designed and built for these races and, of course, Mr. Curtiss intended to win. He usually carries out his plans.

The weight is but 225 pounds, including the magneto, carburetor, intake pipes, water and oil pumps, and it developed 63 b.h.p. at 1,475 r.p.m. in a test. tf

The cast-iron cylinders are set "V," 4%-in. bore by 4 7/716-in. stroke. The water jackets are steel and it is said that on all future motors steel jackets will be used. The hollow crank shaft is nickel steel, low in carbon, and the cam shaft, also hollow, is of machine steel.

The pistons are cast iron and drilled for lightness, wherever a hole is possible to be made. The connecting rods are of forged nickel steel. "Clico" babbitt is used in connecting rod bushings. The piston pins, made of steel hardened and ground, are fastened solid to the connecting rods and run in the pistons themselves, the cast iron of the pistons serving as bearings. The piston rings are crowned inside, outside and on the faces. The clearance is 2/i,oooths of an inch.

The valves are all in the cylinder heads, at 45 deg., actuated by a single push rod and cam. The exhaust valves open at 45 deg. and the inlets at 10 deg. past center. Compression, 92 pounds. The crank case is of McAdamite.

The ignition is by Bosch high tension mag neto, gear driven. The plugs are Hertz & Co.

Lubrication is force feed, the oil pump being located in the crank case and operated from the cam shaft. The "Packard" oil is fed through the hollow cam shaft to all its bearings, thence through a passageway to all bearings of the hollow crank shaft, and from there to the crank pins and connecting rod bushings; the oil then falls into the crank case and returns to its reservoir.

Using a 6-ft. straight line propeller, pitch 17 deg., a pull of 235 pounds was obtained.

George G. Boldt. proprietor of the Waldorf-Astoria, denies through Aeronautics the published reports of his purchase of a Wright aeroplane for exhibition in the hotel during the Hudson-Fulton period.

H. M. Benner, Photo.

The Twining Ornithopter Biplane of Cleve T. Shaffer.

138

WILLARD FLIES OVER LAKE. Falls in Water.

The Aeronautic Society's aeroplane, "Golden Flier," obtained its first engagement at Scar-boro Beach Park, Toronto, for the two weeks of the Canadian National Exhibition, August 28 to September n. Aviator C. F. Willard went up in high spirits. After breaking the cross-country record of the Wrights, he was hopeful that by Hying across Lake Ontario he would eclipse the feat of Bleriot in crossing the English Channel. Manager E. T. Tandy had selected a good landing ground at Niagara-in-the-Lake and had made arrangements with several Canadian launches to mark the course, one of which, that of J. Eaton, the big Canadian dry goods storeman, was equipped with wireless telegraphy. But the weather ruled matters otherwise. A heavy gale set in on the night of Saturday, Aug. 28, and for the whole of the succeeding week the wind was blowing furiously over the lake and rarely in less than three directions at a time.

The first lull was on Thursday evening, and the machine was hurried out. A delay then arose in the arrival of the necessary attendant launches. Next a sailing boat anchored right in the line of the getting-off ground. Some time elapsed before that could be signalled out of the way. Then the engine would not start for several minutes, and by that time 7.20 had arrived and brought dark with it.

Willard rose well off the short run down the center of the park, and a great cheer followed him as he mounted into the air. But it was then so dark it was impossible to distinguish sky from water, and when Willard reached the open lake about half a mile out a sudden gust caught him and drove him into the water. Boats made quickly for him and the searchlight from the top of the park illuminated tower showed Willard climbing on to the center of the upper surface.

When the machine struck the water it hit with such force that Willard was thrown over the front control and about 20 ft. beyond. He swam back to the aeroplane, and after levelling her up and finding that the airbags devised for Moating her were working satisfactorily, he mounted to the upper surface. The only serious damage was the scattering of the just obtained new propeller, the breaking of a couple of surface ribs, the loss of Willard's spectacles and wetting of his tobacco. Latham, when found smoking a cigarette, must have had a much more agreeable descent than Willard's. Other minor damages were the ruining of a few pairs of boots and suits of clothes, for the staff with the machina all -\ went in up to their necks. 1 Friday, Sept. 3, was the next day when the 1 wind for a while ceased to rage, but then a jdense fog reigned over the lake and even the lwater's edge could not be seen. I The real chance came on Tuesday, Sept. 7. Willard readily seized it and made a beautiful flight of about five minutes' duration above the

lake. This was accomplished with the old propeller known as the Herring propeller, which gives a thrust of only 129 pounds. At Mineóla this propeller would never raise the machine in much under a couple of hundred yards, and some fear was felt that the air bag floats attached to the lower surface might further retard its efficiency, a serious outlook since the getting off runway across the park was but 127 yards in length from its extreme end to the dip into the water. But at the dip Willard raised his front control and up the machine went.

It is probable that no flying in the world has been done in space so circumscribed as that Willard has used at Scarboro Beach. The getting off can be accomplished only in one given line of direction, and to ensure missing the great illuminated tower and the open air platform it was absolutely necessary to lay down a trough for the front wheel of the machine to run in. But there was no place at all for landing back on. The strip of sand was too narrow. Moreover, the sand was so soft that there seemed a danger that in landing on it the chassis would be stopped dead while the surfaces would still go on. Willard decided that the only possible landing was on the water and he camte back to within two feet of the agreed spot and alighted in about four feet of water. The machine was easily towed ashore and sustained no damage whatever.

Toronto waxed very enthusiastic over the flight, and a great crowd awaited the next day's demonstration. Unfortunately, however, the engine had to be taken to pieces to get out some water, and in replacing the carburetor the thread of the connection tube stripped and the second perfect day was missed.

Willard says that flying over water is extremely difficult because of the greatly increased difficulty of estimating height.

Dr. Orr, of the Toronto Exhibition, had emphatically declared that no one would ever fly above the lake because the wind never blew at less than 35 miles an hour there. Willard managed it anyway.

J. A. D. McCurdy and F. W. Baldwin were invited by Manager Tandy to spend the two weeks at Toronto as his guests, but Mr. McCurdy had to wire back that acceptation was impossible. It was afterwards learned with deep regret that Baldwin was badly hurt in the smash of his new ■ machine, "Baddeck No. 1."

Charles E. Godlove, 20 years old, of St. Louis, claims to have designed and applied for patents on a wonderfully light motor. His scheme is a revolving two-cycle air-cooled affair with Scotch yoke and balls much like the Bailey of Springfield, Mass. It includes lubrication by graphite, special piston rings, injection feeds, etc. He promises 30 horsepower for 60 pounds weight.

Tariff on Aeroplanes. Third Curtiss' Plane Ready.

With all the machines being built abroad and in America, there is no specific provision for flying machines in the Tariff Act on August 5, 1909. The Treasury Department states that aeroplanes "will be dutiable, upon importation to this country, according to the component material of chief value, probably at the rate of 45 per centum ad valorem under the provisions of paragraph 199 of the said act, as an article composed wholly or in part of metal."

Under the new Tariff Law, the Customs officials believe that they will be enabled to permit the entry, free of duty, of foreign flying machines brought to this country for exhibition purposes, and to participate in contests. A bond, however, will have to be given by the importer as a guarantee that the duty will be paid if the aeroplane remains in the United States.

New Aeroplane Prizes.

The Aero Club of America has been presented with a handsome silver trophy, to be known as the "Country Life Trophy," by Mn F. N. Doubleday, for competition of flying machines during 1910.

Robert J. Collier has also presented the Club a gold itrophy of the value of $5,000, to be designed by a leading American sculptor, together with a cash prize of $2,500, for competition of heavier than air machines.

Rules governing competition for both prizes will be drawn up in the near future by the Contest Committee.

William H. Aitken made some gliding demonstrations on Aug. 25 at Huntington, L. I., in connection with the cross-island trolley celebration. Two glides were made from a bank near the Casino of the Chateau B"anx Arts to the beach. In trying a flight with the Wittemann glider towed by a motor boat, the rope got tangled in the propeller and prevented further operations.

W. R. Stewart, of Ensley, Alabama, has nearly completed an aeroplane, the engine now being installed. It is quite possible that a specially built engine will be used. Four hundred square feet of canvas are used and the machine is strong and compact. "There arc no new principles—simply a correct application of a few old ones," Air. Stewart states.

There is a vague rumor going around that the Siegel Cooper Co., of New York, is building an aeroplane to be equipped with two 40 h. p. motors. All attempts to gain information have been unsuccessful.

A. C. Triaca has received as agent, the first "Integral" propeller, made by L. Chauviere, of Paris.

The Herring-Curtiss Co. has entered an order for four aeroplanes, similar to the one flown at Mineóla, for A. C. Triaca.

The Curtiss aeroplane ordered by A. P. Warner is ready for delivery after trial flights, which possibly will be made on Long Island. This was the first machine to be sold to a private individual, and was at the same time the first sold by a distributing agent, the Wyckoff, Church and Partridge Company.

■ I li«M II Ml Hill III II llll IMII1——I

Lefebvre Killed By Fall.

Juvisy-Sur-Orge, France, Sept. 7.—E. Lefebvre, the French aviator, was killed this afternoon by a fall from his Wright machine, in which he was practicing over the aviation field here. M. Lefebvre was alive only a short time after his machine crashed to the ground.

His is the second life to have been sacrificed in mechanical power flight, Lieutenant Self-ridge being the first. Gliding flight has taken the lives of Lilienthal, Pilcher, Maloney, Letuss and De Groof.

His first public appearance was in exhibition flights in Holland, as recorded in Aeronautics. From there he went to Rheims for the contests.

Death of Captain Hedge.

In the death of Captain Homer W. Hedge, from typhoid fever, on September 9, the Art lost an enthusiastic friend and patron.

Captain Hedge was the organizer and first president of the Aero Club of America, which was started in 1905. He, with A. Leo Stevens, interested the Signal Corps of the regular army in ballooning and, with Captain Chas. De F. Chandler and Major Samuel Rober, at his private expense, made ascensions from Pitts-field in 1906. No doubt his efforts helped towards creating more activity in military ballooning in America. The idea of an aero club was discussed with M. Stevens some considerable time before it took definite shape.

The title "captain," of which he was so proud, showed his rank in the First Signal Corps of the New York National Guard, and he saw active service during the Buffalo and Brooklyn strikes. Captain Hedge and Whitney were the prime movers in the organization of the Automobile Club of America, and he was its first secretary.

He was the president of the Homer W. Hedge Co., one of the largest advertising agencies in the country.

We regret to record the death, on Sept. 1, of Louis Raynaud, of New Orleans, who was struck by a train while returning from work on his aeroplane. Eugene Raynaud, a brother, will continue work on the machine.

THREE AEROPLANES READY FOR TRIAL.

Shneider Nearly Ready With His Second Machine.

Though public interest in the doing at Morris Park has fallen off to some extent, after having become acquainted with the aims of the Aeronautic Society, whose headquarters it is, and the work of some of the members, activity still continues. Those who visit the Park now will find things considerably changed from last Fall and the beginning of May.

People wonder why it takes so long to build machines and test them out, but those who have tried know only too well the difficulties to be met with. Everything must be made special; there are no stock parts to be obtained. Most of the builders are doing the work all alone, and the expected day of trial is always further and further off. When at last the machine is completed, there are the tests of the motor, the transmission, the inevitable weaknesses and breaks to be contended with, which mean alterations and delay. Then comes the practice in running the machine up and down the track. There are still more changes, and in the end possibly the realization that great errors have been made which no modification can rectify and which demand the building of an entirely new structure.

The Raische biplane, which looks like a half brother to the Curtiss, has been ready some days waiting for its motor which has been specially built, This has now been running, and within the next few days will be placed in the machine.

The big Bleriot-like monoplane of S. Y. Beach has been undergoing the usual alterations made necessary by discoveries from running the machine up and down the track. The bolts attaching the propeller to the flange on the shaft have sheared off, chains and propeller broken, but now the machine has been fitted with a new screw and is out again, running with the front wings off. As before, the small planes in the rear with little weight to lift, have brought the tail clear of the ground. Mr. Beach claims now to be able to steer the machine by means of the rudder,

even though the front wheels be fixed, as they are, and the rear wheel off the ground. The accidents to the machine in past trials on the track have been caused by the loss of steering power.

The 100-ft. bag for the Riggs-Rice airship has been completed by Mr. Stevens and is now being varnished. C. and A. Wittemann are casting the joints for the framework out of Silvorite metal, and the inventors themselves are at Morris Park cutting the steel tubing into proper lengths.

Dr. II. W. Waldcn is completing his double biplane, and has tried out the motor which is the one belonging to the society for the use ci" the members. Perhaps the most unique feature of the Walden machine is the manner in which the engine is placed in the machine. Instead of resting on beams, as is the general practice, the motor is slung so to be free to move from left to right. A cable runs from each side of the motor to movable surfaces or "wing tips." Any tilting of the machine causes a resulting pull on one or the other of these cables which start the wing tips in opposite directions to correct instability. The single propeller is fastened to an overhead shaft which is driven by a chain over sprockets in the engine shaft, and the overhead shaft. It was prophesied that the motor would climb up the driving chain and quickly terminate its lease on life, but the trial proved Dr. Walden's expectations. There was no vibration to be noticed although the engine was speeded up nearly to its limit. The first trial broke a sprocket and as soon as this is replaced the machine will be taken out on the track for a run. Dr. Walden is intent on building another machine which will be somewhat different from this one.

The Lawrence biplane is all ready, but is still waiting for a motor, as is the case with the Lindsay machine.

The big "rat trap" of E. R. Ernst has been removed from the Park to a shop where he has the use of a motor.

Dr. Green has suspended all work on his machine for the present.

Frederick Shneider has the central portion of his machine with the chassis together and has installed an Elbridge 3-cylinder 2-cycle

motor. The rest of the machine is all ready

Dr. H. W. Walden's Biplane.

The aeroplane which Dr. H. W Walden has completed at Morris Park might be called a "double biplane," as it comprises two distinct biplanes, each measuring 30 ft. spread by 6 ft. depth, arranged tandem, 18 ft. apart. The total supporting surface is 720 sq. ft.

The angle of incidence of the entire surfaces can be regulated from the operator's seat, this serving for ascending and descending in flight. No other steering devices are used, with the exception of a rear rudder. The single propeller is between the two sets of biplanes, where the main weight is carried as well. The propeller is driven by a 40-horse-power motor suspended on its own shaft. The pendulum, not requiring any extra weight, controls the automatic balance of the aeroplane. This last-mentioned feature server, as well in absorbing all the vibrations of the machine while the motor is working.

The motor is suspended in the machine from a short overhead shaft. On en1 end of this shaft is a ball-bearing pulley, and at trie other end is another ball-bearing and two sprockets. A metal strap from the .^rvmk case, goes up over the ball-bearing pulley on the short shaft, holding up this end of the motor. On the other end a chain runs over a sprocket fastened to the crank shaft of the motor and over one of

the two sprockets on the overhead snaft. From the other sprocket on the overhead shaft there is another chain running to the sprocket on the short propeller shaft, whirh is mounted on two ball bearings. Both the overhead shaft and the propeller shaft are in fixed positions, while the motor is free to swing from the first-mentioned overhead shaft.

From each side of the motor are cables running to movable "wing tips" which work in opposite directions on any pull on the cable caused by the swinging of the motor.

A further^description of this device is given elsewhere in this issue.

The Close Observer.

"A point yon might bear in mind, and which is typical of the details in the Wright Brothers' machines, is the detailed way in which all theoretical points have been threshed out. This enables them to put out a very economical machine, both of the motor power and the labor on the part of the operator in handling it, which is quite a factor in the "commercial" machine, and will enable them to hold any distance records they choose. Notice Farman was exhausted at the end of the three-hour flight the other day. 1 think Wilbur Wright could stay up three hours without undue strain."—Subso-iber.

at the frankfort exposition

By Harry A. Meixner.

special representative.

THE Zeppelin II which now belongs to the government was sighted at Cologne, where it is to be stationed, at 8:55 a. m., August 5, and after manoeuvering for some hours landed safely at the shed.

The dirigible had left the exhibition grounds of the Frankfort exhibition at 4:40 a. m. making the trip of 100 miles in about 4 hours. An attempt was made to reach Cologne on Aug. 3, but the balloon came in a furious storm which forced him back to Frankfort, when almost within sight of her destination. By this trip, the run from Fredrichshafen to Frankfort, 260 miles in 10J/2 hours against a heavy wind on Saturday, Aug. 1, the easy landing at the exhibition grounds, the struggle against the furious storm on Monday, the run back to Frankfort with a broken propeller, the long dispute if the rigid or non-rigid system is better, may be considered to have been conclusively settled. Until now the Zeppelin II is the best dirigible on earth.

To see such an airship manoeuvering is a sight worth travelling hundreds of miles to see. The precision with which she obeys her vertical and horizontal rudder is marvelous. The ship was expected in Frankfort between 3 p. m. and 4 p. m. on August 1, but the arrival at an earlier hour gave Count Zeppelin a welcomed opportunity to show what his dirigible really can do. On sighting the town the ship bowed her head to an angle of 20 deg. from the horizontal, then she went up again into a cloud at an angle of at least 40 deg. and down again into a spiral twist.

Then she conies against the wind and stops immediately above the spot where a flag spread on the ground marks the place where

a wire rope sling is firmly fixed in the ground. But it is still too early and she darts off again into the town to show some more manoeuvering. She returns skimming close over the ground, a rope is thrown from the front car and in a short time she is secured to the sling, and- floats with the front car almost touching the ground and her back slanting up in the air as lightly and securely as if there were no such thing as wind.

the accident to the parseval

The various flights of the Parseval balloon came to an untimely end on Aug. 12, 1909. It left its shed at 5:30 p. m., having 11 passengers including the crew on board and rose slowly up in the air. Shortly after leaving the ground the pilot had to give ballast a couple of times and after about an hour he had disposed of it all. It is said that vertical downward currents prevailed, which made it necessary to give ballast all the time. The pilot then decided to return, but it was too late. The balloon was seen coming back to the exhibition grounds, flying dangerously close to the roofs of the houses. After scraping over the roofs and knocking down a few chimneys the pilot decided to land in the street. The control of the balloon, however, was insufficient. The balloon hit first one side of the street, the engines were reversed and the dirigible skidded back to the other side of the street, landing on the roof of a fire engine house, considerably damaging the building. The car came down on the pavement without much damage and the passengers left the car unhurt, but the envelope of the balloon was badly ripped and it will need about 14 days for repairs.

anthony wireless dirigible

ASUCCESSFUL trial was recently made of the model dirigible of Mark O. Anthony and A. Leo Stevens, which is started, stopped and steered in any way desired by wireless. The experiment took place at Sandy Hook, N. Y. The model airship will ascend or descend at the will of the operator, and even release a weight representing" a shell filled with explosives.

It is not possible at the present time to give all the details of the selective apparatus employed by the inventor, but it will not be a breach of confidence to explain in general how these remarkable results were obtained.

The emitter for producing and sending out the electric waves is not unlike a standard open-circuit wireless telegraph transmitter. It consists of a large induction coil

having a single spring make-and-break device operated from the end of the core of the coil, the condenser in the primary circuit is of fixed value and is secured in the base of the instrument.' The primary of the coil is wound for low voltages and is best energized by means of a storage battery. The secondary is wound with wire of comparatively large cross-section, and this, together with a pair of Leyden jar condensers which is shunted across the spark-gap, gives a white, ripping spark, which is indicative of very powerful oscillations.

The oscillation circuit which emits the waves is of the open-circuit type, and this is likewise true of the resonating circuit connected with the actuating and selector electro-mechanism set in the framework of the balloon. This experimental balloon.

Parseval III at Frankfort

built by Mr. Stevens, which is 22 feet in length, carried a triangular framework extending its entire length, and to which a propeller is fitted driven by an electric motor. The detector used is of the exhausted coherer type and was made extremely sensitive, while the tapper, constructed almost entirely of aluminum, as were the other portions of the receptor instruments, thus making the entire equipment as light as possible. The wireless portion of the apparatus was designed and built by the Collins Wireless Telephone Company.

The selector device is so arranged that a series of dots, dashes or a combination of dots and dashes will actuate the propeller

and rudder mechanism; thus a series of dots will cause a contact to be made which will close the circuit of a small motor driving the propeller and so starts the balloon, while a series of dashes will stop it; a series of dots and dashes will actuate a magnet, and this will shift the rudder, turning the airship to the right, while a series of dashes and dots will direct it to the left, and so on, so that the balloon may be made to go through all the maneuvers exactly as though a human hand in the car was guiding it; yet it is all done by the operator on the ground below, and who makes it do his bidding through the medium of an ordinary telegraph key. w

"la grande semaine daviation"

CURTISS WINS BENNETT CUP

Farman Flies Over 3 Hours

SPEED EVENT TO CURTISS

New World Records

TOTAL RKSl'LT OK the manx flights in the meet— the navigation of the air by 32 men for over 45 hours.

THE first grand aviation tournament took place on the Bethanv Plains iu the Champagne district of France, from Aug. 22nd to 20th. Undreamed of feats were, accomplished, and the realization thrust upon the entire world that flying is getting almost common. There is no other event by which to compare it. It stands not only the first to have been held, but so far surpassed what was thought possible that it is surrounded with something of a halo.

History was made more rapidly than in any other contest ever held.

There were more flying machines in the Itheims meet, after only three years of real flying history, than were ever in competition in the big automobile cup races.

The Kheims meet marks an epoch in the history of mchanical flight. ft showed the wonderful progress made in three short years. Compared with the perfecting of the automobile, the flying machine has advanced more rapidly. The proportion of accidents to machines averaged a smaller percentage than did the troubles of motor cars at the same comparatively early period. Even to-day the long road contests with automobiles bring sundry minor troubles, yet Farman flew for over three hours with an air-cooled engine, generally discredited for its over-heating propensities, without any trouble.

Although this year saw at the Juvisy aerial race course, on the outskirts of Paris, weekly meets, no such variety of types was brought together as at Rheims. The diversity of form, size, weight and power brings out forcibly that there is no one type of flying machine. The range is as great as with automobiles. Six machines were at one time in the air together. Kecords were made in one day, only to be broken the next.

The meet is also the beginning of the inevitable "track" racing, or whatever it might be called in aeronautic parlance.

curtiss's propeller "A piece of wood.'"

The Curtiss machine created something of a sensation—that another so good an aeroplane should eome out of America. The "La Vie Automobile" says editorially :

"One single thing in the machine was most surprising, the screw. Under the guise of a screw Curtiss had two flat blades making a pronounced angle with each other. With such an outfit the American was able to make a turn around in S min. 9 sec. Then, captivated by the Chauviere screw, lie fitted one to the machine, and consequently made it slower, losing over ten seconds. He then put back his old piece of wood (sic), reduced his reservoir and radiator, and made the marvellous time of 7.51."

PRIZES

The prizes for the meet totaled .$37.000, and with the conditions and divisions thereof, are related below. Some of the contests were divided into heats, that for dirigibles, for instance, was to have had daily heats for the whole eight days.

Grand Prize of Champagne.—$20,000 total. A contest for distance without landing, with a minimum of 50 kilometers. Six prizes : 1st, $10,000 ; 2nd, $5.000; .-!rd, $2.000; 4th, 5th and Oth, $1,000 each. This prize was competed for in four heats, on the 23rd, 25th, 2Gth and 27th of August.

Speed Prize.—$4,000 total. A contest for speed over three circuits of the course, or 30 kil. Four prizes: 1st, $2,000; 2nd, $1,000; 3rd, $('»00; 4th, $400. Competed for on the 22ud, 24th and 29th of August.

Altitide Prize.—$2.000. A contest for greatest height. Competed for on the 29th.

Prize for Passenger Carrying.—$2,000 for the aeroplane covering a circuit of the course with the greatest number of people on board, weighing at least 05 kg. In case of a tie in point of number, speed to decide. Competed for on the 28th.

Fastest Lap Prize.—$2,000 total. 1st, $1,400; 2nd, $000. For the fastest time made over one lap of the course during the meet, i. e., 10 kil. Competed for every day.

Prize for Dirigibles.—$2,000 to the dirigible making the fastest time for five laps of the course, i. e.. 50 kil. Open every day. Competed for on the 27th.

Landing Contest for Balloons.—$1,000 in prizes in a contest to reach a prearranged destination with free balloons. Competed for on the 20th.

Gordon-Bennett Ctp and Prize. A cup of the value of $2,500, which goes to the winner's club, and a cash sum of $5,000 yearly for three years. For l'.)0t) the contest was for speed over a closed circuit of 20 kil. (12.43 miles). Though offered by an American, .James (lordon-Uennett. proprietor of the "New York Herald," one of the conditions of gift was that the first competition be held in France, and after that in the country of the winning aviator.

The other prizes iu the meet were given by famous champagne makers—Ileidsieck, Monopole and Olry Uoederer, Moet & Chandon, Mine. Veuve Cliquot Ponsardin, Pommery & Greno, and G. H. Mumm. and the Grand Prize of the City of Itheims.

FIRST DAY, AUG. 22.

Though the day started out unpropitious, with the grounds a sea of mud. and the black flags out, denoting flying impossible, the wind died down, the showers ceased, and the program was carried out.

■The first event was the elimination of three out of the twenty flyers on the list to represent France in the Gordon-P.ennett.

Guffroy, on his It. E. P., failed to get off the ground, owing to the sticking of the wheels in the mud. Tissandier on a Wright was the first to get in the air, but he only stayed up a minute, and was followed by Bleriot on one of the "Cross-Channel" type machines. Latham came next with his Antoinette, but only got a short distance. Le-febvre's turn came next with a Wright, and he covered two laps of the 10 kilometer course. Captain Ferber and others tried, but could not get up. The eliminating trials closed at a certain hour, and Bleriot and Lefebvre were picked as two out of the three. The third was left to be selected according to who made the best time in the speed tests latef in the day. Latham got the third place after a brush with T'aulhan, in which he made 20 kms. more speed, but in revenge Paulhan went a greater distance.

fastest single and triple lap contests.

Wind and rain prevented further flights until late in the afternoon. Tn quick time the machines were then taken out, and the unprecedenred spectacle of seven machines in the air at one time was witnessed. There were two contests, one for the fastest time over a circuit of the course, and the speed contest for three circuits. In both, Wright machines flew first, second, third. The longest flight of the day was that of Lefebvre. who remained in the air for 41 minutes. Ma-(Continued on page 150)

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AERONAUTICS October, 1909

six favorites at the rheims

"The Antoinette IV."

the evolution of a great event AERONAUTICS' EFFORTS SCORE AGAIN! Aeronautic Society Buys Aeroplane—Curtiss Flies at Morris Park—Mineola— Rheims—Brescia—$14,200 Prize Money—1910 Race in America.

r ---- -,

The "Farman III ': 148

international aviation meet

Curtiss (upper left) and Bleriot (upper right) Turning the Post. Lcvick Photos In the Center are two Farman Machines and an Antoinette.

A Wright*- c^Aeroplane Turning.

(Continued from page U6) chinos dropped here and there, principally from motor (roubles. Enthusiasm was unbounded when the two machines of Tissandier and Bunau-Varilla were flying close together, in a little brush of th&ir own, the pilot of the Wright gradually overhauling Yarilla in his Voisin.

Jn the single lap heat, Lefebvre covered -a cir-euil in S mfn. 58 15 sec, with Tissandier and Lambert second and third. In the speed contest three times around. Tissandier got first in 28 min. 59 15 sec., Lambert and Lefebvre second and third respectively.

SECOND DAY, AUG. 23.

The weather was bright and clear, and Bleriot got out early for practice spins. The dirigible "Col. Penard" arrived during the morning on a fast trip from Menux, and Paulhan lapped the course five times. The wind blew up at noon, and Yarilla had to land in a field of oats. Fournier got caught in a puff and crushed one wing in landing.

The contests to be disputed were the Fastest Lap Prize and the Grand Prize of Champagne. On this day all those who actually intended to compete in the two other instalments of the Grand Prize had to qualify by making short flights over a prescribed distance. Eighteen actually qualified. Lefebvre and Paulhan made long flights, the latter staying np nearly an hour. Several of the competitors went in for the lap contest. Curtiss beating out Bleriot for first. Lefebvre created a sensation by flying around, under and* over one of the other machines, but on this day the magnificent spectacle of several machines in the air at once was not witnessed.

In the lap contest Curtiss was first, in 8 min. ."»5 2 5 sec, a speed per hour of 09.S Idioms. (43.."14 miles). Bleriot and Lefebvre were two and three. Nine other competitors.

GRAND PRIZE OF CHAMPAGNE.

Paulhan covered 50 kms. in 5S min. 45 sec. and Lefebvre 21.2 kms. in 20 min. 14 sec The other entrants who qualified were : Bleriot (4 machines), Gobron, Fournier, Lefebvre, Sommer. lie Lambert, Cockburn, Latham, Tissandier, Farman, Cur tigs, nnrl Latham (2),

The real Contest for the Grand Prize came in the other two sections of the contest. Those named above contented themselves with merely qualifying, reserving their forces for the crucial moment.

THIRD DAY, AUG. 24.

Itlaek flags had once more to be hoisted. Late in Ihe afternoon, as the President of the Kepnblic was leaving for his train, the wind died down a bit and the aviators braved the elements.

On this day's card was the fastest lap contest and the "lap race. In spite of the wind, Paulhan made a fine flight, lasting .'58 min. 12 2-5 sec, covering three rounds of the course, and Latham covered the three rounds a little faster, in 31 min. 2 1 -5 see.

For the lap contest, Bleriot. on the "Bleriot Xll," beat the time made by Cuxtiss the day before, making the circuit in 8 min. 4 2-5 sec. a speed of 74 km. per hour. At the end Lefebvre on his Wright machine succeeded in making a series of marvellous evolutions, remarkable for their audacity and precision.

FOURTH DAY, AUG. 25.

The contests disputed were the Grand Prize of Champagne and the Lap Prize.

The day was not very favorable, the wind ■ times being quite gusty, varying from 3 to 10 meters per second. A new world's record for both duration and distance in competition for the (Jrand Prize was made by Paulhan in a Voisin, staying up for 2 hrs. 43 min. 24 4-5 sec, covering 133.0 kilometers. The official timing stopped after 131

kms. -Curtiss, Latham and others were endeavoring meanwliue to lower the lap record made by Bleriot the day before. Curtiss lowered his record to 8 min. 11 3-5 sec. Fournier got caught in a whirlwind miniature, and was broken to bits. Fournier luckily escaped injury. Curtiss did not better Bleriot's time, his best being 8 min. 11 3-5 sec for one round. Latham's flight in the Antpinette was of interest, covering, as" he did, 31 kilometers in spite of the wind, for the Grand Prize.

FIFTH DAY, AUG. 26.

The contests for this day were the Balloon Landing Contest, the Fastest Lap Contest, and the Grand Prize.

A new world's distance record was made on this day, when Latham in his Antoinette covered 154.0 kilometers in competition for the Grand Prize, but curiously enough did not beat the duration record, for his time was 2 hrs. 18 min. 0 3-5 sec This was in the afternoon, after a preliminary morning warming up of 70 kilometers in 1 hr. 1 min. 51 2-5 sec.

In the morning Bleriot came out with one of his two big monoplanes, of the typo "Xll," equipped with a 40 h. p. Anzani. lie took Leblanc and made the iirst passenger flight of the meeting, for about three minutes. A landing was made for adjustments, and he then took up a mechanic for five minutes.

Legagnenx, on Ferber's Voisin machine, made a circuit, and Delagrange made several short flights in a Bleriot. Sommer, after several evolutions, made a round, and then Curtiss made three, the longest flight made by him np to this time. Bleriot then made several trials, followed by Cockburn in his Farman for a round. Bleriot took Leblanc around the course once in the Bleriot 40.

After Latham's longer flight, De Lambert in his Wright machine journeyed for 110 kilometers. The time was 1 hr. 52 min. This put him third on the list for the Grand Prize.

Other flights were made during the afternoon, but familiarity has bred contempt, and it seems useless to relate them.

On this day Latham lessened his time for a single lap down to S min. 32 3-5 sec, and stood third for the prize.

SIXTH DAY, AUG. 27.

On the card for this day were the Grand Prize, the Single Lap Prize and the Dirigible Prize.

Farman was the feature of the day, making on the third successive day new world's records for the Grand Prize. Not only did he beat the distanoe record set up by Latham the previous day, but also stayed in the air the longest time of anyone yet. His official distance was 180 kil.. and the time 3 hrs. 4 min. 50 2-5 sec His actual distance was 189.5 kil.

Breguet was out, and succeeded in making a short flight. Here, in making a turn, a gust caught him and he was thrown down. Then followed several short flights of Bleriot, Yarilla, and Gobron and Paulhan.

>l'ROT'LANR AS A "TAXI."

Later, ltleriot brought out one of his big machine.'-. On. of his friends who was in a hurry to catch .i train was bemoaning his fate. Bleriot, bowev r. bundled him into his aeroplane and took 'uin «even kilometres to Witry. where he droppi i him only n few yards from the station.

Pan .ian's <lvn * for the Grand Prize were cut shi rt l>v ai min io incident. Just as ho had left the ro" nd be i«- >clagrange coming head-on only a shor distance vay, and to avoid what looked like a fatal accident lie instantly dove his machine down, breaking- tV1 'ront portion on hitting the soil.

Toward noor B >riut made four turns (40 kils.) of the course, ou kin r three of them in 30 min. 39 1-5 sic

While I-'a.rnia and Sommer were flying, Latham staited out. ai.il <h« spectacle was seen of three machines one Above .he other, going the same

way past the grand stand. After covering 116 kilometers Latham was obliged to stop. Nevertheless, the time he made for 30 kilometers, 26 min. 45 sec, assured him a good place in the Speed Contest.

Although this was intended to be the sixth heat for the Dirigible Prize, no contest had been heretofore held during the week. The "Col. Renard" sailed once around the course in 15 min. 39 3-5 sec. The Zodiac made evolutions for an hour.

Other flights in the afternoon were: Sommer, four circuits in 41 min. 43 sec.; Bleriot, 1 turn, 11 min. 52 see. Delagrange made a superb flight at a great height, covering 50 kil. in 55 min. 27 1-5 see. At last Curtiss again lowered his time for the single lap in 8 min. 0 1-5 see., but did not get back to first place, and finally Rougier made a line flight at a great height, and Lefebvre made evolutions in the darkness for half a score of minutes.

SEVENTH DAY, AUG. 28.

Curtiss Wins Gordon-Bennett.

With Curtiss weather to favor the aviators, the Gordon Bennett was the big event, with the seventh beat in the Single Lap Contest of somewhat lesser interest. Curtiss, with a smaller gas tank, covered one circuit in 7 min. 55 2-5 see., beating Hleriot's former best time by 9 sec. Then followed the finals of the Gordon Bennett. The aviators and their respective countries were: France—Lefebvre, Bleriot, Latham ; England—Co(ekburn ; Am-

erica—Curtiss.

gordon

on bennett. . /

Curtiss started first, and the impression was that his speed was wonderful. In fact, the spectators felt that all records were being broken. His time for the second round was 7 min. 53 1-5 see., a mean speed of 70.7 kil. per hour. TTis official time for the two rounds, the prescribed 20 kils., was 15 min. 50 3-5 sec, a mean speed of 73.6 kils. per hour (-tffi.'T- miles). This was getting close to Orville Wright's speed of 47.4 miles an hour in the official flight at Washington tins last summer.

Lefebvre, in his turn, tried, but could not do better than 20 min. 47 3-5 sec. Bleriot then came on. but the wind had meanwhile risen, and despite a magnificent speed in the first round, he was able to do the two in not better than 15 min 56 1-5 see. Latham was the next to try, making several turns of the course. The time for the two was 17 min. 32 see.

The "Col. Kenard-' made a circuit of the course, but did not improve its first time.

passenger prize contest.

The Passenger Prize caused some interesting competitions. Lefebvre started off first with one passenger, covering 10 kil. in 11 min. 5 4-5 see. Then came Farman, who first made a trial with one passenger and then took up tv i With a weight of 130 kg. for the 2 passeir «. •'board he Hew easily 10 kil. in 10 min. 30 -• ' ended

with a fine landing. He then mad serial

promenades" with various person^

fastest lap con it .. Bleriot, who could not dig s tiss, lightened his machine a-- le eoisid and started on a flight great speed, and was able to c<>vei i min. 47 4-5 sec. at a mean speoi pec hour. 'Phis gave Bleriot the ,'ionor < e fns'.'st speed ever officially made, and jack to second again. Towards nwni re witnessed some good flights bj ler. wi > is been daily improving, Varilla ■ I made a first trial with his mac'i n» ftor the accident, with a short ill.In 1

EIGHTH DAY, AUG. 29. Curtiss Wins 3-Lap Race.

This was the day of accidents. Breguet and Bleriot managed to break their machines up in good shape. After P.unau-Varilla. nad made some evolutions, Bleriot started off for the three-lap Speed Prize. It was expected that he would make excellent time. As he was rapidly disappearing down the course and was almost lost to sight, a cry went up from the multitude. The little white spot was seen to disappear in a jet of flame and smoke. The apparatus was completely destroyed, and Bleriot was burnt, though not seriously.

Then came the turn of Breguet. He started off well, and flew several hundred meters when his machine seemed to lose its equilibrium and descend. The extremity of one w'ing hit the ground at full speed and the machine turned partly over so that the tail stuck straight up in the air.

Breguet was thrown out in front, but met with the usual aviator's luck and was unhurt.

three-lap speed prize.

In the afternoon the three-lap Speed Contest was on again, and Curtiss made the 30 kil. in 24 min. 15 1-5 sec, beating the time of Tissandier by 4 min. 44 sec, but because of a tenth penalization for not having contested on the two first days, the time was brought to 26 min. 40 1-5 sec. Latham then made the distance in 2<> min. 32 2-5 see. He then mounted another of his machines and made the same course in 25 min. 18 1-5 sec. Curtiss once more started off and made it this time in 23 min. 29 1-5 sec, beating Latham, but one must add 1-10 for penalization. l)e Lambert ended this contest. His time? for the three rounds was 30 min. 34 2-5 sec. This time did not beat his trial of the first day, 29 min. 2 sec

Curtiss 2nd in One-Lap Race.

Curtiss had another try at the single lap. and cut. his time down to 7 min. 49 2-5 sec. but could not manage the little item of the other 1 3-5 sec, and had to be contented with second money.

altitpdk prize.

The altitudes attained were measured by registering barometers sensitive to every 10 meters, and by trigonometrical calculations.

Farman started first for this, and gradually got to a height of 110 meters.

Latham started in his turn, describing a large circle, and staying up a long time, reached a maximum of 155 meters. The figures do not mean anything. It was necessary to see the machine way up there to get the impression, l'aul-han followed to 90 meters, with Rougier up to 55 meters.

Finally Bunan-Varilla made a magnificent flight of 190 kil. and Rongier covered !)<> kil. The curtain fell on the last act of this magnificent event, which took place in the most perfect fashion in the midst of delirious enthusiasm and without any very serious accident.

dirigibles go 50 kil.

The only day on which the dirigibles covered the whole 50 kilometers was August 29. Both went the whole route, the "Col. Renard" doing it best in 1 hour, 19 minutes, 49 1-5 seconds. The "Zodiac" was not far behind with 1 hour, 25 minutes, 1 second.

To reward the mechanicians of the various ma chines, a special race was gotten up in which Varilla covered 70 kilometers, Rougier 50. Sommer. Ferber, De Lambert and Delagrange 40, U>, )o and lo kilometers, respectively.

I want ti congratulate you most earnestly upon the excellence of September Aero-nai'tirs. >. 'j man who s?.ys it was not a"crackerjack" simply does not know the flying P 1 \.jii co/ercd 'very corner of it, and covered it well.—Subscriber.

FINAL RESULTS OF THE MEET.

(Irand Prise of Champagne, Longest Distance. 1. Farman, 180.9 kil., 3 nr. 14 min., $10,000.

(».

Latham, 154.5 kil., $5,000. Paulhan, 131 kil., $2,000. De Lambert, 110 kil., $1,000. Latham, 111 kil., $1.000. Tissandier, 111 kil., $1,000. Sommer, Delagrange, Bleriot, Curtiss and Le-febvre were the other competitors. y Speed Prize, 30 Kilometers.

1. Curtiss, 25 min. 39 1/5 sec, $2,000; real time, 23 min. 29 1/5 sec.

2. Latham, 20 min. 33 1/5 sec, $1,000; real time, 25 min. 18 1/5 sec.

3. Tissandier, 28 min. 59 1/5 sec. $000; no penalization.

4. Lefebvre, 29 min., $500.

Lambert, Latham, Paulhan, Varilla and Soni-mer "also ran."

Prize for Altitude. 1. Latham, 155 meters, $2,000. Farman, Paulhan and Rougier also competed.

Prize for Passengers, 10 Kil.

1. Farman, two passengers besides himself, one turn in 10 min., 39 sec, $2,000; with one extra in 9 min., 52 l/5 sec. Lefebvre with one took 10 min., 39 sec

Single Lap Speed Prize, 10 Kil.

1. Bleriot, 7 min. 47 4/5 sec, speed 70.95 k. p. h., speed record of the world, $1,4()0.

V. Curtiss. 7 min. 49 2/5 sec, $000.

Lathaim LTeTetrvre, Farman, Tissandier, Legag-nenx, Faulhan, Delagrange, Sommer, Coekburn and Varilla also competed.

Prize for Dirigibles, Speed for 50 7vi7. 1. Col. Kenard, 1 hr. 19 min. 49 1/5 sec, $2.000. ,

2. Zodiac III, 1 hr. 25 min. 1 sec.

Gordon-Bennett Race, Speed for 20 Kil.

O^Curtiss, 15 min. 50 3/5 sec, $5,000. #0,ob>

2. Bleriot, 15 min. 50 l/5 sec.

3. Latham, 17 min. 32 sec

4. Lefebvre, 20 min. 47 3/5 sec

Mechanician's Prize.

1. Bunau-Varilla, 100 kil., $400 and $100.

2. Rougier, 90 kil., $200 and $90.

New World's Aviation Records Made.

The longest distance, longest time, fastest time, highest altitude and best three-man flight.

Individual Scores.

Aviators 1sts 2nds 3rd« 4tlis

Latham ................. 1 2 2 0

Curtiss ...................•> _1__Q__ 0

Farman ................. 2 1 0 ~TT

Bleriot .................. 1 1 0 0

Lefebvre................. 0 1 0 3

Paulhan ................. 0 0 2 0

Tissandier ............... 0 0 1 0

De Lambert.............. 0 0 0 1

Rougier ................. 0 0 0 1

Aeroplanes

Antoinette ............... 1 2 2 1

Curtiss.................. 2 1 0 0

Farman ................. 2 3 0 • 0

Wright .................. 0 1 1 4

Bleriot .................. 1 1 0 0

Voisin .................. 0 0 2 1

the

On September 8, the aviation meeting at Brescia, Italy, opened, to continue to the 20th. Many thousand spectators gathered around the field, but were disappointed by the poor showing. The ground Was uneven, rough, and landings were hazardous.

In qualifying for the Grand Prix, Bleriot, after a short flight, collided with a tree and broke a propeller. Anzani, on a Vo.isin, started well but. also broke a propeller in landing. Lieut. Calderara in the Wright machine got up in the air, but smashed his rudder. Curtiss made a short flight in the morning and olll1 111 the afternoon, with more success than his competitors. For the Grand Prix, the conditions provided that each contestant must cross the line every day for five days.

September 9.—Short flights were made by the contestants in the Grand Prix race for five times around a 10 kilometer course. Curtiss crossed the line in this to avoid penalization, then taking part in the short start contest, leaving the ground after a run of 90 yards. He subsequently bettered this after a run of SO yards in 8 1/5 sec. This prize was to have been given only on condition that start be made within GO yards, but as no entrant was able to do this, the minimum was made 100 yards. Curtiss was awarded first prize of $600.

MM. LebTffnc, Anzani and Bleriot made short flights. Rougier on a Voisin made a good flight lasting 12 min. 10 sec. at 100 m. height in competition for the height prize. Leblanc in his Bleriot monoplane got started in 9 3/5 sec, thus getting second. $400.

Sept, 10.—No flights made this day and the crowd became angered and unruly. The troops had to quell the disturbance.

Sept. 11.—Again the people were disappointed, but just before the close of the day Qujrti^s came out and covered 50 kil. in 49 min. 24 sec. in con-

meet

test for the Grand Prix. Rougier reached an altitude of 116 m. in the altitude contest, though it was after the time limit.

Sept. 12.—Last day for the Grand Prix. Rougier started out and covered the 50 kil. in 1 hr. fU- min. i& sec. The first prize, $6,000, was awarded to Curtiss for his flight of the day before, with the second to Rougier, $2,000.

Curtiss then entered for the altitude prize and went up to 51 m., but Rougier got this for going to 100 m. the second day of the meet. Lieut. Calderara won the passenger carrying contest, taking Lieut. Savoia aboard. Curtiss also succeeded in taking Signor d'Annunzio, the famous author, aboard for a short flight, a remarkable performance for so small a machine.

Bleriot made several brilliant flights, but did not compete for the Grand Prix.

Piizes Offered at Brescia.

Sept. 13.—Bleriot left to-day, Rougier remaining with tin others for further flights.

Grand Prix <ie Brescia : $6,000 first, $2,000 second, $1,000 third. Contest for speed over 100 Ώ,11.. or twice around a. 50-kiI. course.

Prize Modigliani, for altitude: $1,000 first, $000 second, $400 third.

Contest for Passenger Carrying: $000 first, $400 second.

Cjntest for Short Start : $000 first, $400 second.

Contest for 1 Kil. (Open only to Italians) : $000.

Dirigible Speed Contest: $1,000 first, $400 second.

"As' we go to press the cables announce the! awarding of the Grand Prix, as a race for 50 kil., whereas the advance rules called for 100 kil. Official figures will, of course, be given in the next issue.

MAY ENCIRCLE THE CITY.

Three Airships in New York-Albany Trip.

CAPTIVE BALLOON A FEATURE

NEW YORK, Sept. 15.—Wilbur Wright and G. H. Curtiss both have signified their intention of giving public demonstrations during the Hudson-Fulton celebration, Sept. 25 to Oct. 9. Contracts have been signed and it is now definitely settled that the flights will be made.

Governor's Island has been offered and accepted for the starting place and sheds. The preliminary flights made over and about the Island will constitute an impressive and instructive illustration of the application of the aeroplane for scouting and defense from an army post or fortifications, and it should prove not only instructive to those on and about Governor's Island, but also prove useful in educating the "Solons" at Washington to the needs of the army and navy in this direction, and have effect upon appropriations for aeronautical purposes.

Wilbur Wright's contract calls for his remaining in the air at least one hour, or the making of a flight of at least ten miles, but New Yorkers have a surprise in store for him in an event which will be carried out by Mr. Wright should the weather and other conditions render the proposed demonstrations possible. This will be a wonderful feat in the present state of the art.

The Curtiss contract calls for a flight from Governor's Island to Grant's Tomb and return, and it is expected that he will also surprise the natives of New York and their guests by a very impressive and spectacular flight. It is possible, also, that both aeroplanes may fly back and forth across the Hudson near Grant's Tomb while the marine pageant is passing up the river.

Governor's Island is an excellent location for the start, as there is now a large level space made by filling in part of the bay. The new extension when completed will comprise 110 acres ; already about 96 acres have been filled in. The only objection will be the winds which may prevent flights according to exact schedule, as has been the case in Washington, D. C, and at the various contests and flights abroad.

Curtiss will use a machine specially equipped with floats in order that it may not sink if he descends into the water; and Wright one of the several machines already built at Dayton. Mr. Wright at first contemplated fitting this up with suitable floats, but he finally decided that there was not one chance in fifty that he would come down in the water, and if he did his machine would float five or six minutes anyway, giving time for the rescue of himself and machine. He would wear a cork jacket, and if the machine did sink it could readily be fished up again.

There has been some doubt expressed regarding the entry of Glenn H. Curtiss in the Hudson-Fulton celebration flights, but the following leaves no doubt that Mr. Curtiss and Mr. Wright will both fly :

William J. Hammer, Secretary of the Committee on Aeronautics of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission, stated yesterday that he had received a letter from Curtiss, dated Paris, Sept. 3, in which Mr. Curtiss, while reiterating his wish and purpose to make the flights in New York under his contract with the Hudson Fulton Celebration Commission, and especially the flight from Governor's Island to Grant's Tomb and return, asks that certain modifications be made In the contract signed by him on August 4. These suggested modifications are not vital, or even very

important. The principal one relates to the time of the second payment under contract.

Mr. Hammer said : "As soon as Mr. Curtiss arrives, and he advises me that this will be on the S.S. "Kaiser Wilhelm II' September 21, the Aeronautic Committee will take up his suggestions with him, and as the Commission wishes him to make the flights, and he has expressed nimself as wishing to do so, I think after consultation with the Hon. James M. Beck, Chairman ot the Committee on Aeronautics, that there should and will be no difficulty in adjusting any differences with Mr. Curtiss. If there should be, the Committee need only stand upon its contract signed by Mr. Curtiss, under which he could not legally or honorably, therefore, refuse to fly. The Committee i's proceeding with the erection of both the Wright and Curtiss aeroplane sheds on Governor's Island.

"Mr. Wilbur Wright has advised the Committee that he will arrive in New York with his machine on the ISth, and then be ready to carry out his contract."

The Aeronautic Committee of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration consists of the following representative men : Hon. James M. Beck, former assistant attorney-general of the United tSates: Hon. William Berri, editor, Brooklyn Citizen's Union ; Hon. Theodore P. Gilman. former Controller of the State of New York ; Peter Cooper Hewitt, a well-known scientist and engineer, grandson of Peter Cooper and son of former Mayor Hewitt of X. Y.

To this committee has been added Major-General Leonard Wood, commanding the Department of the East at Governor's Island. He is heartily co-operating in the proposed plans for the flights at Governor's Island and elsewhere. Wm. J. Hammer is Secretary of the Committee.

General Wood has appointed Col. Samuel Reber of the Signal Corps to assist Mr. Hammer in his preparation of the system of visual and audible signals to be used in informing the people of New York and surrounding country of the day, hour and minute of the proposed flights.

Dr. Julian P. Thomas proposes to fit the wind-wagon he used at Morris Park with pontoons and take part in the marine parade up the Hudson. It will be remembered that the apparatus made a speed of nearly 30 miles per hour on the track. The wheels and some of the framework, of course, must be removed when it is placed on a cigar-shaped float.

New York to Albany Airship Trip.

For the New York World's $10,000 prize for the best time from New York to Albany, three airships have definitely entered and paid their entrance fees and one man has his fees on the way covering his entry of an aeroplane.

Captain Thomas S. Baldwin will use his dirigible with which he has been making ascents this summer. George L. Tomlinson, of Johnstown, N. Y., will use a dirigible similar to the Baldwin ship, on which both he and Baldwin have worked to bring up to first class. Horace B. Wild, of Chicago, promises another, up to date in everv respect, with steering planes and all the latest novelties in style.

The starting place has been selected just west of Riverside Drive, between 119th and 120th Streets, and the Albany finish line is an imaginary one three miles in length, drawn from the' wireless tower in Ten Eyck Park to the Capitol.

The committee in charge of the event consists of Col. John Jacob Astor, Arthur Billings, Charles M. Manly, J. Parke Channing, J. C. McCoy. A. H. Forbes and J. L. Ten Eyck, who will look after the Albany end.

Trials will be made at the most propitious time during the celebration. Any contestant may make as many trials as he likes, upon proper notice to the committee.

wright and curtiss to fly in hudson-fulton

foreign letter

Cody Makes New Cross-Country Record—Long Distance Airship Ascents a Feature of the Month—New Dirigible and Aeroplane Speed Records—$175,000 Receipts at Rheims High Altitudes in Balloon Ascents—Clement Bayard, Republique and Zeppelin III Have Mishaps— Wright Flying in Berlin—Wellman Polar Airship Has Accident—Scores of Aeroplanes Bought.

COUNTLESS are becoming- the experimenters in aviation in every country, particularly in France, and it is daily more impossible to even attempt the chronicling of every little .jump. The world has advanced so rapidly this past year that events have a new significance. That which was the wonder of the world such a short while back is now the commonplace ; we must progress, letting those things now of lesser importance take their proper place in the world's routine. As they assume greater and greater value, so will (hey lie treated.

In the future 1 shall generalize on many occasions, with the advantage that I shall be able to go more into detail, perhaps, in the items of major worth. A. B. O.

WELL11AN again fails.

On August 15 the Wellman polar airship "America" started on its second ascent for the North Pole. Everything went well for some miles until the big guide rope containing the provisions for the journey broke away. The ship was brought-down from the high altitude to which it immediately jumped, and was finally towed by the Arctic steamer From back to its shed. Wellman promises to make another start next year.

This was the third attempt of his to reach the pole via airship. The beginning was in 1900, but the season advanced too far before all was ready. The following year a start was really made, but in a heavy storm the ship became unmanageable and was driven to shore. In 1008 no start was made, but improvements and preparations were made for the trip of 1000, which has now terminated so unfortunately. Now that Cook and Peary, or Peary and Cook, or neither of them, have gained the mark, will Wellman continue?

Austria.

An M. Urbanek. at Prague, has built a machine in which the surface is increasable al will. In America, I believe, Peter Cooper Hewitt has ideas of a veefable aeroplane.

Austria, which has seemed to be outside the aero held, is to follow Germany and will build an aerial fleet. It is known that a Parseval of 1,800 eu. m. is to be delivered at the end of September subject to the fulfillment of the following conditions: I, a trip of 10 kil. covered twice in a given time; 2. a trip of 240 kil. with a fixed destination, not in any specified time, but in a wind of at least 0 m. per see. : .°>, ascension to 1.000 in. altitude, followed bv a trip of at least 40 kil.

England.

Cody is the principal figure just now. Uidicule has turned to praise. With the changes made in his machine, he has made during the last month rapid strides. Beginning the second week in August; he made various successful flights of 2, 4 and 5 miles, even taking as passengers on different occasions Col. Capper and Mrs. Cody.

lie has installed a larger motor, an 8-cylinder ENV of 80 h. p., and altered the structure." New wood propellers of 4 in. greater diameter and 1 ft. 0 in. more pitch have taken the place of the old sheet metal ones. The engine is level with the main lower plane and is located between the two center struts. A passenger's seat is fixed to the same spars above and behind the driver's

seat. Cody has done away with the tail and the wing tips, though a loss of speed in turning is the result. He will try to carry three passengers besides himself, and has in anticipation a trip in stages to Liverpool.

On the 8th of September Cody flew for 1 hr. 3 min., covering over 40 miles cross-country. He flew over valleys, over the barracks and circled the spire of the village church. Several army men took successive two-mile rides with Col. Cody,, returning each time to the start.

The Government's airship, "Baby," has had some more trials. The top fin has been discarded and the propellers have been placed in a lower position on each side of the car and there is a new steering plane in front.

The "Daily Mail" offers a second prize of $500 for the second crossing of the Channel, and $5.000 to the aviator making the greatest total distance across country between Aug. 15 of this year and Aug. 14 of next, in France or England.

Sir Hiram Maxim, 1 hear, is building again, for the first time since the successful experiment with his huge structure some twenty years ago.

Baron de Forest offers $20,000 to the British subject who makes the longest distance across the Channel with a British-built flyer, not across the Atlantic as has been erroneously announced.

A. V. Koe is still practising with his small-powered aeroplane, making short flights. E. V. Hammond is experimenting at Brooklands's motordrome, and A. E. George, a well-known automobilist, has his own machine under construction at Bath.

It is expected that the Wright aeroplanes acquired by the British War Office will be delivered this month, and that INlr. Orville Wright will superintend the official trials at Aldershot in October.

In a very confined space, Boe has made some SO flights, some of which have been 300 yards.

The Lebaudys are constructing the airship for England to be paid for out of the "Morning Post" fund. The "Daily Mail" is having the shed constructed at its own expense.

Harold and Frank Barnwell have been able to accomplish a flight of 80 yards at Stirling, Scotland, on the first trial of their experimental machine, using a wooden track for starting.

The two parallel supporting surfaces of this biplane measure 4S by 8 ft.. 7% ft. apart. Steering up and down and laterally is by means of a double-surface front, control. This is mounted at the end of two booms fastened to the four central struts. This rudder is divided into two cells by three vertical surfaces. Wing tips are placed between the main planes just inside the ends. One end of the wing tip pivots on the outermost strut and the other end pivots at the intersection of the guy wires, as in the Curtiss machine. This cellular control is pivoted similar to that of the Curtiss machine.

The engine is a regulation automobile motor, weighing about 400 pounds, which drives by chain I wo 2-bladed wood propellers, 10 ft. diameter by TO ft. pitch. With the engine stationary, each, 1 am told, developed 300 pounds thrust." These propellers were made from data obtained in laboratory experiments with model propellers.

The whole machine is mounted on 2 wheels, tandem, directly in the middle. Midway of each wing is another small wheel for protection in landing. The aviator sits in front of the radiator, behind which is the motor.

A novel method in staying the structure is the use of si eel tape instead of wire for the purpose of reducing head resistance.

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France.

Sportsmen are buying aeroplanes as fast as they ean lie turned out. Anzani, the maker of Blo'i rot's motor, has bought a Voisin and has already made flights. Jean Gobron is another, rapidly jumping from flights of a few hundred meters up to one of half an hour, Baratoux has a Wright; Sivet a Voisin which he broke up the first time out. M. Grou on a machine of his own make was c-nnglit in the wind and upset. Mortimer Singer is another Voisin student. M. Ru-chonuet is a new Antoinette pilot who has flown 15 min. at a time.

G. B. Cockburn, an English purchaser of a Farman, started in the first of August and rapidly became proficient enough to cover the 10-kil. course at Rheims. and another flight of half an hour.

Captain Ferber has been fairly consistent in his trials, but he has not developed anything more sensational than a 20-kil. flight. Roger Sommer, in a Farman, has rather been the star performer for fast progress. Since breaking Wright's record he was content with a little over an hour and a quarter at Rheims.

Rougier has made his debut in a Voisin with an Itala motor and has made his 50 kii., with a creditable showing at Rheims in the altitude contest.

Fournier, of automobile racing fame, has a Voisin and has flown for 41 minutes.

The R. E. T. has not been heard of much of late, but Guffroy took it out for the Rheims meet and broke his propeller after a kilometer flight two days before the opening.

Alfred Leblanc. the balloonist, began the first of August with a Bleriot, type XI. Short flights were made, with incidentally a broken propeller to relieve the monotony.

Delagrnnge has another of the cross-Channel flyers and began learning the second week of the month.

This month also saw the trial flights of the monoplane "Blanc"—only short ones. It has ."0 square meters surface fitted with a 7-eylinder RFP 35-h.p. motor.

Ftienne Bunau-Varilla in a Voisin fitted with an N-cylinder ENY motor, covered the Rheims course. With another machine. Gnome motor, he competed at Rheims. his best experience being, one of 70 kil.

Lefcbvre. the young French engineer who came to Rheims for the races from exhibition flights with a Wrisrht in Holland. He competed in the single lap. the triple lap and the Gordon-Bennett, doing fairly well.. though his longest flight lasted 20 minutes. His promising career was sadly cut short through the accident to his machine.

From the middle of August to the 22nd there was feverish activity in preparations and practice for the eight-day meet. Everyone who had a machine was out. either at the Betheny plains, at Issy, Chalons or .Tuvisy.

Even Bleriot himself, after arriving in Franco from his Channel flight, being received and banqueted at the Aero Club, was not averse to getting a little practice at lssy. At .Tuvisy a street has been named "Avenue Bleriot."

The accident to Count Lambert's Wright the end of July, when his right wing gave way after flying a mile and the aeroplane smashed to bits, did not keep him away from Rheims. where he took part in the sinerle and triple lap races and made 110 kil. in the Grand Prix.

Farman practiced at Chalons the first half of the month, with a longest flight of 48 minutes.

Paulhan spent the first half of August at Dunkirk giving exhibitions averaging a ouarter hour each, with the exception of a 1 lir. .17 min. flight on the same day that Sommer was beating Wright's duration and distance record.

The "Zodiac III" was completed and sent to Rheims to compete against \he big "Col. Renard." The "Zodiac" is the third of the "demountable" sporting airships nut on the market this spring, with Fount de la Vaulx as sort of demonstrator.

(>n August 2.1 the "Clement Bayard" left its shed at Sartrouville to make the last ascent under (lie conditions imposed by the Russian Government, which required staying 1 hour at 1.20(1 meters altitude. It made a new altitude record.

1.550 meters, for dirigibles, and stayed up more than two hours above the conditional 1,200.

new dirigible altitude record.

In descending, the guide rope was dropped and seized by the workmen, and the motor was stopped, but the wind suddenly blew up and the men, many inexperienced and in number only suffi cient for handling in fair weather, gradually let go one after the other as the big airship swayea in the breeze. Finally, with the memory of La Patrie fresh, the pilot Capazza started up the motor again to get back to the place from where it had drifted. Then the motor stopped and the dirigible was in the position of a free balloon and was carried by the wind. The pilot sought to land at a favorable spot, narrowly missing a train.

clement bayard sunk.

One of the ropes caught in a pile in the Seine, the bag inclined toward the water and the car sank into the water, dragging all but the rear end of the envelope in with it. After several hours the ship was entirely recovered from the river.

republique makes i.(inc trip.

"La Republique," after the military evolutions of July recorded last issue, with the Ville de >ancy at Longchamps. the "République" continued to make instruction ascents. On the 4th of August it covered the course imposed in the conditions of the Deutsch dirigible cup, of the value of $2,000, to be given the first airship to accomplish a course of 200 kil. passing over certain cities without a stop and with certain other conditions. The ship actually covered 210 kil. in 7 hr. 13 min., the average speed being 30 k.p.h., though it attained 47 k.p.h. during one stage of the journey from Chalais-Meudon. to St. Germain, Senlis. Meaux, Melun and Chalais. After this trip the instructions ascent began again.

On Sept. 3 the "République" started from Chalais for the maneuvers at La Palisse. Near Xevers, 148 miles from Paris, the motor went wrong and the envelope buckled back of the car so that it looked like a back^uriker^ n<)^'se-<^_4 /tC(d

new dirigible speed record*"" ^‘^7 fi^J^

The "Colonel Renard." the new dirigible constructed by the Astra Co. for the military authorities, on August 23 left its shed at Beauval to go to Rheims for the dirigible contest, arriving there without accident and with a favorable wind in 1 hr. 32 min. The distance is 100 kil., so that the speed of 71.24 k.p.h. (44.24 miles) was attained. So far as records show, this is the fastest time that any dirigible has made.

The ship has 4,300 cubic meters capacity, is 04.75 meters long. 120 h.p.

the new gov. airship "liberte."

The end of August the new French Government airship "Liberté," built by the Lebaudys, made its first trials at Àloisson.

The new airship is of a type analogous to the "République" and the "Russie." It measures 03 m. long, capacity 4.200 eu. m. The 135-h.p. motor drives two 2-bladed propellers on either side of the car. which is midway the length of the envelope. The speed realized was 53 kil. per hour.

Just in front of each propeller is a biplane horizontal rudder for steering in a vertical direction. It will be stationed at Belfort.

aero race meet pays big.

"The Car" is responsible for the statement that the gate money at Rheims was $15.000 for the first day and the total was nearly $175,000. while the prize money amounted to only some $40.000. The railroad company carried 40.000 (o 50.1 inn passengers daily. one million words wen1 sent out by correspondents in despatches, and the re ceipts at the post otlice wore some $5ll.0n0.

new speed record.

Sainf Cyr. France. Sept. 13. Santos Ditmont has broken the aeroplane speed record to win a wasrer of $200.

Willi the aeroplane "Demoiselle" he made a flight to-day across country to Bue, a distance of liliiw+'en eight "nd njim kilitnittUux. in live minutes, at a sjieed of about On kilometers 155.8 miles) an hour.

m. Paulhan put the aeroplane to a new use this afternoon. Wishing to pay a visit to the Chateau Taintignies, some miles distant from the aerodrome, he pointed bis machine in that direction and flew leisurely across country, settling gently near the entrance to the chateau.

After chatting for a short time with his friends the aviator remounted the machine and flew back to the aerodrome. He was absent for about an hour and a half, and tremendous enthusiasm greeted his return.

Germany.

GROSS AIRSHIP ON LONG TRIP.

The trip of the "Gross II" on August 4, from Tegel to Berlin, was remarkable for its length. 465 kil. Buffeted by the winds, it made part of the course twice.

During the month some experiments were conducted with wireless telegraph on the "Gross II." For three days communication was had between Nanen and Reineckendorf and at the same time with Frankfort, a distance of more than 500 kil.

Baron de Caters has been able to give some exhibitions with his Voisin on the grounds of the Frankfort Exposition, but without anything remarkable. His longest flight has been only 17 minutes, at Issy.

The "Clouth" and "Parseval III" dirigibles are at Frankfort, where on August 22 the Clouth made its first ascent. It has a capacity of 1,700 cu. m., is 42 m. long, with a maximum diameter of S m. The car holds three men. A Clouth 50-h.p. motor drives two wood propellers placed above the car as in the "Parseval III."

THE PARSEVAL III.

The capacity is 6.700 c. m., length 70 m., two motors NAG of 100 h.n., operating two screws which are reversible, placed to the rear of the car.

The ship is put at the use of the public for trips at a rate of $50 an excursion of one to two hours. On a trip on August 12 it met with what might have been a bad accident. (See article by Mr. Meixner, this issue.—Ed.)

ORVILI.E WRTOHT FLYING AT BERLIN.

The first week in September Orville Wright began his flieht for the German Wright Co. at Berlin. On the 7th he flew for 52 min.. and on the 10th he remained in the air 1 hr. 2% min. Capt. Hildebrandt, who visited the States in 1907, Frau Hildebrandt. Prof. Hergesell. of the Meteorological Observatory, and Mr. Wright's pupil, Capt. Englehardt, were passengers.

ZEPPELIN III ON LONG TRIAL TRIP.

The "Zeppelin III" has been completed and made its first ascent on Alienist 25. On the 27th it set out for Berlin, but had to make three intermediate stops for motor trouble and propeller breaking. On the 29th it arrived at Berlin, landing later at Tegel in the presence of the Emperor. On the return journey another propeller broke, damaging the envelope and forcing the dirigible to land for extensive repairs. It regained Friedrichshafen on Sept. 2. An uninterrupted run was made from Bulzig of 23 hours' duration. A speed of 21 miles an hour was attained during part of the trin.

On the 11th of September the "Zeppelin III" sailed from Friedrichshafen to Frankfort, 220 miles, repeating the performance of the "Zeppelin II" on July 31. The time consumed was about 17 hours.

Italy.

30,000 FEET HIGH IN BALLOON-ITALIAN RECORD.

From Turin on August 9, Guido Piacenza and Luigi Mina ascended in the cotton balloon "Albatross" of 2,280 cu. m.. prepared for attaining a high altitude. Only 1,200 m. of hydrogen were put in the balloon. Oxygen tanks were taken along, together with a complete set of instruments. After reaching 5,000 m. altitude the oxygen was used. Here, also, the barometer was set back to zero. A height of 9,200 meters (30,176 ft.) was reached during the 2^-hr. journey, which ended 105 kil. from the start. This is the Italian record. The French record is 8,850 m., held by Balsan in a 3,000 cu. m. balloon using coal gas. The record of the world is held by Profs. Berson & Suring, 10,500 m. (34.440 ft.), who used an enormous balloon of 10,000 cu. in., inflated with hydrogen.

The Italian military dirigible made ascents during August. On the 21st a sudden landing was made in Lake Bracciano, due to defective valves.

Calderara will not seem to stay away from the aeroplane. He and Lieut. Savoia have been making flights up to 40 minutes with the Wright machine rebuilt and modified since the accident by the Engineering Corps. It has an especially powerful motor now, and it is said the speed has been 70 kil. per hour.

Japan.

Correspondents say that several aeroplanes are now under construction in great secrecy in Japan. One built by Yoshino-Sirke Takaska is said to have been tried out successfully and to have given a speed of 50 miles an hour. It is hardly likely that the Japanese will remain long behind.

Roumania.

Roumanla has now entered the lists. Lieut. Goliescu, an army officer at Bucharest, has built a monoplane in the city and has succeeded in making several short jumps. It is said that he has found the secret of low speed in huge wings of great spread resembling those of an eagle.

Russia.

Van der Scrouff has a Voisin at Odessa and has been able to make some short flights. The Lebaudy airship "Russie" has arrived and the name has been changed to "Lebed," whatever that may be.

Sweden.

At a meet organized by the automobile club in Stockholm the first part of August, Folmer Hansen, who served his student time at Juvisy, made some short exhibition flights. Legagneux made a couple 5-kil. flights with a passenger, and later made several of 2 to 5 kil. with Hansen as passenger.

Switzerland.

ATTEMPT TO BALLOON OVER MT. BLANC.

Edward Spelterini, the celebrated Swiss aeronaut who has made many cross-Alps ascents, with three companions left Chamonix on August 8 in the balloon "Sirius," of 2.000 cu. m. capacity, in an endeavor to get over Mt. Blanc. The wind, however, was not favorable. The crossing of the Alps was accomplished, nevertheless, the balloon landing at Pizzo, Italy, a distance of 150 kil.. after 6 hr. 45 min. in the air. The greatest altitude attained was 5,700 meters (18,696 ft.). An altitude of 5,000 m. was held for over 2 hours.

E. B. Weston, his daughter, Miss Delight, and A. Leo Stevens will make an ascent in Mr. Weston's new balloon, the "Delight," from North Adams the last part of this month. Miss Weston is attending Smith College and the balloon will be shipped East for this oc-

casion. The initial ascension with it was made the first week in September from Canton to Somerset, Ky.

G. L. Bumbaugh sailed his airship at the Indiana State Fair, beginning Sept. 6.

Missouri N. G. Has Aero Corps.

On August 20 an Aeronautic Section of Company "A," Signal Corps, National Guard of Missouri, was enlisted to take up military ballooning and any other aeronautic work that might come within the scope of this department of the Signal Corps. The paramount feature of this organization lies in the fact that it is the first volunteer balloon corps in this country, and approaches the plan recently adopted in England.

The Aero Club of St. Louis have assigned two balloons, one 40,000 cu. ft. capacity, and one of 76,000 cu. ft. capacity, for the exclusive use of the corps. This Aeronautic Section will inflate and handle all the balloons that are sent up during the races which occur in October of this year. One of the balloons in the championship race will be piloted by a member of this corps, namely, Mr. H. E. Honeywell. There are 15 men in this section at present, and of this number 12 are graduates of colleges or technical schools.

The corps was organized and is now commanded by First Lieutenant Chester E. Burg.

Y. M. C. A. to Open Aeronautic School.

To meet the rapidly growing demand for men trained to build, repair and operate aeroplanes and dirigible balloons and also to prepare others for the sport of flying, the West Side Young Men's Christian Association, 318 West 57th St., New York, on October 13 will open an evening course in Aeronautics under the direction of Wilbur R. Kimball, the well known electrical expert and authority on aviation.

The School of Aeronautics owes its existence to the experimental or test course of lectures given at the West Side Branch last spring. The interest shown in these lectures indicated that there was a real demand for aerial training even though, at that time, the Wrights had not made their wonderful flights and Bleriot had not crossed the Channel.

"The successful flights of the Wrights, Bleriot, Curtiss, Count Zeppelin, Dumont, De-lagrange, Farman and others, have demonstrated the practical possibilities of aero-navigation. "Men with personal knowledge." says the announcement of the school, "of aero science are in demand." The armies of the great nations are striving to develop aerial machines which shall become effective engines of war. Scores of amateurs are enter-

ing the air as a means of recreation and need assistants. Professionals are at work everywhere devising new and better mechanisms. Experts declare that it is now only a question of time when flying machines will be commercially practical. This coming demand has already been foreseen by the pattern makers who are preparing for work in the aeroplane field.

The first course of study is designed to prepare owners and prospective owners for participation in, and enjoyment of aerial sport; to train aero pilots and mechanics in the principles of management; to teach practical men the principles of construction; to aid civil and mechanical engineers who wish to learn the applications of their science to flight and to prepare writers, newspaper men, advertising men and salesmen to specialize in the new field.

The outline of the course of study which ten years ago would have been regarded as the dream of a crank is as follows :

OUTLINE OF COtJRSE.

Law of Gases—Buoyancy, action under varying temperatures and pressures; the atmosphere, hydrogen; motion; air currents; use of barometer, thermometer, manometer, statoscope, etc.

Resistance and Supporting Power of tlic Air —Laws of motion and application of force; parallelogram of forces.

Sliapes of Surfaces—Planes; curves; solids (square, round, fish-shape) ; use of each; head resistance.

Kites—Malay, Hargrave, Tetrahedral, etc.

Lift and Drift—Mathematical relationships between the two; simple rules for determining ratio between sustaining and propelling elements.

Soaring and Gliding Flight—Ways of birds in the air; some historical gliding machines and their records.

Screw Propellers — Ratio of thrust and torque; proportions determined by work to be performed; number of blades, pitch, speed.

Motive Power—Steam versus gas power; size, weight and performance of practicable types of motors; fuel consumption.

Pozver Driven Models—Actual demonstrations of working models of aeroplanes, helicopters and vibrating wing machines; designs of various types.

Man-Carrying Apparatus—Working dimensions of apparatus capable of sustaining man : materials used; strength necessary as shown by tables; arrangement and adaptation of various parts; general data.

Superposing Surfaces—Comparison between monoplane and biplane.

Equilibrium—Varying conditions of atmosphere due to whirlwinds and irregular currents ; compensation for advancing center of pressure.

Control—Steering apparatus of various forms; means of control rudder, auxiliary planes, etc.

Transmission Systems—Direct connection ; gearing; chain drive; cable and flexible shafting.

Dirigible Balloons—Size and material of envelope ; gas systems of suspension and application of power; problems of steering and equilibrium.

No attempt will be made in the first course of ten evening lectures and demonstrations to give students actual flying practice, though this phase of instruction may develop later. There will, however, be ample work in flying models and in constructing miniature planes of various types. For experiment with models, the big athletic field adjoining the building at 57th St. and 8th Ave. will make an admirable model aerodrome in the heart of Manhattan. It is probable that a number of contests between various models will be held in this field. In addition the students will study gas practice in the automobile and motor boat school testing laboratories and will be taken to various flights in nearby aerodrome.

The purpose of the school of aeronautics as described by Edward L. Wertheim, the Educational Director, is to fit men for tin coming industry connected with the building and handling of aerial machines.

"A new industry," said Mr. Wertheim, "is rapidly being created and just as the automobile brought employment and wealth to hundreds of thousands who were wise enough to fit themselves for that industry, aerial navigation now promises great rewards to those with foresight enough to prepare themselves for its several branches."

St. Louis Aeronauts Qualify Quickly.

St. Louis is more progressive than cities in the effete East, for there balloon pilots are made, almost "while you wait." The applicant starts out of St. Louis and then descends as soon as the open land is reached. Here a smoke is enjoyed and a new trip begun. This novel method has not yet been worked out fully, as on no occasion have more than thre.' landings been made. It is likely, however, that this diffidence will speedily be overcome.

Aero School Moves.

Albert C. Triaca has now located his aeronautic school at Garden City, Long Island, N. Y. A considerable sum is being spent in remodeling and fitting up a large building for the use of the school. A housing shed will also be erected. Adjacent to the school begins the great Hempstead Plains, where flights of a dozen miles in a straight line can be made with scarcely a single obstruction.

Flying Machine Supply Houses.

As a sign of progress, there is noted within a month the entry into the aero field of automobile supply houses for the furnishing of aeronautic material.

The Universal Auto Supply Co. of 1900 Broadway, New York, was the first to realize the new industry in this manner. They now have in stock many of the important parts used in construction work.

The Pedersen Manufacturing Co., 636 First Ave., New York, a well-known house of long standing, is making a bid for machine work.

The machine shop of the L. B. Repair Co., 239 West Fiftieth St., is another which is in a good position to do machine and repair work of all kinds. They are experts on motors.

Magnetos and other accessories may be had from L. G. Duquet of 107 West Thirty-sixth St.

The E. J. Willis Co. of 8 Park Place, New York City, which was originally a bicycle supply house when the auto first came into prominence, and which was one of the first to take that line up, and which also carries motor bicycles and motor boats, is now adding to its already extensive business an aeronautic department, the entire fifth floor being devoted to that purpose. The firm is at present negotiating for several European motors which have shown up very well at the late meet at Rheims. It is also importing bamboo of all sizes direct from China, and carries a fully line of balloon silk, steel tubing, sheet and bar aluminum, etc. In short, everything used in the construction of balloon, dirigible or aeroplane. It is hoped by the first of the year to be the largest flying machine supply house in the country. This house intends to carry on an extensive mail-order business, and anyone that is building, or contemplating building, a flyer, should write. Agencies of all kinds are solicited.

Incorporations.

American Aeroplane Co., Wilmington, N. C.; capital stock, $125,000. Incorporators, W. B. Cooper, F. A. Bissinger, Dr. J. H. Drehr, Dr. R. S. Bellamy, C. H. Dick, C. W. Polvogt, E. Picard, R. C. Piatt, E. P. H. Strunk, Albert Schild, J. Brick and David Palmgren. To develop invention of David Palmgren.

San Diego Aeroplane Co., San Diego, Cal.; capital stock, $200,000, of which $33,000 is said to be actually subscribed.

The International Dayton Aeroplane Club, Dayton, O.; C. J. Needham, G. H. Grim, C. T. Mattorn, F. P. Gaddis, G. R. Wells, C. C. McLean, A. E. Estabrook and John C. Eberhardt.

International Aerial Navigation Co. of Texas; capital stock, $1,000,000. Incorporators, Dr. Frederick J. Fielding, Dr Fred Terrell, V. P. Brown.

Ohio's Course in Aeronautics.

It is our intention to take up the study of aeronautics seriously in connection with the regular courses as soon as the new building of the Ohio Mechanics' Institute is completed.

During the interim, that is within the present school year, it is intended to collect all the facts that can possibly be gathered concerning the progress of the subject of aerial navigation, carefully tabulating them and acquainting the students with the men who are prominent to-day in the experiments that are being made, and become familiarized with the various types of aerial conveyances, motive power employed, etc., at this time. In all probability models will be constructed which, in the new building, may find a place in a special section of the industrial museum. In other words, it is the present plan to lay the foundation for more serious work a year hence.

Gordon Bennett International Balloon Race.

The Gordon Bennett International Balloon Race for 1909 will be held October 3 at Zurich, Switzerland. America will be well represented by Mr. E. W. Mix, a pilot of the Aero Club of America, using the balloon "America II" piloted by J. C. McCoy in the international balloon race from Berlin last autumn.

The French contestants are: Mm. Emile Dubonnet, Alfred Leblanc and Maurice Bien-aime; German, Dr. Broeckelmann, Paul Meckel and Capt. von Abercron. Italy has entered 3 balloons, Belgium 3, Spain 2, Switz-eiland 3, England 1, x\ustria 1, a total of 20.

In addition to Bennett's $2,500, a subscription list reached $6,440 for additional prizes. Besides the G.-B. contest there is a duration and another distance race on Oct. 1 and 2.

c_yUl American Events Credited to Aero Club of America

In answer to the question as to whether or not the Aero Club of America receives credit for all balloon and dirigible ascents and flying machine flights made in America, even though such may be accomplished by members of clubs not affiliated with the A. C. A., or by individuals alone, it may be of interest to note that the A. C. A., as the sole member of the Federation Aeronautique Internationale in America does receive credit for all the balloon and dirigible ascents in this country. The A. C. A. can have one vote in the Federation for every so many thousand cubic feet of gas used in America and for dirigible and aviation records. No records made in an international contest under the auspices of a non-affiliated club will be considered "official" by the F. A. I. No club can obtain recognition by the F. A. I. except through A. C. A.

Balloons for Advertising.

To Manager Wallach, of the Herald Square Theatre, is due the; credit for the most novel advertising New York has seen. To call attention to "The Broken Idol" running at that theatre, in which, by the way, there is a balloon scene, a captive balloon is in use several hundred feet above the theatre, bearing the name of the play. The balloon is illuminated at night by a searchlight. For inflation, tanks of compressed hydrogen are used, furnished by the N. Y. Calcium Light Co. The balloon used has been especially built for this purpose. So much comment has the balloon caused that the builder. A. Leo Stevens, has sold five others for similar work.

St. Louis Ballast.

Probably one of the busiest men in the balloon business at the present time is H. Eugene Honeywell, director of the French-American Balloon Company, at St. Louis. To accommodate the increase in the volume of work he has found it necessary to secure a second shop, which will be known as the "Drying Room." Before October 1 he has 25 balloons of 3,000 cu. ft. capacity each to complete, and besides, a racing balloon to be called "Centennial," of 22,000 cu. ft. capacity. There is no foundation for a newspaper story that appeared recently to the effect that Honeywell was building a "monster" balloon. He will compete with the "Centennial" in the October 4 race of the Aero Club of St. Louis.

The Missouri Motor Car Company, at St. Louis, when filing its corporation papers recently, included the handling of aeroplanes as well as automobiles, and is looking for a good machine to place on the market.

John Berry, while endeavoring to make an ascension from the gas works at St. Louis, August 29, lost his balloon "University City," 78,000 cu. ft. capacity, with which he won the national balloon championship, last June.

St. Louis aeronauts are paying $1 per 1,000 cu.' ft. for the best coal gas for balloons. Mixed gas, at the Aero Club of St. Louis grounds, costs 60 cents per 1,000 cu. ft.

The Carrollton (111.) Gazette, in recording the landing of the "St. Louis 111" with H. E. Honeywell and party, concludes: "All four were refined, educated gentlemen, with whom it was a pleasure to converse."

Does the Gazette think aeronauts as a class are unrefined and uneducated, or is this merely a refutation of particular assertions regarding the four gentlemen in question?

E. F. Stephenson, of Memphis, Tenn., is designing a 30 h. p. monoplane on which work will begin very soon.

Aeronauts' Busy Season

Captain T. S. Baldwin and Carl E. Myers were at Worcester (Mass.) fair, Sept. 6-9. Mr. Myers had his captive passenger balloon for day and evening ascents, concluding with a cut-loose passenger trip. The Baldwin dirigible acquitted itself as well as usual, making some fairly long trips with the new type 20-horse-power water-cooled Curtiss motor.

Mr. Myers operated his first airship in Massachusetts at Worcester in 1891. There was a parade around the race track of a thousand high-wheel velocipedes, and only one pneumatic-tire, low, "safety bicycle," and Mr. Myers' aerial bicycle, or "skycycle."

Knabenshue has been sailing around Cleveland, O., while J. C. Mars is in the air at Seattle Exposition.

Jack Dallas was at Ontario Beach, N. Y., during August.

Patent List.

Csesar R. Bannihr, New York, N. Y., No. 931,026, Aug. 17, 1909. "Aerodart." Toy helicopter consisting of a hub having spring wires attached and carrying on their outer ends suitably inclined blades. The operation is accomplished by spinning manually the shaft supporting the above hub.

Reinhold Schmiechen, Newell, la.. No. 931,225, Aug. 17, 1909. "Airship," comprising a metallic envelope divided in sections, some of which contain gas and one containing a motor; fans secured at bottom of envelope adjustable as to position, and movable wings on sides, designated "cyclone producers," for propelling ship in any direction.

William Sinclair, San Antonio, Tex., No. 931,966, Aug. 21, 1909. "Aerodrome." Moro correct term would be "helicopter," since the machine comprises a pair of propellers rotating on vertical axes suspended from a frame. The propellers are encased in open-ended cylinders and formed of alternating flat and inclined sections producing spirals.

Enoch S. Le Fevre, Littleston, Pa., and William D. Le Fevre, Smyrna, Del., No. 932,712, Aug. 31, 1909. "Airship." More specifically a helicopter provided with "vertical-flight propellers" and "longitudinal fb'ght propellers," the propellers of each set rotating in opposite directions. An "aeroplane" is also provided consisting of slats pivoted in a frame so as to open or close.

John Muckle, Kansas City, Mo., No. 932,884, Aug. 31, 1909. "Airship." More specifically a helicopter consisting of "propelling-lifting fans" mounted on opposite sides of body portion. Front and rear deflectors adapted to deflect the air, "fan hoods" for propellers and vertical rudders for steering and stopping in addition to an aeroplane roof are included in this multiple structure.

Joseph A. Rignon, Berlin, Germany, No. 932,999, Aug. 31, 1909. "Airship," consisfing of gas bag and a balloonet, having free open-

ings at front and rear. The opening at front being greater than at rear and an "air-propelling organ" opposite the front opening.

Aerial Torpedo Latest in Aero War' fare.

Aerial torpedoes are the latest horror that are about to be added to modern warfare by Emile Berliner, inventor of the graphophone. It is nothing more or less than a small aeroplane carrying a torpedo in place of an operator and provided with an automatic balance and steering device to the same end as a submarine torpedo.

light-weight motor devised.

The thing about the device that has given more trouble than anything else is getting a simple and light-weight motor. This problem is now solved and there is a motor in the Berliner shops that will develop 12 horse power on the brake and weighs only 50 pounds. The present motor is very simple in construction, and it is said that it can be cut down 12 pounds without interfering with its efficiency when the next motor is built.

The motor is something of the Adams-Farwell type, with revolving cylinders. These act as a gyroscope to keep the aeroplane steady in the air and make the motor run without the vibration that would shake a small aeroplane to pieces with a motor of the same size and weight of a reciprocating type. It is said that the motor on a light wooden base has been run without any trouble from vibration, and it was run standing still in the sun for half an hour without overheating. It is true that standing still on a long run the cylinders get a little too hot for greatest efficiency, but moving through the air will keep them just right.

machine to be a monoplane.

Mr. Berliner has tried out a lot of propellers and has found a pair of light weight and suitable efficiency. This and the motor constitute the chief problems, and, being satisfactorily settled, he is not bothering much about the aeroplane to carry them. The whole installation will be of such light weight that not much wing surface will be required. The machine will be a monoplane. The automatic balance, is worked out so that it is simply a question of putting the machine together. The aeroplane will carry a gasoline supply for a flight of half an hour. It is pointed out that the aerial torpedo is much cheaper to construct than a submarine torpedo, and that it is more accurate at the same range.

The laboratory is well satisfied with the work it has done on the revolving cylinder engine, and is constructing another of 66 horse power for Mr. Berliner's helicopter, and this will be tried also on the helicopter of J. Newton Williams, who, it will be recollected, was lifted along with his machine at Mr. Berliner's country place a short time ago.

The Oakland Aero Club has been formed at Oakland, Cal., with the following officers : President, A. Vander Naillen, Jr.; first vice-president, Dr. C. L. Tisdale; second vice-president, H. C. Capwell; treasurer, Col. Thos. Gier; secretary, Edwin Stearns. The club numbers over 50.

Its first "affair" was a balloon christening of the "City of Oakland," built by Capt. P. A. Van Tassell for the Club. The builder with Prof. A. Vander Naillen, Jr., made a high ascent for the purpose of becoming familiar with the air currents in anticipation of the balloon race in the Portola festival in which the Club has entered its balloon.

The San Antonio Aero Club is constantly adding new members. It is endeavoring to pull off a balloon race during the Fair and Auto Meet in Qctober. Dr. Frederick J. Fielding, the president, has just returned from his vacation during which he was present at the Indianapolis balloon race, where he went in the interest of the coming meet at San Antonio, and was also present at the Automobile Races at Crown Point and Indianapolis.

The Aero Club of America is arranging for a luncheon to Glenn H. Cnrtiss when he arrives in this country. He has a contract with the Hudson-Fulton Commission to fly his aeroplane during the Hudson-Fulton celebration. Arrangements are being made for sheds for the Curtiss and Wright machines on Governor's Island where the flights will start.

An aeronautical show is being planned by the Club to be held in connection with one of the automobile shows.

The Aeronautic Society meetings at the Automobile Club the last three weeks have been of unusual interest. On each of these occasions a number of models, both power and gliding were shown in flight and otherwise.

On the evening of September 2, the competitions held were intended to have decided the source of contests, but it was found that a number of members had models which they were willing to show if given another opportunity so that the Contest Committee decided to hold the competition open another week.

There was one large monoplane considerably like the Antoinette, with two propellers revolving in opposite directions on concentric shafts which made satisfactory flights nearly the whole length of the great hall. Two more or less successful monoplanes were sent by Mr. Wm. J. Hammer. These were made by the Bates Toy Aeroplane Co., of Dayton. This is the third concern in this country to follow Europe in the marketing of toy aeroplanes. The Aeriole Co., of . Germantown, was the first, and then came the H. J. Nice Co., of Minneapolis.

During the past month the meetings of the

society have taken on more of a social aspect. The exhibitions of the society, the grounds at Morris Park and the other affairs have previously made the meetings almost entirely of a business nature.

The Aero Club of Saratoga (N. Y.), has nearly been formed. The purpose will be to hold exhibitions and flying machine races at the Saratoga Association Park in July and September, 1910. George A. Farnham, proprietor of the hotel American-Adelphi, at Saratoga, states: "Thus far we have been very successful in our undertaking. It is opening up a large correspondence and the details will be carried out to perfection. We are much pleased at the interest manifested and believe that we will have a club that will be second to none in this country. The location and lay of the country here will make this a wonderful place for demonstrations of this kind."

The Aero Club of New England's two balloons have done good work this summer making to date, August 30, 21 flights and taking up 68 people, traveling 1,142 miles, air line, and remaining aloft 70 hours and 9 minuses.

The International Aeroplane Club listened to addresses by President Needham, Capt. G. L. Bumbaugh, Dr. P. L. Crume and others on Aug. 25. The membership is now above 500 and the slogan is "A Thousand or Bust."

The Aero Club of Atlanta is getting busy with gliders. The new autodrome provides an excellent place for experiments with machine already under construction.

The Aeronautical Society of Canada is now being formed. There was an informal meeting held on Sept. 1 to discuss the formation of an aeronautical society to be called "The Aeronautical Society of Canada," for the purpose of giving a stronger impulse to the scientific study of aerial navigation and to promote intercourse among parties interested in aeronautics in Canada and to aid with advice and instruction those studying the subject.

The foregoing is but an outline of the aim of the society, but putting it more in detail, it is intended to make arrangements for the reading of papers and their discussion; to get up lectures, both popular and scientific, from time to time, and to issue when possible the proceedings of the society in printed form; to form a library, from which books may be borrowed by members, and. if possible, to arrange for the starting of an aeronautical journal, to be published in Canada, which will be the official organ of the society.

Mr. Logan, the secretary pro tern., says: "It is without doubt an urgent necessity that a (.Continued on page 164)

exchange

A NEW DEPARTMENT

To the Editor :—

I have plans for constructing a flying machine that I am confident will prove more successful than anything yet on the market. I haven't the money to construct a machine, and would like to find some man or body of men in whom I can place confidence, and to whom I can explain my plans of construction. If 1 can then make satisfactory arrangements 1 want to construct a machine as soon as possible.

I will guarantee that I have the best construction of a machine that has ever been constructed —something entirely different from any of those now in use.

WM. R. YEOMANS, Box 479, Southington, Ct.

from south africa.

To the Editor :

May I explain that I have been studying the different types of flying machines at different periods, and have found one thing lacking with the aeroplane of different makers—yea, even Wright brothers—"excuse me passing a remark, but a fact remains a fact!" Say an aeroplane's engine or motor is started an'd up goes our aeroplane. Well, all goes right up to the height of 300 or 400 feet, when all of a sudden the motor stops, or the propeller breaks, or the such like— energy power is lost, and of course the aeroplane may rapidly fall towards the earth. I have invented a contrivance to overcome this difficulty, which, when energy power is lost, I can prolong my soaring in the air like a bird with the wings stationary. I shall not exactly explain my method to produce this "soaring effect," but all flying machines that have come to my notice have two faults. The one fault is: The elevating planes are too small and too near the main planes, and should be—well, I shan't explain my ideas, as I contemplate producing a South African aeroplane later. I have a model already which flies 0. K. I will send a photo later on of my machine. As far as I am aware, I am the only African "born" who intends to produce a monoplane. With every success to Aeronautics.,

J. W. N.

E. F. Stephenson, 250 Vance Avenue, Memphis, Tenn., desires to communicate with manufacturers of motors, bamboo, seamless tubing, wire, wheels, propellers, chains, piano wire, turn buckles and fabric.

To the Editor :

I want financial aid to develop a new principle in flying machine ethics. The problem of air navigation is something I have given a good deal of thought to for some years. I think I have developed a device that will solve the problem. The great desideratum of all the flying machines thus far made of which I have any knowledge is to get them in the air easily and successfully, and to land them easily and safely. Of course, the balloon gets up all right, and sometimes, but not always, lands safely. Now my device aud plan will get you into the air, and propel you when there, and get you down out of the air, without

wheels, skids, weights, tracks, or any other such annoying contrivances. My device is no "Keely motor fraud," but something real and practical. I believe it would prove the "ne plus ultra" of aviation. I would like to communicate with someone who has the means and would be willing to aid in developing my plan. 1 have not protected my device as yet with a caveat or patent, hence could not disclose its nature. My device could be used for another purpose equally as valuable as air navigation.

O. HARMON, Oneonta, N. Y.

To the Editor :—

At the suggestion of the Sterling Debenture Corporation I am addressing a letter to you. May 1 have your attention for a few minutes for one or two hypothetical questions?

If an aeronaut could have a terrestrial globe so mounted that a pointer would indicate his true position, and further, if the pointer would move over the globe as the balloon or airship moves over the earth, and continually point out on the globe the true position of the airship at any instant of the voyage, what would be the value of such an instrument to the aeronaut? Or if in place of the pointer, the globe could be fitted with three graduated circles so adjusted as to indicate latitude longitude and the north point, and the globe could be so mounted as to show the relative motion between the airship and the earth in such a manner as to indicate at all times the true latitude and longitude of the airship as the voyage progressed, what would be the value of such a device to the navigator?

I have invented and patented an instrument that will do the things I have outlined. And I might say in passing that the instrument mounted on a vessel at sea will give the saine indications as I have stated above.

With the airship, when the radius of flight extends beyond the knowledge of the aeronaut, or when clouds intervene between him and the earth, the device I have mentioned will be as valuable as it will be to the sailor when approaching a dangerous coast in foggy or stormy weather.

My invention will indicate the north point, and will tell the navigator the number of degrees of latitude and longitude passed over, as readily and with as little effort on his part as his watch will tell him of the time elapsed.

I want to interest capital in the development of this device, and to awaken interest to bring about an examination of my claims 'before condemning them as visionary and impossible.

S. D. J., c. o. Aeronautics.

WANTED.—Capital to build dirigible on new principle, somewhat like Zeppelin; success unquestioned ; intimate experience in German airship factories. No brokers.—GERMAN, c. o. Aeronautics.

WANTED, at once, au aeronautic motor. Write full details and price, LIND AERIAL NAVIGATION CO., Lind, Wash.

ascensions

Note.—In each case the first name given is that of the pilot. Pilots are especially requested to communicate records of trips.

wade and morgan break club record.

DAYTON, July 3.—J. H. Wade and A. H. Morgan, in the "Sky Pilot," to one mile south of St. Mary's, Pa., leaving at 8.10 p. in., travelling all night up to 3 a. m., seven hours. Dist., approx.. 156 miles. This is the longest flight made from Dr. J. G. Poltz and W. E. Mast to Ligonier, Pa-Canton. The next is that of Dr. H. W. Thompson. 121 miles.

MODESTO, Cal., July 5.—It. S. Mitchell, P Unger. and D. W. Tnlloch, to Hughson. Mr. Tul

CANTON, July 5.—Dr. II. W. Thompson, W. E. loch was severely injured in landing. Mast and Harry Naugle, in the "Ohio," to Malvern Dist., 12 m.; dur., 3 hrs. 5 min.

DAYTON, July 10.—G. L. Bumbaugh, John S Mclntyre and Walter Keenan in. the "Indianapolis,' to 12 miles beyond Kenton.

ST. LOUIS, July 13.—John Berry and Andrew Drew in the "Melba" (25,000 cu. ft.J.

ST. LOUIS, July 14.—H. E. Honeywell, C. C. Butler and S. L. Von Phul and three others, in the "St. Louis III.," to Tamaroa. Duration, 3 hrs. 35 min., including one stop.

NORTH ADAMS, July 16.—Mark O. Anthony made an ascension in Mr. Steven's balloon, the •'All America," carrying five passengers.

ST. LOUIS. July 17.—H. E. and Mrs. Honeywell, Miss Ada Miller and another woman, in the "Missouri," to St. Mary's, Mo.

ST. LOUIS, July IS.—John Berry and Miss Julia Hoerner, in the "Melba," to 5 m. S. E. of Belleville, Ills. Dur., 1 hr. 30 min.

PITTSPIELD, July 20.—William Van Sleet, Charles T. Fairfield, Prof. Oswald Tower in the "Pittsfield,' to Mooreville, Ct.

NORTH ADAMS, July 20.—N. H. Arnold, W. C. Coughlin, James Batchelder, L. J. Follett, Thos. Callahan and Frank Arnold, in the "All America," to Durham, Ct. Dur., 3 hrs. 15 min.

CANTON, July 24.—J. H. Wade, Jr., Reuben Hitchcock and Albert Schoenberg, in the "Sky Pilot," to Apollo, Pa. Dur., 4 hrs. 32 min. Distance 99 miles.

ST. LOUIS, Mo., July 24.—II. E. Honeywell, II. B. Spencer, James W. Bemis. Harry Hayward. Harry Smith and S. Von Phul made a balloon trip to-day in the "St. Louis No. 3." The party made three landiugs, the last being near Columbia. 111.

260 mile trip.

ST. LOUIS, July 25.—John Berry, Paul J. Mc-Cullough and John S. Thurman, in the "University City," to Savannah, Mo., after a trip of 260 miles, lasting 11% hours. The expectation was to beat the Lahm cup record of 475 miles.

ST. LOUIS, July 25.—John Berry, Paul J. Mc-Cullough and John S. Thurman, in the "University City," in an attempt to win the Lahm Cup from Captain Chandler, its present holder.

NORTH ADAMS, July 25.—N. H. Arnold and F. P. Beckwith, in the "City of Worcester," to Westboro, Mass.

dirigible ascent.

DAYTON, O., July 27.—H. II. McGill made an ascent in his dirigible, which resulted in an accident. He had reached a considerable height when his craft suddenly split in two and he lost practically all of his gas. The balloon collapsed and came*down in a heap, covering the aeronaut, who was dashed down at a terrific rate. Fortunately, the balloon fell athwart a telephone wire, and McGill, who clung to the ropes, found himself dangling not far from Mother Earth. He was rescued from his perilous position.

RUTLAND, July 27.—William Van Sleet, Charles T. Fairfield and H. C. Carpenter, in the "Mass.,"' to Barnard, Vt.

PITTSFIELD, July 27.—Dr. S. S. Stowell, Miss Blanche E. Hülse and John P. Manning, in the "Pittsfield," to Shelburne Falls. Dur., 2 hrs. 40 min.

PITTSFIELD, July 30.—William Van Sleet and Robt. McQuiller, in the "Pittsfield."

NORTH ADAMS, July 30.—William Van Sleet, Fred La Franchise. W. H. Nicholas and F. P. Boughton, in the "Mass.," to Monroe Bridge. In preparing to land all the sand ballast was thrown out, and it was found necessary to drop the basket cover and balloon cover. Then Mr. Van Sleet ordered the anchor cut away, but one of the passengers made the mistake of cutting the main anchor rope instead of the lashings. The balloon dropped rapidly, just clearing a patch of woodland and striking hard in a pasture. Mr. La Franchise was knocked out of the basket, striking on his head, but sustaining no serious injury. Before the others could alight the balloon shot far upward, but the pilot succeeded in bringing it down to an altitude of 100 feet wThen he pulled the rip cord, and again the basket struck the ground with great force. The occupants who had taken to the rigging were sprawled out over the pasture, but all escaped bad injuries.

DENVER. Aug. 1.—Gordon L. Wands piloted ou the first balloon ascent of the new A. C. of Colorado.

DENVER, Aug. 1.—Ivy Baldwin and W. W. Wood, from Elitch's Gardens.

DENVER. Aug. 1.—Wayne Abbott, from Lakeside to Louisville, Colo., 22 miles, dur. 1 hr. On landing, balloon got away, but afterwards found 32 miles beyond.

DAYTON. Aug. 2.—II. II. McGill, L. B. Haddock, J. Schauer and Earl Lyons, in the "Dayton."

ST. LOUIS, Aug. 2.—John Berry and Julia Hoerner, in the "Melba," to Barnhart, Mo.

ST. LOUIS, Aug. 2.—S. Louis Von Phul, alone in the "Missouri," to House Springs, Mo.

CANTON. Aug. 4.—Dr. H. W. Thompson, W. D. Miller, and Jesse Snyder, in the "Ohio." to Zoar.

FITCHBURG, Aug. 7.—Charles J. Glidden, Maj. F. S. Burnham, in the "Boston," to Northboro. Dist., 20 m.; dur., 2 hrs. 15 min. This makes 31 ascensions for Mr. Glidden.

balloon and auto qhase.

ST. LOUIS, Aug. 4.—Albert Bond Lambert, Christian Kenny and Harry Allen in the "Mis souri." Three landings were made. Following the balloon was II. E. Honeywell in' an automobile. The party first landed near Edgemont, where dinner was had. Though the distance covered was small, it was the balloonists' object to make as many ascents as possible. After dinner, Allen, Honeywell, and Lambert's chauffeur. Joseph Hanes, made an ascension, landing at Belleville.

WThile the third flight was being made Lambert and Kenny followed in the former's car and kept the bag in sight.

Honeywell and his companion landed near O'Fallon. 111., about IS miles.

DAYTON. Aug. 5.—H. H. McGill. Leo Browne and John Henne. in the "Dayton," to Waynes-ville, O. Dur. 3.30.

ST. LOUIS, Aug. 0.—S. L. Von Phul. II. E. Honeywell. H. A. Steinwender, Jr., Clinton Boogher, J. AY. Bemis and Tarleton Brown, in the "St. Louis III." Three landings were made—at Carondelet Park, near Clayton, and then 5 m. north of Normandie Golf Club. Bemis and Von Phul are qualifying for pilot's license.

PITTSFIELD. Aug. 7.—William Van Sleet, Henry and Sheldon Whitehouse, in the "Mass.," to East Litchfield, Conn.

CANTON. Aug. 7.—Dr. II. W. Thompson, Walter Flickinger and Louis Sweningson. in the "Ohio," to 5 miles west of Millersburg. Dist., 36 miles.

CANTON. Aug. 7.—Dr. II. W. Thompson, Walter Flickinger and Louis Siveningson. in the "Ohio."

DAYTON, Aug. 7.—II. II. McGill and Earl Lines in the "Dayton," to Camden, O. Dist., 6 miles.

FITCHBURG. Aug. 7.—Chas. J. Glidden and Maj, Franklin Burnham in the "Boston," to Northboro Center. Dist., 35 miles.

ST. LOUIS. Aug. 10.—John Berry and Joseph Heine in the "Melba."

DAYTON, Aug. 10.—II. II. McGill, J. Schauer

and Martha Schauer in the "Dayton," from Buck Island to Shakertown, O.

DAYTON, Aug. 11.—H. H. McGill and Michael Devanney, from Buck Island in the "Dayton" to 4 m. south of Lebanon, O., making intermediate landings near Bellbrook, Johnsville and Miamisburg. The balloon is being used captive at Buck Island.

FITCHBURG, Aug. 11.—Chas. J. Glidden, Trof. and Mrs. David Todd, in the "Boston" to Ilopkin-ton, Mass., 30 miles; duration 1.30.

DAYTON, Aug. 12.—H. H. McGill and Henry Pruden. in the "Dayton," to Byron, O., after 5 hrs. trip.

RUTLAND, VT., Aug. 13.—Wm. Van Sleet, Ezra H. Allen and Edith I. Sawyer, in the "I'ittsfleld" to Brandon, Vt. Altitude 6,000 ft.

nOMlNEE CHRISTENS BALLOON.

OAKLAND, Aug. 14.—P. A. Van Tassel and Prof. A. Vander Naillen, Jr., in the "Oakland" on its initial voyage. After services, begun with an invocation by Dr. Nelson E. Saunders, Mr. Nail-len's daughter christened the balloon with a bottle of California champagne. The Mayor's representative wished the aeronauts good luck in the name of the city. The balloon has been constructed by Mr. Van Tassel for the Oakland Aero Club. In landing in a gale the basket capsized, and the aeronauts were thrown out and the two barometers broken. The duration was 4 hours.

PHILADELPHIA, Aug. 14.—Dr. Geo. H. Sim-merman and Dr. Thos. E. Eldridge, Miss Lydia Cantor and W. W. Geller, both of the Baron de Hirsch School, in the "Phila. II" to Longwood. Pa. The balloon hit a tree .iust before landing Anally. Alt. 8,200 ft., dur. 3 hrs.

DAYTON, Aug. 18.—H. II. McGill, Edward W. Keller and Edgar C. Ireland, from Buck Island, in the "Dayton."

honeywell and berry race.

ST. LOUIS, Aug. 19.—H. E. Honeywell, Sidney T. Bixby, Harry A. Blackwell and Carl II. Langen-burg, in the "St. Louis III" (78,000 ft.) to Wood-ville. Ills., 34 miles, after 4 hrs. 45 min.

John Berry and Wm. C. Fox in the "Melba" (39,000 ft.) to Florissant, Mo., 17 miles.

PEORIA, Aug. 19.—Three balloons in race of Air Craft Club. See elsewhere in this issue.

FITCHBURG, Aug. 20.—Chas. J. Glidden (33rd ascension) and Harry C. Clayton, fifteen years of age, in the "Massachusetts." to Shirley, Mass. Gas was poor, and trip lasted only 23 minutes, landing at 6 p. m., covering 10 miles. Pigeons released at 4,000 ft. altitude arrived safely at their cotes, though all but one of the nine did not return till the following morning.

SPRINGFIELD, Sept. 2.—Capt. T. S. Baldwin, Mr. and Mrs. C. B. Harmon and Miss Anna Byrd. in the "Springfield," to Williamstown. Dur., 45 min.

HUDSON-FULTON CELEBRATION

(Continued from page 153)

A. Leo Stevens will use his balloon "You and I" as a captive during Hudson-Fulton. Located on the grounds of the Colonial Yacht Club, at 140th St. and the Hudson River, there will be a hydrogen gas plant for inflating the balloons. A wireless system will be installed for communicating news of the passage of the marine pageant and other events to the various stations in and around New York City. Wig-wag practice will be indulged in by the signal corps of the New York National Guard, also taking lessons in the operation and equipping of a captive balloon and the making of hydrogen. The signal corps already has an aeronautic squad which Mr. Stevens has taken in hand for instruction. Some time ago they had a drill in the armory in the handling, inflation, etc., of a balloon.

STATUS OF WRIGHT SUIT

(Continued from page 9)

planes or flexible rudders or arms for carrying same.

This cursory examination of the Wrights' patent and suit against the Aeronautic Society has not had for its object the determination of the validity of the Wright claims. It may be assumed, at least for the present and in the absence of fuller research, that the movement of the lateral margins of the main planes is controllable under the Wrights' patent. It may be assumed still further that said patent controls the flexible rudder and the movable arms before referred to, yet in the face of all of this assumption it is impossible to find under the most liberal interpretation of said claims the particular construction characterizing the Curtiss machine.

The use of supplemental surfaces appears to be indisputably a public right, and upon this apparently hinges the issues involved in the present suit. The bill, however, filed on behalf of the Wrights is not specific, and is a mere generalization of rights and grievances. If the suit is not abandoned, something more specific will undoubtedly be demanded, and at that time it will be possible to draw the lines of defense more definitely upon specific grounds.

For those interested in the issues involved, the United States patent of Chanute numbered 582,718, filed Dec. 7, 1895, dated May 18, 1897, will be interesting. Chanute here discloses wings comprising the main planes of his apparatus and being capable of movement to different positions above and below the normal plane, such movement being about an axis transverse to the line of flight, thereby presenting to the atmosphere different angles of incidence. Many varieties of mechanical means are disclosed in the art for changing the angles of incidence and Chanute's application seems indicative of practical work early in the art along the lines pursued by the Wrights. In view of the patent to Chanute, which was granted nine years prior to the patent to the Wrights, it would seem good law to interpret the. claims of the Wrights strictly and specifically upon their construction as interpreted in their own phraseology. This would not reach out far enough to have any bearing upon supplementary surfaces.

It may also be interesting to note that in 1906 a French patent was issued numbered 362,201, disclosing supplemental surfaces as used in the Curtiss machine.

CLUB NEWS

(Continued from page 47)

society of this description should be at once formed in Canada, as the time is not far distant when we will see the 'car in the air' a commercial reality.

"It is therefore high time that Canada should not be lagging behind, but should put forward her best efforts to bring herself into line with all the great countries of the world.

"A general meeting will shortly be called, and we ask all those who have the smallest interest in Canada and things Canadian to send in their names, so that the secretary may communicate with them when arrangements have been made as to the time and place of this meeting."

Should you wish to become a member of this society or should you have friends or acquaintances whom you think would be likely to join the society, kindly send their names and addresses to M. B. Logan, Esq., secretary pro tern., 99 Gloucester St., Toronto.

The Aero Club of America has now affiliated with it the following clubs:

Aero Club of St. Louis, St. Louis, Mo.; Aero Club of New England, Boston, Mass., with balloons also stationed at Pittsfield and Fitch-burg, Mass.; Aero Club of Ohio, Canton, Ohio; Aero Club of North Adams, North Adams, Mass.; Aero Club of Seattle, Seattle, Wash.; Aero Club of California, Los Angeles, Cal.; Aero Club of Indiana, Indianapolis, Ind.

The Club also has at the present time twenty-six licensed aeronautic pilots located at different points throughout the country so that members may make ascensions at almost any place at any time with capable pilots.

The victory of G. H. Curtiss at Rheims brings the competition for the International Aviation Championship to this country next year. Rules governing this competition will be drawn up at the meeting of the International Aeronautic Federation to be held at Zurich in October. The Aero Club of America will have eight votes at this meeting.

CONSTRUCTIONAL AIDS—V.

(.Continued from page 129)

the joints welded, as well as the eyes for the guy wires.

Fig. 4 shows the socket joints of the Voisin machines. Designs 2, 3 and 4 are for rigid struts only.

A flexible arrangement is that of Fig. 7, in which part of the socket and nut is broken away to show the interior. No one has employed this, but it is given as a suggestion.

Fig. 5 illustrates a quick method of attaching ribs to the main beams. This system is used in the Raische machine at Morris Park. A tube is forced over the rectangular rib, flattened and screwed into the beam.

Fig. 6 shows a tightener for wires. The wire A is divided and each end fastened at B to right and left threaded steel screws C, which engage with the barrel nut D, through the center of which is drilled a hole for the insertion of a bar to turn the nut. The nut is locked by the wire E.

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The best book on AVIATION

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Most scientific treatment on the subject. Fine illustrations and diagrams. Leather Back à* à*

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Am. Aer. Society 1827 N. Paulina St., Chicago, 111.

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now with large machinery manufacturer would like to form connection with well established airship builder. Experience in important executive positions; an expert on result bringing letters, well equipped by education, experience and personality to handle high class business. Widely traveled at home and abroad. Age 33, unmarried, Manager, Room 338, 160 Adams St, Chicago, 111.

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AEROPLANES, GLIDING MACHINES, MODELS, SEPARATE PARTS

PRACTICAL LESSONS IN GLIDING

Experiments Conducted. Large grounds for testing.

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SOARING BLADES

Allowed on royalty to aerial plane flying machine builders. They increase the speed to double the motor power, push machine if motor stops about 20 miles p. h., which permits guiding and prevents accidents. Any height can safely be attained. Working blue prints with full patent rights, maintaining automatic equilibrium also furnished.

For terms apply to R. DRESSLER, Coney Island, New York.

G. L. BUMBAUGII

1029 N. Illinois St., INDIANAPOLIS, IND.

DESIGNER - CONTRACTOR. - OPERATOR CONSTRUCTOR

AIR SHIPS AND BALLOONS

Builder of the CHICAGO—largest balloon in the world; the INDIANA, which remained in the air 49 hours and 25 min., the ENDURANCE RECORD for the U. S.; and the INDIANAPOLIS, which won the Handicap Race.

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Bowden wire for controls

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New York Chocolates

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Most Suitable for Aeronauts or those requiring a Non-Hnlky Sustaining Food Office, 150-154 CHAMBERS STREET, NEW YORK

RARE BOOKS.

Under this heading we publish each month a list of such rare and out-of-print books as can be secured. The demand at the present time for rare aeronautical works is great, and it is usually not possible to obtain more than one copy at a time of any one work.

TRAVELS IN SPACE (Valentine & Tomlinson), introduction by Sir Hiram Maxim; many illusts. 8vo., cloth, London,

1902............................... $4.00

ASTRA CASTRA (Hatton Turner), many illusts., royal 4tp., boards with leather back, uncut, London, 1865... $10.00

TRAVELS IN THE AIR (James Glaish-er, Fdammarion, Tissandier, etc.), 125 illusts., royal 8vo., cloth, London, 1871 $6.00

AERIAL WORLD (G. Hartwig), 8 plates, map, many woodcuts, 8vo., cloth,

N. Y., 1S75......................... $4.00

Same, new ed., same illusts., London,

1892 ............................... $4.50

DOMINION OF THE AIR (Rev. J. M. Bacon), 24 plates, 8vo., cloth, London, 1904 ............................... $2.00

"DONALDSON & GRIMWOOD, A true Account of Their Last Balloon Voyage and Tragic Death in Lake Michigan, thin, 121110., wrappers, illust., Philadelphia, 1875 (very

scarce) ............................ $3-00

THIRTY YEARS IN THE CLOUDS, with Observations on Thunder and Lightning, Formation of Rain, Hail, Snow, etc. (John Wise), 8vo., pamphlet, 1870.....$5.00

Wilson-miller co.

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Cfl This company is organized for the purpose of exploiting all business connected with aerial transportation, including the patenting of new devices, the purchase and sale of patents and patented apparatus, the establishment of laboratories for original research, the building of manufacturing plants for the construction of all types of flying machines and motors, the promotion of exhibitions, races, prize competitions. ^ Models and experimental work of all kinds to order.

fij Materials and appliances used in aerial transportation offered for sale.

<J Estimates furnished for the construction and trial tests of all classes of aeronautical work. <J Write for prospectus.

45 West 34th Street, New York. KIMBALL AEROPLANE, $6000 UP,

WITH GUARANTEE OF PERFORMANCE

BALDWIN'S VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL

Used in the U. S. Gov. Dirigible and Spherical Balloons

will last from five to six times as long as a varnished balloon. The weight is always the same, as it does not require further treatment. Heat and cold have no effect on it, and ascensions can be made as well at zero weather as in the summer time. The chemical action of oxygen has not the same detrimental effect on it as it has on a varnished material. Silk double walled VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL has ten times the strength of varnished material. A man can take care of his PROOF balloon, as it requires little or no care, and is NOT subject to spontaneous combustion. Breaking strain 100 lbs. per inch width. Very elastic. Any weight, width, or color. Will not crack. Waterproof. No talcum powder. No revarnishing. The coming balloon material, and which through its superior qualities, and being an absolute gas holder is bound to take the place of varnished material. The man that wants to have the up-to-date balloon, must use VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL-Specified by the U. S. SIGNAL CORPS.

AEROPLANE MATERIAL A SPECIALTY

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Pedersen Manufacturing Company

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when you visit MORRIS PARK

don't forget to visit the aeronauts' retreat

Morris Park Cafe 866 Morris Park Ave.,

and Summer Garden neatMorisPark

Special lunch served at moderate prices. Private rooms for parties with ladies. All bottled goods sold as represented. Telephone, 239 Westchester. John J. Dragnett, Prop.

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REGISTERED

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EXPERTS ON GASOLINE MOTORS, REMODELING and OVERHAULING MOTORS, MAKING SPECIAL PARTS FOR EXPERIMENTAL WORK ON

AIR, LAND and WATER VEHICLES

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AEROPLANES AND GLIDERS

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Aeronautic Supplies and Apparatus

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C. T. SHAFFER

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MAGNETOS, SPARK PLUGS BATTERIES

All Supplies and Equipments for Gasoline Motors.

L. G. DUQUET

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WANTED.

Partner with $10,000.00, in securing foreign aeronautical Patents, and demonstrating them. Conservative estimate places their value at $100,000.00. Satisfaction guaranteed.

Address Stability, AERONAUTICS.

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T'HE recent prizes for aeroplane contests offered by several prominent papers recall that the FIRST AVIATION TROPHY offered in America was given more than TWO YEARS ago by the

SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN

which is the only weekly publication that treats fully the new science of mechanical flight—a science which it has helped develop and promulgate from its very beginning.

THE SPECIAL HUDSON-FULTON CELEBRATION NUMBER (issue of September 25th) is now on sate at all newsstands.

MUNN & CO., Inc., 365 Broadway, New York.

Scientific American Trophy, 1907

more honors for

st. louis and honeywell

records prove it

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In first national balloon race of The Aero Club of America, Indianapolis, June 5 th.

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library—Including a complete file of all aeronautical patents.

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AERONAUTICS

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Published by AERONAUTICS PRESS, Inc.

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Entered as second-class matter September 22, 190S, at the Postoffice, New York, N.Y., under the Act of

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Vol. 5

November 1909

No. 5

Aeronautics is issued on the 20th of each month. It furnishes the latest and most authoritative information on alt matters relating to Aeronautics.

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frenchmen bad losers

NOW that the Gordon-Bennett balloon cup has come back again to America, France has something more to rankle in her breast ; and on top of Curtiss' victory, too.

The Bennett automobile race is now a thing of the past. Will the Bennett aero cups also pass into oblivion?

L'Automobile, a well-known French automobile journal, has the following to say on the subject of the Rheims races. It is regrettable that such an authoritative organ should speak so in view of its ignorance of matters here. That L'Automobile is not aware, evidently, that already four Curtiss machines have been put out, and that Curtiss schooled himself with the four machines of the Aerial Experiment Association while he was a member of that organization.

"It appears to us that French aviators have nothing to gain by taking part in this event, and that it is calculated, indeed, to do much evil to the French aeronautical industry. The reason is simple. There are at present not less than ten aeroplane constructors in France. What do we see abroad? Two Americans took part in the competition at Rheims and no other competitors existed anywhere. What is more extraordinary would have been to see Farman fly for England, for he is of English

nationality, while at the same time being essentially Parisian. In any case he is a member of the French school, and in that respect as much French as Bleriot or Levasseur. Suppose Farman had won the Gordon-Bennett cup; every foreigner would have declared that the English aeronautical industry was at the head of the world and that the French product was inferior.

"America is the only country that can meet us in aeronautical matters. The Wrights have presented series of machines which class them among the best constructors. As to Curtiss, the winner of the cup, he has only one machine of this type. In France there are various constructors, among them Bleriot, Antoinette, Farman and Voisin, who are daily selling machines to the public. Elsewhere only the Wrights are in this position.

"Under these conditions we are playing the role of dupes in taking part in a competition in which equal importance is given to the industry of various nations. We are about to repeat in the aviation world what was done in the automobile world, where France played into the hands of the Germans, English and Italian industry, by putting on the same footing the fifty French factories and the rare foreign factories.

"The cup has been gained by a compatriot of the generous • donator. It has gone to America. Let it stay there forever. It is to be hoped that our constructors will see the danger at once, and that they will inform the Aero Club that they have no further desire to take part in such an event."

The Automobile, of New York, remarked: "Had Bleriot, who placed such importance on the winning of the cup, been successful in his attempt, it is certain that such a wail would never have gone forth. This causes the whole affair to look very unsportsmanlike, because the French are losing."

horsepower and flying

THE tendency towards great horsepower in proportion to weight in aeroplanes is regrettable. It does not make for advancement in the efficiency of the machine itself. Given enough power, almost anything would fly. But-the-line of work should be for evolving the nearest approach to soaring.

Professor Langley said, in concluding his paper on "The Internal Work of the .Wind:" "The final application of these principles to the art of aerodromics seems, then, to be that while it is not likely that the perfected aerodrome will ever be able to dispense altogether with the ability to rely at intervals on some internal source of power, it will not be indispensable that this aerodrome of the future shall, in order to go any distance—even to circumnavigate the globe without alighting— need to carry a weight of fuel which would enable it to perform this journey under conditions analogous to those of a steamship, but that the fuel and weight need only be such as to enable it to take care of itself! in exceptional moments of calm."

In the April number of Aeronautics, Mr. Chanute discussed fully the problem of soaring and showed its possibility and the requisites for its performance.

It has not been brought out with sufficient emphasis the small amount of power needed to fly with a suitably built aeroplane. The Wright Brothers have come the nearest to doing away with motive power, but the importance of this phase of the subject ha's caused little comment and apparently small credit has been allowed these pioneers for attaining what they have. In Europe the sole aim of experimentors and practical men has been to outstrip the Wrights in speed and duration performances, laying aside the question of perfecting the machine.

M. B. Sellers, in Kentucky, has been able to_ fly short distances repeatedly, with but seven rated horsepower.

This is another step in the right direction.

Advancement along this line must be credited to America.

the power behind the machine

IT IS of prime interest to the aviator to know exactly on how much actual horsepower he can count in time of need. Purchasers of engines have to depend solely on the claims of the manufacturer as to horsepower, and it is not to be expected that motors will be underrated at all.

The need for a definite statement of horsepower has been realized by the Automobile Club of France, and last spring a competition was held in which but two motors showed up for the test, one of which was the Gnome, which has been heralded by some as the best motor in Europe.

Though rated at 50 horsepower, it only developed 34.2 horsepower average for 15 minutes, the remainder of its run of 2 hours 17 minutes being performed with broken inlet valve springs, popping in the carburetor, etc.

The above horsepower was given at 1,177 revolutions per minute. As the motor weighed 180 pounds, its specific weight per horsepower works out at 6.47 pounds.

During December another series of tests will be held by the Automobile Club of France, for which some small cash prizes have been offered.

automobile club to offer prize.

We are glad to understand that the suggestion to the technical committee of the Automobile Club of America by Aeronautics that a motor competition, or series of tests, be held to determine the best motor suitable for aeronautics, is to be adopted, and that a substantial prize will be offered by the club.

An electric cradle dynamometer is now being installed, and will shortly be in a position to test any motor up to 50 horsepower.

AERONAUTICS. November, içoç

the wright-curtiss suit*

THE patent specifications are drawn to cover both monoplanes and machines with two or more parallel superposed surfaces. Claims given in the patent include both types. The following statement is made as concise as possible consistent with the endeavor to be accurate.

m in points in wright patent in question in the suit.

t. In a flying machine a normally flat aeroplane having lateral marginal portions capable of movement to different positions above or bt dw the normal plane of the body of the ae oplane, such movement being about an axis transverse to the line of flight, whereby said laf:ral marginal portions may be moved to dii.erent angles relatively to the normal plane of the body of the aeroplane, so as to present to the atmosphere different angles of incidence, aid means for so mo\ing said lateral marginal 'pc -tions, substantially as dcsciibed.

Application of verfical ctruts rear the ends . vi.pgjji^.Abie joints.

3. Mea.is for simultaneous.y h" .artii g, 1 ■ movement to said lateral portn-.s to d-i\c _ i aigles relatively to each other.

4. Refers to the movement of UTe I ' a! portions on the same side to the same

7. Means for simultaneously movin& ver tical rudder so as to present to the wind that side thereof nearest the side of the aeroplane having the smallest angle of incidence.

There appear to be two main points of argument in the Wright-Curtiss suit. One is whether or not auxiliary planes, such as used, for instance, by Curtiss, infringe the Wright patent covering "warping" or twisting the main planes themselves. The other is whether or not it is necessary to use the rear rudder in conjunction with either warping the main planes or using the wing tips.

By the fact of bringing suit, Wright evidently contends that Curtiss employs means for operating the wing tips in conjunction with the rear rudder. The drawing in the Wright patent shows that the rudder must move in conjunction with the warping. In the machines in use it seems that the rudder can be moved independently of any warping, and vice . .versa, though both operations can be made - "i.multaneously if desired, with the same mechanism, by merely moving a lever in certain directions.

An examination of the Curtiss machine shows that separate mechanism is employed for tilting the wing tips from that used for turning the rudder. It is a fact, however, that both operations can be made at the same time but only by simultaneous action on the part of the aviator.

The Wrights evidently regard it necessary that warping the planes themselves, or operating "wing tips," so called, be in conjunction with a movement of the rudder. Curtiss will,

no doubt, claim that he can turn circles by means of the rudder alone.

The Wright system of warping the planes, as now in use, is shown by Fig. 1 and is de scribed below. Fig. 7 shows the mechanism by which the aviator brings about the warping and the rudder action. In Fig. 1 the machine would turn to the right were it not for the turning of the rudder to the left (Fig. 2) to counteract the effect of the warping. Fig. 3 is a longitudinal section showing the left sides of the planes tilted up and the right sides turned down, from which it is seen that the angle of incidence is greater on the right than on the left. There is greater projected area on the right than on the left.

TV Warping System as Shown in the Patent

• 1 ' • 4 i . illustrated the same view of the ac line, vi'*1 the left wing-tip tilted u'- : '"'gilt -mo i-i'nvn. Both tilt at the

c-v.-ic a uie t-ssj*"! 1 1 ,ru b. L have the same ciu •'. ft of th*1 wind is p.a tunc1 10 tenu > ." rv the left -;ide of the machir_ down and 'lit id, 1 _><- ip. In Fig. 6 it is attenpt^d tn n\ 1! f c r • ments of the Curtiss wi g f -s as comparer* with the plane-warping illustra . The cables (a) (b) (c) are atu. >c rear edge of the wing tips, as shown, licv the shoulder brace (d) by swaying the bou> to the left pulls on (a), which draws the right wing tip down. The pull is communicated all the way around the machine, as shown by the arrows. The rudder is worked left or right by turning a steering wheel. There is no connection between the two systems on the Curtiss machine.

Fig. 5 shows the Wright front rudder and the other small diagrams give various views of the Wright machine.

how wright turns.

Mr. Wright has explained his turning circles as follows: Suppose one desired to turn to the left. To turn merely by the use of the rear rudder would result in the machine's "skic ding" greatly to the right. In the turn, the left side of the machine would naturally slow up somewhat, and the right side would move forward at greater speed than the left. Headway would be lost, and it is stated that at

♦Refer also to two recent English patents described and illustrated in the April and July issues. These will be found of interest. Also the "Status of the Wrights' Suit," by Thomas A. Hill, in the October number.

AR RONAl/T!CS

November,

this point the right side of the machine would be apt to slide down toward the earth. To n<ake a short turn to the left without loss of headway, the practice is to warp the right side down and the left side up with the rudder turned toward the left. But in making this left turn it is necessary that the machine be "heeled" over lo the left so that the machine will not skid. After the turn the planes are straightened out and the rudder brought back in place or moved somewhat to the right to keep in the desired path.

It is possible, of course, to make turn- of great radius without the use of warping, and possibly Mr. Curtiss will claim this pome to offset the contention on the part of the Wrights that it is obligatory to use the rudder in conjunction.

Referring to the Wright patent again, without t^-use of the rudder in conjunction with

Mr. Wright has stated that in flying b h. p. is actually used. The gasoline is fed R»koH>et*r pump to a jet placed insi| mixing tube, which is connected to the ders by means of a manifold. The cyl are separate, surrounded by copper water ets. A cam shaft within the crank c:.si. ates overhead valves by means of rocker At one side of the motor is the r:i consisting of flat brass tubes, 5 ft. h 4 in. wide. Each cylinder has a small ai port just below the head. Two pumps a by a cross-shaft from the two-to-one cai arc provided for forcing the gasoline • mixing tube, and for forcing oil from voir in the base of the engine to the 0 bearings and the cylinders, after whi« returned to the tank. The oil pump driven, and the gasoline pump is ? PhU The gasoline supply is contained in

Construction oi

the warping, the machine would turn on a vertical axis like a corkscrew, and so the rudder is operated simultaneously to correct this tendency. Of course, the movement of the rudder to the one side or the other increases forward resistance, and this may account for the lack of extreme speed commented upon by foreign writers. In this connection it must be remembered that in the Rheims meet the Wright machines were operated by men who had less experience as aviators than men like Bleriot, Latham and Farman, with whom they were compelled to compete.

Orville Wright averaged in a ten mile flight, with and against the wind, a speed of 42.58 miles per hour, while the speed with the wind was 47.43 miles per hour.

Description of Wright Aeroplane.

power plant.

The motor is designed by the Wright Brothers themselves, has four cylinders, 4-}^ by 4 inches, bore and stroke. The ignition is the make and break system, with Bosch gear driven magneto. The total weight of the motor is 200 lbs. and the power is given as 25.

Wright Planes

tank fastened to the struts and on the righ the operator, between him and the motor, radiator is attached to the front strut mi far side of the engine from the aviaU 1 centrifugal motor pump is directly c< to the front end of the engine shaft.

transmission.

On the rear end of the engine shaft gears, each one connecting by chains a a propeller, of which there are two, ^ diameter, pitch 9.8 ft., mounted on ?jr shafts 11 ft. 6 in. apart; to drive in directions, one chain is crossed. The of the propeller to the engine is in the 32 to 10. Both chains are inclosed The speed of the propellers is 401 ' engine's 1300.

surfaces. n

The spread of the two main planes J by 6.56 ft., front to rear, a total of 5; for the two. The extremities are roui There are 34 ribs, curved T-20 in each s ir The machines now being made use an Eng waterproof cloth for the planes. There 10 vertical struts separating the two great £ faces, a distance of 5.9 ft. The angle of ii

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Kipling to Date.

A chap there was, and he made his prayer,

Even as you and I, That he could fly through the ambient air,

Even as you and I. So he went right up in his silken ship, But the blamed old engine chanced to slip, And he said, "Oh, dear, such a mussed-up trip!"

Even as you and I.

dence is stated variously, from 3 deg. tip to 7 deg. Wright is said to have given it himself as 3 deg.

rudders.

The double surface front rudder, horizontal, used for steering up and down, is 1476 ft. by 2.46 ft. deep. The rear edge is 11.48 ft. from the front edge of the main planes. This rudder is capable of being curved so as to prevent a concave surface to the wind, as illustrated in the diagram. (See January num ber.) This is tilted up and down by moving a lever at the left hand backward or forward respectively. This curving front rudder, now being used on all the machines being built by the Wrights, has caused little comment. This rudder is normally uncurved and horizontal, but curves simultaneously with the motion backward or forward of the lever. Curved, the rudder gives more power than if flat, and goes through the air easier. Then, too, the center of pressure moves about less than if it were flat or had a fixed curve.

For steering left or right, and in conjunction with the warping of the planes, there is a double surface vertical rudder, each surface being 1.97 ft. deep by 5.9 ft. high. The front edge of this is 8.2 ft. from the rear edge of the main surfaces. To steer to the left the lever at the right hand of the operator ("f" in Fig. 7) is moved forward; to steer to the right the reverse is done. The wires (jj) run back to the rudder from the cross bar.

The total length over all is 30.67 ft.

stability.

To obtain lateral stability, the extremities of the wings are warped, by moving the lever at the right hand of the operator to the left or right. To warp these extremities, the following system is employed: Wires are attached to the upper ends of each of the two outside rear struts at each extremity of the wings. These join at a pulley at the lower end of the third rear strut from each extremity of the lower surface and run to a lever (e). Another set of wires (hh) and (hV), is attached to the lower ends of each of the first mentioned struts and run over pulleys at the top of each of the third struts from each extremity of the upper surface. (See Fig. 1.)

Moving the hand lever (f) to the left communicates through the rod (g) a movement to the left of the upright lever (e). This pulls on the wire (i), branching off to the top of the two outer rear struts, and brings the right hand rear edge of the upper surface down, pushing lowrer surface down also. This makes a strain on the wires (hh), joining at the top of the third rear strut, and creates a pull upward through the extension (h'h1) of these last mentioned wires on the rear edge of the lower left hand. By this operation the left hand wing is warped upward.

There is an increase in the angle of incident on the right hand side of the machine, and a decrease on the left hand side, with an attend ant greater lift on the right than on the left, and also a resulting tendency for the right

hand side to slow up. To keep the straigt course, then, the rear vertical rudder is simu. taneously moved toward the left, the side oj the less resistance in order to bring the hea^ of the machine around in its intended path Both operations are done at the same time by the same lever. To warp the wings in the opposite direction the lever (f) is moved tcr the right.

As illustrated in the accompanying drawing, moving the lever (f) to the left or rght warps the planes while moving it forwarc or backward moves the rudder. This twisting mechanism in the Wright machine, and the wing tip system in the Curtiss aeroplane, are employed to counteract the effect of wind gusts and to correct any undesirable lateral slant of the machine.

weight.

With the weight of the Wright apparatus at 1,100 lbs., mounted by one man, and the surface as 538 sq. ft., the weight lifted per square foot is 2.02 lbs., and a weight of 38 Ids. to the h. p., using 14 h. p. used as a divisor

running gear.

The whole apparatus is mounted on two L..g wooden runners, which permit the machine to slide along the ground as soon as it alights. This serves to check forward motion. In starting, a little car is placed under the middle of the chassis. The grooved wheels of the car run over a monorail. After obtaining proper momentum the machine rises from the car In most of the flights a falling weight was ployed to give initial velocity. When this w .5 used, a rope with a ring at the end was at tached to a downward pointing hook in the forward part of the aeroplane. This rope then ran over a pulley at the end of the rail and back to the tower and to the falling weight. In the flights made in New York the propellers easily gave enough velocity to permit the use of the rail alone.

Wrights Get Injunction.

Buffalo, Sept. 30.—An order was issued by Judge Hazel in the United States Co trt here to-day against Glenn H. Curtiss and the Her-ring-Curtiss Co. of Hammondsport, requiring them to show on or before October 14 why a preliminary injunction should not be granted restraining them from making, using or sailing, the so-called Curtiss aeroplane.

AERONAUTICS November, ,999

constructional aids no. 6

THE aeroplane or airship builder has a universal panacea in Bowden wire for the transmission of motion through a flexible and tortuous route. He can open or close his throttle around a strut or in an otherwise inaccessible place. It can be applied to the spark lever, the air valve of his carburetor or to "tickle" the latter nuisance.

what it is.

Bowden wire mechanism consists of but two parts—a closely coiled and practically incompressible spiral wire, constituting what is termed "the outer member," and a wire cable, practically inextensible, threaded through the above, and termed "the inner member."

Previous to the introduction of the Bowden mechanism the usual mechanical method of transmitting power in other than a straight

castor oil lubricates well.

Castor oil is very extensively employed for lubricating the aeroplane motors. Bleriot uses it exclusively for both his small and large motors. All the Gnome engines use it for the main bearings. Employers of pure castor oil are unanimously of opinion that it is excellent as a lubricant. The only objection that can be raised against it appears to be that its smell is objectionable.

FITTINGS OF THE AEROPLANE.

In Fig. s is shown a combined strut-socket and wire-strainer. Among the advantages claimed for this device are the following: Extreme lightness, since it takes the part of two turnbuckles and does away with (in some cases) five metal eyes or hooks. It offers no head resistance, being immediately behind the strut and socket; also it can be

line was by means of angle levers and rods, cables and pulleys, and other such devices, all of which necessarily involve considerable complication, besides increased labor and expense in adapting them satisfactorily to the users' requirements. Bowden wire dispenses with all these difficulties, while enabling power to be transmitted by the most tortuous route. The mechanism is complete in itself, and requires only that one member shall be anchored to a stop at each end, and that the other member shall be attached to an operating lever at one end and to the object to be moved at the other. It may be adapted to impart either a pulling or pushing movement.

quickly and easily attached to piano wire. In addition, it is very cheap, and there are no left-hand threads, which are often difficult to replace in case of loss. F. G. Brockway, in England, has put out this device, protecting it with a patent.

To the English Flight we are indebted for the original of the sketches i, 2, 6 and 7. Fig. 1 shows the joint used by Pischoff. That in Fig. 7 is the R. E. P., in France. Fig. 2 shows a Lamplough fastening. Short Brothers, the well-known balloon builders, turned aeroplane manufacturers, employ the flexible scheme shown in Fig. 6.

Figs. 3 and 4 illustrate two fittings sold in the open market by Chauviere.

ATTENTION has occasionally been called to the unquestioned efficiency of the Wright aeroplane. It is of interest to examine the reasons for this efficiency, and in comparing the performance of various. aeroplanes, we should remember that not only the weight carried per horsepower, but also the speed attained, must be considered.

The greater efficiency of the Wright machine appears to be due to the use of two large propellers turning at slow speed, as distinguished from the small direct connected high speed propellers of most other machines. The absence of large fins and other guiding and steering surfaces may also attribute to efficiency by reducing skin friction and head resistance. As has been shown by recent experiments, the comparatively slight curve of 1 in 20 used on the Wright machine gives a greater ratio of lift and drift, than the deeper curves employed by Bleriot and some others. Aside from the efficiency, it would seem that the quick and vigorous response to "control" of their machine would recommend it; but for this very reason the natural or structural stability may be less.

In view of the fact that there are no reliable propeller data in existence, and that probably 40 to 50 per cent, is the best that is obtained by directly connected propellers already in use, the following is of the greatest interest:

75 per cent. efficiency.

Wilbur Wright has said that the efficiency of his propellers is 75 per cent., and naively admits that even that is not as good as it should be. And this, absorbing but 14 h.p., with the balance in reserve. And it must be remembered that the chain drive imposes a tax of at least 5 per cent, or so for loss in transmission. There are so many qualifications of the term "efficiency" as applied to propellers that we must accept herein the general understanding thereof.

It is stated that the efficiency of a propeller increases with the decrease in the product of the pitch and the r.p.m., but the smaller this product the more power is required for a certain diameter of propeller.

The design of an aeroplane has all to do with the efficiency of the propeller. If large, slow speed propellers are used; room must be found for them.

In the foreign dirigibles, where more than 100 h.p. is used to drive the great gas bags, large propellers cannot conveniently be used on account of constructional difficulties, so that the smaller propellers used must rotate at high speed, with a consequent loss in efficiency. Nor does a monoplane lend itself well to large propellers not directly connected.

The mystery of the Wright propeller seems to have been solved for the public by an engineer in the Royal Prussian Aerial Battalion,

Captain Eberhardt, of Berlin. He has published details of the propeller, with equations and drawings made from measurements taken.

figures on wright propeller.

Fig. i shows a top and plan view of the solid wood propeller, with an outside radius of 1.3 meter (4.264 ft.). The hub radius is as small as possible consistent with strength in order to get all the blade surface capable of being had, so that the surface is almost perpendicular to the direction of rotation.

Captain Eberhardt goes on to say, referring to this last statement:

"This, as I have frequently pointed out, is quite important. The height of the propeller through the hub is 130 millimeters (see Fig. 1). Wright has cut off the ends of his propeller as shown in the heavily shaded portion. This gives it rather a queer appearance, but one might be tempted to see in it a good aerodynamic reason. Perhaps the ends of the propeller were cut off to allow the motor to run at full speed? It is not impossible that by this cutting off of the ends and keeping a constant height (thickness) of the propeller that there might be a certain advantage. Theoretically, the form of the propeller is indifferent, as I have shown in my book, 'Theorie der Luftschrauben.'

How the thing is in practice can only be found out by experiment. To judge from present experience the shape seems to have very little to do with the subject. Figs. 2, 3 and 4 show sections through the propellers in three different places. If x is the distance from the center of the hub, and Alpha the angle of slope at that distance, then the pitch s is found by the equation s=2 x Pi tan. a

The pitch angle, propeller width and propeller curvature are shown in Figs. 2, 3 and 4. In Fig. 2, x=i.3 meter; in Fig. 3, x=o.86; and in Fig. 4, x=o.5.

These values inserted in the above equation give the pitch of the propeller as follows:

For Fig. 2, sr=2Xi-3 Pi tan. 20°=2.98, or approximately 3.

For Fig. 3, s=2Xo.86 Pi tan. 290 50—3.09, or approximately 3.

For Fig. 4, s=2Xo.5 Pi tan. 440 20—3.06, or approximately 3.

By this it is seen that the pitch is practically a constant of three meters.

The Wright motor should develop 28 h.p. at 1,300 r.p.m., so that each propeller absorbs 14 h.p. I have measured the ratio between the motors and propellers by counting the teeth in the sprockets and found 32-^-10=3.2, so that the r.p.m. of the propellers is 1300-^-3.2=approx. 400.

The tractive effort (thrust) of the Wright propeller is found by equation, which I have worked out as follows:

S sn

wrights' propeller efficiency

FIG. 3

Phe Wright Propeller

in which Nj means work absorbed (total work), S the tractive effort (thrust), n the r. p. m.; s the pitch of the propeller. By inserting these values we have: S 3X400

14=—X-

75 60

which gives the thrust of the propeller S=50 kilograms, approximately.

The resistance of the Wright aeroplane amounts to 100 kg. for a speed of 15 to 16 meters per second. The pulling power of the propeller per horsepower is 50-M4 equals about 3.6; in reality a little bit more, as I have put the figures in round numbers. As we put the speed c of the Wright machine at 15 to 16 meters per second, the efficiency, E, of the propellers is found by equation: Ne Sc E = -^7 = 75Ni

(Ne being the useful work.) Substituting values for S, c and N in the above, we have: SO 15

E=—X— equals about 0.71. 75 14 50 16

E=—X— equals about 0.76. 75 14

As the Wright machine makes nearer 16 than 15 meters per second, the efficiency might be said to be 76 per cent."

Captain Eberhardt claims that efficiency is increased with the number of propellers, and that for large flying machines with four propellers an efficiency of 85 to 88 per cent, ought not to be too high. This is the theory of W. R. Kimball in his 20-bladed propeller.

To our Friends:

If you know of someone interested, won't you tell us of him ? If you meet another enthusiast, won't you tell him of us?

"One good turn deserves another"

You Know!

RAICHE MAKES FIRST FLIGHT. Riggs Airship Being Inflated.

THE first member of the Aeronautic Society to have fly an aeroplane designed by himself is Francois Raiche, whose machine was described in a recent issue of Aeronautics. During September the motor was got running, and, although the wing tips for stability were not hooked up, on September 16 Raiche and Crout, who designed the motor, were so anxious to get the machine in the air that they could not wait for a little thing like that. Hardly any preliminary run was necessary. Starting with the rudder tilted up, the aeroplane, with Charles Crout aboard, got into the air in less than a hundred feet and traveled for about the same distance late in the afternoon. The machine was then packed up for exhibition at the Madison Square Garden show. It will go on the road shortly, giving exhibitions, with Harry M. Green as the Star.

S. Y. Beach has continued the trials of his monoplane as a "wind wagon" around the Morris Park track. Everyone is waiting patiently for him to put on the planes again and make a real try.

The Riggs — Rice airship is being inflated for its trial. The bag, which has been built by Leo Stevens, is a hundred feet long, was made under a contract to lift a certain specified weight. The framework is made of tub-

ing, with Silverite connections. This framework extends the full length of the bag and actually incloses the bag, which would thus be of the rigid type, like the Zeppelin, but with the framing outside instead of inside the bag. One large propeller is directly connected at the forward end, and back from the forward end on each side is a smaller propeller. All the propellers are capable of being tilted for use in ascending or descending in place of using rudders.

Frederick Shneider has not put his second Wright-like machine together, but has been making scale models for sale.

The Brauner-Smith aeroplane is now at Morris Park, and, with one or two others, is waiting for a motor. There are no suitable motors to be had for prompt delivery, it is claimed.

This winter will probably be the last for the Aeronautic Society at these grounds, as the surrounding land is being laid out in streets and soon the big grand stand, which has been sold, wiir*be demolished. The new grounds will probably be on the Hempstead Plains, near Mineola, as this is the only suitable large space near New York. The thousands of acres of marsh land in Jersey have been investigated, but found too wet for any use.

Dr. H. W. Walden has been running his double biplane on the track, but has not succeeded in getting up enough speed to leave the ground.

gordon bennett balloon race

AGAIN the Gordon Bennett balloon cup comes to America, for the second time. From Zurich, October 3rd, seventeen balloons started in this, the fourth contest for the cup. Among the pilots were Alfred Le Blanc, Capt. von Abercron, and Paul Meckel, who were also contestants in the race from St. Louis in 1907.

E. W. Mix, a native of Ohio, represented America in the balloon "America II," used by J. C. McCoy in last year's race. Mr. Mix

made the greatest distance, about 1,100 kilometers, landing north of Warsaw in Russian Poland. Alfred Le Blanc was second with 834 kilometers. Cable advices are not certain whether Mr. Mix is to be granted the cup, as a statement has been given out that he made a descent at one point and took on ballast. This will be investigated, of course. In the next issue we will give a summary of the race with the official figures.

While the feeling of the French in regard to the Bennett aviation cup is unsportsmanlike, still we cannot say they have no valid reason for feeling disappointed at being placed second to America in the balloon race. Mr. Mix was aide to Alfred Le Blanc in 1907 when they both represented France in the St. Louis race. Now Mr. Mix represents America in the Zurich meet, and with a French made

balloon. Mr. Mix has lived in France the best part of his life, so that France really looks upon him as an adopted son. It might have looked better for America to have sent a resident native with an American balloon. Of course, the obtaining of Mr. Mix to represent America was a sagacious move which resulted in victory.

WASHINGTON, Oct. 12.—Wilbur Wright arrived in Washington on the evening of October 5, and the next day commenced preparations for the instruction of signal officers, as required by his contract. The Wright aeroplane and the Signal Corps detachment were moved from Fort Myer, Virginia, to College Park, Maryland, on the 6th.

First Lieutenant F. P. Lahm, Signal Corps, and Second Lieutenant F. E. Humphreys, Corps of Engineers, are the officers selected for instruction.

On October 8 for the first time, an aeroplane owned by Uncle Sam made a flight, for on this day Wilbur Wright, who had never flown this machine before, started in to give driving lessons in "Miss Columbia," as the machine has been called.

Three short flights were made of about five minutes each, then Lieut. Lahm took his

place beside Mr. Wright for five minutes, then Lieut. Humphreys got in for a lesson.

The next day Wright alone made a speed trial over a closed circuit of one kilometer. In one direction the time for the 500 meters was 241/5 sec; in the other, 243/5 sec. At the fastest direction, the m.p.h. figures 46.14, slightly less than Orville did in his official flight.

Two other solo flights were made, one without the use of the falling weight. Duplicate, levers for the use of the students of the Wright "Aviation College" were fitted and a couple of flights made with Lieut. Lahm.

Sunday, the 10th, was a day of rest for Mr. Wright. On the nth a short solo flight was made, in which the machine was driven in short-radius circles. The instructor and his pupil, Lieut. Humphreys, made a flight of over seven minutes on the 12th.

aeroplane

records.

Distance Record.

Farman, Aug. 27, 1909, Rheims... 180

Duration Record.

Farman, Aug. 27, 1909, Rheims .................. 3h- 4m.

Duration With Passenger.

O. Wright, Sept. 18, 1909..- ih. 35m.

Height Record. .

Rougier, Oct. 2, 1909, Berlin........

Unofficial, O. Wright, Oct. 2. 1909, Potsdam ........................

Speed Records.

Kiloms. h. m.

10 Bleriot ................ o 7

20 Curtiss ............... 0 15

30 Curtiss ............... 0 23

40 Latham ............... 0 34

50 Latham ............... o 43

kilom^/

60 70 80 90 100

56 2/5 J 150

Latham ............... 0

Latham ............... 1

Latham ............... 1

Latham ............... 1

Latham ............... 1

Latham ............... 2

52 44 2/5 3 6 11 26 3/5 19 56 2/5 28 17 13 9 3/5 Two-Man Speed Record.

10 kiloms. Farman ........... gm. 524/5S.

Three-Man Speed Record.

10 kiloms. Farman ........... 10m. 39s.

Quick Starting. Delagrange, Sept. 29, 49 meters. Fastest Average Speed.

Bleriot, Aug. 28, 1909, Rheims, 76.95 k.p.h. 503/5^ (47.78 miles). Unverified, Santos Dumont 291/5 * covered 8 km. in 5 min., a speed of 96 k.p.h.

55 ^ (59-6i miles). The distance is also stated as

56 7.5 km. and the time 6 min.

4/s. \j

560 ft. 1,600 ft.

s

47 4/5

wright and curtiss fly in hudson-fulton celebration

WRIGHT OUT-BLERIOTS BLERIOT—BURSTING OF ENGINE ENDS FLIGHTS—AIRSHIPS START! FOR ALBANY-BALDWIN HAS ACCIDENT

stevens' captive balloon success.

THE most spectacular feat in aviation up until October 4, of the year of our Lord 1909, was probably Bleriot's crossing of the English Channel in his little monoplane.

This has suffered severely by comparison with the sensational flight of Wilbur Wright on this day from Governor's Island, off the southern end of Manhattan Island, out past the statue of Liberty, up the Hudson to a turn over the British warship "Drake," opposite Grant's Tomb, and back to the Island. No early morning gallop was this, with a great expanse of clear water in case of mishap, but a stake event over the congested traffic of the great harbor and river, the trans-Hudson ferryboats and the long line of foreign battleships.

And this was only a try-out for the official flight to be made in the afternoon. What Wright really intended to do is still a matter of conjecture. A condition of his understanding with the Hudson-Fulton Commission was that he remain in the air an hour. At least we knew he would go up the Hudson again.

The morning flight almost caught the newspapers napping, and it did the photographic brigade. But by two o'clock there was no lack of the camera gents all along Riverside Drive, and at the historic Claremont restaurant there was a regular encampment. At this hour the announcement was made that the flight would shortly start. It was not until two hours later that the patient men received word that the head of one cylinder had blown off and that no further flights would be made. It was truly a sad procession that made for the subway, for the last chance to get photographic record of the machine in flight had passed, and the week had not been anything like prolific in affording opportunities.

At the Governor's Island end of the course something serious had happened. The aeroplane was on the rail and the propellers were being turned to "crank" the engine. There was just one solitary explosion and a piece of something shot up through the plane, describing an arc to the rear where it fell in the sand. It was the cylinder head. A "flare-back" had occurred.

Wright immediately threw up his hands with a faint guess-this-is-the-end-of-it kind of a smile and took the next boat to Manhattan, and was in Washington the following day to begin the instruction of the Signal Corps men.

The distance of the morning flight totals over 20 miles and the elapsed time was officially taken as 33 minutes, 33 seconds. The Weather Bureau measured the speed of the wind as eight miles. The average speed made was just under 36 miles an hour. Mr. Wright's estimate was about 41 miles, with the wind blowing eleven.

wright circles statue of liberty.

Mr. Wright had been at the Island since the 20th of September and Curtiss arrived with his machine a week later. High winds prevailed practically all the time up to September 29, when they let up to allow the airships to get away and Wright to make an inspiring circle of Miss Liberty.

About nine in the morning his first flight in New York was made, circling around the great level expanse of filled-in land comprising the southern portion of the Island. This lasted about 53^ minutes.

An hour later saw a goodly crowd of spectators when Wright started on his swoop around Bedloe's Island. He was 6y2 minutes in the air. This feat might well be compared to a duplication of Santos Dumont's famous airship trip around the Eiffel Tower in Paris, with great steamships and a myriad of smaller craft in place of buildings. Toward evening another flight of about 3 minutes around the Island was made in a fitful wind.

No more flights were made by him till the Great One of October 4, as abnormally high winds prevailed. Nature allotted but these two favorable days for the aero part of the celebration, and advantage was quickly taken of the opportunities.

The machine Wright used was made up of parts, both new and old, the major portion being from the machine used by Orville Wright at Fort Myer last year in the fatal flight. The motor was the one used in the

last flights in North Carolina. Under the center of the lower plane and extending nearly to the rudder in front was a canoe, in anticipation of a landing in the wet. This Wright bought up street one day before the flights. It was then decked over with canvas.

curtiss' flights.

The Curtiss machine did not arrive until the 27th, but it was set up in record time. In two hours there was enough of the machine together for it to appear complete to the average New Yorker.

Early in the morning of the 29th, Curtiss made one short flight as a test of the ma-

j chine, which was a "bran' new" one, finished

; at Hammondsport during his absence in Europe. Few were present at the unearthly hour of 6 a. m. to view it. The next flight was not until the night of October 3, when

I a short one was made lasting not more than

1 a minute.

No other flights were made. On the afternoon of the Wright-Hudson flight the Curtiss machine left for St. Louis, to take part in the meet there.

the airship race.

The airship feature of the celebration was not as satisfactory as it might have been. Although three airships actually showed up, but two made a start for the "World's" $10,000 prize for a flight to Albany from the "Fulton Flight Square" at Riverside Drive and 120th Street.

Capt. Thos. S. Baldwin built for Geo. L. Tomlinson a new dirigible, practically a duplicate of his own. The air-cooled Curtiss motor formerly used by Capt. Baldwin in his airship was installed in the Tomlinson outfit, and the Captain himself used a special water-cooled Curtiss motor.

The other contestant was John Roeder, of White Plains, with an unique affair in which the gas bag was supposed to lift only part of the weight.

After several days of preparation and waiting for the strong winds to subside, Baldwin and Tomlinson got away about 10 o'clock on the morning of September 29. The day was perfect with a slight breeze blowing from the west. With apartment houses facing the Square on two sides, Riverside Drive on the west, with the Hudson a hundred feet below and Grant's Tomb on the north, the get-away was a particularly pretty sight. Tomlinson was first and had gotten almost out of sight before Baldwin started.

The plan Tomlinson followed was to let the wind blow him to the eastward of the Hudson, and then head directly west into the wind at intervals so as not to get too far from his course. Though this system was employed several times during the journey, he kept getting far to the east and finally landed on the farm of Howard Willets at White Plains, a distance of 20 miles. The landing

was necessitated there on account of the oil supply tank leaking badly. The ship returned to the start the next day.

Captain Baldwin immediately headed out over the Hudson River, and then turned northward along its course. After passing Ft. Washington, the two top members of the frame broke just back of the engine. It would have been dangerous in the extreme to have gone ahead with this damage unrepaired, and the moment it happened the aeronaut steered the ship down to the water. It was then allowed to drift inshore, while many willing hands lifted it on the rocks. The gas was let out of the bag, and the ship returned to the square. The distance made was only four miles. Although the rules allow as many trials as desired, no second attempts to reach Albany were made by either of the contestants. Roeder did not put in an appearance until three days after Baldwin's and Tomlinson's attempts, and by that time all vestige of the two latter ships had been removed, Captain Baldwin taking his ship to St. Louis.

the baldwin airship.

The bag measured 86 ft. in length by 20 ft. in diameter at the greatest width, tapering to 18 ft. at the rear, total capacity being 19,000 cu. ft. The framework and other details of the ship are the same as has been given in previous issue of this magazine, with the exception that the 25 h.p. water-cooled motor is being used. The bag is made of double walled silk weighing 6^4 ounces to the square yard, with a strength of 6b to 65 lbs. per sq. in.

tomlinson's airship.

The Tomlinson bag measures 86 ft., but has a diameter of 18 ft. and 16 ft. respectively, and a capacity of 17,000 cu. ft. This bag is made of single-walled cotton weighing 6 ounces per square yard, and having a breaking strain of 50 to 60 lbs. The 15-h.p. air-cooled motor formerly used by Baldwin has been installed in this airship.

stevens captive balloon.

The captive balloon used by the Sanitary Department of the Hudson-Fulton Commission at the grounds of the Colonial Yacht Club at 140th Street, installed by Leo Stevens, was a distinct success, although the wireless intended to be tried was not experimented with. Communication with the ground was had by telephone at all times. The wires running from the instruments in the basket followed the cable to the ground and iU to the switchboard in the club u~ of Dr. Lucas, of the Sanitar Air. Stevens' were all give go up in the balloon, and s joyed the naval parade and nations from the basket of t

perkins and hi5

Samuel F. Perkins, the flier, has had a busy time it

AERONAUTICS November, içoç

airships and aeroplanes fly in

Route followed by Wright in his Hudson Flight, showing Baldwin's start and finish

'right's Machine, with Canoe Attached, at Governor's Island 180

AERONAUTICS , November, 1909

memory of hudson and fulton

Curtiss Aeroplane Used at Governor's Island

the Hudson-Fulton celebration. At various places in the city kites were flown with advertising banners attached. At Madison Square a balloon was used on calm days and nights to carry the banners and flags, and a searchlight is employed at all times of the night to illuminate the kites, signs and the balloon.

The day that Curtiss was advertised to make his flight around Grant's Tomb, the newspaper men assembled there were nicely fooled by one of Perkins' banners. With all eyes strained to catch the first glimpse of the Curtiss machine as it came up the river, one sharp-eyed Globe representative spied a yellow streak far down the river, moving, it seemed, extremely slow. All were notified that Curtiss was on his way, and the crowd along Riverside Drive waited to catch the first view. As glasses were procured, the "aeroplane"

was found to be a banner emblazoned with the sign "Duplex Razors" tied to a tug boat. This tug boat paraded the river and around Governor's Island. As a sensation a dummy man was occasionally dropped from the kites. The Perkins outfit will shortly start on a tour of the country.

World Prize Renewed.

The Ar. Y. World's $10,000 prize for a flight or sail to Albany during the Hudson-Fulton Celebration has been renewed, open until October 10, 1910, with the elimination of any entrance fee. There are no conditions except that the trip must be continuous.

George L. Tomlinson is building an airship of his own design and promises to be ready by the middle of November. Baldwin will, no doubt, have another try.

MADISON SQUARE GARDEN AERO SHOW

FROM September 25 to October 2 there was held at Madison Square Garden an aeronautical exposition in connection with the Business Show. This was arranged md conducted under the auspices of Alfred Chasseaud, who already announces a second one for May of next year.

While little time was given to the show, which occupied the entire gallery of the Garden, a surprisingly large number of exhibitors showed up and the character was such as to promise well for the next.

Of course, the freak models were all there, but the showing made by actual manufacturers of aeroplanes, motors, propellers and accessories was most creditable.

The big feature was, of course, the Curtiss aeroplane sold to A. P. Warner by the Wyck-off, Church & Partridge company.

Two other full sized aeroplanes looked considerably like some of the Curtiss relations. One was the Francois Raiclie machine which got off the ground a few days before at Morris Park. The other was that of Pincus Brauner and A. J. Smith. The Raiche machine was described in the September number of Aeronautics, as well as the Curtiss machine, with full drawings. The Brauner-Smith machine is very well built indeed, and surely ought to do something soon. It was not quite completed for the show, but will probably be having its trials within a month. As soon as trials are completed it will go en tour giving flying exhibitions. Mr. Raiche is prepared to accept orders for his machine or to do special work to designs.

Messrs. C. & A. Witteman showed two of their regular type biplane gliders. These were particularly finely made and illustrate the advance that has been made. Orders were taken during the show for several gliders and

a power machine contracted for payment subject to demonstration flight. Starting in a small way, the Wittemans have built up a surprising business. They have recently completed a power machine for Miss E. L. Todd, which is now at Mineola.

Adjoining this exhibition was that of the Silverite Metal Co., who had castings of strut sockets, beam connections and other parts.

The magazine Aeronautics had a most attractive stand, with a background covered by photo enlargements of well-known aeroplanes and airships, made and loaned by the aero photographer, Edzuin Levick. A constant stream of visitors inspected the pictures and bought copies of the only aeronautical journal in America.

The exhibit of the Hartford Rubber Works Co. was a distinct surprise. Experimentors have had all kinds of trouble to find suitable wheels and tires, and here, all of a sudden, was a manufacturer with special tires in stock and a catalog. To the Hartford people must be given the credit for being the pioneer in this country. Three weights and sizes were shown, each with its name moulded in the rubber, "Aeronaut," "Aviator" and "Aeroplane."

Then there was shown "Hartford Aero Varnish" for use on balloons and aeroplanes. The show developed a surprising number of orders for various tires for aeroplanes, and the company is already behind on varnish orders. This amber-colored varnish will make a cloth gastight with one coat, and is easily applied with an ordinary brush. There is a large amount of rubber in the solution, and with the drying, it incorporates itself in the fabric, after which it does not shrink nor expand under all atmospheric conditions. The specific gravity is 0.95.

The Requa-Coles Co. was unable to show a finished motor, but had at their well-equipped stand some vital parts to show the kind of material and workmanship entering into the manufacture of the motors they are now putting on the market. A beautifully made true screw propeller was shown, as well as small model propellers attached on an electric motor.

/. A. Moller was another exhibitor of propeller. He showed a well-built metal screw of his own design.

The Livingston Radiator Co. had on exhibition two special aero radiators. These were of the type illustrated and described in Aeronautics some time ago. The Livingston company has made a special study of the needs of the aeronaut and aviator, and has developed a fine piece of cooling apparatus. y,

A stock motor was shown by the American & British Mfg. Co. This motor is not particularly light but stands well, and several machines have them installed now. Good prospective business was reported by this company's representative.

The R. I. V. Co.'s ball-bearing exhibit occupied a prominent place. The R. I. V. bearings, described in a previous issue of Aeronautics, have been used with the utmost satisfaction by aero experimentors, and they are used by many of the best known automobile manufacturers.

Charles J. Hendrickson exhibited his monoplane glider and represented the C. E. Con-over Co., manufacturers of aero cloths. This company is prepared to furnish treated cloth of any material or to treat any material desired by the purchaser.

The show was made particularly interesting on account of the great number of small working models, some of which actually flew.

Mr. Church, of the Aeroplane Toy Co., had a lot of fun with his butterflies, which he flew all over the Garden. A great many of these were sold at 5 cents each for Hudson-Fulton souvenirs, showing a picture of the Clermont and the Wright aeroplane on the wings. They operate with an elastic band, and fly about 50 ft. They are also being put out as advertising novelties.

The Aeroplane Toy Co. promises to have most of their complete line of toy flying machines ready for the market before the end

of the month. The prices range from 5 cents to $50.00, and they fly from 40 ft. to several hundred yards. The line will consist of monoplanes, biplanes, helicopters, gliders, parachutes, kites, etc. One model in particular which promises to be a very popular toy is patterned after the Bleriot type which flew across the English Channel. This model retails for 35 cents and is almost indestructible. It flies about 60 ft.

Mr. Church intends to build a full-sized machine in the early spring, which he claims will easily travel a mile a minute, and he also says that nothing short of a hurricane will keep him from flying. He is not prepared to show the model of this machine at present, but will exhibit it at the Boston show, as by that time he expects to have it fully covered by patents.

William Morgan was another exhibitor of toys, both aeroplanes and helicopters. These sold well at 50 cents and $1. The aeroplanes, made of tissue paper, with twin propellers, fly about 50 ft. The helicopters go straight up a'considerable distance.

Dr. William Greene had a very extensive booth. By kites of various kinds he showed the evolution of the flying machine beginning with an imported Chinese kite, a duplicate model of the first kite made by them some 3,000 years ago. Then there was a Japanese hand painted butterfly kite transcendent material, a long tail kite, the first modern taillers, the box, French war kite for photography, and the modern aeroplane kite. The model Bleriot XII, made on a scale of 1 in. to the foot, was a beautiful piece of work and complete to the last detail. To the popular nature of the exhibit was credited the number of people who constantly surrounded it.

Octave Jean exhibited his flying machine, with rotating paddles having feathering blades.

The exhibitors of large-sized models were: A. J. Stadtler, O. de Martini, the Buck "Airship," J. F. Cox, "the Vacu Aero Car," S. Andrews, N. Y. Aerial Mfg. Co., J. C. Press, and Philip W. Wilcox. The Martini model was a well-built Bleriot type, with warping wing tips under the main planes. A small gasoline motor was fitted.

The small model exhibitors included: William Harrison, Thomas Penn, Carl Bizzozero, Albert Malasomma and C. H. Rogers.

"I want to say this for 'Aeronautics/ that it is the most valuable piece of literature that it has been my pleasure to secure, for the simple reason that it publishes the up-to-date experiments, improvements, and success of hundreds of aeronautical students which enable one to benefit by others' experiments that would not only take an enormous amount of money, but years of time to acquire. The benefit of 'Aeronautics' enables us to accomplish in a year's time what would take a life time to produce. It makes it possible to keep in touch with the whole alphabet of aeronautics. I have

always read everything I could secure on the subject of aerial navigation for the last twenty years. The men that really fly are the ones that produce something in reality and try it; and if it fails, produce another idea in reality and try that; and the results of these men's brains are what we get in 'Aeronautics.' That is why the publication has been the success it has. It appeals to the mechanical mind, and as the art of flying progresses with rapid strides, there is no question why 'Aeronautics' will not progress with the same strides. I wish it double the success it already has.—H. C. R."

AERONAUTICS November, ipop

in the world of aviation

Monoplane Flies in Ohio.

L. W. Bonney of Sandusky, O., has built an interesting monoplane, with which he states he has flown about 600 yards at a height of 20 ft. In a subsequent trial it was smashed, due to breaking of the propeller.

The wing spread is 22 ft., by 7 ft. depth, set at 10 degrees dihedral angle. A 6-ft. propeller, geared 1-2, is driven by a 24-horse-power air-cooled motor through motorcycle chain. The steering both ways is effected by a two-way tail with about 9 sq. ft. surface in all, governed by an automobile steering wheel, which turns left and right and pushes out and in. as the Curtiss machine. The propeller is mounted on ball bearings and the engine shock is taken up by a compensating sprocket.

The plane framework is of California redwood J4 by 1 in., laminated. Rubberized cloth is used for the surfaces. The whole is mounted on a triangular chassis, running on 20-in. wheels. The motor rests on this chassis and the chain drive runs up to a sprocket on the front edge of the plane. In its way it resembles Santos-Dumont's "Demoiselle" more than any other. It gets off the ground at a speed of 20 miles. The weight is 320 pounds. A new and larger machine is now being built.

Nelson Aeroplane Flies in Connecticut.

The first aeroplane to fly in Connecticut has been that of Messrs. N. J. Nelson and Albert S. Swanson.

The machine was tried out at Charter Oak Park, Hartford. The first time it made several short flights of about 50 ft. at a height of a yard. Some changes were then made and was tried a few days later, but the wires from the rear rudder had not been properly adjusted and the machine ran into a fence. A new machine is now being constructed, using the same motor and some of the parts that were not damaged.

Both young men are but 22 years of age, and the aeroplane was built in three months, working at night.

details of apparatus.

Main planes, of oil cloth, 32 ft. by 5 ft.; forward rudder, 2J/2 ft. by 8 ft.; total length, 25 ft.; motor, 24 h.p.; 4J4-in. by 4%-in. water-cooled, 4-cylinder, driving a 6-ft. by 4%-it. propeller at 1,000 r.p.m. This gave a thrust of 125 lbs. Weight of motor, 165 lbs. The front wheel and the rear rudder are steered simultaneously by the feet. Maple and white-wood are used throughout. The entire weight of. the machine, without operator, is 475 lbs.

Willard Flies 26 Times One Week.

Willard is to fly at Point Breeze track, Philadelphia, October 16. During the week at Richmond he made 26 flights in six days. This is going some. He has obtained wonderful control of the machine, and within the confined grounds he repeatedly stopped the machine within a yard of the fence. Part of (he planes has been recovered.

Richmond, Va., Oct. 4.—Using a Curtiss aeroplane owned by the Aeronautic Society, C. F. Willard made two brief but successful flights at the state fair grounds here this afternoon. Willard climbed to the seat of his machine at 5:15 o'clock and rose gracefully to a height of 25 ft., sailing to the western end of the field and passing over many tents. At the western end of the field he made a landing, and after a few minutes rose again, returning to his starting point without mishap. Each flight occupied 30 seconds.

The machine came here from Athens, Pa., where it made five short flights. Magneto trouble was to blame for the failure to make others.

More About the Sellers Aeroplane.

The flights with 7 h.p. made by Mr. M. B. Sellers (mentioned in the October number), have created considerable comment. We are able, in this issue, to give some additional details.

The machine described last month in the patent specifications is merely the machine as it has been used as a glider. It has necessarily been changed somewhat, and improvements made for operation as a power machine.

The weight of 210 lbs. includes the operator; the machine with engine weighs 78 lbs. It is light but not frail. This same machine was used in gliding and towing from July intermittently till October, 1908, when the present chassis was attached. This chassis is a combination of wheels and runners. The wheels are held in a lowered position by a device which automatically releases them as soon as the machine rises, thus permitting it to make the preliminary run on wheels and to alight on the runners. Flights were made by towing to learn the use of the steering gear. A weight was added in place of the engine, and it was found that a tow-line pull of 40 lbs. was sufficient for flight. Then the engine was attached.

Mr. Sellers states: "On December 27, sixteen short flights of about 100 ft. were made. A dropping weight was employed to accelerate during the preliminary run. The propeller thrust was not sufficient, but before abandoning the direct drive, I decided to give my attention to the study of propellers and no more flights were made till recently.

"This aeroplane was designed for slow flights. The wings are 18 ft. by 3 ft., and its area about one square foot per pound weight.

"I have under construction one intended for higher speed, having only two planes in steps and spreading about 100 sq. ft."

Fred. T. Childs Builds Biplane in Ohio.

Fred T. Childs, of Akron, Ohio, has built a biplane. The top surface measures 36 ft. by 7 ft., and the lower 26 ft. by 7 ft., the distance between the planes being 6 ft. The total surface is 578 ft. The forward horizontal plane for steering it up and down measures 12 ft. by 5 ft. There are two side surfaces measuring 6 ft. by 7 ft., set at a dihedral angle, the idea being that these will maintain equilibrium during flight on the theory that a tip to one side or the other will cause an increased resistance on the side tipping over, with a resultant righting of the machine. Two 7-ft. propellers are placed in the rear. These are made of hard wood blades, aluminum and hubs pinned to ^-in. propeller shaft. Phosphor bronze bearings are held to the frame by U bolts. Ordinary light canvass is used to cover the planes, and the entire structure is made of i%-'w. square hickory.

Vertical rudders to guide the machine to the right or left are not shown in the photograph. They are located about 10 ft. back of the rear plane.

The total weight of the machine, without the engine, is 250 lbs., and is very rigid. For exhibiting the machine at the county fair, a 2-cylinder, 7-h.p. Waterman engine was installed. The motor intended to drive the machine will be 35 h.p., air-cooled. The weight is promised to be not over 150 lbs., including the magneto and accessories. The propellers are now driven by cable, but it is intended to try chains and sprockets. Aluminum brackets are used throughout the machine, which is braced with steel wire. The propeller is placed a little above midway between the two surfaces. The front horizontal rudder is located 6}4 ft. from the front of the planes and is 18 in. higher than the top surface. This is operated by a rod running from the forward edge to the operator's side on the front of the lower surface.

Aeroplane in Memphis.

E. F. Stephenson of Memphis, Tenn., is working on a monoplane type of apparatus, with a view to being able to rise without ;i running start and to automatic stability.

George Steingruber is another Memphian who is working.

Aeroplane To Sell Lots.

A land company has engaged the Bleriot aeroplane, which was on exhibition at S. B. Bowman's automobile store, to make flights Oct. 12 and 13 at Ampere, N. J.

Changes in the Curtiss Machine.

The machine used by Curtiss at Governor's Island contains a number of different features from that sold the Aeronautic Society.

The upright post at the front of the front rudder has been lightened and the small triangular vertical surface removed. Galvanized cable is used throughout the machine. The tip controls are much larger, extending now from the second from the end strut to 40 in. beyond the outermost.

In case of a wet landing, a pyramid-shaped pontoon is provided on the skid running from the front wheel to the axle in the rear, which has been curved downward in the center so as to come closer to the ground. Under the second strut from each end a metal gasoline tank has been strapped.

The radiator has been placed further forward and the water pump is in front of the gear case instead of at the rear of the engine. The engine bed is larger and of laminated spruce. In addition to the foot-controlled throttle, there is a convenient lever at the left hand attached to the same mechanism. Instead of the throttle normally being wide open and closed by the control, it can be opened or closed at will. The shoulder brace is now hinged to the seat and is stayed with two extra bars. >;i emergency oil gun is placed on the obiter framework, with the chamber continually filled with oil, for squirting an extra supply of oil into the cylinders on starting, or if the oil pump should give out. A refinement in control is noticed. The wires working the vertical rudder have been run through the center of the bamboo rods all the way to the junction with the vertical struts, where they run over pulleys up to the steering wheel.

The machine used abroad is on exhibition at Wanamaker's store. In November it will go to Boston for a month's still-life exhibition at $4,000 per. Aeroplane business is "looking up!"

First Foreign Aeroplanes in N. Y.

The first of October saw two foreign-built aeroplanes arrive in New York City. One is the identical machine with which Farman made the new world record at Rheims, imported by J. B. Curzon, who will use it in giving public exhibitions throughout the fairs of the country. An aviator came with the machine. Without any preliminary work whatever the machine went direct to St. Louis for competition there in the aeroplane contest, with Curtiss as the only other competitor. No flights, however, were made, the operator seeming to be unable to get off the ground.

The other is a Bleriot monoplane, type "XI," imported by Ralph Saulnier, who will also use it in giving exhibitions. It is now on exhibition at the automobile salesroom of the Sidney B. Bowman Automobile Company. Saulnier will act as demonstrator with this machine for Mr. Bowman, who has options on

eight machines, three of which can be delivered in December and five for January, provided orders are received.

When asked if this Bleriot machine were intended for delivery to H. Hayden Sands, of New York, who is reported to have purchased a Bleriot machine, Mr. Schultz, of the Bowman Company, stated that all he knew about Mr. Sands was that he returned a couple of weeks ago on the same ship with Mr. Bowman. Mr. Bowman is agent for the Clement-Bayard airship and has a large model of it in his show window.

Rinek Machine Out for Trials.

A fence has been taken down to give greater space for the running start for the Voisin-like biplane of C. Norvin Rinek of Easton, Pa., which is now ready for experiments, equipped with a new motor. The machine is built entirely of steel tubing, and weighs, without the motor, about 700 pounds.

Wing tips are attached to the ends of the main planes for stability, and can be operated either separately or in connection with the vertical rudder.

A description of the apparatus was given in the March issue of Aeronautics.

E. G. Lewis, the owner of the IV0man's Magazine and other publications, is expecting to construct an aeroplane in his own shop this fall and winter.

Fred H. Fleege of Detroit is building a unique aeroplane, to be completed in a short time, and measures only 7 ft. long and 4^ ft.. wide.

Selfridge Monument.

A monument to Lieutenant Thomas E. Selfridge is being erected at the expense of his father in the cemetery at Arlington. This will be the largest stone in the Arlington National Cemetery. The stone consists of four pieces—a shaft 18 ft. 11 in. by 2 ft. 3 in.; a plinth and die 4 ft. by 4 ft. by 5 ft. 6 in.; second base 5 ft. 3 in. by 5 ft. 3 in. by 1 ft.; base 12 ft. 6 in. by 12 ft. 6 in. by 1 ft. 10 in. The whole structure then rests upon a sub-base of rough ashlar 12 ft. ro in. by 12 ft. 10 in. The construction work is already under way.

Captain Ferber Killed in a Fall.

On the 22d of September Captain F. Ferber, the chief apostle of aviation in France, and universally known and esteemed, was killed in a trial flight on a Voisin aeroplane at Boulogne, France.

The accident was peculiar. He made a good start after a run of about 100 yards against a head wind, rose to a height of about 25 ft. and flew a kilometer straight. Then he determined to turn to the left, and in so turning

he lost altitude, the left wing careened downward unduly and struck a hummock. He endeavored to alight, but the wheels then dipped into a small drainage ditch, thus stopping headway so suddenly that the whole machine turned a somersault fore and aft and the framing carrying the motor fell upon Captain Ferber, crushing in his breast and stomach. He died from internal hemorrhage within half an hour.

Captain Ferber was a distinguished artillery officer and aviator. Born in Lyon, Feb. 8, 1862, he graduated at the Polytechnic School, was stationed as lieutenant at Clermont-Ferrand and Belfort, made a captain in 1893 and commanded the Seventeenth Alpine Battery at Nice from 1900 to 1904.

A chance magazine article on aviation had aroused in him in 1898 an interest which never subsequently flagged; he built several gliding machines and tested them with varying success and indomitable pluck. Becoming aware of the success of the Wright Brothers through correspondence with Mr. Chanute, he endeavored to secure the first fruits of the invention to France by inducing the government to buy it. Two missions were sent to Dayton, the first a private one in the interest of a syndicate and the second by the government direct, but the negotiations failed, as terms could not be agreed upon.

In 1904 Ferber was called to the government aeronautical establishment at Chalais-Meudon. There he built, partly at his own expense, his aeroplane No. 8. This being ordered out of the shed to make room for a balloon was wrecked by a storm. Disgusted by this, he in 1906 obtained a leave of absence for three years and entered the service of the Antoinette Motor Co. temporarily as engineer. There he supervised the construction of motors and screw propellers and built in 1908 his aeroplane No. 9, which at once gave good results. Since then he had been making flights and participating in various contests. He had gone to Boulogne on a proposal to attempt a flight across the British Channel, but, as he had been recalled to military service, the discipline regulations prohibited exhibition under his own name. He had therefore entered as "De Rue," this being the name of an estate which he owned in Switzerland.

Captain Ferber was a charming lecturer and writer, with a dash of humor. Besides many articles for the press, he published four or five pamphlets or books on the progress of aviation, which contain fuller details of the inside facts of its development than any other works which have been published. To him more than to any other man is due the enthusiasm aroused and the progress made in aviation in France. He was universally esteemed and the whole French press has been deploring his loss in lengthy articles while expressing its sympathy for the widow and three children which he leaves behind him.

Farman Aeroplane Begini Exhibitions.

The Farman aeroplane imported by J. W. Curzon is scheduled for exhibitions at Cass-ville, Mo., Oct. 12.

P. Y. Alexander Offers Big Prize.

Believing that the suitable aeroplane motor is not yet at hand, or to encourage better construction, Patrick Y. Alexander, the international patron of aviation, has offered $5,000 for the first British aero motor of 20 h. p. which, under certain conditions, will run 24 hours continuously.

Who will offer a like prize in America?

Van Anden Flies.

New York, Oct. 11.—Frank Van Anden, a member of the Aeronautic Society, made a flight in his aeroplane at Bay Shore, L. I., today, but it was cut short by the breaking of the propeller.

Mr. Van Anden, who lives in Islip, towed his machine out to the golf links by an automobile.

It rose gracefully and traveled about 500 ft. Then something was seen to be wrong and it began to descend, landing with hardly a jar.

with the lighter than air

Balloon Ascent Ends Disastrously.

The balloon trip made by Dr. Lucas and A. Leo Stevens in the "Stevens 24," which was being used as a captive during the celebration at the Colonial Yacht Club grounds on the Hudson River, ended in the unfortunate death of two aeronautic enthusiasts, "Teddy" Baker and Parker Norton, editor of a newspaper in Mineola, both of whom were residents of that town. ' They became interested in aeronautics through the flights of Curtiss and Willard at Mineola, and those who had the pleasure of meeting these two gentlemen will realize the loss sustained.

Dr. Lucas and Mr. Stevens cut the balloon loose at the yacht club grounds and sailed in a northeasterly course, passing directly over the Morris Park grounds of the Aeronautic Society, where they could see the various aeroplanes built by the members and the big tent erected by Dr. Riggs for his airship. From there the balloon crossed Long Island Sound and, curiously enough, passed over the aviation grounds at Mineola, where Miss Todd now has her aeroplane. Long Island was crossed, and on reaching the water on the southern shore, the balloon was maneuvered up and down to take advantage of the currents of air to carry it lengthwise of the island, the landing finally being made at Hicksville. The theory of Paul Nocquet, who met his tragic death in the marshes of Great South Bay, was proven correct in this trip, as in the early evening the lower current of air blew in shore, and this was taken advantage of by Mr. Stevens on this trip.

A. R. Pardington followed the balloon in an automobile and brought back Dr. Lucas and Mr. Stevens in his car to a hotel in Mineola. A Simplex demonstrating car with William Watson' as driver was obtained in Mineola to go to Hicksville to bring the balloon in. Baker and Norton went with the car. The balloon was packed up and put in the ma-

chine, and on the way back the automobile was driven at high speed. In making a short turn to avoid a horse-driven vehicle, the car ran off the road and through a fence and hit a tree, making a wreck of the machine. Both Baker and Norton were instantly killed, the driver escaping with some minor injuries, though he spent a couple of days in the Mineola hospital.

Keen Competition for Herald Trophy.

As the balloon season draws to a close, interest to win the Boston Herald trophy increases. There have been a great many attempts made this year to win the prize by the amateur aeronauts in ascensions from Pittsfield, North Adams, Springfield and Fitch-burg. The trophy goes to the pilot landing nearest the geographical center of Boston Common during the year 1909. The six pilots in the advance are: June 26, Glidden, balloon "Boston," Fitchburg to Lexington, 10 miles; June 20, Van Sleet, balloon "Pittsfield," Pitts-field to Holbrook, 12 miles; May 8, Forbes, balloon "North Adams," North Adams to Bolton, 26 miles; April 22, Randall, balloon "North Adams," North Adams to Byfield, 30 miles; May 4, Flagg, balloon "Boston," Fitchburg to Atkinson, 32 miles; September 30, Clayton, balloon "Boston," Fitchburg to Kensington, 37 miles.

"I think the magazine is very good and I thank you for the copy sent me. The topics discussed have just enough range to make the magazine good. You have given each subject about the right amount of space to suit me and I think you are to be commended on its publication. I like the longer articles when I have time to read them, but_ I also like the shorter articles which give the report of a flight or an ascension in a nutshell."—P. H. E.

New Dirigible Balloon.

Indianapolis.—Capt. George L. Bumbaugh is putting the finishing touches to a large dirigible balloon which has been constructed at the Indianapolis motor speedway.

On the first favorable day after the balloon is finished Bumbaugh and Fisher said they would attempt to sail over the city, and after circling the Soldiers' Monument, continue to Dayton, O. The balloon is a cigar-shaped affair, 166 ft. long and 32 ft. in diameter, exclusive of the mechanical part and framework beneath the bag. The big airship will be much like the small dirigible which Bumbaugh uses for exhibitions.

Airship Collapsed.

South Bend (Ind.), Oct. 8.—William Mat-tery's balloon "America" collapsed to-day at

a height of 100 ft. Both Mattery's wrists were fractured' when he struck the ground. The machine, valued at $3,000, was destroyed. When Mattery started the motors of his airship a crowd pressed about him and he was obliged to steer upward at a sharp angle. The propeller caught the gas bag and tore it open.

Lahm Cup Changes Hands.

Richmond, Va., Oct. 13.—Col. Max C. Fkischmann, ex-Mayor of Cincinnati, piloted by A. H. Forbush, of New York, in the balloon "New York," landed in Chesterfield Co., 20 miles south of here, after a voyage of 19 hr. from St. Louis. Entry was made for the Lahm Cup and the required distance, 475 miles, was beaten. The distance measures about 710 miles on the Government map.

first national guard ascension

By Geo. B. Harrison.

ABALLOON ascension strictly military throughout was made from Los Angeles, Cal., September 29, by the aeronautical squad of Company A, Signal Corps, National Guard of California. While held primarily in connection with the annual convention of the United States National Guard Association, held at Los Angeles that week, it was also a part of the regular work planned by the aeronautical squad for trial of a conventional code devised particularly for signaling from a balloon by utilizing the Meyer code with action flags.

All the work of laying out, inflating and handling the balloon, piloting it and caring for it after landing was done by members of the company. The three members making the ascension were Pilot George B. Harrison, Corporal Vance Worden and First Class Private W. A. Hall. Trailing them on the ground were two automobile loads of enlisted men commanded by Captain H. W. Slotterbeck and First Lieutenant H. T. Bathey. Visual signals were easily read and exchanged, being taken at a height of 3,900 ft. above the ground.

The balloon used had a capacity of 77,000 cu. ft., but owing to the exhibition side of the voyage, Captain Slotterbeck ordered only a short trip to be made, and a landing was effected after a journey of about 20 miles. A spot was selected protected by a fringe of high trees, and the landing was made by releasing the gas through the valve and without ripping the balloon.

The trip was recorded on a chart for ballooning devised by the aeronautical squad of Company A. The chart shows the points passed over, thus giving the directions taken,

and the line plotted to demonstrate the trip also indicates the altitude at all stages of the voyage.

to make aerial war.

The squad is working out a large aerial map of the region around Los Angeles, combining for this the designations used by the Geological Survey for the contour, elevations and other ground work and those of the Hydrographic Office on the pilot charts for the air currents, thereby standardizing the aerial map so it may be the more easily read. Balloon ascensions will be supplemented by kite flying and other methods to obtain the desired data, and the signaling work of the company, such as the selection of visual points, will be carried on at the same time.

The aeronautical squad of Company A has been organized for two years, but its limitations have prevented more thorough work until this year. Captain Slotterbeck has entered enthusiastically into the aeronautical work, and plans to carry it on every month in the year, which is possible in Los Angeles. A number of world's records are already held for signaling by his company, including that of transmitting messages over land and sea, and he is ambitious to see it in front in the aeronautical work of the National Guard. A system of tactics for handling a military balloon for observation purposes is already being developed under Captain Slotterbeck's supervision. An ascension at night, with signaling from the balloon with a tungsten electric light to one squad on the mountain top and another at the site of the harbor fortifications, the two latter using heliographs, is planned for this winter.

NEW AERO MOTORS Easton Motor.

The Easton Cordage Co., Easton, Pa., has now entered the aero engine field with a promising looking motor; two sizes are being made.

They have been designed with the view of giving ample power with a minimum amount of weight. The very best of material obtainable enters into their construction, and the workmanship is fully guaranteed.

Each engine consists of eight cylinders arranged v-shaped, using one cam shaft for all cylinders, size being z3A m- by 4 'n- f°r the smaller engine, and 4^2 in. by 4^ in. for the larger. They are conservatively rated as to horsepower, as they will deliver considerably more power than the rating given.

Some slight changes have been made to the engine, differing from the illustration shown in the advertisement in this issue; namely, the spark plugs are placed on the carburetor side of the cylinder and the exhaust piping on the outside of the cylinder.

On the smaller engine the heads with tlie valves are separate from the cylinders, and with the water jackets are made of a special aluminum alloy of great strength, which during the past summer, notwithstanding the severe testing under which the engine was operated, have shown no defects.

Both engines are equipped with Bosch magnetos and the Schebler carburetor, one carburetor being used for the eight cylinders, so arranged that each cylinder has equal length of pipe leading from the carburetor.

The oiling of the engine is operated by a pump enclosed in the crank case, driven by a gear from the crank shaft. The pump can be disconnected and taken out of the crank case by removing two bolts.

The action of the pump is to force the oil through leads to each of the large bearings and through oil ducts in the crank shaft to the connecting rod bearings, the oil returning to the bottom of the crank case.

The engine is built as a complete unit with a radiator ready to run. The company will also furnish propellers, either wood or metal if so desired, for direct connection to the engines.

Elbridge Motor for Aeronautics.

The well-known Elbridge Engine Co., Rochester, N. Y., makers of 2-cycle motors,

are bidding for the aeronautical business in competition with makers of extremely light engines. The Elbridge motor has already found favor with a number of experimentors on account of its simplicity and comparatively light weight. In a subsequent issue we will give the details of the type now put on the market for the work.

Bates Motor Now Ready.

Carl Bates, whose aeroplane has been illustrated in Aeronautics, is putting on the market a special motor which he has designed and for which he claims very light weight. He is making plans to get out a biplane for sale to the public.

Requa-Coles 50 H. P. Motor.

The Requa-Coles Co., 225 West Forty-ninth St., New York, is now ready to book orders for their new aero motor.

By referring to the September number of Aeronautics, one will note a distinctive feature in connection with this motor which has been designed by and is being built under the patent of Hugo C. Gibson. The patented device used is for doubling the possible maximum horsepower developed by a normal fourcycle engine, and this results in the retention of ample weight in the vital parts, where strength is absolutely necessary. In fact, the strength of such parts as the crank shaft, bearing surfaces, etc., has been increased. On the basis of the abnormal power claimed to be developed, the actual weight per horsepower would be below that of all motors actually in use in aeroplanes, calculated on the basis of actual horsepower produced and not on the rated horsepower.

The Requa-Coles motor is of the two-cylinder 90 type, both cylinders in the same plane, with valves in the head. These are 4Y2 by 5 in., water cooled. The speed is 2,500 revolutions per minute. The horsepower is given as 50, the motor being sold on the understanding that it is to show this amount on the brake for five hours, same to be tested on the Automobile Club of America's dynamometer. Ignition is by Bosch high-tension magneto, with a secondary system by coil and batteries. From an oil well in the crank case the oil is delivered by pump to each bearing. Bronze is used on the bearing surfaces. All heavily stressed parts are of Krupp

chrome nickel steel, while the crank case and least strained parts are of McAdamite. The weight is given as 200 pounds.

The company is prepared to deliver laminated true screw propellers built to order to suit particular conditions.

Cleveland Inventor Has Aero Gun.

Dr. S. W. McLean, of Cleveland, O., has built an airship gun which has received some preliminary tests mounted on a Baker electric truck. The gun itself appears to be the usual naval type of semi-automatic, firing a six-pound shell. It is capable of delivering 200 shots per minute. The mounting has been altered to allow of a maximum elevation of

The McLean Gun on a Baker Electric Truck

about 45 degrees. According to Dr. McLean, the difficulty is to devise a missile which will damage the airship, even if it does hit it. The ordinary shell will not explode under less resistance than that offered by a one-inch pine board. The idea of the new gun is to riddle the dirigible or aeroplane by a number of shells, not depending on their explosion. For this purpose mobility is the prime requisite.

News on the Coast.

A Chinese student of Oakland, Fung Joe Guey, has built a biplane 25 by 6 equipped with a 6-horsepower motor. The chassis is a rectangular frame supported by four bicycle wheels, Wright type front and Curtiss type rear controls. The surfaces have no arch.

It is claimed that this machine has flown three-quarters of a mile in a circle on its first trial, but this is extremely doubtful for many obvious reasons.

The balloon race resulting from the Pacific Aero Club's challenge to the Oakland Aero Club will be held Oct. 9, and it is probable that there will be another race during Portola week. Baldwin is completing a 40,000-ft. balloon for the Pacific Aero Club, and the Oakland Club will use the balloon "City of Oakland," P. A. Van Tassel, pilot.

A. S. Smith of Exeter, Cal., is making some long gliding flights.

Horace Walling, Jr., of San Mateo, and Elwin Willatts of San Francisco have made numerous flights with their respective gliders.

Boston's Aero Show in 1910.

It has been decided to hold the "First National Exposition of Aerial Craft" in Boston, Feb. 16 to 23, 1910. The exposition will be devoted exclusively to everything appertaining to aeronautics, and the list of gentlemen who will serve on the advisory board is in itself a guarantee of the success of the exposition.

The Mechanics Building, well adapted to this purpose, has been engaged, and the interest being manifested' in New England at the present time in ><errâl development will be further stimulated^by#A show of this description.

It is desired to make this a most complete exhibit, and to that end co-operation is earnestly desired. Satisfactory arrangements as to space will be made, and all are asked to give assistance in furthering the interest in aeronautics in this section.

Spark Plug Loses Race.

In the table of contestants at Rheims, printed in the October number, the rating of one Bleriot machine was given as 50 h.p.

Unfortunately, in the story of the meet, it was not brought out that Bleriot, finding that Curtiss had the faster machine, substituted an 80-h.p. motor for the 50, and the greater powered motor was the one which he used in the last try for the single lap when he defeated Curtiss for first place.

Another item of interest which has not been heretofore made public is the fact that to the breaking of a spark plug in this single lap contest must also be attributed Mr. Curtiss' loss of first place. It is extraordinarily interesting to compare the times made by Curtiss and Bleriot with Curtiss handicapped for a quarter of the distance with a broken spark plug, and the increased horsepower in the Bleriot machine.

Another View of "Aeronautics."

"According to my views, your magazine cannot bç too technical nor can there be too much about aviation. In fact, I have absolutely no criticism to offer. The contents of the magazine indicate that every effort is made to give the news in the best possible manner, and in such a way that it serves as data to those interested.

Patents.

Paul F. Degn, Bremen, Germany, No. 934,394, Sept. 14, 1009. Screw propeller _ for _ flying machine, the characteristic of which is that the blades are made up of a series of metal strips, slidably connected.

Wallace R. Turnbull, Rothesay, New Brunswick, Can., No. 934,771, Sept. 21, 1909. Aeroplane and hydroplane. The planes have double curvatures presenting a concave curvature in the front under surface, with a convex curvature on the upper front surface, while at the rear these curvatures are reversed the conversity being below and the concavity above.

De Witt C. Dorman, Minot, S. D., No. 934-7T7, Sept. 21, 1909. Flying machine, consisting of a plurality of propellers having blades which feather by means of gearing so that these propellers rotating on horizontal axes have a lifting action. There are various concentric shafts horizontally disposed supporting these characteristic propellers so disposed as to propel the device horizontally and vertically.

Robert Strehlan, Westend near Berlin, Germany, No. 935,130, Sept. 28, 1909. Lifting and driving propeller. Construction consists of wings capable of vertical as well as horizontal motion for the purpose of lifting and driving the frame to which they are attached. There is no rotating propeller device as usually understood by that term.

Alberto R. Malasomma, New York, N. Y., No. 935,039, Sept. 28, 1909. Flying machine embodying an aeroplane body of superposed planes, vertical and horizontal propellers, wings pivotally secured at sides and motor-driven means to operate the wings and propellers.

William H. Martin, Canton, O., No. 935,384, Sept. 28, 1909. Flying machine. An aeroplane having angular balancing planes forming a diahedral angle, a motor and reversely rotating propellers at lower part of diahedral angle combined with a rudder at the rear.

Daniel D. Wells, Jacksonville, Fla., No. 935.0/5, Sept. 28, 1909. Skid for aerial navigating devices, consisting of a belt guided in grooves in the runner, and pulleys at the extremities so as to reduce friction and wear on the runner.

Alfred W. Reinoehl, Phila., Pa., Oct. 5, 1909, No. 935,862. Aeroplane. In an aeroplane, the combination with four longitudinal rods, vertical transverse rods dividing the frame in three sections, canvas surrounding entire front and rear and upper half of intermediate section ; rudder, motor and propellers.

Adolph E. G. Lubke, San Francisco, Cal., Oct. 5, 1009, No. 936,141. Airship. Device consists of a combination of plane and hot-air dirigible. Under a large flat plane is a gas bag, divided in compartments, with schemes for supplying heated air, changing its temperature, etc. Horizontal and vertical rudders. Motor and propellers in frame hung below bag and plane.

James Meany, Boston, Mass., Oct. 5, 1909, No. 935,766. Emergency apparatus for controlling flying machines. Means by operator,

with motor control circuit, for changing the position of sustaining planes so that they may be inclined to the planes of the machine to form a diahedral angle with the outer edges of each plane uppermost with respect to the machine.

Henry Otto, Bloomington, 111., No. 933,199, Sept. 7, 1909. Air propeller, characteristic feature of which is a rearwardly and inwardly directed flange provided' on each blade at the rear face thereof, said flange increasing in width from its forward end rearwardly.

Samuel H. Gilson, Salt Lake City, Utah, assignor of one-half to Jay S. Milner, Salt Lake City, Utah, No. 933,548, Sept. 7, 1909. Aeromotor. A combination of planes, cigar-shaped envelopes, concavo-converse wings and a plurability of propellers, one behind the other, each pair of blades being one-half the length of the preceding pair and whose angle of pitch increases as the length decreases.

E. S. Partridge Discusses Aeronautics.

E. S. Partridge of Wyckoff, Church & Partridge of New York City has returned from an extended European trip.

During his absence his firm made arrangements for the handling of Herring-Curtiss aeroplanes, entering this new field as the pioneers for the selling of heavier-than-air machines in this country.

While abroad Mr. Partridge arranged for the proper representation of the new aeroplanes in Paris.

In commenting on the situation, Mr. Partridge said in part: "When the news first reached me that Mr. Wyckoff had closed arrangements with the Herring-Curtiss Co. for the handling of its aeroplanes, I at once prepared to go more thoroughly into the investigation of foreign machines than was my first intention. Both Mr. Wyckoff and I have realized for some months that the handling and selling of aeroplanes to the general public would soon be both feasible and commercially practicable.

"In comparing the Curtiss machine with those built in Europe and America, which have actually flown, I have found that it possesses decided points of superiority. Its main point of excellence is its compactness and small size.

"To demonstrate how readily the amateur can learn to operate and control his nerves in air navigation, the case of Charles F. Willard is a good example. The machine with which Mr. Curtiss made his record flights on the Mineola plains is owned by the Aeronautic Society of this city, and before Mr. Curtiss sailed for Europe, Mr. Willard, an amateur, operated the machine, in calm weather, making daily flights, after but a few trials, and is now remaining in the air longer than did Mr Curtiss after many months of experimenting."

ten balloons in st. louis meet

CURTISS FLIES.

New American Duration Balloon Record.

THREE AIRSHIPS MANOEUVRE.

ST. LOUIS, Oct. 13.—Ten balloons started in the centennial celebration of this city on October 4, on record-breaking trips. Figures have npt yet been officially compiled and records have not been checked up.

The standing of the balloons at present is as follows:

"St. Louis III," Sylvester von Phul and O'Reilly (St. Louis), to Mille Lacs, Minn., 550 miles, 40 hr. 40 min.

"Indiana," H. H. McGill and J. H. Schauer (Dayton, O.), to Albany, Minn., 525 miles, 40 hr. 35 min. Sailed under protest as McGill had no pilot license.

!"Centennial," H. E. Honeywell and J. W. Tolland (St. Louis), to Silas, Ala., 485 miles. "Cleveland," J. H. Wade, Jr., and A. H. Morgan (Cleveland), to Alexander City, Ala., (425 miles, 38 hr. 15 min.

"University City," John Berry and W. C. Fox (St. Louis), to Mooresville, Mo., 195 miles, 22 hr. 15 min.

"New York," Clifford B. Harmon and Augustus ,T. Post (New York), to Edina, Mo., 145 miles, 48 hr. 25 min. Altitude reached, 24,200 ft.

I "Pommery," N. H. Arnold (North Adams)

cind Le Roy Taylor (New York), to Knobel,

jArk., 160 miles, 28 hr. 20 min.

"Hoosier," P. M. Crume and L. E. Custer

(Dayton), to Russellville, Mo., 169 miles. 21

hr. 30 min. Disqualified on account of Mr.

Crume not being a pilot, t "Peoria," J. H. Bemis and G. H. Smith \ (Peoria), to Levings, 111., 127 miles, v "Missouri," Harlow B. Spencer and James VP. Denver (St. Louis), to Hibernia, Mo.,

moo miles.

All but the "Missouri" and "Peoria," 40.000-footers, were of 78,000 capacity. In its class the "Peoria" won out for the Centennial Cup and the "St. Louis III" the $600 prize in the big division. Full details of the preparations

brescia

Rougier stayed at Brescia after the other prominent aviators left, and made a new height record of 645 feet on September 20. On the same day, in the presence of the King, Lieut. Calderara flew the 50 kilometers in 50 min. 50 3-5 sec. Rougier also made 20 km. in 18 min. 25 sec. Cagno, in an Avis monoplane, after flying well in several hundred meter jumps, lost control, and his aeroplane fell on another, doing considerable damage.

were given in the August, September and October numbers of Aeronautics.

Jack Bennett and M. A. Heimann made an independent ascension from St. Louis, landing at Laredo, Mo., a distance of 206 miles.

aeroplane flights.

G. H. Curtiss and G. F. Ozmont were on hand to furnish delectable flights for the aviation fans. Curtiss used the machine which he had at Governor's Island and Ozmont is a professional flier imported, together with a Farman machine, by J. W. Curzon, who enters the aeroplane exhibition business. U. A. Robinson, of St. Louis, brought out a monoplane which failed to get going.

On the 7th Curtiss made three short flights. The first two were early in the morning and the last flight did not occur till dark. Four hundred thousand people waited for hours to see the performance. Ozmont ran his machine around the ground but could not get it in the air.

The following day, late in the afternoon, Curtiss made a flight in a wind, it is stated, of 15 miles per hour. Ozmont was only able to get his front wheels off, and in making a turn damaged the machine to a considerable extent. Robinson failed to get off the ground. In the early morning he made another short flight in the presence of members of the aero club.

On the 10th Curtiss provided a return for the bad winds which blew at the time he should have flown during previous days. He completely circled the field, over the heads of the spectators, grazing the grass in a thrilling demonstration.

the airships.

Three airships tried to fill the air above Forest Park, and Knabenshue made an unheralded ascent on the 6th, and on the 7th Lincoln Beachey, Captain Baldwin and Knabenshue were all in the air, and Baldwin experienced trouble after an extended sail and had to land in the crowd. After a little tinkering he went up again. On the 9th the speed race for the $1,000 had to be called off on account of darkness.

results

winners.

Grand Prize of Brescia (speed over 50 kil.). — 1st, Curtiss, $10,000; 2nd, Lieut. Calderara, $2,000: 3rd, Rougier, $r,ooo.

Modigliano Height Prize.—1st, Rougier, 198 metres. $1,000; 2nd, Curtiss, 51 metres, $600.

Passenger Carrying Prize.—Lieut. Calderara. $600.

_ Prize for Starting in Quickest Time.—Curtiss ; 2nd, Leblanc.

Calderara also got $4,600 in other prizes and the King's Cup.

Santos Dumont on a Cross Country Flight

foreign letter

New World's Records by Orville Wright—Aviation Meets all Over Europe—Death of Captain Ferber in Voisin Aeroplane— "Republique" Falls, Killing Four—Clement-Bayard Puts "Demoiselles" on the Market—New Aeroplane Factory in England.

Australia.

The inaugural meeting of the Aerial League of Australia was held on Aug. 16. The government is much interested in the aeronautical movement, and has offered a prize of $5,000 provided that a similar amount is publicly subscribed for the most proficient airship.

Austria.

Several military dirigibles are under construction and Herr von Luben, a wealthy manufacturer, is said to have presented to the Austrian army a Wright aeroplane which is to be available for flights at the beginning of this month.

Belgium.

exhibitions at tournai.

Beginning September 6, Paulhan in his Voisin gave exhibitions at Tournai. Bad weather prevented much flying. On the nth he flew over the surrounding country for 1 hr. 35 min., landing five miles away, by invitation, at Taintegnies. An hour and a half later he flew back to the grounds.

ostend meet.

At Ostend on September 16, Paulhan flew the entire length of the Plage and made a magnificent turn over the sea. Two days later he flew 47l/2 kilometers in 1 hr. 1 min. over

the sea front, landing finally in the water but suffering little damage. By this flight he won a prize of $5,000. The other aviator, Bregi, made two short flights, one of 4 kilometers, which Paulhan bettered and won $1,000.

spa aviation meet—new starting record.

The meeting at Spa, beginning September 21, was a veritable miniature Rheims. Among those who were entered were Sommer, Paulhan, Delagrange, Le Blanc and Cranda, a young Roumanian with a Voisin. Delagrange was the star performer and made several well executed short flights on the first day, September 22. On September 23, the ground being very rough and marshy, the short flights made by Delagrange and Sommer were preceded by great difficulties in starting. The next two days many beautiful flights were made, and the populace was extremely enthusiastic. On September 26 rain set in again but Delagrange braved it and made a short flight. On landing, however, the wheels struck in the mud and the machine tipped up, breaking both wings, in consequence of which the meet was postponed two days. The longest single flight was of 23 kilometers by Le Blanc. On the 29th Delagrange made a new record, starting in 49 meters.

Denmark.

Ever since he has piloted a Bleriot XI, Delagrange has been very active, flying all over Europe. He has been at Aarhus, in Denmark, where he made several flights before the king and queen, his best being one of 15 min. duration and at a height of 125 ft.

British Isles.

The garage the Daily Mail has had constructed for the Lebaudy airship is now completed. It measures 365 ft. long, 98 ft. high and 65 ft. broad, and is constructed mainly of steel girder work and iron sheeting.

$5,000 for 40 miles.

The Glasgow Daily Mail & Record has offered $5,000 for a cross-country flight by a Scotchman in a Scotch-built aeroplane from Edinburgh to Glasgow, a distance of about 40 miles.

Harry Keen, a member of the Aeroplane Club, offers a prize of $2,500 to the first aviator who succeeds in flying over London. Another prize of $250 is offered by Chas. Friswell to the first English aviator who succeeds in remaining stationary in the air for one minute at a height of at least 50 ft. This would seem to point to some encouragement for the Helicopter "fans."

Cody has done so well that he is taking out naturalization papers, and has already put an English engine in his machine so that he can go in for the English prizes, and just now is the only man in England who is making any real flights, as "flights" as we knew them last year are now nothing but hops.

After his record flight of over one hour last month, he has contented himself during the month with making short flights, lifting many passengers in the air for a few moments.

New aero clubs have been formed at Coventry, Manchester, and Liverpool, as well as in other cities, and many experimentors are building full-sized machines.

Several leaders in the automobile are turning their attention to the commercial side of the aeroplane, notably the Sheffield Simplex Co., which has purchased a Bleriot monoplane. Two other "Bleriot XI" type machines have been purchased by private parties.

It has been definitely decided to hold an aviation week at Blackpool from October 8 to 14. Farman, Delagrange, Paulhan and some Wright machines have been entered. The prizes will total $65,000.

Mr. Haldane, the minister of war, discussed Aeronautics in Parliament and expressed his opinion that dirigibles were better at present for warfare than aeroplanes. He said that the Admiralty were now constructing a large dirigible of the Zeppelin type which was to be completed some time in the spring of 1910. He also stated that in a short while England would have three large dirigible cruisers and that the government is about to purchase two aeroplanes.

The new Barnwell machine (described in last issue) had another trial on September 8. It ran off the starting rail and was damaged. On the next day, however, shortly after it rose in the air, the aviator made a false movement crashed down to the ground and the machine was severely damaged.

baldwin AND mccurdy enter $5,000 contest.

The Daily Mail has a dozen entries for the $5,000 circular mile prize for British-built and flown machines. Among the entrants are J. A. D. McCurdy and F. W. Baldwin, of Baldeck, comprising the Canadian Aerodrome Co.

bleriot machines to be made in england.

The famous Humber concern has arranged to build fifty Bleriot monoplanes to sell at $2,000. Voisin and Farman machines will also be arranged for.

Moore-Brabazon, who, we remember, was the first man in England to fly, with a Voisin machine, now has his British-built machine of Short Bros., and with a heavy automobile engine has been able to easily fly a mile at a time. A lighter engine will be fitted.

France.

The Marquis de Dion has asked the Automobile Club of France to give $40,000 for a Grand Aviation Prize.

Bleriot has sold in all 103 monoplanes. As soon as these are delivered, he will go for the London-Manchester prize, for which he is building a special machine.

The ranks of the fliers and would-fliers are being constantly augmented, and Ruchon-net, who learned in four days, has been able to make a io-min. flight at Chalons the early part of September. Chalons camp has seen many flights during the month by pupils of Farman and Voisin. Bregi, after a few lessons in the Voisin, was able to make seven circuits of the field before going to Ostend for exhibitions.

Farman and Latham were out practicing for the Berlin meet.

Farman and Voisin have sold many machines, and the French aeroplane industry is bristling with activity.

A. Mortimer Singer, the English ballooner who has purchased a Voisin machine, has been continuing flights at Chalons. He got caught in a squall and damaged the aeroplane.

A three days' meeting is to be held at Issy on October 30, 31 and November 1. Many aviators are to take part.

The Koechlin monoplane began trials at Issy the first of September, and was able to make 400 meters! damaged against fence in landing.

Guyot, the winner of the last "Coupes des Voiturettes" at Dieppe, is turning to aviation and is experimenting at Tours with a Bleriot monoplane. After he has mastered his machine, he intends to tour Russia, giving exhibition flights.

Jacquelin, the ex-racing cyclist, is making trials at St. Nazaire with a monoplane of his own design with a Dutheil-Chalmers motor.

Maurice Farman, the brother of the holder of the world's record, made a splendid crosscountry flight lasting 15 min. in his ft. E. P. biplane on September 24. The distance he covered was about 15 km. over^Buc and Chateaufort. ('/x\„OL )

At Nancy, Schreck' on his Wright machine made a good quarter-hour flight. Schreck has fitted three small wheels with springs to the skids of his Wright, and finds starting much easier and very satisfactory.

A newcomer at Juvisy is the biplane of Maurice Clement, very much on the style of Voisin, and built at the Clement-Bayard works. Details are: spread, 11.6 m.; surface, 60 m.; over all length, 11.5 m.; 40 h.p., 105 kg. Clement-Bayard motor, total weight, with operator, 500 kg. Wing tips are used for lateral balance.

santos dumont in wonderful flight.

Santos Dumont has done little flying since early summer. On September 13 he won a bet made with M. Guffroy some time ago as to who would be the first to pay the other a visit by aeroplane. He left St. Cyr in his little "Demoiselle" and covered the distance to Bus in about five minutes at a speed of nearly 60 miles an hour. The following day he flew back.

He made a new record for getting off the ground. The French club officially measured

his running start as 70 meters in 61/5 sec, beating Curtiss' record of 80 meters.

He has demonstrated the good features of his tiny aeroplane by putting a weight of about 40 lbs. on one side of the frame, making it out of balance, but in spite of uhis the machine kept on an even keel, maintaining it also when the weight was suddenly released. He also was able to take his hands off the control during flight.

The Clement-Bayard firm has made arrangements to build 200 monoplanes of the "Demoiselle" type to be sold at $1,500, and aeroplanes are dropping in price faster than the motor cars did.

On September 17 Santos Dumont left his garage at St. Cyr for a flight over the surrounding country. The motor began misfiring after some time and he decided to land. It happened to be near a Chateau at Wide-ville, 18 kiloms. in 16 minutes. On the previous day he had made two trips to Buc and back.

nancy exhibitions.

Sommer on his Farman made a remarkably interesting flight on September 11 at Nancy, where he went to give exhibitions. He flew 12 miles across country from his aerodrome to a parade ground where a military review was being held. He landed on the field amid wild cheering from the soldiers. On rising again he passed along the line as though reviewing them and then flew back at top speed to Nancy. During the aviation week there, ending on the 12th of September, he made several shorter flights and took up a number of passengers.

death of captain ferber.

Another martyr to the cause of aviation. Captain Ferber, like whom there were few more whole heartedly devoted to the subject in France, and whose writings form an instructive and valuable addition to the meagre literature on aeronautics, was tragically killed at the Boulogne aviation meeting on September 22. Count Lambert had been flying the week before the meet, but suddenly returned to Paris, leaving only Ferber.

On September 15 Ferber, leaving the trial ground, flew across country for five miles, and after circling over the beach returned to his aerodrome.

The next day he made a bad landing after a short flight. On September 20 and 21 he made a number of good flights. Then on September 22, due probably more to his unfortunate deformity of being very nearsighted, he went head on into an obstructive hillock, wrecked his machine and was crushed to death.

The "flying fortnight" at Juvisy is to last from October 3 to October 17, the first week to be devoted merely to practice.

There are 30 entries and the prizes total around $40,000. On October 10, the first good day of the meet, over 400,000 persons came

3$ i >\«

out from Paris. Count Lambert made some good flights. The train service was _ so wretched that rioting and a general smashing up followed.

The new "Liberté" in the beginning of September made several excellent trips about Moisson, showing perfect stability and control.

The "Clement-Bayard" has been repaired and shipped to Russia since its recent fall into the Seine.

On September 13 the "Republique" was again in service after the trouble with the motor at Nevers, and took part again in the military maneuvers at La Pallisse.

"REPUBLIQUE" DESTROYED—FOUR MEN KILLED.

After the conclusion of the maneuvers the airship started on the way back to Chalais-Meudon, with Captain Marchai Lieut. Chaure and two mechanics on board. Near Avrilly one propeller broke and the blade tore through the envelope. The gas escaped rapidly and the aerial vessel fell to the earth, the awful shock killing the entire crew. Immediately the Lebaudy Brothers offered to present another one to the Government, a matter of forty or fifty thousand dollars. On September 28, amid highest military honors, the unfortunate victims were buried.

On September 26 the start of the annual race of the French Aero Club was held in the Tuileries Gardens at Paris, 30 balloons in all taking part.

The weather was doubtfully cloudy, and the start was delayed. The balloons finally were sent off at one-minute intervals. There were no accidents, the quality of gas was good, and everything ran with great smoothness. Most of the contestants were caused to descend prematurely by the proximity of the Mediterranean. The winner was Georges Blanchet in the balloon "Genevieve," 1,600 m. capacity, accompanied by M. Pierson. He landed at Port-Saint-Louis on the ,JRhone, 3 km. from the Mediterranean and 62Ô km. as the bird flies from Paris. f

NT

4j

Germany

XVRIGHT MAKES NEW HEIGHT AND PASSENGER RECORDS.

"Orville Wright's flights at Berlin have attracted much attention especially as he has been steadily raising the altitude record. On the iIth of September he flew for 42 min.

his own machine, which resembles closely the "Demoiselle," has succeeded in making several short flights at the Mars field near Berlin. On September 18 he flew a distance of 5 km. and landed without accident near his starting point. In trying for the $10,000 Lanz prize, the propeller broke in mid-air and the machine was somewhat damaged.

BERLIN AVIATION MEET.

The aviation races at Berlin from September 26 to October 3 livened things up a bit, as they gave the stoic Germans a chance to see such experts as Latham, Farman and Rougier.

On September 27, the second day of the races, Latham, witrt his accustomed skill and daring, flew, in a 24-mile wind, from the Tempelhof Field, flying directly over a thinly populated part of the city of Berlin, and return, a distance of about 10 km. in 7 min. This is the first flight of this character.

The next day many flights were made. The best was that of Rougier, who flew 44.75 km.«r^ _ in 52 min. --—__r '?

The next day did not pass without its little accidents. It was one of activity, as well. Bleriot left in spite of an agreement to fly on \s five days and had been paid $5,000, so the promoters seized his machine. Rougier made 31 rounds of the course, covering 77^2 km. in 1 hr. 37 min., with Latham next with 67J/2 in 1 hr. 14 min. In the practice flights of the preceding week, Latham stayed up for 1 hr. 3 min.

Although some interesting flights took place on the last day, October 3, they did not affect the final results. Farman flew two hours and Rougier made several ascensions for height. .

During the meet the Aviation Company seized the aeroplane of Besa and Edwards, the Chilian aviators, alleging failure to fulfill contracts.

On October 3 Latham attempted to bea^ Rougier's height record made the day before' 1 an estimated height of was not official. The results of the competitions as announced by the officials are: .

Long distanceYcontest, $10,000 and City of Berlin Cup, won by Rougier, 0T2O kilometres (74^4—miles) ; Latham, second, $3,750, C82K-— kilometres (5* 1/3- miles) ; Farman third, $1,250, ft-jykilometres (<$&**nUes).

D^aSi4fty~^©-ntestr^w£ua-Ji.y-.Rougier^. 2

/ « of 560 ft., going to *:Où1U * vS"tf.j£6po ft. or more, but it " The results of the co

On September 15 Wright took a trip on ^3&jtnin,_j82/5^sec,;..Farnian sjJ£opd, 1 hr. -31 board the "Zeppelin^JII" from Berlin to tnin-aS^/S-^ei^j^LaJiLain^Biw—t-4ir.-2i--min: Mannheim. On the 16th he flew for 55 min. ^=4Z^/^MS*

before the Empress, and attained a height of Speed event, 20 kilometres, won by Latham,

) r*"22b meters, making a new world's record. ^J&sfwo days later he made a passenger record, O remaining up for 1 hr. 35 min. and 47 sec. with Captain Engelhardt. The same day Wright was up for 1 hr. 45 min. On Oct. 2 he took up the Crown Prince on a 10 min. flight. Then Wright went up alone to an estimated height of 1,600 ft.

Herr Grade, the German aviator, in

$3,250; time, 18 min., 464/5—sec." Farman second, $500; time, se-min.- 9-2/5—sec.; Baron de Caters, third; time, 22 min. sec.

Height prize, won by Rougier, $2,500, 560" ft.; Latham second, $1,250, 327 ft.

No prize was awarded in the durability competition, as no competitor stayed in the air longer than Rougier, the winner of the distance prize.

• Vi

Neither was the prize of $2,500 for the passenger-carrying contest awarded, as Rou-gier alone fulfilled the conditions.

The new airship built to the designs of Professor Schutte will be ready to make its trial trip within a few days' time. The dirigible is 423 ft. long and about 60 ft. in diameter. The frame is not, as in the case of the Zeppelin airship, of aluminum, but of light veneered wood, all metal portions being of hard wrought steel. Four propellers will be driven by as many motors, each capable of developing 135 h.p. It is anticipated that an average speed of twenty-five to thirty miles per hour will be attained. The airship will be capable of carrying a crew of thirty men.

The "Gross II" took part in army maneuvers as an adjunct to the "Blue" army. On September 13 it rose from its encampment, but was soon lost to view. During the evening news reached the "Red" headquarters that the airship had accidentally become caught in a tree and they went out and captured it. This temporarily ended the career of the Gross, but a few days later the airship was given back to the "Blues" by the "Reds," and on the 15th of September did some very valuable scouting service. In fact it is claimed that the victory of the Blue army was largely due to the information obtained by the dirigible. Throughout the maneuvers the wireless telegraph outfit of the airship was thoroughly tested.

At the Frankfort exhibition, small trips have been made by the Parseval, the Clouth and a new semi-rigid aeronaut named the "Ruthenberg," which has made satisfactory evolutions.

The new airship of the Rhenish and West-phalis Co. is expected shortly. It is 2,900 c. m. volume semi-rigid, divided into compartments and driven by a no-h.p. motor.

On September 14 the "Parseval III" made a splendid trip from the Frankfort exposition grounds to Mainz, where it landed. It then went on to Wiesbaden, maneuvered over the place and returned to its starting point.

The little Clouth dirigible made an excellent flight from Frankfort to Kronberg, the palace of the Kaiser's mother, and back on the 22d.

On September 27 the "Parseval" was once more out. This time it stayed up five hours, traveling from Frankfort over How-burg and Darmstadt to Mannheim and return.

The "Zeppelin" has been making long trips, but in these days very little notice is taken of them. At Friedrichshafen on September 10, Count Zeppelin took the King of Saxony aboard for two trips. Wireless telegraphy was used successfully.

At Breslan the local aero club has had constructed several gliders of the same type and shape at Lilienthal's, with the exception that movable rudders are attached and the aviator is seated. Good flights have been made.

Carl Gatho, with his 54 m. 36-h.p. biplane, has been making short flights near Hanover.

Italy.

The Italian military dirigible has been given a thorough try-out. On September 16 it underwent a long and severe trial. On the next day it made a run of 50 km. at 860 m. ht., and throughout has exhibited remarkable stability and high speed. Capt. Riccaldoni has submitted his report on the performances of this airship. It has been in commission two months, has made 16 ascents, one of them lasting five hours and covering 240 km. The total distance traveled by the airship is 1,280 km., all on a single inflation.

Russia.

On Aug. 24, at Odessa, M. Cotrones, of the Odessa Aero Club, made a good flight of 18 min. in a Voisin biplane. Unfortunately the landing was a little hard and parts of the machine were broken.

Two of the Russian military dirigibles sailed over St. Petersburg on September 28 and were acclaimed by the populace. The Government has also begun a series of trials with the military biplane, very much resembling the Wright machine.

Chairs of Aviation have been founded at the Polytechnical Institutes of St. Petersburg, Warsaw, Kieff and Rostoff, and it appears as if Russia intended to keep well up with the rapid progress in aeronautics.

On September 17, Legagneux, in his Voisin, made several flights at Warsaw amid the enthusiasm of thousands of people.

Spain.

The Spanish Government is having a dirigible, the "Espana," built at Beauval, in France. On September 15 it met with an accident as it was about to be tried.

The Aero Club of Catalonia has just been formed at Barcelona with the Marquis t Mariona as President. King Alfonso has given a prize and next year an international aviation meet will be held in Spain.

Sweden.

Folmer Hansen, aviator, intended a few weeks ago to cross over from Sweden to Denmark. He started out twice, and the second time fell into the water but was rescued immediately.

Switzerland.

At Geneva, M. Luventhal is putting the finishing touches to a new aeroplane with which trials are shortly to be commenced.

M. Bianchi, of Lugano, is also at work on a new flying machine to be fitted with a 30-h.p. engine and two propellers.

Dane Hurlburt, an American, has made several short flights in his machine, provided with two propellers, one in front and one in the rear, driven by a 25-h.p. Anzani motor. It is longer front to rear than wide.

AERONAUTICS November, ipop

curtiss' return to america

ON September 22, the day after Curtiss' arrival from abroad, more than a hundred and forty attended the Aero Club of America's luncheon in his honor at the Lawyer's Club. At the guest table sat Glenn H. Curtiss, the officers of the club and their guests, L. D. Dozier, R. J. Collier, William Berri, Col. J. J. Astor, Colgate Hoyt, Judge Elbridge H. Gary, Hon. Herman A. Metz, Dr. St. Clair McKelway, George T. Wilson, Hon. Herbert Parsons and Frank N. Double-day.

Among other diners were Marconi, Hon. James M. Beck, W. D. Gash, Clifford B. Harmon, Christopher J. Lake, Mayor Mahool, of Baltimore, Medill McCormick, James W. Osborne, A. L. Riker, General Thomas L. Watson and Payne Whitney.

After being introduced, Mr. Curtiss equaled, if he did not break, Wilbur Wright's record for brief speech. He thanked those present for his kind reception home, saying he was glad to get back to the "old U. S., but had hoped to slip in on the quiet." When asked to tell his experiences at Rheims he turned the privilege over to St. Clair McKelway and Justice O'Gorman, who saw him fly in the big meet.

Dr. McKelway told of being at Rheims, seeing the wonderful flights and claimed the honor of being the oldest aeronaut present, as he made an ascent back in 1867, in Andrews' dirigible. This airship (which was made to travel in any desired direction by means of long inclined planes between the triple, parallel, cigar-shaped gas bags, the planes causing the balloon, as it rose from the buoyancy of the gas, to ascend upon a long incline) on this occasion traveled as far as Goshen, N. Y. (50 miles), whence it was blown back by the wind across Long Island Sound to the eastern end of Long Island, where a successful landing was accomplished.

Justice O'Gorman in his remarks said, addressing Mr. Curtiss: "I wish to express to you the profound admiration which I felt on that day and have felt ever since for what you did, and I only hope in contests of the future that you will be as fortunate and successful as you were in France last month."

Mayor J. Barry Mahool, of Baltimore, who was an official delegate from the Washington and Baltimore aero clubs, availed himself of the opportunity to plead on behalf of Washington and Baltimore for the Gordon-Bennett aviation race next year. The two cities are co-operating in their efforts to advance the sport, and Mayor Mahool promised the best of the two cities for the meet and its contestants and guests. He read a telegram announcing the flight of Lincoln Beachey from

that city to a point in the Blue Ridge Mountains, 125 miles away—a flight which is probably the longest ever made in America with a dirigible balloon.

The other speakers were Hon. Herman A. Metz and Colgate Hoyt. Mr. Hoyt told of being at Rockefeller's house when a dealer brought up a horse for inspection, at a price of $5,000. At that time Rockefeller was interested in racing. He objected to the price and the dealer replied: "You have been buying all your life 'going-to-be's' or 'has-beens.' Now this horse is an 'izzer.'" "I am a 'has-been,'" said Mr. Hoyt, "but we are here to-day to do honor to an 'izzer.'"

After three cheers for President Bishop, proposed by Mr. Hoyt, the luncheoners dispersed, the majority repairing to Governor's Island to see the Wright machine which was being set up. Mr. Curtiss and Mr. Wright had a friendly discussion of the aviation grounds of Europe, but no mention of any suit was made.

reception at hammondsport.

The real welcome to Mr. Curtiss was that accorded him by his home folks, the ones who hold him most in their hearts. It brought to mind the occasion of his winning of the "Scientific American" cup for 1908, when he was carried about on the shoulders of his admiring friends.

Mr. Curtiss is one of those humble individuals who never claim to have done anything very great, but just lets his deeds stand for what they are worth. A public demonstration for him is as embarrassing and, in a way, unenjoyable as it is sought after by some less entitled. I would like to express my appreciation here in a suitable manner, but I have been limited by the unfeeling editor, so I hope I may be pardoned.

The day after the luncheon Mr. Curtiss arrived in Bath, a junction point for Ham-mondsport, his home. Here he was met by two train loads of Curtiss enthusiasts, a band and a welcoming committee. Cheered by the assembled crowd, he was taken to a dinner at the local hotel by the committee of eleven, representing Bath and Hammondsport. Bath would not stand for being left out of it simply because she was eight miles from Hammondsport.

At 7 o'clock in the evening a special train left for his home town, where the blowing of whistles, the ringing of bells, the band, fireworks and cheers greeted the train as it pulled up. It was a difficult task to get Mr. Curtiss into the carriage and start the parade because of the onrush of those who vied with each other to be the first to clasp the hand of the victor.

I am going to avail myself of the Ham-mondsport Herald for the rest of this story, to show you how Hammondsport feels. We have not advanced too far to class Curtiss among the pioneers in actual flying, but with the march of progress, too often the good things of life are forgotten.

"Notwithstanding the continued downpour of rain and the deep mud, all the time getting deeper, a great procession was organized, and followed partially the line of march laid out. The crowds packed the streets on either side, red lights were burned and a perfect bombardment of Roman candles was maintained. One of the attractive features of the parade was a float containing about thirty girls, all in white, and a couple of little boy clowns.

"The decorations at the homes and places of business were intensified by the colored lights and the village was an imposing sight. Transparencies over all the arc lights and those carried in the procession added to the good feeling of the crowd. Behind the speakers' stand at the Curtiss works was a huge electric sign with the initials 'G. H. C in red, white and blue, and below, in immense letters, 'Welcome Home. The tall flagstaff was brought out with colored incandescents and strings of the lights marked the roadways. All the decorations at the works were accomplished by the employes, to whom great credit is due. In front of the speakers' stand was a miniature aeroplane, an ingenious piece of work accomplished by Claude C. Jenkins.

"Judge Wheeler, who is president of the works, made a most excellent address, which was listened to with rapt attention during a drizzling rain. He paid glowing tribute to Mr. Curtiss, his character, accomplishments at home and abroad, to Hammondsport, its people and to the magnificent outburst of enthusiasm manifested in Mr. Curtiss' homecoming. He closed by presenting Mr. Curtiss with a gold medal, the gift of the people. In accepting, Mr. Curtiss said: 'Although I spent a number of years as a student of Hammondsport high school, I never learned words which are adequate to express my ap-

preciation of the reception I have been accorded to-night, or to express my thanks for this medal which has just been presented to me. The last four weeks have been very eventful. I have met with considerable success and have met many notable people, but on no occasion have I experienced the happiness that I do to-night as I look upon this assemblage.'

"Mr. Wheeler then presented 'Slim' Shriver, Mr. Curtiss' mechanician, with a handsome traveling bag, which brought to a close that portion of the proceedings. Although the rain continued, the people lingered to meet Mr. Curtiss, who held an impromptu reception in the offices of the works.

''The fireworks ended one of the most joyous and successful public demonstrations in the history of Hammondsport. It was a grand spectacle, but modest as compared with the real emotions of the people, which were plainly depicted on every countenance.

"No hero, ancient or modern, was ever greeted with more loyalty than was Glenn H. Curtiss on this occasion. The burning of powder and the noisy demonstrations were but the exterior evidence of the great pride the people of Hammondsport feel in him. Everybody who knows Glenn Curtiss admires him for what he has done. The people of Hammondsport love and admire him for what he is, and for what, through great trials and much adversity, he has made of himself. The ease with which he carries his honors is the most convincing proof of his worth. The distinction which apparently has come to him without much exertion, many a man has laid down his life in attempting to grasp, and he accepts it as naturally and unassumingly as a child. His attachment for the friends of his youth and for the workmen associated with him is another of the strong elements of his character. Honors do not spoil him, the flattery of great men does not turn his head. His habits are as simple and his moral character as unsullied as when he was plodding the hard and uncertain road to his first foothold in the business world."

changes in ti

The latest model of the Voisin aeroplane presents several differences from the design which has proved so successful in the hands of Delagrange, Paulhan, Rougier, etc. A radical departure in the new machine is the removal of the elevating plane from the front to inside the box tail, while now the propeller is mounted in front instead of at the rear of the

e voisin type

main planes. The aeroplane, which will be tested by M. Chateau, will be a Voisin production throughout, as the motor will be of a new design, for which M. Gabriel Voisin is responsible. Having a bore and stroke of 120 mm. by 140 mm., it is designed to give 48 h. p. at 1,100 revolutions per minute, and weighs 95 kilogs. with magneto, etc.

"I think it is hardly possible to improve the magazine as it is at present."—R. A. W.

"Please allow me to thank Aeronautics for information that I have put to practical use and find it has helped me to reach success with my aeroplane."—F. K.

TELL YOUR. FRIENDS

THE AERO CLUB OF NEW ENGLAND

By Alfred R. Shrigley, L.L.B., Sec'y.

ON November the 20th, 1909, the Aero Club of New England will hold its third annual banquet, celebrating on that date two events, the organization of the club and the 126th anniversary of the first ascension of man in a balloon. Many men of prominence in aeronautics will attend the banquet as guests, and it is expected that important discussions with regard to plans for navigating the air by aeroplane, dirigible and balloon during the year 1910 will be discussed.

The club is in a most thriving condition and has far exceeded the expectations of its most optimistic members. This organization has now 100 members, the limit set by its by-laws, and has a large waiting list.

The two club balloons "Massachusetts" and "Boston" have done excellent work during this year, having made 53 ascensions and carried 137 passengers. The vice-president, Mr.

Charles J. Glidden, has been the most active of the club's pilots, and most of the ascensions have been under his direction. Several members are now qualifying as International Pilots, among them Prof. H. H. Clayton, who was formerly connected with the Blue Hill Observatory, Mass.

On Sept. 14 the president of the club, Prof. Wm. H. Pickering, of Harvard, appointed a committee consisting of Mr. Charles J. Glidden and Mr. H. H. Clayton, to consider the advisability of purchasing a dirigible, and to report to the directors the most practical type of such an airship. Another committee was on the same day appointed to consider the purchasing of an aeroplane for the year 1910. Without doubt the Aero Club of New England will this coming season own either an aeroplane or a dirigible for the use of its members.

An Aero Club in Memphis is in progress of formation by E. F. Stephenson of that city. The first call resulted in but three enthusiasts, but this is not accepted as proof of failure.

The Aeronautic Society meetings have continued to be of live interest, with model flights each meeting.

Those who flew their models were: Mr. Dal-kranian, Louis R. Adams, W. S. Romme, Dr. Wm. Greene, Wilbur R. Kimball, Wm. J. Hammer, William Morgan, Percy Pierce, A. J. Smith, J. Newton Williams and Mr. Hillenbrandt. The Romme model was a circular monoplane, open in the center like a doughnut. This flew slowly and kept perfectly stable. Every flight was of almost exactly the same length. The Dalkranian Antoinette-like model performed remarkably straight and well-sustained flights. Each part combined with every other part to secure accuracy in flight.

First and second prizes were awarded to Mr. Dalkranian. Dr. Julian P. Thomas provided an interesting half hour with a small monoplane driven by an electric motor. This was suspended from the ceiling by the wire transmitting the power.

The Aero Club of Colorado has now been officially organized with about 50 members.

At the election held the end of September, the following officers were elected: President, Gordon L. Wands; Vice-President, W. W. Barnett; Treasurer, C. P. Allen; Secretary, Edw. F. Dean; Recording Secretary, L. H. All-mon.

The club has been organized for the purpose of promoting and advancing aerial navigation and bringing it to a more perfect stage. Enough has already been done to convince the most skeptical that practical flight with the heavier than air machine is possible, and there remains nothing for us to do but to improve and perfect the crude means which we now have.

Other objects of the club are to make scientific studies of the existing air currents which prevail at different altitudes, and make charts which will enable us to navigate the atmosphere as the waters are navigated. The club also proposes to make balloon ascensions as a means of sport. Each member may make ascensions by registering his intentions with the secretar}', and will be considered in his turn.

When a member has made the required number of trips, he will receive a pilot's license, which will enable the member to pilot a balloon any place in the world.

It is the purpose of the club to own balloons, dirigibles and aeroplanes and to enter them in contests, whether they be local or international. Many people are of the opinion that Denver would be an ideal place to hold the next international balloon race since there is plenty of distance between that point and either coast to enable the participants to break the world's distance record. Every effort will be made to have this race held in Denver, since, with the

above facts in view, it is reasonable to believe that Denver would be a desirable point from which to start this race.

The Aero Club of Baltimore was formed at an enthusiastic meeting held September 30 at the City Hall. Col. Jerome H. Joyce was elected president; Mr. Waldo Newcomer, treasurer, and Mr. James T. O'Neill, secretary. The following directors were chosen: Mayor Mahool and Messrs. J. Albert Hughes, E. K. Pattison, Charles S. Abell and Gen. Clinton L. Riggs.

The club starts with 40 members among the prominent citizens of Baltimore. The club will ask for affiliation with the Aero Club of America and prosecute, in co-operation with the Aero Club of Washington, plans looking to the holding of the Bennett aviation race next year at College Park, Md.

New Club in Washington.

WASHINGTON, October 12.—Aeroplane builders and aviation enthusiasts of Washington met at the Y. M. C. A. last evening and organized the Washington Aero-Scientific Club. There were present nine aeronauts who have built or are building aeroplanes or dirigible balloons, besides others who are interested in the science.

Temporary officers were elected as follows: President, E. H. Young; first vice-president, William H. Beck; second vice-president, T. H. Bean; secretary-treasurer, F. L. Rice. Samuel A. Luttrell was chosen chairman of the com-

mittee on experiments, and J. J. O'Brien chairman of the committee on meetings. A tentative constitution and by-laws were adopted. It was decided to call the new organization the Washington Aero-Scientific Club. _M. J. Jones, educational director of the Y. M. C. A., announced that Lieut. F. P. Lahm, chief of the aeronautical division of the United States Signal Corps, has agreed to deliver a series of lectures on aeronautical subjects to the club this winter, and will also give some practical instruction to the members in the management of aeroplanes and dirigible balloons. The lectures probably will begin next month, and will be delivered in the large assembly hall of the Y. M. C- A.

It was announced that a large field near Washington would be secured for practical experiments, and it is probable that the War Department will be asked to allow the club the use of the aviation field at College Park for experimental purposes. Signal Corps officers, in view of the interest that the War Department is now taking in aeronautics, are said to favor allowing the club the use of the College Park grounds.

Meetings will be held every two weeks, as soon as the club is permanently organized. The next meeting will be called by the temporary president within the next three weeks. It will be held at the Y. M. C. A.

Letters of regret at their inability to be present were read from several aeronauts, and a few applied for membership in the new organization by letter.

biggest aero show

The Aeronautic Salon was opened on Sept. 25 by President Fallieres. All actual flying apparatus are exhibited, the Bleriot, Santos Dumont and Pelterie monos, the Farman, Wright, Voisin, etc., biplanes. There is also a large exhibit of motors, including the Renault, Gnome, Antoinette, Panhard, Clement and Pipe. In addition there are to be seen some sphericals, the Zodiac dirigible, the historic balloon Volta, which escaped from Paris during the siege, as well as a large amount of accessories and appurtenances.

In all cases considerable thought has been given to methods of alighting. Whilst the pneumatically tired wheels are retained, elastic and spring suspensions have been added and additional springs are brought into action according to the force of the descent. In one or two instances wooden skids come into secondary contact to prevent deformation or breakage of wheels, the skids being connected to springs.

Propellers have received renewed attention since the accident to the "Republique." Metal propellers are in disfavor, even for aeroplanes.

Wooden propellers, although admittedly less efficient, weight for weight, are all formed of the best hard wood, generally of strips running at 90 deg. to the axle shaft. Thus it would be difficult for one of the blades to break off in the air. One firm claims for its wooden propeller, formed in one single piece of wood, that it will turn at the peripheral speed of 200 metres per minute, without any deformation or vibration.

With regard to the motors, air-cooling has been adopted in quite a number of cases. It is somewhat curious to note that French makers were quite sceptical regarding the possibilities of an efficient air-cooled engine for motor-car service. The needs of aerial motors have, however, broken down the prejudice which existed, notwithstanding the fact that the aerial service demands harder continuous work from the motor than practical road work does from the ordinary motor-car engine. The Panhard Company, however, do not recommend the air-cooled motor. They show several groups of four vertically-arranged cylinders, the carburetor being placed over the heads of the cylinders as is also the magneto.

IN THE last issue we inaugurated a new department, called "Exchange." Progress in aeronautics would be materially assisted if those interested could and would gather together, discuss their ideas, hold model contests, form clubs and bring organized endeavor and influence to bear on the popularization of this new sport and science and the encouragement of it through education and governmental co-operation. For one thing, strong pressure should be put upon Congress to appropriate ample sums for the carrying on of experiments, and the purchase and operation of airships and flying machines.

With the rapidly increasing realization of what aerial locomotion means, there must be few large cities in America where there are not 20 or 30 enthusiasts. These should get together, and those who are willing to meet others with a view to mutual profit and co-operation are asked to write a post card to "Aeronautics," 1777 Broadway, New York, and we will do our best to put them in touch with others. We would like to see a club in every large city.

We will print in this new department all such requests. If you know of anyone in-

terested, won't you give us his name, and we will do our part.

If you have a suggestion which you think will aid a constructor of a machine, write it out for printing in this mutual aid forum.

If you have a new idea for a flyer, describe it briefly and send it in. If you have invented a new device, part, attachment or complete machine, give us a concise description of it. In this way you may interest capital in your plans.

If you have money to invest in aerial apparatus, let us know it and we will print a note with whatever conditions you may wish to impose. If you do not desire your name used, please so state in your communication.

If you have suggestions as to the part the government ought to take, if you want any information, or have it to give, let "Exchange" be the medium.

The idea in this department is to bring together every force which will make for advancement. We want to make "Exchange" an aeronautical forum and market place.

Let us have your help to keep this of ever-increasing benefit to all.

SOAKING rilWKi: VS. MUTOR-l'OWEK.

To explain why .soaring power does increase the motor-power is the object of this article, as many cannot understand this difficult problem.

In drawing 3-4 is the side view of one aeroplane and 1-X is an attached soaring blade at rest. The forward motion created by motor power does bond the soaring blades to line 2-X.

On 3-X the soaring blades are attached to theaeroplane. The motor-power it takes to bend the soaring blades to a curvature on one end, the same power it retards cm the other end in forward motion.

Solution : Take a flexible stick between the two forefingers and press same to a curved line, and if you release one finger snaplike quick, the stick will shoot forward at the rate of the pressure of either finsrer.

The soaring blades act in the same way, just as in a soaring bird of heavy weight. After a full forward motion is gained and the blades are curved and strong enough to suit the weight of the machine and the motor-power is cut off, the aeroplane will keep on flying until the angle is changed to an upward position where the headway resistance overpowers the soaring power, the aero-

plane is slowing down, and with this the soaring power.

IJ. DRKSSI.EK. Coney Island, X. Y.

ADVEUTISING AND SALES MANAGElt.

now with large machinery manufacturer would like to form connection with well established airship builder. Experience in important executive positions ; an expert on result bringing letters, well equipped by education, experience and personality to handle high class business. Widely traveled at home and abroad. Age 33, unmarried. Manager, Room 33S, 1(10 Adams St., Chicago, 111.

wanted.

Partner with $10,000.00, in securing foreign aeronautical Patents, and demonstrating them. Conservative estimate places their value at slO0.O00.oo. Satisfaction guaranteed.

Address Stability. Aeronautics.

ti.'rn ruckles at' cost.

E. F. Stephenson, 250 Vance Ave., Memphis, Tenn., offers to furnish readers with small brass turnbuckles at cost, 21% cents each, or $2.50 a dozen.

will someone please answer?

To the Editor :

lias anyone ever experimented on the spiral propeller? Would it not act about the same as the continuous paddle on a boat ?

ANONYMOUS.

I'll ikes for lowest speeo.

A suggestion is received from a subscriber in regard to the offering of prizes. Attention is called to the various prizes offered abroad and

exchange

Aero Forum and Market Place.

[Note.—The first name given is that of the pilot.]

war from a balloon.

TAUNTON, Aug. 19.—Wm. Van Sleet, A. B Reed and John J. Kenney, in Dr. Ranu.iU's "Grey-lock," viewed the war game from above, reporting for their newspapers a battle between the Reds and the Blues. The landing was in front of a flagged railroad train at East Freetown, Mass. Dur., 1 hr. 18 min. Subsequently the balloon broke away and was not found till Sept. 28, in New York State.

DAYTON, Aug. 24.—Capt. G. L. Bumbaugb and seven guests went up in the "lloosier." landing at New Moorefleld, near Springfield. O. In the evening Capt. Bumbaugh lectured before the Aeroplane Club on "Judging Distances from a Balloon."

DAYTON, Aug. 24.—H II. McGill, Paul Keenan and Earl White in the "Dayton," to between Springfield and Enon, O.

NORTH ADAMS, Aug. 26.—N. H. Arnold, Wm. R. Cross, and D. W. Goodrich in the "No. Adams No. 1." No wind. Balloon cireled city, lauding finally on Florida mountain nearby.

FITCIIBURG, Sept. 1.—H. H. Clayton, J. Walter Flagg and Jay B. Benton in the "Boston,'' to Winchester.

ST. CLOUD, France, Sept. 2.—E. W. Mix, G. H. Cuitiss and C. F. Bishop made a short ascent from the Aero Club's grounds.

20-nouR trip.

CANTON, Sept. 2-3.—J. II. Wade, Jr., and A. H. Morgan, in the "Cleveland," to Karthaus, Pa., 200 miles from Canton, after 18 hours in the air. 59 sacks of ballast were carried. This is the longest ascent ever made from Cauton.

DAYTON, Sept. 3—A. Leo Stevens, E. B. Wes-

miles. Dur., 8 hrs.

NORTH ADAMS. Sept. 3.—N. H. Arnold, Clifford B. Harmon, Mr. and Mrs. Walter E. Maynard and Mrs. Thos. Hastings, to North Easton, Mass.

WASHINGTON, Sept. 3.—Lieut. F. P. Lahm. in the "Signal Corps No. 12," to Brooklyn, Md.; dur. 3 hrs. 20 min.; dist., 27- miles.

"sky pilot" and "ohio" race.

CANTON, Sept. 6.—J. H. Wade, Jr., A. H. Morgan and H. C. Gammeter, in the "Sky Pilot," to Palmyra, O., a dist. of 35 miles.

Dr. H. W. Thompson, Louis Brush and Ralph Dow in the "Ohio," to near Alliance, O., a dist. of 20 miles.

FITCIIBURG, Sept. 8.—H. H. Clayton, J. Walter Flagg and .Tax B. Benton, in the "Boston," to Ashby, 10 miles'"

LOWELL, Sept.. 9'.—Chas. J. Glidden and George W. Brown, Mayor of Lowell, in the "Boston." Dur., 2 hrs. ; dist., 10 miles.

WASHINGTON, Sept. 9.—Lieut. F. P. Lahm and Lieut. F. E Humphreys, on an instruction ascent in the "Signal Corps No. 11," to Woodbine, Md. Dist 38 m.; dur., 3:48.

WORCESTER. MASS., Sept. 9.—Geo. L. Tom-linson and Karl-Symons in a hydrogen balloon of 12,000 ft., to Greenwich, Mass. 1y H^iUj^

CANTON. Sept. 9.—Dr. II. W.' Thompson, Dr. M. D. Bush, and V. A. Miller, in the "Ohio," to Kent, O Dur. 2 hr. 20 min.

CANTON, Sept. 11.—Dr. H. W. Thompson, Wm. Arnold and Oscar Lodius in the "Ohio," to Canal Dover, O., 30 miles.

PITTSFIELD, Sept. 13.—Clifford B. Harmon, alone in the "Pittsfield."

FITCHBURG, Sept. 13.—Chas. J. Glidden and Wm. E. Metzger, president of the Aero Club of Michigan, in the "Boston," to Pelham, N. H. Dur. 2 hr. 36 min., dist. 36 miles.

FITCHBURG, Sept. 15.—Chas. J. Glidden and P. Chester Thompson, >n the "Boston," to So. Lvndeboro, N. H. Dist. 22 miles, dur. 2 hr. 44 m'in. Met clouds at 4,200 ft. Stayed above 1 hr. This trip celebrated the second anniversary of Mr. Glidden's first ascension.

PITTSFIELD, Sept. 16.—Chas. J. Glidden. Jay B. Benton and J. J. Van Valkenburgh, in the "Mass.," to Plainfield, Mass. Dist. 22 m., dur. 1 hr. 25 min. In lot all the time.

PITTSFIELD, Sept. IS.—Leroy M. Taylor, W. J. Serdenburg, and Mrs. A. M. King were passengers in the "Mass." on a saHflto Chapinville, Ct. Dist. 38 miles. VtT>^ *ZjJLA—ns-£~~T~

FITCHBURG. Sept. 18.—Chas. J. Glidden, Jay B. Benton and Phillip J. FitzGerald, 8 years of age, in the "Boston," to Auburn, Mass. Distance 30 miles, dur. 2 hr. 15 min.

ST. LOUIS, Sept. 19.—John Berry and G. C. Schwartz in the "Univ. City" in an endeavor A to win the Lahm Cup.^fc1 Qz**Xi> *\ \\n£> . I ^ KA'0

FITCHBURG, Sept. 21.—Chas. J. Glidden, H. H. Clayton and J. Walter Flagg, in the "Boston," to Mason. N. H. Dist. 15 miles, dur. 50 min.

NORTH ADAMS, Sept. 25.—N. H. Arnold, Norman Trince, Mrs. H. B. Heustis and Mrs. Arnold, in the "All America," to Goshen, Ct., 50 miles.

CVNTON, Sept. 28.—Lieut. Frank P. Lahm W. R. Timken and Jos. M. Blake, in the "Ohio, to Brownsdale, W. Va. The villagers were not very expert balloon handlers, and the landing was made in a tree. The two passengers climbed down to the ground, and finally the balloon was released, but Lieur. Lahm had to climb up the tree to get some of the belongings left behind.

NEW YORK, Sept. 29.—A. Leo Stevens and Dr. Lucas, in the "Stevens 24," to Hicksville, L. I.

LOS ANGELES. Sept. 29.—Geo. B. Harrison, Corporal Vance Worden, and Private W. A. Hall, in the "America," on ofPcial ascent of the Calif. Nat. Guard. Dist. 20 miles.

FITCIIBURG, Sept. 30.— H. H. Clayton, alone in the "Boston," to Kensington, N. H. Dist. 55 miles. —

PHILADELPHIA, Oct. 2.—Dr. Thos. E. Eld-ridge, Dr. Geo. H. Simmerman, A. C. Howard, C. D. Shaw, Bert Bartholomew and a reporter, in the "Phila. II," to Cologne, N. J.

NORTH ADAMS, Oct. 3.—Wm. Van Sleet, Waldo Johnstone and E. E. Merriam in the "Springfield." to Willimantic, Ct. Dur. 4% hr., dist. 77 miles.

ST. LOUIS, Oct. 4.—Ten balloons left in the race of the Aero Club of St. Louis. (See special story.)

"I think Aeronautics_ covers everything of interest in the aeronautic world, and is one of the best magazines of its kind."—J. H. VV.

"I would like to praise Aeronautics through its editor for its noble work, which no doubt has improved to the delight of its subscribers, and those who perchance come across a stray copy."—R. P. D.

"Am much pleased with the magazine,— think it embraces and sums up nearly everything known and interesting in aeronautics. Have read it with a great deal of interest and profit."—W. D. LeF.

THE llPw* LIGHT

STRONGEST METAL

Mc ADAMITE

Specific Gravity 3 20 ^ '

Tension, - 44,000 lbs. to sq. in. Compression, 126.000 lbs. to sq. in. Transverse, 87,000 .Torsion. - 60.00O " " " %:

Send for rest bar or a pattern for sample casting

U. S. McADAMTTE METAL CO.

19 Rapelye Street BROOKLYN. N. Y

the aeroplane toy co. 15 myrtle avenue

-■--»--■—' * ^-j—» -•.-». v ^ WW. BROOKLYN, NEW YORK

Aeroplanes, Dirigibles, Spherical Balloons, Butterflys, Hélicoptères, Gliders, Parachutes and Scientific Kites

- CATALOG READY ABOUT NOVEMBER FIRST -

ALL OUR TOYS ACTUALLY FLY

Telephone 1040 Main

Working Models Built to Order Separate Parts Furnished

ADAMS-FAR WELL

TnE WORLD'S LIGH TEST AND SIMPLEST

MOTOR

Less than 3 lbs. per H. P., A. L. A. M. rating

Self cooled by its own revolution

GET OUR CATALOGUE A No. 15-A

THE ADAMS COMPANY

DUBUQUE, IOWA, U.S.A.

the Denver Post prize in this country, which calls for awards based on the greatest speed attained. Inasmuch as there are more difficulties presented in the building of a slow speed machine, it certainly would be an aid to the Art if someone would offer a prize for flights accomplished at certain low speeds; say, for instance, 18 to 25 miles per hour, such prize to be increased with the diminution of speed. Of course, we do not expect that the Art will be favored with any such prize, as any money available is sadly needed for Tolar expeditions. But for the purpose of an argument, we present this suggestion to those most interested. _

L. W. Bonney, Upper Sandusky, 0., is anxious to communicate with parts and propeller manufacturers.

Editor. Evchanee Dept.,

Dear Sir,—I desire to communicate with manufacturers of motors, bamboo, aluminum tubing, and (Continued on next page)

AVIATION

The best book on AVIATION

The First Lessons on AERONAUTICS

Illustration of Scientific Treatment in a popular style of the Principles of Aviation. A Technical Analysis without having mathematical abstruseness. There are a number of illustrations of the latest designs in Aeroplanes and Airships. Leather Back &

Prepaid $2.00

Send to

MAX K. KASMAR, Secy.

AM. AER. SOCIETY

1827 N. Paulina St., Chicago, 111.

sheets, wire, wheels, propellers, ehains, piano wire, turn buckles and fabric. Name prices in first communication. J. M. HOOPER.

Springfield. Teun.

To the Editor.

i have in course of construction a biplane somewhat like the Curtiss machine in looks, but the mechanical make-up is entirely different, in that ] have an automatic stabilizing attachment and an automatic controlling device for the two auxiliary planes. i also have a starting device which will enable one man to get the machine in the air with the utmost ease and safety without the use of weights, monorail or long runs.

The above results are obtained through a very simple arrangement properly applied. i shall be ready to place a motor on the machine in about 00 days, and being without necessary capital 1 desire to be placed in touch with someone who has the means, and would become interested in a machine of merit.

L. B. 2.°..'?. Springfield. Tenn.

Back Numrers Aeronautics at a Premium.

Will gladly pay $1.00 or $1.25 Each for the following back numbers: July, August, September, 1907; July. August, September, October. 190«.

ROBT. \V. FAWCETT, c/o A. P. Co.. Camp Childs

Mayer, Ariz.

Weaver-Ebling Automobile === Company -

"WECO" OILS AND GREASES

All Aeronautic Supplies 2230 Broadway at 79th St., - - - New York.

No Poor Flights

With This Engine

^ Built especially for aeroplanes, our engine positively combines less weight and more power than any other made. ^ Simplicity is its keynote. Yet it affords greater economy of fuel and conservation of power than engines of the most elaborate type. ^ A real achievement in aerial locomotion is

The Elbridge Engine

^ Automatic oiling devices and gasoline feed, obviate the usual engine difficulties. ^ A recent successful flight was made with a 45 H.P. Elbridge Engine, weighing 200 lbs. <J Absolute reliability qualifies it as preeminent in its field. Leading aeronauts give testimony to this fact.

<]] It will pay you to learn more about the Elbridge Engine.

Wrife Us Today.

ELBRIDGE ENGINE COMPANY

10 Culver Road, Rochester, N. Y.

Wilbur Wright's

Remarkable Flight up the Squall-Swept Hudson, over the fighting tops of the assembled fleets of the nations, was another demonstration of the Great Aviator's complete confidence in the Reliability and Efficiency of the

Bosch Magneto

If you saw the Curtiss Cup-Winning Biplane, which was exhibited at one of New York's large retail stores recently, you may have noted that it also was "Bosch Equipped".

Bosch Magneto Company

223-225 W. 46th Street, New York

Chicago Branch: 1253 Michigan Avenue San Francisco Branch: (just opened) 357 Van Ness Avenue

In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 206

R. I. V. RADIAL BALL BEARINGS

Used by Leading Aviators.

Light in weight — Strong and

Durable.

Variety of types and sizes in stock. Absolutely Guaranteed.

Send for Catalogue 19.

All Sizes Hoffmann Steel Balls on Hand.

R. I. V. CO. 1771 Broadway, New York

C. and A.

WITTEMANN

DESIGNERS-CONSTRUCTORS-DEVELOPERS OF

AEROPLANES, GLIDING MACHINES, MODELS, SEPARATE PARTS

PRACTICAL LESSONS IN GLIDING

Experiments Conducted. Large grounds for testing.

GLIDERS IN STOCK Works :T 17 Ocean Terrace and Little Clove Road. Telephone, 390-L West Brighton. STATEN ISLAND, NEW YORK.

SOARING BLADES

.Made to order, attachable to your aeroplane or glider. They increase the speed to nearly double the motor power, push machine if motor stops over 20 miles p. h., which permits gliding and prevents accidents. Any height can safely be attained. Blue prints for aeroplanes with full patent rights, maintaining automatic equilibrium also furnished.

For terms apply to R. DRESSLER, Coney Island, New York.

G. L. BUMBAl/GH

1029 N. Illinois St., INDIANAPOLIS, IND.

DESIGNER - CONTRACTOR. - OPERATOR CONSTRUCTOR.

AIR SHIPS AND BALLOONS

Builder of the CHICAGO—largest balloon in the world; the INDIANA, which remained in the air 4.^ hours and 25 min., the ENDURANCE RECORD for the U. S.; and the INDIANAPOLIS, which won the Handicap Race.

No connection with any other concern.

aeroplane radiators

A SPECIALTY

Livingston Radiator Co., 6 E. 31st St., New York City.

BATES AERO NA UTIC MOTOR

AT ONCE THE

HIGHEST

GRADE

MOTOR

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LOWEST

PRICE

4 - CYL. 4x4

WATER COOLED

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PRICE $650.-^ COMPLETE NOT A FREAK DESIGN. NOT AN EXPERIMENT. THE STANDARD TYPE OF THE MOTOR WORLD. MOST EFFICIENT AND RELIABLE.

EVERY FEATURE MOST PRACTICAL.

Not ashamed to publsh the price. Write for further particulars. Early orders get quick deliveries. Other sizes built to order.

CARL BATES

104 OAK ST.. CHICAGO,

ILL.

magnetos

The Master

Magneto !

and F. S. Ball Bearings

Used on Voisin Aeroplane, 8 cyl. Antoinette Motor, driven by Latham.

Bowden wire for controls

J. S. BRETZ COMPANY

Sole Importers, Times Building, New York

New York - Chocolates

Chocolate

Most Suitable for Aeronauts or those requiring a Non-Bulky Sustaining Fond Office, 150-154 CHAMBERS STREET, NEW YORK

NILSON-MILLER CO.

Designers and Builders of SPECIAL GASOLINE ENGINES

Unexcelled Facilities for Experimental and Model Work

13th & Hudson Sts., Hoboken, N. J.

Health Food

Aerial Development Company

<J This company is organized for the purpose of exploiting all business connected with aerial transportation, including the patenting of new devices, the purclnse and salt- of patents and pitented apparatus, the establishment of laboratories for original research, the building of manufacturing plants for the construction of all types of flying machines and motors, the promotion of exhibitions, races, prize competitions. ^ Models and experimental work of all kinds to order.

•J M iterials and appliances used in aerial transport ition offered for sale.

<fl Estimates furnished for the construction and trial tests of all classes of aeronautical work. t| Write for prospectus.

45 West 34th Street, New York. AEROPLANES FOR SALE

WITH GUARANTEE OF PERFORMANCE LIGHT WEIGHT MOTORS AERIAL ADVERTISING . .

aeronaut leo stevens

Leading

BALLOON AND AIRSHIP CONSTRUCTOR

of the world

Representing the

CONTINENTAL RUBBER COMPANY

of HANOVER, GERMANY

Makers of the Finest and Strongest Balloon Cloth Ever Produced

Constructor of the United States Government Balloon No. 10 in which Captain Charles De Forrest Chandler, U.S.A., and Mr. J. C. McCoy, won the Lahm Cup for Distance

MR. ALBERT C. TRIACA, Sole American and Canadian Agent

American Representative for

Carton & Lachambre

Balloon and Airship Makers of Paris, France

Address'

Aeronaut Leo Stevens

Box 181 Madison Square NEW YORK

CAPTAIN THOMAS S. BALDWIN

NEW YORK'S LEADING MANUFACTURER

BALLOON

AND AIRSHIP

PILOT AND MANUFACTURER

BALDWIN'S VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL

Used In the U. S. Gov. Dirigible and Spherical Balloons

will last from five to six times as long as a varnished balloon. The weight is always the same, as it does not require further treatment. Heat and cold have no effect on it, and ascensions can be made as well at zero weather as in the summer time. The chemical action of oxygen has not the same detrimental effect on it as it has on a varnished material. Silk double walled VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL has ten times the strength of varnished material. A man can take care of his PROOF balloon, as it requires little or no care, and is NOT subject to spontaneous combustion. Breaking strain 100 lbs. per inch width. Very elastic. Any weight, width, or color. Will not crack. Waterproof. No talcum powder. No revarnishing. The coming balloon material, and which through its superior qualities, and being an absolute gas holder is bound to take the place of varnished material. The man that wants to have the up-to-date balloon, must use VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL. Specified by the U. S. SIGNAL CORPS.

i-\ c

AEROPLANE MATERIAL A SPECIA Priées and samples on application

Box 78 Madison Square P. O.

NEW YORK.

En

-P

gines - r ropellers

FOR AERONAUTICS

F

Constructed under the patents pendine of Hugo C. Gibson

\A ING is up to the^ motor. yIt is a matter ot horse power, our engine is specially designed TO KEEP OX delivering full power.

200\LBS. - 50 H.P.

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This shows our 9011 fid enÄp and safeguards yon.

Call or write now. ^ Full particulars by return.

Telephone 7200 Columbus

225 WEST 49th STREET NEW YORK CITY

REQUX-COLES CO.

Race of Peoria Air Craft Club, August 19

Peoria, Missouri, Dauntless, started — 50,000 people saw them

ALL THREE BUILT BY

FRENCH—AMERICAN BALLOON CO.

H. E. HONEYWELL, Director

3958 Cottage Avenue St. Louis, U. S. A.

AEROPLANE ENGINES

We have standardized the following sizes of engines for aeronautical work:

8 Cyls., 3% inches by 4 inches, 30-45 H.P., Weight 275 lbs. 8 Cyls., 4\ inches by 4V2 inches, 40-60 H.P., Weight 300 lbs.

Both sized Motors fitted with Bosch Magneto, Schebler Carburetor Mechanical Oiler, complete ready to run.

EARLY DELIVERIES FOR IMMEDIATE ORDER

Machine Department, KaStOIl Cordage Co., Easton, Pa.

THE AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERIAL LOCOMOTION

VOL. 5 NO. 6

DECEMBER 'Ofy

'''' x

25 GTS

lT7

Photo btf Edtrin Levick, ar. Y,

HENRY FARMAN FLYING AT BLACKPOOL MEET

A Notable Triumph

for the

Eisemann

Magneto !

COn October 18th, 1909, Count de Lambert, in a Wright aeroplane, using an

EISEM AN N oMAG N ETO,

made a flight that startled the world — one of the most sensationally successful of any thus far. Ascending at Port Aviation, Juvisy, his biplane flew straight to Paris, over the city, and around the Eiffel Tower, attaining a height of 1,300 feet. After circling the Tower, Count de Lambert steered straight for Juvisy,landing within a few feet of his starting place, after covering 31 miles in 49 minutes, 39 2-5 sec-

C This historic flight was made possible by the use of the

EISEMANN

oMAGNETO.

Steady, constant, reliable ignition is one of the chief factors of successful flight, and this the E1SEMANN assures. All of Wilbur Wright's European records last year were made with an E1SEMANN, and Countde Lambert, using an E1SE-MANN, recently won six big prizes at Port Aviation.

The

EISEMANN

' is the R_eaJ Magneto for

Aviation

onds.

EISEMANN

HIGH TENSION

MAGNETO

Use.

LAVALETTE. &

COMPANY ^225-227 West 57th.St> NEW YORK

AEROPLANISTS

searching for the strongest, lightest, most buoyant tires invariably choose

Hartford Tires

The three types of these tires for flying machines are not makeshifts.

On the contrary, they are the result of careful observations and searching study, combined with thorough knowledge of the tire requirements of the present day heavier-than-air machine.

Even the fabric is specially made of the very lightest thread.

The pure Para rubber is submitted to a process which imparts extra toughness and strength without sacrificing one jot of its remarkable resiliency.

So the Hartford Aviator, the Hartford Aeronaut and the Hartford Aeroplane are light, strong and buoyant—since these are the principal essentials required in flying machine tires.

Hartford Aero Varnish is the best and finest for flying machines of whatever type.

Write for prices and details of both these Hartford products.

The Hartford Rubber Works Co. HARTFORD, CONN.

Branches:—New York, 57th St. and Broadway; Chicago, lath St. and Michigan Ave.; Boston, 817 Boylston St.; Detroit, 256 Jefferson Ave.; Denver, 1561 Broadway; Philadelphia, 1425 Vine St.; Cleveland, 1831 Euclid Ave. ; Atlanta, Ga., 94 North Pryor St.; Buffalo, 725 Main St.; Minneapolis, Minn., 622 Third Ave. S.

AERONAUTICS December, igog

Baldwin's Vulcanized Proof Material

U. S. BALLOON DURATION RECORD—48 Hrs., 26 Mins.

Hormon and Post, Balloon "New Yoik," St. Louis Centennial

U. S. BALLOON ALTITUDE RECORD—24,200 Ft.

Harmon and Post, Balloon "New York," St. Louis Centennial

BEST DURATION INDIANAPOLIS BALLOON RACE—

35 Hrs., I 2 Mins. Forbes and Harmon, Balloon "New York"

LAHM BALLOON CUP—697 Miles

Forbes and Fleischman, Balloon "New York"

GORDON BENNETT AVIATION PRIZE 30-KILOM. AEROPLANE SPEED PRIZE GRAND PRIZE OF BRESCIA FOR AEROPLANES QUICK STARTING EVENT AT BRESCIA 2nd, 10-KILOM. AEROPLANE SPEED PRIZE 2nd, BRESCIA HEIGHT PRIZE—Glenn H. Curtiss

BALDWIN'S VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL

Used in the U. S. Gov. Dirigible and Spherical Balloons

WILL last from five to six times as long as a varnished balloon. The weight is always the same, as it does not require further treatment. Heat and cold have no effect on it, and ascensions can be made as well at zero weather as in the summer time. The chemical action of oxygen lias not the same detrimental effect on it as it has on a varnished material. Silk double-walled VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL has ten times the strength of varnished material. A man can take care of his PROOF balloon, as it requires little or no care, and is NOT subject to spontaneous combustion. Breaking strain 100 lbs. per inch width. Very elastic. Any weight, width, or color. Will not crack. Waterproof. No talcum powder. No revarnishing. The coming balloon material, and which through its superior qualities, and being an absolute gas holder is bound to take the place of varnished material. The man that wants to have the up-to-date balloon, must use VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL. Specified by the U. S. SIGNAL CORPS.

AEROPLANE MATERIAL A SPECIALTY

Prices and samples on application

^^^M^^^. Captain Thomas S. Baldwin ^^BH^kt

HIGH-CLASS MACHINE WORK

FOR AERONAUTICAL PURPOSES

We Accomplish Results where Others Fail Pedersen Lubricators have proven to be the most reliable

Pedersen Manufacturing Company

(ESTABLISHED 1884. INCORPORATED 1906)

636-644 FIRST AVENUE NEW YORK

L B. RE~PAIRCO., Inc!

EXPERTS ON GASOLINE MOTORS REMODELING and OVERHAULING MOTORS, MAKING SPECIAL PARTS FOR EXPERIMENTAL WORK ON

AIR, LAND and WATER VEHICLES

225 W. 57th St., N. Y. Tel. 6459 Col.

F. O. ANDREAE

REGISTERED

SOLICITOR OF PATENTS

Pasadena,

Calif.

Aeronautic Inventions a specialty at home and abroad

WHEN YOILVISIT MoRRlS PARK

don't forget to visit trie aeronauts' retreat

866 Morris Park Ave., near Morris Park.

Morris Park Cafe and Summer Garden

Special lunch served at moderate prices. Private rooms for parties with ladies. All bottled goods sold as represented. Telephone, 239 Westchester. John J. Dragnett, Prop.

TWO PASSENGER BALLOON

JJQCn f\f\ Only inl Jafed four times. «POOU.UU. Complexly Equipped with Anchor, Drag Rope, Ballast Bags, Filling Hose, Cover, etc. Photo and/description on request. HOWARD W. giul, Baltimore, Md.

AEROPLANES AND GLIDERS

DESIGNED — CONSTRUCTED —OPERATED FOR SALE AND BUILT TO ORDER .

Aeronautic Supplies and Apparatus

Western Agent "AERONAUTICS"

C. T. SHAFFER

302 HOLYOKE STREET, SAN FRANCISCO

MAGNETOS, SPARK PLUGS BATTERIES

All Supplies and Equipments for Gasoline Motors.

L. G. DUQUET

107 WEST 36th ST., NEW YORK

UNIVERSAL AUTO SUPPLY CO.

Fillings for Airships and Flying Machines All Supplies for Motors, Ignilion Systems, Wheels, Tires, Etc. ADVISE US YOUR WANTS

1900 Broadway, (cor. 63d St,) New York

r~J~'HE recent prizes for aeroplane contests offered by several prominent papers recall that the FIRST AVIATION TROPHY offered in America was given more than TWO YEARS ago by the

SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN

which is the only weekly publication that treats fully the new science of mechanical flight—a science which it has helped develop and promulgate from its very beginning.

Aeronautic Patents

Having devoted especial attention to aeronautic patents, we are exceptionally well equipped to advise and assist inventors, fj Valuable information sent free on request.

MUNN & CO., Inc., 365 Broadway, New York.

Scientific American Trophy, 1907

What Kind of a MOTOR Do You Want?

Let us answer— 1st, A reliable motor 2nd, A powerful motor 3rd, An enduring motor

Curtiss Motors

HAVE THESE QUALITIES

The Kind You Do NOT Want—

1st, A motor of "freak" construction. 2nd, A motor of extremely light construction. 3rd, A motor of unproven merit.

CURTISS MOTORS ARE NOT IN THESE CLASSES.

Built in All Sizes. New Models of Highest Type and Greatest Efficiency. Send for Catahgue N. CURTISS MOTORS HAVE MADE GOOD

fp!

JH HERRING-CURTISS CO., Hammondsport, New York

AERONAUTICS -;-Edited by-

Major B. Baden-Powell and John H. Ledeboer

The first and leading paper in Great Britain devoted to Aviation, Aerostation, Meteorology, Aerology, Etc.

THE ONLY RELIABLE TECHNICAL JOURNAL

ISSUED A special feature is a complete illustrated list of

MONTHLY all Aeronautical Patents published every month

SUBSCRIPTION ig^Scop'yl ceT.ts) ro^'id 27, Chancery Lane, London, W.C., England

Steinheil Lenses

The Aeronautical Journal

(The organ of the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain) edited For the Council by

Col. J. D. Fullerton, R. E. (ret.), F. R. G. S., F. Z. S.

An illustrated Quarterly devoted to the Science of Dynamic Flight in all its branches. Annual Subscription : Publishing Office :

ix Shillings and Sixpence. 27 Chancery Lane, London,

Post Free England

INTERÉS

The Aero

Illustrated Monthly

Contains

Nt> USEFUL

utical World

, lisned 1902-3 by W. E. Irish M

((tant Information for

Experimenters* in Mechanical Flight

12 Nos/Vof. I . $1.50 postpaid _ 1

ESTABLISHED

1855

and have been modern ever since

Orthosiigmat F. 6.8.

A UNIVERSAL ANASTIGMAT LENS.

Instantaneous Work Portraits Groups

Focal Plane Photography

A truly wonderful lens, having great covering power, even illumination and splendid definition. Have your dealer get one on 10 days trial FREE.

Our new catalogue, giving valuable lens information, sent on application.

Herbert <5c Huesgen,

Sole U. S. Agents, 311 Madison Avenue, New York City

GEORGE B. CHAMBERLIN

Once chosen president by all

The members A. C. A. He has a very winning glance

You know it right away. Although the world considers him

A shining legal light, He likes a little boyish fun,

And so he flies a kite,

The kite is very, very big,

So big that it will bear A man upon its many wings

And lift him in the air; Some days he means to take a trip

Among the silver stars, And find who has the title-deeds

To Jupiter and Mars.

AERONAUTICS

main office 17 7 7 broad way new york

Published by AERONAUTICS PRESS, Inc.

A. V. Jones, president E. L. Jones, treas.-sec.

E. PERCY NOEL 304 No. 4th Street ST. LOUIS

CLEVE T. SHAFFER

302 holyoke ST. san francisco. calif.

Entered as second-class matter September 22, 1908, at the Posloffice, New York, N. Y., under the Act of

March 3, 1879.

Vol. 5

December 1909

No. 6

Akronautics is issued on the 20th of each month. It furnishes the latest and most authoritative information on all matters relating to Aeronautics.

SUBSCRIPTION RATES.

One year, $3.00; payable always In advance.

Subscriptions may be sent by express, draft, money order, check or registered letter. Make all remittances free of exchange, payable to Aeronautics. Currency forwarded in unregistered letters will be at sender's risk

Foreign Subscriptions.—To countries within the postal union, postage prepaid, $3.riO per annum in advance. Make foreign money orders payable to Aeronautics. No foreign postage stamps accepted.

Important.—Foreien money orders received in the United States do not bear the name of the sender. Foreign subscribers should be careful to send letters of advice at same time remittance is sent to insure oroper credit.

life insurance and flying

A new illustration of modern damfoolish-ness is contained in the notice of the Travelers Insurance Co. This matter was discussed some time ago in this journal and at that an attempt was made to argue the subject with insurance companies, to no avail. The Company's instructions say:

"The hazard of operating or riding in aeroplanes and flying-machines is not insurable as an accident risk, and those insured with us indulging in this form of sport must be asked to carry their own risk by the execution of a special waiver, or surrender of their policies. The same instruction applies to those who indulge frequently in ballooning. Please be governed accordingly, using the attached form of waiver, or terminate the insurance.

"Concerning those who take one balloon trip, with no expectation of repeating the experience, we will not require waiver for that trip, but if another one or