PennulaYi 4K Action Camera und Xiaomi Yi CameraPennulaHauptseitePennula
Hauptseite Kurzportrait von Pennula Airport Webcam Flugplatz und Flughafen Livecam aus aller Welt Cockpit View Videofilme und Fliegerfilme Flugwetterberichte mit Wolkenradar, Regenradar und Niederschlagsradar Luftbilder und Luftaufnahmen aus ganz Deutschland kostenlos Spezialthemen und Spezialberichte Kameratechnik Videotechnik Flugplanung ICAO und GPS Navigation Videofilme und Fotos von Modelleisenbahnen und Modellbahnen

American Magazine of Aeronautics: Jahrgang 1908/1909 als digitaler Volltext

Die Zeitschrift Aeronautics war in den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika (USA) das Gegenstück zur vergleichsweise deutschen Zeitschrift Flugsport. Im American Magazine of Aeronautics wurde allerdings nicht nur über die US-amerikanische Entwicklung der Luftfahrt berichtet, sondern auch über den internationalen Luftverkehr, über Erfindungen, über Patente sowie über Flugwettbewerbe und Veranstaltungen. Als die Zeitschrift erstmals im Jahre 1907 erschien, hieß sie "American Magazine of Aeronautics"; der Name wurde mit der Ausgabe Februar 1908 in "American Magazine of Aerial Navigation" geändert. Abermals wurde der Name mit der Ausgabe September 1909 in "American Magazine of Aerial Locomotion" geändert. In den folgenden Jahren wurde die Zeitschrift nur noch als "Aeronautics" herausgegeben. Nachstehend kann der komplette Jahrgang 1908/1909 als digitaler Volltext eingesehen werden. Alternativ kann der komplette Jahrgang 1908/1909 frei und kostenlos als PDF Dokument (50,4 MB) heruntergeladen werden. Weitere Jahrgänge des American Magazine of Aeronautics stehen in der Übersicht zur Verfügung.


THE AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERIAL NAVIGATION

,jULY, 1908 prick, t\v::nty-five cents

No. I

n

The Auto=Meter Is Believed

Talk about speed indicators that are believed—that have figured largely in famous events! Here are a feiv right off the reel—just jotted doivn from memory/ The reviewing of big motor events is nothing more or less than a history of the successful career of the Auto-Meter

Glidden Tour, 1906, 38 Warners used; All other makes, 23.

Memorial Day Races, Denver, 1906. Thomas "40" won 1st; Stevens-Duryea 2nd; both Warner-equipped.

Mudlark, 1906, from New York to Daytona, Warner-equipped; big tour afterward.

Memorial Day, 1906, non-stop run, New York-Boston-Springfield; Knox Waterless made record, Warner-equipped.

Franklin car, San Francisco-New York, 4,500 mile run, August, 1906; Warner-equipped. Percy Megargle with Reo Mountaineer, across continent and back, 12,000 *^!i~s, 1906, W^-„„• ^ « " «.fner-equippe^..

military message Run, Chicago-New York, June, 1906, Buick car, Warner Auto-Meter. Military Run, New York-San Francisco. Aug., 1906, a Warner was used.

Red Cloud, Olds, trans-çontinental run.

1907, Warner-equipped. Glidden Tour, 1907, 75 cars started, 53 used Warners; 21 used all other makes.

Detroit Reliability Run, 1907, winner

used Warner. New York-Chicago Sealed Bonnet Contest, winner Warner-equipped. Long Island Economy Run, Frayer-Miller, winner, was Warner-equipped. In New York-Paris Race only speed indicator in the run is a Warner Auto-Meter. a******""*'

Ralph Owen, driver A„

bought a Warr of Mudlarki 1908i offered MX for thig car though .^W<- * -nother as a gift.

/.iming Haynes car in Chicago Reliability Race, December, 1908, was Warner-equipped. Charles J*. Glidden has piled up 42,367 miles in 35 countries with a Warner Auto-Meter

The fire departments of the following cities use the Auto-Meter: New York, Boston, Detroit, Chicago, Denver, Joplin, Mo., and Seattle, Wash.

All the reliable maps of the country have been laid out with Auto-Meters: The Blue Book, White's Route Books, all Canadian maps, Michael's Pictorial maps, all Glidden Tour courses, King's maps, Briarcliff Course, etc.

Nearly all the automobile makers of the country use the Auto-Meter to test their cars before leaving the factory.

The e. R. Thomas Motor Co. and the Olds Motor Car Co., furnish the Warner as part of th* regular equipment.

Warner Instrument Co

197 Wheeler Avenue

Beloit, - Wisconsin

AERONAUTICS

published monthly by

AERONAUTICS

Ernest LaRue Jones, Editor and Owner Thoroughfare Building, 1777 Broadway, New York, U. S. A.

Jol. III - V July, 1908 -Tl _ l^oy No. i

aeronautics is issued ou the 20th of each mouth. It furnishes the latest aud most authoritative information on all matters relating to Aeronautics. Contributious are solicited.

SUBSCRIPTION RATES. One year, $3.00; payable always in advance.

subscriptions may be sent bv express, draft, monev order or registered letter. WE CAN NOT USE CHECKS ON LOCAL BANKS UNLESS EXCHANGE IS" ADDED. Seud draft on New York. Make all remittances free ot exchange, payable to aeronautics. Currency forwarded in unregistered letters will be at sender's risk.

Foreign Subscriptions.—To countries within the postal union, postage prepaid, $¡5.50 per annum in advance. Make foreign money orders payable to aeronautics. no foreign postage stamps accepted.

important.—Foreign money orders received in the United States do not bear the name of the sender. Foreign subscribers should be careful to send letters of advice at same time remittance is sent to insure proper credit.

AERO CLUBS AND PRIZE FUNDS.

E have persistently argued the value of cash prizes for the encouragement of endeavors in the art but, as everyone knows, without success. The Aero Club of America tried to secure funds and

wrote about fifty letters to fifty wealthy members with no result. We have heard nothing of the Meaus-Chauute-Bell-Rotch $25,000 fund. The newspapers have printed appeals to no avail. Men of Europe are competing among themselves for the privilege of giving prizes and we have— $100 in one prize.

This is the Great American Shame !

Among the many papers aud journals which have commented on this shame of oars, two of these editorials are certainly well worthy of mention.

from the steam motor journal

"For what are aeronautic clubs and societies? We warrant you that if you should ask a member of an American society the question he would volunteer the information that such elubs were for the purpose of promoting the industry of flying machines and kindred arts, and yet it is a fact that no aeronautic club or society in America has ever done aii3'thing substantial for the art. Aeronautics, a New York journal, tried to get up a purse to offer to successful flying men and was unable to raise enough to pajr the printer's bill in the attempt, although ***[there is]*** Xew York's swell Aero Club, whose members could probably register their wealth* at upwards of $.>oo,ooo.ooo.

If then when offered an opportunity to foster the industry by voluntary subscription, the members rich and poor alike refuse to subscribe to the industry which they pretend to encourage, and that, too, when a manufacturer will guarantee flight, the writer suggests that the so-called aeronautic societies would better call their club by anotheJ name. \

"When the auto industry was a struggling infant the people did buy autos ancf gave their orders and cash accompanying the order for the auto with no guarantee^ that it would even work, and waited the pleasure of the maker to deliver; why do not our sports now give their orders for aeroplanes with the same good grace and business judgment as in auto days of yore? If they would do so, in a few months America would have another big industry. .

"In Europe the aeronautic societies are offering rewards to their members to do even little stunts, for which an American would be ashamed to take money.

"We need not be ashamed of the American inventor. He has produced nearly all the great things and more of the small things combined than all the world for all time before.

"American manufacturers and industries have produced more money than all the gold and silver mines combined and a further factor in favor of the factory is the solid fact that a factory is a sure money maker with profit at every turn of the wheel and it is a further fact that every gold and silver dollar has cost the world over eleven dollars, and more money has been sunk in mining stocks than the combined capital of all the banks in the world, and yet for all that a good gold mine is still a sure winner. But the point I want to make is the fact that the people will throw a hundred million dollars into a mere prospect in the ground when a hundred dollars cannot be raised in a demonstrated manufacturing proposition, guaranteed at that, with no risk on the part of the investor. The Bell telephone is a case in point when the inventor begged some one to take the telephone system for $6,000, and put it on the market.

"The Westinghouse air brake was another when railroad presidents told Westingl-house they had no time to talk to fools, and hundreds of other big, bigger, gold mines in the manufacturing lines."

from motor print.

"Certainly the American's reputation for prodigality of expenditure, especially where sport is concerned, has suffered by comparison, when placed side by side with that of the Frenchman, in all matters appertaining to aerial travel, transport or experiment. A recent canvass by Aeronautics among American sportsmen to procure some evidence that they did not .intend to remain forever in the last place so far as encouragement of aerial endeavor was concerned, resulted in the discovery of just twelve' individuals, the average of whose prodigality in the prize-giving line was a trifle less than $25 each. In Paris a group of French enthusiasts have offered to the Aero Club of France a trophy and prizes that are expected to encourage inventors the world over '"n trying further to perfect machines for mechanical flight. In the aggregate the money offered amounts to $50,000, not including a trophy valued at $1,000. These prizes will be about the most important of the many offered in various parts of the world, and the conditions laid down insure steady attempts at improvement for ten years to come, which in comparison to America's munificent offering of $300 certainly is princely.

"Some day an American * * * * * is going to step to the front and offer a prize worthy of the country and the cause. Till the appearance of such a man, however, it is up to America to keep well hidden in the background while she mourns the mistakes of her misrepresentatives in aerialism."

NEW AERONAUTIC PRIZES—ABROAD

Ernest Archdeacon has bet 2,000 francs with A. de la- Hault that no flapping wing machine will make a flight lasting 2 minutes before June 4, 1909.

M. Rene Quinton offers 10,000 francs to the first aeroplane that will, with its motor stopped, stay in the air for five minutes without descending more than 50 meters.

M. Armengaud offers $4,000 for a flight of 30 minutes.

Berlin, June 30.—A new military steerable airship designed by Major Gross, chief of the balloon corps of the army, made its first ascent at Tegel to-day. The ship is 200 feet long and is propelled by two motors of 75 h.p. each. The trial trip lasted for one hour and a half and was highly successful.

JUNE AEROPLANE FLIGHTS IN AMERICA.

Flying Machine III of the Aerial Experiment Association Wins the Scientific American

Trophy for Kilometer Flight.

On June 21 the first flights were made with the "June Bug," the third aeroplane built by the Aerial Experiment Association. This third one was constructed under the supervision of G. H. Curtiss, one of the members of the Association. (Refer to April and June numbers of this journal.)

The June Bug is somewhat different from its predecessors. It has a box tail and instead of silk, the covering is of nainsook.

Three successful flights were made in the afternoon, the first of 456 feet at 28 miles an hour. The motor was shut off by accident and the machine landed easily. The second flight was of 417 feet, at a rate of 31.5 miles per hour. The front control broke in the air at the trial and the machine descended. The third and most successful flight was 1,266 feet. The distance was made in 25 seconds, or a rate of 34 miles an hour. At no time did the machine rise above 25 feet.

On the following day flights were attempted but the heat of the sun had melted the paraffin with which the nainsook was coated and there was not enough resistance.

On the 24th a couple of short flights were made, but there was a strong lateral wind and long flights were not attempted.

CURTISS WINNING THE TROPHY.

(Copyrighted photograph of H. M. Benner. taken after sunset.)

Early in the morning of the 25th the aviators went to the grounds while the dew was still on the grass. The wind was blowing at 10 miles an hour. After a run of iso feet, the aeroplane immediately rose into the air. A side wind attempted to tip the machine over but the end controls answered beautifully and the aviator, G. H. Curtiss, righted the machine instantly. This happened twice. A moment later another "wave" of air was struck which sent the machine up like a balloon, to a height of 40 feet before Mr. Curtiss could bring it down. In the meantime he had gotten out of his course a little and was obliged to land on account of the railroad track and telegraph wires.

This flight exceeded the previous one, being 2175 feet in length and occupied 41 seconds, or about 36 miles an hour.

Not the slightest trouble was had from the motor. The motive power has always been constant and in abundance. This is in marked contrast to the engines in aeroplanes abroad.

Toward evening another attempt was made. Under the guidance of Mr. Curtiss the June Bug flew 1140 yards (3420 ft.) in just 60 seconds. All that stopped the flight was the limited area of the practice ground, bounded by trees and a fence which would have interfered with the progress of the machine, traveling, as it was, at a height of from three to twenty-three feet above the ground.

It was the seventh flight of the machine and the eighth attempt of the aviator. The controls worked perfectly in every respect, the machine having to travel on the arc of a circle in order to make the distance it did in a field the size and shape of the Association's grounds.

The Aerial Experiment Association then communicated with the Aero Club of America and made application to compete for the Scientific American Trophy, offered by the Scientific American through the Aero Club for the first flight of a kilometer in a straight linerthe machine to land without injury. (See September, 1907, issue.)

After the flight of the 25th it was decided to move both operator and control ^further forward in the hope of obviating the past difficulty of "climbing."

The 26th was spent in making^these alterations. On the evening of the 27th two flights were made—one of 400 yards in 24 seconds, a speed of 34 miles per hour; and, after taking off the covering of the running gear, of 540 yards in 33 seconds, a speed of 33 miles per hour. The machine was more manageable than before, though the front control was still too weak. It was then decided to add to its surface.

On July 2, two flights were made, of 30 and 150 yards respectively, the latter at the rate of 22 miles per hour, the slowest speed recorded in any of the flights. Both flights were unsatisfactory and the machine was hard to control. It swerved and rocked badly, the reason for this being ascribed to the slow speed.

On the 3rd there occurred what threatened to be a bad accident. The machine rose very fast and lost headway and consequently control. The machine swung sharp to the left and struck the left wing and front control. This resulted in smashing the wing, control and front wheel. Repairs were quickly and easily made and the machine was ready by evening.

The previous small control was then used, as there was not sufficient time to repair the control, which was broken in this flight. This smaller control has 5 square feet less than the one which was broken. Though the result was dubious it was decided to make a trial, which proved to be most successful. The machine was in better control than ever before. When the end of the field was reached, the aviator, Mr. Curtiss, decided to try to return, but made up his mind too late, as he did not have sufficient room on this portion of the ground and had to land just before reaching a clump of trees. He was quite confident of his ability to turn if he had thought quickly enough. The idea in the start of the 'flight was merely to cover a kilometer in a straight line. The flight was most encouraging, as the last three flights had developed • vagaries which could not seem to be accounted for. 1300 yards were covered in 681-5 seconds, a little over 38 miles per hour. The machine landed in fine shape. Everything was all ready for the official trial on the morrow.

WINS THE TROPHY.

On July 4th, the machine earned the right to have its name inscribed on the Scientific American trophy, after making an official flight of more than 1 kilometer in a straight line.

After passing the finish flag the machine traveled for about 600 yards further and landed at the extreme edge of the field, near the railroad track. During the flight the machine cleared three fences and described the letter "S," the total distance being 2000 yards. The time for the entire flight was 1 minute 42^ seconds, the speed 39 miles per hour.

The official flight followed one of 900 yards in 56 seconds. The machine never flew better and the flight could have been lengthened at the will of the operator had he cared to rise over the trees which bounded the held, but it was not deemed wise at the present stage of the aviator's development to attempt it. Hardly a breath of air stirred during the flights.

This trial was really of the utmost importance, as it was the first official test of an aeroplane ever made in America. There are but two other machines in the world that have ever travelled further in public, Farman and Delagrange. The Wright Brothers have far outflown this in private, so that America is not so very far behind France as might be supposed.

The official flight was the 15th made by the machine, all having occurred under far more adverse conditions than those encountered by the French machines.

The exact distance in this official flight was determined by the Contest Committee of the Aero Club of America at 5090 feet. This distance was measured from where mie machine left the ground lo the point of landing, in a straight line. The actual iistancc travelled by path was, of course, somewhat longer, 2000 yards, though being accurate enough.

The Aero Club of America was represented officially by Charles M. Manly, the only member of the Contest Committee not in Europe. Several members and officers were also present. The Scientific American was represented by Stanley Y. Beach who, with E. L. Jones, also represented The Aeronautic Society. The latter bore a letter from the Society congratulating the Aerial Experiment Association upon the good work it hafAviccomplished during the short period of its existence.

On the 5th another flight was made in the shape of a reversed "?" mark. The idea was to return to the starting point but this was not accomplished. The machine turned in a very small circle and the power was reduced in making the turn. The machine did not seem to pick up power fast enough to get up again and landed a little sideways, breaking the right wing, control and two wheels. Another thing which has been noticed, that at this particular point in the field there seems to be a cross current of air which drives the machine sideways and this may have helped to bring it down. This side current has been noticed on nearly all of the flights.

-home, Ijuhii ninugli, UL'.tl Iladiluk, Nina iji'utitfti.

h. m. Benner photo.

june hug starting its flight-note the smoke from the engine.

the official flight.

This event will long be remembered by a thousand or more people who journeyed from all over the country to the grounds two miles from Hammondsport, N. Y.

The little half mile race track from which the flights have all taken place, surrounded by waving oats and tall grass, nestled among the softly rounded vine clad hills of this most beautiful section of the Empire State.

The sun dropped behind the sheltering hills and a soft golden light was diffused over this miniature lap of Nature. Down at one end of the little course was an inanimate yellow object, almost hid by the tall grass and oats. Suddenly the motor started with the hum of distant rifle fire, on came the machine directly to-vard us. so fast that it loomed up ahead like a monstrous apparition, we instinctively ran to the right and left to get out of its way, but there was no need for this. As it ncared it left the ground with more grace than any bird and over our heads it passed with an enormous clatter. Turning to watch it recede from sight, we saw it fade as fast as it had loomed up and it was lost to sight behind the poles of a vineyard which rudely placed itself in a position dangerous to the aviator and obstructive to sight. For a moment we stood spellbound by the wonderful scene and then we cheered. The cup which had turned an ordinary aeroplane Might into a glorious event was won and glad we were to see it won by this man Curtiss, of all. Loved by all who know him, retiring and modest, this motor-wise man who knows his motors to he almost human, has found his work and is content. Happy indeed is the man who has found himself. "3^"

(Continued on page -¿(4.)

june aeroplane flights in europe.

In the last issue we left Delagrange at Rome and Farman at Ghent.

On May 30. both Delagrange and Farman beat world's records for public flights, Delagrange remaining in the air 15 minutes 26 seconds, and Farman by flying over a course of 1241 meters carrying a passenger. These double performances made in less than two years after the first flight of Santos-Dumont on October 23, 1906, proves the progress made since that date and gives us hope of a brilliant furture for aviation.

15 minutes in the air.

Early in the morning of the 30th, Delagrange was out on the Place d'Armes. A light breeze was blowing. After a short run on the ground the aeroplane rose into the air and circled ten times around at a height of 4 meters to 7 meters, returning to the ground only after 15 minutes and 26 seconds had elapsed. The distance covered, taking the path, was from 13 to 14 kilometers. The official distance assigned was 12.75 kilometers and the exact time 15 minutes 264-5 seconds. In the evening, on account of the wind, but 3 or 4 circles of the course were made.

Meanwhile, Farman was practicing for the "high jump" prize at Ghent and succeeded in clearing by 2 meters a row of balloons placed 10 meters above the ground. To win the 2500 franc prize offered by the Aero Club of France he must clear 25 meters in height.

farman and archdeacon fly together.

On the same'day Farman took with him Frnest Archdeacon and at a height of 7 meters flew, the two men, a distance of 1241 meters. Besides establishing a new_ record for a flight with two people, he wins the 12,000 francs bet with Santos-Dumont and Archdeacon, made on the 10th of March against M. Charron who claimed that a flying machine would not carry two men weighing 60 kilos each for one kilometer within a year.

On May 31, with rather a strong wind blowing, Delagrange made a few short flights but the wind stopped him from attempting anything like his previous ones. In the evening, before a large crowd, Delagrange made four circles of the grounds at a height of 3 to 4 meters in 4 minutes 30 seconds. The second flight was prevented on account of the bad work of the 50 horsepower Antoinette motor. In the third flight he made five times the circle in 6 minutes at a height of 5 to 6 meters.

On the evening of the same day Farman at Ghent made two flights; one of 1400 meters in 1 minute 32 seconds, or a rate of 55 kilometers an hour; and one of 1000 meters in 1 minute 4 3-5 seconds, a speed of 56 kilometers an hour.

On June 1, Farman went to Ostend where he has found a large beach. One flight of 5C0 meters with a turn was accomplished in 273-5 seconds and one of 1800 meters in 1 minute 274-5 seconds. Then he made a flight of about 1200 meters but owing to the breaking of a tube he was compelled to stop.

June 2. Farman made three flights of 500, 600 and 700 meters with a turn at a height of 3 to 4 meters. The time was not taken.

June 8. Pelterie, whom we have not seen out for some time, made a short flight of 300 meters, with a wind of 6 meters a second blowing, then rose a little higher and went for 500 meters more, 800 in all. On account of the restricted ground a landing was made and the machine headed toward the starting point. Going quickly up by the time he reached the end of the grounds he was 30 meters above the ground. He flew on over the village of Toussu-le-Noble and over the apple trees. Going at the rate of 80 to 90 kilometers an hour he did not dare to keep on and started down suddenly. The hydro-pneumatic shock absorber worked well and broke the shock of landing, though the propeller and one of the wings was slightly damaged. The total length of the flight was 1200 meters, the record for a monoplane and the record height for any flying machine.

The tank will be enlarged to hold 60 litres, enough for a flight of 4 hours. The total surface of this monoplane is 17 sq. meters, the weight 350 kilos, the weight lifted being 4.2 pounds to the square foot. The meter alone, 7 cylinders 35 horsepower, represents i-ioth of this weight. A 4-bladed propeller is used.

June 9. Delagrange made his first flight at Milan, twice circling the Place d'Armes at a height of 4 meters, landing easily. Public trials were to have been held on the nth but he could not repair the motor in time, though he did essay a flight on that day but the motor gave out at the first trial.

June 18. P>efore 20,000 people Delagrange made five flights, one of which lasted 5 minutes 3 seconds.

delagrange in flight.

June 22. Three flights were made by Delagrange, before 15,000 people, of about 1500 kilometers at a height of 4 meters.

another new record—\J kilometers.

In the evening Delagrange made a flight of 17 kilometers at a height varying between 2 and 7 meters, the duration of the flight was 16 minutes 30 seconds.

Bleriot was also out, in Paris, with his monoplane "Libellule" and covered 500 meters. One wing was broken in landing.

19 minutes 30 seconds in the air.

June 23. Unfortunately after covering 4 kilometers Delagrange's machine touched the ground for an instant so that it cannot be called a new record.

Bleriot, having repaired the damage to his machine, was out and in spite of a strong wind was able to make short flights. The apparatus seems to be difficult to govern and the rear planes will be increased in size.

June 28. Toward sundown Farman made attempts to win the prize of M. Monte-fiore for a flight of five minutes before the end of the month, and the prize of M. Armengaud for fifteen minutes in the air. About half a kilometer was covered. In removing his machine from Ghent the box tail was not adjusted properly.

(Continued on page 44.)

THE SPORT OF KINGS—BALLOONING. By Arnold Kruckman.

of "burr mcintosh monthly."

When you take from any sport that element of chance which makes the blood course faster and gives you the thrill born of any legitimate daring, you rob it of its

purpose. A sport which hazards nothing is no sport. When you skim swiftly over the landscape on the back of a high-mettled thoro-bred isn't there always present that one unpre-ventable chance that an accident will happen to its delicate ankle or that it will rear back upon you in affright for some absurd reason. And even though a multitude of things may happen while you are devouring the distance in your gloriously dashing motor-car, isn't if worth it all just to experience the exhilaration of that mad rush ? It is that same element of chance that makes yachting, sailing, —any genuine sport—appeal to all full-blooded people.

The statement which follows will probably be very startling to ninety-nine out of every hundred persons with sportsman-like instincts who read it. But it is absolutely true. Furthermore it can be demonstrated.

With a full knowledge of the sense of what I am saying I assert that there is no real sport on land or water which is so devoid of the unpreven-table chance, in other words, which is so safe as ballooning.

Contemplate for a moment the career of A. Leo. Stevens unquestionable the foremost aeronaut in America and one of the greatest in the world. He has sailed in the air for more than twenty-four years, taking with him multitudes of the best known people from all parts of America and he has never had a single untoward accident.

It is undeniable that terrible catastrophes happen to people who sail to the clouds in balloons. The newspapers almost weekly chronicle the fatal termination of ambitious flights. But if you will take the trouble to investigate you will find, almost without an exception, that accidents happen only to those who try to navigate in a balloon made by persons who are entirely ignorant of the scientific principles involved in its building and who are absolutely unskilled in handling an airship and know nothing of the hard and fast rules by which they must be sailed. Would you blame the yacht if an ignorant landsman were to come to grief in trying to sail it unaided? Or would you call the sensitive thorobred vicious and unsafe if the clumsy novice knowing nothing of the equestrian game, found his death through foolishly trying to do that for which he had not an iota of preparation? And don't you unconsciously hazard your life frequently as you speed through the night on a fast "train, as you lie sleeping in your berth? Foolhardiness is not sportsmanship. A sportsman is the highest type of man or woman possessing expert skill and knowing practically everything that is to be known about the thing that is to be done.

The sport of ballooning is a science. Or it might be better to say that the science of ballooning is a sport. It is a royal sport. It is a sport which by its very nature can only appeal to the kings and queens of man and womanhood. It makes its appeal to the healthy, wholesome, steady, cool, level-headed members of society. It takes more than the spirit of foolish dare-deviltry to become an aeronaut. The balloonist, like the sailing-master, needs brains. Plenty of brains. It takes the kind of brains that can administer the affairs of a huge business, or can govern a city or a state, or can command an army, or write a book, or compose music. It takes the kind of intellectual and physical stamina that has the good courage to do the thing that

a. leo stevens.

ordinary people would tremble even in thinking of doing. In short the successful aeronaut is made of the kind of stuff out of which they make the most perfect specimens of American humanity.

What 1 know about the making of a balloon. I have learned from A. Leo Stevens. And what I know about the navigations of balloons and the spirit of sportsmanship involved I have imbibed from Mr. Stevens and the numerous eminent men and women who have sailed with him. Stevens builds a balloon like an architect builds a house. First he builds it minutely—on paper. Then he actually builds it of the best available materials according to an exact science. Finally, before he is willing to trust it with his own life, or any other person's life, he tests it like a good engineer tests the mechanism he has constructed. I know that so far as it is possible, in the range of human ability, Stevens pronounces nothing safe and perfect that is not perfect. I would trust my life on any balloon Stevens places me on. And that is more than I would do upon the word of any other balloon maker and a great many makers of other things.

I do not wish to say anything derogatory about the automobile; but I would feel one hundred times safer in a balloon— if a man like Stevens had built it and a man like Stevens were navigating it. The balloon is a simple affair. It has no complex machinery. Its principles are easily grasped. But this does not preclude the utilitization of an exact science in construction. In the work of a man like this aeronaut it is based upon a life time's activity and study. To the last degree he can tell you just why he puts each stitch of thread that holds together the various templets, or squares, of the envelope. From the scaled drawing before him lie can tell you exactly where each templet will be placed. He has a sound, practical, well-seasoned reason for everything he does. He can tell you exactly why this small length of twine is placed in this specific place among the thousands that make up the netting. He can tell you to a degree what a strain it must stand from above and what weight it must bear below. There isn't a thing that goes into the construction of a balloon that a man like

Stevens hasn't helped to make himself. Yes, even the gas to fill the envelope. Like every good pilot he can quickly manufacture hydrogen gas. It is significant that every Aero Club in the United States is using one of Steven's balloons. And that in spite of the fact that he has never, directly or indirectly, solicited an order for a balloon since he began making them.

In rgoi during the month of September he was the first man in the United States to make and sail a dirigible balloon. His "Pegasus" with which he outsailed Santos-Dumont's airship at Manhattan Beach cost him many thousands of dollars. It was Stevens, likewise, who was the first man to send up the Count de la Vaulx above the United States. And he directed the first American ascent of the other French aeronaut. Mons. Charles Levee. Stevens has always been notable for his promptness in assisting in every way where the legitimate interests of ballooning might be advanced.

Of course, next to the balloon that is made right you need a pilot who knows a balloon inside and outside, so to speak, to teach you how to handle it. Stevens himself is perhaps the best example of the professional aeronautical pilot in America. He holds not only a license from the Aero Club of America but before this bodv

ciias. j. gi.1DDEN s balloon 'boston —built by stevens.

came into existence lie held for many years, and still holds, the much coveted license of the Aero Club of France. The examinations of an air pilot by these clubs is not unlike that of a master seaman. It is immediately apparent why he has been able to train as many prominent amateurs as competent pilots in such marvelously short spaces of time. The only condition he insists upon in a candidate is that lie have a reasonable amount of common sense. Taking these things into account, it is easy to understand how lie trained the crude, raw soldiers into the present United States Army Signal Corps Ballooning Squad in one month's time.

It was Stevens who last year made the first U. S. Army free-sailing balloon. This was the balloon which at the St. I ^ouis races won the Lahm cup under the pilotage of Capt. Chandler. And Stevens, who was in charge, established an unprecedented record at the St. Louis races by starting each balloon exactly on the second according to the programme.

THE START FOR THE LAHM CUP IN THE " SIO^AL CORPS NO. 10."

No one questions the fact that ballooning—the right kind of ballooning—has become a permanent sport. It has engaged the attention of the foremost people in the country and it has come to stay. You have but to hear Stevens mention the names of some of those whom he lias taken up into the clouds. And he has more than 500 people on the waiting list who will only make their first ascension on condition that they can go with him.' What is more remarkable still it has taken a great hold upon ladies. There is Mrs. Max Fleischman of Cincinnati. Mrs. Flciscliman says it is the most glorious sport she lias ever experienced. And there is Mrs. C. J. S. Miller of Franklin, Pa. Major Miller was one of the first to take up ballooning as a sport in the United States. After her first few ascents in an airship with Mr. Stevens, Mrs. Miller told me: "Ballooning is as much more exhilarating and stirring to motoring as motoring is superior to riding behind a horse." Mrs. E. C. Peebles of Hammonds-port. N. Y., is another lady who has made ascensions with Stevens. Mrs. Peebles tells me: "If there was nothing else in life I would consider my trips to the sky worth living for. It is glorious and I am astonished at the perfect safety there is in sailing up in a balloon. I will continue ballooning as long as my health continues; and I will regret it when I can't. I am sure if more women could make ascensions with such pilots as Mr. Stevens they would quickly overcome any dread they might have for their first trip." Mrs. 11. W. Thompson of Salem, O.. has also been up with Stevens. She says: "I have tried many sports. 1 have sailed, I have motored, 1 have canoed. I have ridden a horse and a bicycle, I have shot deer and I have ridden after the hounds. But 1 cannot recall in my whole life two and one half hours more happily spent than in my trip to the clouds with A. Leo Stevens. Danger? I did not think of danger. There was no reason to think of danger. To fly in the air with Mr. Stevens is to be safe—as safe as if you were sitting in the easy chair in your home. You just can't help knowing that Mr. Stevens is competent. He knows what he is doing and he takes no risks."

The development of ballooning as a sport among notable people in America is entirely due to the conscientious propaganda of Leo Stevens. He was the first man in this country to elevate it above the plane of a country fair fake and he has practically given his whole life to establishing it as a medium of giving pleasure in a safe and sane manner. He was the first to offer $100 for the arrest and conviction of the miscreants who shot at the balloon "Boston" on its initial trip. It was with him that such eminent amateur aeronauts as are mentioned below had their tastes of sky-sailing. There are among them: Messrs. J. C. McCoy of New York, Alan R. Hawley of New York, Fitzhugh Whitehouse of New York, Capt. Homer W. Hedge of New York, Capt. Charles De Forrest Chandler, U. S. A., Mr. A. Holland Forbes, Mr. Max Fleisch-man of Cincinnati, Joseph Blondin of Albuquerque, N. M., Messrs. A. H. Alorgan and Jeffrey Wade of Cleveland, O., and Mr. Charles J. Glidden of Boston, Mass.

If there were more Stevens, that is to say, if there were more aeronautical ship builders with such high ideals and such competent methods of construction and such rigid devotion to the principle of doing a thing right and in no other way than in the right way there would be more amateurs in this country and the sport would be established even more firmly than it is. .

Epoch-Marking Dates

According to the contracts awarded by the War Department for a dirigible and two gasless flying machines, the following are the dates of delivery:

Capt. T. S. Baldwin (Dirigible)..............................July 27

A. M. Herring (Flying Machine)...........................Aug. 13

Wright Brothers (Flying Machine)..........................Aug. 28

By reading the specifications, it will be noticed that the contractors are to be allowed to make three trials, which may, if they see fit, be extended over a period not to exceed one month. So far as possible, the contractors will select the days on which the trials are made, so it wilL be impossible to state exactly what dates they will take place. Naturally, it is the desire to give them thé very best weather which can be had.

Correction.

In the table of May flights made by the Wright Brothers, published in the June number, we printed the last flight as lasting 7 minutes 20 seconds. It should have been 7 minutes 29 seconds.

Wilbur Wright in France.

Wilbur Wright, who has been abroad for some weeks hunting suitable grounds and superintending the finishing of some of the motors being built for the Messrs. Wright in France, has selected the race course at Le Mans, about 200 kilometers from Paris. The grounds are 300 by 800 meters in extent, inclosed on all sides by trees. The surface of the ground is quite rough but Mr. Wright thinks that landings can be made on it without damage to the machine. The French motors are duplicates of the motor sent over from America. The first flights will take place during July.

The machine for the United States Government will be sent to Fort Myer about the end of July so as to be ready for trials the early part of August, if possible.

The First Newspaper to Have an Aeronautical Department.

While some of the leading newspapers are giving considerable space to aeronautic news from day to day, the first American newspaper to devote a special department to aeronautics is the Philadelphia "Inquirer." This paper, which is recognized as one of the most influential in the country, now devotes approximately half a page each Sunday to news items and special articles relating to aerial science and sport.

Since the inauguration of the department on June 7th, the features of special interest have included a special article on aeronautic definitions by A. C. Triaca. director ot the International School of Aeronautics, New York, and an "Aero Calendar" which is a standing feature, revised and added to weekly, which gives advance information of aeronautic events. Interesting pictures of various machines, both balloons and beavier-than-air apparatus, and cablegrams giving the latest foreign news, are also features of the aeronautic page and various items of news from all parts of the country, that if hidden away in different corners of a newspaper would probably not be found by the particular reader who wishes to see them, are assembled under the one general heading. Other papers will probably take the cue from this one and establish special departments of aeronautics. This is bound to increase the popular interest and is educational as well, since accurate information on the subject is sorely needed by the general public. The Inquirer's department especially fills the latter requirement and is intelligently as well as dignifiedly edited.

AERONAUTICS IN GREAT BRITAIN.

By Our London Correspondent.

Editors Note: We regret that on account of lack of space this most valuable article had to be omitted from the June number.

London, May 7, 1908.

That the startling success achieved by Fannan and Delagrange has not been without its effect on British endeavor—in theory and in practice—is witnessed by the greatly increased activity manifested in aeronautical circles during the past few months. Unfortunately, the majority of these experiments have been conducted in strict privacy, so that in but very few cases are any reliable details available. It does not yet seem to be realized over here that the most effective, in fact the only, way to further aeronautics is by way of publicity. By publicity 1 do not mean the dissemination of personal advertisement in the columns of the daily press, a process with which we have unhappily become all too familiar, but rather the publication of results of experiment which, even if unconclusive, are of inestimable benefit to all those engaged in aeronautical work.

A few weeks ago i paid a visit to the works of Mm. Voisin, near Paris, where, in pleasant contrast to the impenetrable air of mystery which surrounds even the most trivial aeronautical project in this country, the whole works were immediately thrown open for my inspection. I was allowed to see everything with the utmost readiness; every question was answered without reserve; every point was explained with the greatest goodwill. Secrets there were none—nor do any exist in aeronautics—save clever and thorough workmanship and a rare degree of unselfish enthusiasm. This, surely, is the best way to success.

There is no doubt, however, that in private much important work is being accomplished. Professor Huntington is constructing a full-size aeroplane with the collaboration of Lieut. J. W. Dunne. This machine has superposed sustaining surfaces, the upper one being placed above the space between the two lower ones, which are arranged in tandem. The outer rear corners of the posterior surface are bent downwards, and can be suitably inclined for steering purposes. Major Baden-Powell will shortly proceed to the trials of his aeroplane, which is of the type familiarized by the Voisins, but of smaller dimensions and lighter build. It will at first be driven by a 12-h. p. Buchet motor.

Mr. Edgar Wilson's machine—an aeroplane driven by two propellers, with four horizontal screws to counteract disturbances of stability by tumultuous winds—is in process of construction. One of the most interesting features of this machine is the control over the equilibrium which is maintained by twin gyroscopes acting in connection with the four horizontal screws.

Mr. J. T. C. Moore-Brabazon's aeroplane, which was described in a former letter, is being reconstructed. The launching carriage was found to be unsatisfactory, so that the machine now runs on wheels. Mr. A. V. Roe's aeroplane is almost read}' for its new trials. On several occasions it has been used as a kite with the operator on board: towed round the Brooklands track by a motor car, it has risen off the ground with facility at some thirty miles an hour, and proved easily controllable. But, as expected, the 8-h. p. J. A. P. motor proved to be totally insufficient, and has now been replaced by a 24-h. p. water-cooled Antoinette.

Mr. Horatio Phillips, whose experiments some years ago attracted much attention, has completed a new full-size aeroplane. The machine consists of four sets of superposed sustaining blades, the sets being arranged behind one another in the line of flight. Each set consists of some 50 blades—\\2 in. wide, % in. thick, witli a 2-in. space between them—constructed of wood, of stream-line section. The screw, 7 ft. in diameter, situated in front, is driven by a 20-h. p., air-cooled. 8-cylinder motor, which, at 1,200 revolutions, gives a thrust of 220 lb. (stationary). The "machine during its trials has on several occasions risen clear off the ground with the driver on board; but unfortunately adverse circumstances, notably lack of a suitable manoeuvring ground, brought the trials to a premature end; although they will be resumed within a short space of time.

Some months ago Air. Howard Wright experimented with a machine constructed to the designs of Signor Capone. The machine had a flat main sustaining plane, measuring some 30 ft. across, with a movable tail. On each side of this plane, with their axes in the line of greatest pressure, were placed two large lifting screws, whose blades had a feathering action designed to give a certain horizontal thrust in combination with their lifting effort. Two small tractor screws aided horizontal motion; all the screws were driven by a 40-h. p. Antoinette motor, which unfortunately refused with

AERONAUT LEO STEVENS

THE LEADER OF BALLOON

and AIRSHIP CONSTRUCTION

ALL BALLOONS ABSOLUTE HYDROGEN

and COAL GAS PROOF

ONE TO FIFTY PASSENGERS

the keen sportsman of wide experience uses a "stevens balloon."

Varnishing by improved electrical Process.

Also representing Carton & laChambre, leading balloon builders of

Paris, France.

Messrs. a. C. triaca and a. Leo Stevens are ready to deliver aeroplanes of the farman no. 1 and delagrange types after trials of 1 mile in a circle.

two cent stamps for reply.

box 181, madison square, new york

AERONAUTICS

Issued in conjunction with or separate from "Knowledge & Illustrated Scientific News"

Devoted to aerostation, aviation, meteorology, aerology, etc. Edited by Major B. Baden-Powell and John H. Ledeboer

ISSUED MONTHLY

SUBSCRIPTIONS: "Knowledge" including Aeronautics ... $1.90 "Aeronautics" alone - - - - .75

Special rate lor 5 years ------ 6.25

27 CHANCERY LANE, LONDON, W. C, ENGLAND.

AERO & MARINE MOTOR COMPANY

60 PEMBERTON SQUARE BOSTON, MASS.

44 H. P. (brake test) motor, water cooled, weight 130 lbs., including magneto, oil cups and water. Especially built for aeronautic work. SEND FOR CATALOG

AEROPLANE CONSTRUCTION

Models or manufacturing complete from plans in all materials. Repairs or special parts for machines already constructed. Our plant especially equipped for this class of work. Free use of large grounds for trials, ete.

C. & A. WITTEMANN, P. 0. Box 693. Stapleton, Staten Island, N. Y.

17 OCEAN TERRACE, COR. LITTLE CLOVE ROAD

II. S. OI^«

OFFICIAL PHOTOGRAPHER OF " AERONAUTICS " and THE NORTH ADAMS AERO CLUB

Photographs of all Ascensions at Pittsfield and North Adams

POSTCARDS lO CENTS Box 501. North Adams, Mass. For Sale also at "Aeronautics'

Now that it is an assured fact that Delagrange will fly in New York City our American aviators will have to "hump'' themselves to get ready in time to eontest honors with him. It is hoped that by the time Delagrange arrives, August 20, several cash prizes will have been offered for a contest between him and our own flying men. It would be a great sight and a great aid to advancement of the art if the Wright Brothers would consent to compete, also G. H. Curtiss, and one or two others who give promise of making successful flights in the near future.

The first woman aviator, Mile, de la Poterie, made a short flight with Farman at Ghent during June. -

At the competition of flying machine models of the Aeronautiqne Club de France held in the Galerie des Machines on June 21 st, there were 46 exhibitors and some very interesting trials were made. Prizes were offered for apparatus of more than 2 kilos with motor and for apparatus without motor; for apparatus weighing less than 2 kilos with motor and without. -

It is assured that the new Italian military dirigible, the first for the Italian Government, will be able to make trial flights shortly between Bracciano and Rome, a distance of 50 kilometers. -

The French Society of Civil Engineers has awarded Robert Esnault Pelterie their prize offered annually for what is deemed by them the best work for the year on any scientific or mechanical subject. -

Speaking of landing with his aeroplane, Farman states: "I have learned that in order to effect a satisfactory landing it is better to cut off the ignition when in the air and glide down instead of coming to ground with the propeller revolving at full speed. I have convinced myself that aeroplane practice with a motor is less dangerous than gliding with an experimental machine from sandhills."

the utmost obstinacy to work at all smoothly. In the course of the experiments, which are now terminated, the machine was on several occasions lifted off the ground; but, in spite of the most careful tests, no horizontal thrust of the lifting screws could be recorded. Plans have now been drawn up by Mr. Howard Wright for a new machine embodying the improvements suggested by the experiments.

The Aeronautical Section of the Motor Car Exhibition at the Agricultural Hall, although it suffered in many respects by comparison with the more extensive exhibition of last year, proved eminently satisfactory in so far as it showed that more serious and practical work is being done than the last exhibition led one to think. The most interesting features were an aeroplane model, constructed by Mr. D. Stanger, driven by an ij^j-h. p., 4-cylinder, petrol motor (weight complete, 8 lb.), which had already risen from the ground and performed flights extending to 200 yards; and a full-size machine designed by Mr. J. R. Porter, consisting of a cone-shaped, inverted funnel, 14 ft. high, down which the air is drawn by a large fan situated at the bottom of the cone. The machine, weighing 200 lb. and driven by a 6-h. p. motor, has not yet been tried. Finally, a beautiful little twin-cylinder, air-cooled petrol motor, designed by Mr. Leslie C. Lambert, developing 3.2 h. p. for a weight of only 15 lb., deserves unqualified praise.

The most important event of the year will be the fourth conference of the International Aeronautical Federation which opens at the Royal United Service Institution in Whitehall on May 27 and closes on May 30. For the second day of the conference a visit has been arranged, by special permission of the War Office, to the Military Balloon Factory at Farnborongh; a banquet will be given on Mayr 29 by the Aero Club at the Ritz Hotel to the delegates attending the conference and to the competitors in the International Point-to-point Balloon Race, which is to take place the next day, and will bring the conference to a brilliant conclusion. It is expected that thirty balloons at least will start in the race, many foreign entries having already been received. Sir Thomas Lipton and Sir James Dewar have presented cups for the race. The start will be made from the grounds of the Hnrlingham Club, where a special high-pressure gas main, over a mile in length, has been laid down, rendering it possible for thirty balloons to be inflated at one time. With its mamr other advantages Hnrlingham has thus become one of the finest balloon parks in the world. The ground was inaugurated at the end of April by the ascent of the "Mascotte," which had on board the Hon. Mrs. Assheton Harbord, Hon. C. S. Rolls, Mr. John Dunville and Mr. Vere Ker-Seymer.

There remains another event to be chronicled, an event which, in so far as it is deeply significant for the future of aeronautics, demands more than cursory mention. For some time past efforts have been made to call into being a corps of aeronauts whose services could be placed at the disposal of the military authorities in time of war, to supplement the regular balloon section of the Royal Engineers. That the experience of such a body of men—trained aeronauts every one—might prove' of inestimable value is incontestable. Two associations in France, the Aeronautique-Club and the Aero-Club du Rhone, have for man}' years past conducted a school for the training in every branch of aeronautical science of a number of young men whom the experience thus acquired enables to join the various balloon batallions during their period of military service. These efforts have been crowned with the greatest success. But, in the absence of compulsory military service, the scheme could not very well be made to apply to this country; and it was felt that the formation of a corps of aeronauts attached to the volunteers was the best way of attaining the same object.

With the inauguration of the Territorial Army this has now become an established fact. On May 5 the first members of the London Balloon Company, the first aeronautical unit of the Territorial Force, were sworn in. This company will have a full strength of sixty men, who will undergo a thorough course of theoretical and practical instruction in every branch of aeronautics, at the hands of instructors selected from the regular balloon section. Two army balloons will be allotted to the company, in addition to several old balloons, material and equipment to be used for instruction in packing, transport, repairing, and so forth. More important still, this and every summer the corps will go into camp near the Military Balloon Factory at Faruborough for their practical training.

The experiment, for such it remains at the moment of writing, is due to the energy of Mr. H. E. Holtorp. It will certainly be watched with the utmost interest, nor, it is hoped, will any efforts be spared to make it a brilliant success.

All reports of the military aeroplane may be safely disregarded. The correct figures of the first dirigible even have only been given once—and that was in the British "Aeronautics." It is impossible to get any information about the forthcoming dirigible—though this is actually under construction—and just as. hopeless to get to know the least details about the aeroplane, should the latter exist anywhere but in the minds of credulous pressmen, which is more than doubtful.

THE FUTURE OF THE HELICOPTER. Paul Cornu.

Actually in France, where the problem of aviation is very well studied, the people are only interested in aeroplaneSj because until to-day these are the apparati which have given the best results; and nobody takes care to know if an apparatus of different principle, viz., the helicopter (which is not now perfected) will have later better results, because its principle is better.

The people to-day can see the aeroplanes having the best experiments, and they very easily believe that aeroplanes will be the only apparati in the future; but WE don't believe this; certainly the aeroplane for sporting interest is the apparatus most efficient, because it is not an easy matter to drive it, and the man who will be the avi-

top view cornu helicopter.

atoi will have the chance to show all his qualities; the high speed which we can obtain with these apparati will certainly delight the sportsmen.

But if we consider the practical worth of these apparati, viz., the latest object of aviation, "The practical aerial car for everybody," the helicopter offers more serious advantages compared to the other apparatus. Certainly later, of the heavier-than-air machines (when the sporting period passes away) the public will ask for an apparatus of smaller volume, of easy handling, which can start and land in all grounds, sometime in the streets.

The helicopter, I believe, can give good answers to these questions; but I do not see what result the aeroplane can have. The foremost partisans of the aeroplane are interested only in the question of the speed, and do not care about the difficulty of handling the apparatus, the special ground required for the evolutions, and that they are always obliged to go with a minimum of speed of 30 miles an hour to obtain sustention.

Certainly the speed is a very important quality in airships, but it will be better if the apparatus can go slowly and can soar without going forward. We believe that the helicopter must obtain better consideration than the people give to it in ray country, and we are very pleased to see that in the United States the idea of the helicopter is better accepted. We read with great interest the articles of Mr. Otto G. Luyties and others in "Aeronautics," and we are very pleased to have the same idea.

The experiments made by ourselves were not very much appreciated, but on scientific grounds we obtained a very important step and you can see that in the "Aero-phile." (Continued on page 20.)

THE INTERNATIONAL AERONAUTICAL FEDERATION. London Congress.

(By Our London Correspondent).

The fourth congress of the F. A. I. was held, as reported in our last number, in London at the Royal United Service Institution on May 27, 28 and 29.

Following is a list of countries represented, with number of votes and volume in cubic meters, of gas consumed:—Austria-Hungary, 19,220, one vote; Belgium, 207,000, nine votes; France, 491,300, twelve votes; Germany, 492,614, twelve votes; Great Britain, 238,854, ten votes; Italy, 89,300, four votes; Spain, 108,345, five votes; Sweden, 9,000, one vote; Switzerland, 23,100, one vote; United States, 70,427, three votes. The United States was represented by J. C. McCoy.

The first session, on Wednesdajr, was preceded by a meeting of the Bureau. After the admission of Austria-Hungar\r, represented by the Wiener Aero Club, had been ratified, M. Besancon read his report for the preceding year.

The meeting then proceeded to consider the questions set down for discussion.

The question of maritime contests was first considered on the initiative of the Aero-Club de Belgique. The dangers of rash attempts to cross the sea have been exemplified during the past year by several accidents, and it was generally felt that some stringent rule should, as far as possible, guard against the recurrence of such attempts. The proposal moved by M. Surcouf was finally adopted: "Every competitor descending in the sea or having to call in the assistance of a passing vessel shall be disqualified.''

The question of distinguishing between amateurs and professionals was next mooted by the Societa Aeronatitica Italiana. In the absence of a definite proposal the matter was left unsettled. A strong feeling of the urgency of the question was manifested, especially by the German delegates. Though a somewhat delicate subject it should offer no serious difficulties in the way of regulation.

The question of the nationality of the pilots' and their assistants in an international competition was left to be decided by each club.

The Italian delegate, Capt. Castagneris, next brought forward three resolutions, .all of which were unanimously adopted, after some discussion. The first called upon the clubs organizing international contests to furnish every competitor a report of the meteorological conditions obtaining in the five preceding years during the week in which the contest was held. The second resolution pointed to the desirability of rendering all dirigible balloon and flying machine competitions international. Thirdly it was resolved to attempt to obtain purer gas and cheaper prices from gas companies and to influence chemical factories to place their superfluous hydrogen at the disposal of aeronauts.

The congress next extended its patronage to the work undertaken in Belgium in forming a universal aeronautical bibliography, a work whose immense usefulness will grow even more apparent in later years.

Several technical questions with regard to the measurement and classification of balloons in races were discussed at length, and it was finally resolved, on the proposition of Prof. Hergesell, to refer these to a new technical commission to be charged with revising the rules of the F. A. 1. This commission, whose report will be made at the next meeting, and of which F. S. Lahm is a member, was elected.

The next proposal, brought forward by the Aero-Club de Belgique, demanded that the nationality of delegates should be that of the country the}' represent, failing which, a delegate of different nationality should only be selected with the consent of his national club. This was ado.pted unanimously, except for the French delegates who abstained from voting.

The two following questions raised are of importance in so far as they referred to aviation. It was proposed by Belgium, to render the regulations governing aviation contests obligatory. Although the proposal was eventually withdrawn, it gave rise to an interesting discussion in the course of which Capt. Castagneris advocated that aviation should be represented in the Federation by allotting to each country a certain number of votes corresponding to the activity it had manifested in the development of aviation. The time, however, is scarcely ripe for such an enactment. The same may be said of the following proposal, withdrawn by the French delegation before discussion, that aviation prizes should be given, not to the drivers, but to the proprietors of flying machines. It is obvious that the effect of this proposal, had it been carried, would have been to alter the status of aviation from that of a sport to that of an industry.

The next proposal by Belgium that a pilot must obtain his certificate from his own club was adjourned to the next meeting.

It was finally resolved to extend the patronage of the F. A. I. to the aeronautical sections of international and other exhibitions, and to create a commission for settling

aeronautical terminology. The latter resolution, in particular, is a most welcome one, for the confusion in this direction is daily becoming worse confounded; but it is of the highest importance that a commission of this nature should be of the widest international character if its labors are to have any good effect whatever.

Next followed the reports of two commissions. Lieut.-Col. Moedebeck gave a summary of the work being done in connection with the aeronautical maps, and, incidentally, pointed out that Great Britain was the only country in which nothing has so far been done. It is to be hoped that this omission will be rectified at the earliest opportunity, since the work is undoubtedly of the very first importance to aeronauts of every country.

The Chevalier de Clement de Saint-Marcq then read the report of the Commission on Balloon Signals at sea, which had been prepared with the assistance of Capt. Castagneris and Capt. Kindelan. This able report proved to be of remarkable interest, and reached the following conclusions: every balloon should be compelled to carry two signals one of which must always be displayed while the balloon is floating over the sea; the first, a red flag, to denote that the balloon is in distress and desires assistance; the second, a white flag, to signify that all is well and that no assistance is desired. These flags should measure i meter in width by 2 meters in length, and should be suspended below the car. In this way they would be visible to the naked eye at a distance of 4 kilometers, while they would not weigh more than 2 lb. At night the only practicable method of signalling, though an inefficient one, was by means of the usual electric lamps, white to denote safety, red for distress. In order to make these signals known to ships' captains it was recommended that the assistance of the press should be invoked in each country, and furthermore that the maritime authorities in every country should be acquainted with these decisions. These recommendations were adopted by the meeting, and have now, therefore, become obligatory.

Several suggestions were also put forward. In order to prevent accidents, which are generally due to the incompetence or foolhardincss of the pilot, and deserves punishment accordingly, it was suggested that if a pilot during a competition ventures over the sea with an insufficient supply of ballast, he shall be disqualified and suspended for a number of years. In the opinion of the Commission a sufficient supply, of ballast might be considered to be 1 J/2 kilo, per 1000 cm. capacity of the balloon per kilometer of distance to the nearest shore in the line of travel. Further, a danger zone of 5 kilometers extending round every coast might be created in which no balloon could land during a contest without being disqualified. These suggestions were referred to the new technical commission.

The congress terminated with the election of the Bureau for the ensuing year.

The next conference will be held, at the invitation of the Societa Aeronautica Italiana, at Milan during October, 1909.

THE FUTURE OF THE HELICOPTER.

(Continued from page 18).

In the following table you will see compared the results of the experiments with my helicopter and the best known aeroplanes:

Helicopter Aeroplane Wright

Cornu Farman Brothers

Weight raised per H. P.......... 20 Kgs. 14 Kgs. No exact

Weight supported per sq. meter... 45 " 10 " data from

Force used to raise a man......... 12 H. P. 40 H. P. O. & W.

Speed of translation............... 12 Km. Hour 60 Km. Hour Wright.

In all the figures the helicopter is superior to the aeroplane except the speed of translation, but we dispose of only 20 h. p., and Farman 40 h. p.

On account of irregular transmission I can't use until now more than 13 h. p., and that is the reason for the little speed obtained.

Mr. O. G. Luyties tells about an oscillating system to obtain the equilibrium in the aviation apparatus: two years ago we patented a similar system.

Voisin Frercs, the builders of the Farman and Delagrange aeroplanes, have just completed a model of the Delagrange-Farman aeroplane, and the Aviation Commission of the Aero Club of France has presented it to the Scientific School for Arts and Trades to be a companion of 'Avion" of Ader, the ancestor of the modern aeroplanes.

At the pursuit race of the Aero Club Sud-Ouest, on the 10th, 500 small hydrogen-inflated balloons were let loose by the ladies and children. Each balloon was provided with postal cards to be sent to the club by the finders.

THE FIRST DIRIGIBLE IN AMERICA TO CARRY 3 PASSENGERS.

In the June number we told of the hrst flights of the Knabenshue dirigible 1908 and below are the first photographs published.

On June 11 two flights were made, one in the morning against a 4-mile wind and one in the afternoon against a 15^-mile wind and on both occasions Mr. Knabenshue states, he made a speed of 25.2 miles per hour and that there are "several little obstacles to overcome before I can go on making that speed, as a great quantity of gas leaves the ship during the flights."

On the 15th another trip was made, carrying \Vm. C. Chadeayne, of the Aero Club of America, resident at Buffalo.

The bag measures 112 feet in length by 171/ feet in diameter. The frame is 62 feet long and measures 40 inches each leg of the equilateral triangle cross-section. The parts of the frame are connected by small aluminum castings. No. 25 music wire is used for bracing. The stringers are i inches spruce, joined by pieces of tubing bolted together.

knai!enshue dirigible in flight.

The front bearing takes all the load and for the purpose there is a ball thrust bearing and the shaft is made to run on rollers contained in this front bearing.

The shaft is 14 gauge Shelby tubing, with a reinforcement at the propeller end 6 feet long, brazed at extreme ends; and 3 feet long at driving end also brazed at extreme end. The shaft is suspended by small bronze castings turned up. From 3 lugs wires are fastened to stub steel which passes through the stringers at the point where uprights are joined by aluminum casting. These pieces of steel are threaded and^ can be drawn tight in such a manner as to line up the shaft.

The rudder is 10 feet long by 5 feet high, made of bamboo poles securely fastened together with stove pipe wire, then bound with cotton cloth and varnished with shellac. The covering is Lonsdale cambric.

Attached to the middle section of the rudder is a double set of aeroplanes which measure 15 feet long by 2>JA feet wide and when attached to rudder present a horizontal surface of 104 square feet. This is intended to prevent pitching.

The envelope is constructed of Japanese silk costing $1.50 a yard. Then there is added another layer of silk costing 65 cents a yard. Over this again is sewed pongee silk cut in ribbons 1 inch wide and spaced every 4 inches. These bands pass over the top. At the bottom of these bands are sewed pongee silk strips 14 inches wide for 4-5 the length of the bag. Then to this is sewed the suspension band, made of 4 thicknesses of pongee silk. From the points of the bag, on the under side, is a layer of silk costing 50 cents a yard and these two pieces of silk run back for 25 feet towards the middle, and to these two pieces are attached what Mr. Knabenshue calls the "hold back" bands. The bottom side of the balloon proper is a single thickness of

silk. 20 feet to the rear of the center of the balloon is attached a 24-inch neck. 8 feet to the rear of the neck is the opening through which the tube of the balloonette is inserted.

The balloonette is merely a cylinder with a capacity of 3500 cubic feet and made of silk costing 65 cents a yard.

The engine is a 4-cylinder 2-cycle water cooled pattern.. 3^-inch bore by 4-inch stroke, has a base compression of 15 lbs. and a cylinder compression of 55 lbs. A carbureter is used for each cylinder.

view showing frame and baskets.

For a radiator is used tubes 40 inches long, made of 30 gauge brass and there are 27 of these tubes. The whole system contains but 2 gallons of water, forced through the system by a rotary pump. The engine and cooling system weighs only 145 pounds. It is expected that the engine will develop 25 horsepower.

The drive shaft is direct connected and the 9-foot propeller will turn at 1000 r.p.m., it is expected.

Two wicker cars are provided to the rear of the motor, one on one side of the upper stringer of the frame and one on the other. The third occupant of the airship sits astride the frame as of yore.

CALENDAR.

July—Balloon race at Brussels on the 21st, under auspices Aero Club de Belgique. Trials of Baldwin Government dirigible balloon beginning about July 27.

August—Trials of Government flying machines: A. M. Herring's beginning about the 13th, and the Wright Brothers' about the 28th. Flying-machine contests at Spa under auspices of Aero Club de Belgique on the 9th, 16th, and 23d, for $11,100 in prizes.

September—Grand Prix Balloon Race of Aero Club of France. Aeroplane contests at Vichy.

October—Grand Prix Balloon Race, Aero Club of France, on the 4th. Distance contests and contests for objective point at Berlin on the 10th under auspices Deutscher Luftschiffer-Verband. Gordon Bennett Balloon Race, Berlin, on the nth. International aeroplane contests at Venice for $5,000 in prizes.

1909—During October, at Milan, Congress Federation Aeronautique International.

The "Journal of the Military Service Institution" for July and August contains an article on military ballooning. This paper is published bi-monthly at Governor's Island. Brigadier-General Theodore F. Rodenbough is the editor.

2 TO 100 H.P. ESPECIALLY DESIGNED FOR AERONAUTICS

\jß>

Four-Cylinder, 20 Horse-Power, Air-Cooled, Weight 100 lbs., Speed 1800 Revolutions per Minute, Magneto Ignition, Splash Lubrication with Sight Feed and Oil Gauge in Case.

SEND FOR CATALOGUE E.

G. H. CURTISS MANUFACTURING CO.,

Hammondsport, N. Y.

Recording ALTITUDE BAROMETERS, Recording THERMOMETERS, Recording HYGROMETERS, STATOSCOPES.

Used by ALL Aeronauts here and abroad.

Built by M. JULES RICHARD, Paris, France.

E. H. DUVIVIER,

30 Church Street, - - New York

Sole U. S. Representative

Official Instruments in Gordon Bennett Race, St. Louis, and other International Events.

ARMS AND (0) THE MAN

THE NATIONAL fllLITARY WEEKLY $3.00 a year

General James A. Drain, Editor

It ARMS AND THE MAN serves every arm of the service in both the Army, the Navy, the Marine Corps and the National Guard. Its columns are open for all military aeronautical discussions, in connection with the work of the Signal Corps.

150Ü 11 street, N". W.

A'Vsisliiiifcton, 13. C.

MY INITIAL TRIP TO THE CLOUDS. Mrs. Cora Thompson.

I take the keenest pleasure in describing my first1 balloon ascension. I shall always look upon it as one of the greatest pleasures of my life and I feel very grateful to the Aero Club of Ohio through whose kindness I was able to gain a place in the basket.

I had looked forward to my trip with such anticipation that no ordinary sight could have satisfied me, and I was not disappointed. The beauties of the landscape from a balloon are beyond description—they must be seen to be appreciated in their fullest extent. Then, too, fear is wholly excluded. There can be nothing but pleasure connected with it. Accompanied by A. Leo Stevens, of New York, whom I believe to be the most skilful pilot in the world, and by my husband, who has had much experience in ballooning, there seemed and was nothing to fear.

1 enjoyed every moment of the trip and when the time finally came for us to land I felt greatly disappointed—the two hours spent in the balloon had sped like minutes and I am anxiously awaiting another opportunity when I can ascend in a larger balloon and with a brisker wind. I feel sure the sport has come to stay, and more so, from the number of ladies who are anxious to go.

dr. and mrs. h. w. thompson.,

At ri.45 a.m. we left Canton in the "Ohio,'' the 35.000 cubic foot balloon jj/hicli the Aero Club of Ohio purchased last year from the Stevens factory in New' York. The big bag rose slowly and drifted at very slow speed and in twenty minutes we had only covered five miles from Canton in a straight line. After passing near Massillon, we had lunch in the balloon.

Owing to the poor gas supplied by the short notice given the gas company, we did not take along much ballast and by lunch time it had all been exhausted. VVe soon came to Turkeyfoot Lake and, with the knowledge born of long experience, Mr. Stevens decided not to risk a crossing of the lake without ballast and made our landing just one side of the lake. We settled down, oh, so beautifully and the balloon never_ stirred after the basket touched the earth.

Sighting the balloon from Middlebranch, Dr. Corl and bis wife, of that place, pursued us in an automobile and finally came up to where we-had landed. They kindly hauled us back to Canton, after we had spent an hour or more in packing up the balloon.

(Continued on page 46).

TRIALS OF DUFOUR MOTORLESS AEROPLANE.

Following up the trials of the glider of A. Q. Dufour, mentioned in the September 1907, number of this magazine, Mr. Dufour has now completed some experiments with his third two-surface aeroplane.

This last machine measures 28 feet tip to tip, with a depth of planes of 7 feet and a distance apart of 6 feet. In the front is a guiding plane and a horizontal tail behind. The total supporting surface is about 400 square feet, the weight 120 pounds, and with the operator 160 pounds, a total of 280 pounds.

The tower from which the previous glides had been made was blown down by the wind. Then trials were made using the glider as a kite, both with and without Air. Dufour in it. With a 50-foot rope a flight was made about 12 feet from the ground in an 18-mile breeze.

It was then towed by a 15 h.p. automobile and while running along the ground at about 12 miles an hour the operator would turn up the front plane and the glider would shoot into the air a few feet but the pressure on the planes was so great that "it would slip the auto clutch or kill the engine and the speed would die down to 5 or 6 miles."

just starting the flight-packard cars ix new use.

Later the Milwaukee Sentinel provided a 60 h.p. Packard car and on May 23rd, a good flight was made. The machine was attached to the automobile with an 80-foot rope and the car started at a good speed. After running about 50 feet, the front plane was turned up and the machine rose at an angle of 45 degrees to a height of between 35 and 40 feet and then sailed along at 20 miles an hour for nearly 1000 feet. The glider made a sudden side movement and the machine and operator landed on the ground. All the posts and lower part of the machine was smashed and Mr. Dufour struck his head and was unconscious for over half an hour. Fortunately no bones were broken but the operator was delirious until the following morning and sustained a bruised elbow and shoulder. Mr. Dufour states: ''the strange part is I do not remember anything from about two hours before the accident until about twelve or fourteen hours after it." But Mr. Dufour is going at it again as soon as he fully recovers.

July 3.—For shooting at Charles J. Glidden's balloon, Boston, while it was over Brattleboro on the evening of June 15. William Murphy to-day was sentenced to not more than two years and not less than six months at hard labor at the house of correction at Rutland. The hearing was held to-day before Judge Ernes W. Gibson in the Municipal Court. State Attorney Bacon said that Murphy's act was a wanton one and was to be compared with the mischievous turning of switches in front of trains.

SYMPOSIUM.

For the June number we wrote letters to various ones prominent in aerostation and aviation, editors of newspapers and scientists, business men and those generally interested, asking their views as to the present state of the art, its future, criticisms or words of encouragement—just as it appeared to their individual minds. A number of these most interesting letters were necessarily omitted last month for lack of space and on account of late arrival. In the August number these valuable papers will be concluded.

PRINCE D. SCIPIONE BORGHESE, PRESIDENT SOCIETA AERONAUTICA

ITALIANA.

Your idea of a special anniversary number of your valuable magazine to mark the first milestone of practical dynamic flight is worthy of encouragement. In truth, the last year has brought aerial navigation a great step forward and its future holds the greatest promise. I wish you every success.

WILHELM KRESS, THE PIONEER OF AVIATION IN GERMANY: AUTHOR OF "AVIATIK."

the future of the aeroplane.

When I constructed my first model of an aeroplane in 1864, which could not fly on account of the spring motor being too heavy, it became clear to me that it was essential to invent a motor light enough before the problem of aviation could be solved.

In 1877 I succeeded in building a model of an aeroplane which, driven by a rubber band motor, was able to fly stable and dirigible over the heads of the spectators through the room, taking the run by itself. Since then I was convinced that the aeroplane would have a future.

After having made free flying models'of helicopters and flapping-wing machines, about thirty years ago. I knew that we might be able to carry persons through the air by the two systems mentioned above, as soon as we could have motors light enough. But the aeroplane will always be preferable to these two systems. (In my publication, "Aviatik," these three systems, as well as the different methods by which the birds fly, are accurately described.)

At present in Paris are built motors light enough for flying purposes, but until now they have not yet practical value. They are not yet reliable enough and are not able to work satisfactorily for a long time. We will be able to build a satisfactory flying apparatus in the very moment the light motor will work steadily for several hours. The aeroplane will attain its practical value when it is no more necessary to take a run. But this problem will be solved in not too long a time.

I myself designed an aeroplane which will be able to ascend from every point of the globe without a run, and to stand still in the air. It will also be able to fly as well slow as fast.

As soon as we reach this state we will have an ideal means of communication. I regret very much being too old and not wealthy enough to build an apparatus as mentioned above.

wright brothers ahead.

Messrs. Farman and Delagrange made excellent flights in France, but I believe that the Wright Brothers are ahead of them. In America there are excellent aeronautical experts. For instance, Mr. O. Chanute, who promoted the art of flying by his first-class aeronautical publication. But he may be too old to contest personally in practical experiments. Further, there is Mr. Herring, who gives fair promises for the future. Nevertheless, there are also well-experienced experts in Europe.

The first step is done, the contest begun and in a few years we may have useful "aeromobiles," which will carry passengers through the air, high above dust and dirt, above wood and green fields, and with more safety than now the motor car on the dusty roads; and the country which is able to promote this new and beautiful means of communication will soon develop a new industry, thus procuring millions to its inhabitants.

WILBUR R. KIMBALL.

It gives me pleasure to congratulate you upon the fact that the June number of Aeronautics will be the twelfth regular issue, thus completing the full year.

With the first number of the magazine the interest in the subject did not seem to be very general, and it appeared to be a question if the time had arrived when a magazine devoted to the subject could be made successful. The fact that the first year has closed with an encouragingly large subscription list, constantly augmenting, shows that your judgment as to the field for such a magazine was not a mistake.

The extraordinary developments in the past few months seem to me to hold out the greatest promise for this art in the future. The fact that there are now not less than half a dozen types of heavier-than-air machines that will fly for considerable distances establishes the fact beyond argument that the commercial age of the flying machine has commenced, and that transportation and commerce will be affected to a continuously increasing degree.

The influence of the new art can as yet scarcely be seen in any of the various manufacturing industries, but that such influence will be very great, and stimulate many auxiliary industries is hardly to be doubted.

It seems that having turned its first year without interruption, and the now general demand for information along this line, that a successful future for the magazine is assured.

Among odd items which continually appear in various newspapers, one paper scored a "beat"' on this particular news note, which was that a 32 mile flight had been made by the Brothers Wright at Kitty Hawk.

In regard to this, a letter from Orville Wright has this to say:

"The thirty-two mile trip was made a week before we had the machine ready for trial! There are some very enterprising newspaper men! The first fake report was later confirmed by another just as great—a pretended interview with my brother at New York, several days after he had sailed for Europe."

With the engine running at its maximum of 1800 r.p.m., the tips of the propellers on the June Bug, traveling in their circular course, make 66 miles per minute.

The International School of Aeronautics has received this month a facsimile model of the Farman aeroplane built by Voisin Freres, and of the dirigible "Patrie."

One set of the balloons sent up from Pittsfield, Mass., by Professor A. Lawrence Rotch, Director of the Blue Hill Observatory and President of the Aero Club of New England, during May was recovered, it having landed at Randolph, Vermont, a hundred miles north of Pittsfield. The two instruments sent up were lost.

The nigger said: "When de boat blows up, where is I? When de train goes off de track, here I is." How about a balloon?

Charles J. Glidden, Aero Club of America and Aero Club of New England, has purchased a thousand meter balloon from A. Leo Stevens.

C. Norvin Rinek has for the past several weeks been building practically a duplicate of the Farman-Delagrange aeroplane and it now is nearly completed. A report of the trials and photographs will appear in this journal.

Baron von Hewald, the former owner of the balloon Pommern, which won the 1907 Gordon Bennett from St. Louis, died in Berlin on June 17, at the age of 48.

Thirteen ascensions were made from North Adams during May and June.

For sale—7 h.p. 2 cylinder Curtiss airship motor, with sprocket, batteries, coils, •etc. John D. Pursell, 47 The Elizabeth, Chattanooga, Tenn.

Another balloon has been sold from the Stevens factory—this one of 40,000 cubic feet to A. H. Morgan, of Cleveland. It has been named the Sky Pilot. Two other halloons are on the way to two other purchasers.

The 22,000 foot balloon which Stevens recently sold to Dr. R. M. Randall, of North Adams, has been named the Greylock, after Greylock Mountain, near North Adams.

NEW AERO CLUBS.

The Aeronautic Society was formed in New York on June ioth. See particulars elsewhere in this issue.

The Aero Club of Mississippi was formed with members from Canton, Jackson and Brookhaven, Miss., with headquarters at Canton. It was at first intended to build a balloon to use in races but since organizing interest has waned and the balloon will not be built.

The San Antonio Aero Club of Texas, mentioned in the June number, has already-grown to fair proportions. It was formed by Frederick J. Fielding, M.D., who was elected president. Dr. Fielding is a well-known Texan motorist, motor boat and athletic enthusiast, has won many automobile races, cups and flags in motor boat contests and is now to navigate the air.

Born in Detroit in 1865, Dr. Fielding was educated in the high schools and universities of Michigan and Iowa and took his medical degree at Keokuk Medical College in 1896. In automobile racing he has defeated the mighty Barney Oldfield and has three motor cars at the present time. Last year on Lake Winnebago he won all flags and cups in his class, owning the 25-horsepower "Fantana," the 135-horsepower "Alamo," and the 40-horsepower "La Paloma."

H. E. Honeywell of St. Louis is building for him a 70,000-cubic foot balloon, and he will, upon its completion, enter into any balloon races which may be held.

J. M. Vance is vice-president, and P. A. Newman, secretary-treasurer.

The Baltimore Aero Club was formed May 29th with E. H. Thomson, president; H. B. Smith, vice-president; E. A. Walton, secretary; T. H. Bennett, assistant secretary; Dr. Chas. C. Harris, treasurer; Arthur T. Atherholt, honorary vice-president. The Club started with twenty members.

An effort was made to have an ascension from Baltimore by A. T. Atherholt and E. II. Thomson but the gas was so poor that it was postponed and will take place in Philadelphia in the near future. Most of the ascensions of the Club will probably take place in Washington. There is much enthusiasm in the Club and they propose buying a Club balloon in the near future.

The Aero Club of California, mentioned in the June number, is entering upon active work and will hold a dirigible contest in order to stimulate interest in aeronautics.

Five machines are in process of construction in Los Angeles, three gasless and two dirigibles. The climate is ideal for experimental work. Los Angeles is practically on a level plain, twelve miles north and east of the sea and ten miles south of the great range of mountains. During eight months of the year the winds, generally mild and steady, blow from the sea. There is also much open country and no rains, except during the Winter months, so that experimenting becomes a delight and apparatus and instruments do not have to be housed over night for fear of rain or dew.

The Club has obtained from the Chutes' Park management the use of a large building, fully 125 feet long, by 90 feet wide, and 45 clear to the timbers, for the exclusive use of storing balloons and for the erection of aeroplanes by the members of the Club. This adjoins an open space large enough for ordinary experimental purposes. A special building will also be erected on the grounds to be used as the Club rooms, for offices, and also to exhibit models, plans, etc., and for the literature of the Club, and this will also be adapted for educational purposes, for lectures and the like.

The Aero Club of the Northwest, mentioned in the June number, was formed by J. Alec Sloan, the head of the sports department of the St. Paul "Daily News." Mr. Sloan was a pioneer in organizing the largest automobile meet ever held in the Northwest, and he was also the prime mover in getting for St. Paul the champion bicyclists in track meets.

Due to Mr. Sloan's efforts, St. Paul and Minneapolis now have the two famous balloons "America" and "United States," both of which were in last year's Gordon Bennett, and the latter, it will be remembered, won the first Gordon Bennett race from Paris with Lieutenant F. P. Lahm as pilot. The "America" was purchased by L. N. Scott of the Metropolitan Opera House in St. Paul, and rechristened the balloon the "America of St. Paul." "Dick" Ferris of the Ferris Stock Company took the "United States" and rechristened it the "United States of Minneapolis." Both balloons were purchased through A. Leo Stevens, New York. »

The Club comprises about forty well-known sportsmen of St. Paul, Minneapolis, and other northwestern towns. The Club holds its first meeting in St. Paul on July 18th, when a balloon race is planned.

Another monoplane, with movable planes, is reported to be building by Robert

CAPTAIN THOMAS S. BALDWIN

NEW YORK'S LEADING MANUFACTURER

BALLOON

AND AIRSHIP

PILOT AND MANUFACTURER

BALDWIN'S VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL

of which the Government airship and balloons are being constructed will last from five to six times as long as a varnished balloon. The weight is always the same, as it does not require further treatment. Heat and cold have no effect on it, and ascensions can be made as well at zero weather as in the summer time. The chemical action of oxygen has not the same detrimental effect on it as it has on a varnished material. Silk double walled VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL has ten times the strength of varnished material. A man can take care of his PROOF balloon, as it requires little or no care, and is NOT subject to spontaneous combustion. Breaking strain 100 lbs. per inch width. Very elastic. Any weight, width, or color. Will not crack. Waterproof. No talcum powder. No revarnishing. The coming balloon material, and which through its superior qualities, and being an absolute gas holder is bound to take the place of varnished material. The man that wants to have the up-to-date balloon, must use VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL. Specified by the U. S. SIGNAL CORPS.

Prices and samples on application

Box 78 Madison Square P. O.

NEW YORK.

DICTIONARY

OF

Aeroiianties

In Preparation

(Advance orders solicited, money to be remitted upon notification 6y us that the volume has been publisht)

PIERCE, R. M. Dictionary of Aeronautics. About 200 pages. Paper, 75 cents; post= paid, 80 cents. Cloth, 95 cents; postpaid, $1.00. Limp calf, $1.95; postpaid, $2.00.

(List and prices subject to change tvithout notis)

GLAISHER, J. Travels in the Air. Cloth. London 1871. $15.00.

MORRIS, R. Flying and No Failure! or, Aerial Transit Accomplished more than a Century Ago. Being a minute descriptive account of "a most surprising engine," invented, constructed, and used with the greatest success, by Jacob, the son of Mr. John Daniel, of Royslon, the latter of whom, who survived his son, died in 1711, aged 97. Reprinted verbatim from that excessively-rare little work, -'Narrative of the Life and astonishing Adventures of John Daniel, a smith, at Rovston, in Hertfordshire, by the Rev. Ralph Morris,"— London, 1751. With an Appendix. Totham: Printed by Charles Clark (an amateur) at his Private Press «848. 14 p. $25.00.

WISE, J. A system of Aeronautics. 1st ed. 3iop. Cloth. Philadelphia 1850. $12.00.

LANGUAGES PUBLISHING COMPANY 1019 Flatiron Building New York

WANTED!

Position with experimenter in aerial flight, aeroplane or helicopter type; preferably the latter.

Experienced in mechanical and electrical engineering.

O. A. D. c/o Aeronautics.

It is remarkable to note, in connection with the Aerial Experiment Association, that the members thereof, when the experiments were undertaken, had never even seen gliding machines and yet with the first one constructed and with no previous experience, they accomplished glides of three hundred feet. And each member, except Dr. Bell, made an actual flight in either the Red Wing or the White Wing on the very first trial. This surely is an accomplishment worthy of greater credit than has been given. It does seem wonderful for a totally inexperienced operator to get in an aeroplane and make a flight of over a thousand feet as did G. H. Curtiss.

A NEW AERIAL MACHINE

That can be caused lo force itself absolutely anywhere desired, has been invented by me, and proved by my model.

Some gas—a minimum—in new form and harness, is employed, the any-direction-at-will screw fan system alwavs holding a large balance of power and control.

I hold letters from four very prominent government and other engineers endorsing my method.

Don't answer unless you are willing, for a one-fourth interest, to finance a small trial machine, in case 1 can convince you of the great practicability claimed.

„ _ . ADDRESS :

K ., c/o Daily Standard, ------- Imperial, Cal.

JUNE AEROPLANE FLIGHTS IN AMERICA.

(Continued from page 7).

schedule of flights made by the aerial experiment association.

Red Wing—2 flights—319 and 120 feet, F. W. Baldwin, operator.

White Wing—5 flights—100 feet by F. W. Baldwin, 100 and 227 feet by Lieut. T. Selfridge, 339 yards by G. H. Curtiss and 183 yards by J. A. D. McCurdy.

June Bug—16 flights—all with G. H. Curtiss as operator—152 yards in 11 seconds, 139 yds. in 9 sees., 422 yds. in 12 1-5 sees., 40 yds. in 3 sees., 100 yds. in 6 sees., 725 yds. in 41 sees., 1140 yds. in 60 sees., 400 yds. in 24 sees., 540 yds. in 33 sees., 30 yds. in 2l/2 sees., 150 yds. in 14 sees., 30 yds. in 2l/2 sees., 1300 yds. in 68 1-5 sees., 900 yds. in 56 sees., 2000 yds. in 1 min. 525/2 sees., and about 1100 yds. in 1 min. 15 sees. The flights of the June Bug total 5.1 miles in 8.87 minutes. Mr. Curtiss has made in the two machines 5.4 miles in 9.2 minutes. The flights of the first two machines total 826 yards. -

JUNE AEROPLANE FLIGHTS IN EUROPE.

(Continued from page 9).

BLERI0T wins prize in monoplane.

.June 29. In the presence of the Aviation Committee of the Aero Club of France, Bleriot in his monoplane won the medal offered by the Club for a flight of 200 meters. The distance made was 600 meters in 47 seconds, This is the first official flight of a monoplane.

June 29. The Danish aviator Ellehammer, of whom we have had occasion to speak before, made 50 meters in a flight at Kiel, winning a prize of 5000 marks. Several flights have been made by him at Kiel varying from 30 to 100 meters.

31

CLUB NEWS. The Aeronautic Society.

On June ioth.'a call signed by Lee S. Burridge, A. C. Triaca, Leo Stevens, R. B. Whitman, D. L. Braine and Wilbur R. Kimball, having been sent out, there was held an organization meeting at Mr. Triaca's offices, 2 East 29th St., for the purpose of forming The Aeronautic Society.

Fifty responded to the call and forty at once signed membership application cards.

A Committee of Ten was appointed to complete an organization, draft by-laws, secure grounds, and do the various things incidental to carrying out the objects proposed.

This Committee worked industriously and at the next meeting, held a week later, presented a definite plan of organization, or incorporation, which plan, upon a vote of all the members present, was unanimously approved.

The plan is to secure permanent grounds where a meeting place may always be had, where sheds can be erected for the housing of the apparatus of members, and where trials of apparatus may be made.

It is also expected to have a shop where machine and other constructional or repair work can be handled without delay and with the smallest possible expense. This will be an inestimable boon to the inventor striving to build a flying machine, glider, dirigible, or any apparatus whatever.

A motor will also be provided for the free use of members in their trials. This will save the inventor the necessity of buying a motor for trials before he knows the exact kind of a motor he eventually wants.

Ever)r member will be entitled to the use of all the Society's property upon the payment of his yearly dues of $10.

In order to bring about a popular realization of the status of the art of aviation and incidentally to secure funds with which to carry on the extensive work proposed, Leon Delagrange who now holds the world's record for duration of public dynamic flights, over 19 minutes, at Rome, has been invited to make flights at some point near to New York—if possible, on the Society's grounds. This will create a greater interest in the art all over the country and will do the best work in disabusing the public mind of the "craziness of trying to fly." The public mind now is of such a character that it is impossible to secure money for a prize fund for the encouragement of efforts and the reward of successful endeavors. The magazine, Aeronautics, has tried to secure prize money, but in vain. The Aero Club of America addressed about fifty letters to some of its wealthy members and none responded. Octave Chanute, James Means, Dr. A. Graham Bell, and Prof. A. Lawrence Rotch, appointed themselves a committee for the securing of a $25,000 prize fund, without success.' It is felt that something must be done to bring about a change, and exhibition flights certainly ought to do some good by proving that dynamic flight is practically solved, and by inciting the enormous inventive faculty in this great country to concentrate its efforts to perfect and develop the art under the guiding and helpful auspices of The Aeronautic Society. International contests are also proposed to take place between Delagrange and American aviators who are ready to compete, and all those expecting to be ready should send application to the secretary.

The Society now numbers upwards of eighty members and the nominal annual dues of Ten Dollars will probably be raised or an initiation fee charged after a hundred members have joined. At present the dues are absurdly low when it is considered that Ten Dollars entitles a member to the use of all the Society's property and help, besides free admission to any and all exhibitions and contests. All interested should not delay in joining The Aeronautic Society.

Membership Application Blank.

Date..........................

The undersigned desires to become a member of The Aeronautic Society.

Name..........................................*.....

Address.............................................

Business

Aero Club of New England.

The second dinner of the Aero Club of New England was held at the Boston City Club, Boston, Mass., on June 26th last. Many important pieces of business were transacted at the dinner and the members present also gave Mr. Chas. J. Glidden, the vice-president of the Club, a hearty welcome home from his tour of Egypt and the Holy Land. Mr. Glidden gave a very interesting talk regarding his trip and also gave much valuable information concerning his experiences in ballooning both in England and France.

The members of the Club voted unanimously to purchase the balloon "Boston," which was owned by Mr. Glidden, for the use of the Club. A committee consisting of Prof. A. Lawrence Rotch of the Blue Hill Observatory, Mr. Chas. J. Glidden and Mr. H. Helm Clayton was elected to make all the necessary arrangements concerning the purchase of the balloon, the terms under which the balloon may be procured by the members, and the committee was further empowered to make all necessary arrangements for ascensions, and the selection of a park from which ascensions may be made. Over $600.00 was reported by the committee appointed at the last meeting, as having been subscribed towards the purchase of the balloon. It was also voted at the dinner to adopt the rules and regulations now used by the Aero Club of America, prescribing the conditions under which members may qualify as pilots. These rules will be incorporated into the By-Laws of the Aero Club of New England.

It wa& also voted that subscribing members may hire the Club Balloon for the sum of $25.00 for each ascension and that the amount which any member may have subscribed towards the purchase price of the balloon, shall be credited to him. Non-subscribing members will be charged $35.00 for the use of the balloon for a single ascension. Mr. Chas. J. Glidden has the^ matter of arrangements regarding ascensions directly in his control. Members have already shown great interest in future ascensions and applications are coming in fast upon Mr. Glidden. Certificates of ascension will be issued numerically and will entitle the holder to an ascension in the order of his application for such certificate. There are several cities in the western part of Massachusetts which are being considered as proper places for an ascension park. The cities under consideration are Fitchburg, Pittsfield, Worcester, and Lowell. It was thought advisable by the members that a city or town capable of providing suitable gas at a distance of about 40 miles from Boston would be a proper place for ascensions. As most of the members live in Boston, such a place within a 40-mile radius will be more convenient for those intending to make ascensions.

The city of Worcester seems to be particularly favorable.

The arrest of the two individuals who fired rifle shots at the balloon "Boston" while Mr. Glidden and Air. Leo Stevens were making their trip from North Adams, was announced at the Club dinner and the fact of their arrest was a great source of satisfaction to Club members. The matter of preventing a recurrence of this shooting was discussed by Alfred R. Shrigley, the secretary and attorney of the Club, but no definite measures were taken at this time.

Many interesting instruments used in ballooning were exhibited and explained by Professor Rotch, Mr. Chas. J. Glidden, and Mr. H. H. Clayton. Many ascensions will no doubt take place in the next few weeks by the members as they will no doubt wish to avail themselves of the fine weather at this time of the year. All members making such ascensions are required by the Club to send in a report upon blanks which are furnished by the secretary and these reports will be made part of the records of the organization.

Aero Club of America.

The Aero Club of America has offered $250 reward for information which will lead to the conviction of persons shooting at balloons or "other aerial craft." The two recent flights, mentioned under "June Ascensions," in which shots were fired have caused widespread condemnation, and it is hoped that the culprits can be brought to book.

P. Geddes Grant and Col. F. T. Leigh have been elected members.

"Members are requested to support the Club in every possible way at this time when such rapid progress is being made, so that the good work may be kept up, and one of the hest means to do this is to interest friends in the Club, as additional members means additional opportunity for advancement."

Aero Club of Ohio.

The grounds in the rear of the gas works are now about finished. A large force of men and teams has been at work for some time, grading, removing poles, wires, and a brick building.

INTERNATIONAL AERONAUTICAL CONGRESS.

President: Professor Willis L. Moore.

Secretary: Dr. Albert Francis Zahm. Chairman Gen'l Committee: Wm. J. Hammer. Chairman Executive Com.: Augustus Post. Sec'y Committees: Ernest La Rue Jones.

Publication Notice.

The addresses, papers and discussions presented to the Congress will be published serially in this magazine, and at the earliest date possible, bound volumes will be distributed without charge to those holding membership cards in the Congress. Others may purchase the volume at a consistent price when ready or may take advantage of immediate publication by subscribing to this magazine at the regular rate.

In accordance with the program as published in the November number, the informal addresses of the Gordon Bennett contestants and others were concluded before entering upon the printing of the formal papers and discussions.

The thirteenth paper is presented in this issue, viz: "Extension of Area of Weather Reports for Aeronauts—Lightning as an Element of Danger in Balloon Work," by Professor Alexander McAdic, of the U. S. Weather Bureau ; also the report of the balloon accident in Italy in 1907 contributed to the records of the Congress by Brigadier General James Allen, Chief Signal Office of the United States Army.

EXTENSION OF AREA OF WEATHER REPORTS FOR AERONAUTS—LIGHTNING AS AN ELEMENT OF DANGER IN BALLOON WORK. Prof. Alexander McAdie, U. S. Weather Bureau.

Meteorologists—I mean, those of us who have to do with the daily tangle of interlaced currents in the atmosphere and the wonderful play of physical processes operating between the ground and the layers of air above, salute the Aeronauts.

In them we hope to find an ally who shall bring the king into his own, that is, make man master of the atmosphere.

Believing as we do that the difference between balancing in air and balancing on ground is one of degree only, or in other words, that aerostation is not much more difficult than walking; and knowing that when man has to have a thing, he generally gets it, we see in the increasing interest in balloon work the promise of data at various elevations, the very data which we now most need, and which in the meteorologists' hands will give back a hundred fold for the benefit of all aerial navigators.

A vertical section of the atmosphere is therefore among the probabilities of our age—an age which in meteorology can be best described as the "ground map period." The synoptic weather map deals only with conditions at the surface of the earth, and while sometimes misleading or incomplete, still is the most effective tool vet devised for forecasting- and for study.

^ The present model illustrates an endeavor to extend the limits of observations. It consists essentially of a series of glass maps so arranged as to indicate in part the general eastward drift of the main air stream in our latitudes.

photograph showing instrument in use.

The present device is one which we think enlarges the area of reports; and gives to the eye of the forecaster a history of the progressive movements of "highs" and "lows," "spins" and "counter-spins" in the main air stream. It is especially valuable near the Atlantic Coast where otherwise one is apt to lose sight of disturbances passing seaward.

The object of this paper is to point out the need of further study of ionized masses of air, charged clouds, and electric strains in the air. Between charged cloud and cloud, or between cloud and earth, our electrometer readings have shown that very great potential differences may exist. "While the writer knows only of instrumental measurements of atmospheric potentials in the neighborhood of 10,000 volts, it is probable that voltages ten times greater exist.

A balloon may at any time pass between a cloud and earth and may weaken a dielectric already strained almost to the breaking point. . The line of fracture would be along this path and the passage of a spark or moderate flash might seriously injure balloon and aeronauts.

ft is quite possible to design electrometric apparatus which would indicate the increasing potential and so give warning to the aeronaut.

The electric charge, however, sometimes increases very rapidly and under present conditions the aeronaut would have to act with promptness.

A Member: I would like to say that when I saw the beautiful balloon of the War Department, apparently coated with aluminum, I did not feel that such a balloon is safe unless they know what are the static conditions in the atmosphere.

Captain Chandler: I understood the Italian army has been using balloons of that type for a great many years. Although one has been struck by lightning", they claim the aluminum coating is just as safe or safer. They say the charge lias a greater chance to dissipate.

Mr. Myers: Several years ago at Stratford Springs my wife made a balloon ascension and found herself between two clouds. She vibrated for three-quarters of an hour between those two clouds, without a visible discharge. The balloon both received and discharged the surface electricity. Her experience is described in a little book which she wrote at the time, and I would be pleased to send any of you a copy.

Mr. Hammer: I desire to state that at luncheon time, in talking to General Allen, he made the statement that his department had an official report from Italy regarding an aluminum coated balloon. It attracted a great deal of discussion. I would suggest General Allen send that copy of the report for the published report of this Congress. I make that as a motion.

BALLOON ACCIDENT.

Every year on the occasion of the Review in the Piazza d'Armi. the Specialist Brigade of Engineers takes part in it by means of a balloon ascent.

This year (1907) there was no Grand Review, owing to a number of troops being absent from Rome, but the Engineers decided to carry out their usual annual program

A balloon of 260 cubic yards, made of silk and painted with powdered aluminum, and provided with a car large enough for only one person, was filled with hydrogen on the grounds of the Aeronautic Society, situated outside of the Porta del Popolo. and then transported on a car to Ponte Milvio. While awaiting the arrival of the Sovereigns, two captive ascents were made; and after they had passed on their way to open the new National Shooting Range the balloon was lowered. Then Captain Ulivelli of the Engineers, a well-known aeronaut, entered the car, examined the direction of the wind and gave the order to let go. The balloon rose at 11.30.

The pressure was low and it would have been able to rise very high without losing

its ascensional force. The balloon rose slowly in the air, and drifted quietly towards the East. Flashes of lightning were observed in the West where a storm was brewing, while towards the East all was clear. Suddenly the wind changed and drove the balloon rapidly towards the West and Montagnola—the threatening quarter—where it speedily attained a height of 900 meters. A flash of forked lightning, a tongue of flame from the lower valve, a booming sound, an explosion and the envelope was rent open, and the balloon seemed to vanish into a descending ball of flame. A flash of lightning had set the balloon on fire. Fortunately, the envelope, torn apart, acted as a parachute.

The Captain did not lose his presence of mind, and threw out ballast as rapidly as possible; thus in some degree staying the downward flight of the burning wreck. Besides these checks, the car before striking the earth came in contact with a line of telegraph wires, and a stiff hedge, which undoubtedly prevented the Captain from being killed on the spot.

His senseless body was found lying near the still smouldering wreck.

A doctor was soon on the spot, and the unfortunate man, who had shown signs of life, was placed in an automobile and taken to the hospital, but where he died at 2.15 p. m.

In an interview. Lieutenant Cianetti, an officer attached to the balloon Company states that:

The balloon was filled with hydrogen gas, which is more dangerous than illuminating gas. but is necessary in filling a balloon of small dimensions.

The fact of being rather flabby at the starting moment could have been of no prejudice to the balloon, which was instead placed in condition to rise to a higher altitude.

A sudden flash was noticed shortly after starting, at the top of the globe and then a flash running along the eastern part of the balloon.

The hydrogen instantly exploded and the explosion was followed by a booming sound. The balloon rapidly descended with its cover in flames.

It is more admissible that the balloon was struck by lightning than to infer that a counter-stroke electric discharge might have set it on fire.

The balloon started charged with terrestrial potential and reached the clouds charged with a different potential, and when the distance became small, a discharge took place between the clouds and the upper part of the balloon on account of the said difference of potential.

The spark followed the side line of the balloon case covered with aluminum powder and surrounded by an hydrogeneous atmosphere which at that moment was flowing out of the lower valve. Thus the body of hydrogen exploded causing the flame.

The explosion took place at an altitude of 900 meters as shown by the barograph found in the car, and no one could have possibly avoided the catastrophe. Captain Ulivelli might have done well to throw the sand from the car, but most likely he had no time to think about that. (.Note—Some reports say that he did but it is questionable.)

Those who were in the locality where he fell heard him cry out and it is quite sure that at the moment, the dreadful fright caused by such a terrible fall was increased by that of becoming a. part of the blaze over his head.

Upon reaching ground the cover of the balloon was still on fire; however, more than one-half of the casing—the part that joins the upper and lower valve—was found. This part showed signs of having been burnt by an electric discharge, one of the sides had been torn and the part opposite to where the explosion had taken place was found intact together with the net, the car. the barograph, a barometer, and a topographical map.

Another similar, though not identical catastrophe, took place during March, 1906, at Civitacastellana.

The balloon, however, in this case, exploded on reaching the ground and this was due to the fact that the balloon dropped from a great height, charged with an electric potential acquired in the region of the clouds, so it exploded as soon as it touched ground.

These phenomena, however, are rare and might occur under any meteorological condition, nor should an ascension be considered as dangerous while a storm is impending, as a balloon does not draw the electricity and when it remains between sky and ground it runs no more risk than a man who may be walking through a storm.

Professor Palazzo, Director of the R. Institute of Meteorology and Geodynamics, npon being requested for his opinion on the late fatal incident, has expressed his conviction that the setting on fire of the balloon was caused by an electric discharge. He states, however, that it is not an easy question to establish how the electric discharge took place.

The balloon may have been struck by actual lightning produced by a storm cloud and which may have happened on account of the balloon being by chance on the same trajectory followed by the lightning flash; or else on account of the fact that the balloon had not had sufficient time to acquire the electric potential such as was necessary at the atmospheric point which it reached at that moment.

In other words the balloon was not yet in equilibrium with the atmospherical state through which it was then driving.

Another supposition is that at the very moment an electrical discharge was taking place in a storm cloud, another resonant discharge was produced by two metallic adjacent parts., such as in this case—the balloon's valve which is of metal.

This discharge producing a small flash might have been sufficient to set on tire some of the escaping hydrogen around the valve; hence the unavoidable setting on fire of the balloon.

Captive balloons are always conductors of electricity, and on account of the rope that joins them with the ground they become enormous lightning rods apt to receive any electric discharge, and the fact that captive balloons are conductors of electricity has been verified many times. Free balloons have been considered instead, until now, less exposed to storm discharges.

Professor Palazzo, in making this latter statement, referred to an ascension which took place at Berlin by him and the aeronaut Berson.

Their balloon at a certain moment was driving through a heavy electrical storm and Mr. Berson upon being requested for his opinion rejected the idea that the balloon might have been struck by an electric discharge.

Professor Palazzo, however, is of the opinion that when the car of a balloon is damp, it is subject to resonant discharges produced by the discharge taking place between the clouds. The catastrophe of yesterday is a clear illustration of this, as it is quite likely that the balloon before being struck by lightning had been dampened by the heavy rain which had fallen.

Professor Cleoscoper writes to the "'Tribuna'" that "the cause of the balloon being struck by lightning and burnt was the powdered aluminum contained in the paint on the outside of the skin. Balloons should not have an}- metals which are good conductors of electricity."

Lieutenant Crocco. of the Specialist Brigade, referring to Professor Cleoscoper's assertions relative to 'he cause of the late balloon catastrophe, stated that Professor Cleoscoper's considerations on the premises are rather premature and they are contradicted by facts and experience.

Powdered aluminum has been used by the Specialist Brigade for the past ten years, covering the casing of their balloons, and it is to be inferred that such proceeding would not have been resorted to unless some good reason had induced them to do so.

The balloons are made of varnished silk which is highly inflammable, and the experiments held in 1893 by MM. Boernstein and Bachin (reported in 1902 by Von Tchudi), have proven that varnished cloth becomes electrified at the least friction and the experiment was so conclusive that the German Aeronautic Society since then abolished the use of it.

The powdered aluminum has the triple advantage of

a. preventing the cloth from being electrified,

b. affording the cloth a semi-incombustibility,

c. maintaining at a low temperature the bod)- of hydrogen filling the balloon's

case.

Numerous experiments made by the Specialist Brigade have shown the truth of the two latter advantages, while the former has been demonstrated by the late Professor Ciancani of the Meteorological Institute.

Leaving out of discussion the complex and subtle question of possible electrical action between the insulated body of a balloon and a storm cloud, it is evident that the metallic cover of aluminum (so it might be called) would but protect the body of hydrogen from any internal electrical action, forming something similar to a real Faraday case which joins the remaining metallic parts (valves) of the aerostat, and separates entirely the internal parts of the sphere.

The fact, however, (which is most important) is that the light veil of aluminum covering the cloth gives no valuable metallic qualities to the cloth, on account of the incoherence of the same powder.

Professor Ciancani of the Meteorological Institute, as a result of experiments held in this connection and in reply to the examination of the same question submitted by the Specialist Brigade some few years ago, stated that:

(Continued in August number).

DISTANCE TRAVELED BY PROF. JOHN WISE IN 1859.—809] MILES.

Williams Welch.

Articles in the St. Louis Newspapers published at that time state that Prof. Wise and his three companions ascended from Washington Square on Friday, July i, 1859, at 6:55 p.m , and Mr. Kearney of the Aero Club of St. Louis, has learned that the ascension was from the southeast corner of the square near Clark Ave. and 12th Street. The City Hall now stands in the-center of this square. The geodetic position of the southeast corner is Lat. 380 37' 32.4" and Long. 900 n' 57".

The balloon took almost a straight course about 270 north of east and passed Pana, Ills., north of Ft. Wayne, Inch, south of Toledo and north of Port Clinton, O. at 7 a.m., over Lake Erie at a speed of 45 miles an hour, across Long Point, between Niagara Falls and Buffalo, at 12:15 p.m., over Lake Ontario abreast of Rochester and down into a most violent storm which drove it at a speed of more than 70 miles an hour across the lake and into a forest. It was soon caught in a large sycamore tree near Henderson, N. Y., at 2:20 p.m. (by Mr. La Mountain's watch which was evidently 15 minutes slow). The actual distance traveled was about 822 miles and the time was 19 hours and 40 minutes. >C\o%

Mr. Paysou F. Thompson, of Henderson, was reqnested/lro indicate on a map the exact spot where Prof. Wise landed. He did so and said, "There are quite a number of men living here now who went there and saw the whole thing and could tell within a few rods of where he landed/j/ The place is two miles southwest from the towu, near Stony Creek and one and tliree-quarfer miles from the eastern shore of Lake Ontario. * Its geodetic position is, Lat. 430 49/4i" and Long. 760 i2/ 55" The exact distance in a straight line between these points is 809.27 miles * and is computed thus :

Let a = greater latitude, b = smaller latitude, c = difference in longitude and f = arc of a great circle between the two points, then

NORTH POLE

sin d = cos a X sin c Logarithms log. cos a(43° 49' 41") = 9.858 1889 " sin c(i3° 59/ 02") = 9 383 1851 " sin d( 100 o2/ 23") = 9 241 3740 sin b -|- e — sin a -j— cos d log. sin a(43° 49/41" ) = 9.840 4176 " cos d( io° 02/ 23") = 9.993 2983 log. sin b + e(44° 41' 25.5") = 9.847 1 193 cos f = cos d X cos c log. cos d( io° o2/ 23") = 9.993 2983 " cos e( 6° Q3/ 50.1" )= 9.997 5632 " cos f(u° 42' 46") = 9.990 8615

     

fa

   

i

   

1

I3'S9U2"

 

42' 46" = 702.7657

i' = 1.15t 553 miles-

log. 702 765' = 2.846 8101 log. 1.151 553 "dies = 0.061 2839 log. 809.27 = 2.908 0940

Distance = 809.27 miles N

When an aeronaut can find on a good map the place where he ascends and lauds, he can measure their latitude and longitude from the map and can compute the exact length of his trip by the above method. Anyone can take a book of logarithms and pick out those which correspond with the angles or numbers used. Then nothing is done but to add or subtract them. The angle or number corresponding with this sum or difference can also be found in the book of logarithms very readily.

/__

* Erbsloh's record in the Gordon Bennett at St. Louis was 872 25 miles ; Leblanc's was 866.87 miles.—Editor. 4

I- > • ; '

The new German military dirigible under construction after the semi-rigid system of Major Gross is now finished. The length is 65 meters, and the capacity 4,500 cubic meters. The Chancellor of the Empire, Prince von Buelow, was to have attended the first ascension on May 16th, but at the last moment gave it up. A strong wind prevented manoeuvring and the ascension lasted but 20 minutes, above the Lake of Tegel. The old German military balloon made an ascent of half an hour.

JUNE ASCENSIONS.

May 6. Omitted from the June number. N. H. Arnold, Leo Stevens and Harry J. Hewat left North Adams in the North Adams No. i. 35,000, at 1:22 p. m., landing at Quaker Springs, N. Y., at 2:55 p. m. Distance 49 miles in 1 hour 34 minutes.

May 12. Omitted from June number. N. H. Arnold, Arthur D. Potter and James McClellan left North Adams in the North Adams No. 1. 35,000, at 11:20 a.m., landing at 11:53 at Halifax, Vt. Only two bags of ballast were taken. The balloon thrashed about in the gale for 28 minutes after being rigged before it could be released. Distance , 28 miles in 33 minutes. Average speed 50.9 miles per hour.

June 1. G. L. Bumbaugh, C. A. Coey and C. H. Leichleiter in the Chicago 110,000 cubic feet, left Quincy, Ills., at 6:05 p.m. and landed in Deuel County, S. D., about

8 miles southwest of Clear Lake, at 5 a.m. June 2. Distance 430.88 miles. Elapsed time 10 hours and 55 minutes. General direction west by northwest. Average speed 38.9 miles.

This distance has been accurately determined by taking the longitude and latitude of the exact spot of ascension and landing. By this method, given the exact spots on the Government topographic sheets, the distance can be reckoned almost to an inch. All the ballast was used.

June 5. N. H. Arnold and C. de Angeli Frua, in the North Adams No. 1, 35,000, left North Adams at 9:42 a.m. and landed in North Greenbush, N. Y., at 12:05 p.m. Distance 30 miles. Elapsed time 2 hours and 23 minutes. Speed per hour 12.5 miles.

rifle shots.

Four rifle shots were fired at the balloon as it passed at an elevation of 1,600 feet over Poestenkill, N. Y. One shot whizzed past the ears of the aeronauts and the other pierced the balloon. Mr. Arnold paid for information leading to the identity of the one who fired the shots and obtained his name and those of witnesses. All the evidence was submitted to District Attorney Jarvis P. O'Brien who, so far, has done nothing. In marked contrast to this attitude is the efficient work of the Attorney General of Vermont who has caused the arrest of two parties in connection with the shooting at the Glidden balloon Boston.

June 6. A. Leo Stevens, Dr. and Mrs. H. \V. Thompson, left Canton, Ohio, at 11:45 a.m. in the "Ohio," 35,000 eu. ft. and landed at 1.50 p.m. near Akron, Ohio. Owing to poor gas little ballast was carried, only about 186 pounds. The distance made was 16J/2 miles. This was Dr. Thompson's 87th trip. Dr. Thompson was a professional balloonist for twelve years before entering upon the practice of a physician.

June 11. N. H. Arnold, A. H. Forbes and Fred C. Chippendale left North Adams in the North Adams No. 1 at 8:23 a.m., landing at Hawdey, Mass., 10:53 a.m. Distance

9 miles. Elapsed time 2 hours 21 minutes.

June 13. Samuel A. King, G. L. Mayer, J. E. Rech. D. H. Schuyler, John Parke, \V. R. Brown and F. S. McGrath left Point Breeze, Philadelphia, in the Ben Franklin, 92,000 cubic feet, at 4 p.m. and landed near New Brunswick. N. J., at 8 p.m. It was the first trip for Messrs. Mayer, Schuyler. Parke, Brown and McGrath. It was the third trip for Air. Rech and the many hundredth for Mr. King. Distance 56 miles. Elapsed time 4 hours.

June 13. Leo Stevens, A. H. Morgan and J. H. Wade, Jr., left Pittsfield on the initial trip of Mr. Morgan's new balloon "Sky Pilot," built by Stevens, 40,000 cubic feet capacity, at 11 o'clock a. m. and landed near Hinsdale, Mass., 4 hours 10 minutes later, after covering a distance of but 6 miles. Two hours were spent over Washington mountain. The greatest height was 7,500 feet.

It is to be noted that but half the quantity of sand was carried on this trip that was carried in a balloon of smaller size in a subsequent trip from another city. Pitts-field should devote her efforts to making better gas if she wishes to continue to have ascensions there.

June 14. Dr. R. M. Randall and N. H. Arnold left North Adams, Mass., on the initial trip of Dr. Randall's new balloon "Greylock." 22,000 cubic feet, at 9:50 a. m. and landed at 10:30 at West Dover, Vt. Dr. Randall is to qualify as pilot. Distance, 22 miles. Elapsed time, 40 minutes.

June 19. A. Leo Stevens and Charles J. Glidden in the ''Boston," 1.000 cubic meters, left Pittsfield at 5 p. m.. landing at W. Dummerston, Vt., at 7 p. m. Elapsed time, 2 hours. Distance, 29 miles. Altitude, 1.750 me'ters.

hit by bullets.

This was the initial trip of the "Boston." Mr. Glidden's balloon just purchased from the Stevens' factory. The balloon was christened with a bottle of Poland Spring water by Miss Carolyn Crafts, the nine-year-old daughter of Superintendent Crafts of the Pittsrield gas company. Rifle practice with balloons as targets seems to be the vogue just now. At an elevation of 2,000 feet over Brattleboro the balloon was struck by two bullets one of which, however, glanced off leaving a dark streak on the oiled cloth. The marksman could not be located.

"While passing over the northwest corner of Brattleboro. Vt., we heard a rifle shot, and just a second later we heard the thud where the bullet struck the balloon. Another shot quickly followed which did no serious damage, although it struck the balloon.

"It was a frightful sensation to know that a marksman was using us for a target, and that if he hit a vital spot we would fall 2,000 feet. To our great relief he did not fire again. Strangely enough, we could not locate the marksman, nor could we see a living being anywhere below us.

"We landed easily upon a mountain 2,000 feet high and busied ourselves packing the balloon.

chased by bull—club bull dog.

"While doing this we were charged by a huge red bull. Mr. Stevens and myself raced for a stone wall which we saw across the field. Stevens is a thinner and smaller man than myself, but he didn't make any better time with that bull behind him than I did.

"To our horror we found that the stone wall was reinforced b}T several lines of catvvire, but we did not stop, going over the wall and wire just in time to avoid being assisted by the horns of the brute.

"There was a thicket on the other side of the wall and it led up the mountain. We knew that there was no use going that way and we did not want to leave the balloon to the mercy of the brute. I think we were treed by the animal for from half an hour to an hour before he finally got tired and went off. Then we went back and finished packing the balloon.

"It was growing dark and we were both hungry, so we started off to find a farmhouse. We tramped for an hour over hill and dale and finally came to one which did net look so very inviting, but any port in a storm. We knocked at the door and a man asked us what we wanted. We told him that we were aeronauts who asked shelter for the night.

"'Fe c ff,' he shouted. 'You are tramps, and I will set the dog on you.' We couldn t persuade him to let us in, and he wouldn't tell us where to find another farmhouse. It was pitch dark hy this time, and we were very hungry. However, there was nothing for it but to trust to luck. For two hours we trudged along, 1 suppose we passed many houses, but we didn't see any, and finally about 11 o'clock we reached the home of Representative W. W. Bennett of the Vermont Legislature.

"The house was in darkness and a very savage dog welcomed us, endeavoring to devour us. He meant business and tore at us until we were compelled to use clubs to keep him off. Even then he might have done serious damage had not the noise aroused Mr. Bennett, who came down and invited us in. He gave us a good supper and a comfortable bed and we were very grateful."

Both Mr. Stevens and Mr. Gliddcn immediately offered $100 each as a reward for the arrest of the marksman.

June 24. X. H. Arnold, W. C. Coughlin, and H. R. Hopkins, left North Adams in the North Adams Xo. 1, at 8:35 a. m., descent at Guilford, Vt., 10:25 a. in. Distance, 27 miles in 1 hour 50 minutes.

June 24. Dr. R. M. Randall and William Van Sleet left Xorth Adams in the "Greylock," 22,000. at 9:55 a. m., descent at Guilford, Vt., half mile beyond the Xorth Adams Xo. 1, at 11:25 a- ni- Distance, 27^2 miles.

June 25. The second voyage of the balloon "Boston," 35,000 feet, and the tenth of Charles J. Glidden that will qualify him as pilot Xo. 12 of the Aero Club of America and XTo. 1 of the Aero Club of New England, was successfully made today from North Adams at 9:20 a. m., an easy landing being made on the farm of Chas. Mowry at Wil-braham Center two miles from North Wilbraham station.

Mr. Glidden was accompanied by A. Holland Forbes of New York who was making his fifteenth ascension.

The start from North Adams was perfect, the balloon carrying five hundred pounds of ballast. After hovering over the city a few minutes at an elevation of 1,900 feet, the Hoosic Mountain was crossed at the westerly door of the tunnel. Here the cool air sent the balloon down at the expense of considerable sand.

At an elevation of 4,000 feet, variable winds caused the balloon basket to rock not unlike a small boat in a swell—a new experience to both aeronauts. The voyage could be well called "an aerial sail among the colleges,'' for at one time the colleges of Wilbraham, Holyoke, Amherst, and Northampton, were visible and the landing made in the college town of Wilbraham. The highest elevation reached was 7,400 feet. At 11.11 the Tip Top House of Mount Holyoke was directly under the basket 6,450 feet below, to the right was Mount Tom, the city of Springfield covering about as much space as Boston Common, and the city of Holyoke. A cool breeze off Mount Holyoke caused a drop of 3,800 feet and made a landing necessary on account of loss of sand in a thirty-mile wind. The anchor failed to catch and they dragged up a small brook but did not get wet. Mountains Holyoke and Tom appeared like huge "A" tents with a heavy green covering. The sun and clouds caused much up and down movements and I still advise ascensions three hours before dark as the most desirable. Elapsed time, 2 hours 35 minutes. Distance, 60 miles.

June 26. Dr. R. M. Randall and Edward F. Newton in the "Greylock" left North Adams at 9:14 a. m., landing at Stephentown, N. Y., 11:30 a. m. General direction southwest. Distance, 20 miles. Highest altitude, 9,200 feet. A cold current was encountered over Greylock Mountain which cost three bags to clear. Dr. Randall advises others to always clear the spot by at least 2,000 feet as snow and ice can be found there all the year. "It is a mean hole and it seemed as if we were dropping into an ice chest."

June 27. Alan R. Hawley, A. H. Morgan and J. H. Wade, Jr., left North Adams in the "Sky Pilot" of Mr. Morgan at 9:14 a. m., landing at Monroe Bridge at i:i5-Distance, 8 miles.

June 27. Samuel A. King, Dr. Thomas E. Eldridge. Dr. George H. Siminerman, Mrs. C. B. Kilgore. and Mrs. M. E. Lockington, left Point Breeze, Philadelphia, in the new balloon, made by King, "Philadelphia." Almost as soon as it ascended a rent appeared in the top which gradually got bigger and the balloon dropped swiftly when over the Schuylkill River. By dint of rapid throwing out of ballast the balloon landed safely in the water of the river. As the water was reached the anchor was thrown out and Mr. King fell overboard. Quickly willing hands seized the guide rope and drew the balloon to shore where the women alighted. The water was but two or three feet deep where the balloon struck, but had it been away from aid the balloon might have collapsed upon the aeronauts and smothered them. This was the balloon's initial ascent and was owned by the Philadelphia Aeronautical Recreation Society.

June 30. N. II. Arnold, A. W. Vorse, and W. R. Kimball, left North Adams at 10:26 a. m. in the North Adams No. 1, and landed at 12:05 at Warwick, Mass., a distance of 42 miles. Direction, east. Altitude, 6,200 Teet. Average speed. 28.42 miles.

Let us take this occasion to say that this is the first trip made since the United States Weather Bureau issued its special ascension record blanks, on which the aeronauts tried to comply with the oft-repeated request of the Bureau. In this record the altitudes are noted every few moments but the real items of the greatest value are left blank.

It does seem that Avhen the Government asks the co-operation of balloonists with a promise of a manifold return of favors, efforts should be made to assist the Bureau in its work.

AERONAUTICAL NEWS OF THE ARMY FOR JUNE.

Contract has been awarded to John Boyle & Co. for a tent to be erected at Fort Myer, Va., for housing the dirigible balloon which will be delivered about the end of July by Capt. T. S. Baldwin, after trials.

The balloon shed and building for the hydrogen generating plant that are being erected at Fort Omaha, Neb., under the direction of Capt. Chas. De Forrest Chandler, the holder of the Lahm Cup of the Aero Club of America, and the wireless tower, are nearing completion.

Lieut. B. D. Foulois, Signal Corps, now at the Signal School at Fort Leavenworth, Kans., has been assigned for duty in connection with aeronautics in Washington, to report at once.

As an instance of unprecedented speed in gas balloon construction from ready prepared, machine-varnished fabric, Mr. Carl E. Myers built, and shipped July 2nd from the balloon farm, Frankfort, N. Y., to the U. S. Weather Bureau a complete captive balloon, with net, four days from- receipt of order.

$500 for the First "Airship" to Land at Asbury Park.

Ex-Mayor James A. Bradley, of Asbury Park, has offered $500 to the owner or lessee of the "airship" that will make Asbury Park Athletic Grounds the first stop after leaving New York. The offer to remain open for eighteen months from date (June 27, 1908).

"Blue Ribbcn of Aviation Has Passed to France."

This surprising statement was recently written in an article entitled, "A New Aeroplane Record." Since when has anyone made a longer flight than our own Wright Brothers? Known feats do not have to be "officially" viewed by any organization.

French Military Dirigible "Republique" Makes First Trial.

On June 24, the "Republique" made a few maneouvres lasting half an hour. Everything worked well. The general form is the same as the "Patrie." The extreme length is 61 meters, with the largest diameter, 10.8 meters. The total capacity is 3,700 cubic meters. In the trial flight four passengers were carried, representing 300 kilos, 100 kilos of gasolene, and 845 kilos of ballast, the total weight carried being 1,345 kilos. The gasolene tanks are large enough for a flight of 800 kilometers with eight men and ballast. The crew will consist of a commander, an assistant and two mechanics. Defects discovered in "Patrie" have been remedied in this dirigible. Special attention has been given to the car. It has been made more comfortable. The sides are vertical all around. The motor can be repaired and watched from all sides. The ventilator of the motor and of the balloonet are at the rear of the car. The ventilator of the bal-loonet can be worked by hand if the motor gives out. Gasolene is placed under pressure in a tank located under the car. There is enough gasolene to run the 65-Panhard motor twelve hours without refilling.

Balloon Racing for June.

Twelve balloons started in the Distance race of the Aero Club of France on June 11. It was won by Edouard Bachelard who landed the following day at Roermond, Holland, after making a distance of 372 kilometers in 19 hours 7 minutes.

Four balloons left Poitiers on June 14. Won by M. Briol.

The "hare and hounds" balloon race run by the Aero Club of the United Kingdom from Hurlingham on June 25th, in which eleven balloons competed, was won by the Hon. C. S. Rolls, he piloting the "hare" balloon.

Fourteen balloons started in a precision contest for balloons on the 28th. Each competitor had to state before leaving some point near which he expected to descend. Won by Rene Gasnier who landed 400 meters from the point selected.

Four balloons started from Bochum, Prussia, June 17, in a distance race under conditions of war. Two of the balloons reached Jarotschin near the Russian frontier, a distance of 450 miles in 15 hours. Another descended at Goerlitz after a trip of 350 miles. The fourth balloon failed to comply with the conditions which exacted that three persons occupy the basket of each balloon, one of whom should be landed during the course of the voyage, the balloon reascending and continuing. The trip must end in Germany.

New "Zeppelin IV" Tried.

On June 20, a preliminary ascent was made of a satisfactory character, remaining in the air some 45 minutes. The side steering device was tested but did not prove entirely right and a new one was tried on the 23d, when an ascension lasting 2*4 hours was made. The steering device worked perfectly.

Dictionary of Aeronautics.

Robert Harris Pierce, who is favorably known among lexicographers and philologists, has nearly completed a small "Dictionary of Aeronautics," including meteorological terms, with pronunciations and illustrative quotations from standard works.

This dictionary, which will sell at a moderate price, will be of inestimable value as there is already a considerable demand for such a work.

Whose is this:

"An inventor of 'heavier-than-air' flying machine, maintaining, automatically, absolutely perfect equilibrium; built on entirely different principle from the Wright Brothers or any other machine heretofore made; requires additional capital to complete machine in accordance with government specifications; over $300,000 in immediate cash prizes, in addition to the profits to be derived from the manufacture, sale and exhibition of the machine, is to be gained; the inventor having a regular income agrees to devote the amounts subscribed, as well as his own surplus, entirely to the development and perfection of the device, and to turn over the dividends on his own holdings until every investor shall have received the full return of his investment in dividends; a specially attractive proposition will be made to the subscribers to the amount required to complete the first large machine now under construction; all the claims can be demonstrated by models in flight. Address Scientific, 319 Herald."

An inside view of the 65 h. p. Adams-Farwell Motor

JUST LIKE OTHER.... MOTORS — but

*-

we leave off a hundred or so pounds of troublesome junk that is made unnecessary by the simple act of revolving the motor instead of the shaft.

2.7 lb. per h. p.

(A. L. A. M. Rating)

No aeronaut or aviator can afford to overlook this proposition—These motors have been used in automobiles for ten years—We design special motor bases to fit your airship—Write for details.

THE ADAMS COMPANY, 37iVriite Street, DUBUQUE, IOWA.

PROMPT AND RELIABLE SERVICE ALWAYS PHONE 3472-3 COL.

PHOTOS by SPOONER & WELLS, Inc.

cA capiton that appears only under good pictures

Forty thousand vie^vs m our albums Orders for any views filled promptly

Eïbery event covered t>ery thoroughly Portrait ivork ivell and quickly done

SPOONER & WELLS, Inc., 1931 Broadway, N. Y.

Miller Building, cor. 65th Street, Room 303

WANTED—20 or 25 h. p. light motor that can positively deliver the horsepower and maintain same for at least one hour. For aeroplane purposes. Quick sale if price is right. Address LED, c/o Aeronautics.

WANTED—To correspond with someone who has money and desires to get interested in the development of a true flying machine. I can show a practical working model of a true flying machine.

H. C. EARLE, General Delivery, Denver, Colo.

WANTED immediately. An active Partner with Capital or Facilities, to build a Practical and Perfect Flying Machine. Entirely New, Scientific, Meteorological Solution of Natural Flight. Patentable. No Mechanical Proposition.

Address C. B. MELOTT, Care Aeronautics, 1777 Broadway, N. Y.

The Adams-Farwell Motor.

In response to a question as to whether the Adams-Farwell motor has had long tests, a motor was built in 1898 upon the same principle and this was in actual use driving an old express wagon which was remodeled so that the motor drove the front wheels.

1898. 1899—1900.

Here is an illustration of the wagon. The car shown in the illustration marked "1899-1900" is still in the hands of a private owner. This car was built in 1899 and the photograph from which this illustration was made was taken on January 1, 1900. The car is seen climbing a long hill with snow on the ground.

1901—1905.

The cylinders of the motors used in the first two cars were cast in one piece; that is, the three cylinders were all formed in one casting, the heads being bolted on. The company states: "We were not satisfied with the gasket that this design necessitated, and so in 1901 brought out the motor shown in electro marked '1901 to 1905.'

This 3-cylinder motor was like the first ones, except that each cylinder and cylinder-head were cast in one piece and the three cylinders were bolted together and bolted to the top and bottom flanges forming the crank case. This is the method that has been used continuously since 1901.

In 1905, the Adams people brought out their first 5-cylinder motor as shown by the electrotype marked "1905 to 1908." This motor was identically the same as the 3-cylinder motor except that the timing gears were placed outside of the crank case where they are more accessible. This change was not made, however, because of any necessity for getting at these gears frequently, but because it was desired to make the gears of Wger diameter, and it was necessary to lengthen the crank pin so that we did not have room for them inside of the crank case.

In the 3-cylinder motor the single rocker arm for each cylinder and the single cam for all cylinders is the same as now used. These motors have been controlled by variable compression ever since 1898. At one time they had a magneto with make and

1905—1908.

break spark on the 1898 motor, but discarded this in favor of the jump spark which has been used on all of the cars since that time.

A 1909 model is now being produced having a 5-cylinder motor of 5j^-inch bore by 5-inch stroke. This will be used in a 7-passenger car and also in a 4-passenger roadster. This new model will be known as "Model Nine." This and the aeronautic motor are the latest products.

Aeronautic motors can now be furnished of 65-horsepower having five cylinders, 5^-inch bore by 5-inch stroke. This is a modification of the "Model Nine" motor.

Mr. F. O. Farwell is of the opinion that in order to make an absolutely dependable aeroplane it will be necessary to utilize gyroscopic force which heretofore has been a hindrance rather than an aid on account of the fact that aviators have not taken it into consideration at all.

The Adams Company is making some experiments along this line, which, if they turn out as expected, will probably mean that they will design another aeronautic motor which will, in fact, be two of the present 36-horsepower motors combined in one, but running in opposite directions. This, they believe, is necessary in order to make an aeroplane that will stay right side up and handle nicely in the air. They do not believe that any aeroplane with one or more fly wheels revolving in a vertical plane will ever be a perfert success.

MY INITIAL TRIP TO THE CLOUDS.

(Continued from page 24).

We arevgoing to purchase a 40,000-foot balloon from Mr. Stevens and to enter enthusiasticariyi into the sport of ballooning and do our share to make it popular. We are honorary members of the Wilkinsburg Automobile Club and carried the pennant of that club on this flight. Every year the club has a run to our country home and we. will entertain 150 of them the latter part of July and, incidentally, make converts of them all to ballooning.

THE J. E. LINDE PAPER CO.

AT BEEKMAN AND CLIFF STREETS

is Headquarters for Papers of EVERY DESCRIPTION, Cards, Boards, Envelopes, Pads, Twines, etc., and operates plants for Ruling, Cutting, Padding, Punching, Perforating as well as Envelope making. It desires at this time however, to call your particular attention to several of its most popular brands of writing papers suitable for office stationery. They are—

PARCHMENT BOND CORPORATION BOND

in all modern colors and white with envelopes made on the premises to match. Also

COUNTING HOUSE LINEN ENVELOPES TO MATCH

To be had from printers, stationers and lithographers. ^

Samples upon request. , ^

POWER DRIVES THE WORLD.

POWER will CONQUER THE AIR

I have a practical revolution in the generation and application of "HEAT ENERGY" to all power purposes of land, SCa and air. I combine both gas and Steam with one generation, in one simple engine, utilizing the prime heat now wasted in steam generation through the stack (about 25%), also the radiating heat now wasted through cooling jacket (about 40%) in gas engines, and I reduce greatly the present exhaust waste (about 30%) in gas and steam engines.

I halve their weight and double their power on same fuel.

I retain the separate merits of both gas and steam engines and eliminate their defects.

My system is automatic; mobile and quick as gas; enduring and

dependable as steam.

I use very high combustion, making practicable the burning of kerosene and the heavier oils without residuary obstruction, and at the same time conserve the intense heat and turn it into work with a very low temperature exhaust heretofore unapproached.

This enormous increase of power on less weight " Solves the aerial problem" and with my new-true principal of aero-locomotion assures practical every day air navigation, with automatic-constant equilibrium and stability with positive control in heavier-than-air machines and in rising vertically without a running start or launching ways.

I can greatly increase the speed of dirigibles regardless of ordinary wind or weather, and relieve the stresses due to head resistance at high speed.

I can regulate speed, and hover in the air for days, or travel for days without base, and land slowly and vertically at a predetermined point within a radius of one thousand miles.

The World and principal Governments are seeking the " practical-every day airship " each striving and hoping to get it first.

I HAVE GOT IT and want assistance to help launch it in all countries at one and the same time, and QUICK.

A world field with a universal power heretofore unknown which must replace present systems and mechanisms.

It must be seen to be realized or comprehended.

Fundamental basic principles protecting in all patenting countries.

Will arrange liberally for different purposes and countries by royalties, licenses, organized companies or on percentages.

Absolute opportunity for first comers. To those only meaning business and well known or giving reliable references will details be given.

The simply curious need not answer.

References given and required. All correspondence confidential.

address:

A. Z. Z. c/o AERONAUTICS

PRICE, TWENTY-FIVE CENTS

AERONAUT LEO STEVENS

THE LEADER OF BALLOON

AND AIRSHIP CONSTRUCTION

The keen Sportsman

OF WIDE EXPERIENCE

USES A "STEVENS BALLOON."

ALL BALLOONS ABSOLUTE HYDROGEN

AND COAL GAS PROOF

VARNISHING BY

Improved electrical

PROCESS.

ONE TO FIFTY PASSENGERS

ALSO REPRESENTING CARTON 4. L aCHAMBRE, LEADING BALLOON BUILDERS OF

Paris, France.

Special Patented RUBBER BALLOON FABRIC, (German and French.)

THESE FABRICS HAVE BEEN TESTED—NOT IN EXPERIMENTAL STAGE.

•MESSRS. A. C. TRIACA AND A. LEO STEVENS ARE READY TO DELIVER AEROPLANES OF THE FARMAN NO. 1 AND DELAGRANGE TYPES AFTER TRIALS OF 1 MILE IN A CIRCLE.

TWO CENT STAMPS FOR REPLY.

BOX 181, MADISON SQUARE, NEW YORK

AERONAUTICS

Ernest LaRue Jones, Editor and Owner Thoroughfare Building, 1777 Broadway, New York. 304 No. Fourth St., St. Louis.

Vol. Ill August, 190S No. 2

Aeronautics is issued on the 20th of each month. It furnishes the latest and most authoritative information on all matters relating to Aeronautics. Contributions are solicited.

SUBSCRIPTION RATES. One year, $3.00; payable always in advance.

Subscriptions may be sent bv express, draft, monev order or registered letter. WE CAN NOT USE CHECKS ON LOCAL BANKS UNLESS EXCHANGE IS ADDED. Send draft 011 New York. Make all remittances free ot exchange, payable to Aeronautics. Currency forwarded in unregistered letters will be at sendei s risk.

Foreign Subscriptions.—To countries within the postal union, postage prepaid, $3.50 per annum in advance. Make foreign money orders payable to aeronautics. No foreign postage stamps accepted.

Important.—Foreign money orders received in the United States do not bear the name of the sender. Foreign subscribers should be careful to send letters of advice at same time remittance is sent to insure proper credit.

THE ENCOURAGEMENT OF INTEREST IN AVIATION

N the opinion of many, it was thought that the public flights of some famous experimenter would be of the very greatest benefit to the art in America by showing to the general public the practicability of dynamic flight.

This opinion is still held.

The failure of the Brighton Beach—St. Louis plan is most regrettable. Mistakes were made in the handling of the matter which, probably, have resulted in the failure of the whole plan. Sufficient time was not given in which to advertise the event. The selection of Brighton Beach track was an error. If the grounds provided had been large enough to admit of circular flights of miles in length, and the first flight had been successful, people would, no doubt, have been anxious to see the flights. But with a straight flight of only a few hundred feet possible, people thought they had not seen enough for their money.

We realize that a flight of any length is yet wonderful but the general public wants to see a spectacle, which a short straight flight is not.

There are available grounds in the vicinity of New York of over a mile square where records could have been made.

As far as the public is concerned, aviation has received a hard blow and it will be some time before a full recovery is attained. The present event effectually bars anyone else from conducting the same sort of demonstration with pecuniary profit. Had the St. Louis people the services of an experienced publicity man at the outset and selected the proper grounds, the affair could undoubtedly been made a great success.

Even under present conditions, the lack of interest taken in the flights of Mr. Farm an by those actually known to be interested in aviation is surprising. Mr. Farman certainly fulfilled his side of the agreement as far as the limits of the ground permitted and must be of the opinion that interest in aeronautics on this side of the pond is really less than he anticipated.

SYMPOSIUM.

For the June number we wrote letters to various ones prominent in aerostation and aviation, editors of newspapers and scientists, business men and those generally interested, asking their views as to the present state of the art, its future, criticisms or words of encouragement—just as it appeared to their individual minds. A number of these were omitted for lack of space in the June number and were continued in the July issue. These most interesting contributions are herewith concluded.

HERMANN W. L. MOEDEBECK, MAJOR IN THE BADENSIAN FOOT ARTILLERY REGIMENT.

If one wishes to form an impartial opinion of the present state of aeronautics, it is necessary to pass in review all the nations that have occupied themselves with this most attractive and difficult science, and to scrutinize them with reference to their achievements.

Since the reviewer is most familiar with the labors and achievements of his own countrymen, foreign nations may suffer somewhat in his estimate. This must be remembered in the following remarks by myself on the present state of aeronautics in general.

But in mitigation of any bias of which I may be possessed, I may say that I shall endeavor to deal fairly by all and that for twenty-five years I have watched the development of aeronautics with the greatest interest. I have, moreover, been so fortunate as to witness its progress on the spot in the principal countries of Europe— Austria, France, England, Italy and Russia.

On the basis of my observations I must award the palm for the greatest progress in aeronautics to Germany. We make no boast of this and do not with vain conceit look down on other countries, for the development in this field of endeavor is fundamentally international. The experiences of one na-Maj. H. W. L. Moedebeck. tion soon accrue to the advantage

of all others. We have given many of our ideas and experiences to France and England, and in turn these countries have done likewise by us. But the fact is, that up to about 1900, the Germans, the French and the English alone advanced aeronautics through their military interest in it.

By their scientific and successful experiments the French are entitled to the greatest credit in the work of the overthrow and destruction of the prejudices which, thanks to the opinions drilled into us in the schools, until only a few years ago swayed the entire civilized world. Charles Renard's fame is world-wide.

Englishmen, ever preeminently practical, have created an extraordinarily simple technic for military aeronautics, and it is Colonel Templar who deserves special credit here.

Germany and Austria first elaborated the true principles to be observed in the construction of airships and flying machines. I mention Hanlein's airship which was successfully launched in model at Mayence in 1871; the virtually successful flights of the engineer, Otto Lilienthal; and the flying apparatus of Wilhelm Kress in Vienna.

Renard and Krebs, and later Julliot, in France, availed themselves of these principles in the work of furnishing an improved airship. In the practical execution of their work these builders naturally made great advances in the technic of aeronautic construction.

The art of flying was taken up by Pilcher and Patrick Y. Alexander in England; Octave Chanute, the Wright Brothers, A. M. Herring, and not to forget Professor Langley in America; and Captain Ferber and the engineer Archdeacon in France. In this specialty, France and America so far show the greatest progress. But the subject is so popular that also in many other smaller countries able engineers are seriously taking hold of it.

We must not be surprised, therefore, if the honor of being the first man who rose from the earth in a motor flying machine is rightly claimed by the Danish engineer, Ellehammer. Ellehammer made his first free ascent September 9, 1906, before credible witnesses. It is, moreover, attested to by photographs.

I shall, of course, be told that the Wright Brothers were in the field as early as 1905, and I will concede this if it shall be shown that they fly. In my opinion, the Wright Brothers have made a great mistake by their secretiveness and have accomplished absolutely nothing, as events in Europe show. Many roads lead to Rome, and there will be flying without the secret of the Wright Brothers. Without curiosity I have in vain tried to persuade them to repeat at least once, for their own good, their flight, in the presence of genuine experts, Americans of course. I think they would have done well to listen to the counsel. (In regard to "this so-called "secrecy," I was informed by one who may be said to be in close touch with the affairs of the Wright Brothers that "the policy of secrecy has been found eminently successful and the Wright Brothers are not likely to depart from it." Photographs of the flights, in 1903, of the Wright Brothers' first motor machine are to be published in the September number of Century Magazine.—Editor.)

And now permit me to direct your attention once more to Germany and Austria, where Wilhelm Berg, David Schwarz and Count Zeppelin, after a long series of painstaking experiments, and after many failures, amid the sneers and gibes of conceited colleagues, calmly developed the rigid system of construction of the aluminum airship, with which to win the world's record for speed and endurance.

On the other hand, we see Major Parseval building one of the simplest of elastic airships, in which there is nothing firm and rigid except the car; and we find the engineer, Bazenoch, following in the footsteps of Paul Hanlein, still further perfecting this type of airship which Julliot had already done so much to develop.

And the ideas of Count Zeppelin, at first derided and depreciated by small-minded people, are more and more taking definite shape. The ballonet airships are growing larger and larger, the cars and motors are multiplied in obedience to Hanlein's suggestion, the stiffening of the large ballonet airships becomes more and more extensive, more Zeppelin-like, and I merely ask, how and where are these hulks to effect a landing?

Thus we see developing before our eyes the problem of the immediate future concerning aeronautics. We must now shape the surface of the earth in such a way that our precious aircraft may find shelter on it against storms and inclement weather. J Now we are beginning to put airships to use, endurance tests are' being made, the problem of anchorage is being looked into. A beginning had already been made in this respect with the Lebaudy airships in 1894. but the unfortunate escape of "La Patrie" in 1907 urges us no longer to delay building airship harbors. They are, moreover, a necessary condition precedent of future air communication by means of airships, which is most likely first to be realized in the country where, on the basis of some practical system of airship construction, the first aeronautic stock company shall be formed.

It is to be noted that air communication will always depend more or less on the weather and may be compared to communication by sailing vessels. But the uncertainties incident to it are fully compensated by the advantage of the direct air line, the very quick time which can be made, and the clean and interesting trip.

Flying machines will be perfected through sport and from military motives. We may not say before another year just when something practically useful will be achieved in this line. The experiments are still too new, the results still too meagre— flying is still too uncertain.

"I sent for a two years' subscription to your paper when you started it. I have received it regularly and enjoy same very much." A. L. ARMENTA.

J. SAUNIERE, PRESIDENT AERONAUTIQUE CLUB DE FRANCE AND THE PREPARATORY SCHOOL OF MILITARY AERONAUTS.

Permit me first to express my best wishes for success for the good work which you have undertaken in publishing your interesting review of aeronautics. I hope it will be one of the vehicles of the greatest power for progress in aerial navigation in your country, where everything is accomplished on such a grand scale and is executed so rapidly.

In writing a few words on aviation, I cannot do better than to state what the Aeronautique Club de France has done on that score.

Following the principle adopted since 1897 we have thought, above all, it was necessary to learn to "fly" so as to be able later on to guide the flying machine of whatever nature through the ether. To arrive at this end we have con-M. J. Sauniere. structed an aeroplane of the Chanute

model, and we have repeated the experiences of the great savant at our park of Champlan Palaiseau. There a number of students have familiarized every Sunday with the new sensations of gliding. They either use our apparatus or machines of their own construction, and study at the same time the plan of surfaces in accordance with how they behave in the air.

Well, according to my judgment, it is the schools of this style which must be created everywhere to encourage, for if a number of flying machines actually exist, the trained motormen are totally lacking, and that is the reason the results obtained with aeroplanes are so very mediocre.

In fact, there is no reason why an aeroplane which can stay in the air ten minutes cannot stay an hour or more. The fault is in the aviator who hesitates and fears to manipulate the mechanism of his apparatus.

To summarize, if we want to see aviation progress rapidly and become practical we must begin to educate aviators.

AERO & MARINE MOTOR COMPANY

60 PEMBERTON SQUARE BOSTON, MASS.

44 H. P. (brake test) motor, water cooled, weight 130 lbs., including magneto, oil cups and water. Especially built for aeronautic work. SEND FOR CATALOG

AEROPLANE CONSTRUCTION

Models or manufacturing complete from plans in all materials. Repairs or special parts for machines already constructed. Our plant especially equipped for this class of work. Free use of large grounds for trials, etc.

C. & A. WITTEMANN, P. 0. Box 693. Stapleton. Staten Island, N. Y.

17 OCEAN TERRACE, COR. LITTLE CLOVE ROAD

IL. S. ORR

OFFICIAL PHOTOGRAPHER OF " AERONAUTICS " and THE NORTH ADAMS AERO CLUB

Photographs of all Ascensions at Pittsfield and North Adams

POSTCARDS IO CJEJVTS Box 501. North Adams, Mass. For Sale also at "Aeronautics

PROF. A. LAWRENCE ROTCH, DIRECTOR BLUE HILL METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATORY—PRESIDENT AERO CLUB OF NEW ENGLAND.

the balloon vs. the aeroplane.

Up to the present time only the balloon has enabled man to rise freely in the air to considerable heights and to travel through it for long distances.

Soon after the invention of the hydrogen balloon in 1783, it was proposed to control its direction, and our illustrious countryman, Benjamin Franklin, after witnessing the early ascensions in Paris, shrewdly remarked that "perhaps mechanic art may find easy means to give them (the balloons) progressive motion in a calm and to slant them a little in the wind."

Not until one hundred years later was this successfully accomplished in a cigar shaped balloon constructed by Messrs. Renard and Krebs of the French Army, which returned to its starting point five times out of seven. This balloon, driven by a nine horse-power electric motor, attained a speed of fourteen miles per hour. The light gasolene motors which have been developed for the automobile, have been the chief factor in the recent progress in aerial navigation, and foreign military balloons of the types of the ill-fated Patrie in France and Zeppelin's gigantic airship in Germany, the latter having double engines of 160 horsepower and capable of carrying a dozen men, are propelled through calm air at a speed of about thirty Prof. A. Lawrence Rotch. mi]es an hour_

These balloons, therefore, are independent of a wind blowing with slightly less velocity, which may be taken as the wind rate prevailing a few thousand feet above the surface of the earth.

The bulky gas bag, with its delicate fabric, cannot be driven through the air at a much greater speed, even if sufficiently powerful motors could be built of the requisite lightness. Therefore, it may be affirmed that dirigible balloons will always be influenced by strong winds and cannot serve as a means of regular communication, finding their most important application in military reconnoitering and possibly in offensive warfare.

Authorities_ agree that the practical flying machine will be of the "heavier-thau-air" type, that is, it will not be supported by a gas bag. The speed which can be imparted to an aeroplane on account of its rigid construction and small head resistance will enable it to make headway against all but the strongest winds, but the high speed necessary to maintain such a machine in the air will greatly increase the difficulties of launching and landing, with the attendant danger to aeronauts and landsmen.

While the balloon is essentially a French invention, the first successful motor aeroplane is American. The gliding experiments of Lilienthal in Germany opened the way for the experiments in the United States by Chanute, Langlcy and the Wright Brothers, the latter having, no doubt, executed the longest flight—twenty-four miles at the rate of thirty-eight miles an hour—on a machine heavier than air three years ago. The French experimenters, Farman and Delagrange, have only this year flown a much shorter distance.

(Continued on page 28.)

FARMAN IN AMERICA.

What should be the greatest stimulus to aeronautics in America is the arrival of the famous aviator, Henry Farman, who is to make as many flights as possible beginning August i and continuing until August 15th.

These public demonstrations ought to bring about a great popular realization of the practicability of dynamic flight and tend to bring capital into the industry. From New York Mr. Farman is to go to other cities and make flights.

A syndicate of St. Louis men has provided a fund of $24,600 for fifteen flights, and a rate per flight for each succeeding flight. The flights in New York are held under the auspices of the Aero Club of America.

On Thursday evening, July 30, was held at the Hotel Astor a reception to Mr. Farman, which was well attended by members of the Aero Club of America, The Aeronautic Society and various other interested people.

Charles Jerome Edwards, the Treasurer of the Club, introduced Mr. Farman with a fitting speech.

General James Allen, Chief Signal Officer of the Army, was called upon and spoke of the progress of aeronautics in the Signal Corps.

Mr. Edwards gave credit to Professor Langley for bringing about a realization of the possibility of dynamic flight with means already at hand, and called upon Charles M. Manly, who was Professor Langley's assistant in his work. Mr. Manly welcomed Mr. Farman and told of the work of Professor Langley and the accident to the completed machine.

Colgate Hoyt, the President of the Automobile Club of America, gave a good view of the status of aeronautics from the point of a layman by stating that when flying machines were as practical as automobiles he would have one.

Captain Homer W. Hedge, the first President of the Aero Club of America and one of the founders, gave the history of the inception of the Club, spoke of the future and urged the appropriation of money for aeronautic work in the Signal Corps.

Dr. Albert F. Zahm, of the Catholic University of America, in Washington, spoke of the work of Farman and described him as having "the energy of an Englishman, the equilibrium of a Scotchman and the speed and daring of a Frenchman." He congratulated France on the "esprit de corps" of her experimenters and expressed the hop^ that this spirit will spread. "Farman will be destined to do great good for aeronautics and create enthusiasm among millions of people." Dr. Zahm told of the changes and progress since the Congress in Chicago, and mentioned the one in St. Louis, and in New York, the latter held last Fall. He also commented upon the formation of The Aeronautic Society in New York," devoted especially to the scientific side of aerial navigation, and day before yesterday plans were laid for starting a national organization exclusively for scientific development. These societies will not interfere in any way with the clubs—co-ordinate with all."

Charles J. Glidden, the round-the-world automobile tourist, made the good night address and told of seeing "Farman make his first flights in an automobile in Ireland, but to-morrow or Saturday he will fly off the ground. The world is to be congratulated on the work of Farman."

grounds too small.

It is to be regretted that the Brighton Beach racetrack, where the flights are being made, is entirely too small for any record flights. It is unreasonable to expect within this confined space to make circular flights. The most that can be expected is a straight flight, with perhaps a small curve at the end of the flight.

The entire length of the field within the bounds of the race track is but 840 yards, and in making the flights a couple of hundred feet must be deducted at each end for arising and alighting.

And there are miles of bare ground where record flights could be made, fairly accessible to New York.

On Friday, July 31, late in the afternoon, two short trial flights were made.

On the first advertised day, August 1, the wind blew so strongly that a flight was impossible, and the crowd of 8,000 people were told that they could use their tickets for a succeeding exhibition.

While waiting for Farman to appear with his machine, the attention of the crowd was drawn to a large box kite which appeared on the far side of the track. After it was well in the air a banner appeared, and as it drew over the center of the field the banner unfurled and there appeared in enormous letters, "Read Aeronautics." This banner was flown during all the flights by Samuel F. Perkins.

Sunday, the 2d, saw a short flight, the length of the field, in the presence of about 1,000 people. No announcement was made of the flight, but many who had failed to see the flight the previous day were on hand with the hope that Farman would make a flight, and they were not disappointed.

After sun-down the machine was taken to one end of the field and the flight begun. After a run of about 200 feet the aeroplane rose at a slight angle and continued at a height of about 10 feet. At the end the flight the motor was stopped, the slant downward begun, the motor started again for a few revolutions to lessen the shock of landing, the machine lit and rolled along the ground for about 100 feet.

During the flights of Friday evening, and after the flight of Sunday, Charles K. Hamilton sailed over the grounds, back and forth, in his dirigible. On Friday evening he landed between the grandstands near the betting ring, reascending and returning to his hangar.

On Monday, the 3d, Farman accomplished easily three flights the length allowed by the inclosure. Three flights were also made on Tuesday evening.Zi

On Wednesday the wind blew very strongly and at one time threatened the machine. As it w»i, the force of the wind bent some of the rods leading to the horizontal steering planes. No flight was made.

On Thursday there wa*s a severe rainstorm and no flight was made. Friday, the same. On Saturday and Sunday three flights each were made.

Not more than 500 people viewed the flights during the week. The only large crowd was that of the first day. the reason seeming to be that the people of New York expected to see a circus and found a scientific demonstration.

The Farman Flying Machine.

corrected by mr. farm ax.

Speaking generally, the machine consists of the following parts: <a) A double-decked aerosurface; the main sustaining surface.

(b) A body for carrying passenger, motor, etc.

(c) Small balancing planes, in front of the main aerosurface, for steering in the vertical plane, with a separate vertical rudder, etc.

(d) A box-shaped rudder, in rear of the main aerosurface, for steering in the horizontal plane.

(e) Motor.

(f) A propeller fixed in rear of the motor, working like the propeller of a marine ship.

(g) A chassis fitted with wheels, to facilitate starting and alighting.

(h) Seat for passenger.

As regards the general construction of the machine, etc.

(1) The framework of body is made of wood; the covering of aerosurfaces. etc., being of Continental rubber cloth.

(2) The total weight, ready to fly, is 530 kilog. (1,168 lbs.).

(3) The total sustaining surface is 52 sq. m. (560 sq. ft.). The area of the balancer (c) is not counted as a sustaining surface.

(4) The sustaining velocity does not seem to have been accurately measured, but apparently the machine moved on a level course, when its speed was from 14 m. (45.9 ft.) to 17 m. (55.8 ft.) per sec; the inclination of the sustaining surfaces being about 8 degrees in the former case and about 6]/2 degrees in the latter.

(5) The main aerosurface consists of two superposed surfaces each 10 m. (32.8 ft.) wide by 2 m. (6.56 ft.) in length, the total surface being equal to 40 sq. m. (430.5 sq. ft.). The surfaces are arched, the arching being about 1-14. When the machine is in full flight the angle of inclination of the chord of the arch varies between 8 degrees and 6l/2 degrees. The vertical distance between the two surfaces is 1.5 m. (4.92 ft.) and the connecting posts are stayed and kept in position by suitable wire guys.

(6) The body consists of a wood framework covered with canvas, fan-shaped in front, but with a vertical stern. The extreme width (transverse direction) is 0.75 m. (2.46 ft.); length 4 m. (13.12 ft.). The passenger's seat is in such a position that his centre of gravity seated is in a vertical line, passing through a point 0.25 m. (.81 ft.) in rear of the front edge of the main aerosurface.

(7) The balancing planes consist of two wooden surfaces each 2 m. (6.56 ft.) by I m. (3.28 ft.). In section the planes are arched above, but have very nearly flat under-surfaces. They swing on a pivot fixed at 0.25 m. (.81 ft.) from their front edges, and can be moved up and down by a suitable gearing worked by the passenger.

(8) The box-shaped rudder is 2 m. (6.56 ft.) wide, and 3 m. (9-84 ft.) long. The lower and upper surfaces are arched 1-14, and the angle of inclination of these surfaces in full flight is about 18 degrees. The stays, guys, etc., are similar to those used on the main aerosurfaces. The area of the upper and lower surfaces, which both help to sustain the machine, is 12 sq. m. (129.17 sq. ft.). The front edge of the box is 6 m. (19.68 ft.) in rear of the front edge of the main aerosurfaces.

(9) The motor is an 8-cylinder petrol Antoinette, giving 50 French horse-power as a maximum. Its weight is 80 kilog. (176 lbs.); there are no cooling appliances. The center of gravity of the motor is in the vertical line, passing through a point about 0.7 m. (2.3 ft.) in advance of the rear edge of the main aerosurfaces.

(10) Propeller. This is of the driving type used in marine ships; it has a steel frame and is covered with aluminum sheeting. The diameter is 2.3 m. (7.54 ft.); pitch, 1.4 m. (4.6 ft.). It is mounted directly on the motor shaft and at 1050 revolutions per minute requires 38 French horse-power to drive it.

(11) The chassis is constructed of steel tubing, the wheels are of the usual bicycle type, the front one being .25 m. (.81 ft.) in diameter, the rear ones .13 m.

(.425 ft.) ....

(12) Starting: To start, the machine is simply run along the ground under its own power until it rises in the air, movements in a vertical plane being controlled by the balancing planes.

(13) Alighting: To alight, the power is shut off, and the machine glides down to the ground on a gentle slope.

Postscript.

August 10.—Newspapers this morning report the dissolution of the syndicate which brought Farman to America.

T. R. MacMechen worked on the scheme and enlisted St. Louis capital to some extent. When time came to make the first payment to Farman of $6,000 the syndicate members got "cold feet" and at the last moment William Engeman, chief owner of Brighton Beach track, was induced to put up $5,000. This enabled the syndicate to get Farman here, taking chances on the gate receipts to make good for the rest of the contract, which was for $24,600, for a period of 90 days, and $200 extra for each day on which there was a flight, plus all expenses of Farman and his mechanics. The syndicate was unable to meet Mr. Farman's demand for his week's salary, and it was found that one Bowman, of the syndicate, had left hastily on the train for home. Mr. Farman is practically the sole creditor. The Aero Club of America lent its name to the series of flights, sharing no part in the financial responsibility.

What might have been made the greatest stimulus to the art has been turned into a detriment—unless the situation can yet be saved. The action of the St. Louis men in leaving the prime mover, MacMechen, stranded is certainly disgraceful. The organization which actually brought Farman here is called "The Aeroplane Co. of New York," with Samuel Bowman president, Wm. Engeman treasurer and T. R. MacMechen secretary.

FOR SALE, CHFAP—16 h. p., 2-cylinder Duryea aeronautic motor, water cooled, weighing about 7 lbs. per h. p. W. R. Turnbull, Rothesay, N. B., Canada.

Uncle Remus' story of how Brer Tarrypin wanted to learn to fly has a moral for all aeronauts. Brer Tarrypin had seen Brer Buzzard sailing in the air, and he thought he could sail, too. So he persuaded Brer Buzzard to take him on his back and give him a start. Brer Buzzard carried Brer Tarrypin in the air and dropped him. He fell, plunk, and nearly killed himself. He was very angry with Brer Buzzard, not because he failed to fly, but because Brer Buzzard failed to show him how to light. "Flying," said Brer Tarrypin, "is easy, but I don't 'speck I kin learn how to light."—Boston Herald.

Charles E. Duryea, of Reading, Pa., who some years ago built a number of small aeronautic motors, has a couple left. One is a two-cylinder, oscillating two-cycle which weighs about 20 pounds and gives 2 or 3 horse-power. This can be had for $25. The other is a four-cycle air-cooled which has been tested up to about 18 horse-power and weighs about 180 pounds—for $100.

On the ground that he was about to ascend in his balloon when he was served with notice of a suit, Charles A. Coey succeeded in Municipal Judge Hume's court in having a judgment against him for $60 set aside. The judgment had been entered July 8 in favor of Edwin Levick, a New York photographer.—Chicago Record-Herald.

-o c

c/3 a

. a

'S

. >>

« a

= o

S S

o

£ ©

« o

- <

!b

5 EG

CQ ,J= — -a

to

■A . o

¡1

00 _ 3

<U O

-o c

=3

u

M

H

< Z

o

<

I* ©

w

H

H H

Z

z

M

PG W

<

z o

"rt o

c

.2 -£ I'l

U5

c >

« 00

o >

C 00

« c c o

U5

3 a

C 1-

a

x

o

o S

■c 8

E

I u-

S

o

-o c

<u-c

"2 « s £

oo-rj C -

«~

u> O

oo a

it ¡1-1

d a> E

>..N J)

CO >

O— O

CO 03 O

u « J

IS

CQ _q

S § «

2_g-o

S y a; _c 'C "3 .52 -£>

tG «3 .

o > « -co

clc 2

U (J Q,

oc: o

DC

c

etj

a 42

f E

.2-

•=■ u.

C/3

« c

1 8

4> —

u CQ

o

S. QC

§ -J

= oc

■° 3

>» e

ROTARY MOTION-No Reciprocating Parts

A horizontal section of the Adams-Farwell Motor illustrates this point:

The cylinders are bolted together and revolve as one piece about the vertical stationary crank shaft (0) which is keyed to the base supporting the motor. The pistons and connecting rods revolve around the single stationary crank pin (0')—No part ever comes to a stop while the motor is running and the pistons must travel in a perfect circle.

Incidentally w e eliminate everything connected with a gasoline motor except the actual power producing elements, thus reducing the weight to 2.7 lbs. per h. p.

HORIZONTAL SECTION OF 36 H. P. MOTOR.

THE ADAMS COMPANY, 381 White Street, DUBUQUE, IOWA.

prom pt and reliable: service always phone 3472-3 col.

PHOTOS by SPOONER & WELLS, Inc.

c4 caption that appears only under good pictures Forh thousand <vieftos in out albums Orders for any views filled promptly

Ebery event covered 1>ery thoroughly Portrait -work 'well aid quickly done

SPOONER & WELLS, Inc., 1931 Broadway, N. Y. Miller Building, cor. 65th Street, Room 303

AERONAUTICS ;Q

Issued in conjunction with or separate from "Knowledge & Illustrated Scier

■4-

Devoted to aerostation, aviation, meteorology, aerology, etc Edited by Major B. Baden-Powell and John H. Ledeboer

ISSUED MONTHLY SUBSCRIPTIONS: "Knowledge" Including Aeronautics

"Aeronautics" alone Special rate lor 5 years

27 CHANCERY LANE,

LONDON, W. C.I

tews"

$1.90 .75 «.25

ND.

William Morgan, of Fort Plain, N. Y., has just received patents \4 new improvement in flying machines. Many will remember the model, ;by Mr. Morgan which fly so nicely.

M. W. Griswold, of Highwood, N. J., has a good suggestion for be idea is to have large buildings in towns and cities paint on the roofs i the name of the town. He would also have the railroad stations bear tb roof or have the flower gardens show the name, as is now done in som

for a ctured

His letters on the es.

THE MONTH ABROAD. England.

On July 24 the rebuilt British "Dirigible I" made its first ascent. After mane ver-ing for about 20 minutes, a landing was made not far from the point of start. The new airship is considerably improved over the "Nulli Secundus," and the "pitching" has been done away with. A description of Nulli Secundus was given in the October. 1907, issue. The September. 1908. issue will contain a more detailed account of the altered airship.

France.

Bleriot, who made his first trial with his "Vlll-bis" on June 23, recorded in our Jul)r issue, was out again on the 1st of July. On the following day he succeeded in driving his monoplane twice around the field of Issy-les-Moulineaux and covered 1 kilometer. This performance was repeated on the 3d, remaining in the air 2 minutes 25 seconds. On the 4th he covered 6 kilometers in 5 minutes 47 seconds.* The next day he made 4 times the circuit of the field at a height of 6 to 7 meters, being in the air 3 minutes 4 seconds, maneuvering and steering in the wind with perfect mastery of the machine.

On the 6th we saw two machines of different types competing for the same prize— the 10,000 francs of Armengaud—for 15 minutes in French air.

The wind was blowing 5 to 6 meters a second and Bleriot flew even over the trees and reached heights of 10 to 15 meters from the ground. In the two trials by Bleriot, he made flights of 3 minutes 9 seconds and 8 minutes 24 seconds, respectively, the latter flight being stopped by the loss of pressure in the gas reservoir.

BLERIOT "Vlll-Bis" IN FLIGHT.

The Bleriot Vlll-bis is practically a new machine. It is of the monoplane type, with a spread of wings of 8.5 meters and a total supporting surface of 22 square meters. The weight is not less than 480 kilos; that is, it flies under a weight of more than 21 kilos for each square meter, the greatest weight that thus far has been carried. The two small planes in the rear "which act as rudders for up and down steering and of which the inverse action helps to steer, appear to give the best results—at least as good as those promised by the Wright Brothers with their scheme of distorting the wings. All the movements of direction are by an ingenious patented device worked by only one lever. The Bleriot IX, more powerful (60 h. p., Antoinette 16 cyl. engine) will show the various special devices that have enabled the Bleriot VIII to rly with so much success. This latter apparatus is about ready to start trials." A greater supply of gasolene will also be carried.

On July 17 Bleriot, at a height of 5 to 6 meters, remained in the air for nearly 1 minute, steering around very sharp angles. After an hour another demonstration was made of the machine.

On the 26th the Bleriot monoplane was smashed practically to pieces. The accident occurred in making a short curve. The machine dipped a little and a gust of wind hit the machine at the same moment and landed all on the ground before the correction could be made.

arm en gaud prize won—20 minutes 20 seconds in air.

In a flight lasting 20 minutes 20 seconds, Farman succeeded in winning the Arraen-gaud money in a flight estimated to be 19.7 kilometers in length—just 300 meters short of winning the first Michelin prize. The previous European duration and distance record for gasless machines was made by Delagrange at Rome, 12.75 kilometers in 15 minutes 26 seconds on May 30 (See July issue). The Archdeacon Cup also now goes to Farman.

The Breguet giroplane or helicopter, after covering 10 meters on the ground, rose in the air to a height of about 4 meters and flew for a distance of 20 meters. The ascent was made at such speed that the aviator was obliged to stop his motor. In coming down the front part of the apparatus broke, necessitating several days' delay for repairs. ^ fc< <

A new machine has been able to fly—'that of M. Chedeville at the race-course of Fiers de l'Orne. This biplane machine at its first trial left the ground and covered 350 meters* at a height of 4 meters. The aviator will soon attempt turning. A 60-horse-power motor is used.

Flights are expected any day by Wilbur Wright at the Mans race-course. "The machine has been put rapidly together with the aid of Leon Bollee. The motor will be 25 horse-power and weight 75 kilos. It is a copy of the motor designed by the Wright Brothers themselves and has been constructed by Barriquand & Marre, who will deliver six others exactly the same." Wilbur Wright will remain in France, and the trials at Washington will be conducted by Orville Wright.

The military grounds of Issy have now been closed to experiments in aviation on account of the impossibility of protecting the public from the possibility of injury.

The trials of the dirigible Republique, mentioned in the last number as having been begun, were resumed the first of July. Seven people made an ascent at one time. Two trips were made, 30 and 40 minutes, respectively. Other ascents were made, manoeuvering, and the delegates of the Minister of War have accepted the airship on behalf of the War Office.

On the 23d the Republique was out again, after some alterations. The car has been placed a little more to the rear, the pitch of the screws increased so that the speed is augmented. Though not having been reinflated or filled up with gas, it retained an ascensional force of 1,100 kilos. Five people were carried during the manoeuvers.

During the first half of July experiments were conducted with the Malecot "mixte" dirigible-aeroplane, for which a shed has been built at Issy. A description and illustration was given in the October, 1907, issue.

Germany.

The new Gross dirigible made an ascent on July 1 in a strong wind. The airship landed disastrously in the forest of Griinewald. The nine passengers slid down ropes to earth.

The Gross II is 66 meters long, diameter 11 meters. The frame is of aluminum, has 2 motors of 75 horse-power each. Each motor runs one propeller having 3 aluminum blades. The propellers are immediately under the bag and the rudder for left and right turning is controlled the same as the rudder of a boat. The rudder for rising and lowering has been replaced by sails in the front. There are 2 air balloonettes. To the difference between a rigid system and a semi-rigid system attention might be called in this connection—both the Zeppelin IV and the Gross II having been caught in the same storm with safety for one and the opposite for the Gross II.

On July 11 an ascent of 1 hour 17 minutes was made at night. The height was varied by shifting a weight of 125 pounds. A signaling system was successfully tried, as well as the use of a luminous compass, such as is now used by the United States Army and sold in sporting goods houses in New York.

The trials of the Zeppelin IV, mentioned in the July number as having been begun, were continued.

world's record flight. Starting from its shed on Lake Constance, on July 1. the Zeppelin IV made a new world's record for distance and duration—375 kilometers in 12 hours without a stop, an average of 31.25 kilometers per hour. The former record was held by the Zeppelin III.

On the 3d three flights were made in which the King and Queen of Wurtemberg and the niece of Count Zeppelin participated. The first two lasted each about 15 minutes, the flights being out and back to the start. The third trip lasted 1 hour 30 minutes. On the 14th another flight of \Y2 hour was made.

On the 15th an ascent was planned, but in taking the airship from its shed the forward car became submerged, one of the left horizontal rudders broke and fell in the water, a propeller had its frame damaged and a large portion of the envelope torn. The balloon was then deflated.

On August 4th the monster airship started on the 24-hour flight, which was to qualify it for acceptance by the Government, and had nearly completed its long journey when an adjustment to one of the motors compelled a descent. A gust of wind tore the airship loose, flames were seen to come from the bag and an instant later an explosion followed. It is reported that the bag was struck by lightning and it is said that a tree nearby was split open. No doubt a thorough investigation of the accident will be made to determine the exact cause of the disaster. The determination of this will be of enormous value to students of dirigibles.

zeppelin iv.

The Zeppelin IV resembles very much its predecessor. There are 2 cars, 2 pairs of propellers arranged exactly the same as on the former ship. The only changes are in the planes at the rear. Between the two nearly horizontal planes on each side of the rear of the Zeppelin II were systems of movable vertical planes. In the last model there only 2 of these vertical planes on each side, placed at the extreme rear ends of the horizontal planes. These vertical planes cause the turnings to the right or left, together with a vertical rudder of large dimensions placed at the rear extremity of the body.

The dimensions of the Zeppelin IV are greater than those of the "III." The "III" was 128 meters long and had 2 motors of 85 horse-power each. The "IV" measures 136 meters long and 13 meters diameter, with a volume of 13,000 cubic meters. There are 2 Daimler motors of 110 horse-power each. The gas chamber has a rigid metallic body covered with Continental rubber fabric. In the interior are 17 balloons filled with hydrogen. These balloons are separated from the envelope by an air mattress which prevents to a great extent expansion of the gas through heat and condensation through cold. Each motor runs 2 propellers.

The total ascensional force is 14,690 kilos, but the ascensional force capable of being utilized would only be about 5,000 kilos, this available for the carrying of gasolene, the motors, propellers and crew. The Republique has an available ascensional force of 5,000 kilos, or more, with but half the volume, or 6,500 cubic meters of gas.

In the flight of June 29th, lasting 4*4 hours, an average speed of 50.6 kilometers an hour was obtained.

Immediately after the accident, a subscription was circulated throughout the Empire, and it is reported that nearly a million dollars has been raised to enable Count Zeppelin to go on with his work.

Germany will soon possess a fair array of dirigibles. The Siemens-Schuckert Company is constructing a new balloon of the non-rigid type; there is the Zeppelin III, probably another Zeppelin IV, the semi-rigid Gross I and Gross II, the old and the new Parseval.

"No, sub," said Brother Dickey, "dey kin make all de a'rships dey wants ter make, an' rise an' roll in um dess lak dey wants ter, but yer's one sinner what's gwine ter steer cl'ar er um—sho's you bo'n! Wen my time come ter fly de Lawd'll furnish de wings, an' even den I'll be all de time 'fraid dat Satan'll strike a match an' set fire ter um 'fore I'm half-way ter heaven!"—Atlanta Constitution.

ARMY AERONAUTICS.

Two courses have been laid out, each about five miles long, running south and southwest from the drill ground at Fort Myer, Va., for use in the dirigible balloon and aeroplane tests.

The parts of Captain Baldwin's airship arrived during the week of July 20th. These are now being assembled by Captain Baldwin at the balloon house, Fort Myer. His gas generating plant came with the airship. The official trials of this dirigible balloon are to begin as soon as it is assembled. The tent for housing this airship is due at Fort Myer on the 30th.

Two spherical balloons, one a 540-cubic-meter captive, the other a 1,000-cubic-meter free balloon, were delivered to the Signal Corps by Captain Baldwin and accepted on the 25th. These balloons are of silk material, with a layer of rubber between.

The work of the aeronautical plant at Fort Omaha is being pushed as rapidly as possible.

By the time that this number is issued. Captain Baldwin will have had the trials of his dirigible, and the date for the delivery of the Herring flying machine will have expired. In the September number will be given full details of the trials of the dirigible and the two flying machines of Messrs. Herring and the Wright Brothers. The Wright machine is to be delivered by August 28.

Postscript.

The Baldwin dirigible has acquitted itself admirably in the builder's trials that have been in progress during the past week at Fort Myer. Captain Baldwin himself is on the ground, and with his able coadjutor, Mr. Curtiss, the manufacturer of high-power gasoline motors for dirigibles, has worked night and_ day to make his ship ready for the test to be made of its capabilities. The ship, which is to be known as "Dirigible No. 1," is a very pretty piece of mechanism. The gas bag is ninety-six feet long, and the car seventy. The envelope of the bag is made of two thicknesses of silk, with rubber between. Within the bag are balloonets and an air compartment to relieve undue extension in high temperatures. The engine is a marvel of power in small space, having 30 horse-power, with a total weight of but 120 pounds. There are four cylinders, with a compound shaft working a speed gear by means of a chain to operate a shaft at the front end of the car on which is a 10-foot propeller. The first trial flight was made Tuesday, Aug. 4, in the presence of Secretary Wright, Assistant Secretary Oliver, Major General Bell, Brigadier General Allen, Chief Signal Officer of the Army, and many hundreds of officers and officials and many civilian spectators. The ship sailed aloft from the balloon tent at a few minutes past six o'clock, and remained in the air for 20 minutes. Air. Curtiss worked the motor and Captain Baldwin managed the tiller ropes. The pretty craft was as responsive to the wish of its daring navigator as an intelligent horse out for a speeding exercise. It went up and down the reservation, cut "figure eights" across, arose and descended, and, in fact, did every evolution that was asked of it.

Pretty much the same performance was repeated the next night. Thursday night the motor acted indifferently and no flight was made. Since then the ship has again made acceptable flights. The long propeller shaft was in some manner twisted and it became necessary to send to Hammondsport for another or the official trial would have been pulled off Friday. As soon as the dirigible becomes Government property, regular drills will be undertaken in her, and these officers have during the past week been studying every part of the mechanism of the ship and preparing themselves for their future work. A large force of bright, keen young men of the Signal Corps has been busy during the week assisting in getting the ship in shape. It is the present plan to send her to Omaha after a few weeks to be placed in the balloon house there and used in connection with Signal Corps work that is in progress at Fort Omaha. Possibly later she may be sent to Fort Leavenworth, where the student officers at the Signal School will have a chance to make* use of her. There is little doubt that this first dirigible will meet every requirement placed in the contract. General Allen is entitled to great praise for his steadfast adherence to the purpose to secure a dirigible, and he has been fortunate in having the work of Captain Baldwin and Mr. Curtiss' available in this initial effort. One of the noticeably good tilings connected with the trial of the Baldwin dirigible is the Boyle balloon tent. It affords a strong, capacious and handsome housing for the airship and proves conclusively that some such protection -is indispensable if such accidents as that with the Zeppelin airship are to be avoided.—Army & Navy Journal, Aug. 8.

NEW RULES FOR SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN FLYING MACHINE TROPHY.

Since the first and only competition for this cup, July 4, 1908, when it was won by G. H. Curtiss in the June Bug of the Aerial Experiment Association, the Contest Committee of the Aero Club of America has formulated new rules and announces the annual contest for 1908 to be held at New York on September 7, at a place to be named when at least three competitors have made formal entry.

Synopsis of Conditions.

Open to competition by inventors of the world. If won by foreign contestant, his home club holds the cup, but if no annual contest therefor is held by such club within one year from the date of winning, the cup to be returned to the Aero Club of America.

Contest to be held at least once each year, and the conditions are to be progressive in requirements and formulated anew each year in accordance with results obtained in preceding contest. If cup i.s won by same competitor in three different years it becomes his personal property.

Gasless machines of any type may compete.

The machine which covers the greatest distance exceeding 25 kilometers, including a return to the point of starting and a descent or alighting at a point not more than 300 meters from the point at which the machine rose from the ground, and with the best display of stability and ease of control, shall be declared the winner, taking into consideration also questions of safety and speed. If several machines perform equally well the Committee shall have right to ask for further flights to determine the winner. If no machine makes the required flight on the date set, the Committee will in its discretion announce a time and place for another contest.

The flights to be made in as calm weather as possible, but the Contest Committee will, at their discretion, order the contest to begin at any time they see fit, provided the velocity of the wind does not exceed 20 miles an hour. Machines may start by running on the ground or upon a track under their own power for a distance not exceeding 100 meters, but no special launching device permitted. Smooth road or turfed field will be provided. No requirement as to height, but machine must demonstrate ability to rise or descend and circle to right or left at will of operator. Any damage in starting, flying or alighting which is not sufficiently repaired by the operator or crew in 30 minutes and entirely from materials and with tools carried by the machine, to enable the machine to immediately make another flight, fulfilling the other conditions, will be disqualified. Committee can order demonstration in case of any damage occurring.

Complete specifications of the competing machine, giving weight, supporting surface and power of engines, together with a description of the best trial of the machine, shall be forwarded when making entry.

If machine is adjudged impractical or dangerous the Committee may require demonstration to remove objections.

Entry must be filed with the Contest Committee of the Club on or before September 1st, 1908.

THE WORK OF THE AERIAL EXPERIMENT ASSOCIATION FOR JULY.

It will be remembered that on July 4th the aeroplane June Bug won the Scientific American Flying Machine Trophy.

On the 5th the attempt was made by G. H. Curtiss, operator, to make a complete circle. The start was made as usual and after traveling half a mile the curve was begun. The rudder was inclined to the right with the right-hand wing tip down. The half-circle was made and the return trip begun, out around the corner of the vineyard in the middle of the grounds over the same course as traveled during the first half of the flight. Owing to local conditions it is impossible, after making the half circle or bottom of a "U," to come straight back on the leg of the "U," as it would necessitate going over the tops of the poles in the vineyard, so that nearly a complete circle must be made at the bottom of the "U" and a course taken back over the same leg over which the outward portion of the flight was made.

Considerable momentum was lost in the turn and the speed was so reduced that a landing had to be made. This broke a strut in the right wing and broke the front wheel.

On the 8th, after some slight alterations, another trial was made with the idea of completing the circle and returning to the start. It was nearly dark and barely possible to see the fences. After passing over one fence it was decided to come down and not attempt the circle.

On the ioth another attempt was made, in which a mile was covered. A circle was made around a large tree in the meadow, but again it was impossible to make the second turn to get back to the start.

HOW IT FEELS TO BE UP IN A BALLOON. By Johnson Sherrick, President Aero Club of Ohio.

One who has always been on land dreads to venture on the sea. Modern methods have removed the danger that once prevailed, and to-day seamen live on water with as little concern in regard to danger as those who live on land. We are really safer in the midst of the Atlantic ocean on one of the modern ships than on any railroad car in America. I would feel less fear while seeking my couch to sleep, on any of the great Atlantic liners than I would in nine-tenths of the hotels in our country.

1 am well aware that the people generally will not agree with me m this statement; neither will they agree with me when I state that traveling through the air—and far above the land on which we live—is attended with very little danger, especially if the craft on which one sails is managed by a skilled operator. When I made my first ascension last Thursday I was not in the least afraid for I fortunately had a pilot whose reputation is not limited to America but stands highest in all the world. My confidence in Mr. Stevens banished all fear and I entered the balloon basket expecting to fly high above the earth with more pleasure than you realize or I adequately express.

It was a beautiful day. The morning sun shone brightly, the winds were cooler and »11 the surrounding conditions very inviting; just such a day as would suit a novice to make his first flight. The order "let her go" was very pleasant to hear. As the great balloon rose and sailed so gracefully away we looked with intense interest at the receding scene. As the sun shone on the friends who stood watching our journey upward, it made for us a most beautiful picture, so grand that it can never fade from my memory and so magnificent that words cannot describe it. I can scarcely realize that scene or separate it from the thoughts of a passing dream.

If there had been any fear in my mind on that occasion, the admiration for our friends who stood below and the soul-stirring picture they made, would have banished it at once.

railroads like shoestrings.

As our craft rose higher and higher the world below grew smaller and smaller; the city put on an air of quiet, the streets seemed to be deserted and the railroads looked like shoestrings. Long trains moving through and around the city appeared like snakes crawling over the ground. Soon the country came in sight and we could see good homes and fine farms for miles and miles over the landscape, stretching far out from the city. The fertile fields and the many beautiful gardens that we could view from our swinging basket more than a mile high, made a scene grand and strange.

huge ''crazy" quilt.

The many fields with their varied colors grew smaller as we slowly rose higher. The surface of the earth seemed to be covered with one huge "crazy quilt." So wonderful was our view as we beheld it from the clouds that a feeling came to me that we had left our earthly sphere and were sailing in another world. Mr. Stevens asked, as our aerial ship was hanging on the borders of clouds and as the rays of the bright sun were peeping gently through the feathery mists, "How do yon like to sail in the pure air in company with these clouds?" but I could only answer, "I have no words to describe the pleasure. To you, Mr. Stevens, I owe a debt that I fear never can be paid." And he only answered, with a pleasant smile, "It is paid."

storm cloud.

After two hours or more spent in hovering over and near the city we started downward hoping to find a landing place in some field near the town. After descending a half mile or more we struck a gentle breeze from the north that grew stronger as we nearcd the land. We noticed a storm cloud gathering in the northwest and that quite a gale from that direction was after us, driving the balloon at the rate of about thirty-five miles an hour, towards the rugged hills of Pike township and directly towards the I\arrows, a place very uninviting at which to reach the earth.

the landing.

I cooly remarked to Mr. Stevens, who of course knew nothing of the nature of the Pike township Narrows, that wc were rapidly coming to a bad place to land. Just a half mile in front was a field in which men and women were at work making hay. It was the last open space in our track on the brink of a hill on the east side of the creek, about a half mile south of the village of North Industry. Mr. Stevens quickly said, "Get our your pocket knife. Cut loose the grapple hook." In an instant it caught in the ground. Mr. Stevens pulled the emergency cord which ripped open a section of the great gas bag.

(Continued on page 43.)

JULY BALLOON RACING. Chicago, July 4.

Nine balloons left Chicago, 67th St. and South Park Ave. in the second balloon contest held in the United States, on July 4th, this one under the auspices of the Aéronautique Club of Chicago. The balloons and their occupants were as follows:

"Chicago," 110,000 cubic feet, C. A. Coey and G. L. Bumbaugh—the balloon was built by G. L. Bumbaugh of St. Louis.

"Columbia," 75,000 feet, C. H. Leichliter and Captain Martin Peterson, a National Guardsman commissioned to make the trip with the view of gaining experience of value in possible future work of the Guard.

"King Edward," 65,000 cubic feet. John Bennett and Gerald Gregory.

"Fielding-San Antonio," 70,000 feet, H. E. Honeywell and Dr. Frederick J. Fielding—the balloon built by Honeywell of St. Louis.

"United States of Minneapolis," 70,000 feet, A. P. Shirley and H. B. Wild—this is the balloon in which Lieutenant Frank P. Lahm won the Gordon Bennett Cup on its first offering and which was sold by A. Leo Stevens to Mr. Ferris of Minneapolis who re-christened it United States of Minneapolis.

"America of St. Paul." 78,000 feet. P. S. Hudson and Lieut. J. J. Meade—this was built by Stevens and used by J. C. McCoy in the Gordon Bennett from St. Louis last year. It was sold this Summer to L. N. Scott of St. Paul by Mr. Stevens and rechristened as above.

"Cincinnati," 87,000 cubic feet, L. B. Haddock and George Howard—the balloon was built last year by Haddock for Norman J. Kenan of the gas company in Cincinnati.

"Ville de Dieppe," 65,000 cubic feet, A. E. Mueller and George Shoeneck.

"Illinois." 72,000 cubic feet, C. H. Perrigo and J. L. Case.

"1 Will," was also entered but collapsed in a trial.

WON BY DR. F, J. FIELDING.

The contest was won by the balloon "Fielding-San Antonio," belonging to Dr. Fielding who organized the San Antonio Aero Club (See July issue). The balloon was built by H. E. Honeywell of St. Louis, who piloted the balloon on the trip. It was the Doctor's first ascent, but during the first part ofthe trip Dr. Fielding acquired experience enough to pilot while Honeywell slepT Thê^landing was made within two miles of West Shefford, Quebec, after a flight oi 786^ miles.

The Illinois landed in Lake Quinte, near Ns»lgn Ls-land. five miles from Picton, Ontario. The aeronauts were rescued by a boating party.

The Ville de Dieppe dropped into Lake Michigan about three miles off Benton Harbor, Mich. After a flight, in which every ounce of weight was thrown away, the pilot Mueller managed to get the balloon ashore, together with his fifteen year old companion.

The United States of Minneapolis, Columbia and Chicago landed in three adjoining counties of Ontario.

The Cincinnati landed at Covert, Mich., not far from Benton Harbor.

The United States of Minneapolis descended a mile east of Pinkerton Station, Ontario.

The Columbia landed one mile east of Clinton, Ontario. A strong wind dragged the balloon and the aeronauts were bruised. Captain Peterson sustained a broken rib.

The King Edward dropped four miles west of Port Huron, Mich. The America of St. Paul landed near Carsonville, Mich.

the distances made, with landings.

Fielding—San Antonio, West Shefford, Que., 786^ miles, elapsed time 23 hours 15 minutes.

Illinois, Lake Quinte, Ont., 551 miles.

United States of Minneapolis, Pinkerton Station, Ont., 362 miles in 11 hours 42 minutes.

Chicago, Atwood, Ont., 358 miles in 14 hours 48 minutes.

Columbia, Clinton, Ont., 333 miles in 8 hours 26 minutes.

America of St. Paul, Carsonville, Mich., 275 miles in 13 hours 40 minutes.

King Edward, Port Huron, Mich., 271 miles in 8 hours 3 minutes.

Cincinnati, Covert, Mich., 78 miles in 9 hours 33 minutes.

Ville de Dieppe, Lake Michigan, Benton Harbor, 60 miles in 6 hours 2 minutes. These distances have been kindly computed by Mr. Williams Walch of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer of the Army. Their accuracy depends upon how closely

the landing places of the balloons are described and can be found on the Government maps. This same also applies to the distances given in the race from St. Faul.

The record distance of the United States made by Oscar Erbsloh, in the I om-mern." in the Gordon Bennett of 1907, 872^ miles, still stands The distance made by Dr. Fielding was beaten by three of the contestants in the Gordon Bennett. However, the distance made is most creditable, considering the differences in the impermeability of the balloons "Pommern" and "Fielding-San Antonio," and the poorer location of Chicago as compared with St. Louis.

St. Paul, July, 18.

Five balloons started in a long distance race from St. Paul under the auspices of the Aero Club of the Northwest, finishing as follows:

Balloon Chicago, 110,000 feet, C. A. Coey and G. L. Bumbaugh, started 6:40 p.m., landed at Blooming Prairie the following day at 11:23 a-"1- Distance 74 miles. Duration 16 hours 43 minutes. Owned by C. A. Coey of Chicago.

America of St. Paul, 78.000 feet, P. S. Hudson and H. B. Wild, started at 5:05 p.m., and landed at Owatonna at 10 p.m. Distance 60 miles, duration 4 hours 42 minutes. The balloon is owned and entered by L. N. Scott of St, Paul.

United States of Minneapolis, 70,000 feet, A. E. Mueller and W. B. Shepard, left at 5:45 p.m., landing at 8 p.m., at West Concord. Distance 56 miles, duration 2 hours 15 minutes. Owned and entered by "Dick" Ferris of Minneapolis.

Pommern, 78,000 feet, Dr. Julian P. Thomas, left at 6:15 p.m., landing the following morning at 10:30 at Warsaw. Distance 52 miles, duration 16 hours 15 minutes. Owned and entered by Dr. Thomas of New York.

King Edward, 65,000 feet, J. G. Bennett and G. H. Adams, left at 4:51 p.m., landing at 6 p.m., at Hampton. Distance 25 miles, duration 1 hour 9 minutes. Owned by Paul Lucier.

The Chicago, won both the distance and the endurance medals. The Pommern, was second in point of endurance.

The balloon Fielding-San Antonio had been entered but an accident prevented its arrival.

The gas lifted only 27 pounds to the 1000 cubic feet.

Hedges-Butler Race.

The "Hedges-Butler" Long-Distance Race (confined to the United Kingdom) had to be cancelled July nth, owing to the violence of the wind. Four balloons, however, made ascents, "hors concours" namely, "The Lotus," of Mr. Griffith Brewer, "The Nebula," with Major Sir Alexander Bannerman, Bart, "The Kokoro," with Professor Huntington, and "The Britannia," with the Hon. C. S. Rolls. The latter ascended with six people, namely, Dr. Lockyer the head of the Solar Physics Observatory, South Kensington; Mr. Frank Maclean; Lieut. Westland, R. E.; Major Crookshank, R. E.; of the War Office; and Mr. Vivian Simon.

The descent of the "Britannia," was made at Brandon, on the borders of Norfolk and Suffolk, a high speed being maintained, i6l/2 miles having been timed in 21 minutes, also 9 miles in eleven minutes, representing a speed of just under 50 miles an hour.

The party was most hospitably entertained to dinner after landing by Colonel and Mrs. Spragge.

During a part of the trip a sort of ding-dong race took place between the "Britannia." and "The Kokoro," which started some time before. At one time one balloon was ahead and at one time the other, according as they varied their altitudes.

Brussels, July 21st.

Fifteen balloons started from Brussels, in a contest to reach a predetermined objective point On the same day seven balloons left in a distance race in training for the Gordon Bennett. One balloon did not land until the following dav after a fliirht lasting 43 hours. '' &

A new aeroplane has appeared at lssy les Moulineaux, the Bousson-Borgnis. It was to have been tried last week, but a mishap occurred to the motor which compelled a postponement of the first trial.

For news of the Aero Club of America read the Paris Herald! At the start of the balloon race ot the AC. F., on the 16th, there were present J. C. McCoy, Samuel H Va entine, directors of the Aero Club of America, as well as other members of the club. lo quote: 'Mr. Glulden considered and M. Miaddison agreed that it would be an excellent thing if the aero clubs of Massachusetts and New York State could combine and create a joint aero park somewhere between Boston and New York Mr Valentine suggested Pittsfield as a suitable centre."

JULY ASCENSIONS.

June 20. L. B. Haddock, W. C. Collins and G. R. Howard left Cincinnati in the Cincinnati, 87,000 cubic feet, at 5:30 p.m., landing 2 hours 30 minutes later near Lin-wood baseball grounds in the outskirts of the city. The air was almost calm.

July 2. Chas. J. Glidden left North Adams at 3 a. m. in the Boston, unaccompanied, on his nth trip. The landing was at Wilmington, Vt., 1 hour 15 minutes later. Distance 17 miles. This was made alone and at night for the purpose of completing the conditions necessary for pilot's license. Mr. Glidden wrote letters of thanks to his instructors in the ten previous flights: M. Leon Barthou, A Leo Stevens, Griffith Brewer, A. Holland Forbes and J. C. McCoy.

July 3. Cortlandt F. Bishop, David Bishop and Miss Bishop left St. Cloud in the Aero Club No. 2.

July 4. N. H. Arnold, R. L. Gardner and G. A. MacDonald left Springfield, Mass., in the North Adams No. 1 at 12:32 p. m., landing at Shutesbury, Mass., 1 hour 53 minutes later. Distance 28 miles.

July 4. Dr. R. M. Randall left Springfield, Mass., in the Greylock at 12.09 p. m., landing at North Dana, Mass., after 1 hour 48 minutes. Distance 48 miles.

July 5. Edgar W. Mix and J. C. McCoy left St. Cloud in the Aero Club No. 5, landing at La Frette after a trip of 3 hours 28 minutes.

July 8. Alan R. Hawley and Frank B. Comins left North Adams in the Boston at 10:18 a. m., landing 1 hour 52 minutes later at Hubbardston, Mass. A heavy wind was encountered and they drag-roped over the trees for 10 miles, before a clearing was found. The landing was in a pocket of the mountains where the air was calm. Distance 59 miles.

July 22. A. Leo Stevens, J. H. Wade, Jr., and A. H. Morgan left Canton, O., in the sky Pilot at 10:45 a. m. There was little wind and the balloon moved scarcely at all for a long time. A landing was made at 12:15. The balloon was followed by an automobile in which were Louis H. Brush and Dr. Sigler of Salem, Chas. A. Dougherty and J. A. Rice. The final landing was near New Harrisburg, O., at 3 p. m.

This makes practically two complete ascensions with one filling of gas.

July 23. Johnson Sherrick, President of the Aero Club of Ohio, made his initial trip, with A. Leo Stevens as pilot, in the club's balloon. Ohio from Canton at 11:30 a. m. After hovering over the City for an hour and a half before a breeze came, the landing was at 1:55 p.m. near North Industry, O. The balloon was followed by Messrs. Wade, Morgan, Brush and Sigler in an automobile.

July 24. J. H. Wade, Jr., with A. Leo Stevens as pilot, left Alliance in the Sky Pilot at 12:05 p.m. The gas being poor, but two people ^could ascend, with but three bags of ballast. Messrs. Wade and Morgan tossed a coin as to who should go. The landing was made two miles north of Canfield, O., at 3:15.

July 23. N. H. Arnold left North Adams in the Greylock at 9.33 a. m., landing at Savoy 1 hour 12 minutes later. This is Mr. Arnold's fifteenth flight and by this one he qualifies as pilot. Distance 9.5 miles.

July 24. Chas. J. Glidden left North Adams in the Boston at 5:20 p. m., landing 1 hour later at Petersburg, N. Y. Distance 12 miles. This makes twelve flights for Mr. Glidden and qualifies him as pilot of the Aero Club of France and the Aero Club of United Kingdom.

July 25. A. Leo Stevens. Louis Brush and Dr. W. D. Sigler left in the Ohio from Canton at 12:30 p. m. The balloon carried an American flag and a Taft banner. The first landing was made near Louisville, O., where Dr. Sigler left the basket. With an additional supply of sand, Stevens and Brush continued a few miles. An approaching rain storm compelled an early descent after a short distance. The balloon was trailed by an automobile which brought Dr. Sigler back to town.

July 29. A. Leo Stevens, Alan R. Hawley and William Van Sleet left Pittsfield in the Pittsfield club's new balloon "Heart of the Berkshires," at 3:43 p. m., landing at Wahconah Falls, a distance of 8 miles 47 minutes later.

July 29. Charles J. Glidden and H. H. Clayton left North Adams in the balloon Boston, landing in an hour at Monroe, Mass. Distance 7 miles.

While crossing Florida mountain they struck a cold air current which always prevails there, according to the previous experience of aeronauts, and dropped about 600 feet a minute until the trail rope touched the trees.

At one time the basket of the balloon was in a dense cloud while the envelope was above it, giving the occupants of the basket as they peered upwards a most beautiful effect.

Mr. Clayton took observations throughout the trip. When he started the mercury-registered 86 degrees on the ground. Fifteen minutes later at an elevation above sea level of 2,000 feet the temperature was 75 and 20 minutes later while over the mountain at an altitude of one mile the thermometer registered 68 degrees.

(Continued on page 44.)

THE STABILITY OF AEROPLANES

By C. J. Hendrickson

As the question of stability is of vital importance in the design of aeroplanes, I therefore believe the following discussion may help to solve the problem of dynamic flight.

The point I wish to make clear is the fact that, given an aeroplane travelling in a curved course and propelled by a single propeller, then by virtue of this condition, a couple is developed in the propeller which tends to rotate the whole machine in a plane at right angle to the plane in which the propeller rotates and at right angle to the plane of the curve in which the aeroplane is flying. The cause of this couple is very readilv seen when we consider an)' point A (Fig. r) in

   
 
 

l.; CvT- i^73U"P>v..

V

 
   
   
 

/sr <r < - ■ ■ ■

 
   
   
 

7^, 1.

 

I can hardly wait each month for the magazine. I find it very interesting Before you star ed publication. I was subscribing for the Aeronautical Magazine of Great Britain, and besides patromzmg a press clipping agency in this count?) for the hates American news, sometimes paying as much as $5 per month for clippings Now find your magazine covers the entire field at as little as I formerly pSd for' one"month's ° FRED GOSS.

the blade of the propeller. As it recedes from O its velocity parallel to the motion of the aeroplane is increasing. In other words, A is being accelerated. Therefore, there must be a force exerted to produce this acceleration. B is affected in the same way but by a negative acceleration, or a force acting in the opposite direction from that acting on A.

Now, by assigning numerical values to the known quantities in the problem, we may form some idea of the importance of this force under these conditions.

Let V = Speed of aeroplane, 60 feet per second

R = Radius of curve on which aeroplane is moving = 300 ft.

W = Angular velocity of propeller = 2i.2i§ R. P. S.

A = Center of gyration of one blade

r = Radius of gyration of propeller = 3 ft.

v = Linear velocity of A due to W

v = w. 2 >i r = 400 ft. per second

V1 = Velocity of A, parallel to V, after one second's constant acceleration

V (R + v) = -^-= 140 It. per second

f — Maximum acceleration of A parallel to motion of aeroplane, or = the change in velocity of A during one second, f remaining constant

V (R + v) = V1 — v = ——- — V =

V (R + w 2 nR) R

R

V = 80 ft. per second

P =

Mass of one propeller blade = 5 lbs.

Force acting at A produced by acceleration of m —

32.2

f = 12.42 -f- lbs. weight

P1 = Force acting at B but since a negative acceleration is produced at B, therefore, P1 must be negative, or act in the opposite direction from that in which P acts. P and P1, therefore, form a couple whose arm is 6 ft. and whose moment is 74.5 foot-pounds.

It should be understood that P is variable and its value here given is taken at the instant it becomes a maximum.

This force may appear small, but when we consider that a change of only a few inches in the center of gravity of the aeroplane may mean a bad accident to the operator, then we can appreciate how important these details become.

On way to balance these forces would be to use two propellers turning in opposite directions and a fly-wheel whose moment of inertia is equivalent to that of the rotating parts of the engine and turning in the opposite direction of the moving engine parts. By using this arrangement the unbalanced torque of the single propeller machine is eliminated.

The object of this article has been simply to show that, due to single propeller, there are unbalanced forces acting to destroy equilibrium that these forces are great enough to warrant consideration and to suggest a remedy.

Note :—(«)= 3.1416

INTERNATIONAL AERONAUTICAL CONGRESS.

President: Professor Willis L. Moore. Secretary: Dr. Albert Francis Zahm. Chairman Gen'l Committee: Wm. J. Hammer. Chairman Executive Com.: Augustus Post. Sec'y Committees: Ernest La Rue Jones.

Publication Notice.

The addresses, papers and discussions presented to the Congress will be published serially in this magazine, and at the earliest date possible, bound volumes will be distributed without charge to those holding membership cards in the Congress. Others may purchase the volume at a consistent price when ready or may take advantage of immediate publication by subscribing to this magazine at the regular rate.

In accordance with the program as published in the November number, the informal addresses of the Gordon Bennett contestants and others were concluded before entering upon the printing of the formal papers and discussions.

The report of the "Balloon Accident," contributed to the records of the Congress by Brigadier-General James Allen, Chief Signal Officer of the Army, begun in the July issue, is concluded in this number.

Then follows the fourteenth paper, viz.: "Kite Manipulation and the Record Flight," by Dr. W. R. Blair, U. S. Weather Bureau.

balloon accident.

(Continued from July issue.)

A case covered with a light coating of aluminum powder, such as had been submitted for examination, would have but acted as if the aluminum powder had not been-applied; should this aluminum powder, however, be applied in a different manner, for instance by electrolysis or else in the way of an "aluminum sheet," the electrical conditions might then become entirely altered.

Such would be the case by similarly using ordinary liquid gold paint.

A light metallic veil of powdered aluminum constitutes in no way a danger to. aeronauts.

Numerous experiments regarding this have established that a cloth covered with} a light powdered aluminum veil insulates perfectly, and no less than a cloth without the aluminum; and, furthermore, that in the former case no dispersion of electricity was to be noticed, as may have been thought on comparing the small parts of the powdered aluminum to so many small points.

This coating of powdered aluminum has, however, an advantage in the way that while a cloth simply covered with aerostatic varnish is easily electrified by friction, it is hardly possible to electrify a cloth covered with aluminum even after a length of friction.

As soon as a balloon has entered a cloud, it assumes the potential proper to the cloud and is no longer in danger; it runs, however, risk before and after this.

The danger in the first case is caused by the fact that it might possibly form a discharge between a cloud and the earth on account of the body of hydrogen which is a conductor of electricity, and this discha rge may set the balloon on fire hy striking it.

Danger in the latter case is due to the fact that the balloon comes out of the cloud charged with the same potential as the cloud, and it may be struck by lightning through the action either of the earth or another cloud.

In this case the metallic veil of aluminum docs not alter the balloon's conditions.

The electrical conduct of a balloon in a storm cloud is, in other words, presumably identical, whether its cloth is covered with aluminum or not; and if some difference is found this goes towards the favorable use of aluminum. When the balloon is entirely closed, that is, when there is no escape of gas, the hydrogen fails to catch fire, for the internal part of the balloon does not possess the burning element.

The action of an eventual electric discharge alters simply the potential of the surface.

This has been demonstrated by a fact of the greatest value which occurred in 1898 during the Grand Maneuvers, at the aerostatic park under the direction of Capt. Cesare Dal Fabbro and Lieutenant Grimaldoni.

A balloon was being carried by maneuvering ropes and by four groups of soldiers when suddenly, upon reaching a tree, a flash of lightning occurred between a storm cloud and the balloon case, and between the case and the tree. A double flash was seen clearly by all present and the soldiers who were holding the ropes wet with rain felt a powerful shock. This, however, was all and none of the men were injured.

Of course this was due to the fact that the lower valve of the balloon was closed and there was thus no escape of hydrogen.

The same though, fortunately, cannot be said of the recent case of June 2d.

The balloon having reached an altitude of 800 meters, must have probably passed the equilibrium zone, as is always the case, and the escape of hydrogen out of the lower valve must have been rather abundant; this escape of hydrogen by rising more rapidly than the balloon itself kept skimming over the case. The lightning discharge between the aerostat and the cloud or else between the two clouds met thus an "external" zone composed of a mixture of air and hydrogen which caught tire instantly.

The power of fate has had, however, to do with this accident, since many and many aeronauts have frequently found themselves in the midst of storms during their ascensions, and this has happened during the frequent ascensions of the Specialist Brigade, and no one suffered the least injury, although the balloons were covered with aluminum.

Prof. Alfonso Sella of the Physical Institute at Rome, a well-known scientist and aeronaut, fully agrees with Lieutenant Cianetti that in aerial navigation in a stormy zone, a balloon is no more apt to be struck by lightning than a person would be while walking in the open country.

It is stated that in France during recent balloon ascensions the aeronauts noticed that during a storm their fingers and hair were affected by electrical effluvium, and these phenomena were followed by crackling of the balloon ropes.

These facts demonstrate that an aerostat driving through a stormy zone has to fear no electrical discharge; it should, however, try to avoid the storm, since this frequently gives rise to powerful aerial currents in the most varied directions, as well as to ascending and descending water-spouts and whirlwinds, so as to render the balloon no longer subject to the control either of the valve or the ballast.

Lieutenant Cianetti states that on the afternoon of May 16. 1906, two aerostats were ready to start from the aerostatic park at the Milan Exhibition, when a storm suddenly took place, which made the mooring of the balloons very difficult. A young man was to accompany Mr. Hollecker on one of the balloons (the "Sparviero" covered with powdered aluminum) became scared, and Lieutenant Cianetti most willingly took his place.

These two gentlemen found themselves all at once surrounded by a black cloud, only brightened every now and then by flashes of lightning followed by thunder.

Navigation lasted two hours and the balloon finally descended safely at Cazzano near the lake of Orta at about 90 kilometers from the starting point.

The other aerostat which had left shortly after, likewise descended safel}r in the neighborhood of the Ticino river.

On June 10, 1906, during the inauguration of the Turinese Section of the Italian Aerostatic Society, four aerostats left the royal garden of Turin.

A very large storm cloud was extending over the city at the moment fixed for departure. The first three balloons rapidly rose to 800 meters entering partly the lower portion of the clouds and remained nearly motionless in a zone of calm while a cool wind was blowing over the lower ground.

Lieutenant Cianetti started alone with the fourth balloon made of silk covered with powdered aluminum. In order to rise from the ground and make headway, by taking advantage of the wind, he kept himself low and remained at a steady equilibrium altitude of 400 meters for 20 minutes.

The impending storm was proceeding at a much greater velocity than the balloon whichwas caught by an ascending water-spout, and turning rapidly and violently upon itself in a large spiral, rose rapidly higher. Lieutenant Cianetti having at his disposal a good quantity of ballast, in order to descend and avoid the whirlwind opened the upper valve.

Although the valve was kept open, he continued to rise to 900 meters, where he entered the clouds and the balloon continuing its rotating movement reached an altitude of 2,000 meters in the midst of thick darkness brightened only at times by flashes of lightning.

Immediately after, having gotten out of the water-spout, the balloon descended with much rapidity and the descent was only checked at a certain moment, by throwing out 160 Kg. of sand.

When the balloon came near the ground, navigation was interrupted by a violent

hail storm.

Lieutenant Cianetti states that he made another ascension on the evening of July ioth, from the same aeronautic park with a 900 m. balloon likewise of silk covered with powdered aluminum.

The balloon drove all night and all the following day making, however, not much progress. After 20 hours he found himself at an altitude of 4.200 meters above Lodi. A storm cloud was seen beneath the balloon at an altitude of about 200 meters; the cloud appeared quite dense and dark with neatly rounded edges and purple reflections, and its upper crest nearly reached the balloon's position.

Another cloud was also to be seen at about 1,000 meters above the balloon; the latter was very extensive and its lower edges kept touching the heights of the Appen-nines of the Emilia.

While his attention was engaged in observing that fantastic sight, a flash caused by the two clouds appeared vertically in direction of and close by the balloon.

Still convinced of the fact that danger is only incurred by a balloon when as in this case, it might find itself on the same trajectory of an electrical discharge and in such a position as to reduce the explosive distance between the two ends of the spinthermometer, he rapidly descended driving through the lower clouds.

After these experiments Lieutenant Cianetti states that he is fully convinced that aerial navigation is not dangerous during a storm.

He also says, that in the quality of second officer of the Aerostatic Park, he had directed on June 2d the balloon's maneuvers and its departure, and adds, that the late Captain Ulivelli expressed no fear as to a possible danger from the impending stc nil.

The opinion of Lieutenant Cianetti who witnessed the ascension and examined the remains of the balloon is, that the discharge which took place between the clouds and the aerostat was due to the fact that the balloon diminished the explosive distance between the two points charged with a different potential, that the flash struck the case near the upper metallic valve (which does in fact show signs of having been burnt), and finally that the setting on fire of the hydrogen was due to the explosion of the mixture which was necessarily bound to take place through the contact of the oxygen of the air with the hydrogen escaping from the lower valve and which was surrounding the lower part of the case, forming of course around it an easily inflammable atmosphere.

The President: At Mount Weather, Virginia, it has been the aim of the weather service to recruit young, active, vigorous scientists, "whose future," as the Irishman says, "is not behind them." In selecting- the staff to work at that institution we have taken the recommendations of professors in physics with a view to getting the best material possible for this institution. One of the men who came to us endorsed by Professor Michelson as the brightest he had graduated is the man who will speak to us next, on kite manipulation, Dr. \Y. R. Blair, United States Weather Bureau.

KITE MANIPULATION AND THE RECORD FLIGHT.

Dr. W. R. Blair, U. S. Weather Bureau.

I did not know until recently that so many people were flying kites, but a number of inquiries have come of such sort as this: "What sort of string do yon use on your kites when Hying them four miles high?" This and other inquiries of a different sort may lie answered by just a few remarks on kite manipulation, as we manipulate kites at Mount Weather. The kites we use are box kites. The ratio of the steering plane surface to that of the lifting is about one to three, this ratio being greater for kites used in high winds and less for those used in low winds.

The line by means of which the kites are flown is made of piano wire and the drum upon which the wire is wound is loaded about as follows, the heavier wire beine next to the drum :

Length.

2,500 feet

5,000 12,000 20.500

Diameter. .026 inch .028 .032 .036

For the purpose of attaching- them to the line, the kites are provided with an elastic bridle arranged as shown in the following sketch.

This arrangement not only protects the line from sudden jerks because of the elasticity of the rubber, but as a puff of wind stretches the rubber to a considerable extent (determined by the proportions of the bridle), the point of application of the pull is transferred along the main rib to points farther up, the kite takes a smaller angle to the wind, and its pull is less than it would otherwise be. The head kite, which carries the instrument, is fastened directly to the end of the wire. Secondary kites are attached to the wire by means of cords about 100 feet in length and a splice made of soft iron wire.

The drum was at first made of cast iron, but on account of its breaking we have now one of forged steel. The necessity for a strong drum is easily seen. If there are, say, five kites on the line, the pull may reach two hundred pounds or more. Xow since the drum has a circumference of five feet, there will be a great many turns of wire at this tension, consequently a great strain on the drum. This drum is geared to a two and one-half horse power motor in such a way that the wire ma}- be brought in at any rate from zero to four and one-half miles per hour. The kites themselves furnish the power for reeling out.

In the apparatus for the manipulation of kites, the most important thing is a reel which is always under the control of the operator so that the speed can be increased or decreased at will. This is necessary both-in the starting and in the landing if we would save the kites from breaking. Our reel at

present is arranged with a power and a brake clutch. With these two friction clutches the speed can be completely controlled within the above mentioned limits. The power clutch may be allowed to slip a little or the brake clutch applied or both.

Aside from the reel there should be of course a sufficient field in which to land the kites and. most important of all. men in this field who can think and act promptly. This is a qualification which is fully as important in a kite field as it is in a football field. We have men at Mount Weather who, I think, are hard to beat at this work. Kites are landed day after day without breakino- There is of course an occasional smash-up which cannot be foreseen.

With reference to the flight of October 3, 1907, we had out on that day thirty eight thousand five hundred feet of wire and eight kites with a total lifting surface of five hundred and fifty square feet. The pull on the wire was about two hundred and fifty pounds. When we started out in the morning the flight did not promise to be a very interesting one. The kites floated in a west wind from seven until eleven a. m., then the head kite was picked up by a stronger upper current and drew the others up. When up a height of two miles they swung a little to the right and went on up to the east as far as we could let them have wire. If we had had more wire and more kites, we could have gone considerably higher. We obtained a very clear record. I have here a copy of it which I shall start around among you. You may examine it at your leisure.

The President: We feel that the achievements of Dr. Blair, who is immediately in charge of the aerial research, is unprecedented in getting observations in the upper air. He has been getting observations every day since June. On this day, October 3rd. we find the temperature at that altitude was 5.4 degrees below zero.

Captain Chandler: Will Dr. Blair tell us what instruments they carried on these kites?

Dr. Blair: We used only instruments for getting the pressure and temperature. I will say while you look at those sheets, the constant of the pressure sheet was about two. Every division here means about twice what it is marked.

The President: How did you measure your elevations?

Dr. Blair: We checked the elevation by angles taken on the kite and the wire. With more than one kite on the wire these data are insufficient to get the altitudes very accurately. Altitudes are all finally computed from the air pressure by the usual formula.

Dr. Humphreys: It might be interesting to state that this particular instrument was subjected to a pressure test immediately upon the kite coming down and before the pens were lifted, and so on that same sheet is the test record as well as the flight record.

PROF. A. LAWRENCE ROTCH.

(Continued from page 7.)

In view of these results, it cannot be denied that human flight is not only possible, but practically realized, although many years may be required to perfect the art. It does not appear probable, however, that flying machines of any kind can ever compete with vessels or railway trains in transporting heavy materials, so that such machines, besides their use in sport or warfare, will be limited to carrying passengers or the mails in an "air-line," independently of mountains, lakes and rivers, or political frontiers.

CLUB NOTES. Aero Club of New England.

The Club balloon "Boston," has been thoroughly inspected by the maker, after making four ascensions, and will be at the service of Club members from July 24th.

Mr. Chas. J. Glidden, member of the Committee on Ascensions, can be addressed care E. c. Peebles, North Adams, Mass., until August 30th. Mr. Glidden will arrange ascensions, the cost of which will be about as follows:

Use of Club balloon, $25.00; (add $10 if member is a non-contributor to purchase of balloon; gas and filling, $3i-5o; Total, $56.50.

To this add cost of repairs, if any, expense of shipping the balloon to North Adams or Pittstield, and expenses of pilot, no charge being made by pilot for his services.

The amount of money contributed by members toward cost of balloon will be credited on account of ascensions they may make.

Milwaukee Aero Club.

Colonel Gustave Pabst, President of the Pabst Brewing Company of Milwaukee, has made a notable contribution to aeronautics in Milwaukee by making a voluntary gift of a first class balloon to the Milwaukee Aero Club. Col. Pabst is a charter member of the Club and when a committee of its members approached him with a suggestion that he purchase a balloon for his own use, he very generously offered to buy a balloon and present it to the Club. At a complimentary dinner given to Col. Pabst by the directors of the Aero Club on Wednesday, the 8th of July, the offer was accepted with thanks and Col. Pabst was made an honorary life member of the Club. In a short talk, Col. Pabst stated that he had made the gift in the hope that it would prove an incentive to the Milwaukee Aero Club to build up a strong membership and accomplish real things in aeronautics. He stated that there were no strings attached to his gift and he desired the club to purchase a balloon which would be a credit to the Club and to the city of Milwaukee. Major Henry B. Hersey, of the United States Weather Bureau, who is a director of the Aero Club and its only licensed pilot, was commissioned by the directors to make the purchase of a balloon as suggested by Col. Pabst and the directors voted unanimous-

tL^Zr m'J^W011 h°n0r rf 1 J"hx H. moss, president milwaukee AERO club.

trte donor. Alajor Hersey immediately opened negotiations for the purchase of a balloon for delivery before the close of the summer season and it is expected that a number of important ascensions will be made under the auspices of the Club during the months of September and October.

The Milwaukee Aero Club is composed of representative business men of Milwaukee and organized along the same lines as the Aero Club of America and the Aero Club of France. It has adopted practically the same rules for the issuance of licenses to pilots as those.of the Aero Club of America. With the new balloon and one of the most distinguished pilots in United States to direct its ascensions, things may be looked for from the Milwaukee Aero Club and it is only a question of a short time before several other balloons will be added as hailing from that city.

Major Hersey has since purchased for the Milwaukee Club a 1600 cubic meter balloon from A. Leo Stevens, complete with instruments, spread cloth, etc. Messrs. Hersey and Stevens will make the first ascent with the new balloon on completion.

Aero Club of America.

The pilot named for the Gordon Bennett at Berlin, October nth to represent America are as follows, with their alternates: Lieutanant Frank P. Lahm alternate N. H. Arnold; J. C. McCoy, alternate Captain Chas. De F. Chandler; A. Holland Forbes, alternate Major Henry B. Hersey. „„„„„„

Members proposed: H. Faehrmann, Frederick Weston and C. Gouverneur Hoffman.

Pilot license No. \2 has been issued to Charles J. Glidden.

It has also been decided by the Club that the night trip necessary to qualify must be begun before midnight. Several have made their night ascents early in the morning so as to have daylight for landing.

An order has been given to A. Leo Stevens for two balloons; one of 600 cubic meters and one of 1000 cubic meters. These will be rented to members at ?20 and $30 respectively. They must be in charge of a regular pilot of the Club.

The clubs now affiliated with the Aero Club of America and thus having representation in the F. A. 1. through the A. C. of A. are those of St. Louis, Milwaukee, Ohio and New England.

The Aeronautic Society.

Four illustrated lectures have been given at the temporary headquarters of the

•'Development of Ignition," by R. B. Whitman, Director of the N. Y. School of Automobile Engineers, showing pa'st methods as well as the latest and most efficient improvement.

"Ballooning," was given by A. C. Triaca, proprietor of the International School of Aeronautics, in the absence of A. Leo Stevens, who was to have told of the Chicago and St. Paul balloon races.

"The Action and Balance of Four-Cycle Engines," by R. B. Whitman, a most interesting and instructive talk on what actually takes place in a gas engine.

"The Helicopter," by Wilbur R. Kimball. Four distinguished men of aviation have been elected Honorary Members: Octave Chanute. Henry Farman, Wilbur and Orville Wright. Mr. Chanute is the pioneer in America; the Wright Brothers the first in the world to successfully and repeatedly fly in a motor aeroplane; and Henry Farman has done a great work in bringing about a public interest in aviation by his many flights.

The Aeronautic Society sent a telegram of welcome to Henry Farman on board his-steamer. A cablegram of condolence and encouragement was sent to Count Zeppelin on the occasion of the accident to his dirigible, No. 4.

Mr. Chanute paid a visit to the Society at one of the regular meetings and seemed to be impressed with the aims and projects.

At a general meeting it was decided to abandon its plans for inviting Delagrange to make public flights in America as the idea of the Society had been taken up in effect by the St. Louis syndicate's bringing Farman to this country.

The flights of Farman would have the same effect as those of Delagrange and there was no need of continuing as the early ideas of the Society were realized by the coming of Farman.

Persistent work has been done towards securing grounds large enough and within the shortest possible distance from New York. The best grounds were not available. Three locations, two of which are very accessible, are now under consideration. Each one of these is at least a half mile square.

As soon as the grounds are secured, sheds will at once be erected, motors obtained, and machine shop installed. Half a dozen members will either try out their machines at the grounds or commence construction the moment the grounds and buildings are available.

The Society will invite bids from motor manufacturers to supply motors. It will be seen that great benefit will come to manufacturers whose motors are used, so the actual work of the motors will be seen by great numbers and each member who is experimenting will be in the market for a motor the moment his experiments are concluded.

The membership is rapidly growing. Those building machines, or contemplating doing so, should find the Society of material assistance.

Aero Club of Philadelphia.

A suggestion has been made by the A. C. of Philadelphia to the Ben Franklin Aeronautical Association for amalgamation, and same was favorably received, as nearly all the members of the Club are also members of the Association. A meeting to perfect plans will be held on August 7th.

On July 10th, Dr. Fulton attempted to inflate the Initial but a heavy wind caused the balloon to burst just before completion. Various ascensions are planned for August.

Glidden Tour An Auto -Meter Parade

It was a walk-over. The men who put their best efforts into making cars for this big event knew what speed indicator to buy—for every Warner used in this event was purchased and we can show the official order.

This big Warner percentage is a mighty potent fact. The 1908 Glidden Tour was a manufacturers' battle ground—a struggle for blood. Every firm put out its best product and its best driver. None but the best of accessories were considered for a moment. Not a detail was overlooked that could in the least contribute to the possible winning of the famous trophy. No manufacturer who is out to make a record—amid company he dare not think of despising—would make the fatal mistake of using an accessory that is liable to fall down on him. He will scrutinize. He will investigate.

He will rigidly try out everything that goes to make up his equipment. Naturally he is going to use that which proves to be the best.

A WARNER WALK=OVER

57 Entrants—36 of them Warner-equipped—63 per cent, of the whole.

When manufacturers will turn down instruments that have been offered to them as gifts and pay out their good coin for Warner Auto-Meters there must be something in it when we say that we make the only speed indicator on earth. This proves the supremacy of the Magnetic Principle—for manufacturers are discerning men.

That which is good enough for the Glidden Tour entrants is surely good enough for you.

And you don't have to pay one cent to try one of them, either. We'll put an Auto-Meter on any car on earth for a 30-day trial—no deposit—no agreement. Nothing but your promise to give the Auto-Meter a fair trial.

Write us to-day and ask us to send you one. Just tell us the make, year and model of your car, with size of wheels and tires. You'll get one by express prepaid. If it doesn't suit you return it at our expense. There will be no argument.

Warner Instrument Co. 225Jnhuefr Beloit, Wis.

CAPTAIN THOMAS S. BALDWIN

NEW YORK'S LEADING MANUFACTURER

BALLOON

AND AIRSHIP

PILOT AND MANUFACTURER

BALDWIN'S VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL

of which the Government airship and balloons are being constructed will last from five to six times as long as a varnished balloon. The weight is always the same, as it does not require further treatment. Heat and cold have no effect on it, and ascensions can be made as well at zero weather as in the summer time. The chemical action of oxygen has not the same detrimental effect on it as it has on a varnished material. Silk double walled VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL has ten times the strength of varnished material. A man can take care of his PROOF balloon, as it requires little or no care, and is NOT subject to spontaneous combustion. Breaking strain 100 lbs. per inch width. Very elastic. Any weight, width, or color. Will not crack. Waterproof. No talcum powder. No revarnishiug. The coining balloon material, and which through its superior qualities, and being an absolute gas holder is bound to take the place of varnished material. The man that wants to have the up-to-date balloon, must use VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL. Specified by the U. S. SIGNAL CORPS.

Prices and samples on application

Box 78 Madison Square P. O.

NEW YORK.

North Adams Aero Club.

The first point to point balloon race ever held in America will take place Friday, August 14, from North Adams. A beautiful cup presented by A. Holland Forbes will be competed for.

The race is novel in the condition imposed, as each pilot is required to select the town, outside 30 miles radius from North Adams, where he will land. To win the cup he must land within 10 miles of the post office of the town named, or if two or more balloons land within this distance, the winner will be the one who lands nearest.

The balloons entered are: "The Heart of the Berkshires,'' owned by the Pittsfield Aero Club, pilot Alan R. Hawley; "The Boston." owned by the Aero Club of New England, pilot Chas. J. Glidden; the "North Adams No. 1," owned by the North Adams Aero Club, pilot Arthur D. Potter accompanied by A. Holland Forbes; the "Grey-lock," owned by Dr. R. M. Randall and piloted by him; the "Sky Pilot," owned by J. H. Wade and A. H. Morgan of Cleveland, piloted by J. H. Wade; five in all.

Entries close August 7 and it is possible other entries will be received by then.

The winner of the trophy is to have possession, subject to challenge any time after six months from date of winning and must defend same within ninety days Forbes Cup.

from receipt of challenge. All contests for the trophy must be held under the auspices of the North Adams Aero Club. At least two balloons must start. No restrictions as to size of persons carried. If the trophy is not won in the first race the club is to hold another race within three months and as often thereafter as is reasonable until it is won.

The start of the race will be from the balloon grounds on West Main Street and it is intended to get the last of the balloons away by 12 o'clock noon if it is found possible.

The members of the club will be in charge of the event and the grounds, as usual, in charge of Superintendent E. C. Peebles of the gas company. The balloons will be sent away at either 15 or 30 minute intervals, each pilot just before starting announcing the point for which he will try.

Numerous pilot balloons will be sent up at intervals before the race starts in order that the pilots may have opportunity of judging the direction of the wind in the upper currents and thereby decide what town or city they will select as their landing place.

Special arrangements are to be made with transportation companies to accommodate the crowds that will come to the city to witness the sending away of four balloons in a race, a novelty that only St. Louis, Chicago and St. Paul have had in this country and those all within the last year and two of them within the last month.

Pittsfield Aero Club.

The club's first balloon, "The Heart of the Berkshires," was christened on July 29 by a young lady, the niece of ex-Mayor Daniel England, who threw a beautiful bunch of flowers into the basket.

On the envelope is painted a large red heart on which is the name of the balloon. On the other side of the bag is the word "Pittsfield" in large black letters.

The balloon was built by Stevens and was delivered on the very day of the flight.

The initial trip was most interesting. The North Adams Herald says:

"The balloon rose to a height of 1700 feet and finally nearly an hour later drifted to Dalton where it slowly circled the town twice and then what appeared to be an upward current of air sucked them upward into a dense black cloud.

"Stevens, over the telephone, said that so suddenly did things happen that they hardly know exactly what transpired. All three were thrown to the bottom of the basket and the trail rope nearly 300 feet in length was snapped out nearly straight behind the basket. At times the end of it was carried higher than the top of the balloon itself It was an entirely new experience for all of the aeronauts and a hurried consultation decided all to open the valve and drop back to earth, preferring to drop rapidly and 'take w hat was coming to us,' as Mr. Stevens said, than to chance going higher as they were then doing rapidly. . iU

"Accordingly Stevens opened the valve and at the same time apparently the upward current of wind ceased and they began to drop from their altitude of 9000 feet at a thrilling rate of speed. The bag and a half of sand they had with them went overboard to lighten the car and eventually everything in the car even to the rug except the instruments, was tossed over to lighten it and at 4:30 o'clock they landed in a hay field of Fred G. Crane two miles north of Dalton and landed hard, the men taking to the rigging over the basket to lighten the jar of landing.

"Mr. Hawley in talking with N. H. Arnold over the telephone, said that to put it mildly all were mighty glad to get back to earth and be able to tell of their experiences. He said that he had a tracing by his self-registering barometer that had probably no equal in the world. The mark indicates an absolutely straight drop of 9000 feet."

Aero Club of St. Louis.

The Aero Club of St. Louis, will not hold any contest this Fall, although the purchase of two balloons to be at the service of members of the club is contemplated. Besides, the club is looking about for suitable grounds near the gas supply where balloon ascensions might be made.

The St. Louis organization did contemplate another contest of balloons this Fall, but before reaching any favorable conclusion it was agreed that foreign clubs might attach an incorrect motive to such an event, inasmuch as the American entry was defeated in the Gordon Bennett of last year. Next year, however, the St. Louisians will again become active in aer.onautics and intend in that and each succeeding year to hold an aeronautical contest of some sort in St. Louis.

At the last meeting of the club a reorganization took place which made the Aero Club incorporate under a state charter, such as is applied to benevolent and educational societies. The officers remained the same at the new election, and there were but few changes in the board of governors, as follows; Judge Daniel G. Taylor takes the place of E. C. Cowdrey who has moved to Chicago; Edward A. Faust replaces A. A. Busch at the latter's suggestion; and H. N. Davis replaces R. K. Evans.

Lieut. Lahm, who represents the Aero Club of St. Louis in the Gordon Bennett from Berlin on October 11, has been elected an honorary member of the club. It was also decided to present gold medals to Oscar Erhsloh and Alfred LeBlance; to the forme' for covering the greatest distance and the latter for remaining the longest time in the air in the Gordon Bennett of 1907.

A committee composed of L. D. Dozier, president of the Aero Club; Councilman Albert Bond Lambert and George D. Hirschberg has been appointed to arrange for the purchase of two balloons. Another committte, of which Captain McCullough, general manager of the United Railways Company, is chairman, will look after the grounds and gas supply.

The new balloon will probably be known as "St. Louis II."

According to J. W. Kearney secretary of the club, the flights made recently from Chicago and St. Paul will not be recognized as official by the Aero Club of America and none of the distances covered in these contests will be placed on record.

Aero Club of Ohio.

Six ascensions have been made thus far in the history of the Aero Club of Ohio, up to July 25th, 1908.

WADE-MORGAN TROPHY.

Messrs. Wade and Morgan have offered a silver cup to be known as the "Sky Pilot Trophy," to the man who makes the longest trip, over 100 miles, out of Canton before January 1st.

DOUGHERTY TROPHY.

Manager Charles Dougherty, of The Courtland, has offered a trophy to the automobilist who is the first to reach the balloonists on the next ascension from Canton.

Aero Club of France.

The first half of 1908, at the aerostatic park of the club at St. Cloud, there were 186 balloon ascents, with a total consumption of 199,185 cubic meters of gas. There were 512 aeronauts carried, among them 74 women. If the balance of the year keeps up with this record, the year 1908 will show a decided increase over 1907.

During the same period over a hundred experiments in aviation were made at the aviation grounds of Issy, with very remarkable success.

Aeronautique Club de France. On the 10th of July was held the regular quarterly dinner, with many people present; President Sauniere, Ernest Archdeacon, Captain Ferber, M. Paulhan and others.

With the champagne, M. Sauniere thanked the Members of Honor for their presence and presented M. Pietri, Vice-President of the "Association des Palmes," a souvenir of the occasion of his being appointed an officer of the Academy.

MM. Archdeacon and Captain Ferber presented M. Paulhan with the prize offered by the Minister of War and won at the model contest of June 21.

H. Archdeacon then congratulated the President on the prosperity of the club and its democratic character.

NEW CLUBS.

The Aero Club des Pyrenees has been founded at Toulouse to encourage aerial navigation, automobiling, and every form of sport associated with motors. Andre Bouche is President and Edmond Sirven Secretary.

The Aero Club de Namur has just been formed in Namur with a temporary committee in control.

National Aeronautical Society.

At an informal gathering in Washington, at which were present Dr. A. F. Zahm, Augustus Post, Lieutenant Lahm, Dr. Fairchild, Professor Willis L. Moore, and others, the formation of a scientific aeronautical organization for Washington was discussed. Definite plans were not made at the time but the intention is to extend the field of work until it becomes a national organization.

The co-operation and assistance of various departments of the Government, the Weather Bureau, Smithsonian Institution, etc., have been assured. This organization or suggestion of such has been largely brought about by the enthusiasm created by the public demonstrations of the past year.

Farman says that with his present apparatus on a larger field than Issy he expects to be able to stay 25 minutes in the air and travel at 80 kilometers an hour, and with further improvements to establish a record for the hour.

The Kapferer monoplane is now completely finished, and trials will begin very soon.

M. de Pischoff, whose first Aeroplane was described in February "Aeronautics," is now building a monoplane. The apparatus will have a fusiform body of a total length of 10.8 meters, with three planes laid tandem, each one decreasing in size from front to rear, the greatest spread being about 6.5 meters. The total surfaces reach 20 square meters. The wooden propeller, 2 meters diameter, will be placed in front and operated by a 35-h. p. motor. The total weight will not be over 300 kgs. Trials will be made the early part of June.

The following letter was received by Mr. G. H. Curtiss, of the G. H. Curtiss Mfg. Co., Hammondsport, N. Y., from Chas. L. King, the owner of an adjoining farm:

"My dear Mr. Curtiss:—I was in Hammondsport Saturday and tried to see you in the evening but, finding you were at the dinner party at the hotel, I did not interrupt. I wanted to speak to you about the refuse from the chemicals used in making the gas for the balloon. The owner of one of the cows pastured on my farm last summer, said that his cow, being of an inquisitive nature, licked some of the refuse and was inflated by it. The owner of another cow made a similar complaint. What I suggest is that you fence off a small piece near the inlet, where you can dump the refuse so that it will not permeate the springs or be_jn^reach of the cows.

"In making this request, I am prompted by the desire to protect my land, and also to save the art of aeronautics from the humiliation of witnessing the commonplace stunt of a mother goose's tale of the cow over the moon put into practical application, by some of my tenant's cows licking the by-product of a balloon ascension."

WIRELESS TELEGRAPHING TO A BALLOON.

Diagram of Circuit

A - antenna

B « receiver

C - battery

D» variable inductance

X = barrier

F =■ variable condenser

G - 'ground"

than seventy pounds horsepow specially designed motor.

Norbert Carolin

A wireless telegraph receiving station could be easily installed in a balloon. A transmitting station, however, would be too heavy and the spark might ignite the gas. A telegraph station would be better than a telephone for it could receive messages from greater distances.

The antenna might be insulated, stranded, copper wire braided into the valve rope its full length, without interfering in the least with the operation of the valve. The same length of wire could be braided into the guide rope as "ground." The length of the wave used should be twice the total length of the two wires. Where the two wires meet in the basket there should be inserted a varible inductance in series with a detector of the barretter type ; as the electrolvtic t\pe might freeze, the coherer will not stand jirring and the magnetic is to heavy. Shunting the detector, there should be a variable mica condenser and a high-inductance telephone receiver, supplied with headgear, in series with a few dry cells.

The total weight would be less than twenty-five pounds and the cost less than twenty dollars.

The shortness of the wave length occasioned by the short distance between the basket and the valve would not make much difference as there would be no obstructions for the waves to encounter.

A transmitting station already established would probably consent to send the messages.

It might be better to use a uminuni throughout instead of copper because, weight for weight, it is more conductive but takes up more space.

A wireless outfit might be dangerous in a thunderstorm.

Wireless waves might be used to control balloons or airships containing no passenger-;, in the same manner that torpedoes are now controlled.

One of the first dirigibles was propelled by electricity, and now that the storage battery has been reduced to less er per hour it might be worth while trying again with a

Mm. H. and A. Dufaux, the Geneva automobile constructors, who some months ago presented a reduced model of an aeroplane which attracted much attention, have now built a full-sized aeroplane on the plans of this model. The apparatus has a total surface of 60 meters, and its weight with the aviator on board is only 500 kilogrammes. The aeroplane has been mounted on floats, so that it can be tested above the Lake of Geneva. According to the "Aerophile," it is fitted with a 120-h. p. Dufaux motor which weighs only 85 kilogrammes. This motor has 20 cylinders, mounted in five groups of four, working on a five-crank shaft. Each group is composed of two double-effect, tandem-mounted cylinders.—Paris Herald.

The society which bought the ground where is installed the aerostatic park of the Aero Club of France, at St. Cloud, had a good idea and made a good investment. Is it so hard to organize a society to establish a park for aviation? Some sheds could be built and rented to the aviators, and there could also be a shop for repairs. The experimenters would get their training in all security of mind with their apparatus, and the shareholders would get good dividends. Everybody would be delighted and we would be delivered of Issy les Moulineaux.—Les Sports.

The Kaiser gave authorization to Major Gross to put the military aeronautic brigade at the disposition of Count Zeppelin for the trials of the new dirigible which will take place this month.

NEW PRIZES.

(i) M. Henri Deutsch de la Meurthe has offered a new prize of $5,000, open to either lighter-than-air or heavier-than-air apparatus, for the first "aeromobile" to transport Commandant Renard, one of the pioneers of aeronautics in France, to England. If the Commandant is carried by motor balloon, the descent must be at the military camp at Aldershot; if by the gasless type of apparatus the landing may be made anywhere in England. The announcement was made at a dinner given by M. and Mine. Armengaud, Jr., at their villa at St. Cloud, where the Aero Club of France has their aerostatic park. Henri Deutsch is the man who, with Ernest Archdeacon, offered the $10,000 prize to the first aeroplane to fly a kilometer, and which was won by Far-man in March, 1908. He has offered many other smaller prizes in connection with aeronautics.

bretton woods cup.

(2) Anderson & Price, the managers of the famous White Mountain hostelries, The Mount Pleasant and The Mount Washington, have offered a handsome cup for balloonists. The first balloon which, starting from any point 100 miles away from Bretton Woods, lands within 5 miles of either of the above mentioned hotels, will be deemed the winner. Seven trials have already been made and one balloon accomS plished about half the distance.

(3) Henri Desche, the Mayor of Marsang-sur-Orge, has offered through Les Sports and the Aero Club of France a valuable piece of ground worth 30,000 francs to the first aviator who, starting at least 20 kilometers away, will first make a landing within the confines of the town. The offer is good until the end of 1909.

(4.) It is reported that a department of the Russian Government is to offer $25,000 in prizes for an aeroplane competition to take place next year.

(5) The King of Italy has manifested an intention of giving a prize of 50,000 francs to the aeroplane which will stay in the air 30 minutes. The contest to be held in Italy, but open to everyone.

Air-Current Whirl-pools.

In speaking of the experiences of Messrs. Glidden and Clayton in their trip of July 29th, the North Adams "Herald" has an interesting interview with Mr. Clayton, as follows:

"Mr Clayton explained in detail the conditions which made it possible tor such a thing to happen.

"Wherever there are thunder caps, as they are called, the huge white banks of cumulous clouds, there is a whirlwind. These clouds are formed by the rising of heated air and the condensation of it into moisture. When the clouds are of sufficient density they become shower clouds.

"While we do not know exactly just how far from those clouds the influence of the whirling wind is felt, it is safe to say that within a half mile certainly and probably for a mile in circumference from the clouds of that nature its effect would be felt by a balloon and slowly but surely it would be drawn into the maelstrom of the air.

"As the balloon was sucked into the center of this it would be whirled and forced upward at a tremendous rate, the pressure of the air and the speed forcing a large amount of the gas contained in the envelope through the vent so, that when the balloon was thrown out at the top of the cloud or the whirlwind, it would have little lifting or sustaining power and no matter how much ballast remained to be thrown out, it would drop with fearful rapidity.

" 'However,' continued Air. Clayton, 'the dropping would not necessarily be dangerous or fatal, as has been proven time and again. Numerous balloonists have experienced similar ^phenomena to that Messrs. Stevens, Hawley and Van Sleet went through yesterday.ifcphn Wise, a practical aeronaut of the early days, whose book is a wonderful xJfmow of his experiences of hundreds of ascensions, proved that a balloon can bupt in midair and the passengers may land safely, although, perhaps a little hard, because the big envelope forms a parachute.

" 'Wise had an even more vivid experience with a thunderclap than did the men yesterday. Three times he was sucked into the whirlpool and partially thrown out at the top only to fall back again and be sucked upward through it again. Yet he landed safely with practically no gas in his balloon, it all having been forced out through the vent on his upward flights.

" 'The balloonist has two alternatives when approaching a large cumulus cloud. If he is ballooning for pleasure he should open the valve and make a landing before getting within the range of the suction which, as I say, may extend a mile beyond the cloud, although that we cannot say definitely. Or, he may give up ballast and go above it finding there the wind which will throw him away from the cloud and permit him to continue his flight. In going above it, however, he may find it necessary in the case of a very dense cloud, to go to a height of probably two and a half or three miles before he would clear the cloud.

"'All this has been proven and to those who have made the scientific study of clouds and winds it is well known that the cumulus clouds aways contain a whiring wind which is, to a balloonist, not a pleasant thing to encounter and one which may be avoided by ordinary care.' "

Airship Line for America.

Charles J. Glidden has organized the "American Aerial Navigation Co.," to operate a dirigible service between New York and Boston. Two supply stations are to be established along the line. Knowing Mr. Glidden, this most optimistic project should receive credence. Mr. Glidden states: "I can say nothing more at present regarding the Aerial Navigation Co.. than has appeared in public prints, which is substantially correct. The organization will be completed in October. Irî the meantime considerable work is being done toward the end that the Company is organized for."

To Recommend Appropriation of $1,000,000 for Aeronautics.

Encouraged by the general interest manifested in the coming Fort Meyer balloon test and prompted by the advancement of other nations in aeronautics, Gen. James Allen, chief signal officer, and the board of ordnance and fortification' of the War Department will recommend the appropriation by Congress next winter of $1,000,000 for aeronautics.

With this money General Allen proposes to erect two balloon stations on the Atlantic coast, at New York and at Fort Monroe, Va., and to purchase two balloons of the type of the République, the immense dirigible built by the French government to replace La Patrie, which was lost at Verdun, France, last winter. A balloon of this size would cost about $100,000. General Allen is of the opinion that two of these ships at each balloon station would be of great service in warding off an attack by warships.—Arms and the Man.

The Cost of Ballooning.

At the dinner of the Aero Club of New England, mentioned in the July number, Mr. Glidden read a paper on ballooning. In this paper he gives the following interesting information:

"As my ascensions have been made in three countries and under varied conditions, the expenses in connection with them will form a fair basis to estimate the cost of ballooning. The expenses of the 10 ascensions total $721.22, an average of $72.12 for each ascension.

"The balloons have carried on an average 2.3 passengers a distance of 455 miles, and remained in the air 24 hours. This would make the expense of travelling in the air for each passenger 68^4 cents per mile, and the cost to remain in the air to each passenger $13.04 per hour.

"A balloon to accomplish the above results costs $800 and the necessary instruments $100. The average life of a balloon is about 50 ascensions, after which it can be sold for exhibition work at about 25 per cent, of the original cost.

"The art of managing the balloon is in making as straight a line as possible, which is recorded /on the barograph, and an easy landing. Under favorable conditions the line\sho/uld be^rrgajjy- as straight as an experienced navigator would make in steering his l\iwicJ}^th-aTis, the rise and fall should not exceed 300 feet. If the sun plays hide au^wek with the clouds the line would appear like the teeth of a large saw with paj^t^cn the saw chipped out, or a line of jagged mountain peaks as /seen from a^d^rance." q ^

TWFlrst Airship Law. (J\f Yo Yld.^Tl< S , j\ ^ ' 1^0^)

The first ordinance of record to be passed regulating the use of airships, providing >tax, etc., has been framed by the town of Kissimmee, Florida, and P. A. Vans Agnew, (■ an attorney, Avrites: "The ordinance has not yet been adopted by the Council but will in all probability be passed at the next meeting. It may interest you to know that the 'raisen d'etre' for the ordinance is the presence in this town of a local airship genius, who is experimenting with the construction of an amateur airship, and is suspected of an intention to soon launch his invention on the main street of this town. In dealing with this local emergency, it was thought advisable to provide for future contingencies in view of the extraordinarily rapid progress now being made in aerial navigation."

The ordinance has been published, according to law, and is as follows:

"An Ordinance Regulating the Status and Employment of Airships Within the

Town of Kissimmee City: Be It Ordained by the Council of the Town of Kissimmee

City:

"Section 1. For the purpose of this ordinance, the boundaries of the town and the boundaries of the airship limit of that town shall be held to extend upwards in a vertical direction to a distance of twenty miles in the sky; and the area of the airship limit of the town shall be the same as that of the fire limit of the town.

"Section 2. It shall be unlawful for any person, firm or corporation to keep an airship shed, barn or garage for the stalling or repairing of airships, or an airship station, depot or terminal for the shipment or discharge of either freight or passengers within the airship limit without the permission of the council, which privilege shall be subject to be revoked at any time upon six months' notice.

"Section 3. Every person, firm or corporation keeping an airship shed, barn or garage shall pay an annual license tax of $100 for each such place of business, the same to be collected in like manner as other licenses.

"Section 4. An annual license tax is hereby imposed upon all airships kept or used for hire within the town, the same to be collected from the owner; of such airship in like manner as other licenses. Said license tax shall be graded asfotllows:

"Balloons stationary, $20; powerless, $30; dirigible, $50.

"Flying machines—aeroplanes, $100; helicopters, $150; ornithopters, $200; all other types $300.

"Said amounts shall be increased according to carrying capacity in the following rates:

"Five to fifteen persons, 10 per cent, increase; fifteen to thirty passengers, 20 per cent, increase; thirty to sixty passengers, 35 per cent, increase; sixty to 100 passengers, 50 per cent, increase; 100 to 500 passengers, 100 per cent, increase; 500 to 1000 passengers, 200 per cent, increase; over 1,000 passengers, 400 per cent, increase.

"Section 5. For the purpose of encouraging the transportation of freight by aerial common carriers no license tax whatever shall be imposed upon any aerial common carrier for the term of 15 years from the date of this ordinance.

"Section 6. No motor or powerless balloon, aeroplane, helicopter, ornithopter, or other type of flying machine or airship, shall travel upon any street or alley of the town within ten feet of the surface at all, or within 20 feet of said surface at a speed

greater than 8 miles an hour; or within 50 feet, at a speed greater than 15 miles an hour; or within 100 feet, at a speed greater than 25. miles an hour; or within 200 feet at a greater speed than 50 miles an hour; or within 500 feet at a speed greater than 100 miles an hour; or within 1000 feet at a speed greater than 200 miles an

'^""••Section 7 It will be unlawful for the occupant, or occupants, of any balloon, either stationary, powerless or dirigible, or aeroplane, helicopter, ornithopter. or other type of flying machine or airship, to drop, throw, discharge or otherwise eject any substance, fluid or solid, from such airship, upon any of the streets, alleys or parks, or public or private lots, blocks, or buildings within the town. _

"Section 8. It shall be unlawful for any such balloon or airship to collide with, break, destroy, deface or otherwise damage any electric, telephone, telegraph wires or poles'or any part of any public building, or other public property within the town.

"Section 9. All such balloons or airships shall be properly equipped with, and shall use. such bells, whistles or horns, brakes, lights and other signalling and controlling apparatus, and nets, parachutes, flying belts and artificial wings, and other safety apparatus as arc prescribed by the rules and regulations adopted and enforced by the aeronautic and aerostatic bureaus of the United States government.

"Section 10. As soon as practicable, the council shall purchase an aeroplane of approved modern type for the use of the marshal in the performance of his public duties and to enable him to properly enforce the provisions of the ordinance.

"Section 11. Any violation of any of the provisions of this ordinance shall be punished upon conviction by a fine of not more than $500, or by imprisonment in the town calaboose for not more than ninety days, or by both such fine and imprisonment."

Langley Machine to be Flown—Langley's Memoirs.

Charles M. Manly, who was Professor Samuel P. Langley's _ assistant during his experiments and the construction of the full sized machine, nicknamed by the newspapers "The Buzzard," is planning to bring the Langley machine forth from the Smithsonian Institution and demonstrate in actual flight the correctness of the principles expressed concretely therein.

Mr. Manly will shortly complete his labors on the third volume on the work of Professor Langley. This volume will be entitled "Mechanical Flight, by Professor Samuel Pierpont Langley; Edited by Charles M. Manly." The other two volumes of the set are: "Aerodynamics," and the "Internal Work of the Wind." This third volume will be published, the same as the others, by Smithsonian Institution among their other contributions to knowledge.

Percentage of Leakage Through Balloon Cloth.

In response to an inquiry, Captain Chas. De F. Chandler has kindly given the following information:

"Nearly a year ago I started some tests at Washington along that line, but the men of the balloon detachment were ordered to St. Louis and then Fort Wood, and I have not had an opportunity to complete the tests since then.

"However, the results of the experiments indicate that it will be impossible to state the percentage of leakage through balloon cloth without having a complete description of the kind of cloth and its preparation. The only way leakage can be determined is by experiment. The leakage through varnished cotton or silk varies between wide limits, depending upon the number of coats of varnish applied to it, and whether the varnish is fresh, or old, hard, and cracked. I remember that several pieces of German and French balloon fabric, having layers of rubber between cotton or silk, subjected to an air pressure of twenty-one inches of water for about seventeen hours, allowed such slight leakage that the amount could not be determined from the ruler scale used; in fact, no leakage was apparent to the eye."

Rubber-silk cloth is being used by Captain Baldwin in the Government dirigible. The fabric manufactured by the Continental Caoutchouc Co., is of cotton and rubber. Both fabrics can be furnished in any weight.

The Turning of Aeroplanes.

During the last meeting of the Academy of Science, M. Deslandres analized the notes of Commandant Renard and on the turning of aeroplanes.

An aeroplane turning must incline transversely towards the interior of the curv* The transverse inclination is determined by the degree of curve and the speed. If the speed is too low the aeroplane is pushed towards the exterior of the curve. If it is too great the machine slides towards the interior. Respectively, if the aeroplane inclines it shows a curve on the side on which it inclines even without the help of the rudder. Then all steering compels the aeroplane to make a descending trajectory. In order to avoid losing the height the aviator will have to elevate himself before beginning a curve. These mechanical laws enable one to explain peculiarities and certain incidents and to avoid their being repeated.

The London Balloon Company.

Referring to the interesting review of aeronautics in Great Britain in the July number, we quote as follows, and add thereto the circular letter sent out in forming the Balloon Company.

"For some time past efforts have been made to call into being a corps of aeronauts whose services could be placed at the disposal of the military authorities in time of war, to supplement the regular balloon section of the Royal Engineers. That the experience of such a body of men—trained aeronauts every one—might prove of inestimable value is incontestable. Two associations in France, the Aéronautique-Club and the Aéro-Club du Rhône, have for many years past conducted a school for the training in every branch of aeronautical science of a number of young men whom the experience thus acquired enables to join the various balloon batallions during their period of military service. These efforts have been crowned with the greatest success. But, in the absence of compulsory military service, the scheme could not very well be made to apply to this country; and it was felt that the formation of a corps of aeronauts attached to the volunteers was the best way of attaining the same object.

"With the inauguration of the Territorial Army this has now become an established fact. On May 5 the first members of the London Balloon Company, the first aeronautical unit of the Territorial Force, were sworn in. This company will have a full strength of sixty men, who will undergo a thorough course of theoretical and practical instruction in every branch of aeronautics, at the hands of instructors selected from the regular balloon section. Two army balloons will be allotted to the company, in addition to several old balloons, material and equipment to be used for instruction in packing, transport, repairing, and so forth. More important still, this and every summer the corps will go into camp near the Military Balloon Factory at Farnborough for their practical training."

103a Copleston Road, Grove Vale, Dulwich, S. E.

London Balloon Company. Royal Engineers,

Drill Hall, Regency Street, Westminster, S. W.

May, 1908.

Dear Sir,

I have to bring to your notice the London Balloon Company of the Territorial Forces, and to invite you to state whether or not you are desirous of enlisting therein. The enclosed shows the leading conditions of service—which are very simliar to those of the late Volunteer force—also the objects of the Company.

Any further information you desire I shall be happy to afford on hearing from you.

1 should mention that the Company will proceed to Aldershot this summer for training with the Army Ballooning School. To go with the Company you should be enrolled forthwith so as to obtain the necessary equipment and training in time.

If you cannot enlist in the Company (kindly hand on this communication to any young man interested in the subject and in any case please furnish me with the names and addresses of any acquaintances of yours who you think might be prepared to join. Yours faithfully,

H. E. HOLTORP.

LONDON BALLOON COMPANY. Territorial Forces.

Term of enlistment: 4 years. Age limits: 17 to 35 years. Height: drivers 5 ft. 3 ins. to 5 ft. 6 ins.; sappers, 5 ft. 4 ins. and upwards. Chest measurement: about 33 ins. minimum. Other physical requirements: sound heart and lungs, good eyesight (without glasses) and freedom from rupture. Drills per annum; about an evening once a fortnight. Uniform and equipment: free; no subscriptions. Annual training in Camp; not less than 8 days nor more than 15 days (Sundays included); special pay, rations and grants allowed. Leading objects: to qualify in all branches of military ballooning and kite work; to carry out original research and experimentation in aeronautical work bearing especially on military requirements; special attention to practical work will be paid and to that end field exercises will be carried out as, often as practicable.

Aerial Experiment Association.

The Aerial Experiment Association, under whose auspices the "June Bug'' aeroplane, which won the Scientific American Trophy, has decided to build another aeroplane, its fourth. Instead of removing to Beinn Bhreagh, near, Baddeck, Nova Scotia, Dr. A. Graham Bell's summer home, three of the members of the Association—F. W. Baldwin, Lieut. T. Selfridge and G. H. Curtiss—will remain at Hammondsport, N. Y. Dr. Bell is in Nova Scotia.

" 'Disclosure' of Wright Brothers' Secret."

It is not apparent just what the "secret" is that has been the occasion for so "much ado about nothing." The flights of the Brothers Wright have not been altogether secret for they have been witnessed by several hundred persons.

In regard to the article of Carl Dienstbach, in which was given an imaginary drawing of the Wright Brothers' aeroplane, the article had nothing more than was contained in the patents of 1903. Then the claim is made that Mr. Dienstbach's article and drawing is "verified" by the awarding of French patents on January 27, 1908, "about ten days after publication" of said article, as if the Patent Office of France were in the habit of informing this author, of patents about to be granted.

As a matter of fact the article had nothing from the French patents.

In the July 15th issue of Illustrierte Aeronautische Mitteilungen^ Herr Dienstbach states that the "precious and surreptitiously taken photographs" of the Wright Brothers' aeroplane in flight in North Carolina in May of this year "show that the conclusions of the author (Herr Dienstbach) in regard to the construction of the machine and the drawing which he based on it and the description * * * correspond to reality."

The photographs above referred to, which were published in the New York Herald and Collier's Weekly, are so indistinct that details of the machine are absolutely lost, even when enlarged upon the screen.

It may be of interest, to note, in connection with the forthcoming Government trials, that the September number of Century Magazine will publish photographs of the first flight at Kitty Hawk, December 17, 1903, and of some of the flights of 1904 and 1905. Four flights were made on December 17th, 1903, the longest being 852 feet, against a 20-mile wind.

Our Biggest Balloons.

Many claims have been recently made for the "biggest balloon" and numbers have expressed doubt. We have written letters to various gas companies asking them the number of measured cubic feet supplied to these balloons and following is the result:

The United Gas Improvement Co., Philadelphia, state that the Ben Franklin takes 92,000 cubic feet of gas.

The Quincy Gas Co., Quincy, Ills., state that the Coey balloon, Chicago, built by G. L. Bumbaugh, measured 58J/2 feet in diameter and that same was filled on the basis of its cubical contents without a meter measurement. The company states: "The cubical contents of a sphere of this diameter is not 110,000 cubic feet and lacks some 3,000 cubic feet or so, but the parties filling this balloon did not desire it filled so rapidly. We started at 10 o'clock and in place of having it filled by 2 o'clock Ave had to shut off the gas and' did not complete filling it until about 4:30 p. m.

"During this period there was quite an odor of gas around the balloon, so we charged them for their estimate of 110,000 cubic feet. We also checked our sendout at every half hour the day previous to the filling of the balloon and also the day we filled the balloon, and in this way kept a very good check on the output. According to this measurement we furnished them 106,000 cubic feet up to 3:30 p. m."

No meter has been used in filling Mr. Forbes' balloon, Conqueror, so that the gas company has not an accurate figure. "Our estimate from the scales on the holder and the capacity of the pumps measured 79,000 feet when the Conqueror was first inflated." With a rating of 2,200 cubic meters, the equivalent would be 77,690 cubic feet.

Dr. Thomas' Pommern is rated at 2,200 cubic meters under F. A. I. rules, and the capacity in feet would thus be 77,690.

Insurance on Airships and Flying Machines.

Applications having been made for insurance by Wilbur R. Kimball on his helicopter and by Capt. Thos. S. Baldwin on two dirigible balloons, it is interesting to note the replies of the insurance companies.

No consideration was given the flying machine at all and the only two companies who treated the matter seriously by correspondence in regard to it stated that 'they could not. induce any company to assume liability covering risks of this character.

Bowring & Co., representing English insurance companies, replied as follows:

"We duly received your favor of the 1st inst. re fire risk on airships. We regret to say that we have not been able to induce any of our underwriters to quote us a rate for this business. We think that there ought to be some rate, but we have not been able to obtain one from the market."

The Federal Insurance Co., New York, wrote:

"Referring to our conversation in regard to issuing a floater policy on balloons, we have not sufficient data at this time to assume liability covering risks of this character."

Balloon Makes High Altitude.

The balloon "Walhalla" a few days ago, on board M. Omer Decugis as pilot and two doctors, reached the considerable height of 5,350 meters. A number of physiological observations were taken and a temperature registered of 12 degrees below zero. The ascension lasted 5 hours 15 minutes. Oxygen began to be used at 4,050 meters.

War Airships—Nothing to Fear.

The London Daily Mail gives an interesting view of the availability of aerial craft for military use at this present stage:

"In the highest military circles in Great Britain it is accepted that so far airships are a failure.

"The military authorities have had experts employed in watching the flights of the various airships and aeroplanes, and the impression is that for a long time to come there is nothing to be feared from them.

"The Government has not stinted the necessary funds for experiments at Alder-shot and elsewhere, but the Royal Engineers, on whom has devolved the task of finding at least a dirigible balloon, are contenting themselves with cautious experiments. From time to time reports are received of the performances of various airships and aeroplanes on the Continent, and in every case details of mechanism and construction have been available. The Army Council is therefore thoroughly aware of all that is taking place both on the Continent and in America in aerostatics.

"Consultations have been held at the War Office with expert artillerists as to how airship attacks can be best met, and the plan of campaign in which the principal feature will be the use of high-angle fire with high-explosive shells has been evolved.

"The military authorities point to the fact that nowhere has any machine designed for flight in the air proved effective. Our own airship, Dirigible No. 1, broke down under stress of weather. Count Zeppelin's airship, when it was put to a serious test, involving no less a sum than £100,000, promptly broke down. Mr. Farman's aeroplane was to have been tried in this country, but no place was found suitable for his experiments because of the presence of trees, telegraph wires, and so on. All this points to a lack of practical working in the various designs of which so much has been made in the Continental Press. When it is possible to cross the Channel, say, with a party of excursionists, the land at any fixed point the War Office may be prepared to regard recent experiments seriously."

Waterproofing Cloth.

Neighbor Fitz of Peconic gives us a tried and true Long Island receipt for making waterproof, long-wearing, translucent material from cotton cloth, and we gladly give fUereceipt to those who are looking for cold frame covers or protectors.

ivfeffone pound of paraffine and pour into one gallon of gasoline and while the mixture is still hot dip the cloth to be treated, seeing that every section of the surface is immersed and covered with the hot mixture. When removed the gasoline immediately evaporates and leaves the wax firmly embedded in the cloth fiber. Practice proves this process ideal. A very important precaution to observe is to have the gasoline at a distance from the fire on which the paraffine is melted, preferably in the open air. Further, the cloth, until it has been thoroughly aired and the gasoline evaporated, should not be brought jie_ar a flame of any kind.—Long Island Agronomist.

HOW IT FEELS TO BE IN A BALLOON.

(Continued from page 18.)

DRAGGED ALONG IN BASKET.

The basket struck the ground, tumbled on its side, dragged us a rod or two and stopped. We at once gained our feet. Just in front lay the dying monster, with its life, the gas, ebbing away. I admired the great balloon as I thought how grandly it carried us to the region of clouds and softly landed up in this beautiful field of clover. How well it had done its work!

Soon the people came from every direction—men, women, boys, girls, and little children, all panting for breath as they sped over the hills. They were all willing to lend a helping hand to take care of the dead monster that so suddenly swooped down from the clear sky and lay helpless on the green sod. The little spice of danger that attended our landing only added interest to the trip.

Col. J. B. L. Templar, of the British Government Balloon Factory, at Farnborough, is in New York and will probably view the trials at Washington.

PATENTS ISSUED.

In the August, 1907, number we published a list of patents issued during the first six months of the year. Following is a list of patents since July 1, 1907

This list has been specially compiled for "Aeronautics" by Munn & Co., 361 Broadway, New York, publishers of the "Scientific American:"

July, 1907—No. 859,765, Haines, July g^No. 860,447, Cook, July 16; No. 861,017, Buckwalter, July 23; No. 861,133, Nan eh, July 23; No. 861,740, La Penotiere, July 30; No. 859,274, Wilson, July 9.

August, 1907—No. 864,672, McCormick, Aug. 27.

September, 1907—No. 865,415, Mielcarek, Sept. 10; No. 866,665, Kornbrodt, Sept. 24; No. 866,672, O'Brate, Sept. 24; No. 866,673, O'Brate, Sept. 24; No. 867,083, Russell, Sept. 24.

October, 1907—No. 867,525, O'Brate, Oct. 1; No. 868,039, Uherkocz, Oct. 15; No. 868,223, Schiavone, Oct. 15; No. 868,488, Roshon, Oct. 15; No. 869,019, Pursell, Oct. 22.

November, 1907—No. 870,430, Herve, Nov. 5; No. 870,448, Mathews, Nov. 5; No. 870,936, Connolly, Nov. 12; No. 871,164, Ellsworth, Nov. 19; No. 871,710, Lane, Nov. 19; No. 871,926, Gathmann, Nov. 26.

December, 1907—No. 872,539, Von Parseval, Dec. 3; No. 872,778, Ashley, Dec. 3; No. 873,542, Halleday, Dec. 10; No. 874,263, Unzner, Dec. 17; No. 875,484, Anderson, Dec. 31.

January, 1908—No. 875,787, Day, Jan. 7; No. 876,125, Wondra, Jan. 7; No. 877,307, Dunn, Jan. 21; No. 877,529, Tkatzschenko, Jan. 28.

February, 1908—No. 879,779, Leeds, Feb. 18; No. 879,848, Benedict, Feb. 25; No. 880,070, Gerstner, Feb. 25.

March. 1908—No. 881,184, Halle, Mar. 10; No. 881,327, Montgomery, Mar. 10; No. 881,836, Warner, Mar. 10; No. 881,837, Whitehead, Mar. 10; No. 882,139, Drake, Mar. 17; No. 882,435, Whalen, Mar. 17; No. 882,457, Ernst, Mar. 17; No. 883,090. Cragun, Mar. 24; No. 883.565, Pars, Mar. 31.

April, 1908—No. 884.432. Vaniman, April 14; No. 886.122, Guthrie, April 28; No. 886,159, Sellers, April 28.

May, 1908—No. 887,443, Thayer, May 12; No. 887,931, Fiesse, May 19; No. 888.267, Landrik, May 19; No. 888.301. Bold, May 19 No. 888,618, Judson, May 26; No. 889,062, Sweeney, May 26.

June, 1908— No. 889,502. Beatty, June 2; No. 889,693, Lake, June 2; No. 890,215, Chance, June 9; No. 890,483, Von Wiszcewsky, June 9.

CALENDAR.

August—Trials of Government flying machines: A. M. Herring's beginning about the 13th, and the Wright Brothers' about the 28th. Point to point balloon race of North Adams Aero Club on the 14th. Flying-machine contests at Spa under auspices of Aero Club de Belgique on the 9th, 16th, and 23d, for $11.100 in prizes.

September—Grand Prix Balloon Race of Aero Club of France. Aeroplane contests at Vichy. Military tournament and Aeronautical Demonstration at St. Joseph, Mo., Sept. 21-26.

October—Grand Prix Balloon Race, Aero Club of France, on the 4th. Distance contests and contests for objective point at Berlin on the 10th under auspices Deutscher LuftschifferrVerband. Gordon Bennett Balloon Race, Berlin, on the nth. International aeroplane contests at Venice for $5.000 in prizes.

1909—During October, at Milan, Congress Federation Aéronautique International.

July 3—C. H. Perrigo's second attempt to sail his new balloon, "I Will," at the grounds of the Aero Club, Sixty-seventh street and South Park avenue, yesterday afternoon, resulted in another collapse of the big bag when it was half inflated.

The muslin covering proved too weak to hold the gas. A gash over six feet long was torn in the lower portion of the bag.

Many of the leading aeronauts of the country, who were assembled on the grounds to watch the "maiden" flight of the Perrigo balloon, declared the bag was too frail and advised him not to make a flight in it. They said his balloon would collapse in midair and dash him to the ground with little chance of escape from death.—Chicago Tribune. JULY ASCENSIONS.

(Continued from page 21.)

July 28. L. B. and Mrs. Haddock left Cincinnati in Norman G. Kenan's balloon Cincinnati at 4:55 p. m., landing a mile east of Gleves at 6:10.

July 29. Lincoln and Hill Beachey and Ernest Gill left Baltimore, Md., in Howard W. Gill's new balloon shortly after 1 o'clock, landing at 5 o'clock about four miles from Hagerstown.

Fourteen other ascensions were made during the month—see Balloon Racing for July, this issue.

Forty-seven balloon ascents have been made the first half of 1908 by members of American aeronautical organizations. This means considerably over a million and a half cubic feet of coal gas. Twenty-five of the ascents have been made from North Adams.

N. H. Arnold, of the North Adams Aero Club, has now made fifteen balloon ascensions. These have all been made this year. Air. Arnold is now a pilot.

There will be a military tournament at St. Joseph in September, at which most of the regular army in the vicinity will participate. Those in charge of this affair are anxious to have the aeronautical department of the Signal Corps represented, and advertise that as a feature, but as yet no instructions or information have been received from the Signal Chief Officer of the Army. It is very probable that if the Signal Corps does anything at all the Chief Signal Officer will send the new dirigible balloon made by Captain Baldwin, provided it is accepted by the Signal Corps. In that case probably Lieut. Lahm, or one of the other Signal Corps officers of Washington, who will be instructed in handling it, will go with the dirigible.

Howard W. Gill, of Baltimore, has purchased a 26,000-cubic-foot balloon from Charles J. Strobel, Toledo.

"Your magazine has proved a source of pleasure to me, and I have gleaned a considerable amount of valuable information from it. Long may it live!"

GEO. A. LAWRENCE.

DICTIONARY

OF

Aeronautics

In Preparation

(Advance orders solicited, money to be remitted upon notification by us that the volume has been publish t)

PIERCE, R. M. Dictionary of Aeronautics. About 200 pages. Paper, 75 cents; post= paid. 80 cents. Cloth, 95 cents; postpaid, $1.00. Limp calf, $1.95; postpaid, $2.00.

(List and prices subject to change Without notis)

GLAISHER, J. Travels in the Air. Clolh. London 1871 $15.00.

MORRIS, R. Flying and No Failure ! or, Aerial Transit Accomplished more than a Century Ago. Being a minute descriptive account of "a most surprising engine," invented, constructed, and used with the greatest success, by Jacob, the son of Mr. John Daniel, of Royslon, the latter of whom, who survived his son, died in 1711, aged 97. Reprinted verbatim from that excessively-rare little work, 'Narrative of the Life and astonishing Adventures of John Daniel, a smith, at Royston, in Hertfordshire, by the Rev. Ralph Morris."— London, 17^1. With an Appendix. Tothain: Printed by Charles Clark (an amateur) at his Private Press 1848. 14 p. $25 00.

WISE, J. A system of Aeronautics. 1st ed. 310 p. Cloth. Philadelphia 1850. $12.00.

LANGUAGES PUBLISHING COMPANY 1019 Flatlron Building New York

1

ADVERTISING IN "AERONAUTICS" PAYS

Tiiis Adams Cojipaxv

BUILDERS OF

THE fiBAKIS-FSEWIU, MOTOR

Dubuque low* .u s a July 31st, 190s

P-GH

Aeronautics,

Now York, Hew v0rk.

aentle-^en:

In reply to your favor of the 29th lnat., will aay that although va have only advertised in Aeronautics for two months, talcing a half paos each time, we have had very good reeulte. Our first ad. brought 25 repliee according to the key we ueed, and. of course, we must, have received several repliee that could not be traces.

If we continue to eecure as much business from each ad. In Aaronautlee as we have in tae last two months we will consider it by far the boat advertieing medium we ever have ueed in any line.

We have eold #2400.00 worth of motors as a reeult of two half page avle. Ihle makea t'.K coot of advertising only s little over 1% of tie sales.

It is, of courss, too early for us to make an accurate eatimata of the results obtained free our ode. In your magazine, but will eay that we are mors than pleased with the business already dona and proapscte cf future bueineea with partite who have replied to our ad. in Aeronautics. »..p.«r»ll,

THE ADAMS COMPANY,

P. S. *e enclo

copy and

illing

A fairly large number of members of the Aero Club of America were present last month at the contest by the June Bug for the Scientific American trophy, told in the July issue. There were: Alan R. Hawley, acting president; Augustus Post, secretary; Lieut. Selfridge, J. W. Baldwin, Captain T. S. Baldwin, S. Y. Beach, S. D. Mott, Chas. M. Manly, Carl Dienstbach, J. C. Lake, G. H. Curtiss, Geo. H. Guy, A. M. Herring, Thaddeus Gray, E. L. Jones.

O. K. Chance, of 395 Syndicate Arcade, Minneapolis, Minn., has issued a twelve-page prospectus. $10 shares are being sold at $8. The pamphlet sets_ forth fully the ideas of the inventor, with drawings and specifications of the machine. A saucer-shaped gas bag to be filled with illuminating or hydrogen gas lifts the apparatus and a 40-horse engine will furnish the propelling power. A propeller above the gas bag raises and lowers the apparatus, and three propellers in front pull the machine along, guided by a vertical rudder in the rear.

At the instance of the Aero Club of France the express companies of France have promised to facilitate the return of balloons after landing as much as possible.

The triplane aeroplanes being built by Voisin Brothers for Mm. Goupy, Ferber and Chevalier Florie are nearly finished. Being the first machines of the type, they will be of interest to aviators. The long body measures g]/> meters, mounted on a 3-wheeled chassis. The wheels are steerable. In front of the operator and on a level with him is a light 8-cylindcr motor. This motor takes up almost the entire distance between the lower and the second planes. A 2 bladed propeller is placed in front of all. This propeller has a diameter of 2.3 meters and the pitch is 1.4 meters. Between the motor and the operator is the steering and operating mechanisms. The three superposed planes measure 7.5 meters spread. 1.6 meters front to back and spaced vertically apart .95 meter. In the rear are 2 planes of 4 meters spread by 1.6 meter, and spaced apart 1.6 meter. Behind these two planes is affixed a vertical rudder. The surface of this apparatus is 43 sq. meters. The weight with one man will be 500 kilos, and the speed expected 15 meters per second.

Alfred N. Chandler's balloon Initial, which collapsed at Point Breeze on July 10th, will be repaired.

The Initial was bought in Paris two years ago from the French builder Mallet. But eight ascensions had been made with it. When it was laid out for the inflation a number of holes were patched. The capacity of the bag, 35,000 cubic feet, had nearly been reached when the bag split open.

Great Britain will remain an Island until further notice.

J. W. Roshon, of Harrisburg, whose multiple surface machine has been described in this journal, is now experimenting with a glider and motor-driven 2-surface machine, suspended under a cable 700 feet long, extending from the top of a hill down into a valley. Mr. Roshon finds it offers an excellent means of experimentation. By means of a ball-bearing traveler the machine will make the trip of 600 feet in 20 seconds. In one trial the machine was raised by the force of the wind above the cable, without the motor being used. The results of his experiments will be given later.

The inaugural trip of the "Banshee," which is the new balloon built for Mr. John Dunville, of England, to take part in the Gordon Bennett Race from Berlin next October, took place on July 15th, starting from Short's Balloon Works, Battersea, at 4 o'clock in the afternoon. This is a balloon of close on 80,000 cubic feet capacity, which was constructed by Short Bros., and it is remarkably light, for it carried on this occasion eight persons with no less than twenty-one 40-lb. bags of ballast, the occupants of the balloon being its owner, Mr. John Dunville, one of the British team in the Gordon Bennett Race; Mr. C. F. Pollock, who will accompany him in the race; Mrs. Dunville; the Hon. Mrs. Assheton Harbord; the Hon. C. S. Rolls; Mr. V. Ker-Seymer; Mr. Philip Gardner, and Mr. Eustace Short, the builder of the balloon. There being a due west wind, it was impossible to make a long trip, as the balloon passed over London and proceeded towards the mouth of the Thames. A descent was, there-fort, made in 1 hour 50 minutes, near East Horndon, in Essex, north of the mouth of the river Thames, an average speed of 17 miles an hour being maintained.

Lincoln Beachey has enlarged the gear and propellers on his dirigible, with which he has been making very successful flights in Baltimore. By the change he gains in speed.

"I am very glad to know that there is at last an able, fearless publication devoted exclusively to the subject of aerial navigation." J. H. O'DONNELL.

2 TO 100 H.P. ESPECIALLY DESIGNED FOR AERONAUTICS

J-

Four-Cylinder, 20 Horse-Power, Air-Cooled, Weight 100 lbs., Speed 1800 Revolutions per Minute, Magneto Ignition, Splash Lubrication with Sight Feed and Oil Gauge in Case.

SEND FOR CATALOGUE E.

G. H. CURTISS MANUFACTURING CO.,

Hammondsport, N. Y.

Recording ALTITUDE BAROMETERS, Recording THERMOMETERS, Recording HYGROMETERS, STATOSCOPES.

Used by ALL Aeronauts here and abroad.

Built by M. JULES RICHARD, Paris, France.

E. H. DUVIVIER,

30 Church Street, - - New York

Sole U. S. Representative

Official Instruments in Gordon Bennett Race, St. Louis, and other International Events.

ARMS AND (Gh THE MAN

THE NATIONAL HILITARY WEEKLY $3.00 a year

General James A. Drain, Editor

\ ARMS AND THE MAN serves every arm of the service in both the Army, the Navy, the Marine Corps and the National Guard. Its columns are open for all military aeronautical discussions, in connection with the work of the Signal Corps.

1 .-(>'_' 11 Street, IV. W. -

Washington, ~D. C.

WHEN MOTORING

ON LAND/ SEA. and in the AIR

THE PEARCE LEATHER PILLOW

INFLATED

IS A NECESSITY FOR COMFORT.

Patent applied for

Made of soft, pliable leather in shades of tan and black ; also in black, trimmed with red. It is ornamental, durable and attractive. Will not retain dust, tobacco odors, or germs. The inside air cushion is very strong and will last for years. Size 21 by 21 inches. Sold complete, prepaid in the U. S., price, $5.00. Can be furnished with ordinary down inside pillow ; price $3.00. Club monograms in any colors of leather supplied as desired. Agents tvanted.

THE LEATHER WORKERS' SALES CO. 304 North Fourth Street, St. Louis, U. S. A.

BALLOON BASKETS

Made to Last. Built on Scientific Principles. With or without water and air-proof compartments.

WHY GO TO EUROPE?

You can get as good and better from the

WM. HUKE ^AENM&KGWILLc0ow;

1007-1009 S. Seventh St.. ST. LOUIS. MO., U. S. A.

Builders of the basket of the C. A. Coey Balloon, capacity 110,000 cubic feet, the largest and strongest Balloon Basket ever built in America. Write for information.

1.. BUMBAUGH

DESIGNER — CONTRACTOR — OPERATOR — CONSTRUCTOR

AIR SHIPS AND BALLOONS

BuikLr of Coey's "CHICAGO," the largest spherical balloon in the world. Works: Sprlnglleid, ills. S. 13tta and Rutger Sts., St. Louis

No connection with any other concern.

UL Ili

INO

c

"J s

. £

is

O

co o «. ©

_ u

1 S

CQ <-e

to

. o

II

00 ^

^ .o-c

c

o

H 1

to

~"0 C/2

(LI <d

Is

a-2

o

15 < %

= E

<E o

-a c a

3

E

o

<u'-c

(0 D

E £

&72

C -

3 2

00 a

1 I

-C O

• -I

<u <u £

&o

£ § * E

(U o <u _c "C

3 .a -o « EJS

S. * a

~ c y 2

¿2 <-> o.

o

O

QC

s

I E

« c

* 8

o —

cj —

£ TO CQ

QC

a i.i

I <

be

CQ _3

AERONAUTICS

Ernest LaRue Jones, Editor, Owner and Publisher Thoroughfare Building, 1777 Broadway, New York. 304 No. Fourth St., St. Eouis.

Application made at New York Posteffice for Entry as Second Class Matter

Vol. Ill September, 1908 No 3

Akronautics is issued on the 20th of each month. It furnishes the latest and most authoriialive information on all matters relating to Aeronautics.

SUBSCRIPTION RATES. One year, $3.00; payable always in advance.

Subscriptions may be sent by express, draft, money order or registered letter. WE CAN NOT USE CHECKS ON LOCAL BANKS UNLESS EXCHANGE IS ADDED. Send draft on New York. Make nil remittances free ot exchange, payable to Aeronautics. Currency forwarded in unregistered letters will be at sender's risk.

Foreign Subscriptions.—To countries within the postal union, postage prepaid, §3.50 per annum in advance. Make foreign money orders payable to Aeronautics. No foreign postage stamps accepted.

Important.—Foreigu money orders received in the United States do not bear the name of the sender. Foreign subscribers should be careful to send letters of advice at same time remittance is sent to insure proper credit.

what we stand on.

Do you feel you'd like to quit? Don't! Get to feeling you don't fit? Don't! Do you want to yell "all-in'' 'Cause your wind's a little thin And you think you'll never win?

don't.

There's a kick you want to make, Don't! There's a head you want to break? Don't! Do you feel you want to whine Like a genuine canine And send blue streaks down the line? well don't.

When yon see a chance to duck. Don't! When yon want to chuck your luck, Don't! Keep right on without a stop And you'll sure show up on top, If, just when you want to flop, you don't.

c. l. armstrong.

military aeronautical appropriation.

THE Signal Corps of the LT. S. Army will ask Congress for a suitable appropriation next year to enable it to start at once to procure at least two large dirigibles with the necessary plant for housing and operating; also to go on with the development of other branches of military aeronautics, such as the field captive balloon park and the aeroplane.

The Baldwin dirigible. Wright and Herring aeroplanes will give a start and their performances furnish a foundation on which to ask for an appropriation which will enable the Corps to overtake European nations which are now so far ahead of us in military aeronautics.

hi 1008 the bill for a $200,000 aeronautical appropriation was summarily "killed" by Congress. Appeals were made by the Aero Club of America and by this journal urging the writing of letters to Congressmen asking them to vote for the appropriation —but all without avail.

Those interested in the advancement of the art and in seeing that this country takes an equal or superior place with foreign countries in military aeronautics, should do all in their power to impress upon their representatives in Washington the need for favoring such an appropriation.

The procedure is that the Secretary of War will place among the other estimates the estimate for the aeronautical work. All the estimates go from the Secretary of War to the Secretary of the Treasury and then to Congress. For 1908 the estimate for balloons was referred to the Fortification Committee, which is a sub-committee of the Appropriations Committee, and will probably follow the same road this year. In due time, when Congress meets, we will give the names of those gentlemen and then our readers should do their part.

It is interesting to note the figures given by the Automotor Journal as representing the money spent by England for military aeronautics in various years: 1903-4, ¿14,600; 1904-5, £19,000; 1905-6, ¿23,000; 1906-7, ¿20,750; 1907-8, £16,500; 1908-9, £13,750.

orville wright breaks all records—62 minutes in the air.

On September 9 Orville Wright in Washington broke all existing records for dynamic flight, which, of course, included the Wright Brothers' 1905 flight of 24 miles.

In the morning he flew over the Fort Myer parade ground for 57 minutes, >f~sec-onds. He came down because his motor worked a little loose, filled up with gasoline and started again in the afternoon. In the 57-minute flight 57 circles of the field were made and the distance made is computed at about 40 miles. No accurate measurements were taken; the measuring anemometer was not in order.

2 men in machine fly 6 minutes.

Later in the day he remained in the air for i hour, 2 minutes and seconds. A third flight was made with Lieutenant Lahm with him in the machine lasting 6 minutes and*6 seconds.

tThese trials were all unofficial practice flights, but the time condition of the Government test has been exceeded in the 62-minute flight and there certainly can be no doubt now but that the Government's conditions, given fully in previous issues, will be met. We doubted at the time that the art had reached the stage where these conditions could apply but it seems the Wright Brothers made a mark higher up than we could reach.

The practice flights of Orville Wright began on September 3 with a flight of 1 minute 11 seconds. On the following day his second ascent was made, which lasted 4 minutes 15 seconds. On September 7 a short flight of 5J^"seconds was made. On the 8th two flights were made. One lasted 11 minutes 10 seconds.^ This was ended in order to make an adjustment. The second flight of the day lasted*^ minutes 34 seconds. A height of 60 feet was held during part of the flight. Mr. Wright gave the speed as' 35 to 36 miles an hour.

A writer describes the long flight as follows:

"The aeroplane swept down the stretch until just above the aerodrome it turned and in an abrupt curve headed east. With the speed of an express train it sailed toward the grove that shelters the graves in Arlington National Cemetery, and when almost within the shadows of the trees it effected another spectacular turn and rushed north. Thus the first round was completed.

"As he increased his number of circuits, Wright seemed to enter the wild spirit of the test. The aeroplane, time and again, swooped from an altitude of between 75 and 100 feet toward earth until it was a scant 10 feet above the tops of the waving grass. Then in response to the turn of its forward planes it soared aloft for long stretches and skimmed as true as any arrow.

"Early in his flight Wright began to climb higher and higher, until he was sailing (

at a height of more than 150 feet. At that altitude the big white aeroplane showed not the slightest effect of counter air currents. There was no rocking nor diving perceptible, and it maintained its course as steadily as a ship on a summer sea.

"Once well up above the ground, Wright increased the radius of his flight. He drove his ship down the field far past the aerodrome and into the broken country beyond. Over the roofs of the post buildings he sailed, and he looked down on the graves in Arlington through the tree tops ninety feet beneath.

"When he alighted Mr. Wright acknowledged that the temptation to leave the open ground and venture over the wooded and hilly country beyond was almost irresistible. On several occasions he did dash out of bonds and maneuvered over small forests of maple and oak, but although these excursions were frequent, they were brief, for the danger from the motor stopping was uppermost in the aviator's mind. The machine would probably have been ruined if it had landed in the thickets.

"While he maintained a speed estimated variously at from thirty-eight to fifty miles an hour, Wright did not put his motor to the test. The compact little machine that drives the two big rear propellers was running only at three-quarters speed, no change having been made since the flights of yesterday. There is no doubt that the contract speed of forty miJes an hour will be met easily, and what the aeroplane could do on a straight-away dash with its motor working to the limit is a matter of conjecture. Under favorable conditions it is probable it could reach and maintain a velocity of from sixty-five to seventy-five miles."

WILBUR WRIGHT'S FLIGHTS IN FRANCE.

While Orville Wright has been getting the aeroplane ready for the Government trials in this country, his brother Wilbur has been showing Frenchmen that they can actually fly—"some."

The machine in France has been put together at the factory of Leon Bollee, the well known automobile builder, at Le Mans.

WILBUR WRIGHT, IN FRANCE.

The first flight was made on August 8 and below is a summary of all the flights made during August.

Aug. 8, i minute 45 seconds.

Aug. 10, false start; one flight of 42 seconds and one of 1 minute 41 seconds. Aug. 11, 3 minutes 43 seconds.

Aug. 12, 40 seconds, one minute 45 seconds, 6 minutes 56 seconds at a height of 20 meters in a wind blowing 15 kilometers an hour.

Aug. 13. 8 minutes 13 seconds; 1 minute, record height of 90 feet, broke wing in descending.

Aug. 21, 1 minute 49 seconds; 2 minutes 14 seconds.

These flights were made at a speed which appears to be 55 kilometers an hour and at a height of about 10 meters average.

The flights abroad are being made to fulfill conditions imposed by the Lazare Weiller Syndicate, which is said to intend to purchase the right of constructing and selling the Wright aeroplane in France and the French colonies for $100,000. By his contract Wilbur Wright must make two flights, each of them over a course of 50 kilometers in an average breeze and at a few days interval. The aeroplane must carry two persons and enough fuel for a journey of 200 kilometers.

The flights above mentioned have been made at Hunaudieres race course, some miles from Le Mans. The course lias a length of 800 meters by a width of 350 meters. Since the last flight. Mr. Wright has removed to Auvours, eight miles from Hunaudieres, where longer flights will be made. Two starting appliances are being erected 011 the Auvours ground at a distance of three miles.

On the sixth day the engine was missing fire. Nevertheless, the aviator mounted to a height of 30 meters, and describing a huge circle, the machine was brought to about 10 meters, the engine cut out, and a gentle downward gliding "begun. Suddenly the machine heeled, one wing touched the ground and broke. The reason was that seeing he was about to land on a mound of earth he tried to change the direction of the machine and pulled the wrong lever. Since going to France the controlling mechanism has been charged to two levers only, four having been previously used.

The doubt so long expressed by even the most advanced in the art abroad, that the Wright Brothers ever flew the distances claimed, has now been effectually dispelled, to the renown of America. During the flights. Frenchmen seem to vie with each other in giving the praise and credit so long overdue and all hasten to say they "never had any doubt."

Trials commenced at Auvours on August 21. Two flights were made of 1 minute 49 seconds and 2 minutes 14 seconds respectively.

Postscript—On September 5 Wilbur Wright remained in the air for 19 minutes 48 seconds, covering a distance estimated at 14 to 15 miles. A second flight was attempted in a strong wind and in avoiding a clump of trees the right wing was lifted and the left wing struck the ground and broke.

The aeroplane is, of course, a biplane; of a spread of 12.5 meters. The distance between the planes is 1.8 meter and arc about 2.5 meters front to rear. The total supporting surface is about 50 sq. meters. The main planes, or wings, instead of being rigid as those of the aeroplanes made in France, are flexible, increasing in flexibility toward the extremities. The flexing of the wings has made it possible to fly in winds impossible for French machines.

In front of the machine about 3 meters from the wings is placed the two superimposed horizontal planes forming the rudder for vertical direction. At the rear, 2.5 meters distant from the wings, is the two-parallel-vertical planes for lateral steering.

THREE-QUARTER FRONT VIEW.

Description of the Machine.

Between the two horizontal planes forming -the front rudder is a vertical surface, connected with the rear vertical rudder, designed to act exclusively as a telltale. The total dimension front to rear of the whole machine is 10 meters.

The engine, designed by the Wright Brothers themselves, of 25 h.p.. 4 cylinders, is located midway en the lower wing. The weight is 3.6 kilos to the h.p. The cylinders are separate, surrounded by copper water jackets. A camshaft within the crank case operates overhead valves by means of rocker arms. The bore and stroke is 108 by 100 mm. The gasoline is fed directly into the cylinders by a pump and distributor mechanism. Ignition is effected by means of a high tension magneto driven off the camshaft through gears outside the crankcase. On the rear end of the engine shaft are two pinions, each one connecting up, by means of a chain, with propeller shafts a couple of feet above the engine base and to the left and right of it. One of the chains crosses in order to turn the propellers in opposite directions. The chains are guided for a short distance by steel tubes. At one side of the motor is the radiator, consisting of flat brass tubes, rive feet high and fcur inches wide. Each cylinder has a small

auxiliary port just below the head. Two gear pumps actuated by a cross shaft from the two-to-one shaft are provided for forcing gasoline into the explosion chamber and for forcing oil from a reservoir in the base to the proper places. The oil returns to the tank. The operator sits to one side of the radiator. The gasoline supply is contained in a tall vertical copper cylinder attached to one of the struts. On the opposite side of the engine is the radiator, also attached to one of the struts. The given h.p. is obtained at 1200 r.p.m.

There are two propellers, in the rear, are of two blades each, wooden, 25 meters diameter, geared down in the ratio of 33 to 9; running 400 r.p.m. to the engifre-'s 1000.

Two long skids support the whole at about 40 cm. from the ground, like the runners of a sleigh.

The total weight of the machine is, with one man, about 450 kilos. Outside of the motor, the machine is entirely constructed of American pine and spruce.

The start is made from a short wooden rail, grooved, on which the machine is placed and set in motion by a falling weight in calm weather. On windy days the aeroplane is balanced in the groove and set in motion by the propellers. The skids are put on a chariot with two wheels tandem running in the groove in the rail to which the rope is attached.

The falling weight apparatus is as follows: A pyramid of braced posts about 30 feet high, ropes, block and tackle, and weights. The rope, to the end of which the weight of 900 kg. is attached, is passed through the apex of the pyramid, underneath the monorail track to a point near its extremity, where it runs back again over a pulley and above the track. At this end of the rope there is a ring which is slipped over a hook, placed upon the center of a cross brace near the front of the skids. When it is desired to start the machine, it is drawn back to the beginning of the track, which is some 10 feet from the pyramid; the weights are hoisted to the desired height by block and tackle; and when all is ready and the propellers revolving rapidly the weights are allowed to drop. This gives a pull to the rope which drags the machine along the track at a tremendous rate. The hook for the ring is so constructed that the rope slips off at the proper time and the machine sails into the air at the angle controlled by the manipulation of the forward rudder.

REAR VIEW.

ARMY AERONAUTICS FOR AUGUST

The parts of Captain Baldwin's airship arrived at Fort Myer during the week of July 20th. It was assembled and inflated at the balloon house and towed up to the tent on the drill ground on August 3d. Unofficial flights were made by Captain Baldwin for the purpose of testing out his machine daily, beginning August 4th and continuing through August nth. These flights were most of them short, a flight being-made "every day except on August 9th. Captain Baldwin was the pilot, and Mr. G. H. Curtiss, manufacturer of the motor, was at the engine, and also operated the movable horizontal planes, during all the unofficial and official trials.

The first official trial was held on August 12th. A course 2 1 '16 miles long, running northwest to Cherrydale, was carefully laid out. The balloon left the tent at 6.28 P. M., passed the cuter end of the course about 7.20 P. M. On return, when about one-half mile from Fort Myer, a secondary wire on the motor came loose, necessitating stopping the motor and making a landing. This was done in an open field, the wiring repaired, and after a delay of fwenty-seven minutes, the balloon returned to the drill ground at Fort Myer under its own power. No official time was taken for this trial, as it was not completed. The maximum height of the first official trial was five hundred feet; wind velocity five miles an hour; direction of wind, south and southeast.

The second official test was made on August 14th over the same course from Fort Myer to Cherrydale; wind west by south; velocity five miles an hour; maximum height seven hundred feet.

The third official trial was made immediately after the completion of the second trial. At this trial an average speed, going and coming over the measured course of 2 and 1 -16 miles, was 19.61 miles per hour. Direction of wind, west by south; velocity of wind, five miles per hour; maximum height, five hundred feet. The engine was running 18 minutes during this flight. The balloon was in the air 17 minutes.

The fourth official trial was for the purpose of fulfilling the condition of the contract which called for a flight of two hours, during which the machine was required to make 70 per cent, of the maximum speed. This trial took place on August 15th, over the two mile course which had been used for the speed trial. Eight round trips were made over the course, and a speed of 13.75 miles per hour was attained. The maximum height was 800 feet. The flight started at 5.30 P. M. and ended at 7.40 P. M., when it was almost dark.

The Board of Officers appointed by General Allen to conduct these experiments as well as those with the Wright and Herring aeroplanes, is. composed of Major Geo. O. Squier, Signal Corps; Major C. McK. Saltzman, Signal Corps; Captain Clias. W. Wallace, Signal Corps; 1st Lieut. Frank P. Lahm, Signal Corps; 1st Lieut. Benj. D. Foulois, Signal Corps; and 1st Lieut. T. E. Selfridge, 1st Field Artillery. These officers are all on duty in the office of the Chief Signal Officer. The Board is divided into two parts; one observing the time at the start of the course, the other at the turning point. The last paragraph in the specification requiring the instruction of two men in the handling and operation of the airship was fulfilled by Captain Baldwin between August 18th and 24th. The airship was operated four days during this time by Lieuts. Lahm, Foulois and Selfridge. In all twenty flights were made. These officers, all on duty in the Aeronautical Division of the office of the Chief Signal Officer, are now operating the airship at Fort Myer every day weather conditions permit. The balloon was accepted by General Allen on August 22d.

Details of the airship are given elsewhere in this issue. The plans given on page 29 of the April issue for the experimental ship have been faithfully carried out in the Government dirigible, of course the size being increased. A change has been made to a single propeller instead of a double one, and the engine used is water cooled instead of air is cooled. It is a Curtiss 4 cylinder 4 cycle weighing 120 lbs., 25 h.p. Only two-thirds of the power is used during flight. It has been found impossible to advantageously use all the power the engine is capable of developing. This weight of 120 pounds is that of the nal-ed engine. To this is added 60 pounds for batteries, sparking coils, radiator and transmission. The weight of the envelope is 253 pounds and the frame weighs \ VZ pounds to the running foot. The total length of the bag is 96 feet with a maximum diameter of 19 feet. The capacity is 19,000 cubic feet.

The tent for housing this dirigible balloon wa.s._purchased from Boyle & Company of New York, and was erected on July 29th. It is 134 feet long, 36 feet high, amply large enough to house the dirigible balloon inflated.

The hydrogen plant used for inflating the balloon has been purchased from Captain Baldwin by the Signal Corps.

wright aeroplane.

The Wright aeroplane arrived on August 20th. Mr. Wright and two mechanics arrived the same day and began assembling the machine on the 21st. This was completed, the engine installed, and the motor tested at the ballorn house on August 28th.

(Continued mi rage 23)

THE EVOLUTION OF THE "TWO-SURFACE" FLYING MACHINE.

By O. Chanute.

I am asked to set forth the" development of the "Two-surface" type of flying machine which is now used with modifications by Wright Brothers, Farman, Delagrange, Herring and others.

This type originated with (No. 1571), taking out provis-Mr. F. H. Wenham, who patented it in England in 1S66 ional papers only. In the abridgment of British patent Aeronautical Specifications (1893) it is described as follows :

"Two or more aeroplanes are arranged one above the other, and support a framework or car containing the motive power. The aeroplanes are made of silk or canvas stretched in a frame by wooden rods or steel ribs. When manual power is employed the body is placed horizontally, and oars or propellers arc actuated by the arms or legs.

"A start may be obtained by lowering the legs and run ning down hill, or the machine "may be started from a moving carriage. One or more screw propellers may be applied for propelling when steam power is emploved."

On June 27, 1866, Mr, Wen-ham read before the "Aeronautical Society of Great Britain," then recently organized, the ablest paper ever presented to that Society, and thereby breathed into it a spirit which has continued to this day. In this paper he described his observations of birds, discussed the laws governing flight as to the surfaces and power required both with wings and screws, and he then gave an account of his own

experiments with models and with aeroplanes of sufficient size to carry the weight of a man.

His second aeroplane was sixteen feet from tip to tip. A trussed spar at the bottom carried six superposed bands of thin holland fabric fifteen inches wide, connected with vertical webs of holland two feet apart, thus virtually giving a length of wing of ninety-six feet and one hundred and twenty square feet of supporting surface. The man was placed horizontally on a base board beneath the spar. This apparatus when tried in the wind was found to be unmanageable by reason of the fluttering motions of the fabric, which was insufficiently stiffened with crinoline steel, but Air. Wenham pointed out that this in no way invalidated the principle of the apparatus, which was

OCTAVE CHANUTE.

Consulting Engineer; President Chicago Tie Preserving Co.; born in France, February 18, 1832, educated in common schools in New York ; engaged in construction of railroads from 1S4S—iSSS: Honorary Degree in Engineering, Illinois 1905; Fellow Association for the Advancement of Science, Vice President 1S86 ; Past President Society of Civil Engineers ; President Western Society of Engineers 1901 ; Member Canadian Society of Civil Engineers ; Honorary Member British Institute Civil Engineers ; Honorary Member The Aeronautic Society; Author "Kansas City Bridge," ''Progress in Flying Machines," and numerous papers and articles upon engineering subjects, wood preserving, physics, wood preserving by chemicals, equilibrium in flying machine experiments, recent experiments in gliding flight, etc.

to obtain large supporting surfaces without increasing unduly the leverage and consequent weight of spar required, by simply superposing the surfaces.

This principle is entirely sound and it is surprising that it is, to this day, not realized by those aviators who are hankering for monoplanes.

It is gratifying to know that Mr. F. H. Wenham is still in the flesh, at 85 years of age, to witness the realization of his principle, that he still preserves his interest in Aeronautics and that he contributed a paper to the last meeting of the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain, May 27, 190S. *

The next man to test an apparatus with superposed surfaces was Mr. Stringfellow, who, becoming much impressed with Mr. Wenham's proposal, produced a largish model at the Exhibition of the Aeronautical Society in 1868. It consisted of three superposed surfaces aggregating 28 square feet and a tail of 8 square feet more. The weight was under 12 pounds and it was driven by a central propeller actuated by a steam engine overestimated at one-third of a horsepower. It ran suspended to a wire on its trials but failed of free flight, in consequence of defective equilibrium. This apparatus has since been rebuilt and is now in the National Museum of the Smithsonian Institution at Washington.

In 1878 Mr. Linfield tested an apparatus in England consisting of a cigar-shaped car, to which was attached on each side frames five feet square, containing each twenty-five superposed planes of stretched and varnished linen eighteen inches wide, and only two inches apart, thus reminding one of a Spanish donkey with panniers. The whole weighed two hundred and forty pounds. This was tested by being mounted on a flat car behind a locomotive going 40 miles an hour. When towed by a line fifteen feet long the apparatus rose only a little from the car and exhibited such unstable equilibrium that the experiment was not renewed. The lift was only about one-third of what it would have been had the planes been properly spaced, say, their full width apart, instead of one-ninth as erroneously devised.

In 1S89, Commandant Renard, the eminent Superintendent of the French Aeronautical Department, exhibited at the Paris Exposition of that year, an apparatus experimented with some years before, which he termed a "dirigible parachute." It consisted of an oviform body to which were pivoted two upright slats carrying above the body nine long superposed flat blades spaced about one-third of their width apart. When this apparatus was properly set at an angle to the longitudinal axis of the body and dropped from a balloon, it travelled back against the wind for a considerable distance before alighting. The course could be varied by a rudder. No practical application seems to have been made of tliis device by the French War Department, but Mr. J. P. Holland, the inventor of the submarine boat which bears his name, proposed in 1893 an arrangement of pivoted framework attached to the body of a flying machine which combines the principle of Commandant Renard with the curved blades experimented with by Mr. Phillips, now to be noticed, with the addition of lifting screws inserted among the blades.

In 1893 Mr. Horatio Phillips, of England, after some very interesting experiments with various wing sections, from which he deduced conclusions as to the shape of maximum lift, tested an apparatus resembling a Venetian blind which consisted of fifty wooden slats of peculiar shape, 22 feet long, one and a half inches wide, and two inches apart, set in ten vertical upright boards. All this was carried upon a body provided with three wheels. It weighed 420 pounds and was driven at 40 miles an hour on a wooden sidewalk by a steam engine of nine horsepower which actuated a two-bladed screw. The lift was satisfactory, being perhaps 70 pounds per horsepower, but the equilibrium was quite bad and the experiments were discontinued. They were taken up again in 1904 with a similar apparatus large enough to carry a passenger, but the longitudinal equilibrium was found to be defective. Then in 1907 a new machine was tested, in which four sets of frames, carrying similar sets of slat "sustainers"- were inserted, and with this arrangement the longitudinal stability was found to be very satisfactory. The whole apparatus, with the operator, weighed 650 pounds. It flew about 200 yards when driven by a motor of 20 to 22 h.p. at 30 miles an hour, thus exhibiting a lift of about 32 pounds per h.p., while it will be remembered that the aeroplane of Wright Brothers exhibits a lifting capacity of 50 pounds to the h.p.

* Since these lines were written, Mr. Wenham died suddenly in England, August, 11, 1908.

(Continued in the October number)

ADAMS- FARWELL

97 Lbs.

 

36 H. P.

     
     
     

No fly wheel, muffler, radiator, fan or cam shaft ; while the valve gear electrical device and crank shaft are as simple as any single cylinder motor— there is practically no crank case and the crank has only three bearings.

Write for our Aeronautic Catalogue.

 

THE! ADAMS COMPANY

 

DUBUQUE, IOWA, U. S. A.

 

CONSTRUCTION WORK

Models or manufacturing complete from plans in all materials. Repairs or special parts for machines already constructed. Our plant especially equipped for this class of work. Free use of large grounds for trials, etc.

GLIDERS IN STOCK.

C. & A. WITTEMANN. P. 0. Box 40. Stapleton. Staten Island. N. Y.

17 ocean terrace, cor. little clove road

NAVIGATING THE AIR

By the Members of the aero Club of America

• An interesting record of the personal ideas and experiences of twenty-four distinguished men. This book is intended to be a summary of the present state of the art.

■ Among the contributors: Wright Brothers, 0. Chanute, Prof. Wm. H. Pickering, Prof. A. Lawrence Rotch, Prof. T. S. C. Lowe, William J. Hammer, Chas. M. Manly, Prof. David Todd, Dr. Oliver L Fassig, Dr. A. F. Zahm, A. Leo Stevens, A. M. Herring.

300 PAfiF's I 32 pages of photographs showing ) «|?5 nflstnaifl ouu rrtulo }important developments in this science/ «pl.£0 pumjittlu

One Year's Subscription a^d this Book - $3.50

AERONAUTICS, 1777 Brradway, New York.

L. BUMBAIGH

DESIGNER — CONTRACTOR — OPERATOR — CONSTRUCTOR

AIR SHIPS AND BALLOONS

Builder of Coey'.s "CHICAGO," the largest spherical balloon in the world. Works: Springfield, Ills. S. 13th and Rutger Sts., St. Louis

ATo connection with any other concern.

BALLOON BASKETS

Made to Last. Built on Scientific Principles. With or without water and air-proof compartments.

WHY GO TO EUROPE?

You can get as good and better from the

RATTAN & WILLOW-WARE MFG. CO..

WM. HUKE

1007-1009 S. Seventh St., ST. LOUIS, MO., U. S. A.

Builders of the basket of the C. A. Coey Balloon, capacity 1 10,000 cubic feet, the largest and strongest Balloon Basket ever built in America. Write for information.

r j '"iir-hi

~\ WHEN MOTORING

k '.-'»' - .J Mf

Patent applied for

ON LAND, SEA, and in the AIR

THE PEARGE LEATHER PILLOW

INFLATED

IS A NECESSITY FOR COMFORT.

Made of soft, pliable leather in shades of tan and black ; also in black, trimmed with red. It is ornamental, durable and attractive. Will not retain •dust, tobacco odors, or germs. The inside air cushion is very strong and will last for years. Size 21 by 21 inches. Sold complete, prepaid in the U. S., price, $5.00. Can be furnished with ordinary down inside pillow ; price $3.00. Club monograms in any colors of leather supplied as desired. Agents wanted.

THE LEATHERWORKERS' SALES CO. 304 North Fourth Street, St. Louis, U. S. A.

THE FIRST GOVERNMENT AIRSHIP. By Jerome S. Fanciulli.

No event has aided the advancement of aeronautics in this country as have the Fort Alyer tests of the Baldwin airship built for the Signal Corps of the Army. Not cnly have these tests aroused the latent interest of the American people in the possi bilities of aerial navigation, but they have given American inventors greater incentive for aeronautical endeavor. They have also attracted the attention of the entire world.

These tests have illustrated the various fields of usefulness to which the future airship will be put: as an instrument of warfare; in commerce; for recreation and sport; and for exploring. The serious consideration given by various capitalists to the establishment of aerial transportation lines can be largely attributed to the success of the first Government airship.

The motor-balloon is going through an evolution similar to that which characterized the perfection of the motor car, and having now received the serious consideration of the Government of the United States, its commercial value is becoming rapidly recognized.

To the aeronaut, however, it is the lessons which are to be gained from a study of the Fort Myer tests which give them added importance. New conditions and new requirements were imposed by the Signal Corps on the bidders for a military dirigible balloon. The specifications represented the ideas of the leading authorities in the science of aerial navigation. The opinions of scientists and practical aeronauts were brought together, making the final draft of the specifications as nearly perfect as the present knowledge of the art of Hying permits.

On February 24th, Captain Thomas S. Baldwin, of "California Arrow" fame, was awarded the contract to build a dirigible balloon for the Army, under the terms of these specifications. The success of his motor-balloon is well known, although it is not generally understood that the Baldwin airship, or the Signal Corps Dirigible No. 1, as it has been designated, differs from all other dirigible balloons. Furthermore, the speed and endurance trials which it successfully withstood brought out many new ideas.

From this motor-balloon will develop the aerial navy of the United States. It is also possible that from this airship, from the ideas which its constructor has carried out, will develop the successful aerial craft of all nations. Prominent aeronauts, including Captain Baldwin, have long been of the opinion that the conqueror of the air will embody the practical features of the dirigible balloon and of the aeroplane. It is the incorporation of several of the heavier-than-air machine principles that is one of the most striking features of the Baldwin airship.

This aerial craft, when the two operators are in their places on the frame, is, in fact, slightly heavier captain thomas scott baldwin.

than air. The propeller therefor plays an important part in the control of the craft. For this reason, also, the effect of the planes or horizontal rudders is greatly enhanced.

The Baldwin airship is operated by two men; one in the forward end, who runs the motor and handles the planes; the other in the rear, who guides the ship on its course by means of the rudder. The frame, which is of Oregon spruce, is seventy feet in length and is suspended from the gas bag by means of a square mesh netting made of extra strong linen rope. A 25-horse-power, water-cooled, four-cylinder Curtiss motor is used to drive a twenty-two-foot shaft, to which the propeller is attached. The latter is made of laminated wood from the design of Lieutenant Thomas E. Self-ridge, of the Signal Corps, who is also Secretary of the Aerial Experiment Association.

The motor is capable of making 1,800 revolutions per minute, but this has been geared down to 450 revolutions of the propeller, which pulls the airship. The two blades of the propeller give it a diameter of eleven feet, which is also the pitch. A pulling power of 280 pounds was developed in a test of the propeller at Hammonds-port, and this should give the airship a speed of 22 miles an hour in still air.

The planes, one on each side of the frame, about 20 feet from the front end, are a revelation in their efficiency, brth for keeping the ship on an even ked and for changing the altitude of the craft. The air rushing back from the propel! has a velocity of 15 miles an hour, and when this current strikes the planes it either s the ship or pulls it downward, according as the planes are turned. The best illusi -ation of the efficiency of these horizontal rudders is the fact that Lieutenant Foulois, of the Signal Corps, without having been previously in any aerial craft, controlled the planes with comparative ease on his first flight in the Baldwin airship.

An important feature of Captain Baldwin's airship, which is lacking in the small dirigibles of France and England, is the nearness of the frame to the gas envelope. In the French and English types, the car is suspended so far from the gas bag that the ship is not as easily controlled as is the Signal Corps Dirigible No. 1,

The British Army, which is taking up this feature of Captain Baldwin's balloon, is also adopting a form of gas bag resembling Captain Baldwin's in shape. The gas envelope of Captain Baldwin's airship is unique in many respects. It is as nearly perfect in shape, from the standpoint of resistance, as can be made. The aeronaut has put into practice the theories advanced by Prof. Albert Zahm, of the Catholic University, and one of the leading authorities on fluid movement.

The forward end of the bag is rather blunt, but is nearly conical. This shape offers about one-third the resistance to the air that is offered by a flat surface. Its widest part is 19 feet in diameter and is 19 feet from the forward point of the bag. From the broadest section the bag tapers slightly towards the rear end, which is also conical in shape.

Within the gas envelope and about midway between the ends is a ballonet. twenty-five feet in length. Air is pumped into this inner balloon by means of a centrifugal blower and in this way the rigidity of the envelope can be maintained.

The material of which the bag is made is similar to that used by the Germans in balloon manufacture. It consists of two layers of Japan silk, between which are several layers of rubber, all of the layers being sewed together and the entire fabric vulcanized. It is gas tight and withstands a pressure of 95 pounds to the inch width. The balloon itself is 96 feet long and has a gas capacity of about 19,000 cubic feet, one-twentieth of that of the ruined Zeppelin airship.

There is a rip strip and a valve on the top of the gas bag, and two valves on the under side. The manometer which Captain Baldwin has installed for registering the pressure of the gas within the bag is said to be one of the finest ever made. The entire balloon, with all its fittings, withstood the most rigid inspection of the army officers.

Though the speed of the Baldwin airship has been exceeded by foreign motor balloons, which have also remained in flight for a longer period, it must be remembered that the Baldwin dirigible is the smallest airship ever built for any government. It is, nevertheless, the most promising in point of development and perfection.

That the Zeppelin airship is far ahead of its day and that its unwieldiness was due to the lack of experience, which only comes with slow development, is -the opinion expressed on all sides by practical aeronauts. Just as the pilot who brought the first steamship across the Atlantic would not have been able to bring the Ltisitania safely to its dock, so the aeronaut of the present day cannot handle the airship which is beyond his experience or practical knowledge.

In the speed and endurance tests of the Baldwin dirigible at Fort Myer many new difficulties were encountered, and varying conditions will bring to light new problems to be solved. It is in this particular that a small craft is advantageous. When Germany is yet struggling with a monster aerial ship, the United States will have a smaller craft, but one which will be far more effective in time of war, because it will be under perfect control.

The British army officers have already found that the larger types of dirigibles are unwieldly and difficult to control. Several times they have had cause to remember the

ill-fated Patrie of the French army. Germany has also had several mishaps with its motor balloons. The result is that the officers of the aeronautical division of the British Army are building an airship on the lines of the Baldwin dirigible, and it is only a matter of time before the other nations that are vieing with each other for supremacy in the air will follow the example of the United States.

Twenty miles an hour was made by the Baldwin airship in one of its first flights. When compared with the speed of the first steamboat this would indicate that there is an incredible opportunity to develop the speed of this type of aerial craft. In fact, after the army officers have experimented for several months with their first airship it will probably have developed a speed of 22 to 25 miles an hour. An airship, like any other mechanical construction, can be made more efficient through use and familiarity.

On the first official trial for endurance, a run of over two hours, at an average speed of nearly 17 miles an hour, was made by the Baldwin motor-balloon. This was no new record. Twelve-hour flights have been made by nearly all of the dirigibles of France and Germany, but the ease with which the Baldwin airship was controlled has probably never been surpassed.

PART OF FRAME, AND MOTOR.

The serious efforts of the various European powers to build up aerial navies, the enthusiasm of the people throughout Germany, France and England, and the fact that the greater nations have failed to sign that convention of The Hague Peace Conference which provides against the use of the airship for war purposes, make it evident that the warship of the air is looked upon as the future machine of destruction. On the other hand, it may become the means of bringing about universal peace, so terrible will be its powers of destruction of life and property.

The value of the airship for war purposes was well illustrated during the Fort Myer tests of Captain Baldwin's motor-balloon. On the first official speed trial the motor stopped because of the breaking of the wires connecting the commutator with the coil. The balloon was brought down and safely landed in a corn field, repaired within 20 minutes, and continued on its course.

In all the flights Glenn Curtiss, who operated the motor and controlled the planes, made sketches of the country over which the airship passed. That the busiest man on the ship could find time to make detailed drawings in which the important landmarks were clearly defined, is strong evidence of the ease with which the airship is controlled while in flight.

With this toy, as Captain Baldwin's airship is called in comparison with the large aerial ships of Europe, an enemy would have no chance to escape, and its movements and fortifications would be open to the view of those in the airship. For over a cen-

tury the spherical balloon has been invaluable in warfare and has in each case more than repaid its cost yet the Congress of the United States hesitates to appropriate funds for a motor-balloon which so far surpasses anything yet invented for detecting the movements of an enemy.

Foreign governments are watching closely the progress of aeronautics in the United States and elsewhere. Col. James Templer, the leading aeronaut of the. British army and the former commander of the aeronautical division, has submitted a report on the Baldwin dirigible to his government, in which he recommended that many of the features of the Signal Corps Dirigible No. i should be incorporated in the next motor balloon built for the British Army.

Col. Baron de Bode, the Russian Military Attache at Washington, was in constant attendance at the Fort Myer trials, as were the representatives of other countries. A most interesting feature was the number of Japanese who gathered daily about the tent where the dirigible was housed and who sat for hours taking in everything in connection with the big gray airship.

In the Fort Myer tests of Baldwin's balloon the opportunities for improving the airship were clearly brought out. The planes should have a greater surface area and the addition of another set of planes in the rear, probably with a greater resisting surface, would add effectively in the control. Among the features lacking are the immovable rudders or fins on the rear end of the gas bag, such as are to be found on the Zeppelin type of balloon. A shifting weight, controlled by hand or automatically, W;Ould be valuable in overcoming the effect of increasing the power of the propeller.

During these tests it was made plain that power is not the means by which the problem of aerial navigation will be solved. Many of the dirigibles now in use in various countries lose much of their value because of too much power. It is the control which will be the means of perfecting the airship. The advanced experimenters are giving this feature their earnest attention. At no time during the flights at Fort Myer did Mr. Curtiss advance the engine to its full speed capacity. Beyond a certain number of revolutions, the propeller would send the forward end of the gas bag upwards and speed would therefore be lost rather than gained.

This difficulty could be overcome by means of a shifting weight, preferably automatic. It is very likely that the army officers themselves will devise some means for overcoming this shifting of the point of balance in the experiments which they will conduct. Had not Captain Baldwin had certain specifications to fulfill to the letter it is not at all unlikely that he would have himself added som.e feature to make it possible to utilize the maximum speed of the propeller.

The specifications under which the Baldwin airship was built will be used in the future as a model on which the requirements for other dirigibles for the government will be based. The Signal Corps has made a good beginning in building up an aeronautical division; yet it is, if course, far behind the armies of Europe. With an appropriation of one million dollars, within a few years the United States could have an aerial navy, while much smaller, one that would be more effective in time of war than that of any other country.

The aeronautical branch of the Signal Corps consists of several officers and ten enlisted men, while Great Britain has three aeronautic corps, each of which has a peace strength of 150 men. Germany has nearly 500 men of its aeronautic corps stationed in Berlin alone.

Every large nation of Europe has several aero parks and gas plants, but the United Sta.tes has one only. This is the aeronautical station at Fort Omaha, which has just been completed and which is the first pretentious balloon park and gas-making plant that the United States Government has ever constructed. To-day, when the eyes of the world are watching with intense interest the progress of aerial navigation, there should be at least two or three such aero stations on every coast.

The army should secure Capt. Thomas S. Baldwin to conduct further experiments with military motor-balloons and secure the benefit of his years of training and experience. It should not build a Zeppelin at once, but gradually increase, the size of its airships as the men who will handle them become familiar with the smaller ones and as the perfection of these smaller aerial war ships is attained.

Congress has undoubtedly been impressed with the importance of aerial flight in its present stage of development. The days of skepticism are past and the American people, as well as those of other nations, realize that aerial flight is a thing of the present generation.

The United States Government lost one opportunity to surpass other nations in aerial navigation when it failed to provide funds for the further experiments of Professor S. P. Langley. Another such opportunity is now at hand and Congress should not let it pass. The Signal Corps should be enlarged and sufficient money appropriated with which to carry on experiments in aerial navigation and to build up an aerial navy that will compare favorably with that of any other nation.

THE BREGUET GYROPLANE.

The "Bregnet II" gyroplane, whose flight of 20 meters was recorded in the August issue, may be described as follows:

A chassis carrying an Antoinette 8-cyliuder, 40-horse-power motor, with sustention obtained by the reaction of the air on two systems of mobile biplane surfaces or screws turning around axles attached to the chassis, shaft driven, which screws both lift and propel. In case of stopping of the motor the screws act as aeroplanes, and in soaring the speed would be about 17 m. per second, with an inclination in coming down of 15 to 20 per cent. Under these conditions the vertical component of the speed is the maximum of 3.5 m. per sec, which can be reduced considerably, provided the apparatus retains its equilibrium before landing. There is also a fixed surface of 50 sq. m. surface. The total surface of the screws is 11 sq. m., and each is 7 m. in diameter. The surface of the body of the apparatus is also 11 sq. m. In case of a vertical descent the surface which wdl act as a parachute will be 72 sq. m. The weight of the apparatus ready to run, with one man, is 600 kilos. The systems of gyrating planes give at a fixed point a thrust of about 480 kilos, according to the axis, for a power used of 37-38 horse power. At the start of a flight the vertical pulling component is about 455 kilos. The horizontal tractive component is 145 kilos. The minimum speed necessary to make flight is about 7 m. a second, or 25 km. per hour. In full flight the maximum speed will approach 20 m. per second, or 72 km. per hour. The screws give only about 65 kilos of tractive force and about 250 kilos of lifting force. The fixed surfaces give under these conditions a vertical thrust of 350 kilos. At the time of ascending, the machine is almost a true helicopter; in full flight it is much more of an aeroplane and travels more economically. For a speed of 15 m. per second, the power necessary will be only about 25 horse power.

The engine has a carbureter, radiator, circulation pump and flywheel.

In the sketch, reproduced from Aerophile, in the lateral elevation view, SS is the principal fixed surface, HH the vertical cross section of the screws, and AA small planes. In the plan view, SS is the upper fixed surface, HH the screws and NN the car, P the pilot, G the vertical rudder, G' the horizontal rudder. In the longitudinal elevation SS is the upper fixed surface—AA the small planes, HH the screws, G the vertical rudder and G' the horizontal rudder. The diameter of the screws is 7.85 m. The speed of rotation is 1.8 r. p. s., which corresponds for the motor to a speed of 1080 r. p. m. and a developed horse power of 37-38. The normal speed of the motor is 1250-1350 a minute. These are the figures given by Louis Breguet in Aerophile.

H. Andre gives in La France Automobile et Aérienne the following: The inclination of the propellers is at the start 25 per cent., which gives a horizontal traction of 130 to 140 kilos, while the vertical component is in the neighborhood of 500 kilos. The total weight mounted is 600 kilos. Thus the machine actually weighs no more than 100 kilos. We therefore have an aeroplane weighing 100 kilos, having 40 sq. m. of active surface, and with a propeller giving a pull of 130 kilos.

Admitting that the surfaces have a coefficient of sustention (S) speed necessary to raise the machine in the air will be given by 0.005 S V"- _

Speed = l/-

equal to 0.005, the the equation: P —

•0.005 x 4°

— about 7 m. = 25 km. per hour. (Continued on page 23)

THE KIMBALL HELICOPTER.

The helicopter completed by Wilbur R. Kimball, of New York, Vice-President of The Aeronautic Society, is the first one to have more than two propellers, there being no less than 20. No one has heretofore attempted the multiplication of screws on account, evidently, of the immediate difficulty of transmission of power throughout the system.

The construction of the machine was undertaken as the result of experiments made with a small model having but two propellers or screws. The solution of the various problems of starting, flying, lauding and equilibrium in the model gave the inventor confidence to design a full sized machine without further experiments.

There are a number of new principles incorporated in the machine, the most important of which may be the effort to obtain large propeller-blade area with a minimum of weight. The 20 propellers represent an area of practically 320 square feet, and these propellers with their inclosing frames weigh only about 112 pounds. It is evident that no two propellers of the same area could be made with a frame that would weigh so little.

LOOKING FROM ABOVE.

The second feature which seems to have been overlooked by other builders of helicopters is the fact that by having the axes of the propellers at a slight angle from the vertical a forward component of thrust is obtained as well as lifting power; the result being that both sustaining force and driving power are obtained.

Another striking feature in connection with the apparatus is that the fore and aft regulation or equilibrium is obtained by the shifting of the weight of the operator's body, although an ingenious arrangement of plans on the rear edge tends to greatly increase the automatic longitudinal stability of the apparatus and lessen the vigilance of the aviator—helicopterist?

A general description of the machine would be:

Chassis—Steel, tubing, 24 gauge, 1% inch diameter, 8 feet long by 4 feet wide, held together by "McAdamite" castings. There are three wheels, two in front and one in the rear, upon which the chassis rests. The rear wheel is on a movable axis and is used for steering. From this chassis rise seven tubes of ^-inch steel, from 4 feet high at the front to 6 feet at the rear, approximately.

Framework—On the last-referred-to tubes is placed a framework at an angle of about 20 degrees with the horizontal, in which are located the screws.

Propellers—4 blades, 4 feet diameter, of a very low pitch, to be run at 1.000 r. p. m. There is a steel-grooved rim or pulley 20 inches in diameter on each propeller.

Engine—50 horse power, made by the Aero & Marine Motor Co., of Boston; Xew York office, 45 West 34th St. Water-cooled: weight. 130 pounds, net, including Bosch magneto. To this weight should be added the weight of the water-cooling system and two heavy flywheels, which will bring the weight of the power plant up to about 200 pounds, including gasolene and water supj ly. The engine is a 2-cycle one, which is rather uncommon, has 4 cylinders of 4-inch bore by 4-inch stroke. It has a special patented device for increasing the compression before ignition. This engine has developed 50 horse power at 2000 r. p. m., and is expected to run at from 1400 to 1600 revolutions, developing at those speeds 40 to 45 horsepower, which it has developed under brake test. The engine is located at the extreme front end of the chassis to counterbalance the weight of the operator at the rear end on the platform.

THE UNDER SIDE-LEFT HAND CONTROLS INDIVIDUAL CYLINDERS.

Transmission—From the engine run four stanchions upon which are fastened two grooved drums. A J^-inch steel cable is taken three times around the drums and passes up over the first steel pulley-rim, and then runs around through the ten propellers on one side, back to the engine. A similar system is operated on the other side of the engine. The whole transmission system is so delicately arranged that it can be moved or turned, engine and all, with one finger on the starting crank with relief valve open.

Operation—By turning a wdieel is moved the seat on which the operator sits backward and forward for up and down motion. The right and left turning is by opening or closing a number of small blades,

The inventor found by experimenting with a model thatVthere was an extraordinary increase in the lifting capacity as soon as the apparatus commenced to move off the floor, and the idea is not to obtain a lift directly into the aiMbut to get a running start and always work on undisturbed air, the same as with ah,aeroplane. However, it is believed that a rise can be made at a much steeper angle trfan with an aeroplane, and leave the ground almost as soon as the apparatus is put into motion. It is also expected by the inventor that the machine will turn a much Sharper angle antl make it available for flights within a comparatively confined space. The weight with operator is about 600 lbs. Trials are expected any day at the Society's grounds at Morris Park racetrack.

THE NEW BRITISH ARMY AIRSHIP.

By Our London Correspondent.

As told in the August issue, on July 24th, the new army airship, "Dirigible No. II," made its first ascent. In the presence of a large crowd the tall iron doors of the balloon shed slid open at 5.15 p.m. to give passage to the dirigible, dragged forth by a squad of men from the Balloon Company. A slight easterly breeze was blowing as the airship, with Capt. King, Capt. Canlen, and Lieut. Westland in the car, was released. It was immediately seen that one of the trail-ropes had caught in the forward plane, so that another start had to be made. For the second time, however, a trail-rope caught, fouling one of the propellers. At the third attempt the airship got clear, and, rising to about 800 ft., described a wide circle over the canal and the Farnhain Road. When the shed was almost reached on the return journey the motor was suddenly stopped, one of the belt-wheels having broken. Drifting before the wind, the airship was speedily brought down within half-a-mile of the shed, to which it was dragged back by the sappers. The ascent lasted just under 20 minutes, and may be said to have proved satisfactory from many points of view.

England's dirigible ii.

Slightly larger in volume than "Dirigible No. I"—its capacity must be about 70,000 cubic ft.—it radically differs from the latter in many important particulars, and differs for the better. The goldbeater's skin envelope is entirely covered with a light canvas casing, which gradually merges underneath to a sharp, rigid keel formed of aluminum tubes with canvas covering. The car is suspended from steel wires attached to four canvas bands passing over the hull, while at each end of the envelope a cross-band prevents the bands from slipping when the airship is tilted.. The car—a simple wooden framework covered with rope mesh—is supported when on the ground on a pivot, 6 ft. high, after the model of the "Patrie." A large horizontal steering plane is pivoted immediately below the front end of the keel. The rudder, hinged in the centre, is situated aft of the keel and on the same level. A broad tail-plane, or "empennage," extends horizontally over the rear part of the keel. The motor, an 8-cyliuder, 50-horse-power Antoinette, drives through pulleys and belts two two-bladed propellers, both of right-hand pitch, about o ft. in diameter, one on each side of the car. Both propellers revolve in the same direction, are slightly larger than last year's and more spoon-shaped.

The motor gave a lot of difficulty, especially in starting, and was fitted with a flywheel, which is unusual with this type of engine; but this was an improvement, as the running, once begun, was very smooth indeed. The aerostat was fitted with four

"30 DAYS FREE TRIAL"

When a manufacturer is willing to send his product to anyone, anywhere, for 30 days—with no deposit, no agreement to buy, no promise to do anything except give that product a fair trial—he must have more than ordinary confidence in his article. In order for him to have that confidence he must have a most extraordinary product.

GUARANTEED FOR ONE YEAR

WARNER

That's what we do. We'll send an Auto-Meter to any automobile owner in the country with no deposit—no agreement, no promise to do anything but put it on his car and give it a fair trial. It doesn't matter whether he has another make of speed indicator already on the car or not. Indeed, for the sake of comparison, we hope he has. We will abide by the decision—for he will always keep the indicator that tells the truth. We claim for the Auto-Meter that it is the only one of which "the dial never lies." We believe that the instrument itself is the most eloquent salesman we have— we're willing to let it do our talking. Send to-day—just tell us what make and year of car you have—size of tires, etc., and we will send you an Auto-Meter.

IS RIGHT

STAYS

ACCURATE AT ALL SPEEDS

WARNER INSTRUMENT CO.

241 WHEELER AVENUE,

BELOIT, WISCONSIN.

CAPTAIN THOMAS S. BALDWIN

NEW YORK'S LEADING MANUFACTURER

BALLOON

AND AIRSHIP

PILOT AND

MANUFACTURER

BALDWIN'S VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL

of which the Government airship and balloons are being constructed will last from five to six times as long as a varnished balloon. The weight is always the same, as it does not require further treatment. Heat and cold have no effect on it, and ascensions can be made as well at zero weather as in the summer time. The chemical action of oxygen has not the same detrimental effect on it as it has on a varnished material. Silk double walled VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL has ten times the strength of varnished material. A man can take care of his PROOF balloon, as it requires little or no care, and is NOT subject to spontaneous combustion. Breaking strain 100 lbs. per inch width. Very elastic. Any weight, width, or color. Will not crack. Waterproof. No talcum powder. No revarnishing. The coming balloon material, and which through its superior qualities, and being an absolute gas holder is bound to take the place of varnished material. The man that wants to have the up-to-date balloon, must use VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL,-Specified by the U. S. SIGNAL CORPS.

prices and samples on application

Box 78 Madison Square P. O.

NEW YORK.

trailropes on each side, eight in all, fixed to the centre-line, the equator, of the aerostat. Once in the air these hung free, but were apt to get entangled in the propellers and the steering planes, and did in fact do so more than once; but they should be extremely useful for controlling the balloon on the ground, not an unimportant point, as recent events have shown. Otherwise the balloon went very well and undoubtedly much more efficiently than last year. The pitching and tossing, both very bad last year, were noticeably absent, though there was a stiffish breeze up aloft.

It should be especially noted that the present dirigible is not intended to be a perfect vessel. The whole idea is to build a ship experimentally, with the main object of training the men to handle it, and accustom them to the manoeuvering. No doubt many valuable data will be gradually obtained in this way which will eventually allow the perfect ship to be evolved in due course, but the main idea for the present is to get a corps of men who will be able to handle that perfect ship when it comes along. For this reason no flights to London or similar ambitious projects are entertained this year. You may compare the whole idea to the Wright Brothers, who practised gliding for some years before attempting to fly.

As soon as the airship emerged from the shed it was obvious that the car, situated approximately in the centre, was slung too far forward, imparting a distinct downward tilt to the envelope, which it never really lost while in the air. In consequence, the forward steering plane had to be kept at a considerable angle, which added immensely to the resistance from the air. This defect can, however, be remedied.

On the whole, Colonel Capper is to be congratulated most heartily on his new craft. In almost every respect it forms a great advance on its predecessor, but especially in its greatly inferior resistance to the air it is immeasurably superior. The network of wires for suspension has been reduced to a minimum—in this particular it surpasses every rival except the "Zeppelin"—and the vessel should be far more stable; the pitching and rolling observable in the old ship should be entirely absent. But its chief merit is its extreme simplicity of construction, and in this respect "Dirigible No. II" is probably of greater practical use for military purposes than any one of its rivals.

ARMY AERONAUTICS.

(Continued from page 8)

A. M. Herring has obtained an extension of time and will probably make his trials succeeding the trials of the Wright machine.

On August 28 further trips were made with the Dirigible No. 1. In all six ascensions were made on this day.

On August 31 the first night ascension was made at Fort Myer in one of the new spherical balloons furnished by Captain T. S. Baldwin. The balloon was inflated with the hydrogen from the dirigible which is being deflated for possible shipment to the military demonstration at St. Joseph, Mo. The balloon left the ground at 9.30 o'clock and sailed over the Potomac River into Maryland. Lieutenants Lahm, Fonlois and Selfridge were the passengers.

Brigadier General James Allen, Chief Signal Officer of the Army, sailed on September 5th for Europe. He will attend the International Electrical Congress at Marseilles on Sept. 14 as the representative of the United States Army. Later he will go to Berlin to view the Gorden Bennett on the nth of October.

BREGUET GYROPLANE.

(Continued from page 17)

With 130 kilos of traction of the propeller and the little weight to carry up. this speed is rapidly acquired even in spite of the condition of the ground. The trials confirm this explanation.

M. Andre gives the diameter of the screws as 7.80 m. and 11.9 m., the total surface of same; the fixed aeroplane surface as 40 sq. m.

The Aero Club of New England is certainly "live." Ascensions cannot be made fast enough. Trips are now scheduled for the 9th, nth, 15th, 19th and 21st of September.

Mr. Glidden is arranging to complete his tour of the world in February, there remaining only 4000 miles in Algeria, etc., to finish.

the aerial experiment ASSOCIATION.

In the August Issue we recorded the flights of the June Bug up to July ioth.

On July 26th four short flights were made: One by G. H. Curtiss, three by Lieut. Thos. Selfridge. Landings were all safely made.

On the 27th several trials were made. J. A. D. McCurdy, after a trial flight covering half the field, made over 2000 yards in 1 minute, 45 seconds landing about at the spot where Curtiss landed in winning the Scientific American Cup. Lieutenant Selfridge tried to fly back and made two attempts, but without success. Various devices were resorted to in order to reduce weight at the moment, but still without effect. Mr. McCurdy also tried, with his reduced weight of 30 pounds. The machine was pushed across three fields and then Mr. McCurdy accomplished a short flight. The failure of the machine to fly well was ascribed to porosity or bad batteries.

The following day McCurdy tried the machine with new batteries. The full length of the field (over 2000 yards) was easily made. Curves were executed in order to test the rudder and the time of the flight was 1 minute 50 seconds._ As the wind was increasing, further trials were postponed until evening, when a trip was made down the field, a complete turn, and a good portion of the way back before the power gave out. Several other flights were made, each shorter than the preceding one. The flights were at a height of 60 feet.

On the 29th, after a larger feed pipe had been arranged to the carbureter, the complete turn was made three times. The machine was taken quite high in the air to avoid striking the ground with the down wing in making the turns.

The flights made by Mr. McCurdy on the 27th were the first made by him since his flight in the White Wing.

Perfect control of the machine has now been attained by the members of the Association. It can be steered around quickly or slowly, and the "secret" of success in turning seems to be to fly comparatively high. Now for the further development of the machine! The object thus far has been to train the members in flying, with the crude and roughly built machine at hand.

Since the July flights, alteration in the engine has been made for a forced feeding of oil, and experiments have commenced with a view of discarding the tail. There has been no provision heretofore for continued lubrication.

On August 27 two flights were made by J. A. D. McCurdy; one with the top surface off the tail and another with both surfaces off. There was no noticeable difference with one surface off, but with both off the machine was faster and very sensitive to the front control. This means more practice now to obtain skill in handling. A new propeller was also used which developed a push of 212 pounds. With the tail off there is nothing behind the propeller but the rudder, supported by bamboo braces from the main planes.

On August 28 both McCurdy and Curtiss made flights. On the 29th McCurdy made a complete turn and returned to the starting point.

On the 31st Curtiss made another complete circle, and was in the air 2 minutes 28 seconds.

The Aerial Experiment Association began on July 13 the issuance of a series of bulletins for the information of the members and as a matter of record anu study. Up to August 31st eight of these bulletins have been compiled. Besides the records of trials and experiments made by the Association with its aeroplanes, kites and hydroplanes, some very valuable papers have been prepared. Some of these are as follows: A Query Concerning the Nature of the Torque Produced by Twin Propellers Rotating in the Same Direction, Plans for an Improved Motor for Flying Machines, The Construction of Light Motors for Use in Flying Machines, Sketch of the Progress of the Art of Aviation, Gyroscopic Action of Propellers, Aerodrome Trussing, Report on French Motors, Device for Raising and Depressing an Aerodrome While Keeping the Machine on an Even Keel, Torque, Dufaux Engine, Experiments with Kites, Hydroplane Experiments, Experiences in the Air. These contributions have been made by Dr. Bell, Mr. McCurdy, Mr. Curtiss, Mr. Baldwin, Mr. Turnbull, Lieut Selfridge, Mr. Williams, Mr. Bedwin.

aero patents issued.

In the August number we gave a list of the patents issued from July 1, 1907, to June 9, 1908.

Since then seven patents have been issued, as follows: No. 892,380, Mumford,. June 30; 892,608, Moore & Barrow, July 7; 893,887, Warner, July 21; 893,647, Pennington, July 21; 894,318, De Forest, July 28; 895,672, Olsen, August 11; 897,000, Malecot,. August 25.

THE MONTH ABROAD. Belgium.

A new airship, constructed along the lines of the Zeppelin IV, will shortly begin its trials at Spa.

It has a capacity of about 4000 cu. m.. two motors developing 200 horse power. The speed figured is 60 km. per hour. The manufacturers of the Pipe automobile have offered the War Department the free use of its motors.

The Spa aviation contests have been abandoned, as no entries were made. The Aero Club de Belgique has decided to offer a prize of $5,000 to be awarded to the constructor of an aeroplane which shall fly over a course of 25 kilometers. The machine must be designed, constructed and manipulated by a Belgian. Rules will shortly be issued.

England.

On August 14th, Dirigible II made its second flight, with three on board. Manoeu-vers were executed at a speed of 10 to 20 miles an hour for about half an hour. On the following afternoon another trial was made for a half hour. In landing the pointed frame struck the ground and damaged one of the propellers.

Bellamy, whose aeroplane trials have not yet been successful, met again with failure during August.

France.

The feature of the month has been the trials of the Wright Brothers' aeroplane at Hunaudieres race course, near Le Mans. The details are given elsewhere in this issue.

On July 22 Captain Ferber accomplished flights of 10, 50 and 120 meters in his latest aeroplane, No. 9. During the last flight the aviator tried to come closer to the ground, but failed to operate the apparatus properly and struck the ground severely, and the frame and propellers were broken. On July 25 Ferber covered 300 meters. After being ordered back into service, Captain Ferber gave his aeroplane to M. Legagneux, a mechanic of the Antoinette factory, who, on August 19, won the third prize of the Aero Club de France for a flight of 200 meters. M. Legagneux actually covered 256 meters in 2 minutes 23 seconds.

The Ferber IX will now be called the Antoinette III. It is of the biplane type, with a framework of bamboo. A 50-horse-power Antoinette motor is used. The single 2-bladed propeller has a diameter of 2.2. meters and a pitch of 1.1, placed in front of the machine. The whole apparatus is supported on two rubber-tired-wheel tandems. The total weight is 400 kilos, surface 40 square meters, spread 10.5 meters, speed 40 kilometers per hour. The first trial was on July 14. Good stability has been maintained.

On August 20 the Gastambide-Mengin monoplane accomplished a flight of 100 meters with two men aboard, M. Welfringer and M. Gastambide. This_ is the first time that a monoplane has carried two people. On the 21st a flight of 1 minute 36 seconds was made during which a complete circle was made, in addition to returning to the starting point. (See p. 27, March.)

The manufacturers of the Astra motors have rented for a period of five years the large grounds of Beauval. A shed 150 meters long will be erected immediately.

M. Delagrange has announced that the Compagne d'Aviation will offer to aviators the use of its aerodrome (course), to be secured in the vicinity of St. Germain. This aerodrome measures 900 by 1200 meters and contains 108 hectares.

The Antoinette Company has secured a training ground on an island in the Seine, some distance above Rouen. Here they have a length of about one mile by three-quarters of a mile, where no restrictions whatever are in force and which cannot be reached by inquisitive sightseers.

On August 1st Pelterie resumed his trials. The Pelterie monoplane has been somewhat modified and now the following apply: _ 17 square meters surface, Rep 25-30-horse-power motor, weight of apparatus 375 kilos. This weight will attain 410 kilos when it has a new reservoir of gasoline holding 55 litres. The single propeller has four blades, for which is claimed an efficiency of 84 per cent. All the mechanism for steering is inside of the wings or in the cylindric bod}'. In the rear arc two rudders for vertical and lateral direction. The whole apparatus is placed on one wheel, besides two small wheels attached to the tips of the wings. (See p. 14, December.)

Bleriot IX—Bleriot will try very soon a new monoplane, of which the following are the principal points: body 10 meters long, triangular at the rear and quadrangular at the front, movable wings at each extremity, Antoinette 75-horse-power, 16-cycle motor; 4-flexible-bladed propeller 2.10 meters diameter, 1.30 meters pitch. The total

weight mounted 450 kilos, surface 25 sq. meters. The radiator consists of a zinc sheet supporting a great number of small reservoirs, weighing 2 kilos per square meter of surface, or a total of 20 or 25 kilos including the water. There are no small wings as in the last machine. The mobility of the large wings take the place of the small ones used in the VIII. * '----"s----—'

The field of Issy has been returned to the use of aviators between 4 and 6 in the morning, providing they pay the cost of policing, 18^2 francs.

Paul and ErnesJ^J£eris___çommenced, on August 1st, trials with their biplane at Gonesse. The two surfaces are set at a dihedral angle. The frame is of wood, as are also the elliptical-cross section struts, which are stayed by steel wires. The upper surface has a total length laterally of 8.2 meters by 1.2 meters front to rear. The actual spread is 8 meters. The dihedral angle is of 156 degrees. The lower surface measures 8.3 by 2.3, and the dihedral angle of the lower surface is sharper than that of the upper. The lateral extremities of the lower surface and the rear edges are flexible. The covering of all plane surfaces is Japanese paper, varnished. The surfaces are concave from the rear to the front. The angle presented to the wind is 9 degrees. The total surface of the wings and tail is about 29 sq. meters. In the rear is a rectangular horizontal plane 5 meters spread by 1 meter front to rear. In the front of the apparatus at the summit of a pyramidal body having four faces, is placed a movable horizontal plane or rudder used for both lateral and vertical direction, with a spread of 2.1 meters by a .9 meter. The total area of this plane is 1.89 sq. m. The diverse movements of this plane are caused by a steering wheel. The aviator sits between the two surfaces, in front of the 50-horse-power Antoinette motor, fitted with a Fiat carbureter. The motor is cooled by a radiator especially made of a series of brass tubes grouped on each side of the pyramidal body. The water supply is 24 litres. The gasolene reservoir contains 6 litres. The propeller is an Antoinette, aluminum, 2 m. diameter, 2 blades, placed in the rear of the machine. The whole apparatus is placed on a 4-wheeled chassis. Mounted, the apparatus weighs 320 kilos, about. The wood employed in the frame is American pine. The framework is put together with aluminum castings, without any screws. The machine has made several short flights and has proved its excellent qualities. In the last trial a slight accident to one of the wings occurred in hitting a haystack.

At the end of July the Republique was taken from Moisson to the new quarters at Chalais-Meudou—its sixth ascent. The journey occupied 1 hour 22 minutes. This period included short intervals of evolutions. The distance is 58 kilometers, and the wind was 8 meters per second. Four passengers were carried. Of the 570 kilos of ballast carried, 50 kilos were used. Nine ascents were made during August.

The fourth French dirigible has been ordered and will be called the '"Liberté." The length will be 67 m., volume 4200 eu. m., the motor a Panhard 90.

The Malecot combination aeroplane-dirigible has been having trials at Issy. It consists of a cigar-shaped gas bag inflated with hydrogen and having a lifting capacity of 600 pounds, or sufficient to raise its machinery, two passengers and a small amount of ballast. But, unlike the ordinary dirigible, the Malecot machine does not depend entirely on the lifting power of its gas.

Immediately below the gas bag is the aeroplane portion, consisting of a couple of parallel planes running the full length of the lower part of the balloon and terminated by a vertical rudder. Below this again is an open wooden cage on the floor of which is installed a four-cylinder water cooled automobile engine, the installation and fitting of which is exactly similar to that of a car, with the exception that instead of driving a rear axle the propeller shaft bears a two-bladed propeller at its extremity. The pilot and mechanic occupy basket-work chairs just to the rear of the dashboard and still further to the rear is the gasoline tank on raised brackets.

Five balloons were in the landing contest of the Aéronautique Club de France on Aug. 9. The winner descended within 2 kilometers from the spot designated. The preparatory aeronautic school of the Aéronautique Club, since its foundation, has sent to the aeronautical department more than 300 young men. Seven balloons were in the Aéronautique Club race on July 21. The winner made a journey of 564 km. in 42 hours 35 minutes. This is very near the second made in the Gordon Bennett last year.

September 5 saw several machines out. Leon Delagrangc circled Issy five times, covering a little over seven miles. Ferbcr remained in the air for two minutes. Blcriot broke both wheels in a run and did not leave the ground. The Republique manocuvercd for six hours over Paris and suburbs, covering a distance of 200 miles.

29 MINUTES IN THE AIR-DELAGRANGE.

Dclagrange makes a new record for him.—On September 6 Delagrange made a flight lasting 29 minutes 54 seconds, covering a distance of 24.747 meters, a little over

15 miles. The flight was cut short at this point on account of exhaustion of gasolene. On the following day he beat this by a flight of 31 minutes, but this was not allowed to stand, as three minutes were deducted on account of the machine touching the ground for an instant during the first round of the field.

Germany.

Major Parseval has finished the new dirigible. It is a great deal like its predecessor, except that the rear is more pointed. Its length is 58 meters, volume 3200 cu. m. It can carry 4750 kilos. The motor is a 100-110-horse-power Daimler. To be accepted, it must make a flight of 10 hours, ascending, descending and landing at specified places; and also make a flight of 10 hours without interruption.

The gasolene reservoir holds 400 litres, sufficient for a voyage of 10 to 12 hours. The ascensional force is about 3600 kilos.

On August 13th simultaneous ascents were made by the German military airship, the Gross II, and the one owned by the Motorluftstudiengesellschaft at Reinickendorf, the Parseval II. The military airship stayed up for 35 minutes and the other for 45 minutes. The following day the latter manoeuvered successfully for 2^4 hours in the rain and fairly high wind. A distance of 55 miles was covered. Fifteen other ascents were made by the Parseval II during August, carrying as many as five people; 88 kilometers were covered on one trip.

The military airship Gross II has had a new envelope. Nine ascensions were made during August, in one of which 140 kilometers were covered.

The municipal consul of Spandau has asked all the municipal consuls of the German empire to vote a national subscription of 10 pfennig for each inhabitant, which would make over 7.000,000 marks to be placed at the disposal of Count Zeppelin for constructing a new airship.

The aeronautical corps attached to the German army has had consigned to them for the purpose of instructing the men, one of the older of the German military dirigibles.

Work is proceeding rapidly on the construction of the gas containers for the Zeppelin V, mentioned elsewhere in this issue.

Italy.

On August 22 the new Italian dirigible, which we have mentioned before, is about ready for trials. Great secrecy is being maintained, but its length is said to be 63 m., and the engine an 80-horse-power Bayard. The volume is about 2500 cu. m. The cost is put at $100,000.

Russia.

The Russian government has offered prizes amounting to $32,600 for flying machines and models in a contest to be held in 1909, at St. Petersburg.

Spain.

Spain's military dirigible is finished and has had a trial ascent, on August 8. The ship is called "Torres Quevado." In the trial the steering gear was damaged and the envelope torn in the high wind.

Switzerland.

The Swiss dirigible is in course of construction at Vernier. The Geneva—that is its name—approaches the type of Patrie, with a capacity of 3500 cu. m., 125-horse-power motor, an expected speed of 60 km. per hour, and a duration capacity of 72 hours.

Dr. T. Chalmers Fulton, Vice President Aero Club of Philadelphia and President Ben Franklin Aeronautical Society of the U. S., is arranging to build a 50.000 cubic foot balloon, to be finished in the early Fall.

On August 14th the airship of Captain T. T. Lovelace took fire at the Franco-British Exhibition in London, causing the death of two persons. Miss Blanche Hill, his secretary, was killed directly by the explosion and an electrician, Edward Fitzgibbon, died from his injuries.

Captain Lovelace was assistant to Israel Ludlow at the aeronautical division of the Jamestown Exposition and later came to New York to take charge of the Aero Club Show. After the show he went to Panama. From there he evidently went to England.

On September 2, Charles O. Jones, a member of the Aero Club of America, met his death by the burning of his dirigible "Boomerang" while in the air at Waterville, Maine.

Without any experience whatever in balloon work, it is remarkable that Mr. Jones did so well. He constructed the ship entirely on his own lines, did all the work himself, planned, cut and built. He had plenty of pluck and determination, was cool-headed in danger, his ideas were original and he had a pleasing personality.

GORDON BENNETT AND OTHER BALLOON RACES—OCT. io-ii.

The following rules have been adopted for the three contests to be held at Berlin October ioth and nth.

The racing will be conducted under the F. A. I. rules. There are no money prizes for the two races on October 10. One prize is offered for every three balloons entered for each competition. A memorial plate will be presented to each participator.

As we have mentioned in previous issues, one contest will be for a pre-determined goal and one for distance.

Gordon Bennett.

This race is conducted under F. A. I. rules and the special set of rules under which the two previous contests for this cup and cash prize have been held.

THE CONQUEROR, ENTERED IN GORDON BENNETT A. H. FORRES (RIGHT) ; A. LEO STEVENS,

BY A. H. FORBES. BUILDER, ON MR. FORBES' RIGHT.

The special regulations formulated by the Berliner Verein are briefly as follows: The entire balloon material must have been examined and placed at the disposal of the Organizing Committee by 6 o'clock p. m. on Oct. 8. Each entrant must bring with him sail cloth, 6o sand bags and pipe io meters long. The prescribed log books will be handed to the aeronauts at the start. Requisite maps and charts will be procured for foreign contestants and charged at cost, if application is made for same. The pilot will be furnished with telegraph blanks to drop at intervals. Place, time and manner of landing must be telegraphed at once to Berlin. An automobile will be placed at the disposal of the representatives of each foreign nation. Trial trips may be made at any time from the starting place. Gas and assistance furnished by the Association at cost. Cost of gas is 13 pfennigs per cubic meter. Filling takes a half to one hour.

The list of competitors has just been announced. They are as follows, in order of start, country represented, name of the balloon, capacity, pilot and alternates: America, "America II," 2200 cu. m., J. C. McCoy, alternate Capt. Chas. De F. Chandler; Germany, "Buslcy," 2200 cu. m., Dr. Niemcyer, alternate Hans Hiedemann; England, "Banshee," 2200 cu. m., John Dunvillc, alternate C. F. Pollock; Spain, "Valencia," 2200 cu. m., Captain Kindelan, alternate Sr. liorga; Belgium, "Belgica," 16S0 cu. m., M. de Moor, alternate M. Geerts; Switzerland, "Cognac," 2200 cu. m., Victor de Beauclair, alternate Dr. de Quervain; Italy, "Actos," 2200 cu. m., Frince Scipione Borghcse. alternate Ettore Gianetti, companion Major Moris; France, name not given yet, 2200 cu. m., Jacques Faure, alternate Louis Capazza; America, "Conqueror," 2200 cu. m.. A. Holland Forbes, alternate Maj. If. B. Hersey; Germany, "Berlin," 2200 cu. m., Oscar Erbsloh, alternate unnamed; England, "Britannia," 2200 cu. m.. Hon. C. S. Rolls, alternate Maj. F. Cruikshank; Spain, "Norte," 2200 cu. m., Kinilio Herrera, alternate unnamed; Belgium, "L'Utopie," 2200 cu. m., de Bronferc, alternate Vandensbussche: Switzerland, "Helvetia," 2200 cu. m., Lieut. Schaeck, alternate E. Messner;

Italy, "Ruwenzori," 2200 cn. m., Celestino Usuelli. alternate Mario Borsalino; France, balloon not given, 2200 cn. m., Emile Carton, alternate not named; America, "St. Louis," 2200 cu. m., N. II. Arnold;

Germany, "Dusseldorf," 2200 cu. m.. Captain von Abercron. alternate Dr. Bamler; England, "Zephyr," 2200 cu. m.. Prof. A. K. Huntington, alternate Hon. C. Brabazon; Spain, "Montanes," 2200 cu. m., Salamanca, alternate Montojo; Belgium, ''Ville de Brussels,'' 2200 cu. m., Everarts, alternate Jacobs;

Italy, "Basiliola," 2200 cu. m., Capt. Romeo Frassinetti, alternate Com. Joseh Cobi-

anchi, companion Cesar Longhi; France, balloon not named, 2200 cu. m.. Alfred LeBlanc, alternate Ernest Barbotte.

Eight countries are represented—America by three, Germany by three, England three, Spain three, Belgium three, Switzerland two, Italy three, France three—23 balloons in all.

The first prize is the silver Gordon Bennett Cup. won on the first offering by America, on the second by German}' at St. Louis last year and now competed for for the third time. In addition to the cup, Mr. Bennett adds $2500 in cash to the winner. The entry fees and fines are divided among the three contestants making the greatest distances. Supplementary prizes are also offered by the German clubs.

The Aero Club of St. Louis is to provide a French built balloon for entry in the Gordon Bennett and J. C. McCoy is also having a French balloon built to use in this race. The only American-built balloon will be that of A. Holland Forbes, constructed by Leo Stevens.

Postscript—N. H. Arnold, secretary and one of the organizers of the North Adams Aero Club, will pilot the balloon now being built for the St. Louis club in the Gordon Bennett in place of Lieutenant Lahm. who has been unable to get away from his army duties. Mr. Arnold's first flight in a balloon was made on September 1, 1907, with Oscar Handler, which so impressed him that he became one of two or three to start the North Adams club. This year he has made 15 trips, piloting in ten of the trips. Mr. Arnold is on the North Adams Herald and is correspondent for the Springfield Republican and the New York Herald.

Columbus Balloon Race.

Three balloons started from Columbus on August 29 in a distance race under the auspices of the Columbus Aero Club. A shortage of gas prevented the inflation of the fourth balloon, C. A. Coey's "Chicago," before dark and the start of that balloon took place the following day.

The balloons, occupants, landings, etc., are as follows:

"Iroquois," entered by Henry Pirrung, of Columbus; piloted by Horace B. Wild, with Clyde Tuttle companion; landed 13 miles away after a trip of 2 hours. Shortness of trip due to lack of sufficient ballast.

"Ville de Dieppe," entered by Paul Lucier, of Dieppe, France; piloted by A. E. Mueller, Paul Mason, city editor of the Columbus Journal, as companion; landed at 10.30 p. m. about 4 miles south of Columbus.

"Queen Louise," entered by Lewis Strang; piloted by Lieut. J. J. Bennett, Thos. L. Sample companion; started at 5.05 and landed in Lake Erie. 150 miles west of Buffalo, at 11 A. M. the following day. The balloon landed without ballast, all having been disposed of during the trip. The aeronauts were rescued by a passing steamer. The approximate distance is 1S0 miles. Official figures have not yet been compiled by the Club.

J. A. Morrcll. of the National Airship Company, which built the enormous gas bag which burst in the air at its first trial on May 23rd. has been acquitted of the charge of issuing a false prospectus in connection with his project. Considerable stock was sold in San Francisco, Portland, and nearby cities and all the investors are still waiting for the promoter to make good on his extravagant promises. There certainly should be a law preventing the risking of lives in such foolish ventures as Morrell's nightmare was.

The balloon Initial which burst during the process of inflation at Point Breeze, Philadelphia, on July 17th. has been repaired by Prof. Samuel A. King. All the defective spots near the neck have been cut out and new cloth inserted. This balloon is now the property of the Aero Club of Philadelphia (recently purchased from Henry S. Gratz) and will be used shortly by Dr. T. Chalmers Fulton, Vice President of Aero Club of Philadelphia and President Ben Franklin Aeronautical Society of the U. S. Dr. Fulton will take up with him as his guest Conyers B. Graham, of Germantown.

CLUB NOTES. Aero Club of America.

Everyone is now looking forward to the great Gordon Bennett at Berlin on October II. Alan R. Hawley will accompany J. C. McCoy in one of the two new balloons now being built in France to represent America. The details of the race and entries are given fully elsewhere in this issue. A. Holland Forbes will sail on the 29th.

Arrangements have been completed with the G. H. Curtiss Mfg. Co. for the free use by members experimenting, of either air or water cooled 25 or 50 horsepower Curtiss motors at the experimental grounds at Hammondsport. This privilege will be of great benefit to the inventor. It will save him the expense of purchasing a motor until he has found from his experiments just what power he needs for his machine. The use of grounds is another boon, and the proximity of the Curtiss plant makes repairs and entire construction work a matter of little difficulty.

There are now twelve balloon pilots holding licenses from the Aero Club of America. They are as follows, in the order of granting: J. C. McCoy, A. Leo Stevens, Frank S. Lahm. Lieut. Frank P. Lahm, Carl E. Myers, Alan R. Hawley, Major Henry B. Hersey, Captain Chas. De F. Chandler, T. S. Baldwin. Albert C. Triaca, A. Holland Forbes and Charles J. Glidden.

Mo entries were made for the Scientific American trophy for the second competition up to September 1, the date of the closing of entries. September 7 had been set for the contest.

The Club presented Captain Baldwin with a letter of congratulation upon the success of the dirigible which the Government has acquired. He was also presented with the flag of the Aero Club which he flew on his ship during all the trials.

In reply to a letter to Count Zeppelin expressing sympathy at the loss of his great project, the Club received the following acknowledgment from the Count Zeppelin: "I desire to express to the Aero Club of America my sincere thanks for the letter of congratulation sent me on my success and also for the heartfelt letter of sympathy at the loss of my airship. It is a great pleasure to me to know in spite of the destruction of my ship the Aero Club of America has confidence in my work."

Israel Ludlow has presented the Club with motion pictures of the dirigible Patrie and of the Santos-Dumont aeroplane.

Mrs. Charles Oliver Jones, wife of the aeronaut, who lost his life by the explosion of his airship, received a telegram expressing the sympathy of the Club.

N. H. Arnold, of North Adams, has been granted pilot license No. 14 of the Aero Club of America on August 31 at the Directors' meeting held on that date.

Mr. Arnold is to pilot the Aero Club of St. Louis's balloon in the Gordon Bennett in place of Lieutenant Lahm, who is unable to leave his post.

Aero Club of New England.

The Aero Club of New England (100 members) is one of the most active organizations in the country. The headquarters of the club is in Boston with ascension parks at Pittsfield, North Adams, Springfield, Fitchburg, Lowell and Nashua. The club is composed of leading business and professional men of New England all deeply interested in aerial navigation. Its members are making ascensions as rapidly as conditions will permit and the club's balloon has already made eight flights, and engaged for as many more in September.

The annual banquet of the club will be held in Boston, Nov. 21st, the 125th anniversary of the first ascension of man in a balloon.

Philadelphia Aero Club.

Three ascensions have been made during the past month. An effort is being made to amalgamate the Ben Franklin Aeronautical Association with the Philadelphia Aero Club, as it is believed in that way the interest in aeronautics in Philadelphia can best be furthered and those who have not yet made ascensions may be encouraged to try.

The scheme of crossing the Atlantic in a balloon, which has lain dormant for years, is again being agitated and by many the plan is thought feasible for an aerostat of 500,000 cubic feet capacity, using hydrogen gas, conveyed by one or two swift yachts. It is claimed the St. Louis race last year shows it possible.

The Philadelphia Aero Club would like very much to arrange a balloon race with the Aero Club of America for Founders Week. There are three balloons which could take part: the Initial, 35,000 cu. ft.; the Philadelphia, 50,000 cu. ft.; and the Ben Franklin 92,000 cu. ft.

r-

AERONAUTICS

31

The Aeronautic Society.

Tiie persistent work of the committee 'on grounds has at last brought results. Two months or more have been spent in the search for proper grounds.

Morris Park race track was unanimously decided upon as the most advantageous grounds available. A lease of the track and some of the buildings has been signed, good until December 31, 1909.

The two large field betting rings will be used for construction and storage, while in one portion of one of these buildings will be installed the machine shop. The auction building and the large club stables are also to be used for housing machines.

The track itself is the largest in the vicinity of New York. The fences have been removed tin the turns and an unobstructed straight flight can be made of at least a kilometer. The width of the grounds easily permits the turning with aeroplanes. Outside the track itself the grounds extend for a considerable distance to the fence which bounds the entire park.

All meetings of the Society are now being held in the magnificent club house on the grounds. The regular Wednesday evening assemblies, which have been so well attended during the past, are continued without interruption.

Morris Park is reached by the subway and surface car lines, by the elevated, steam railroad and beautiful roads lead direct for automobiles. Woodmansten Inn immediately adjoins the track on the east. The best way to reach the track is by Lenox Avenue subway to 177th Street, thence by Williamsbridge or Morris Park electric surface cars.

On Saturday and Sunday, August 29th and 30th. nearly all the members were on hand for their first view of the grounds and buildings.

Wilbur R. Kimball has offered members of the Society the use of his Aero & Marine 50 h.p. motor until the motors of the Society are arranged for.

Three flying mach ines are now on the grounds: the helicopter of Wilbur R. Kimball, the aeroplane of C. J. Hendrickson and the aeroplane of C. W. Williams. On Labor Day the Kimball machine was practically completed and the engine run for a few moments. Trials will be begun at once. Five or six other members will soon start work 011 machines at the racetrack.

The membership is being augmented daily.

At the regular Wednesday night meeting on August 19th, A. Leo Stevens gave his views on the subject of ballooning and his experiences in aeronautics.

Mr. Stevens stated that he had given up for the present the building of dirigibles for the reason that people who buy them have little experience and the dirigible does not come up to expectations owing to the lack of knowledge. At the first show of the Aero Club of America be sold four of these dirigibles for $15,000. People should gain experience in ordinary spherical balloons before attempting to operate dirigibles and for this reason he has for the past year or so been active in encouraging ballooning.

Experience, he said, had shown the need for some means of changing the course of a balloon and he has devised and patented a scheme by which a 10 h.p. motor is attached to the basket of a spherical balloon, capable of being quickly unmounted and packed inside the basket for shipment home after the flight. Cloth cones will be fastened to the side of the bag, to be inflated with air when it is desired to use the engine. These cones will make the bag of elongated shape and aid dirigibility. The cones to be easily attachable and detachable. When the motor is not used, the air is let out of the cones and the balloon left free again to float with the breeze.

He has also finished work on a device for conserving the gas usually lost through the neck of a balloon by expansion. Under his plan, as the gas expands and is forced out through the neck it will pass into a refrigerator which will save it for use when the gas in the envelope contracts through condensation and all the gas available is desired. By this method the bag would always be kept tight. The arrangement would

be in the nature of the well-known Thermos bottle. As the expanding gas cools in this arrangement it would pass back into the bag. A. Holland Forbes will make a trial of this plan in the new balloon which Mr. Stevens is building for him to be used in the Gordon Bennett at Berlin on October n.

Mr. Stevens also told of his trip to Chicago and St. Paul to see the balloon races held there in July. He said many of the passengers had never been in the air before and that the Chicago club had purchased four or five balloons entered in order to make the affair a success in point of numbers.

At St. Paul the gas was extremely poor and it was impossible to make long flights. The gas had a lifting power of only 24 pounds per thousand cubic feet.

He suggested a committee to pass upon the conditions of balloons before being allowed to take part in a contest and that all those in charge of a balloon should hold pilot licenses, for should anything happen the sport of ballooning would receive a great setback.

In closing, Mr. Stevens prophesied that in five or ten years we would see enormous dirigibles crossing the ocean, landing in New York harbor and being_ towed by tugboats to their various hangers as the ocean liners are now towed to their docks.

On the occasion of Wilbur Wright's first flights in France, the Society sent a telegram of congratulation to Orville Wright at Dayton and a cablegram to Wilbur Wright at Le Mans, France.

As will be remembered, the Society cabled Count Zeppelin condolences and encouragement, which was received with much pleasure by the indefatigable Zeppelin. He has expressed his pleasure in the newspapers at the interest of Americans in his work.

The Society is anxious that all interested in the advancement of the art join, for the mutual benefit of the members and the art. There is at present no initiation fee and the dues are but $10 a year. The club book has not yet been issued but it is planned to have it ready within a short time.

An exhibition and series of contests will be held at the grounds in October. Correspondence is asked with regard to exhibits of full sized machines, gliders, "wind-wagons," power driven and other models, etcetera. Entries are requested of all kinds of apparatus relating to aerial locomotion, with descriptions of same, weight, size, and all particulars relating to shipment.

Aero Club of North Adams.

The feature of the month was the point-to-point race mentioned in the August issue, in which a photograph of the Forbes Cup was shown. Three balloons started, as follows:

North Adams No. 1 with A. Holland Forbes, donor of the cup. and his 12-year old daughter, Natalie, and Arthur D. Potter as pilot. They left the ground at 1 o'clock with Haydenville picked as the objective point. The landing was made at West Whateley at 2:50 o'clock, 4% miles distant from the objective point. Distance made, 29^ miles.

Greylock left at 1:2s p.m. with Dr. R. M. Randall pilot and Clarence Wildman after picking Leeds as his destination. The descent was at Ashfield at 2:30 o'clock, 12 miles from the point designated. Distance made igy2 miles.

Heart of the Berkshircs with Alan R. Hawley pilot and William Van Sleet ascended 1:42 p.m. to reach Whateley Station but landed at 3:30 at Laurel Park, Northampton, 6*4 miles of the point picked. The distance was 31 \2 miles.

By landing the nearest to the point designated by the pilot before starting, A. D. Potter won the cup offered by Mr. Forbes and with Mr. Forbes and his daughter in the basket. It is not often that the donor of a cup can be with the winning pilot.

Six months must now elapse before a challenge can be made. See rules printed in August issue.

Mr. Glidden also made an ascension from North Adams later in the afternoon with Mrs. Clayton, landing at East Charleniont. a mile and a half from Shelburne Falls.

North Adams has evidently become the ballooning center of the East. Thirty-four ascensions have been made there within the year and over 1700 miles have been covered by 32 people. The average flight was 52 miles, the longest 135 and the shortest 6 miles.

The formation of the North Adams Aero Club was the result of the work of three enthusiasts: N. H. Arnold, Superintendent E. C. Peebles of the gas company and President F. S. Richardson of that company. They succeeded in getting together a sufficient number of men to take shares of stock in a corporation to effect the purchase of a balloon and necessary instruments and the organization was effected March 9 of this year. The club was incorporated under the laws of Massachusetts, the members being A. Holland Forbes, Roswell L. Gardner, A. W. Chippendale, E. C. Peebles, F. S. Richardson, N. H. Arnold, R. F. Stratton, H. P. Drysdale, W. IT. Pritchard, John Waterhouse, R. M. Randall, Irving D. Curtiss, James D. Hunter, George A. MacDonald, Archer H. Barber, Arthur D. Potter of Greenfield. Others have since joined until the present membership is about 75. Frank S.

Richardson is president. Arthur W. Chippendale, treasurer and N. H. Arnold, secretary.

The club purchased of Leo Stevens his 35,000 cubic feet balloon, the Stevens 21, and christened it the North Adams No. 1, March 20, the christening ceremony being performed by Miss Elizabeth Chippendale, daughter of Treasurer A. Wl Chippendale of the club. On that day, the initial flight of the balloon under its new ownership was made by A. Holland Forbes and N. H. Arnold who was to qualify as the pilot of the local club.

Since that time Mr. Arnold has completed all of the conditions imposed by the Aero Club of America for licensed pilots and not only has received the license of that organization, of which he is a member, but has been named by them as alternate for Lieutenant F. S. Lahm for the international race at Berlin this fall and will pilot the St. Louis balloon.

The next balloon christening in Xorth Adams city was that of the Conqueror May 5, by Miss Xatalie Forbes. A reception was given to Mr. Forbes at which a loving cup was presented him.

As our readers will remember, Dr. R. M. Randall, a member of the club, also bought a balloon from Stevens,

The North Adams No. 1, the Greylock, and the Boston arc kept at North Adams all the time. The perfect gas obtainable at North Adams has made it the starting point of nearly all the ascensions of the East. Formerly we heard only of Pittsfield, now it is all North Adams. Knowing the friendly rivalry between the two pearls of the Berkshires, Pittsfield is certain to spring something when the time is suitable.

New Organizations.

The Philadelphia Aeronautical Recreation Society was organized at the home of Dr. Thomas Eldridge, 1639 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, on June fifth, by Dr. Eldridge and Dr. George H. Simmerman. Its purpose was, from the beginning, to seek the pleasure to be derived from ballooning and not for scientific research. The founders also wished to give to women an opportunity to enter into ballooning and membership was thrown open to the_ gentler sex. The list of members now includes far more women than men. The following are the officers: President, Dr. Thomas E. Eldridge; first Vice-president, Dr. George H. Simmerman; second Vice-president, Miss Nevill; third Vice-president, Dr. Eli S. Beary; Secretary, Mrs. M. E. Lockington; and Treasurer, Thomas Rose.

On June 27th the first ascension was made in the new 50,000 cubic foot balloon, "Philadelphia." Unfortunately the ascension ended disastrously, for after the balloon had reached a height of 3000 or 3500 feet, three large rents appeared in the muslin bag and the occupants of the car were dropped swiftly toward the earth. Luckily for the aeronauts the car struck a mud bank on the Schuylkill River and a landing was safely made after a flight of twenty minutes. Those who made the trip were: Mrs. Carrie Burnham Kilgore, of Swarthmore, Pa.; Mrs. M. Eleanor Lockington, Professor Samuel A. King, and Drs. Eldridge and Simmerman.

Some weeks later the founders of the club determined to open a prize competition for women balloonists, offering a large loving cup to any woman in the United States, not a professional, making the best record for distance in any air craft on one ascension for the next two years, the contest to open on August 1, 1908. The cup is known as the Eldridge-Simmerman Ladies' Aeronautical Cup and the contestant who wins it is to have her name engraved upon it and is to hold it until her record is broken. If the record of the custodian of the cup remains unbroken for two years the prize remains in her possession subject to no further challenge. If a party of two or more ladies break a record each of them shall have her name engraved upon the cup and lots will be drawn for its possession. Contestants claiming a record should accompany their claim with an affidavit stating the date of flight, the distance traveled (air line) and the names of the starting and finishing points with the signatures of two witnesses.

The next ascension was made in the "Philadelphia" on the night of August 15th. The party included Drs. Eldridge and Simmerman, Mrs. M. E. Lockington and Miss Minnie Appelbach. The balloon arose from the athletic grounds of the United Gas Improvement Co. at Point Breeze, Philadelphia, at 10.34 P- a"d landed the next morning on the farm of J. P. Kline, about four miles from Elkton, Maryland, at 9.15.

The two women aeronauts, having contested for the cup. drew lots for it and the luck fell to Mrs. Lockington, in whose possession it now remains until her record is broken.

Colonial Yacht Club.

At a meeting of the Colonial Yacht Club on August 31st, it was decided to form an aeronautical department and purchase a club balloon, for which a subscription was started. The members also voted to install a hydrogen generating plant at the grounds of the club, West 138th Street, New York. An ascension will take place in a couple of weeks. About twenty members have already signified their intention of making trips and two or three will purchase hydrogen balloons. If this occurs, it will be the

first occasion on which any club has promoted ballooning with hydrogen gas balloons. The advantages are obvious. A much smaller balloon can be used, which means less trouble in handling, less expense in transportation, with a large carrying capacity. True, the gas will cost more but the advantages otherwise should discount this item.

A. Leo Stevens lectured on ballooning and was made a member of the club. The leaders in the movement are Commodore Cahill, Vice Commodore Totten and Fleet Captain David Crowe.

An Aero Club for Washington.

Washington is soon to have an aero club. At a dinner tendered in honor of Captain Thomas S. Baldwin by a group of newspaper men in the National capital on August 22, a committee was named to select a date for a meeting at which the organization will be effected. The banquet was a fitting finale to the tests of Capt. Baldwin's airship at Fort Myer and the guests included the members of the Signal Corps Board and men prominent in aeronautics.

Augustus Post, Secretary of the Aero Club of America, was called upon by Jerome S. Fanciulli, the toastmaster. to give the Washington enthusiasts some points on the organization of an aero club. He told of the benefits which would accrue from such an organization and offered his assistance in its formation. Mr. Post, Gen. Allen, Chief Signal Officer of the Army; Prof. Albert Zahm. of the Catholic University; and Russell M. McLennan were appointed a committee to make the preliminary arrangements for the formation of the club.

Among those who spoke at the banquet were Capt. Baldwin, Prof. Zahm, Gen. Allen, Orville Wright, Lincoln Beachey, Major Squier, Capt. Wallace, and Lieutenants Frank P. Lahm, Benjamin D. Foulois, and Thomas E. Selfridge, of the Signal Corps. The latter responded to a toast to Glenn H. Curtiss, of Hammondsport, who was unable to be present at the banquet.

ASCENSIONS.

July 28. James F. Lord, with Hon. C. S. Rolls as pilot, and Mrs. Assheton Har-bord left Short's balloon factory, Battersea, England, at 3.50, in the Aero Club No. 4, 50,000 cu. ft. After going 30 miles the aeronauts came down at Tilgate and had tea. After leaving the anchor and two bags of ballast the trip was continued at 7 o'clock. The final landing was made after 3 miles at 7.30, using all but one bag. Two hours were spent in the air and they made 32 miles. The greatest elevation was 4000 feet. The landing was made right near a house without any of the occupants seeing them, as they were all at tea dinner. Someone in the house at last smelled gas and all started to hunt for the leak. It was not until Mr. Rolls went up to the house did they know that a balloon was the guilty cause.

July 30. James F. Lord, Hon. C. S. Rolls pilot, Hon. Mrs. Harbord and A. A. Van-derpool left Short's in the Aero Club No. 4, with 10 bags of ballast, landing with 1^2 bags 3 hours 50 minutes later, five miles from Stanford-le-Hope, covering a distance of 29 miles. The party touched the ground four times in making the landing.

Aug. 2. James F. Lord and Air. Short left Battersea in the A. C. No. 4 with 15^ bags of ballast at 1 P. M., landing at 3.20 at Arundel, 3 miles from the sea. As the/ aeronauts found they were likely to go out to sea if they continued, they pulled the valve and kept it open until the bag had been half deflated. On ncaring the ground the wind blew in the opposite direction and took them inland again. It was intended to make the Isle of Wight, but the wind was not propitious. Sixty miles were made. The landing was adjacent to the camp of the newly formed London Balloon Company, whose members packed up the balloon. The highest ascent was 6700 feet.

Aug. 8. Ernest Barbotte, Wm. F. Whitehouse, G. C. Baldwin, L. Oakley and Miss Morgan left St. Cloud in the Aero Club II, landing at Anneau.

Aug. 8. A. H. Morgan and J. H. Wade, Jr., left Canton. O., on their second trip in the Sky Pilot at 12:30 p. m., landing at 6 o'clock two miles east of Stillwater, a distance of about 52 miles.

Aug. 12. Charles J. Glidden and Charles T. Shean left Springfield, Mass., in the Boston at 6:20 p. m., landing at North Amherst, Mass., 40 minutes later. Distance miles.

Aug. 14. Charles J. Glidden and Mrs H. Helen Clayton left North Adams in the Boston at 5:40 p. m., landing at East Charlemont, Mass., 1 hour and 20 minutes later. Distance made miles. Mr. Glidden has now spent 29 hours and 15 minutes in the air..

Aug. 14. The three ascents from North Adams in the point to point race are given elsewhere in this issue.

Aug. 15. Dr. George H. Simmerman, Dr. Thomas E. Eldridge, Miss Minnie Applebach and Mrs. M. E. Lockington left Philadelphia at 10.34 P- M. in the balloon

Philadelphia, descending at 9:15 a. m. the following morning four miles from Elkton, Md. Duration, ¿3^ hours 41 minutes. Distance, 37.6 miles. Four pigeons were released: one at 3 a. m., one at 4 a. m. and one at 5 a. m. The third bird alighted on the balloon where it stayed for about three quarters of an hour. The forth bird was let go on landing. All returned to their cote.

Aug. 16. John Berry and H. E. Honeywell, of St. Louis, ascended from the Rutger street gas works, at 10:15 a. m., in the former's 35,000 cubic foot aerostat, built by Honeywell, and landed at 1:30 p. m., the same day, after a flight of twenty-one miles to Troy, Ills.

The voyage was the occasion of the initial inflation of the balloon, which had not been tested with air beforehand. The inflation of the bag with coal gas of third-hour quality was accomplished in the quick time of 28 minutes. On account of a propeller attachment, manipulated by hand which was being tried out, the balloon was dubbed the "Berry Dirigible."

After weighing, there remained about 200 pounds of ballast in the car. The envelope was smoothly filled and presented an attractive appearance of symmetry. The sun was very hot and the temperature of the day extremely high; as a result there was much gas lost by expansion and the journey accordingly curtailed. The propeller attachment appeared to have the effect of rotating the balloon, but the inventor claims that this difficulty will be easily overcome and he has ordered an 80,000 foot balloon from Honeywell, in the basket of which he will carry his balloon attachment, propelled by gasoline motor.

Aug. 19. William Van Sleet and Dr. S. S. Stowell left Pittsfield in the Heart of the Berkshires. It was Mr. Van Sleet's fifth trip and the first for Dr. Stowell. The valve cord was found entangled before the start and Mr. Van Sleet climbed to the top of the balloon, opened the valve and dropped the cord down through. The breathing of the gas which, of course, rushed out of the valve nearly asphyxiated him. On his climbing to the ground he was examined by our friend, Dr. Maxwell, of Brooklyn, and his pulse was found at 155, then 144, dropping further to 120 and then jumping back-to 138. The start was made, however, at 12.15, landing at Nashua, N. H., at 4 o'clock.

Aug. 22. A. H. Morgan, Dr. H. W. Thompson and Dr. W. D. Sigler left Canton in the Sky Pilot at 12.45, landing at 2.45 near Newport, O., a distance of about 50 miles. This makes six ascents for Mr. Morgan.

Aug. 25. C. A. Coey, G. L. Bumbaugh, Miss Virginia Calvert, of the ''Top of the World" company, and Miss Anne Schatz made an ascent from the Wheaton, 111., county fair grounds. The landing was made at Sugar Grove after a trip of 19 miles.

Aug. 27. A. E. Mueller, E. G. Burkam, F. S. Raper, and Charles Dowennan left Columbus in the Ville de Dieppe on a trial flight previous to the Columbus race.1 After a trip of two hours landing was made near Derby, O., 22 miles. The bag was christened by Elsie Janis before the start.

Aug. 29. William Van Sleet left Pittsfield in the Heart of the Berkshires at 10.56, landing between Huntington, and Montgomery, Hampden county, at 5 o'clock. Mr. Van Sleet is qualifying for a pilot license. At the start the balloon traveled westward as far as Chatham, N. Y., then turned and passed within half a mile of the start, going east at a good rate. The balloon was followed by President Minahan, of the Pittsfield club, and party in an automobile part of the way. The distance is given as 120 miles.

Aug. 30. C. A. Coey and G. L. Bumbaugh left Columbus in the Chicago and landed about 64 miles west of Columbus the following morning, at Fletcher, O.

Aug. 31. A. E. Mueller. Perry and Gerald Gregory left Columbus, O., on a long distance trip, in the Ville de Dieppe at 8.40 P. M. The landing was made on September 1 near Niagara Falls, N. Y. The anchor caught on the very brink of the bluff of the Gorge, after spending two hours directly over the whirlpool rapids. The occupants were severely cut and bruised in landing at Devil's Hole, less than 200 feet from the Gorge. The distance is about 310 miles. The duration was about 12 hours.

Louis Wagner. A. C. Pike and M. B. Meacham of Portland, Ore., have incorporated the Wagner Aeroplane Co. with a capital stock of $100,000. It is formed for the purpose of constructing, hiring or purchasing aeroplanes and other machines for navigation of the air, and to carry passengers, mail, goods, and merchandise.

Certificate of Incorporation has been filed for the "Eastern Transit Company," of Hartford. Under its charter the company may equip, buy, sell, license and operate in Massachusetts and other states and countries, aerodromes, balloons and airships of everj' description. The incorporators are: James L. Loomis, James W. Knox and Mary E. Kellogg.

"The magazine is improving with each issue—vou are doing good work."

T. Chalmers Fulton, M. D.

AERONAUT LEO STEVENS

THE LEADER OF BALLOON

AND AIRSHIP CONSTRUCTION

THE KEEN SPORTSMAN

OF WIDE EXPERIENCE

USES A "STEVENS BALLOON."

ALL BALLOONS ABSOLUTE HYDROGEN

AND COAL GAS PROOF

VARNISHING BY

Improved electrical

PROCESS.

ONE TO FIFTY PASSENGERS

ALSO REPRESENTING CARTON &. LaCHAMBRE, LEADING BALLOON BUILDERS OF

PARIS, FRANCE.

Special Patented RUBBER BALLOON FABRIC, (German and French.)

THESE FABRICS HAVE BEEN TESTED—NOT IN EXPERIMENTAL STAGE.

MESSRS. A. C. TRIACA AND A. LEO STEVENS ARE READY TO DELIVER AEROPLANES OF THE FARMAN NO. 1 AND DELAGRANGE TYPES AFTER TRIALS OF 1 MILE IN A CIRCLE.

TWO CENT STAMPS FOR REPLY.

BOX 181, MADISON SQUARE, NEW YORK

INTERNATIONAL AERONAUTICAL CONGRESS.

President: Professor Willis L. Moore.

Secretary: Dr. Albert Francis Zahm. Chairman Gen'l Committee: Wm. J. Hammer. Chairman Executive Com.: Augustus Post. Sec'y Committees: Ernest La Rue Jones.

Publication Notice.

The addresses, papers and discussions presented to the Congress will be published serially in this magazine, and at the earliest date possible, bound volumes will be distributed without charge to those holding membership cards in the Congress. Others may purchase the volume at a consistent price when ready or may take advantage of immediate publication by subscribing to this magazine at the regular rate.

In accordance with the program as published in the November number, the informal addresses of the Gordon Bennett contestants and others were concluded before entering upon the printing of the formal papers and discussions.

The fifteenth paper is presented in this issue: "Observations and Tests of Marvelous Soaring Power of Birds in Calm and Storm," by Israel Lancaster.

The President: I will ask Professor Zahm to give us a few words with regard to the paper "Observations and Tests of Marvelous Soaring Power of Birds in Calm and Storm," by Israel Lancaster.

Dr. Zahm: Mr. Lancaster is now living in Alabama and some time ago reported to the American Association for the Advancement of Science some very extraordinary observations of the soaring power of birds. Professor Langley was set to thinking about the possibility not only of soaring but flying through the air by this paper. Professor Langley began the work at that time and never after left it off. I will ask Dr. Humphreys to give us an abstract of this paper.

OBSERVATIONS AND TESTS OF MARVELOUS SOARING POWER OF BIRDS IN CALM AND STORM.

Israel Lancaster.

In presenting this study of the flight of birds, I will omit those methods which are attended with wing motion, and confine the subject to fixed wing flight, or soaring, where the pinions are stretched in static tension without vibration. The object is to get before the reader the relation which this method of translation bears to the problem of artificial air navigation, since we go for instruction to the masters of an art that we desire to learn.

I first became interested in the soaring birds in my twelfth year. Finding myself in a new 'home on a wide prairie of Illinois, I wandered about and came upon a score of sand-hill cranes that went into the air at my approach. They belonged to the waders, with long legs and necks, often reaching a weight of fifteen pounds. Their windpipe makes a turn around the gullet, causing that peculiar cry that distinguishes this bird from all others.

Two of this flock separated from their companions and began a circling flight, gradually rising as they went around. I looked at them until tired, when throwing myself on the ground, face upward, they were viewed at leisure. This slow flapping continued until a height of about half a mile was reached, when one, and soon the other suddenly stopped wing motion and

assumed a soaring attitude, continuing their spiral flight upwards for an hour, at length passing completely beyond the limits of vision.

While looking intently upward, two other cranes appeared crossing the zenith towards the south at the altitude of about a mile, their long legs stretched behind, and their necks in front, issuing their characteristic honk at intervals of a few minutes. These birds were in sight for about two miles during which time no wing motion was observable. I was full of astonishment at this new method of travel going on before my eyes. I was absolutely ignorant of mechanics, and had never heard of Newton, so that the wonder must have been caused by seeing a new thing for the first time.

This was in the year 1843 about the beginning of November. From that time until 1876 the ordinary business of life occupied my attention, always observing every soaring bird that came in my way, but in the latter year I went to the lower Florida peninsula, on the Gulf Coast, where I remained for five years, studying the birds, and they have had my attention even since. I obtained a cat-rigged boat, decked entirely over, and found myself on the lee shore of one of the Sanibel islands, about the first of November. At that time the country had few inhabitants, and it swarmed with bird life, and the waters were full of fish. Buzzards, pelicans, cormorants, a dozen different kinds of cranes, herons and gannets, were on ever)'- hand. I had arrived after dark, spread a blanket on the deck of the boat and slept with my face towards the stars. Before sunrise I was awakened by a surprising turmoil going on behind the screen of bushes which fringed the shore, and looking upwards a dozen sand-hill cranes were circling around so high as to be indistinct. I had seen them going up thirty-four years ago; it was now my good fortune to see them coming down, with neck and legs stretched and wings rigid, their ascending methods being reversed. When they had descended to the height of half a mile they began to flap, and this flapping continued until they joined their comrades on the Gulf side of the Island one quarter of a mile away. Forcing a way through the bushes I saw a sight. Not less than one thousand cranes were jumping, trumpeting and turning somersaults in a paroxysm of ecstacy over the new arrivals. The new comers joined in the mad carousal with an energy that banished all idea of fatigue. They fairly outdid those on shore in their ridiculous antics, which were kept up for an hour, when the whole body of birds took to wing and dispersed inland.

I remained in that vicinity through December, busy with these birds.

Previous to 1876 I had made journeys in Georgia and Tennessee along the route of these migrating birds, and at about a dozen different times obtained a view of them passing overhead in October and November, on their way South, and have never seen a wing motion after the migration had begun until the arrival at their southern terminus.

I had now two items of bird flight that were valuable. The cranes travelled a thousand miles on rigid wings, with no muscular exertion excepting wing stretching, and they accomplished this journey without fatigue.

THE FRIGATE BIRDS.

1 had moved to Boca-Grande Pass, at the entrance to Charlotte Harbor, and was anchored in a charming cove near that inlet when my attention was arrested by the screaming of a fish-hawk. The bird was making frantic efforts to reach the land with a two pound mullet in its talons. With a scream that seemed inspired'by despair, it dropped the fish, and on the instant, a creature that seemed all wings came slanting downward from somewhere aloft with incredible velocity. T at first thought the hawk was attacked, but the fish, whirling downwards, was the object of the aerial visitor. The intruder must have moved five feet, where the falling fish moved one foot. It seized the

food in its beak, and swooping- upwards a quarter of a mile, biting off a mouth-full as it went, which it finally detached by a shaking' motion, when once more the carcass of the fish fell towards the water. After swallowing, by an effort, the bird turned downwards again, and by similar tactics got another bite. It required three rounds to get this dinner.

This was my first introduction to the frigate-bird, or man-of-war hawk, doubtless the most interesting bird that inhabits the air. For dominion of the atmosphere that sand-hill crane sinks into insignificance when compared with tins creature. It seldom weighs more than two pounds when hungry, and it will eat its own weight of food at a single meal. The largest specimen found had an eight foot spread of wings and weighed three pounds net, after deducting foods found in it. Their claws are weak, no stronger than a chicken's, but their beak is powerful. They stay in the air weeks at a time, and I have seen them cross the full moon at all hours of the night, and they only-visit the earth in the breeding season, and in storms.

They never move their wings while in the air at their habitual elevation, but go round and round interminably, in a circle about 500 feet in diameter, and steal their food from fish hawks.

After the scared victim had escaped to the woods, the frigate-bird slowly flapped itself to the company of its circling companions about a mile above the water, stopped flapping, And I at once noticed that the circle it made was of greater diameter that the others. About 30 feet greater. This was another mystery. This bird, with, say. two pounds of fish in it, travelled farther, and made about four rounds where the others made three. It seemed to be true that the heavier the bird the easier it stayed in the air.

I remained in th-s locality and studied these birds for several months, having observed about a hundred of them in ihe act of dining-.

THE BUZZARDS.

In the month of May the buzzards get very hungry, owing to the absence of wind that blows dead fish to shore. I erected a platform in a lone tree in a sandy flat and barrelled up the carcass of a large wild-cat with which to experiment upon these birds. The object was to discover whether they could move at low elevations on rigid wings. The cranes only used fixed wing flight at high elevations, and the frigate-birds closely followed this precedent. It became important to know if this peculiarity grew out of the life habits of the birds or was dependent on some mechanical feature not found near the earth.

Digging the barrel out of the sand, and knocking it to pieces, I mounted the platform, and in fifteen minutes there were a hundred birds pulling at the fragrant carcass and at each other. There was not a wing movement in the entire crowd until just before alighting, when they flapped to stop motion.

The speed of these buzzards was about 40 miles per hour. That of the migrating cranes 75 miles per hour, while the frigate-birds could use velocities that varied from one mile an hour, to 100 miles an hour. 1 have observed them make flaps that required two seconds for the down, and the same for the up stroke, their path through the air being a wavy line.

The air was a dead calm in the buzzard experiment, and the sea-breeze did not reach so high as the frigate-bird circles, excepting in storms that banished the birds from the sky. Still air is the best for fixed wing flight. In high winds the birds leave the air.

I sent up hot-air tissue paper balloons which after ascending half a mile, returned to within one hundred feet of their starting point, showing that the air was without motion, as calm in reality as it seemed to be to the senses. In time of storm these birds took refuge on the lee side of some lone tree. I have observed them during the make-up of a south-wester in October. The

wind increased in violence for several hours before the downpour came on. A dozen birds would gather behind a tree top and curve down their long wings until their tips crossed under them, when they looked more like the section of a barrel than a bird. When the rain came they flashed out their wings rigidly to their utmost extent and whirled into the storm, slanting upwards with faster speed that I ever saw them make on other occasions, and were out of sight in a few seconds. I think they lifted themselves above the clouds. At ail events there they were, high in the air, serenely going round and round when the storm had passed.

THE GANXETS.

As I was wandering in the month of April among the bushes and bogs of Aliacca creek in a region filled with alligators and snakes, I came upon a pond of water about two acres in extent. The middle part was filled with a growth of buttonwood bushes that put down their branches like a banyan - tree, making a dense growth that one could walk upon, of half an acre, an island in the middle of the pond. The bark of the bushes was filled with tannic acid, coloring the water a dark red, and bestowing a pungent taste and disagreeable odor upon it. No oppossum, nor raccoon, fox, or alligator, would venture into this water, and I never saw a frog or tortoise in it. Over the tops cf these bushes projected about 200 heads with red eyes and a beak, that I at first took to be snakes. They were female gannets on their nests. lThe birds had discovered a safe breeding place in this protected pond, and had utilized it. I backed out as quickly as possible and skirted the water's edge to the pine woods that surrounded it, to think over the matter. These birds are edible, about five pounds in weight, with wings much like those of a guinea-fowl, though twice as large. I waited all night and early in the morning, about daylight, the males began to arrive. They came flapping at high speed, but after circling about a while the}- stopped all wing motion and began to soar over that open space in the most delightful way for an hour, for the entertainment of their females. Back and forth, up and down in the most graceful curves, about 50 of them, making a beautiful spectacle. As the sea breeze came up, they, one after another ranged themselves over the trees and open space, fronting the wind, and resting on it, like the buzzards over the beaches at the margin of the shores. After an hour of this kind of work they disappeared inland, and the brooding process continued with no spectator.

1 procured some yards of muslin fabric, and some green paint, and after a couple of nights' work had fashioned a platform in a tree-top and covering myself with the painted cloth in imitation of the green tree, awaited developments. The gannets are not judges of arf, for they seemed to see no difference between the real and artificial foliage. After the sea breeze came up I have

(Continued on page 43.)

Wills money for airships—last month we had the first airship law. Here is the first airship will. A short time ago one Jeremiah Carrihanne, of Jersey City, died leaving no relatives and an insurance policy for $500. Out of this comes the expenses of putting the old man under Jersey sod, and the rest goes to the art. His will reads: "Kn-.wing from bitter experience what it means to be crippled from rheumatism and bo forced to flee from the path of automobiles and such, I hereby bestow what is left of the insurance money on someone who is trying to perfect an airship, so that there will be ultimately less running about the streets and more flying through the air. I hereby appoint my evecutor as the man who will decide who is to get the money." Don't all speak at once'

J. Rruce Mac Duff, 1367 Broadway, Brooklyn, X. Y., has just issued a circular of a new propeller. This was shown some time ago propelling an automobile over the ice of Prospect Park.

KIMBALL & COLVIN

GENERAL SALES AGENTS

AERO AND MARINE MOTOR CO.

45 WEST 34th STREET NEW YORK

LIGHTEST COMMERCIAL MOTOR IN THE WORLD

WATER TWO 50 H. P.

COOLED CYCLE 125 LBS.

4 Separate Engines in One. Each under Separate Control.

Daily Demonstrations at Morris Park Race Track.

Telephone Connection Cablegram.*: Triaalb

Nevv York—Paris

A. C. TRIACA

Office, Shop, Experimental Grounds, Morris Park Race Track, New York

52 Roe Servan, Paris

Agent, U. S. and dnadi.—

ANTOINETTE—Faris

The celebrated French Aviation, extra light, water cooled, 8 and 16 cyl. motors.

E. Hl'E—Paris

Established in Paris 1865. Aneroids, altimeter barometer watches, barographs, thermographs and all scientific instruments for aeronautics.

M. M A 1,1,ET—Paris

The well-known builder of dirigibles and aerostats.

I,. CHAUVIERE—Paris

Appointed by the French Government. Builder of the frame of the dirigible Malecot. Aeroplanes and helicopters. Wood propellers a specialty.

AERONAUTIC PILOT

Licensed in France and United States.

FOUNDER-DIRECTOR

International School of Aeronautics, New York.

CONSULTATIONS

Instructions, estimates and experiments in all branchesof aeronautics. Glidersand propellers.

MODELS

Made and orders taken for full size apparatus.

COMPLETE LINE

Imported and domestic fabrics, motors and all materials pertaining to aeronautics.

THE INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS

formerly at 2 East 29th Street, New York, has removed to

Morris Park Race Track, Westchester, New York City

where the students will have model room, shop and experimental grounds. Home study and resident courses. Ask for catalog 3.

A. C. TRIACA, Founder=Director.

WANTED—Financial aid to build practical power lift living machine. Neither aeroplane, nor dirigible balloon. .\'o wings. Designed by reputable mechanical engineer of large technical and practical experience who has been uniformly successful in previous work and who is now managing a prosperous manufacturing ashless, the rapid growth of which is absorbing all available funds. The design y of this machine is purely mechanical and embodies nothing radical. Every detail is based upon known and proved data gathered during eight years of experiment and research. .Requires only modern materials and methods to construct. $2,000 will demonstrate on full scale the correctness of the principle involved and $3,000 additional will build complete two passenger machine.

Address. 1\ 0. Box 84,1, Buffalo, N". Y.

(Continued from page 40.)

had a bird float over my face, within two feet of my eyes, and rest there for five minutes at a time with its eyes shut, and seeming- to be asleep. "With a small green rod I pushed up against its heart as it rested in the air, and it was raised so easily that strict attention was needed to feel any resistance. The bird was in a state of perfect equilibrium, as much so as a pound of sugar with a pound weight in the other scale pan. I have pushed them up four feet before they suspected anything wrong, when they merely moved to one side, but did not seem scared. Here was another item that might apply to artificial flight. In the act of. soaring the bird has no weight. I mean that in soaring, weight is in some way cancelled. Certainly one quarter of an ounce would lift a five-pound gannet. What was it that lifted the balance of its weight in a fifteen-mile-an-hour hreeze? Why did it not go with the wind? If the air is supposed to be perfectly calm, and a crane is moving through it at the rate of 75 miles an hour on rigid wings from North to South, and a twenty-mile wind would spring up from south to north, the bird would move over the earth at the rate of 55 miles per hour. In a 75-mile wind the bird would not move at all; in a hundred-mile wind, it would be going backwards at the rate of 25 miles per hour, and still in all those cases it would be moving against air at the rate of 75 miles an hour. Motion in air independently of wind, measures the soaring force of the bird just as motion of the steamboat independently of the current measures the force of the engines.

What this force was that carried these birds through the air was a profound mystery to me. I had agreed with myself to let that question rest, until I had accumulated all the data to be derived from the birds themselves.

T have now given the facts presented by four species; the cranes, frig'ate-birds, buzzards, and gannets, and the data of flight has not been materially added to by a study of some twenty-five species in addition, though many very interesting habits were found. The thirty-pound condors of the Andes mountains, the albatross of the South Pacific Ocean, the great vultures of the Himalaya mountains, and of the African Desert, show peculiarities of flight already described. The condors and vultures, above mentioned, like the frigate-birds, spend the greater part of their lives in the air on rigid wings.

Discussion by Dr. A. F. Zahm.

Air. Lancaster's observations are very interesting, both for their pictur-esqueness and for the possibilities they suggest. Prof. Langley was so taken with Air. Lancaster's accounts that he was impelled to give a large part of the last decade and a half of his life to experimental and practical work in mechanical flight.

Some of Air. Lancaster's observations though wonderful at first sight, admit of simple explanation. For example, the steady floating of the gannet above the muslin covered man on a platform in a tree-top. The streams of air flowing around above these objects had an upward slant. It is well known that not only birds, but man too, can soar in a wind that slopes upward a few degrees. Air. Chanute and others have explained this clearly, and the Wright Brothers have actually soared in a wind sloping gently upward—say, seven to ten degrees.

The assertion that buzzards soared in a dead calm cannot be accepted on the evidence of the balloon going straight up and down, for it would do that if the air had a vertical movement, which llupfaker proved to exist in spots on a very calm day.

Soaring is impossible for birds or men in a level wind of constant velocity and direction, a calm being a particular case of this. Soaring is possible for both birds and men in a wind having sufficient upward speed, or the proper variation of speed and direction.

The remarkable instances of soaring related by Mr. Lancaster, and the circumstances most favorable to such performance, deserve careful attention. In this rush to build flying machines, the science of soaring has been neglected. I would commend this branch of. aeronautics to athletic young amateurs •who live in favorable localities, for example, where a broad field of sand slopes gently to the sea. Here they might soar for hours, and eventually learn the art of the condor and the albatross.

Dr. Humphreys: These observations are very interesting in themselves and interesting too, as they started the great Professor Langley on a very important work. 1 have understood that the bird known as the kite will do just the same as the birds described here are doing, rise into the air and stay there almost fixedly. I have not seen them but have heard it stated. Here is a story that sounds fishy. The box kites were up at Mount Weather and there seemed to be no particular difference between the direction of the wind at different elevations and it was blowing about twenty-four miles an hour. The wind was blowing from the southwest, that is, blowing in a northeasterly direction. From nearly northeast there came along, while we ■were looking at the-kites, a flock of eagles, and on counting it was found that there were one hundred of them. There wings were rigidly fixed, as far as we could see, and they moved in circles against the wind.

The President: This is a prohibition county.

Dr. Humphreys: We are just on the line between two prohibition counties. These birds were in beautiful appearance, the wings perfectly straight Cut and never a movement of them. They were going in a southwest direction sailing around in circles from one to two hundred feet in diameter, gaining upon the kites which were up high and never was there a movement of the wings as far as you could see.

WAS THE DESTRUCTION OF BLERIOT'S MONOPLANE AERODROME, JULY 23, 1908, CAUSED BY THE GYROSCOPIC ACTION OF ITS PROPELLER?

By Dr. Alexander Graham Bell.

The New York Herald of Friday, July 24, 1908, describes the destruction of Bleriot's monoplane aerodrome. The following is quoted from the account:

"Bleriot fetched the machine out into the open and had the propeller turning in a second. Within a hundred yards he was well up in the air, travelling 50 kilometers an hour, apparently stead}- as a train; then he tried to turn. A height of 10 meters, which had been attained, fell to 8 in making the curve, but all seemed well. Then came the shock. A sudden gust of wind across the field caught the tail of the apparatus and threw it skyward. The head naturally tipped to the ground. Before the operator had time to stop the motor, or even think about anything save holding on, Bleriot found himself sitting amid a heap of wreckage," etc., etc.

It is difficult to understand how a gust of wind could have lifted the tail as stated; but as a vertical dive of this kind might have been caused by gyroscopic action.

Considering whether Bleriot used a single propeller, the direction of its rotation, the direction in which Bleriot steered (left or right) when making his turn, was the reported dive consistent with the gyroscopic effects noted in the foregoing paper? (From the Bulletins of the Aerial Experiment Association; by permission of the

Association.)

New Water Anchor of Leo Stevens.

A trial was made a few days ago, at the Colonial Yacht Club's boathouse, by A. Leo Stevens of his new water anchor. The principal feature of the arrangement is that the cone-shaped bag is prevented from sinking by a wooden frame attached ten feet from the bag. The bag is made of canvas, 36 inches in diameter at the large end, 4l/2 feet long, tapering to a point. The rope is attached to the wooden frame. When thrown over, the bag sinks to the depth permitted by the ropes from the frame. The framework also keeps the bag from spinning around as often occurs. Fastened to the floating frame is a bracket through which runs the rope which goes to the apex of the funnel-shaped bag to upset it and empty the water. The anchor was dropped over from a motor boat and practically held it motionless.

After the Chicago Balloon Race.

Some interesting facts have been brought out in this race which redound to the credit of the builder of the winning balloon. In spite of handicaps a distance was made which came within 86 miles of beating Erbsloh's record in last year's Gordon Bennett. The Fielding balloon "Fielding-San Antonio" covered 786 miles in 23 hours 15 minutes, as mentioned in the August issue.

The Fielding balloon was built by H. E. Honeywell, Director of the French-American Balloon Co., 3958 Cottage Avenue, St. Louis, and holds 70,000 cubic feet of gas.

In drawing for the start of the race Honeywell had the first draw. The feed pipes were newly laid and the gas company refused to blow them out for the benefit of Mr. Honeywell, so that the gas was inferior to that received by the other balloons. . The Fielding balloon was the first to get away, leading the others by from 20 minutes to an hour, which was another handicap; as the others left later in the evening and had the benefit of a more even temperature. Dr. Fielding, who accompanied pilot Honeywell, is a very heavy man—in fact, he weighs 265 pounds (Dr. Fielding does not want this known, so everyone please keep silent). A very large basket was used with other comforts and luxuries for the voyage which still further added to the handicap. Perhaps the most important note is that about one-third qf the distance traveled was over water, crossing four lakes: lakes Michigan, Huron, the full length of Ontario and Champlain. It cost the balloon 50 to 100 pounds of ballast every time it encountered a large body of water. It is safe to say that in this trip the balloon crossed more water, in miles, than covered by any other balloon of record.

The balloon was hurriedly constructed for the race in less than thirty days and was never tested with air, while the other balloons were tried and tested ones.

A qualified observer stated: "Honeywell went about his inflation strictly according to Moedebeck, weighed and got away beautifully."

Leo Stevens has sold the second balloon to the North Adams Aero Club, to be called the "North Adams No. 2." It will be of 38,500 cubic feet capacity.

The Adams Company, of Dubuque, Iowa, have just sold two of their new 5 cylinder aeronautic motors to Fred Schneider, 215 East 13th St., New York, and E. C. Marble, 90 Market St., Chicago, Ills.

The Adams Co., Dubuque. la., have just issued a catalog of the Adams-Farwell aeronautic motors, which they will gladly send to anyone interested.

Charles J. Glidden has received his pilot license from the Aero Club de France.

L. D. Dozier, President of the Aero Club of St. Louis, has sailed for Europe. He will be present at the Gordon Bennett race.

Eight flying machines are in course of construction or nearing completion by members of The Aeronautic Society. These machines will all be taken to the grounds of the Society.

George E. Mattice, the President of the American Airship Company, of Chattanooga, dropped dead on the street on August 23. At the time of his death he was Alderman from the First Ward, connected with many business enterprises and one of the city's progressive citizens.

Professor A. Lawrence Rotch. Director of the Blue Hill Meteorological Observatory, sailed for Europe on August 4th, to remain abroad until about October 1st.

ENGLAND SUPPLIES ZEPPELIN.

Spencer, the London balloon builder, is building and has nearly finished the interior gas bags, 15 in all, which are to be placed within the rigid frame. These are of goldbeater's skin, of which all the British military balloons are made, and in which material the Spencer firm is probably unrivalled throughout the world.

"THE WRIGHT BROTHERS* AEROPLANE" IN SEPTEMBER "CENTURY."

Orville and Wilbur Wright have contributed to September Century a history of their experiments, illustrated bv photographs of the early flights. FOR THE FIRST TIME, A PHOTOGRAPH HAS BEEN SEEN OF THE FIRST FLIGHT OF THEIR FIRST MOTOR MACHINE, AT KILL DEVIL HILL, DECEMBER 17. 1903. From the illustration one can see little difference between that and the present machine. Other photos are of flights made during 1904 and 1905.

Mention is made by Messrs. Wright of the untrustworthiness of nearly all data on pressures, etc.. when they began their work and of the necessity for their compiling their own figures.

One most interesting statement is this: "High efficiency in a screw propeller is not dependent upon any particular or peculiar shape, and there is no such thing as a 'best' screw. A propeller giving a high dynamic efficiency when used upon one machine may be almost worthless when used upon another. The propeller should in every case be designed to meet the particular conditions of the machine to which it is to be applied Our first propellers, built entirely from calculation, gave in useful work 66 per cent, of the power expended."

That there may be no question of the fact of the first motor flight of December T7. T903. the names and addresses of the five persons present besides the Wright Brothers.

Other magazines: the Review of Reviews has an interesting and instructive popular article. "The Airship and Its Record to Date," by George H. Guy; World's Work has "The Airship is Here," by Frederick Todd; H. G. Well's fantastic airship story is still running in Pearson's. For the past few months nearly every magazine has had an aeronautical article. These are the straws which show which way the wind blows.

EFFICIENCY OF CURVED SURFACES.

W. R. Turnbull published an article entitled "Researches of the Forms and Stability of Aeroplanes" in the Physical Review, Vol. XXIV, No. 3, March, 1907. later brought in pamphlet form.

In it he describes a very interesting set of wind tunnel experiments to determine the relative efficiency of various forms of aerodromes. The velocity of the wind was the same in all cases, namely, 10 miles per hour. He finally concludes that an shaped curve at will give much greater efficiency than single curves. His measure of efficiency is the ratio of drift to lift. This reaches a value of 5.48 in this particular curve.

He started to apply this discovery to the construction of a hydroplane but has so far been prevented from making any practical tests of value due to engine troubles.— Lieutenant Selfridge's comments on W R. Turnbull's researches; from the Bulletins of the Aerial Experiment Association, by permission.

Another Sign of the Times.

Realizing the progress of aviation, the publishers of "Conquete de l'Air" ha've begun the publication of a monthly journal exclusively devoted to aviation. It is entitled "L'Aero-Mecanique." May success attend.

One notes that all three balloons in the North Adams Aero Club point-to-point '•ace on August 14th. were built by Leo Stevens.

Short Brothers, the English balloon builders, are now making the smallest silk coal gas balloon yet made in England. It is to go to the Hon. C. S. Rolls. The balloon will carry one person and 170 pounds of ballast. The total weight of the balloon is 150 pounds complete. The capacity of the bag will be 11.900 cubic feet. The cost of a balloon of this size is about $625.

The International School of Aeronautics has removed to Morris Park racetrack, where practical lessons can be given. A large number of photographs have just arrived and the equipment has been materially augmented within the last few weeks.

2 to 100 H.p. especially designed for aeronautics

Four-Cylinder, 20 Horse-Power, Air-Cooled, Weight 100 lbs., Speed 1800 Revolutions per Minute, Magneto Ignition, Splash Lubrication with Sight Feed and Oil Gauge in Case.

SEND FOR CATALOGUE E.

G. H. CURTISS MANUFACTURING CO., .... Hammondsport, N. Y.

IT'S UP TO YOU NOW.

Shall we fly or shall we let some other country fly first? I say, let l"S launch the first complete airship and work in the lead of all other countries.

With a little help 1 can do this and if you think that you would like to be interested in airship that is SI"RE OF SUCCESS, write to me. If you mean business I will answer you—if you don't mean business don't write, for 1 am not giving my discoveries away nor am 1 trying to get something for nothing. 1 only want financial help from good people to launch a ship that will be a credit to our country and a fortune to its owners, as well as a sight for the eyes of the world.

_ I am prepared to prove that 1 have something to offer in return for help, by showing an airship that is self-explaining to every mechanical eve.

Now for the lack of a little help, for which I am willing to give reasonable interest in in my valuable discoveries of several years' hard study and confining work, shall 1 be forced to keep still and let some other country get the credit of doing something that we have already done and onlv needs bringing before the public—that would entitle us to the Pine Ribbon and give us credit as engineers and mechanics throughout the world?

If we have any capital in this country that would like to get interested in a movement of this kind 1 would like to hear from them; if I cannot interest them there is no harm done.

Kingston.

G. \Y. THOMPSON.

Oklahoma.

FIELDING—5AN ANTONIO

70,000 Cu. Ft. Built and Piloted by HONEYWELL

WINNER LONG DISTANCE AND ENDURANCE CUPS

chicago a. c. contest, july 4, 1908

against a field of eight

Fielding-Sau Antonio Getting Away—Foreground

the defeated

ILLINOIS, 72,000 cu. ft., J. L. case, Builder.

UNITED STATES OF MINNEAPOLIS, 70,000 cu. ft., mai^uet, Builder. CHICAGO, uo,oco en. ft., bumbaugh, Builder.

COLUMBIA, 75,000 cu. ft., bumbaugh, Builder.

AMERICA OF ST. PAUL, 78,000 cu. ft., leo stevens, Builder. KING EDWARD, 65,000 cu. ft., Canada.

CINCINNATI, 87,000 cu. ft., Haddock, Builder.

VILLE DE DIEPPE, 65,000 cu. ft., maluet, Builder.

At a recent gathering of aeronauts in New York, an eastern member of the profession saw fit to condemn the Fielding-San Antonio by calling attention to the fact that the netting was broken before start and at finish. This is true—but he was not sportsman enough to give reasons—mob swarmed over inclosure, interfering with inflation and hanging on netting and sand bags.

Landed in storm, netting torn on fence.

This true sport neglected to explain why his balloon of superior make and capacity did not make at least a decent showing in the contest.

EVERY KNOCK IS A BOOST.

Our material and workmanship speak for themselves. Write for samples and prices.

french—american balloon co.

ii. e. honeywell, director

3958 Cottage Avenue, St. Louis, U. S. A.

THE AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERIAL LOCOMOTION

4'

J

4

IT-

V' - 1 V*'»

'¡I, /W*'

Alk

Miss Gladys Taime hill and A. Leo Stevens

VOL. 3.

OCTOBER, 1908

PRICE, TWENTY-FIVE CENTS

No. 4.

"30 DAYS FREE TRIAL"

When a manufacturer is willing to send his product to anyone, anywhere, for 30 days—with no deposit, no agreement to buy, no promise to do anything except give that product a fair trial—he must have more than ordinary confidence in his article. In order for him to have that confidence he must have a most extraordinary product.

GUARANTEED FOR ONE YEAR

WARNER

That's what we do. We'll send an Auto-Meter to any automobile owner in 1he country with no deposit—no agreement, no promise to do anything but put it on his car and give it a fair trial. It doesn't matter whether he has another make of speed indicator already on the car or not. Indeed, for the sake of comparison, we hope he has. We will abide by the decision—for he will always keep the indicator that tells the truth. We claim for the Auto-Meter that it is the only one of which "the dial never lies." We believe that the instrument itself is the most eloquent salesman we have—we're willing to let i: do our talking. Send to-day—just tell us what make and year of car you have—size of tires, etc., and we will send you an Auto-Meter.

WARNER INSTRUMENT CO,

factory and main office

259 Wheeler Ave.,

Beloit, Wis.

STAYS RIGHT

ACCURATE AT ALL SPEEDS

14

Address your request lor Free Trial to Our Nearest Branch House.

New York—1902 Broadway Detroit—239 Jefferson Avenue

Boston—925 Boylston Street Chicago—1305 Michigan Avenue

Philadelphia—Corner Broad and Race Streets Indianapolis—330'^ N. Illinois Street

Pittsburg—3432 Forbes Street St. Louis—3923 Olive Street

Cleveland—2062 Euclid Avenue San Francisco—550 Golden Gate Avenue

Bufialo—722 Main Street Los Angeles—1122 S. Main Street

AERONAUTICS

Ernest LaRue Jones, Editor, Owner and Publisher Thoroughfare Building, 1777 Broadway, New York.

304 No. Fourth St., St. Louis.

Entered as second-class matter September 22, 1908, at the Postoffice, New York, N. Y., under the Act of

March 3, 1879.

Vol. Ill October, 1908 No. 4

Aeronautics is issued on the 20th of each month. It furnishes the latest and most authoritative information on all matters relating to Aeronautics.

SUBSCRIPTION RATES.

One year, $3.00; payable always in advance.

Subscriptions may be sent by express, draft, money order or registered letter. WE CAN NOT USE CHECKS ON LOCAL BANKS UNLESS EXCHANGE IS ADDED. Send draft on New York. Make all remittances free ot exchange, payable to Aeronautics. Currency forwarded in unregistered letters will be at sender's risk.

Foreign Subscriptions.—To countries within the postal union, postage prepaid, $3.50 per annum in advance. Make foreign money orders payable to Aeronautics. No foreign postage stamps accepted.

Important.—Foreign money orders received in the United States do not bear the name of the sender. Foreign subscribers should be careful to send letters of advice at same time remittance is sent to insure proper credit.

MEN OF THE AIR IN CARTOON.

Novel Series of High Class Caricatures of Some of the Aero Clubs' Well

Known Men.

Commencing in our December issue, we will begin to print a series of cartoons of the leading members of the Aero Clubs of America. They will prove very interesting, and no one should miss any of the series.

The work is done by one of the best caricaturists in the country, one who has succeeded in bringing out the characteristics of many of the well known members in the most artistic and attractive fashion. The entire novelty, of the idea at once attracts

attention, and the clever execution further commends the enterprise.

When the series is complete, the plates will be printed on vellum, bound in ooze calf, lined with silk, and printed under the club colors. These books will be a very handsome souvenir of the men who have done much to advance aerial locomotion.

Watch each issue for "Men of the Air in Cartoon," beginning in the December number.

NOTE.

The supply of July, 1907, and August, We would be very glad to hear of any 1908, copies is entirely exhausted. A fire copies of these two issues which we may destroyed all the extra copies of the latter secure to supply the present demand, issue.

'AERIAL LEAGUES."

The aeronautical organizations of this country might do well to follow those of other countries in the formation of "leagues" to create popular intelligent interest and knowledge in aeronautics.

The aeronautical appropriation in Congress last year was refused for want of a proper understanding of the status of the art and the possibilities thereof.

The newspapers are awakening to the importance of the new industry. Within the last year the art has been brought, by some of the papers, from the realm of dreams to a present-day fact. Some have been able to see the trend of events, but there is still plenty of work to do.

The newspapers are supposed to reflect public opinion. The flights of the Wright Brothers have brought wonderful results in the changing of public opinion, but there is still more work to do.

Despite the columns of news telling of successful flights, the public still says "it is too far off." We have had occasion during the last month to interview many members of aero clubs, and it is certainly surprising to hear them say "not interested in aero clubs," one man, the head of a large manufacturing concern, even went so far as to say "there is nothing in aerial navigation." Yet, this man's product has revolutionized the greatest industry in the world.

More work must be done to make the public see that there IS something practical in the Art. The newspapers should be asked by aero clubs to treat the subject seriously, aero clubs should furnish newspapers with all possible news of the achievements of their members, aeronautical organizations should bend their efforts to obtaining for the Signal Corps an appropriation at the next session of Congress, exhibitions of machines in flight should be held, other aeronautical associations formed for the advancement of knowledge and the aid of their members.

We have been persistently arguing the necessity for cash'prizes. It has been found impossible to raise prize funds, simply because people who could afford to contribute

did not feel interested enough in the Art. Let us stimulate interest in every way possible. This journal will gladly support any movement to advance the Art. We feel that we have done good work in spreading accurate information of what is being done, but organizations should do their share.

Put your shoulder to the wheel—and then push.

After the formation of the German military "Aerial Navy League" at Mannheim in July to commemorate Count Zeppelin's achievements, with various branches in the large cities, the same plan was adopted in France and subscriptions are pouring in at headquarters.

The German organization is to promote patriotic enthusiasm and to "retain for Germany the 'advantage' which she has now gained in the sphere of aerial navigation."

The French league, more scientific in nature than the German, proposes to foster the art and science of aviation, as opposed to Germany's efforts in behalf of aerostation. The grounds at Issy will be of great advantage, as they are now open to experimenters and closed to the public from 10 to i in addition to the early morning hours of 4 to 6.

Not to be left behind, Switzerland is founding a National League for Aerial Navigation. An important letter was addressed to the press a few days ago, signed by the Technical Committee of the League. The letter urges the nation not to be behind hand in the construction of aerial locomotion apparati for war purposes, and refers to the incessant manufacture of military dirigibles by France, Germany and Italy.

"It is of the highest importance," continues the document, "that the construction of our first airship should be finished as soon as, if not before, Zeppelin V. As this airship now in course of construction, can only be carried on by means of direct subscriptions, we appeal to you, gentlemen of the Press, to give us your hearty co-operation, by appealing in your turn to your readers to come forward and aid by their purses this truly national object."

The headquarters of the league are to be at Geneva. The object of its formation is: (i) To construct aerial machines suitable for military purposes in case of need; (2) To fit out, instruct, and train a corps of volunteers skilled in aerial navigation to work the dirigibles; (3) To make all necessary observations of upper and lower atmospheres indispensable to aerial navigation; to co-ordinate these observations and place them at the disposal of the meteorological bureaux, for the making of the most accurate weather forecasts possible.

As regards its direction the league will be divided into four committees:- (1) The committee of Honor, representing the

Swiss nation; (2) The Army Committee, representing the Federal Army; (3) The Technical Committee; (4) The Administrative Committee. There will be no limit as to the number of the first two committees; the number of members of the two others will be limited to seven. Every Swiss citizen enjoying civic rights who subscribes to the statutes desiring to participate in the objects of the league is eligible for membership. The amount of subscription is left to the will of the subscriber. The Technical Committee will draw up monthly reports as to progress, and the expenditure will be in the hands of the Administrative Committee.

HIGH KITE FLIGHT—WINTER AT 19,856 FEET.

During the week July 27 to August 1 of the International Series of Kite Flights and Captive Balloon Ascents, two balloon ascensions and six kite flights were conducted at Mount Weather. The mean of the highest altitudes attained daily was 12,005 feet (3660 meters). The highest captive balloon ascension was 9801 (2988 meters) while the highest kite flight was 19,856 feet (6052). The former of these was made on July 27, the latter on August 1. At the highest point reached on August 1 the temperature was 2.1 degrees Fahrenheit above zero (-16.60 C), the lowest recorded during the series.

The prevalence and great depth of the east to northeast winds during this week is one of the most interesting facts shown in the series. The top of the northeast wind was reached at about 2>Va miles above the sea level on Friday, July 31. This is by far the deepest northeast current sounded by Mount Weather station since the daily flights were begun more than a year ago.

FLYING MACHINES IN WARFARE.

Ruter W. Springer, Chaplain at Fort Schuyler, has kindly sent us the following: "I note in the Literary Digest a quotation from the Cleveland Leader, 'If a flying machine really has to go anywhere, it takes the railroad or a steamboat.' This brings us to the consideration that the art of aeronautics has not yet become thoroughly practicalized.

"In this connection, permit me to call your attention to the popular impression of the dangers in warfare of flying machines. The danger, for the most part, lies with the person who is on the machine, owing to the following fact: It is very difficult to hit an object at some distance with the modern rifle, because range cannot accurately be determined; and, while the horizontal line of fire can be made quite accurate, the shot will go above or below the object aimed at. As the line of fire comes to be more and more vertical, the difficulty of range becomes less and less, until, if the line is perfectly vertical, the element of range is entirely eliminated, unless the object is beyond the range, or power of firing, of the gun. But, while a flying machine may be made useful in time of warfare, by remaining some distance off in a horizontal direction, taking note of the position and the side of the fortifications of the enemy, it could not be made very useful for conveying explosives and dropping them on top of the enemy, because, as soon as it began to approximate a vertical position above the enemy, it would be subjected to a deadly fire that it could not possibly resist, and would be doomed to quick annihilation. The only remedy for this, would be such an elevation for the flying machine that it would take it entirely out of range of the gun-fire. I have not seen this hitherto referred to, but my life in the army has made it quite evident to me, and perhaps you may find it useful in connection with your admirable magazine."

LIEUTENANT THOMAS E. SELFRIDGE.

Lieutenant Thomas E. Selfridge, ist Field Artillery, U. S. A., whose untimely death occurred on September 17th at Fort Alyer, Va., through the fall of the Wright aeroplane on which he was a passenger, was born in California, February 2, 1882. In

1903 he graduated as second lieutenant and was assigned to the Artillery Corps. He was promoted first lieutenant in January, 1907, and was assigned to the 5th Field Artillery in June of the same year. He was transferred to the ist Field Artillery in 1908.

LIEUT. SELFRIDGE AND DR. BELL.

After being detailed to the Signal Corps for aeronautical work, on a visit to Dr. Bell in Nova Scotia he was made a member of the Aerial Experiment Association when it was formed and since then has been most active in the Association's work. He has made ascents in Dr. Bell's tetrahedral kite,

in the White Wings and June Bug aeroplanes, and in the Army Dirigible No. 1 and the Army balloons. The propeller used by Captain Baldwin in the Army dirigible was designed by Lieut. Selfridge. He was a nephew of Rear Admiral Thomas O. Selfridge, U. S. N.

DEATH OF LIEUT. THOS. E. SELFRIDGE.

Grim Death demands his toll from every •Art and every Industry, but because we know this, makes the blow no lighter when

it strikes. **N|*^»

Mechanical power flight has made its first sacrifice. Gliding flight has sacrificed the lives of Lilienthal, Pilcher, Maloney. Leturr and De Groof. In all history of experiments in dynamic flight six lives have paid the price. _

The available details of the causes of the accident are given under "Army Aeronautics" on another page. It is a coincidence that the September cover illustration shows the spot where the accident occurred, practically in front of the white gate of Arlington Cemetery shown immediately underneath the picture of the Dirigible No. i.

The accident occurred while making a turn. When Mr. Wright perceived that something was wrong he shut off the motor and attempted to glide safely to earth but unsuccessfully. It is possible that had the machine been higher in the air sufficient time would have been allowed in which to secure a balance.

In falling, the occupants were thrown against the wires and Selfridge sustained severe cuts about the face. Mr. Wright's left leg was caught under the machine and broken. The post surgeon issued the following statement after the examination: "Mr. Wright has a fractured left thigh and several ribs on the right side broken. He was much shocked but reacted well. Lieut. Selfridge received a fracture at the base of the skull."

Lieutenant Selfridge was to have left the following day for St. Joseph to take part in the military demonstrations there and it was arranged for Major Squier to make the flight with Mr. Wright, but on account of Selfridge's great desire to make a flight and the fact of his leaving the next day, Major Squier offered his place in the aeroplane to Lieutenant Selfridge.

MILITARY FUNERAL

Lieutenant Selfridge was buried with military rites on September 25th in Arlington Cemetery, within a short distance from the spot where he met his death.

In the golden rays of the setting sun, the casket was removed from the vault, placed upon the caisson and the procession begun to the grave. Following the Thirteenth Cavalry band on foot was a firing squad of cavalrymen in full uniform. Immediately behind came the caisson bearing the officer's body.

The casket was wrapped in an American flag and almost hidden from view by flowers. On each side walked the pallbearers, cavalrymen on foot. Immediately behind them came the honorary pallbearers: Major George O. Squier, Lieut. R. B. Creecy, Lieut. G. C. Sweet, Dr. Alexander Graham Bell, William J. Hammer, Octave Chanute, J. A. D. McCurdy, Percy Bradford, Prof. Monroe Hopkins and F. W. Baldwin. Following the honorary pallbearers came members of some of the foreign embassies and thè family and friends of the dead officer.

On reaching the grave, on an eminence at the southern end of the cemetery, the burial service of the Episcopal Church was read and the body lowered into the grave. The soldiers drawn up at the foot then fired three volleys, the bugler raised his instrument to his lips and the beautiful notes of "taps" sounded out and echoed over the hills. The last chapter had been written.

Floral tributes there were in profusion. In addition to the wreaths sent by President Roosevelt and Secretary of War Luke E. Wright, there were offerings from the Aero Club of America, The Aeronautic Society, the West Point army mess, the aeronautical board of the Signal Corps, the Signal Corps officers at Fort Leavenworth, Dr. and Mrs. A. Graham Bell, Capt. and Mrs. Perry, Prof. Fairchild, Lieut. Col. Gooderham, George S. Selfridge. Jerome Fanciulli, C. H. Claud}', Orville Wright, Gilbert H. Grosvenor, Wm. McK. Woodworth, William J. Hammer, Aerial Experiment Association, Major Gc\ O. Squier, Miss L. N. Randolph.

The Aero Club of America appointed Dr. A. Graham Bell, Dr. Albert F. Zahm, Wm. J. Hammer, Gutzon Borglum and Geo. O. Totteu to represent the Club at the services. Mr. Hammer and Mr. Chanute acted

in like capacity for the Aeronautic Society.

The passing of our intimate friends and relatives brings home to us a more serious realization of life. It makes supreme the desire to pierce the veil of the unknown. We wonder on the one hand if life is worth living; and then we consider that we are

here to live our lives, that the allotted time is short and we must improve our opportunities. And yet—

The boast of Heraldry, the pomp of Power, All that Beauty, all that Wealth e'er gave Await alike the inevitable hour; The paths of Glory lead but to the grave.

ON THE GYROSCOPIC ACTION OF PROPELLERS.

By Dr. Alexander Graham Bell.

In the course of a discussion with Mr. J. A. D. McCurdy last May concerning the nature of the torque produced in an aeroplane by the rotation of its propellers, Mr. McCurdy referred to Brennan's Mono-Rail Car System as an illustration of the powerful gyroscopic action of flywheels. This lead to the consideration of the gyroscopic action of propellers; and we consulted the Encyclopedia Britannica to see whether we could work out, from the description of the gyroscope there given, what would be the effect upon an aeroplane of the gyroscopic action of its propeller, and we came to the following theoretical conclusions:

With a right-handed rotation of the propeller the machine, when steered to the left or port side, would tend to rise at the bow until the bow pointed vertically upward. When steered to the right or starboard side, the machine would tend to dive until the bow pointed vertically downwards.

With a left-handed rotation of the propeller opposite effects would be produced; the machine tending to dive when turned to port, and tending to rise at the bow when turned to starboard.

The general conclusion reached was that both the horizontal and vertical steering of the aerodrome with a single propeller would be seriously affected if the propeller exerted any sensible gyroscopic action.

This theoretical result has been amply verified by experiments made here July 16, 1908, with a gyrostat constructed after the plans of the late Lord Kelvin.

The gyrostat consists simply of a thin metallic case enclosing a heavy wheel which can be set in rapid rotation by means of a string coiled round one end of the axis.

In order to imitate the action of the propeller of the June Bug, the concealed wheel was given a left-handed rotation (against the hand of a watch). I then held the gyrostat in my hand with one axis pointing forward, so that, considering this end of the axis as the bow or front end of the aerodome, the wheel represented the propeller. Then to represent the forward flight of the aerodrome I walked forward with the gyrostat in my hand. I then imitated the action of steering the aerodrome by turning to the right. Instantly the bow end of the gyrostat turned upwards with considerable force. Upon turning to the left it turned downwards. Then to represent the act of steering downwards with an aerodrome, I depressed the bow end of the gyrostat with the result that the bow tried also to move to the right or starboard side. Upon elevating the bow of the gyrostat to represent steering upwards with an aerodrome, the bow of the gyrostat was deflected to the left.

With a right-handed rotation of the wheel of the gyrostat opposite effects were produced.

The effects were so marked as to indicate that the gyroscopic action of a rapidly rotating propeller in an aerodrome should be studied and allowed for in the steering of the apparatus. The following contains a summary of the observations made.

Right-Handed Rotation: Left-Handcd Rotation:

Steering to right sends bow down. Steering to right sends bow up.

Steering to left sends bow up. Steering to left sends bow down.

Steering down sends bow to left. Steering down sends bow to right.

Steering up sends bow to right. Steering up sends bow to left.

(From the Bulletins of the Aerial Experiment Association; by permission of the

Association.)

A comparison of the crank shafts illustrates the Strength, Simplicity, Light Weight and Efficiency of the Adams-Farwell Motor in

contrast to the frail but weighty series of angles and bearings that eat up the power of other motors before it gets out of the crank case.

We will be pleased to tell you more about this wonderfully simple motor which weighs only 2.7-lb. per horse power. Write for our Aeronautic Catalogue.

THE! ADAMS COMPANY

DUBUQUE, IOWA, U. S. A.

CONSTRUCTION WORK

Models or manufacturing complete from plans in all materials. Repairs or special parts for machines already constructed. Our plant especially equipped for this class of work. Free use of large grounds for trials, etc.

gliders in stock. c. & a. wittemann, p. 0. box 40, stapleton, staten island, n. y.

17 OCEAN TERRACE, COR. LITTLE CLOVE ROAD

TO THE LIVE MAN 'n"res!fd'nthn'stT

_ Car, all the new ac-

ITHE STEAM] MOTOR I JOURNALI

cessorles, automoblllng, and in fact keeping in touch with all that Is transpiring the world over in motordom, and who realizes the value of keeping informed about all that concerns it, should be a subscriber to The Steam Motor Journal, 15c. a copy, $1.00 a year.

the steam motor journal co.

1409 WELTON STREET,

DENVER, COLO.

ARMY AERONAUTICS FOR SEPTEMBER

TWO-MAN FLIGHT, 0RV1LLE WRIGHT AND MAJOR GEORGE 0. SQUIER, FORT MYER, SEPT. 12, IOoS.

The Wright Aeroplane

In the September issue we gave newspaper figures covering some of the flights by Orville Wright at Fort Myer, as the paper was ready for the press and exact times and measurements were not available. The exact record of the entire series is here given through the kindness of Major Geo. O. Squier, Acting Chief Signal Officer.

On September i, 1908, after preliminary tests of the engine, the aeroplane was removed from the balloon house to the balloon tent, on the drill grounds at Fort Myer, Va.

The first flight was made on September 3d. Velocity of the wind, three miles per hour; maximum height, 35 feet. Aeroplane went around the field \y2 times and landed in front of the shed. The right skid was broken in two places, due to rough landing. The skid was repaired the next day, and a flight of about three miles was

made, in a wind of 3 miles an hour. Time of flight, 4 minutes, 15 seconds. Maximum height, 40 feet.

September 7. A flight of 55 seconds was made in a wind of 6 miles an hour; maximum height, 25 feet; distance covered, estimated at 1& mile.

September 8. Two flights were made, one at 9:15 A.M., which lasted 11 minutes, 10 seconds, in which Mr. Wright circled the field thirteen times. The wind this day was about 2 miles an hour. Mr. Wright descended at the end of the first flight to procure goggles for his eyes and to make a slight change in the foot rests. On the second flight he went around the field 8 times, was in the air 7 minutes, 34 seconds and came down on account of darkness.

September 9. Mr. Wright took the machine from the shed at 7:50 A.M., and made a flight of 57 minutes, 25 seconds

duration, going 57 times around the field and maintaining a height of over 100 feet. He was unaware of the fact that he had come so near the hour, or he would have remained up to make his record run over that time. In the afternoon, in a wind of 4 miles an hour, he circled 55 times around the field, at a maximum height of 80 feet, remaining in the air 1 hour, 2 minutes, 15 seconds. A third record flight was made immediately afterward, when he circled the

circled the field 71 times and attained a maximum height of 300 feet.

THE ACCIDENT

September 17. Air. Wright was nearly ready to begin his official trials, and on this day had changed his propellers for longer ones, which would give a higher speed. He ascended with Lieutenant Selfridge, at 6:14 in the afternoon, in a wind of 4 miles an hour. After circling the field 4J/2 times, the propeller blade was seen to fall. The

0RV1LLE WRIGHT S MACHINE AT FORT MYER.

field 6y2 times, at a maximum height of 60 feet, and was in the air 6 minutes, 24 seconds, and carried Lieut. Lahm with him.

September 10. In a wind of 10 miles an hour Mr. Wright circled the field 8 times, at a maximum height of 200 feet, remaining in the air 1 hour, 5 minutes, 52 seconds.

70 MINUTES IN THE AIR

September 11. Two flights were made. On the first, Mr. Wright circled the field nine times, and was in the air 10 minutes, 50 seconds. On the second he circled the field 57J/2 times and landed in front of the aeroplane shed. He was in the air 1 hour, 10 minutes, 24 seconds, and during this flight described two "figure-eights" over the drill grounds.

NEW 2-MAN RECORD OF 9 MINUTES—75 MINUTES IN THE AIR

September 12. Two flights were made. On thè first Mr. Wright took Major G. O. Squier, of the Signal Corps, and made a new record, of 9 minutes, 6 seconds, for a two-man'-flight in an aeroplane. The second flight was made by Mr. Wright alone, and lasted 1 'hour, 15 minutes, during which he

machine at that time was at a height of about 150 feet. Mr. Wright shut off the motor and guided it down to about 75 feet, advancing about 200 feet. At this point the machine turned downward and dropped the remaining distance of 75 feet to the ground. It is thought that, due to excessive vibration, the propeller struck one of the guy wires running from the rear of the top main surface to the top of the rudder at the rear, causing the wire to tear out from its metal fastening at the rudder, and at the same time causing the propeller to break at a point about two feet from the end. The Aeronautical Board of the Signal Corps, composed of Major C. McK. Saltz-man, Signal Corps, Captain C. S. Wallace, Signal Corps, and Lieut. F. P. Lahm, Signal Corps, assisted by Lieut. Sweet of the Navy, and Lieut. Creecy of the Marine Corps, also by Mr. Octave Chanute and Professor Albert F. Zahm, made a thorough examination, on the morning of September 18th, of the aeroplane, and the grounds, and carefully examined witnesses of the accident the preceding day. The following is their report:—

"That the accident which occurred in an unofficial flight made at Fort Myer, Va., at about 5.18 P. M. on September 17, 1908, was due to the accidental breaking of a propeller blade and a consequent unavoidable loss of control which resulted in the machine falling to the ground from a height of about seventy-five (75) feet.

The Board finds that First Lieutenant Thomas E. Selfridge, First Field Artillery, (attached to the Signal Corps by War Department orders and assigned to aeronautical duty), accompanied Mr. Wright, by authority, on the aeroplane, for the purpose of officially receiving instruction, and received injuries by the falling of the machine which resulted in his death."

Lieutenant Selfridge died at 8:io p.m., two hours after the accident. He was buried, with full military honors, at Arlington Cemetery, near Washington, on September 25th.

Mr. Wright is now convalescing in the post hospital at Fort Myer, Va. A delay of nine months has been granted by the Secretary of War, for the completion of these trials.

ANALYTICAL DISCUSSION OF ACCIDENT

Mr. Wright has requested that no analytical discussion of the accident, the causes relating thereto, etc., be made public until he himself has had opportunity to make his own investigation and form conclusions. But it may be suggested that had hickory been employed for the propellers instead of spruce the breaking of the blade might have been avoided. The little added weight of hickory would probably not have been worth considering.

Dirigible No. 1.

The dirigible was last, operated at Fort Myer on August 31st. After two attempts

at flight on this date, difficulty with the engine necessitated suspending temporarily the work with the dirigible.

On September 8, Dirigible No. 1, the tent for housing it and the hydrogen plant were shipped to St. Joseph, Mo., by direction of the Secretary of War. Lieutenant Foulois, with eight enlisted men of the balloon detachment, left on the same day. Under his direction the balloon and tent were set up at the military tournament grounds, St. Joseph, Mo., and preliminary flights made on September 18th and 19th. It was operated by Lieut. Foulois and Sergeant Ward, of the balloon detachment. The dirigible was operated by Lieutenants Lahm and Foulois, during the week of the carnival. Three flights were made, on Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday, varying in length from five minutes to sixteen minutes. These flights were made in the vicinity of the tournament grounds, and two were made to the camp of United States troops situated a mile away from the tournament grounds. High winds the last three days of the tournament prevented the operation of the dirigibles. It was shipped back to Fort Myer on September 28th.

Lieutenant John G. Winter, 6th Cavalry, reported for duty on September 18th, and was assigned to the Aeronautical Division.

An ascension was made in Signal Corps No. 12, on September 2, details of which are given under "Ascensions."

The balloon house, hydrogen plant, compressor and hydraulic testing pump at Fort Omaha have all been completed and are ready for use. The gasometer will be completed in a few days.

FOR SALE—Glaisher's "Travels in the Air," from the private library of Alfred Chadwick. Large 8vo, cloth, fine illustrations, London 1871. In perfect condition. This is most rare and is offered at $5 postpaid.

FOR SALE—A perfect copy of Astra Castra, London 1865, at $15.00 delivered. Large quarto volume, in blue cloth binding, profusely illustrated. In perfect condition. This is probably the rarest aeronautical work to be found anywhere.

Captain Thomas S. Baldwin has been operating his smaller duplicate of the Army "Dirigible No. 1" at Poughkeepsie and Dan-bury the last of September and the first of October. Carl E. Myers is making a series of successful flights. A. Roy Knabenshue, Col. J. L. Gribble and the other dirigible pilots have been busy making flights all over the country. Over 500 flights by dirigibles were made last year and this record will be eclipsed this year.

SOME CONSTRUCTION DETAIL

By H. :

Editor's Note—Mr. Brown was in Washington during the flights of the Wright aeroplane and was present at the time of the accident. His observations are of particular interest and value.

It is probable that no one who has given the matter serious thought has any doubt of the ultimate ability of the Wright Machine to fulfill the government requirements as to speed carrying capacity and endurance.

There is one condition which seems to have been overlooked by the majority of the people, and that is, the ability to be packed in army wagons for transportation and assembled in about one hour's time.

OF THE WRIGHT AEROPLANE. . Brown

left of the operator and to disconnect the uprights from the skids and diagonal braces. The removal of a brace connecting the skids allows them to be folded back outwardly against the front of the planes.

The rear rudder is supported by two horizontal struts which are stepped on .the top of their respective planes. These are braced against horizontal movement by diagonal wire stays. Diagonal stays in the plane formed by the struts brace against vertical movement. The one extending from the lower plane to the upper brace has at its centre a length of closed helical spring. In case of the rudder striking the ground first in landing this will allow of this brace stretching and the rudder rising thus pre-

THE WRIGHT MACHINE AT FORT MYER.

An investigation of the ability of the machine to fulfill this latter requirement leads to a study of its constructional details and here many interesting points are discovered.

An examination of the front rudder shows that its planes are pivoted to two uprights which are held in place by being fastened to the upturned ends of the skids and by two braces which extend from the lower planes to the middle of the uprights. To remove the same it is only necessary to disconnect the rod connecting the rudder with the operating lever, situated to the

venting damage to the rudder. The removal of these struts from their steps allows the rudder to be brought close against the frames. In this condition the machine has a width of little over six feet and a length of about forty feet and while somewhat unwieldy can readily be transported on an ordinary wagon for short and medium distances.

With two squads of men working on both the front and rear rudder respectively it should be almost a matter of seconds rather than minutes to thus disconnect the front and rear rudder.

When it is desirable to pack the machine in as small a compass as possible, as, for instance, for transportation by rail or water, a somewhat longer time will of course be required.

The motor, together with the transmission and propellers, is first removed. By disconnecting the diamond-shaped propeller-bearing frames from the top and bottom of the rear main frames and unbolting up the skids in which the motor, magneto and radiator are mounted, from the centre of the main frame, it is simply necessary to remove the three middle rear upright struts and the entire propelling mechanism can be removed bodily.

This can be then further taken apart for the sake of compactness. The removal of the remaining struts and braces, as well as the wires which serve to warp the planes, permits the separation of the planes. These can now be separated into three sections of approximately equal length.

Having now the machine dismounted the construction can readily be seen and many points of interest are brought to light. The first point which strikes one on superficial inspection is the apparently small amount of effort made to save weight and the substantial appearance of the whole machine. The main frame of each plane is formed of wood of a "D" section and is about one and one half to two inches in height. This is bent round at the corners and when joined together forms a rectangle with rounded corners. There are two sets of ribs or rather double ribs which are placed above and below the main frames. They are clamped to the main frames at the front with strap iron. At the rear their ends project and are joined. A wire passes between these ribs and curves round toward the front to meet the rear of the main frame. The planes are covered both top and bottom with canvas and presents a smooth surface to the air. The covering is secured to the ribs by strips sewed to the inside of the covering which form pockets or sheaths for the ribs. It would be interesting to know just how much this smooth double covering adds to the efficiency of the planes by reduction of the skin friction.

The placing of the covering on the frames in such a manner that the threads run diagonally to the length and breadth of the planes is an ingenious idea which does away with any other horizontal bracing of the frames. By this method of laying the cloth on the frames diagonal braces are provided running into the hundreds of thousands.

The methods of holding in position the vertical stays and diagonal stay wires are simple and ingenious. A "C" shaped piece made of a round rod is secured to the plane by a sheet metal ear, the opening of the "C" being upwards. An eye made of the same sized rod is secured to the stay or strut, the eye being of such a size as to allow the necessary play for the warping of the planes. When the diagonal stay wire, if such is used, and the vertical stay is in place, a simple split cotter is inserted in a hole drilled in the "C" piece which prevented the same from coming out acci-dently.

The method of forming the loop in the ends of the stay wires is the same as that adopted by Voisin Bros., the makers of the Farman and Delagrange machines. A small piece of tubing is employed which will allow the wire to be passed through it twice. A length of about an inch or so being employed. When the stay is drawn to the proper degree of tension the end of the wire is bent over and the tube "crimped" on the wire.

The method of warping the planes while similar to that shown in the patent specifications, differs in some details. The rudder and planes each being operated by a separate lever both of which are at the operator's right hand. These are, however, placed so close together as to be operated simultaneously by one hand if so desired. A movement to the rear steering to the right and raising the left of the planes.

It would seem that steering in a horizontal direction by a fore and aft movement of a lever is a serious defect in the design of a machine since it is not a natural action and it therefore takes some time before, it can become to any degree a reflex one. On the other hand a wheel or handlebar steer such as is used on a bicycle or auto-

mobile furnishes a form of stearing gear the operation of which has already become a reflex action to the majority of people likely to operate aeroplanes. It would seem that such a form of steering gear could be easily applied to a machine without greatly increasing weight, complication or expense.

The motor, while it does the work all right, is open to considerable criticism from the view-point of a gas engine designer. No attempt is made to water-jacket the valves which are placed in the head. The inlet valves are of the automatic type and judging by outside appearance are of much too small diameter and too great lift. It is generally the custom where automatic valves are employed to give a lift of not more than one eighth of the diameter in order to allow of quick opening and closing at high speeds. The required port opening being given by increasing the diameter. "Make and break" ignition is employed, current while running being obtained from a direct current magneto driven by friction from the flywheel. For starting, a storage battery, not carried on the machine, is employed. For make and break spark the A. C. shuttle wound type of geared magneto is almost universally employed in automobile practice as it gives a much stronger spark". Pictures of the machine used in France by Wilbur Wright show that a Bosch high tension magneto is employed for ignition.

The method of feeding the gasoline is rather unique. A pulsometer pump placed on the right of the motor and worked by pressure from the crank case feeds the gasolene to a jet which is inside a vertical tube. This vertical tube leads to the centre of a simple horizontal manifold which opens direct to the inlet valves. No attempt is made to keep the length of the induction pipe of equal length to each cylinders as is generally done by a system of branches There is no form of throttle or method of regulating the mixture while the motor is in operation. The only method of controlling the speed is by cutting out the ignition or retarding or advancing the spark. This latter is considered "bad practice" as it tends to heat up a motor.

However, the very crudeness and large weight per H.P. of this motor only serve to emphasize the perfection to which the aeroplane has been brought and to disprove the assertion of many famous scientists that a much lighter and more powerful motor is required before aerial navigation can be an accomplished success. In fact, it looks as if the unmuffled airship motor will, soon be a thing of the past and that soon the aeroplane will be as silent as the modern automobile which will add immensely to its value for military purposes.

The use of an exterior launching apparatus has been much criticised. There is, however, much to be said in favor of its use. In the first place, by its use the machine can get much more quickly into the air. At Ft. Myer the rail employed was only seventy feet in length. It was made in ten foot lengths and could, with its supports, be set up in probably less than five minutes on any but the very roughest ground. The starting tower and weight are somewhat cumbersome. In military work this could probably be dispensed with by employing a detail of a sufficient number of men on a drag rope hitched to a fall to give sufficient speed, the power being obtained by the employment of a large number of men.

This would of course greatly reduce the weight of the launching apparatus to be transported. Under ordinary circumstances the starting weight and tower are much better as they can be handled by a small number of men.

The exact cause of the sad accident which terminated the recent Ft. Myer trials will perhaps never be definitely known. Just before the machine became unmanagable a piece of the left hand propeller blade was seen to drop. It shortly after this canted to the left and pitched forward; some maintain that it turned a complete forward somersault. After the machine landed it was seen that the rear rudder was badly damaged. It is certain that either the breaking of a propeller or the rudder would tend to cause a loss of the lateral stability, particularly the latter.

It is probable that one of the diagonal rudder guy wires in some manner got in (Continued on page 44.)

AERIAL EXPERIMENT ASSOCIATION.

The fourth aeroplane of the Association has now practically been completed and is to be called "Silver Dart." The surfaces are silvered on one side, hence the name.

The changes made in the June Bug, mentioned in the September number, have proven quite successful. The difference in stability was very marked. The machine answered the control much more readily and quickly, that the least possible movement in changing the angle of incidence of the control was necessary to preserve a flight in one horizontal plane.

In removing the tail structure altogether, simply a bamboo support was used for the rudder. The center of the rudder comes just opposite or in continuation of the propeller shaft. The old ribs have now been removed and ribs such as are used in the Silver Dart substituted. These ribs have just the single curve and are made of four plies instead of three, to obtain greater strength.

When the machine was tried with the new ribs of single curvature, and without the tail, the man moving back seven inches to make up for load removed from rear by removing the tail, on August 28, it was found that the machine would glide nicely. Approaching the place where Mr. McCurdy, the aviator, wanted to land, he shut off the motor as in former cases and expected to land where planned but the machine kept on gliding for a distance of 200 feet. Mr. McCurdy was about 15 feet in the air when the power was shut off. Of course, the controls were manipulated to keep on an even keel fore and aft. Mr. Curtiss then tried a flight and repeated the experience.

The flight of the 29th, mentioned last month, was the longest yet made by the Association. A figure "8" was desctibed covering a distance of 2 miles.

The machine is now speedier than before and a new propeller is being used which allows the engine to turn over more slowly and yet produce more push. Here is a comparison of the old and new propellers. A is the one heretofore used in the June Bug and B is the new one.

A—Diameter, szA feet, pitch, 4.2 feet. B—Diameter, 6 feet, pitch, 4.0 feet.

Pull

R.P.M.

M.p.H. •:

A—200

1266

65

200

1266

65

B—215

1104

50.2

210

1062

49.0

These tests were made with the engine in a sling in a large closed room. Readings were taken one right after another. They seem to show that greater diameter and smaller pitch is needed.

The first of October the June Bug was dismantled and no further flights will be made with it.

On Sept. 21st, the Aerial Experiment Association held a meeting at the residence of Dr. Bell in Washington.

The first business was the appointment of Mr. J. A. D. McCurdy, as Secretary in place of the late Lieut. Thomas E. Sel-fridge, after which the following resolutions were adopted:

Resolved, that we place on record our high appreciation of our late Secretary, Lieut. Thomas E. Selfridgc, who met death in his efforts to advance the art of aviation. The Association laments the loss of a dear friend and valued associate. The United States Army loses a valued and promising officer; and the world an ardent student of aviation who made himself familiar with the whole progress of the art in the interests of his native country.

Resolved, that a committee be appointed by the Chair to prepare a biography of the late Lieut. Thomas E. Selfridge for incorporation in the records of the Association.

Resolved, that a copy of these resolutions be transmitted to the parents of Lieut. Thomas E. Selfridge.

Resolved, that the members of the Aerial Experiment Association herewith extend to Mr. Orville Wright their deepest sympath}-for his grief at the death of their associate, Lieut. Thomas E. Selfridge. We realize that in this pioneering of the air, the unforeseen must occasionally be disastrous. (Continued on page 27.)

FIRST ASCENSION BY A WOMAN IN CANTON.

By Gladys M. Tannehill

After the first ascension made in this city last Spring in the balloon Ohio by Mr. Lahm as pilot, and Messrs. Blake and Mather as passengers, I was very anxious to make a flight and wished then that at sometime I might have the opportunity. When Mr. Leo Stevens extended me an invitation to accompany him on his next balloon trip in Canton, I gladly accepted it and anxiously awaited his coming.

The morning of our ascension, Sept. 24th, i was among the first at the Aero Club Park and eagerly watched the inflation of the Sky Pilot. When all was ready I stepped into the basket without hesitation or fear, as I had such perfect confidence in Mr. Stevens as a pilot. He then adjusted the ballast and gave orders for "All Hands Off." With the waving of hats and cheers from our friends and the crowds that were watching us, we started to ascend on our aerial voyage, slowly drifting toward the North. This, however, took us directly over the city, which looked like a child's play-grounds, with its cunning little street cars and toy houses.

After drifting out of this toy-land into the broad open country, I beheld the finest panoramic view I have ever seen. Altho at a great altitude, the country looked perfectly flat and with the different colored fields roads and trees it had all the appearance of a crazy-quilt.

At the height of 4,000 feet, a large red butterfly was seen fluttering around the balloon. The greatest altitude we reached was 6,500 feet, but we soon came down

and kept very close to the ground, in fact, so close that the drag rope frequently touched the tops of the trees. We could easily converse with the farmers along the way and they showed their goodwill by inviting us to land.

Four miles from Canton we descended so low that the drag rope fell upon the ground. Friends who were following us in their automobiles caught hold of it and pulled us down. After eating a lunch and procuring more ballast, we once more ascended.

Travelling slowly for about an hour, dark clouds commenced to appear in the heavens and much to my disappointment, Mr. Stevens said it would be necessary to make a landing. Before this was accomplished, we were overtaken by the storm. The wind blew very hard and changed our course entirely, carrying us directly back towards Canton. Then big drops of rain started to fall on the bag of the balloon and it sounded like rain falling on a tin roof. This was really exciting and I liked it immensely, as I had encountered no sensation throughout my entire trip, with exception of roaring in my ears. I should have liked to stay up and land outside the city limits of Canton, but Mr. Stevens' better judgment said "no," and started at once making preparations for our descent.

We made our landing in a cornfield near Cairo, seven miles from Canton, at 4:30, after being in the air almost four hours. I was delighted with the trip and if I should ever have another opportunity would be pleased to go again.

WATCHING THE ASCENT.

THE BERLINER HELICOPTER.

Emile Berliner, the inventor of the telephone transmitter, who has been working ' for some years in aeronautics, makes public the following statement:

"I have lately constructed an experimental propeller of such power that, placed horizontally, it is capable of lifting 360 pounds in a calm straight up into the air.

thrust would be one-quarter of the lifting pressure.

"It is an accepted theory, which has been proved by practical tests, that a propeller moving forward is more efficient than when moored fast in one position. Hence, the lifting power of an aeromobile would increase in free flight."

experimental apparatus recently tested. Weight of motor 100 lbs. Lifting power in fixed position 360 lbs. Size of propeller 17 feet.

"There is no gas bag and no aeroplane; simply a motor weighing a 100 pounds, some framework, gearing and a two-bladed fan, the latter having a surface of about thirty-six square feet. Moreover, the whole apparatus, outside the seat of the operator, is entirely of steel and aluminum, and is built substantially and for practical use.

Scheme of interlocking twin propeller " aeromobile " now under construction. Wt. 500 lbs. Lifting power in fixed position 720 lbs.

In order to propel the aeromobile horizontally the propeller will have to be tilted forward, and I have calculated that, while this would reduce the lifting power less than 3 per cent, the resulting forward

Generally considered, it is necessary to have two propellers revolving in opposite directions in order to steady the machine and prevent it from turning around on its own axis in a direction opposite the motion of the single propeller.

"A peculiar importance of these experiments lies in the fact that a power propeller

Scheme of propelling forward by tilting propeller. Inclination 15 deg. loss in lifting power less than .vV. Horizontal push 25v of lifting power. Tiied in actual experiment.

capable of flying straight upward with an operator would, when attached vertically to a modern aeroplane, force the latter through the air at a very high speed, probably from (Continued on page 47.)

FOREIGN LETTER.

Note:—Complete foreign news for the month is mailed abroad on the ist. It usually takes ten days for the mail from various countries to reach us. This, makes it impossible to assemble, set up, print and mail before the 20th of the month. Foreign news from the ist to the time of going to press must necessarily be cabled news and, of course, subject to errors. Any errors are corrected in the following month's issue which takes up the foreign news where it leaves off the month previous.

Austria.

A dirigible is to be constructed at last, after some bankers have efficiently headed a public subscription.

Belgium.

Baron Peter Von Crawhez has an aeroplane under construction of which the trials will be held at the beach near Ostend. It will mount a 50 h.p. motor. Adhemar de la Hault, treasurer of the Aero Club, is completing a 400 Kg. ornithopter with 100 h. p. 100 Kg. steam engine.

England.

The Dirigible II. has been deflated and its motor will be mounted in a new ship with a larger gas bag and frame. Experiments have commenced on a military aeroplane designed by Mr. Cody. Mounted on four wheels, it has made fast preliminary runs on the grounds at Aldershot. Col. Templar, former Commander of the British balloon corps made the statement on his recent trip to the United States, that several airships and aeroplanes are being secretly experimented with.

France.

WILBUR WRIGHT BREAKS ALL DURATION AND DISTANCE RECORDS FOR MECHANICAL FLIGHT —BOTH FOR SINGLE OPERATOR AND CARRYING A PASSENGER

AlLthe happenings in France have recently been overshadowed, if not arrested, by the overwhelming sensation of Wilbur Wright's last records in the plains of Au-vours near Le Mans.

The following is a list of flights since those recorded last month:

Sept. 3. About 10 kiloms. in 10 min. 40

sees.

Sept. 4. Flight of 2.5 kiloms. in 2 min. 13 sees, in a wind of 19.8 kiloms. per hour, measured.

Sept. 5. Flight of 19 min. 48 sees, in a measured wind of 22-23 kiloms. per hr., at a speed of 60 kms. per hr. On same day, another of 3 min. 21 sec. in a wind of 3 meters per sec. at 57.8 km. per hr.

Sept. 10. 9 min. 10 sees.; 21 min. 43 sees.

Sept. 11. 2 min. 45 sees.; 4 min. 40 sees.: 4 mins. 50 sees.

Sept. 12. Repairing motor; one short flight of 4 min. 8 sees., and one of 6 min. 41 sees.

Sept. 16. After putting in a new magneto, the first long flight took place of 39 min. 18 sees. Later Ernest Zens, the French aviator, was taken as the first passenger for 2 min. 20 sees.

Sept. 17. A flight of 6 min. 43 sees.

1 HOUR, 31 MINUTES ALONE

Sept. 21. After an interruption caused by the accident to Orville Wright's machine in Washington, Wilbur Wright, recognizing the necessity of dispersing its impression, beat all records by a long perfect flight of 1 hour, 31 min. 25 sec, covering 66.6 kilom. (the actual distance with the turns being more than 90 kilom.), which served the purpose the more efficiently as it was closely watched by Mr. Henry White, the American Ambassador at France, who was equally struck by the perfection of the control and by the high speed of same. This flight won the Aero Club of France prize of $1,000 for the longest flight before Sept. 30.

Sept. 22. Three minutes on a rainy day.

Sept. 24. On a damp gloomy day with a strong gusty wind (eight meters a second) and violent squalls, a flight of 54 minutes, 3 sec. 3o|

Sept. 25. A flight of 36 min. 14 sec. in the morning; 5 min. 5 sec. in the afternoon, and then 9 min. 1 sec. carrying P. Zens as a passenger.

1 HOUR, 7 MINUTES

Sept. 28th. One hour, 7 min. 24 sec. alone; flight of 11 min. 35 sec. with M. Tissandier and 7 min. 15 sec. with Comte de Lambert.

Some time was then consumed in completely overhauling the motor and putting on somewhat broader and higher pitched propellers.

Oct. 3. The flight on this day fulfilled one-half the conditions of the Weiller Syndicate contract for a passenger was carried 55 min. sec, covering 36 miles. In the morning Wilbur Wright flew 4 min. 50 sees., 9 min. 31 sees., another short one and then one of 18 min. 24 sees. Next, one of 3 min. 21 sees, with a N. Y. Herald correspondent.

Oct. 5. Two flights; one with M. Bollee (weight 238 lbs.), the other with M. Pellier (weight 194 lbs.), as passengers.

I HOUR, 4 MINUTES WITH PASSENGER

On October 6, Wilbur Wright fulfilled the conditions imposed by the Weiller syndicate, given in the last issue, by making a second flight of more than 50 kilometers, carrying a passenger. He remained in the air 1 hour, 4 minutes, 26 seconds.

Oct. 7. Six short passenger flights. In one flight he carried Mrs. Hart O. Berg, wife of the Wrights' business representative.

Oct. 8. More passenger flights?] in the presence of Dowager Queen Marguerite of Italy, with Lieut. General Baden Powell, Count Serge Kapnokoff, Madame Bollee and Commandant Bouttieaux.

The Witzig-Liore-Dutillenl aeroplane, the inventors of which were seeking stability in a complicated grouping of multiple surfaces, was entirely wrecked at its first trial by lack of stability on Sept. 30th.

As a sign of the times, there will soon be three airships added to the French aerial squadron. The Astra Motor Company, having taken over the Surcouf balloon factory, is the constructor. They are especially interesting as a return to the original meritorious Renard system, as represented by the "Ville de Paris." One has been ordered by the French government, and very justly been named "Colonel Renard;" the others being the Bayard-Clement (3500 r.b.m., 120 h.p.), ordered by the firm of the same name, and the "Ville de Bordeaux" (3.000 e.b.m., 80 h.p.). Improvements on the original "Ville de Paris" type, stronger motors of 105 and 100 h.p., only four conically shaped stabilizing gas inflated appendages, double

t 7 tr*^-*A^~

air balloonet, roomy and comfortable car, made of steel tubes covered with aluminum sheeting. "Conning tower" for pilot, steel suspension and tiller ropes.

French authorities are completing two aeroplanes adapted for military use, at Cha-lais-Menclon.

Count de la Vaulx has practically finished a new dirigible for sport, to be inflated with coal gas—700 cubic meters, 16 h.p. Anzani motor 4-meter propeller, with a quadrangular frame of pine, much resembling Captain Baldwin's.

An additional "society for dirigibles" has been formed in France. The relations of the National Aeronautical League with the Aero Club of France seem very helpful, the League financing enterprises, creating prizes, holding contests, etc; the Club providing expert management. The League has already offered its first prize, one of 1000 francs.

The "Republique" has been deflated after its remarkable flight of 125 miles in 6 hrs. 30 min. against a wind of eighteen miles, and the "Lebaudy" is being improved and put into commission as a "school-ship."

Santos Dumont, after a long period of inactivity, has ordered a monoplane with a 20-h.p. Antoinette motor.

In view of the new records in mechanical flight, M. Deutsch de la Meurthe, at the urging of Commandant Paul Renard, has founded a $5,000 prize for a flight over the English Channel, open for both aeroplanes and dirigibles carrying M. Renard in addition to the pilot. An aeroplane will have fulfilled these conditions if it lands -anywhere in England, while a dirigible has to reach one of the great military camps.

On the 10th of September, an "Aeroplane Co." was founded in Paris by Delagrange, starting with a capital of $40,000. Suitable grounds have been procured near Versailles and the Voisin type with Antoinette motor is being adopted. Sheds will be erected and Delagrange will teach those who buy machines, how to fly.

DELAGRANGE MAKES TWO NEW RECORDS FOR FOREIGN AVIATORS.

On September 3 Delagrange renewed his experiments, making flights of 1,000 to 1,500 meters with his new 50-60-h.p. Antoinette motor. On the 5th he made 9

minutes 40 seconds for about 10 kilometers. On the 6th he beat his own distance record of 12.75 kilometers (made at Rome in April) and the duration record made by Farman (of 20 minutes ig seconds) by a flight of 24.75 kilometers in 29 minutes 53 seconds. This is official distance. Actual distance traveled, taking into account the turns around the quadrangular course, was greater and figured a speed of 60 kilometers per hour, according to French statements.

On the 7th, in an attempt to fly at home, he made 28 minutes 1 second.

On the 17th of September he beat this again by a flight of 30 minutes 26 seconds.

FARMAN BEATS DELAGRANGE AND MAKES ANOTHER RECORD FOR FOREIGN AVIATORS.

Farman, upon his return from America, has, in his usual systematic way, first procured ideal practising grounds at the sea shore, near the dunes of Boulogne, the other inland on the wide bare plains surrounding the military camp of Chalons. He established himself at the latter place by special permission, and after long preparations flew on the 29th of September continuously for 43 minutes and tried officially to beat the Wright record, but attained only 36 kilometers, thus leaving the 5,000-fr. Aero Club prize in the possession of Wilbur Wright.

Rene Gasnier had on the same day one of the planes of his new machine break in the air and was injured in coming down.

The Malecot aeroplane-dirigible has had many successful trials during the past month. On the 19th of September, it flew over several courses marked out on the ground at Issy by M. Carton, keeping at a height of 130-190 feet. On Sept. 22, it executed a remarkable extended trip, leaving Issy at 8 a.m. and going via Malakoff and Clamart to the aeronautic park at Chalais-Meudon, regaining Issy at 9.45. In view of the trouble so many airships have had with too low center of gravity, the effect of the low-hanging passenger basket under the Malecot, must be most remarkably neutralized by the steadying tendency of the aeroplanes connected with the elongated gas bag. The Malecot displaces 1,000 cubic meters and mounts a 28-h.p. motor driving a 2.60-meter propeller at 1,000

r.p.m. It has a triangular frame, inverted if compared to the usual type, and is very well made.

Melvin Vaniman, the engineer who conducted the Wellman polar airship, has a triplane with curved surfaces 11 meters spread by 2.2 meters, and a total surface of 72 square meters. The propeller is at the rear, driven by a 70-h.p. motor.

Bleriot has resumed trials with his monoplane VIII., which has been somewhat altered. On the 8th of September he made several short flights of a minute. On the following day he made a flight of 40 kilometers an hour against a 10-12-kilometer wind. He did not come up to his 8-minute 24-second flight of July 6. On the 10th he accomplished a short flight at 40 kilometers an hour in a wind of 14 meters a second. On the 12th he had a fall which broke the machine and delayed further trials. He announces his intention of putting a 100-h.p. motor in the new machine.

Ferber made a flight of 230 meters on the 19th, but came to grief in turning. The machine was considerably damaged.

Germany.

The German military dirigible, with four men aboard, made the new world's record for a continuous flight, covering 800 kilometers, on the n-i2th of September, from the drill grounds at Tegel, Berlin, against a wind of eleven meters a second, which at times stopped all headway in spite of both motors working at full power, landing smoothly before its hangar after a voyage of 13 hours 2 minutes.

The "Parseval'' on Tuesday, Sept. 15th, broke its previous records by a continuous flight of 11 hours, with'four men on board, against a wind of 11 meters a second at 1,000 meters altitude. The Parseval III., under construction, will have two motors. Major Parseval is also constructing an ingenious aeroplane.

At the order of the Emperor, who had become interested by these recent records, the "Parseval" and the military dirigible started both for Bornstedter Feld on the 16th of September, where cavalry manoeuvres were then taking place. There was an unusually heavy wind. The military airship managed to reach its destination after

KIMBALL & COLVIN LIGHT GASOLENE MOTORS

45 WEST 34th STREET NEW YORK

LIGHTEST COMMERCIAL MOTOR IN THE WORLD

4 Separate Engines in One, Each under Separate Control.

Daily Demonstrations at Morris Park Race Track.

AERONAUT LEO STEVENS

THE LEADER OF BALLOON

AND AIRSHIP CONSTRUCTION

The keen sportsman

OF WIDE EXPERIENCE

USES A "STEVENS BALLOON."

ALL BALLOONS ABSOLUTE HYDROGEN

AND COAL GAS PROOF

VARNISHING BY

IMPROVED ELECTRICAL PROCESS.

ONE TO FIFTY PASSENGERS

ALSO REPRESENTING CARTON A. LaCHAMBRE, LEADING BALLOON BUILDERS OF

Paris, France.

Special Patented rubber balloon fabric, (German and French.)

THESE FABRICS HAVE BEEN TESTED—NOT IN EXPERIMENTAL STAGE.

MESSRS. A. C. TRIACA AND A. LEO STEVENS ARE READY TO DELIVER AEROPLANES OF THE FARMAN NO. 1 AND DELAGRANGE TYPES AFTER TRIALS OF 1 MILE IN A CIRCLE.

TWO CENT STAMPS FOR REPLY.

BOX 181, MADISON SQUARE, NEW YORK

THE AERONAUTIC SOCIETY

will give an Exhibition and Tournament of all classes of apparatus for aerial navigation on November 3rd, (Election Day.)

A golden opportunity for inventors to bring their inventions before the world and attract capital.

Prizes offered in every contest, including, Gliders, Kites (both man-carrying and small), "Wind-Wagons," Models of all kinds, Flying Machines of every description, etc.

All inventors should enter at once.

Aside from the great opportunity of the Exhibition, the Society offers to assist inventors and experimentors by providing trial grounds, housing sheds, motors, work-shops, and so forth.

Correspond with The Aeronautic Society.

MORRIS PARK RACE TRACK

WESTCHESTER, - - - NEW YORK

2 to 100 h.p. especially designed for aeronautics

Four-Cylinder, 20 Horse-Power, Air-Cooled, Weight 100 lbs., Speed 1800 Revolutions per Minute, Magneto Ignition, Splash Lubrication with Sight Feed and Oil Gauge in Case.

SEND FOR CATALOGUE E.

G. H. CURTISS MANUFACTURING CO., .... Hammondsport, N. Y.

1^. BUMBAUGH

DESIGNER — CONTRACTOR — OPERATOR — CONSTRUCTOR

AIR SHIPS AND BALLOONS

Builder of Coey's "CHICAGO," the largest spherical balloon in the world. Works: Springfield, His. S. 13th and Rutger Sis., St. Louis

No connection with any other concern.

NAVIGATING THE AIR

Bf the members of the aero club of america

•[ An interesting record of the personal ideas and experiences of twenty-four distinguished men. This book is intended to be a summary of the present state of the art.

Among the contributors: Wright Brothers, 0. Chanute, Prof. Wm. H. Pickering, Prof. A. Lawrence Rotch, Prof. T. S. C. Lowe, William J. Hammer, Chas. M. Manly, Prof. David Todd, Dr. Oliver L. Fassig, Dr. A. F. Zahm, A. Leo Stevens, A. M. Herring.

300 PAGES {,m&£S?"d&^^^ $1.25 postpaid

One Year's Subscription and this Book - $3.75

AERONAUTICS, 1777 Broadway, New York.

a long struggle, but found a landing impracticable and went back. The "Parseval" gave evidence that its speed possibilities had never been fathomed before, under the full power of the motor. The frame of the left rear stabilizing plane broke and a piece pierced the envelope. The descent to the grounds of a villa was sufficiently gradual and safe, and thanks to the non-rigid construction, the transporting back on a regulation army wagon was easy.

In the old shed at Manzell, the Zeppelin III. of 1907 is being overhauled, and will be taken to the floating government garage on Lake Constance, from where its flights will begin in the middle of October. It will be provided with the improved steering gear of the Zeppelin IV. The Zeppelin V. will then be laid down in the Manzell shed, while the two improved garages planned for the airships on the newly acquired grounds are expected to be ready next summer. Eight airships will be built, and are expected to be completed by fall of 1909. A remarkably practical plan was put into execution in connection with the overwhelming German propaganda that has yielded a million dollars for Count Zeppelin; teaspoons made of the aluminum of the destroyed ship are sold as souvenirs.

The big, four-propeller, semi-rigid dirigible built by the firm of Siemens & Halske, with the co-operation of Captain Von Krogh, is nearing completion. Its hangar will be at the Doeberitz drill grounds near Berlin. Secrecy is yet maintained as to details.

Count Zeppelin states that within two years his system will have been completely perfected.

The Company for exploiting the returns of the national subscription, was incorporated with a capital of $750,000, for the purpose of airship building. Baron Van Gem-mingen-Guttenberg and Baron Von Bassus have been chosen to eventually succeed Zeppelin in the management.

The Motorluftstudiengesellschaft is occupying itself with an aeroplane invented by Prof. Prandtl of the Goettinge University.

The 2,200-cubic meter varnished balloon Duesseldorf, with Captain Von Abercron and Lieut. Von Goltzheim, burst in the air on a trial trip for the Gordon-Bennett cup.

It formed itself at once into a parachute and the aeronauts escaped.

Holland.

A dirigible is under construction by the government, of which the plans are being kept secret. A Dutch engineer has also built a remarkable light and small helicopter in which the authorities are interested. Italy.

The first ascent, on Sept. 21st, of the new Italian dirigible, mentioned in last issue, was very successful. It displaces 2.500 cubic meters and mounts a Bayard motor of 80 h.p.

Russia.

An experimental dirigible of about 1,500 cubic meters displacement, with two propellers driven by a 16-18-h.p. motor, has been constructed by the military authorities and was recently seen in flight near Zar-skosselsk. A 4,000-cubic meter ship will soon be built.

Switzerland.

The Swiss National League for Aerial Navigation has been founded in emulation of Germany and France. It has headquarters in Geneva and will apply itself''fi'rs't to raising the funds for the completion of_the first Swiss military dirigible now in the course of construction. Details were given in the September number.

THE KIMBALL HELICOPTER.

After the preliminary trials of the Kimball helicopter, which was completed at the grounds of The Aeronautic Society at Morris Park Race Track, New York, it was found that there was not sufficient clearance for the propellers and the inventor is now working rapidly on an entire new framework to contain the propellers. A full description of this unique apparatus was given in the September issue.

AERIAL EXPERIMENT ASS'N.

(Continued from page 17.) We hope sincerely that Mr. Wright will soon recover from the serious injuries he has sustained and continue in conjunction with his brother, Mr. Wilbur Wright, the splendid demonstration to the world of the great possibilities of aerial flight.

EVOLUTION OF THE "TWO-SURFACE" MACHINE

By Octave Chanute

(Continued from September number.)

After experimenting with very many models and building no less than eighteen monoplane flying model machines, actuated by rubber, by compressed air and by steam, Mr. Lawrence Hargrave, of Sydney, New South Wales, invented the cellular kite which bears his name and made it known in a paper contributed to the Chicago Conference on Aerial Navigation in 1893, describing several varieties. The modern construction is well known, and consists of two cells, each of superposed surfaces with vertical side fins, placed one behind the other and connected by a rod or frame. This flies with great steadiness without a tail. Mr. Hargrave's idea was to use a team of these kites, below which he proposed to suspend a motor and propeller from which a line would be carried to an anchor in the ground. Then by actuating the propeller the whole apparatus would move forward, pick up the anchor and fly away. He said: "The next step is clear enough, namely, that a flying machine with acres of surface can be safely got under way or anchored and hauled to the ground by means of the string of kites."

The first tentative experiments did not result well and emphasized the necessity for a light motor, so that Mr. Hargrave has since been engaged in developng one, not having convenient access to those which have been produced by the automobile designers and builders.

And here a curious reminiscence may be indulged in. In 1888 the present writer experimented with a two-cell gliding model, precisely similar to a Hargrave kite, as will be confirmed by Mr. Herring. It was frequently tested by launching from the top of a three-story house and glided downward very steadily in all sorts of breezes, but the angle of descent was much steeper than that of the birds, and the weight sustained per square foot was less than with single cells, in consequence of the lesser support afforded by the rear cell, which operated upon air already set in motion downward by the front cell; so nothing more was done with it. for it never occurred to the writer to try it as a kite and he thus missed the distinction which attaches to Hargrave's name.

Sir Hiram Maxim also introduced fore and aft superposed surfaces in his wondrous flying machine of 1893, but he relied chiefly for the lift upon his main large surface and this necessitated so many guys, to prevent distortion, as greatly to increase the head resistance and this, together with the unstable equilibrium, mad^ it evident >|iai.the design of the machine would have to be changed.

In 1895, Otto Lilienthal. the father of modern aviation, the man to whose method of experimenting almost all" present successes are due, after making something like two thousand glides with monoplanes, added a superposed surface to his apparatus and found the control of it much improved. The two surfaces were kept apart by two struts or vertical posts with a few guy wires, but the connecting joints were weak and there was nothing like trussing. This eventually cost his most useful life. Two weeks before that distressing loss to science, Herr Wilhelm Kress, the distinguished and veteran aviator of Vienna, witnessed a number of glides by Lilienthal with his double-decked apparatus. He noticed that it was much wracked and wobbly and wrote to me after the accident: "The connection of the wings and the steering arrangement were very bad and unreliable. I warned Herr Lilienthal very seriously. He promised me that he would soon put it in order, but I fear that he did not attend to it immediately."

In point of fact, Lilienthal had built a new machine, upon a different principle, from which he expected great results, and intended to make but very few more flights with the old apparatus. He unwisely made one too many and, like Pilcher, was the victim of a distorted apparatus. Probably one of the joints of the struts gave way, the upper surface blew back and Lilienthal, who was well forward on the lower surface, Was pitched head long to destruction.

In 1896, assisted by Mr. Herring and Mr. Avery, I experimented with several full sized gliding machines, carrying a man. The first was a Lilienthal monoplane, which was deemed so cranky that it was discarded after making about one hundred glides, six weeks before Lilienthal's accident. The second was known as the multiple winged machine and finally developed into five pairs of pivoted wings, trussed together at the front and one pair in the rear. It glided at angles of descent of 10 or 11 degrees or ■ of one in five, and this was deemed too steep. Then Mr. Herring and myself made J computations to analyze the resistances. We attributed much of them to the five front \ spars of the wings and on a sheet of cross-barred paper I at once drew the design for I a new three-decked machine to be built by Mr. Herring.

Being a builder of bridges, I trussed these surfaces together, in order to obtain strength and stiffness. When tested in gliding flight the lower surface was found too near the ground. It was taken off and the remaining apparatus now consisted of two surfaces connected together by a girder composed of vertical posts and diagonal ties, specifically known as a "Pratt truss." Then Mr. Herring and Mr. Avery together devised and put, on an elastic attachment to the tail. This machine proved a success, it being safe and manageable. Over 700 glides were made with it at angles of descent of 8 to 10 degrees or one in six to one in seven.

The elastic tail attachment and the trussing of the connecting frame of the superposed wings were the only novelties in this machine, for the superposing of the surfaces had first been proposed by Wenham, but in accordance with the popular perception, which bestows all the credit upon the man who adds the last touch making for success to the labors of his predecessors, the machine has since been known by many persons as the Chanute type of gliders, much to my personal gratification.

It has since been improved in many ways. Wright Brothers, disregarding the fashion .which prevails among birds, have placed the tail in front of their apparatus and called it a front rudder, besides placing the operator in horizontal position instead of upright, as I did; and also providing a method of warping the wings to preserve equilibrium. Farman and Delagrange, under the very able guidance and constructive work of Voisin brothers, have substituted many details, including a box tail for the dart-like tail which I used. This may have increased the resistance, but it adds to the steadiness. Now the tendency in France seems to be to go back to the monoplane.

The advocates of the single supporting surface are probably mistaken. It is true that a single surface shows a greater lift per square foot than superposed surfaces for a given speed, but the increased weight due to leverage more than counterbalances this advantage by requiring heavy spars and some guys. I believe that the future aeroplane dynamic flier will consist of superposed surfaces, and, now that it has been found that by imbedding suitably shaped spars in the cloth the head resistance may be much diminished, I see few objections to superposing three, four or even five surfaces properly trussed, and thus obtaining a compact, handy, manageable and comparatively light apparatus.

REPORT UPON FRENCH MOTORS. By W. Rupert Turnbull.

R. M. S. Empress of India, June 30, 1908.—I am just returning from a trip in Europe, where I saw and heard much of interest in aeronautic matters. In accordance with my promise of last October I will try to give you a few notes on French aeronautic engines.

I had an interesting talk with Farman, and he told me that he did not use any radiator with his water-cooled "Antoinette," but simply carried a small quantity of water in water-jackets, etc., and allowed this to boil away, thus his runs were necessarily short.

He is not finishing his "flying-fish" at present, simply because there is no really satisfactory engine on the French market. Apparently all the French motors (particularly, the air-cooled ones) give their rated horse power only for about 10 minutes, and then the horse power rapidly falls off as the engine overheats.

I did not investigate the "Renault" engine, but I do not think Farman found it as satisfactory as the "Antoinette."

Farman seems to think that the "Pelterie" is the best of the air-cooled engines, arid certainly the principle, as far as cooling goes, is rather pretty, but I visited the factory and it struck me that the engine was too complicated and delicate.

The "Farcot" engine (from the catalogue) is something like the "Renault," but I doubt if Farcot has the capital or facilities for making the engine he advertises, and I do not think it would be safe to order from him.

In my opinion the best aeronautic engine I saw was the Duteil and Chalmers (81 Ave. dTtalie, Paris). They have patented a system of cooling, which seems to me promising. Their copper-jackets surround the cylinders, and the gasoline vapor (on its way to the combustion chamber) is passed through these, and thus keeps the cylinders cool enough. They also make air-cooled cylinders, but seem more ready to give a guarantee on the vapor-cooled type. My only objection to their engines is that they only have two cylinders (opposed), but the makers claim the engines are perfectly balanced and run without vibration.

If you decide to order any French engines, of any make, I would strongly advise that they be made on a strict contract, requiring a certain guaranteed brake horse power delivered continuously for not less than half an hour, and at a certain weight, including all accessories.

(From the Bulletins of the Aerial Experiment Association; by permission.)

INTERNATIONAL AERONAUTICAL CONGRESS.

President: Professor Willis L. Moore.

Secretary: Dr. Albert Francis Zahm. Chairman Gen'l Committee: Wm. J. Hammer. Chairman Executive Com.: Augustus Post. Sec'y Committees: Ernest La Rue Jones.

Publication Notice.

The addresses, papers and discussions presented to the Congress will be published serially in this magazine, and at the earliest date possible, bound volumes will be distributed without charge to those holding membership cards in the Congress. Others may purchase the volume at a consistent price when ready or may take advantage of immediate publication by subscribing to this magazine at the regular rate.

In accordance with the program as published in the November number, the informal addresses of the Gordon Bennett contestants and others were concluded before entering upon the printing of the formal papers and discussions.

The sixteenth paper is begun in this issue: "Principles involved in the Formation of Wing Surfaces and the Phenomenon of Soaring," by Professor J. J. Montgomery, of Santa Clara College.

PRINCIPLES INVOLVED IN THE FORMATION OF WING SURFACES AND THE PHENOMENON OF SOARING By Prof. J. J. Montgomery

Although the subject of flight has been a constant and universal study, we find that some of the phenomena are still involved in mystery, while many others present only unexplained anomalies. This of itself would suggest the question: have the fundamental principles or laws been formulated ?

From what I have gleaned from the writings of the various students, I believe they have not, and this, for the reason, that because of the apparent simplicity of the phenomena we are tempted to take too much for granted and have been misguided in our trend of thought. My own studies and investigations have forced me to the conclusion, that in flight we have a special and unique phenomenon, which for its comprehension, requires something more than the simple suggestions offered by the study of surfaces acted upon by the moving air, just as the action of the gyroscope presents special phenomena which are in advance of our first ideas of rotation.

Having this view of the subject, I am forced to present it in its entirety, as I have been unable to find any researches of others, to which I could add mine as an amplification, and while brevity forbids that I should enter into the many points involved, I desire to make use of such as seem to constitute a direct and complete line of demonstration using some well known phenomena and principles, developing them in the lines peculiar to this problem.

At the Aeronautical Congress of 1893, in Chicago, it was my privilege to call attention to some phenomena that I had noted. The most significant of which is this: A current of air approaching an inclined surface is deflected far in advance

of the surface, and approaching it in a gradually increased curve, reaches it at a very abrupt angle. This phenomenon is the basis of the observations and studies that I desire to present to your Congress.

In the idea of deriving support by moving an inclined plane through thte air, the first conception is, the reaction of a mass meeting or impinging upon an inclined surface, in consequence of which, the surface and the mass are forced in opposite directions. This idea would be complete and the resulting phenomena simple and reducible to well known formulae if the mass acting on the surface were a solid; but in the present case this is far from being so, as the mass is an almost perfect fluid, and the resulting phenomena are varied and complicated accordingly. The particles of air coming in contact with the surface are deflected as a solid mass would be, but in being driven from their course, they are forced against other exterior particles, which while deflecting the course of the first particles are themselves disturbed.

The questions presented by these considerations are: first, What is the nature of the movements of the particles due to these deflections and disturbances? Second: What form of surface is best suited for producing the original deflection, and then meeting the new conditions arising from the disturbance in the surrounding air, and third: What is the mechanical effect of the particles thus disturbed or thrown into motion. In the study of the first two questions, observation of the movements of a fluid, is the safest guide. For this observation we may use a gas or a liquid, as both being fluid, show the same phenomena and reveal the same laws; the only important difference being, that owing to the limited viscosity of a gas, its movements are more perfect and rapid than those of a liquid, whose viscosity hinders the perfectly free movement of the particles. But owing to the ease with which the experiments may be performed and the movements detected, the use of a liquid offers many advantages. For the purpose of study, I used a broad sheet of water (preferably distilled, as a slight surface tension in ordinary water prevents certain delicate movements being revealed) which by suitable means can be set in motion, giving a perfectly even stream, whose velocity is regulated at will, to make manifest the various phenomena.

The first phenomena to be noted is when the water is at rest. If a tube be placed close to and parallel with the surface, and a quick blast of air is forced through it, two opposite whirls are formed, which advance over the surface as they increase in size, fig. I. These are made manifest by very light chaff sprinkled on the surface. In passing, I may note the difference between the

,3

^4

--->

t

7.2 c .

action in water and in air. If a similar puff be made in air, by which vortex rings are produced, we notice that the elements of rotation, forming a section of the ring are much smaller and more rapid than these rotations shown in water.

But if a small flat surface be placed in the water and a steady jet forced through the tube, fig. 2, two whirls are produced and maintained in front of the surface and two in the rear, while some of the rotating elements of thos"e in the rear, conflict and then blend to form a stream "c."

If the surface be placed at a small angle to the jet, as in fig. 3, there is a breaking up of the system of rotations; but that corresponding to 2 (fig. 2),

is developed and predominates. The impulse sent from this jet over the surface, simply reveals the tendency to rotation, when a stream impinges upon a surface. This tendency may or may not appear as an actual rotation according to cir-

A <-—*/

cumstances, as the following will show. If a plane be placed in shallow water, its lower edge resting on the bottom, and moved gently in a direction perpendicular to its surface, then stopped; four rotations corresponding to those of fig. i, will appear, which move away in the directions "c," fig. 4. Again, if this plane be moved at an angle (about 450 seems best) fig. 5, and then stopped, the two rotations corresponding to 1 and 4 (figs. 2 and 4) will have disappeared and those corresponding to 2 and 3 will remain. It will be noted that these two have the same direction of rotation; while at the same time, there is an incipient rotation in the water, as indicated by the small arrows "d."

If at the very instant of stoppage, the plane be quickly lifted from the water, the two rotations, 2 and 3, will immediately blend and form one large rotation, as shown in fig. 6.

From these experiments, we see that a surface moving a fluid has a tendency to build up rotations, which under certain circumstances will blend into one. this being retrograde, as shown in the last experiment, with the ascending element of rotation in advance of the surface. Further tests in moving water will reveal this more completely (with other interesting phenomena applicable to questions of equilibrium).

i?--"t ' 1

A surface "a," fig. 7, is placed in a gentle stream "S" ; and immediately whirls will be noted in its rear, which on examination, are seen to have a syncronous movement, whose time is dependent on the velocity of the stream, and the size of the surface. At one instant the whirl "1" is developed so as to

occupy the whole space, while the whirl '2' is suppressed to a minimum. At this instant No. '1' moves in the direction "c," while No. '2' develops, and another No. '1' exists as a miniature, as shown in "b." Between these alternately escaping whirls there is a wave line, shown at "d," suggestive of the waving of a flag, (the latter phenomenon being probably due to the existance of such whirls) ; while at the same time, on the surface of the water in front of the plane, delicate lines appear, which swing from side to side with the movements of the whirls in the rear. These lines are not ordinary wave lines, but sharp distinct lines of division between the movements, etc., of the fluid immediately related to or influenced by the deflecting surface, and the rest of the fluid mass approaching it, while the whirls in the rear indicate a similar division. These and other phenomena, indicate, that, though there is a general movement in the fluid, produced by a deflecting surface, there is a distinction between that immediately related to the surface and that which is further removed.

When this plane is placed at an angle with the stream, fig. 8, the whirls continue to appear and alternately escape; No. '1,' being more pronounced and powerful than No. "2," while the stream, at "c," rises in front of the plane, and that, at "d," descends. If the planes in these two tests arc pivoted, so as to be capable of a free movement, they take up a slight swinging or rocking motion, responsive to the movements of the whirls. This movement is much more pronounced if similar tests be made by moving corresponding surfaces'through the air.

Up to this point we have seen enough to indicate, 1st; that an impulse in a fluid, tends to set up a series of rotations; 2nd ; that a surface inclined to the impulse tends to suppress some of these rotations while augumenting others, and finally to blend all into one. An analysis of these points must be omitted for brevity sake. However, this element of rotation will appear again in speaking of the proper form and adjustment of surfaces.

In determining the proper form of surface, the first suggestions are derived from the conception of a body projected in a straight line, but deflected from its course by a constant force acting at right angles; as a mass projected horizontally and pulled clown by gravity, thus describing a semi-parabola, according to the well known laws.

In fig. 9, let "a b" represent the direction and distance a mass, projected horizontally, would pass in two instants of time, "a e'' and "e b" representing equal times. But under the action of gravity, the mass will describe the curve "a h d." Drop the perpendicular "e h" to the curve, then the point "h" will mark its position at the end of the first instant; while "d" is its position at the end of the second. (Then as the work performed by gravity during the two periods of time is equal, that, performed on "a h," equals that on "h d.") But as the converse of this is true ; if "a h d" be a curve, and a mass be driven along its surface by a force "f,'' parallel with "a b," its reaction against the curve, will exert pressures perpendicular to "a b," which are equal on the two branches "a h" and "h d." While this idea affords an elementary conception, we find it does not fully satisfy the requirements of a moving fluid mass, and applies only to those particles in contact with the surface. Hence we must look to some other analysis for a full conception.

(Continued in the November number.)

Aviators are cautioned to look out for a dangerous air current over the Hackensack Meadows nearest the river. Several have had trying experiences just north of the plank road.

Helicopters have now been excluded from Central Park and those devoted to this type of machine are bringing pressure to bear on the Park Commission to restrict this discrimination.

THE EXACT DISTANCE TRAVELLED BY A BALLOON.

By Williams Welch, War Department.

Distances measured on a good map, which is made on what is called a "polyconic projection," are very close when they are near the center of the map and are short and run north and south or east and west; but there is considerable distortion near the corners of the map, and long distances measured diagonally across the map are slightly too great.

In computing distances by spherical trigonometry (as explained in "Aeronautics," July, 1908, page 38), there are some difficulties in being precise. The earth is not a true sphere, and the degrees of great circles on its surface vary in length; therefore, it is necessary in that computation to arbitrarily assume a true sphere whose circumference is equal to the mean circumference of the earth or whose surface is equal to the surface of the earth. This value is exact only at a latitude of 480 15', and varies slightly elsewhere.

The computations can be made exactly upon the spheroid; but it is useless to try to make them closer than the data upon which they are based, which is latitude and longitude. In the very best work latitude can be measured astronomically to within about to feet, but the earth wobbles 30 or 40 feet, and makes the measurements a little uncertain. Longitude cannot be measured astronomically much closer than about 25 feet. Ordinarily the errors are many times greater. Mr. Hayford, the Chief of the Computing Division of the Coast and Geodetic Survey, is of the opinion that computed distances do not differ more than one mile in 300 from the actual distances which would be ascertained if it were possible to measure them accurately in a straight line on the surface of the ground at sea level.

The greatest uncertainty is in finding exactly where a balloon lands. If aeronauts on landing would always give the (a) nearest post office, (b) county, (c) distance and direction from the nearest towns, (d) exact measured distance and direction to the nearest railroad, road, steam, shore line or other well-defined topographic features, which usually appear on maps, their place of landing might be determined very closely.

In the International Race last summer the "Pommern" happened to land in a town. There were excellent maps of both St. Louis and the town of Bradley Beach, where it landed, and the distance between the two places had been determined exactly by triangulation; so that distance was obtained exactly by triangulation; so that distance was obtained very closely. A map was sent to the postmaster and he marked the spot in the square where it landed.

The actual distance travelled can be obtained by plotting the course of the balloon on a large map and measuring it very carefully. The aeronaut's log and reports from the towns he passes enable this to be done. As a balloon usually travels at almost a uniform rate and in nearly a straight line after it gets up high, errors in time or place are readily detected.

GORDON BENNETT BALLOON RACE

As we go to press,, it is reported that the three American entries have lost. One, the balloon "Conquerer," burst at a height of 4,000 feet and the "St. Louis" landed in the Baltic Sea. Several other balloons landed in the water and a Spanish balloon burst at a height of 6,000 feet.

The American entries were: J. C. McCoy in the balloon "American II-.", N. H. Arnold in the balloon "St. Louis" and A. Holland Forbes in the balloon "Conquerer."

The balloon "Conquerer" struck the fence in leaving the ground. It then ascended rapidly to a height of 4,000 feet, at which point it was seen to rip open. It quickly "parachuted" and came to earth safely about two miles away from the start.

A significant remark is reported to have been made by Augustus Post, Secretary of the Aero Club of America, who accompanied Mr. Forbes: "It has come." which suggests that Mr. Post had a premonition of an accident through some arrangements made by Mr. Forbes with respect to the balloon, objected to by Mr. Post.

•The balloon "Conquerer" was built by A. Leo Stevens and has made but three flights, all of which were perfect in every particular. The system mentioned on pages 31 and 32 of the last issue as planned by Stevens to be used by Mr. Forbes in this race was not used. Mr. Forbes changed his mind about ten days before sailing and employed a system of his own.

Mr. Stevens attributes the accident to the fact that "the appendix probably became fastened is some way; and also that Mr. Forbes tried to leave the ground too heavy. On

striking the fence, too much sand was thrown out which caused the balloon to ascend to a great altitude too quickly, the gas expanding in an instant. The appendix of this balloon was 48 inches in diameter while the arrrangement to which Mr. Forbes had attached the appendix was only 2.y2 inches in diameter, not allowing the gas to pass freely. It is most important that every balloon should be untied at the appendix prior to the balloon's leaving the ground, as expansion occurs so rapidly that one has little time to untie same. The balloon had been revarnished just before the race and was in excellent shape prior to leaving America." Mr. Stevens has at least 20 balloons in use in different parts of this country and this is the first accident of its kind that has ever occurred to a Stevens balloon.

A complete record of the big race, in which 23 balloons competed, will be given in the succeeding issue.

HIGH EXPLOSIVES AS POWER FOR FLYING MACHINES.

Professor Carl Barus, of Brown University, considers the possibility of the employment of high explosives in flying machines in a recent issue of Science. He thinks that though motors have been built strong and light enough to propel an aeroplane yet the required excess of power has not yet been reached. He remarks:

"The fact that a machine of the aeroplane type built entirely of metal and canvas may be made to fly by the power of an ordinary steam-engine judiciously constructed was practically demonstrated some time ago by S. P. Langley. More would, therefore, be expected from the gas-engine, if constructed with equal forethought. I have always had some misgivings, however, as to whether these experiments, into which so much devoted labor was put actually met the real issue involved. It seemed to me that they proved that the power available in case of the ordinary engine is just about sufficient to maintain flight and no more; whereas a really practical machine should be provided with a motor whose output of work per second and per kilogram of weight could be made enormously to exceed the demands upon it, under conditions of smooth soaring.

"If one is in search of a maximum of power combined with a minimum of weight, one involuntarily looks to some form of modern explosive and in particular to those which can be worked up into wicks or ribbons. These could be adapted for use in connection with the rocket principle which has so frequently stimulated the imagination of inventors, in a way to require the least amount of subsidiary mechanism. In fact, such expansion is virtually its own propeller. The only question is, how can this quite prohibitively excessive power be controlled? In other words, how may the enormous per-second expenditure of energy be reduced in any desirable amount at will, and compatible with safety and the need of the operator?

"Now it occurred to me that in case of the nitrogen explosives there may be a method of obtaining a continuity of power values within safe limits from insignificant amounts up to the highest admissible, by using some appropriate method of very cold storage. It is well known that at sufficiently low temperatures phosphorus and oxygen cease to react on each other, that fluorin is indifferent to hydrogen, etc. Is it not, therefore, probable that an explosive tendency will be toned down as temperature decreases; or that a molecular grouping which is all but unstable at ordinary temperatures will become stable at a temperature sufficiently low and proportionately stable at intermediate temperatures? This is then the experiment which I would like to see tried, the endeavor to get a gradation of power values ending in prohibitively large maximum, by the cold storage of explosives. If it succeeds, it seems to me that a motor yielding per pound weight not only all the power needed in the flying-machine under any emergency will be forthcoming, but that large amounts of the inevitably dangerous source of such power may be taken aboard for use en route. The lower temperature of the upper air would here itself be an assistance."

Adjoining the grounds of The Aeronautic Society is Woodmansten Tnn, a famous roadhouse. W. R. Kimball stored his helicopter in the Inn's shed temporarily with disastrous results for the proprietor, Mr. Beiswenger. As soon as the chef had prepared his orders, he would rush out to see the flying machine. Not a waiter could be found in the dining room when automobilists rode up. All were out at the shed. There was nothing doing in the eat and drink line till a couple of men were fired.

"Please take notice that this is the second notice to discontinue my subscription for a period. Because lack of enthusiasm and interest by capitalists and aero clubs."

John C. Reckweg.

CLUB NOTES.

Aero Club of America.

A large number of enthusiastic members of the Club were present on the morning of Sept. 24th, on the steamer Deutschland, to give their champions in the Gordon Bennett, '08, a hearty send off. Those of the team who sailed were Mr. A. Holland Forbes, Pilot of the balloon Conqueror, and his aid, Mr. Augustus Post, Secretary of the Club; Mr. Nason Henry Arnold, Pilot of the balloon "St. Louis," and his aid, Mr. Harry J. Hewat. On Saturday, October 10th, the day before the great race, the Aero Club of America cabled its representatives its final best wishes for success. Each pilot carried with him a Club flag to fly from his balloon.

The sympathies of the Club were wired the parents of Lieutenant Selfridge, and a committee was appointed to represent the Club at the Lieutenant's funeral, consisting of A. F. Zahm, Alexander Graham Bell, William J. Hammer, Geo. Oakley Totten, Jr., and Gutzon Borglum. A large flora! piece was sent by the Club. The sympathies of the Club and offer to assist in any way possible were also sent to Orville Wright.

The following names have been proposed for membership: H. Fahrman, Alfred Wagstaff, Jr., Harry J. Hewat, Emerson Raffe and Lewis P. Strang.

Aero Club for Hartford.

Charles J. Glidden has just founded an aero club in Hartford, Conn., at the first meeting of which A. Leo Stevens, the balloon builder, was present. The new club is composed of prominent business and manufacturing men of Hartford, and the president is Hiram Percy Maxim, the inventor of the noiseless gun and son of Sir Hiram Maxim of England, whose wonderful flying machine of years ago will be remembered by those interested in the art. Hiram Percy Maxim has been a member of the Aero Club of America almost since its inception.

Aero Club of Denver.

A new aero club is now being formed in Denver, Colo., to be called the Aero Club

of Denver. A large and influential membership is being enrolled, and it is anticipated that within a week or so the Club will be organized and will then elect its directors and other officers.

The Club has secured the right to use Overland Park, a magnificent sight, for trials and as a starting place for ascensions.

Though the main object of the Club is to encourage aeronautics generally, special endeavors will be made in regard to heavier-than-air machines.

It is the intention of the Club to purchase a balloon so that its members may learn to appreciate the charms of that sport. At the same time an aeroplane-helicopter is to be built by the Club according to the designs of one of its members.

The organizers of the Club are Mr. John M. Cage, the inventor of the Cage Submarine Boat, and Mr. H. N. Spicer.

The Aeronautic Society.

During September a catapult, similar to that used by the Wright Brothers in launching their power machine, has been erected in the in-field of the Morris Park race track for the launching of gliders. By this means, exact data can be secured. The propelling force can be definitely measured and is invariable. This known, the changes in the machine can be considered as advantageous or otherwise by the direct results secured.

Thirty new members have been admitted to membership and several will be acted upon at the next meeting. Meetings are regularly held every Wednesday evening at the club house on the grounds.

There are two full-sized machines at the grounds—the helicopter, of Wilbur R. Kimball, and the monoplane of C. W. Williams. After several trials in running the propellers on the Kimball machine, a new framework containing same is being built which will give more clearance for the screws. The engine has been working beautifully. The Williams monoplane is nearly ready for trial.

One enthusiastic new member is erecting a machine shop for personal use which he

will donate to the Society after the completion of a pretentious machine which an experienced engineer is to build for him. Details are not available at the present time. In addition to this machine, during October several others will be started.

The roofs of two of the sheds are now being repaired and the sheds will be enclosed to securely house the machines for the Winter while work is being done on them.

All efforts of the members are now being devoted to the various numbers of the exhibition to be held Election Day, Nov. 3.

EXHIBITION.

Arrangements have been completed with the Federation of American Motorcyclists Meet Club to hold their three National championship races under the auspices of The Aeronautic Society in connection with their exhibition and tournament on Election Day. There will be three races of 1, s and 10 miles, respectively, for the championship of the United States. Valuable gold prizes are offered and the contestants will consist of the best riders in the country, the president, Earle L. Oving-ton, asserting that every mile will be covered in less than a minute.

There is expected to be not less than six full, sized apparati present on the day of the exhibition. In the meantime it is expected that two of these will be making successful flights.

To insure the success of this feature, or number, of the program, the Aerial Experiment Association has been asked to exhibit the June Bug and the Silver Dart in actual flight over ,the large course. The consent of the members of this Association depends upon Dr. A. Graham Bell's acquiescence. It is hoped that this consent will come soon, as it will insure a field day for Mr. Curtiss, who is to contest in the motorcycle races, and is desirous of fl}dng in one of the other aeroplanes. Mr. McCurdy would probably fly the other.

There will also be a division for wind-wagons. Prof. W. H. Pickering, of Harvard University, has kindly offered and presented the Society with his historic man-propelled wind-wagon. Dr. J. P. Thomas has entered his wind-wagon in the contest.

Renault Freres agrees to fit up a chassis with propellers, and other auto manufacturers will be represented. This contrast cannot well be divided into classes, obviously. The speed attained by each machine will be considered in selecting the winner, with relation to the horsepower used, the friction with the ground, the weight, size and pitch of propellers, etc.

CHANUTE PRIZE.

For the gliding contests Mr. Octave Chanute has honored the Society by offering two valuable prizes, first and second, for the longest glide. Four members of the Society are now building gliders to take part. These will all be launched from the catapult.

A series of kite flights will be held, both man-carrying and other. A number of entries have already been received for this division. There is also promised a sort of "kite game," played by the Chinese, in which each kite is equipped with a sharp knife, and the object of the contest is to cut the other fellow's string.

Prizes will also be offered for the best photographs taken from kites or balloons.

Power and non-power models will enter into competition, classed according to weight, size, power, etc., along the lines of the rules adopted at the very successful model competition of the Aeronautique Club de France held tin".-, Spring. At this, Mich well-known men as M. Archdeacon gave prizes and judged the contests.

In endeavoring to show all phases of travel by air, a historical exhibition will be made of hot-air ascents, with parachute drops. These will be for a prize offered by A. Leo Stevens.

An interesting feature, which illustrates the development of the explosive motor, will be the demonstration made of the Thomas New York-Paris car by its famous driver, George Schuster. It will be remembered that the Thomas car won the long race and circled the globe in its journey.

Mr. William J. Hammer is now in Washington making arrangements for the United States Weather Bureau to give a demonstration of by sending up sounding balloons and kites, of their methods of obtaining meteorological data for weather forecasting.

. ■ , DIRIGIBLES.

There will be hung up a $i,ooo prize for a 5-mile dirigible contest. Two owners have • already given their consent to take part, and the entries are still open for this most interesting feature.

If the plans of the Society are carried out, th,^; event will prove a wonderful stimulus to the Art. It will enable the public in the vicinity of New York to see the flights about which they have been reading. It will giye a general view of the. subject and show the great amount of effort being put on;lj,t by serious-minded inventors. The exhibition of motors,, bearings, castings, metal tubing, magnetos and all material which enters into, the construction of apparatus designed for aerial locomotion, will have an educational effect upon the large number, of people who are expected to be present.

The event will afford opportunity alike for the manufacturer of light motors and other items applicable and for the inventor who is so anxious to have those likely to become interested in his idea see a tangible illustration. The successful flight of small models should be of immense value to their owners.

The Society is anxious to hear from any one who may have any kind of apparatus, gliders, models, kites, and so forth, or other material, in any way relating to aerial locomotion. Communications should be addressed to the secretary, Morris Park Race Track, Westchester, New York City.

No such extensive plans have ever been laid by any organization for an exhibition and no exhibition has ever taken place covering such a large field. If a success, the affair certainly will be of advantage to the Art. It ought to be a success.

A banquet will be given on Election Day at Woodmansten Inn, across the track from the club house.

Aero Club of New England.

The annual meeting and banquet of the Club will be held Nov. 21st, the 125th anniversary of the first ascension of man in a balloon; time and place to be announced.

The Membership Committee will meet previous to the meeting to act upon applications. Friends of members desiring to

join the Club should send in their applications at once, as it is intended to limit the membership.

Members are requested to write to the Secretary stating the number of ascensions made to date, that they may be recorded and published in the Club's Annual. The following form can be used in reporting ascensions in the past and future:

Ascension No.....................

Date .............................

Balloon ..........................

From ............................

To ..............................

Time up ........................

Time down .....................

Time in air.......................

Miles ............................

Air line ..........................

Altitude ..........................

Passengers .......................

Pilot .............................

The Club's balloon, "Boston," has made 15 ascensions and is in excellent condition. It is now located at Springfield.

The Committee on Balloons. Parks and Ascensions has designated Pittsfield and North Adams as suitable places for ascensions in balloons of 50,000 cubic feet capacity; Springfield for the "Boston" of 35.000 cubic feet capacity and Fitchburg for one of 20,000 cubic feet capacity; while excellent facilities are also offered at Nashua and Lowell.

The Committee anticipates that the demand for ascensions will necessitate the purchase of two balloons, one of 50,000 cubic feet to be called the "New England" and one of 20,000 cubic feet to be called the "Fitchburg." The cost of leaving the ground in the balloons would be as follows:

(Exclusive of cost of using balloon.)

"Fitchburg," two persons.............$18.00

"Boston," three persons..............$31-50

"Ne\v England," four persons........ 45-00

To increase the interest in aerial navigation a half dozen members should qualify as pilots to be ready to take members into the air in 1909.

The Modern Version—If at first you don't succeed, fly, fly again.—G. H. Kerr.

CAPTAIN THOMAS S. BALDWIN

NEW YORK'S LEADING MANUFACTURER

BALLOON

AND AIRSHIP

PILOT AND

MANUFACTURER

BALDWIN'S VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL

Used in the U. S. Gov. Dirigible and Spherical Balloons

will last from five to six times as long as a varnished balloon. The weight is always the same, as it does not require further treatment. Heat and cold have no effect on it, and ascensions can be made as well at zero weather as in the summer time. The chemical action of oxygen has not the same detrimental effect on it as it has on a varnished material. Silk double walled VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL, has ten times the strength of varnished material. A man can take care of his PROOF balloon, as it requires little or no care, and is NOT subject to spontaneous combustion. Breaking strain 100 lbs. per inch width. Very elastic. Any weight, width, or color. Will not crack. Waterproof. No talcum powder. No revaruishing. The coming balloon material, and which through its superior qualities, and being an absolute gas holder is bound to take the place of varnished material. The man that wants to have the up-to-date balloon, must use VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL. Specified by the U. S. SIGNAL CORPS.

Prices and samples on application

Box 78 Madison Square P. O.

NEW YORK.

MECHANICAL ENGINEER of wide practical and theoretical experience, desires partner or the assistance of capital to build a flying machine of great merit—automatic balancing, greater lifting capacity per square foot, all metal-construction. Investigation invited. Principals only. References necessary.

O. H. c/o Aeronautics.

A TEXT-BOOK OF AERIAL ENGINEERING

TIMELY BOOK

THE PROBLEM OF FLIGHT,

By HERBERT CHATLEY, B.Sc. (Engineering), LONDON Lecture in Applied Mechanics, Portsmouth Technical Institute SIXTY-ONE ILLUSTRATIONS OCTAVO CLOTH, $3.50 NET

The author takes advantage of the encouraging outlook for a practical solution to the problem of aerial navigation and in this work submits to the engineering profession an epitome of the knowledge at present available on the subject.

While intende I especially for the engineering profession, the book should be of value to any one interested in a topic that is receiving so much studv and attention at the present time.

OUTLINE OP CONTENTS—The Problem of Plight, Essential Principals, The Helix, The Aeroplane, Avlplanes, Dirigible Balloons, Form and Fittings of the Airship.

An appendix furnishes much instructive miscellaneous information.

AERONAUTICS

H. S. ORR

OFFICIAL PHOTOGRAPHER OF " AERONAUTICS " and THE NORTH ADAMS AERO CLUB

Photographs of all Ascensions at Pittsfield and North Adams

POSTCARDS lO CENTS Box 501. North Adams, Mass. For Sale also at "Aeronautics"

No collection is complete without

BALLOONING AS A SPORT

By Major B. Baden Powell President of the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain

A hand-book of ballooning; a guide for the amateur

PRICE $1.10 AEIRONAUTIOS

THE NATIONAL HILITARY WEEKLY $3.00 a year

General James A. Drain, Editor

11 ARMS AND THE MAN serves every arm of the service in both the Army, the Navy, the Marine Corps and the National Guard. Its columns are open for all military aeronautical discussions, in connection with the work of the Signal Corps.

ISOa 11 Street, 1ST. W. - Washington, I). C.

AERONAUTICS

Issued in conjunction with or separate from "Knowledge & Illustrated Scientific News"

Devoted to aerostation, aviation, meteorology, aerology, etc. Edited by Major B. Baden-Powell and John H. Ledeboer

ISSUED MONTHLY

SUBSCRIPTIONS: " Knowledge" including Aeronautics - - - $1.90

"Aeronautics" alone - .75

Special rate lor 5 years ------ 6.25

27 CHANCERY LANE, LONDON, W. C, ENGLAND.

ARMS AND {©) THE MAN

Wanted, a motor. C. A. Mcllvaine, c/o Chief Engineer, Culebra, Canal Zone, desires to purchase a new or second-hand motor of 15-40 h. p.

ASCENSIONS.

Aug. 22. Unrecorded last month. William F. Whitehouse, Norman Whitehouse and Sumner K. Gerard and William Baldwin left St. Cloud at 10 a.m.. landing at the German frontier at 2 o'clock. Rained most of the time. Started with six bags and landed with none. Mr. Whitehouse reports: "Broke some railroad telegraph wires at a place called Rethel, so went on further, as the officials seemed excited." Naturally. Greatest altitude, 7000 feet.

Sept. 2. William Van Sleet, Oscar S. Hutchinson and Frank Smith left Pittsfield at 10.30 a.m. and landed at South Deerfield, Mass., at 2 p.m. Distance, about 30 miles, and highest altitude, 9,000 feet.

Sept. 2. Lieut. Frank P. Lahm, Lieut. Foulois and Lieut. T. Selfridge left Fort Myer in the Signal Corps, No. 12, at 8.30 a.m., landing 4 hours 30 minutes later at Pocomoke, Va., a trip of 100 miles. The balloon was filled with hydrogen and has a capacity of 540 cubic meters. It is one of those recently supplied the Signal Corps by Capt. T. S. Baldwin.

FIRST RACE FOR CANTON.

Sept. 7. J H. Wade, Jr., Dr. Sigler and A. H. Morgan left Canton, O., in the Sky Pilot at 12.15, landing five miles east of Kimbolton, O., at 4.15, a distance of 50 miles.

Sept. 7. Dr. H. W. Thompson, of Salem, O., Louis H. Brush and J. N. Blake left Canton in the "Ohio'' at 12.17, and came down near Sewellsville, O.

These two ascensions make the first balloon race of the Aero Club of Ohio. Dr. Thompson's balloon made a couple of miles greater distance.

The story of the trip, as related by Louis H. Brush, one of the Ohio's passengers, follows :

"When the Ohio cut loose at Canton it rose to an altitude of 5,000 feet, drifting off to the south. When about five miles away, it ran into a cold current and dropped to about 300 feet when we had an unusual occurrence. Our drag rope caught at the end in the wires of a telephone line. Spectators cut the rope at our request and the balloon shot up to an altitude of 9,000 feet. During

the balance of the trip the altitude varied from six to twelve thousand.

"After leaving North Industry, we passed over Sparta, Mineral City, New Philadelphia, Dennison, Tippecanoe, Freeport, Smyrna and landed after a three hours' trip at the Dessie Kirk Farm in Kirkwood township, Belmont county, a distance of 49 miles on a direct line from Canton, 20 miles due west from Wheeling.

"The greater part of the trip was above the clouds, and we could only see the earth during occasional breaks in the vapor masses. At one time we were entirely enveloped in the clouds, could see nothing below and only the ropes leading up into space. The balloon above our heads was completely hidden. However, to our surprise, instead of the cloud being cold, it was extremely hot, the thermometer registering 98 degrees. This caused, of course, an expansion of the gas and it shot up over 12.000 feet.

"Words are lacking to fitly describe the grandeur of the cloud panorama spread out below us. The clouds look like mountains of pure white snow and ice, and with the blue sky above we seemed to be traveling in a yacht sailing in the deep blue ocean. Now and then the balloon's shadow would create ringed rainbows, their iridescent hues being most beautiful. Then stretching away as far as eye could reach was one glorious mass of green. There was the darker side of the forest trees and farm lands, and over it all from our point of view far from the earth was seen the magnificent effect of the sun on the clouds and the marvelous expanse visible from our tremendous altitude.

"Dr. Thompson sustained his reputation as a skilful pilot. This trip makes his 98th ascension in the air. If it had not been for the unfortunate incident at North Industry when he was compelled to waste two sacks of sand, he would have easily made another 50 or 60 miles before landing. When he decided to land the 'Ohio' was at equilibrium at about 7,000 feet and traveling at 20 miles the hour."

It was the aim of the aeronauts in the "Sky Pilot" at all times to travel low, the

highest altitude they reached at any time being 6,200 feet. They passed the "Ohio" at North Industry, O., where the latter balloon was held up by their drag rope becoming caught in the telegraph wires.

They finally came down on the farm of D. S. Patton, near Kimbolton.

Some difficulty was experienced in making the landing on account of the dense woods, but eventually a safe descent was made in a clearing, and after spending the night with a family named Ellis, Messrs. Wade, Morgan and Sigler took the train at Kimbolton and returned home.

Dr. Sigler and Mr. Morgan express the greatest commendation for Mr. Wade's work in piloting the "Sky Pilot" on the trip, which went through without mishap.

Sept. 8. Albert Bond Lambert and H. E. Honeywell made an ascent in a balloon from the gas tank at Second and Rutger streets, St. Louis, at 4.52 p.m., and landed safely near Creve Coeur Lake about 7 o'clock at night on a farm about twenty miles west of the city. When the city limits were reached the aeronauts cast out sand and ascended to a height of about 5.000 feet and cast out their trail rope. By this means they were able to make several landings before they finally descended. They returned to the city on the street cars after packing the balloon, which they left on the farm.

The start was made without mishap. Mr. Honeywell arrived in an automobile about 3 o'clock, and the inflation was begun almost immediately. At 4.52 p.m. they let go, and ascended to a height of about 1,000 feet. There they struck a current of wind which carried the big bag almost due west.

A. B. Lambert is the first of the members of the Aero Club of St. Louis to win a pilot's license. He qualified as a practical balloon pilot by making several ascensions in and near Paris. This was his first flight in the United States.

Sept. 10. Charles J. Gliddcn and H. Helm Clayton left Springfield in the "Boston" at 12.38 a.m., landing at Bridgewater, Mass., at 5.23 a.m. Duration, 4 hours 45 minutes. Distance, 82 miles. Altitude, 3.300 feet.

Mr. Clayton, upon his arrival in Boston, told of some very interesting as well as important details of his balloon trip. During the journey a sextant was used in deter-

mining the speed made, the first time such an instrument has been so utilized in this country. It was especially designed for the purpose in Germany. "We found that our rate of progress varied from fifteen to twenty miles an hour," said Mr. Glidden, "and we were able to corroborate our observations by timing our distance between familiar points. The new method marks an advance over anything of the kind which has yet been attempted. The course did not vary greatly from a straight line, and we passed over Worcester on our way. In all we travelled a distance of from ninety to one hundred miles, while in an air-line East Bridgewater is about eighty miles from Springfield. As is usual, we found that the temperature dropped until we reached a height of one thousand feet and rose as we approached two thousand feet, above which it again decreased. We were but a short time at this altitude.

"A feature of the trip was the echo which we obtained. On one occasion, on passing over a town, Mr. Glidden called down: 'What place is this?' and we heard the echo reply very distinctly.

"The flight was filled with most interesting incidents. When we were close to the ground we heard very plainly the whip-po'-will and occasionally the cries of startled crows as they saw us pass over them. We also heard the sound of the katydid, which came to us in a soft and soothing sound, as the night was so quiet.

"At dawn we could hear the rumble of farmers' wagons on their way to market, and Mr. Glidden called to a man whom he saw driving a pair of horses. He yelled several times, but the man made no response. The man finally yelled 'whoa' to his horses and remained as if frightened. I bet he thought he had heard spooks as I do not believe he made out the balloon at all. I used a flashlight to make my astronomical readings. We saw nothing of the other balloon.

"The flight verified my experience that in the early morning the prevailing air currents are to the Southeast."

Mr. Clayton, who made his first balloon trip less than a year ago, when he was one of the crew of the German balloon Pommern, which won the Gordon Bennett cup

race from St. Louis last October, has now made ascensions totalling a distance of 1,020 miles.

Sept. 10. William Van Sleet and Dr. S. S. Stowell left Pittsfield in the "Heart of the Berkshires" at 12.15 a.m., and landed in Kingston, Mass., at 5.25 a.m., half a mile from the ocean. This balloon landed within 15 miles of the "Boston," in which were Messrs. Glidden and Clayton, and only a few minutes apart. The distance traveled by the "Heart of the Berkshires" is given as 136 miles.

Sept. 11. Charles J. Glidden and Hon. John Barrett left Springfield in the "Boston" at 4.45 p.m., landing at Stafford, Conn., at 6.30 p.m. Duration, 1 hour 45 minutes. Altitude, 2,100 feet. Distance, iS miles.

Sept. 12. A. H. Morgan and J. H. Wade. Jr., made a night ascent from Canton, O., in the "Sky Pilot," leaving at 11 p.m., and landing at 6 a.m. the following "morning two miles south of Lewisville, O., a distance of about 100 miles. The smoke from forest fires was so dense that the aeronauts could not see the earth from the time of starting until the landing.

Sept. 15. Charles J. Glidden and Prof. W. H. Pickering left Fitchburg, Mass., in the "Boston" at 3.55 p.m., landing at Win-chendon at 5.17 p.m. Distance, 13 miles. Altitude, 3,700 feet. This was the first ascension for Fitchburg and was witnessed by about twenty thousand people.

Sept. 17. Charles J. Glidden, Dr. Charles T. Clifford and Alfred R. Shrigley, Secretary of the Aero Club of New England, left Nashua, N. H., in the "Boston" at 5.15 p.m., and landed at Chelmsford, Mass., at 6 p.m., after a trip of 45 minutes. Distance, 18 miles. Altitude, 1,700 feet.

Mr. Glidden's total aerial mileage is 677, and duration 39 hours 50 minutes.

Sept. 18. Dr. R. M. Randall and Frederick Wallace left Fitchburg in the "Grey-lock" at 3.20, and landed near Providence, R. I., at 5.40 p.m. The distance is given as 70 miles.

Sept. 19. Hon. C. S. Rolls, Prof. A. Law rence Rotch, Professor Lowell, Captain Cloman and the Hon. Mrs. Ilarbord made an ascent from Chelsea, England, in the

"Valkyrie," Mrs. Harbord's balloon, at 2.50. A temporary landing was made to communicate with some friends who were following in a motor car. The balloon was then allowed to rise steadily and continuously while observations of the falling temperature were recorded. Eventually at 4,000 feet the bottom layer of clouds was reached and at 5,500 feet the aeronauts emerged into bright sunshine.

Seas and mountains of cloud lay all around, the peaked clouds on the horizon having exactly the appearance of the Arctic regions; the sky above them was a rich dark blue, while below them was the shadow of the balloon clearly set out on the cloud surface.

Several times the aureola was seen—a phenomenon of rare occurrence known only to aeronauts and consisting of a halo of coloured rings encircling the shadow of the balloon on the clouds.

Some interesting meteorological observations were made and photographs taken, after which a descent was decided on to verify the position of the balloon since the last sight of land.

A landing was made for tea at Shephal-bury Park, near Stevenage, the partj' being most hospitably entertained by Colonel and Mrs. Heathcote, after which the travelers again entered their balloon and continued their journey till dark, the third and final landing being made at Hitchen at 7 p.m.

The distinguished astronomers were enthusiastic over their trip and at once applied to join the Britisli Aero Club.

Sept. 22. Charles J. Glidden and W. C. MacBrayne left Lowell, Mass., in the "Boston" at 4.38 p.m., landing at Pelham, N. H., at 5.41 p.m. Distance, 9 miles, for a flight of 1 hour 3 minutes. There was no wind at 2,800 feet; 15 miles an hour at 1,300 feet.

Sept. 21. G. L. Bumbaugh and R. F. Donaldson left Springfield, O., in the "Springfield." at 10.25 a.m., landing 2 hours and 15 minutes later near Petersburg, a distance of 40 miles.

Sept. 22. A. Leo Stevens, W. R. Tim-ken, John Rommel, J. G. Ohermayer, C. A. Dougherty and H. M. Naugle left Canton. O., in the "All American" shortly before 1 p.m. The landing was made at 4.10, after

covering about 40 miles. One descent was made. After reascending the balloon came near Akron, then turned back over the same course. The wind was increasing and a landing was made to avoid a coming storm.

Sept. 24. A. Leo. Stevens and Miss Gladys Tannehill left Canton, O., in the "Sky Pilot" at 11.45 a.m., landing at 4.30 p.m. at Cairo. There was very little breeze and a landing was first made at 2.30; then they reascended and continued. Four hours were spent in the air. The flight was for a silver trophy offered by Messrs. Wade and Morgan, mentioned in a previous issue. Miss Tannehill is the first Canton woman to make an ascent.

Sept. 25. A. H. Morgan ascended from Canton in the "You and I" at 11 a.m. This makes nine flights for Mr. Morgan. Only one more is necessary to qualify as pilot.

FIVE TRIPS AT ONE FILLING.

Sept. 25. A. Leo Stevens made an ascent in the "U & I" with the same gas used by Mr. Morgan. Mr. Stevens followed the trip of Mr. Morgan in an automobile. When the latter landed, Stevens jumped in instead and made ten miles more, when the second landing was made. This time Mr. Stevens left the basket and Miss Gladys Tannehill took his place, making alone her second ascent.

After a short run she in turn descended and her uncle and grandfather climbed in and traveled still a little further, the automobile following. Thus five people consecutively used the same balloon on the same day in the same trip.

Mr. Morgan made seven miles, Mr. Stevens ten and the others just short distances. There was little wind.

Sept. 30. Charles J. Glidden and Henry A. Morss left Springfield in the "Boston" at 2:35 p.m., landing at Grandby 1 hour and 50 minutes later after a trip of 12 miles. Altitude 3,250 feet. This makes 21 ascensions for Mr. Glidden.

Sept. 26. J. H. Wade, A. H. Morgan and A. Leo Stevens left Canton and landed at Akron, a distance of 22 miles. The trip lasted four hours. Messrs. Morgan and Stevens were scheduled to make another trip but it had to be postponed on account of a storm.

some construction details of the wright aeroplane.

(Continued from page 16.)

the path of the propeller blades, got tangled up in the blade, which snapped from the strain. This would account for the breaking of the rudder and the propeller.

The accident has led to much criticism of the use of twin propellers. The advocates of single and tandem propellers claiming that in case of a break of one of the propeller blades of either single or tandem screws there would be no tendency to swing round in a circle thus tending to destroy the lateral equilibrium. While this tendency to swing in a circle doubtless did contribute to the cause of the accident, it seems reasonable to suppose that the loss of control of the rear rudder had at least an equal share. It is extremely likely that if the rear rudder of a similar machine to that used at Ft. Myer, but fitted with tandem or a single propeller, had been disabled that the result might have been the same. Twin propellers, moreover, have decided advantages over singles or tandems owing to greater efficiency, considering the limitations of an aeroplane, and also to lack of effect on the lateral stability. It would therefore seem that the points to be observed to prevent a recurrence of a similar accident would be to so design and construct the framing that there will be absolutely no danger of either guys or stays coming in contact with the propellers and also to make these latter of as strong a construction as is possible having due regard to lightness.

patents.

Wilson. No. 897,504, Sept. 1; Schiarone, No. 897-666, Sept. 1; Wolff, No. 898,081, Sept. 8; Steinhaus, No. 899,350, Sept 22; Silverton, No. 900, 041, Sept. 29.

A. Leo Stevens has sold a 70,000 cubic foot balloon to the Aero Club of New England through Chas. J. Gliddert. Another one has been sold to the newly organized Hartford club.

COMMUNICATIONS.

To the Editor:

I read with interest the article in regard to soaring in the September number. Articles of this kind seem relatively quite frequent and one does not go any farther than the other, while articles dealing with the principle of the observed phenomena, are comparatively few. Countless varieties of birds and bugs and insects are able to fly at will where they desire by their own power, but only a very few are able to soar by the "power of the wind" to wherever they want to go and these few must "learn to soar" though they are endowed by nature with perfect soaring machines. Sidewise flying by humanly devised motor propelled machines, is comparatively easy and has been accomplished, but flying without any motive power is the supreme achievement. No one can ever reasonably expect to accomplish soaring without knowing the principle of the feat—much less build a machine for that purpose, and I would call your attention (purely from an interest in the subject) to my article on the subject which appeared in the correspondence column of the Scientific American Supplement No. 1554, October 14, 1905. After three years I cannot see but that the article is, in the main, absolutely correct though in two points it is not correct and I would like to see if your readers can find these two points of error. Once get the principle of the thing, and it will be easy to soar in a perfectly horizontal wind with a properly designed machine as I said in 1905 and again repeat.

H. H. Wixon, 3514 S. California Ave., Chicago, 111.

Editor's Note—The article mentioned by Mr. Wixon covers nearly a page in the Scientific American Supplement. We regret that lack of space prevents our printing the article. The Supplement can be obtained from the Scientific American, 361 Broadway, N. Y., at ten cents. The article is very interesting, and we would suggest obtaining it.

To the Editor:

Referring to Mr. Lancaster's article in the September number: Mr. Lancaster is a

great observer and gives the details with exact accuracy and I wonder why he did not detect the soaring power while he was so near the soaring object. A Frigate Bird or any other bird which is heavier in weight, uses a greater soaring circle than his lighter weight companion as the physical laws of other moving objects can be applied to the birds.

In Coney Island is a "Loop the Loop" which makes a circle from the received momentum of gravity and the weight of car and occupants carries it around a circle. If the weight would be smaller, the circle would have to be smaller or the momentum force would die out before the highest point would be reached; where if the weight would be so much greater of car and occupants, the circle could be larger as the much heavier weight maintains the received momentum so much longer.

When a Frigate Bird starts to circle in soaring, he also receives a great momentum going with the wind and this momentum in connection with his soaring power carries him around in a circle. He receives of the wind a new momentum by every turn and the received momentum of a light bird dies out sooner as the one of a heavier bird and that is why a heavier bird, always, in line of laws of nature, uses a larger circle. Birds ascending, circle in a smaller radius. If they want to remain in the same altitude, they use a certain radius to suit their weight and use a greater radius by descending slowly. Birds of very light weight, use a small soaring circle while birds of heavy weight use a very large soaring circle which always corresponds with the received momentum of a certain velocity of the wind and the resistance going against the wind until the next rounding where they receive again the new momentum. A heavier weight maintains the momentum for a longer period of time than a small weight, so the momentum law is with birds the same as on other moving objects only that they combine soaring and momentum for a successful flight—R. Dressier, West 8th Street, Coney Island.

To the Editor:

In my paper on the soaring birds, no reason was given for the soaring action, for the reason that I was then totally ignorant of the cause of that action.

That cause is the transformation of the weight of the bird into a pressure. Simply the substitution of one force for another.

Weight has no component but brings the bird down. Air pressure acts in all directions indifferently. It is very wasteful of force this soaring method, and probably nine-tenths of all the air pressure is wasted, but as soaring would be impossible if weight were not transfr med, we get the navigation of the air on very cheap terms.

I. Lancaster, Fairbone, Ala.

NOTES.

The Parrott Aerial Navigation Company has been incorporated in Seattle for $250,000, and is now selling stock at $1.00 per share. They are to build a machine to sail from there to "New York in 70 hours." The gas bag or retainer is to be made of metal, 200 feet long, driven by a new model of reversible propellers, operated by a 120 h.p. engine weighing 187 lbs. This machine is to carry five passengers.

Mr. Hugh L. Willoughby, a prominent member of the Aero Club of America, will shortly start work upon an aeroplane at his winter home at Sewall's Point, Florida. This work will be based partly upon a model which he constructed in 1888 and partly from observations made in the intervening years.

Mr. L. G. Mecklem, of Seattle, has constructed and successfully operated a dirigble for exhibition purposes. The bag is 63 feet long, 17 feet diameter at the center; its shape might be described as a true spindle. Is made of Chinese silk, varnished with his own flexible varnish. The frame is 40 feet long, carrying a car containing motor, clutch, and reversing gear. Frame, car and propeller blades are made of white pine and Alaska cedar. The motor is two cylinder Curtiss, the clutch and reversing gear made by himself. With this machine he has now made many flights, all of which

were successful and most of which were return flights. It is to be considered that a part of every one of these flights was made over water and all in winds from 5 to 18 miles per hour; this is a remarkable record.

On the showing made by this machine, he has received two contracts to build machines for other people, one to be a three passenger outfit, 130 feet long, 26 feet diameter, to be ecpiipped with a 40 h.p. motor. The other machine, is to be a small exhibition outfit driven by foot and hand power.

On July 19th, he made a trial flight in an aeroplane built in Seattle by M. Vorroun. The machine worked beautifully until one of the control cords parted, letting the forward part of the aeroplane start towards the ground and finally causing the whole machine to turn over and light on its back from a heighth of about 60 feet, completely wrecking it. Mr. Mecklem escaped without a scratch. The length of flight was 461 yards, in about 36 seconds at an average height estimated at 50 feet.

On Thursday, October 8, the Philadelphia Inquirer made a name for itself. Lincoln Beachey with his dirigible, named for the occasion "The Inquirer Airship," delivered a message to Rear Admiral Marix on board his flagship Idaho anchored in the Delaware River. After circling over the streets, Beachey headed over the river for the fighting tower of the battleship where an expectant sailor stood ready to catch the envelope. The feat was successfully accomplished in spite of the strong wind, and the return made. The week ending October 10 was "Founders' Week," celebrating the founding of Philadelphia by William Penn.

A weekly journal of aeronautics, called "l'Aero," has made its appearance in France, edited by M. Fafiotte, with offices at 198 rue de Courcelles, Paris. The subscription price is 8 francs.

Wm. Haggerty, of Baltimore, is working on an aeroplane. The same is true of Milton Smith in Washington, and of Ernst and Claude Lloyd and Edward E. Harbert, of Elgin, 111.

NOTES

What is an aerodrome? Dr. Bell has always used the word to mean the machine. Langley used it in the same sense. Air. Willoughby takes exception to the Wright machine being an "aerodrome" with superimposed aeroplanes." He says: "The President of the St. Louis Exposition called the balloon house an 'aerodrome,' which was quite correct. If we draw an analogy from our word 'hippodrome' the application of the word aerodrome seems naturally to follow. 'Hippodrome' is derived from the Greek 'hippus,' a horse; and 'dromos,' a course. Or, a place in which horses are kept and raced. An aerodrome should be an enclosure where airships are kept and operated."

Mr. Willoughby asks also why the word "airship" can not be equally well applied to spherical balloons, dirigibles, aeroplanes, helicopters, etc., and not to dirigibles only. "Do they not all navigate the air?"

Our own idea is that "navigation" as applied to aerial locomotion is not good, despite the fact that Century dictionary says the word "navigate" is "also used by extension, in all its senses, of balloons and their use, and colloquially of other means and modes of progression." Xote the characterization "colloquially."

We agree that "aerodrome" ought to be the "course," and perhaps the building as well.

Another trans-ocean balloon voyage— Last month we stated that the Philadelphia project for crossing the Atlantic by balloon was not dead. Dr. Frederick J. Fielding, founder of the aero club at San Antonio, Texas, with H. E. Honeywell, the St. Louis balloon builder, has ordered a monster balloon from the latter. A trial will be made first from San Antonio.

The Aeronautical Society, of England, is arranging to have experimental grounds for its members.

Robert James Dinning, Jr., is organizing the Aero Club of Omaha.

John Berry, of St. Louis, is now building the motor for his dirigible.

In Chicago, Horace B. Wild, whose gallant fight in his dirigible at the St. Louis races last year, many will remember with pleasure, is hard at work building an aeroplane. Others in the same city, Carl Bates, Ray Harroun and J. C. Scott, are likewise working on aeroplanes.

Ernest F. Sitts, of Mohawk, N. Y., would like to borrow a 7 h.p. motor to try in his aeroplane which is now complete. His small model flew 30 feet with clock-work power.

An aero club is being planned for Cincinnati.

The balloon donated by Col. Pabst to the Milwaukee Aero Club will soon arrive in the city and be ready for use.

BERLINER HELICOPTER.

(Continued from page 19.) 75 to 100 miles an hour, and would double the present speed of dirigible balloons.

"I am planning also to apply small aeroplanes to this apparatus of just enough surface to help in lifting and in landing. There will be the usual rudders, such as are used on dirigibles and aeroplanes."

The principal advantages of this class of aerial craft will be that they can rise straight up and that they will be able to fly in almost any wind, it is claimed.

A complete helicopter flying machine has not yet been produced by Mr. Berliner, but he expects to reach this stage in the near future. In view of the advantages which the helicopter apparently has over the aero" plane, and the discussions of such advantages which have appeared in previous issues of this journal, we shall look forward with great interest to the trial of the completed machine.

The motor used in the machine illustrated is an Adams-Farwell 36 h.p. (at 1400 r.p.m.) The speed at which the motor was run was about 1200 r.p.m. so that the h.p. was probably 30 or less. The propeller makes 150 r.p.m. and is geared 1x8.

FIELDING—SAN ANTONIO

70,000 Cu. Ft. Built and Piloted by HONEYWELL

WINNER LONG DISTANCE AND ENDURANCE CUFS

CHICAGO A. C. CONTEST, JULY 4, 1908

against a field of e.ight

Fielding-San Antonio Getting Away—Foreground

THE DEFEATED

^ ILLINOIS, 72,ooo cu. ft., J. l. Case, Builder.

UNITED STATES OF MINNEAPOLIS, 70,000 cu. ft., Mallet, Builder. CHICAGO, 110,000 cu. ft., Bumbaugh, Builder.

COLUMBIA, 75,000 cu. ft., Bumbaugh, Builder.

AMERICA OF ST. PAUL, 78,000 cu. ft., leo Stevens, Builder. KING EDWARD, 65,000 cu. ft., Canada.

CINCINNATI, 87,000 cu. ft., Haddock, Builder.

VILLE DE DIEPPE, 65,000 cu. ft, Mallet, Builder.

At a recent gathering of aeronauts in New York, an eastern member of the profession saw fit to condemn the Fielding-San Antonio by calling attention to the fact that the netting was broken before start and at finish. This is true—but he was not sportsman enough to give reasons—mob swarmed over inclosure, interfering with inflation and hanging on netting and sand bags.

Landed in storm, netting torn on fence.

This true sport neglected to explain why his balloon of superior make and capacity did not make at least a decent showing in the contest.

EVERY KNOCK IS A BOOST.

Our material and workmanship speak for themselves. Write for samples and prices.

FRENCH—AMERICAN BALLOON CO.

H. E. HONEYWELL, Director

3958 Cottage Avenue, St. Louis, U. S. A.

R. I. V. RADIAL BALL BEARINGS

Used by Leading Aviators.

Light in weight-Strong and

Durable.

All Sizes Hoffmann Steel Balls on Hand.

Variety of types and sizes in stock.

Absolutely Guaranteed.

Send for Catalogue 19.

R. I. V. CO. 1771 Broadway, New York

AERONAUTICS

Issued in conjunction with or separate from "Knowledge & Illustrated Scientific News"

Devoted to aerostation, aviation, meteorology, aerology, etc. Edited by Major B. Baden-Powell and John H. Eedeboer

SUBSCRIPTIONS:

issued monthly " Knowledge " including Aeronautics "Aeronautics" alone -

Special rate lor 5 years - - -

27 CHANCERY LANE,

S1.90 .75

- • - 6.25

LONDON, W. C, ENGLAND.

No collection is complete without

BALLOON I NO AS A SPORT

By Major B. Baden Powell President of the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain

A hand-book of ballooning; a guide for the amateur

PRICE $1.10 AERONAUTICS

II. OITR,

OFFICIAL PHOTOGRAPHER OF " AERONAUTICS " and THE NORTH ADAMS AERO CLUB

Photographs of all Ascensions at Pittsfield and North Adams

POSTCARDS lO CENTS Box 501. North Adams, Mass. For Sale also at "Aeronautics"

AERONAUTICS

Main Office 1777 Broadway New York

Published by AERONAUTICS PRESS, Inc. Wm. Gettinger, Pres. E. L. Jones, Trcas.-Sec.

304 No. 4th St. St. Louis

Entered as second-class matter September 22, 190S, at the Postoffice, New York, N. Y., under the Act of

March 3, 1879.

Vol. Ill

November, 1908

No. 5

Aeronautics is issued on the 20th of each month. It furnishes the latest and most authoritative information on all matters relating to Aeronautics.

SUBSCRIPTION RATES.

One year, $3.00; payable always in advance.

Subscriptions may be sent by express, draft, money order or registered letter. WE CAN NOT USE CHECKS ON LOCAL BANKS UNLESS EXCHANGE IS ADDED. Send draft on New York. Make all remittances free of exchange, payable to Aeronautics. Currency forwarded in unregistered letters will be at sender's risk.

Foreign Subscriptions.—To countries within the postal union, postage prepaid, $3.50 per annum in advance. Make foreign money orders payable to Aeronautics. No foreign postage stamps accepted.

Important.—Foreign money orders received in the United States do not bear the name of the sendei Foreign subscribers should be careful to send letters of advice at same time remittance is sent to insure proper credit.

MEN OF THE AIR IN CARTOON.

Novel Series of High Class Caricatures of Some of the Aero Clubs' Well

Known Men.

Commencing in our December issue, we will begin to print a series of cartoons of the leading members of the Aero Clubs of America. They will prove very interesting, and no one should miss any of the series.

The work is done by one of the best caricaturists in the country, one who has succeeded in bringing out the characteristics of many of the well known members in the most artistic and attractive fashion. The entire novelty of the idea at once attracts

attention, and the clever execution further commends the enterprise.

When the series is complete, the plates will be printed on vellum, bound in ooze calf, lined with silk, and printed under the club colors. These books will be a very handsome souvenir of the men who have done much to advance aerial locomotion.

Watch each issue for ''Men of the Air in Cartoon," beginning in the December number.

NOTE.

The supply of July, 1907, and August, 1908, copies is entirely exhausted. A fire destroyed all the extra copies of the latter issue.

We would be very glad to hear of any copies of these two issues which we may secure to supply the present demand.

THE BRITISH AERO CLUB PLANS AVIATION SECTION AND GROUNDS.

It is the desire of the Aero Club of the United Kingdom to form an institute under the auspices of the club—which is now in the eighth year of its existence—to advance the science of aviation generally, and to procure a suitable ground where members

of the institute can experiment with their aeroplanes or other machines for aerial flight. An annual subscription of half-a-guinea would, it is thought, be low enough to enable all those who are interested in the subject to join the institute and avail

themselves of the various opportunities it will offer for making experiments and discussing ideas with fellow-members and inventors. England is at present behind the Continent and America in this respect, but Mr. Perrin, the secretary of the Aero Club, is of opinion that there are many people in Great Britain who have good ideas and models which merely require an opportunity for development and experiment to produce

good results, and bring us up to, if not ahead of, our foreign competitors.

The objects of the institute may be briefly defined as follows: i. To encourage the study of aerial flight. 2. To examine and report on practical suggestions for aviation. 3. To obtain a trial ground for testing and experimenting with machines. 4. To arrange both lectures and practical demonstrations. 5. To publish a journal dealing solely with the subject of aerial flight.

PROPER ASCENSION RECORDS.

As will be remembered, the United States Weather Bureau issued some time ago free ascension record blanks to individual bal-loonists and clubs, and requested co-operation in obtaining upper air data. These blanks were the result of considerable time and effort on behalf of the Bureau and this journal.

We regret that little interest seems to

have been taken in aiding the Bureau in this work. One or two individuals have kindly filled out the blanks in good shape, and the Army ascents have been properly recorded, but on the whole the interest taken therein has been small.

As an instance of conscientious effort, we quote the following extract of a record as a good example of what is asked:

meteorological observations by h. h. clayton on ascent with charles j. glidden, july 29, I908.

Time

Height

in Meters

Height in Feet

Tempérât °C

tire

op

Relative Humidity

WIND Dir- Velocity ection in Miles

4:35 p

240

787

29.1

84.4

58

w

5

4:44 p

500

1640

28.7

80.1

64

w

6

5:00 p

1000

3281

22.4

72.3

76

w

7

5:15 p

1500

4921

18.5

65.3

91

w

7

5:15 p

1560

5118

18.0

64.4

93

wsw

7

Remarks—4:35, balloon left ground; 5:09, among clouds; 5:12, glory around shadow of balloon showing two colored ring; 5:15, passing through cumulous cloud. Wind changed from \V to WSW at 1,500 meters when cross-

ing Hoosic Mountains and was SW about 5 miles an hour on landing in W. Monroe, 6 miles ENE of North Adams. Sky clear during flight except for a few cumulous clouds over the mountain.

FOR SALE—A perfect copy of Astra Castra, London 1865, at $15.00. Large quarto volume, in blue cloth binding, profusely illustrated. In perfect condition. This is probably the rarest aeronautical work to be found anywhere.

FOR SALE—"A System of Aeronautics; Comprehending its Earliest Investigation and Modern Practice and Art." By John Wise, 8vo. cloth, 310 pages, 15 or 20 lithograph plates; Phil., 1856. Good condition. Offered for $5.00.

When The Philadelphia Inquirer announced a few days before the beginning of Founders' Week that it proposed to set loose an airship over the city every day during the celebration, it was generally conceded that one of the biggest strokes of newspaper enterprise had been achieved.

As it turned out, the airship proved to be the most spectacular feature of Founders' Week and one of the best ever planned by a newspaper. Moreover, it illustrated to all the people of Philadelphia the possibilities of air navigation.

What seemed most remarkable to the great crowds that thronged the streets in answer to the call of Founders' Week was the absolute control that Aeronaut Lincoln Beachey, who was in charge of the air craft, seemed to exert, no matter how uncertain the wind appeared to those below.

A big military and naval parade had been arranged for the first day of the week. The grandstands built all along Broad street were jammed with men, women and children. The pavements were banked solid to the curb. Far up Broad street could be seen the advancing columns. The crowds awaited with bated breath.

Then, suddenly, out of a lot on Wallace street, which is a few blocks above the City Hall, where the throngs were thickest, there rose The Inquirer Airship, slowly, gracefully, and swanlike.

Like a spider, the aeronaut could be seen balancing his ship by moving backward and forward. As the craft rose into the air, the form of Beachey could be seen moving back-so that the nose would point upward.

Then, poising for a few moments over a high building, the newspaper's airship waited until the first ranks of the big parade approached, and proceeded, just a little ahead of it, down Broad street.

The crowds actually forgot the parade in the excitement of watching the dirigible balloon. They arose en masse and waved hats and handkerchiefs. They cheered and shouted. Mayor Reyburn, sitting in one of the grandstands, wildly waved his high hat. Governor Stuart, riding a horse in front of the parade, pulled on the reins and halted

the entire pageant for a few minutes while he gazed upward at the airship.

At various points along the line of the procession the crowds broke through the ropes and poured into the street so that they might get a better view of the steed of the air. Mounted policemen had to drive back the crowds.

Like a giant bird of fable, the airship slowly circled the City Hall, continuing on down Broad street for several blocks and then returning amid the same excitement and applause.

On an evening later in the week, while the crowds were thronging the central streets, and the sky was very dark in comparison with the glare of lights below. The Inquirer Airship again swam through the air.

Great searchlights upon the roof of the City Hall plucked the airship out of the darkness. The people upon the streets below could be seen from the roof of the

THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER AIRSHIP. By Thomas F. Logan.

City Hall running excitedly to points from which the dirigible balloon could best be seen. As the ship sailed down over Market street, flooded with the searchlights, the enthusiasm was tremendous. Beachey steered straight for the roof of The Inquirer, at Eleventh and Market streets, and shouted a "Hello" to those gathered on top of the building.

A still greater feat was accomplished by the airship later on in the week. The Inquirer planned to have its ship of the air extend its congratulations to the ships of the sea. Five big battleships, which had been sent to Philadelphia in honor of the celebration, were lying in the Delaware.

Everything had been arranged for a big naval pageant. The battleships were to fire salutes and scores upon scores of vessels passed in review. The Inquirer Airship could be seen making its way over the tall granaries and refineries just as the procession started up the river.

The airship made its way straight for the' Idaho, the flag ship. Circling the topmost turret for a few seconds, the aeronaut shouted that he had a message to deliver. An ensign stood upon the highest mast to receive it.

It was addressed to Admiral Marix and read: "A ship of the air extends greetings to the ships of the sea.'' Admiral Marix returned the felicitations of the ships of the sea to the ship of the air.

It was the most spectacular and daring feat ever attempted by a newspaper, and it shows one of the many uses to which an airship can be put.

Persons who had never placed much stock in air navigation realized after the Philadelphia exhibition that sustentation was being rapidly solved. The hundreds of thousands of persons who attended the festivities in Philadelphia went away converted to the idea that aeronautics is the great game of to-day.

The Inquirer Airship, which was built by Beachey, is constructed and operated upon principles wholly different from other dirigible craft. In construction it is simplicity itself. Consisting of a gas bag and a light spruce frame on which the navigator is carried, the entire weight of the ship without rider or ballast is only 210 pounds.

The aeronaut himself weighs 140 pounds, and about 50 pounds of sand ballast are carried, making 400 pounds in all. By the lifting power of his gas he equalizes this weight to the pound and when the airship starts it is just the same weight as the atmosphere.

Not until the engine is started does the ship move. The aeronaut depends upon K's motor, not his gas, to send him up.

Unl;i':c a ship's propeller, which is at U< stern of a vessel, the airship's is at front. It also turns in the opposite iliiv--tion to that of the propeller on a bo-r pulls, not pushes, the airship throu atmosphere. The motor is a two-c.. four-cycle, five-horse power, air-cooled line engine. It operates the propelier at 400 revolutions a minute.

Made of spruce wood, braced with piano-wire, the frame work is very light. Beachey straddles the frame in the middle. When he wishes to ascend, he shifts his weight to the back. This points the nose of the balloon upward and the propeller pulls him gently on the rising angle. When he wishes to descend he moves forward On the frame, and the nose is pointed downward, bringing a correspondent movement. The large rudder at the rear, 5 feet by 9, made of spruce and covered with oil silk, steers the ship.

The aeronaut holds the rudder lines in his hands as he moved back and forward. From below sometimes it seems that he is about to lose his balance, but he is sure of himself and really runs little danger.

The gas bag is cigar shaped and constructed of oiled Japanese silk. It measures 56 feet from tip to tip and is 14^ feet in diameter. It holds 6,000 feet of gas. Pure hydrogen gas is used, and this permits the use of a much smaller gas bag than would otherwise be required.

The gas generating plant which supplied the balloon consists of four wood tanks, 5 feet in diameter and feet high. Into them are put 1 y2 tons of sulphuric acid, 1^ tons of cast iron horings and 6 tons of water. As the gas is generated, it is run first into a cooler, then through a purifier and finally into the balloon. It required 8 hours to inflate the bag and the aeronaut needs five assistants.

THE HERRING AEROPLANE.

November 13th is the last day allowed Mr. A. M. Herring to fulfill the conditions laid down by the Government specifications. It will be remembered that Mr. Herring has been given two extensions of time. A technical delivery of the machine was made on V'\ctober 13th at Fort Myer. From this date • c is allowed a month in which to make all r!s trials, teach a man, and fulfill the conations.

-"'-ifter' making a technical . delivery, Mr. "•ring took his machine out on Long Isl-■_ 'mln an interview with him, he stated thai *rhile on Long Island, he made a short

- t'-estimated at 100 to 150 yards, at a piob'able speed of 25 to 30 miles per hour. In this flight he said the machine maintained automatic ecpiilibrium within y2 degree; there was no fluctuation so far as the operator was able to see, either on the straightaway or in turning. The machine was found to turn at a much sharper angle than was expected. Mr. Herring attempted to make a turn and expected the machine would describe an easy arc, but instead it turned very sharply.

The day was rainy, and Mr. Herring had some little difficulty with the motor. Mr. Herring thinks the rain on the battery wires caused a short circuit, which resulted in the motor "bucking." The landing was made while the machine was "skidding" to the left, but it is to be noticed that the right skid was broken. One propeller, the jack shaft and propeller axle were also broken. The exact cause was not clearly apparent. In the trial, very little gas and oil was carried.

Mr. Herring briefly describes the machine as follows: A two-surface machine measuring, in its smallest size, 15 by 4 feet, with nearly 4 feet between the surfaces. The surfaces are at present of ordinary muslir, not even varnished; but it is expected to use Capt. T. S. Baldwin's combination ru'j-ber-silk cloth. The surfaces are made in panels. The panels can be readily changed so as to give a greater or lesser lateral dimension. Any odd number of panels can be used, five being the lowest number able to support the machine in the air with a man. In the trial flight, the lateral dimension was 17 feet.

Two 2-bladed propellers are used in the rear. Four-bladed propellers may also be used, if desired. The}' are located on independent shafts receiving power from the engine through transmission gears. Either or both of the propellers can be cut out in making a landing.

One engine is used. It has five cylinders, weighs igl/2 pounds bare. Including the flywheels, spark coils, carbureters and part of. the frame which detaches with the engine, the weight is 25 lbs. Mr. Herring states that the horse power developed is 18 on an 8-hour run. The maximum horse power is 22. It does not take 18 horse power to fly, only about 12 horse power being used in the trial. The engine is air cooled. The cylinders are Chrome nickel steel treated, with a Cnrome nickel steel one-throw hollow crank shaft. The crank case is an aluminum alloy. The inlet and exhaust valves are positively operated. The speed of the engine can be varied without varying the power; the power can be varied without varying the speed. The compression is varied at will. The ignition is by make and break. There are two spark coils for the engine, one operating three cylinders and one operating two. The weight of these is !4 lb. each. There is a carbureter, weighing y2 ounce, to each cylinder.

There are bearings for every wearing part. Some of the best bearings were made by Mr. Herring himself. The four bearings in the engine are Malicot and Blinn. There are two bearings to each propeller, part home made and part R. I. V. with Babbitt metal separators.

The vertical struts are parti}' wood and partly steel. The whole machine is mounted on skids. The machine has not been weighed but a guess would he in the neighborhood of 170 lbs. The entire control of the machine is by grips on a vertical strut in the center panel.

Mr. Patrick Y. Alexander will visit America again before the close of this year. He intends leaving England on December 19th.

In the division of Physics, Columbia University is accommodating Mr. Grover Cleveland Leoning, a student, for aeronautical research-

THE INCREASED LIFTING EFFECT OF CURVED AEROPLANES. By Edward W. Smith.

It has been for a considerable time matter of common knowledge, that a surface travelling horizontally through the air and inclined upward at its forward edge, that is a so-called aeroplane, will support a greater weight with given area, and given ratio of propulsive to lifting effort, if it be slightly concave on the under side In the line of its motion. It is the object of the present discussion to indicate the cause of this greater lifting effect, and to show its connection with other more familiar phenomena.

A surface such as that considered derives its lifting force from the reaction of the air in its immediate neighborhood, which it pushes downward as it advances horizontally. The extent of air on each side of the surface, which is directly effected so as to exert this reaction, Is difficult to determine, as it varies with speed, width and inclination of surface, etc. As a basis of comparison it will, therefore, be assumed that the lifting force is derived from the displacement of a "reactive stratum" of definite mass per unit length, and of negligible thickness, and it will afterwards be shown that this assumption, while certainly not strictly correct, cannot effect the main deductions.

Suppose A B, Fig. i, to represent a section of a plane travelling from right to left in the direction A C, while the lightly shaded portion represents the reactive stratum, whose mass per unit length may be called m. V>y the passage of the surface through the stratum there is imparted to the latter a velocity, / \ perpendicular to the surface anil expressed by the following relation, where V stands for the horizontal velocity along A C

i\=v<2±

A c

= V

i)

V a2 + b2

Suppose that an interval of time t is required to impress upon the reactive stratum this velocity \\. The acceleration then is:

and the total force normal to the surface is:

(3)

F_Ma ~G

where M is the mass acted upon in the interval t, and G is the acceleration of gravity, and M=mvt (4)

Substituting (1) (2) & (4) in (3)

viv2 b

~G

F =

Va2 + b2 The vertical component or lifting force is:

L = F

Va2 + b2

ab

(5)

G a2 + b2

and the horizontal component, or propulsive

inv2 62

force is:

(6)

a2 fb,

and the ratio of horizontal to vertical components is:

// _ b_ L ~~ a

Having thus determined the forces resulting from the motion of a plane surface through the reactive stratum, let us turn to the curved surface, represented, as before, by A B in Fig. 2.

While the most efficient form of curve is a matter of experiment, the best one to consider first is that which will give a uniform normal pressure throughout its length, this being

h---i

s>. S, ' , —3-

 

— a-

-----H

^^a-:>^

     

fjqJL

probably not far from the most efficient. For simplicity of treatment we may for the moment consider conditions turned around, in that the surface is at rest, while the reactive stratum possesses the velocity /'from left to right, none of the forces acting on the surface being thereby effected. It is, then, clear that as the only pressure exerted between surface and stratum, is one normal to the surface, the velocity of the stratum relative to the surface remains constant from A to B, its direction only being changed.

In order, therefore, that this pressure be uniform throughout, the direction of motion of the stratum must be uniformly diverted, must change through the same angle with each unit length of arc. Obviously the circle, tangent to the line of motion at A, and no other curve, fulfills this condition.

The reactive stratum in followingthe surface is thus merely describing an arc of a circle, and the force it exerts may be readily calculated as centrifugal force. To derive equations for the effects produced by such a curved surface, which shall be comparable to those just derived for a plane, it is now only necessary to express the radius of the arc A B in terms of its projection and height (a & b) and as may be easily demonstrated the value of the radius is:

2b

The normal force per unit length of arc there-

mv2"

fore is:

/= R G 2 ni v- b G {a2 + b2)

(S)

L = fa

The lifting force then is:

/a dx

fdllH J o

where / is the length of the arc, and x the abscissa:

substituting the value of /"in (S)

2 m v2 a b L = —G~ a^TV" (9) and the horizontal component is:

/b dv

fdl-kl=fb

2 vi v2 b2

substituting for/ H =

G a2 + 6-The ratio of horizontal to vertical components is:

// b

—, - =- (n)

L a K '

Comparing now (9) & (10) with (5) & (6) it is seen that with the same reactive stratum, the same speed, and surfaces of equal projected height and length, the circular surface gives twice the lifting effect without requiring any greater propulsive force per unit lifted.

The same thing may of course be expressed by saying that for a given lifting force, the curved surface need not be inclined so steeply as the plane one of equal area, and will therefore do its work with less propulsive force.

Now it will be contended that in this discussion the ever present factor of friction has been entirely disregarded, and that the assumption of a reactive stratum is so far from the

actual case as to be untenable. It is proposed therefore to show that while influencing the degree in which the curved surface surpasses the plane one, neither the disregard of friction or the assumption of the reactive stratum influences the main fact.

First as to friction; since this depends upon the velocity and area of the surface passing through the air, and since the curved and plane surfaces will be of approximately equal area, in order to arrive at the total horizontal force there must be added to each of the expressions (6) & (10) an identical amount to represent the friction, and as the H in (10) is twice as great as in (6) the added increment will be a smaller percentage in (10) than in (6); and the disregard of friction has therefore favored the plane rather than the curved surface.

Second, as to the reactive stratum. It is clear that this differs from the actual conditions in that the stratum of air actually concerned is not a stream of uniform width, but of increasing width toward the rear, as the influence of the surface spreads out. Under actual conditions therefore the curve of uniform pressure will probably differ from a circle. That it will be a curve and not a straight line, follows from the well known fact that with a plane the pressure is greater near the forward edge, and to equalize it, therefore, the rear part must be inclined more than the forward. Suppose A B (Fig. 3) to represent a section of an empyrical surface of uniform pressure, it will first be shown that whatever the curve the ratio of propulsive force to lift is still equal to the height over the projected length, and second that the lift is greater than that of the corresponding plane.

H-

1

4|

-c#-

-----H

1

   

h r^v^

i

   

F

     

le

7

L,et I) K (Fig. 3) represent the perpendicular force f ,/\ /, acting on an increment of arc /\ lm Resolve this into its horizontal and vertical components then ;

Z\ "=/Z\ / g~ and L =/Z\ / ~

z\//=/z^f4; 'ire

or, since E G = /\ I

The total horizontal component acting on the whole surface is then:

v=!fZ\y , H=fb (12)

and the total vertical is:

L = , L=fa (13)

// b

dividing (t2) by (13) = --

an expression identical with (7) & (11).

Next as to the amount of the lifting force; inasmuch as this is proportional to the downward velocity imparted to the air it follows that anv curved surface of the character described inclined more steepl}' at the rear, b}* producing a greater downward velocity of the air must be subject to a greater upward reaction than the Corresponding plane. The only doubt on this phase of the question is as to whether the actual reactive stratum extends to the same distance from the surface in the case of the curve, and since the total linear displacement of the air is identical in both cases, and the velocity of displacement doubled in the case of the curve, it would seem as if the amount of air acted upon must be as great if not greater with the curve.

A somewhat analogous case which throws some light on this problem is that of a solid projected obliquely against a solid surface. The modus operandi of this phenomenon is quite simple and analysis of it is helpful in forming an idea of that which must take place when the impinging object is a gaseous stream. Suppose

that ADB, Fig. 4 is a section of a rigid and elastic surface, upon which an elastic ball moving in the line CI) impinges at D. B}T the law of reflection we know that the ball after striking continues its course with substantially unchanged velocity along DE, the angle CDA being equal to EDB. At the moment of impact, the ball is compressed at and near the point of contact, and a definite amount of energy is thus stored in it. The pressure between the

ball and the surface naturally projects the ball away and as it springs back to its original shape "kicking'' itself back, so to speak, it gives out, in the form of kinetic energy, that which was stored up by the compression. Thus it is then that the ball after striking recedes from the surface with the same velocity as that with which it originally approached it, and no loss of energy occurs. But if on the other hand, a non-elastic ball or a stream of air be projected along the line CD, we know by experiment that it does not follow along DE after contact, but simply follows along DB, the line of the surface with diminished velocity. When the non-elastic ball, of lead for instance, strikes the surface it is compressed and absorbs energy just as the elastic one did; but there is thereafter this difference, that the non-elastic ball dissipates this energy in internal friction or heat, does not resume its original shape, and therefore does not "kick" itself away from the surface, but merely follows along it, with a velocity diminished according to the energy absorbed.

Suppose now, however, that the non-elastic ball be projected against the circular surface represented by AFB, impinging upon it tan-gentially at A. Since the ball here does not come against the surface with any great force of impact, there is produced a compression within it that is almost negligible compared to the former case, and a negligible amount of energy is dissipated in internal friction. The ball travels along the surface, exerting a relatively slight uniform pressure upon it, and finally flies off along the tangent BG, its kinetic energy virtually undiminished A glance at the figure shows that BG is parallel to DE; which signifies then that a non-elastic ball impinging tangentially on a circular surface behaves exactly as does an elastic ball, impinging on a plane surface.

As to the pressure exerted upon the surface since this depends, with balls of equal weight, upon the change of velocity which the surface impresses upon them in a normal direction, it is obvious that this is identical in the first and third cases but half as much in the second, that is to say, the elastic ball exerts a pressure while it is being compressed and again an equal amount for equal time while it is "kicking" itself away; the non-elastic ball impinging on the plane surface exerts a pressure while it is being compressed, but none thereafter; while the non-elastic ball striking the circular surface, (Continued on page 45.)

HITCH YOUR WAGON TO A STAR

shaped motor and leave behind the radiator, pnmp, fan, water, fly wheel, muffler, piping and most of the crank case, crank shaft, bearings, valve mechanism, ignition device, etc.

Last, but b}' no means least, the Adams-Farwell motor will eliminate 3'our troubles in the over-heating line and weighs only 2 7-lb. per h. p.

Write for our catalogue to-day.

H

ADAMS COMPANV

DUBUQUE, IOWA.

CONSTRUCTION WORK

Models or manufacturing complete from plans in all materials. Repairs or special parts for machines already constructed. Our plant especially equipped for this class of work. Free use of large grounds for trials, etc.

GLIDERS IN STOCK. C. & A. WITTEMANN. P. 0. Box 40. Stapleton. Staten Island, N. Y.

17 OCEAN TERRACE, COR. LITTLE CLOVE ROAD

TO THE LIVE MAN ?j;TZth:*T.

cessories, automobillng, and in fact keeping in touch with all that Is transpiring the world over in motordom, and who realizes the value of keeping informed about all that concerns it, should be a subscriber to The Steam Motor Journal, 15c. a copy, $1.00 a year.

the steam motor journal co.

1409 WELTON STREET,

DENVER, COLO.

ARMS AND (0) THE MAN

THE NATIONAL HILITARY WEEKLY $3.00 a year

General James A. Drain, Editor

« ARMS AND THE MAN serves every arm of the service in both the Army, the Navy, the Marine Corps and the National Guard. Its columns are open for all military aerorautical discussions, in connection with the work of the Signal Corps.

ir>0!2 11 Street, 1ST. W. - Washington, D. C.

FIRST EXHIBITION AND TOURNAMENT OF THE AERONAUTIC SOCIETY.

By William J. Hammer.

The first Exhibition and Tournament of the Aeronautic Society was held at the Morris Park aerodrome, Morris Park, Westchester County, New York, in the afternoon of Election Day. November 3rd, before an assemblage of 20,000 people, the majority of whom—unfortunately for the gate receipts—came over or through the fences about the vast concourse and not through the turnstiles.

When it is realized that the Aeronautic Society has been organized less than live months and that in that brief period the Society, after scouring the country for fifty

kites, safety devices and devices for maintaining lateral equilibrium, propellers, model wings, etc., all the above being the work of its members, the showing certainly was most creditable.

In addition to the tests with models, kites, gliders, wind wagons, etc., made under the supervision of the Referee and Judges, which tests will be referred to later on, the programme was enlivened, albeit somewhat complicated, by the excellent National Championships of the Federation of American Motorcyclists, by the exhibition about the

A VIEW OF THE LAWX.

miles in every direction about New York for suitable grounds, has secured the commodious quarters at Morris Park with headquarters and meeting rooms in the Club house, workshops and housing sheds, and has furthermore been able to show to the public at this its first exhibition such a large number of full sized apparatus, aeroplanes, a monoplane, a helicopter, gliders, wind wagons and gliding models with and without power, balloons.

track of the famous Thomas car, winner of the "New York to Paris" race, with Montague Roberts, and the midget car of the Auto Supply Co., of New York. This latter car, the smallest car ever built, is an exact counterpart of an automobile and cost over $2,000 to build and, together with the Thomas car, attracted much attention.

The burden of the tests upon gliders, models, balloons, kites, etc., fell upon the following

Judges: Chas. M. Manly, formerly chief assistant of Prof. S. P. Langley; Prof. A. J. Henry, head of the Mount Weather Station of the Weather Bureau; Major Geo. O. Squier of the Signal Corps U. S. Army, who was assisted by Mr. G. O. Totten of Washington, D. C.; Mr. Orrel A. Parker, who was in charge of the Thomas car and the towed flights of Mr. Lawrence J. Lesh's glider made with the Thomas car; Mr. W. R. Kimball was kept exceedingly busy putting the finishing touches to his remarkable helicopter machine, while Mr. Stanley Y. Beach, another Judge, was busy with the Beach-Whitehead -glider carrying Mr. Howard Booth of Bridgeport who essayed a

tatives and the various contestants, and in fact, trying to be omnipresent where so much was to be done.

The Referee, Mr. William J. Hammer, after consulting with his Judges, with Mr. Lawrence E. Dare, the Manager and Mr. Earle L. Ovington, Chairman of the Racing Committee of the F. A. M., decided that in view of the enormous crowd present and the inability of the police and special officers preventing the dangerous encroaching upon the course and the contestants, that the motor cycle events to be run off first.

The various gliders and models of power and other machines and appurtenances were

L. J. LESH STA

flight while towed by thé automobile of Peter Fisher but which glider unfortunately met with an accident damaging the machine. In the absence of certain of the Judges, the above gentleman and the Referee, Mr. William J. Ilamnfer, were duly assisted by Messrs. Roht. Whitaker, F. W. Barker, P. F. Motteley and Mr. Gray. Dr. S. B. Battey was the medical officer and attended Mr. L. J. Lesh when he met with his accident.

The indefatigable President of the Aeronautic Society, Mr. Lee S. Burridge, was busily engaged in supplementing the work of Messrs. A. A. Whitman and R. B. Whitman in charge of the finances, again giving orders to Marshall Riley E. Scott and his special officers regarding policing the many fence openings, again assisting the press represen-

RTING A GLIDE.

carried from the sheds and from about the '"Wright" catapult to the lawn in front of the grand stand where they formed an impressive and instructive exhibit of the work of the members of the Society.

After the five motorcycle races had been run, the glider of Mr. Lawrence J. Lesh was brought into the infield and given two flights, towed by the Thomas car. After making the first very successful flight, he essayed a second one and after crossing the field at a rapid rate and while about fifty feet in the air, Mr. Lesh cut loose intending to make a soaring glide in his endeavor to win the gold medal offered by the Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Unfortunately the crowd rushed forward directly in the path of the aviator and his machine and just after cutting loose, a stray current of air

struck the machine. In endeavoring to right it and also to avoid striking the people below, and as the machine was rapidly soaring toward the ground, it suddenly dropped from ■about a height of 25 feet, Mr. Lesh landing upon his right foot which bent under him, breaking both bones above the ankle. After attention by Dr. S. B. Battey, a member of the Society who was on the spot, he was taken in an ambulance to the Ford ham hospital where he is doing nicely though lie will be confined for some weeks to his bed and crutches.

uncontrollable crowd, that such tests would result in injury to the spectators.

Chas. J. Hendrickson had made two excellent flights with the two surface machine built by himself during the morning and Morris Bokor made one flight with his two surface glider which he had built.

The Judges decided to hold all records made thus far until the further tests were held at some future date decided upon by the Society at which the balance of the gliders, kites, models, etc., will be tried out. This also applies

C. W. WILLIAMS MONOPLANE.

Mr. Lesh, a native American at present residing in Montreal, is but sixteen years of age and holds the world's record for a towed flight, having made a flight over the St. Lawrence river in 1907, of six miles, drawn by a motor boat. He has made many flights, but this is his first serious accident.

After the accident to Mr. Lesh and the accident to the Beach-Whitehead glider which was towed by an automobile and came to grief, the Referee and Judges decided that it would not be safe to make further trials with the gliders either towed or shot from the Wright Brother's form of catapult in the field. It seemed certain that with the enormous and

to the models upon the lawn in front of the grand stand and while certain of them were tested, it was found impossible to launch the models from the front of the grand stand as arranged, owing to the dense crowd. A space had been roped off, but it was packed with people and one of the ropes was carried away bodily by the crowd.

The unfortunate and serious accident to Dr. Julian P. Thomas, on Xov. 1st when he was testing his wind wagon at the track at Morris Park interfered greatly with several features. On endeavoring to make a sharp turn to avoid a moving motorcycle the front wheels of his wind wagon collapsed throwing Dr. Thomas

heavily and piling the wrecked machine on top of him. It was at first thought that he had been killed, but later it was found that he -suffered principally from the shock and slight injury to his back, arm and leg which he broke in an automobile accident a year ago. This accident made it impossible to have the wind wagon contest although the man power wind wagon of Prof. \V. H. Pickering, of Harvard, was run around the track until someone in the crowd pressed too close to his machine and was struck by the propeller, breaking a blade and putting the machine out of commission. The accident to Dr. Thomas' machine prevented the contest for the beautiful Thomas trophy for the best designed propeller as it had been planned that all propellers be tested on the Thomas wind wagon. Dr. Thomas had been ambitious to win his prize himself with a newly designed propeller.

Following the Lesh glider at the completion of the motorcycle races, the huge monoplane machine of Mr. C. W. Williams was run down the track. The machine was not entirely completed and had only an experimental motor of seven horse power to operate it. It is expected that at an early date upon his installation of the large engine the public will have the privilege of seeing the Williams machine in the air. Like Mr. Kimball's helicopter, this machine was not entirely completed in the short time before the exhibition hut both machines were shown as full sized man carrying flying machines, designed and built by the members of the Aeronautic Society and shown in their present condition as an evidence of good faith. They attracted much attention, though naturally many were disappointed in not seeing them in the air.

'the 1500 pilot balloons sent up by the Society and by John Wanamaker were let off in front of the grand stand.

Through the courtesy of Prof. Willis L. Moore, Chief of the United States Weather "Bureau, interesting demonstrations were made with kites carrying meteorological apparatus illustrating methods employed in weather forecasting and studying of the upper air, these demonstrations were superintended by Prof. Moore and were in charge of Prof. A. J. Henry and a corps of expert assistants C. S. Wood. II. A. Marks and J. M. Kelly, from the Mount Weather Observatory.

Interesting kite exhibitions were given also by Dr. S. B. Battey and others. Mr. Kimball showed a kite with a dummy figure and carrying a weight. Upon cutting the kite loose the weight was shifted causing the kite to descend towards the operator in the most curious manner.

Toward evening a Montgolfier balloon was sent up carrying Johnny Mack of Newark, N. J., who made a parachute drop from a height of 2000 feet. The lateness of the hour precluded an actual "contest" for the Leo Stevtns' Gold Medal for which three entries had been made. This contest will be held at a later date.

Among the fifty models, with and without motors, shown, the large model aeroplane exhibited by Miss E. L. Todd and Dr. Win. Green's safety device for landing with a hal-loon attracted considerable attention. The balloon has a thin tube of metal or rubber cloth around the bag near its center and the tube is preferably filled with gas under pressure. Should the balloon burst or leak badly the balloon immediately forms itself into a parachute. Dr. Green has exploded such a balloon in the air and it has descended with a basket of eggs and not one of them broke.

The motorcycle races were a great success, the best time being made by Walter Goerke, ten miles in 10 mintes, 45 2/5 seconds.

The Aeronautic Society was fortunate in having had for its field-day such temperature and sunny weather as led many of the fair sex to revisit the beautiful lawns of Morris Park, the Club house and Track formerly devoted to the "sport of kings." The Society had wisely located an able drum and fife corps in front of the Judge's stand, in addition to Bavetta's famous Italian Military Band which discoursed choice and popular selections from an advantageous station near the reserved boxes.

While the success of this first venture of the Aeronautic Society is highly commendable, in so much as it was achieved under the very trying disadvantages already alluded to, one can well realize what is necessarily in store for the visitor who will be so fortunate as to visit the grounds in the early Spring when the second exhibition under the same auspices is to be given. This may partake, possibly of an international character; at any rate the governmental exhibition will probably be upon an

enlarged scale, with dirigible and other balloons and flying machines.

More About the Exhibition.

The programme called for more events than could be accomplished. While the exhibition was given "with a view of demonstrating, as far as possible, the state of the Art," the exhibition did not fulfill its promise altogether. As the public did not see a power machine in actual flight the exhibition fell that much short of demonstrating the exact point the Art has reached, but it did succeed in letting people know of The Aeronautic Society and that it was trying in its own way to promote Aeronautics.

rhe programme was as follows : Flight of 1500 pilot balloons—5 mile championship motorcycle race—wind wagon race— , mile motorcycle race—kite contests and demonstrations by U. S. Weather Bureau—1 mile championship motorcycle race—exhibition mile by the smallest automobile in the world— the "New York to Paris" Thomas car—gliding contests—10 mile championship motorcycle races—model contests—Montgolfier balloon ascents with parachute drops—towed flight competition—5 mile open motorcycle race— flying machine contest—contest of propellers for Thomas trophy—miscellaneous exhibits of models and devices, material, etc.

prizes.

The Aeronautic Society offered a cup for the winner of the wind wagon race.

In the kite contests, Mr. Beiswenger, proprietor of Woodmansten Inn, adjoining the track, offered a cup for the most sensational kite flight, and The Aeronautic Society offered a cup for the highest flight.

Octave Chanute offered two cups, first and second prizes for the longest glide made from the catapult.

Cups in the model class were given by R. L. Hanau, International School of Aeronautics, and A. C. Triaca.

J. A. Moller offered a cup for the best material shown.

For the Montgolfier balloons. A. Leo Stevens gave a gold medal.

The Brooklyn Daily Eagle presented a gold medal to encourage experiments in towing flight.

The Scientific American Flying Machine Trophy and a cup of The Aeronautic Society was offered for flying machines, while the

Geniophile Co. offered a medal for the safest machine shown.

To encourage propeller work Dr. Julian P. Thomas gave a handsome bronze figure for the propeller which gave the best results. Mr. Hammer has explained in his article the unfortunate accident which prevented a competi-

m. bokor ix prof. pickerixg's wixd-wagox.

tion in this division. In order to have all propellers tried under same conditions it was planned that all be tried on the Thomas wind wagon.

Samuel J. and Lester S. Perkins had the greatest number of kites in the air, about thirty. As many as twelve were on one string and there were four strings. From these strings floated banners and pennants and from one line was the figure of a man on a trapeze, which "did stunts" when the line was pulled. A very large American flag was floated, flanked by two smaller flags and many pennants, in the arc of a circle. This made a very pretty sight. Mr. Perkins makes a business of flying kites, advertising banners from kites and his display was a fine exhibition of his skill. William A. Eddy was present and complimented him on the adaptability of his outfit for his work.

A beautiful silk box kite was flown by Emouth Mixier. It had i sq. meter of surface and weighed but a pound. Henry Jorgensen's kite had the best angle.

E. L Horsman had several kites on one string, displaying banners.

There was an odd aeroplane kite exhibited with box kite form of propellers, causing the kite to screw its way through the air as it ascends.

Prof. A. J. Henry, who was one of the judges in the kite contests, reports as follows:

"The kites submitted by the various competitors wore mostly of the Malay type as modified by Eddy; outside of the Weather Bureau exhibit, very few box kites were shown and none possessed any specially novel features. The promoters of aerial advertising had a number of models in the air but their most effective display was a triangular shaped bag open at lioth ends so that the wind could pass through it readily. The Mount Weather Observatory sent four kites of the Ilargrave-Marvin type, the standard kite of that institution. The dimensions of these kites are roughly as follows:—Height 0 feet s inches; width (5 feet 5 inches and deptli 2 feet s inches; weight *'/•; lbs.; witli the recording instrument 10% IIjs.

"It was not a kite day. The wind was light and fitful in the forenoon and it did not improve much until "well along in the afternoon. One small box kite with the large cell in front after the order of 1 lie I.amson Kite flew well but later in the afternoon disappeared.

"The Weather Bureau kites with their added weight of the wire and instrument had difficulty in keeping in the air on account of the light breezes but later in the afternoon succeeded in making an excellent flight with a single kite. This kite supported about 7.100 feet of steel piano wire, and reached an altitude of about 5,500 feet. The angle of the wire with the horizontal was -slightly over 30 degrees.

"The government exports figured that the temperature in the free air decreased quite rapidly upward from tlie surface; that at 1,000 feet above the ground it was 7 degrees colder than at the ground; that at a mile above ground it was about 24 degrees or s degrees below freezing. The direction of the wind was practically the same above as below; but the velocity above w-.is increasing much more rapidly lhan at the surface. This increase in velocity above was manifest at the ground before night, much to the disgust of those who had been hoping for a good breeze during the afternoon."

The balloons brought by the Weather Bureau and S. J. Perkins could not be used on account of the failure of the hydrogen plant.

Five gliders were on hand for trial: the Whitehead glider, Lilienthal type, entered by Louis R. Adams; and two-surface gliders of International School of Aeronautics, Morris Bokor, Chas. J. Hendrickson and E. L. Jones.

The aeroplane model of Edward \V. Smith, whose Congress paper was of great interest and who has an article in this issue, flew very nicely. Mr. Chas. M. Manly, who judged some of the models, viewed one flight—he says :

"The machine was launched from a special 2-rail track on which was mounted a launching car which released it when the car reached the end of the track. The launching apparatus was a crude but effective copy of the l.angley launching apparatus.

"Length of run of launching car on track. 0 feet, the initial impetus being given by rubber bands (stretched). The machine rose immediately upon being

released from the launching ear at the end of the track, its line of thrust making an angle of about 15 degrees with the horizontal. It ascended gradually at this angle to a height of 15 feet when its power being exhausted it gradually descended and gently settled to the ground at a point 32 paces or about 00 feet from where it rose from the track. The machine was undamaged.

"While the inventor was preparing the machine for the next flight, in rotating lhe propellers to wind up rubber motive power, the port propeller sheared off its driving pin. The machine was equipped with special tripping skids so arranged as to lessen the shock of the machine striking the ground."

A full description of the Smith model appeared in the February is*sue of this journal. The flights made on Election Day were the first made in public. Mr. Smith calls the attention of the judges to these facts: I, the machine made two successful flights of over a hundred feet; 2, there were no preliminary or unsuccessful attempts: 3, in landing no serious damage was done, a few moments sufficing to make the model again ready for the next trial; 4, sufficient wind currents were encountered, especially in the second flight, to carry the machine out of its course but without causing any inconvenience to the machine, thus demonstrating its perfect stability. Weight 4V2 lbs., surface 6 sq. ft.

In the flying machine competition there were no machines ready for flight. It was hoped up to the last moment to have the new aeroplane "Silver Dart" of the Aerial Experiment Association but owing to the bad weather there had not been time to make trials at Ham-mondsport with it. The full sized aeroplane being built by Gustave Whitehead and S. Y. Beach was not completed in time to make trials. Wilbur R. Kimball worked until late the day of the exhibition on his helicopter but was only able to run the screws in a test. C. W. Williams drove his huge monoplane on the track with a little'7 h.p. Curtiss airship motor. He is awaiting a motor of ample horse power in order to make a trial of his machine.

The Baysdorfer-Yager airship. "The Comet" has made 40 flights during the year, returning to the starting point 37 times, with the following operators: Charles Baysdorfer, Horace B. Wild and Bud Mars. At Waterloo, la., 14 flights were made in one week all of which were return flights save one. Mr. Geo. E. Yager is trying to induce the express companies to reduce the rate on balloons and airships.

OCTOBER BA:

Grand Prix.

On October 4th, 18 balloons started in the Grand Prix of the Aero Club of France from the Tuileries Gardens. The erratic but slow moving air currents dispersed the balloons all over France. The contest was won by Georges Blanchet who attained a distance of 550 kilometers in an ascent lasting 37 hours, 12 minutes.

Goal Race from Berlin.

In this contest for a predetermined point. 22 balloons started. The contest was won by Paul Meckel, famous for his skill in "steering" spherical balloons, who landed but 302 meters distant from the finishing post at Oranienburg.

Gordon Bennett.

In the Gordon Bennett from Berlin on Oct. 11, the full number of 23 balloons started, consuming 50,000 cubic feet of gas, and demanding the services of 47 non-commissioned officers and 585 privates. All but four balloons were of 2,200 cubic meters capacity, three going over this and one under.

One balloon the "Helvetia," did not land till Wednesday, the 14th. Six other balloons landed on Tuesday, after two nights in the air.

The start was made exciting by the bursting in the air of the American balloon "Conqueror," pilot A. Holland Forbes, aide Augustus Post. As Messrs. Forbes and Post were "balancing up" the balloon the workmen let go before the word was given. A little puff of wind caught the balloon and the basket just grazed a fence, but not hard enough to wrench the net or put any excessive strain on the bag.

On striking the fence, two bags were dropped and one tore open, allowing the sand to leak out rapidly. The balloon then ascended so rapidly that the top dented in. At a height of 2.900 feet the envelope tore laterally in the lower hemisphere. The appendix ring went up to the top, the balloon parachuted and started swiftly downward. Mr. Post cut loose a bag of sand and, so Mr. Forbes states, it went UP. Both worked fast in cutting away the sand bags hanging around the sides of the basket. At an altitude of 500 feet the balloon started dropping faster than ever, finally landing on

X)ON RACING.

the mansard roof of an apartment house, the basket going clear through. The aeronauts then proceeded to calmly photograph the wreck. Entrance into the house was made through a lady's bed room. A few days after, Mr. Forbes received a note from the lady stating she was sorry to have been out when he called.

The Illustrierte Aeronautische Mitteilungen, in speaking of the accident, says: "The explanation appeared later to be very simple, (the accident) being caused by an appendix which was too long; in addition to which the appendix was held tightly closed.''

the landing.

However, Mr. Forbes should know as well as anyone how his own balloon was arranged and he says that though there was an elastic band around the appendix when the start was made, the whole appendix was free and open after clearing the fence.

Mr. Forbes also states that the scheme talked of and mentioned on pages 31 and 32 of the September number and page 34 of the October number, for the conserving of the gas. was not used—that the balloon was in its original condition with the exception that the appendix had been lengthened somewdiat.

During the first night from Sunday to Monday the wind shifted and the balloons

turned back on their course. It then did not take very long for the balloons to reach the North Sea, though the unsteady winds dispersed them widely. The day became very misty and that circumstance, together with the keenness of the contest, may account for five balloons being carried out to sea. The "Busley" had the narrowest escape, being picked up beyond Helgoland.

One of the American balloons, the "St. Louis II," with Messrs Arnold and Hewat, shared this fate, though not going out so far, but they spent a trying time in the flooded basket, before they were rescued. When they found they were over the water, Hewat dropped the water anchor to hold the balloon until bearings could be obtained and the situation discussed, but in letting it out Hewat's hand became caught and the flesh was torn off his fingers. To save the hand, Arnold cut the rope and the water anchor was lost for further use. Then a quick decision was made to come down in the water. The balloon was not equipped with cork and the weight of the twenty-six remaining sand bags held the basket down with the water up to the waist. Remembering that there was a flash of whisky somewhere in the bottom of the basket. Hewat groped around in the water till he found it and also an electric flashlight. With the latter—not the whisky bottle—he stood in the ring making signals until they were seen and answered by a boat. The balloon was drifting so rapidly that the boat could not catch up and at last, though neither knew how to swim, they jumped over with life preservers and waited for the boat to pick them, which it did, later picking up the balloon. This all happened on Monday 'night, the second night of the race.

new duration record, 72 hours.

Lieut. Colonel Schaeck, of the Swiss club, established a new world's duration record, remaining in the air' 72 hours, beating the former record of 52 hours held by Drs. Kurt and Alfred Wagener. Col. Schaeck landed in the sea off the coast of Norway.

J. C. McCoy, in the "America II," had a less eventful trip and was much handicapped by going in a circle, covering but a short straight-line distance. His aide mistook a corner of the Baltic for the North Sea. With all Denmark before them a consider-

ably greater distance could have been covered.

The Spanish team had narrow escapes. The ripping panel of one of its balloons finally opened up in the air, with a result much resembling that of the "Conqueror.''

The decision as to the race rests between the English "Banshee," with John Dunville and C. F. Pollock, covering 260 miles, and the Swiss "Helvetia," with Col. Schaeck and Lt. Messner. The latter balloon actually traveled the greatest distance but by not descending on the land mav be disqualified under the rules of the F. A. I. Although not officially settled, it is probable that the race will be conceded to Mr. Dunville.

Duration Race, Berlin.

The endurance competition on October 12th was memorable for the number of competitors, 33. Two of these balloons went out to sea. One, the "Plauen" was saved after a long period of anxiety. Of the other, the "Hergesell," only the envelope with the car and without any trace of the men, was picked up near Helgoland. The longest ascent lasted 24 hours, but Lieut. Vogt won the race with 13 hours on account of the handicapping. The balloons were divided into five classes.

It is curious to note that the world's record duration was made in a distance race.

A full list of the entries in the Gordon Bennett, with prizes, etc., was given in the September issue. The official records, with distances, have not yet been made public by the Berlin club.

He was the Editor of an Aeronautical Journal.

The soul of an editor who had died of starvation was being conducted to the Elysian fields. As they passed the portals of the infernal regions, he asked his guide if he might not go in and look around. The guide consented, but warned him to stay but a few minutes, as he could not wait long.

A long time passed, and the editor had not returned; so the guiding angel went in search of him. He found him before a cage in which a number of doomed wretches were being toasted on red-hot griddles. Over the cage was the sign "Delinquent Subscribers."

"Come," said the guide; "we must be going."

"Don't wait for me," replied the editor. "I'm not coming. This is Heaven enough for me!"—IJppincott's Magazine.

CLUB NEWS.

Aero Club of America.

The annual meeting of the Aero Club of America was held on Nov. 2nd. Considerable interest was centered in this meeting as there were two tickets in the field.

The "regular" ticket named the following members for directors: J. C. McCoy, Cortlandt F. Bishop, A. Holland Forbes, Samuel H. Valentine and Charles J. Edwards.

The "opposition" named for directors: Wm. F. Whitehouse, Geo. F. Chamberlm, Wm. J. Hammer, Charles J. Edwards and Louis R. Adams.

In the past, the Directors of the Club nominated their own successors and these were voted upon at the annual election. In the present election, -w accordance with a section of the by-laws, f£ irretnbers signed a notice to the Board ol$» new ticket. Both sides sent out letters asking for proxies.

The reasons given by the "opposition" side were that it was desirable that the club take a more active part in furthering aeronautics and aviation in particular, to have a greater number of members on the Board of Directors, and to give all the members a voice in the affairs of the club at regular monthly meetings, the members in general assembly to vote on matters of importance heretofore acted upon solely "by the Board.

At the line-up, the "regular" ticket won with the odds 89 to 31. The adherents of the "opposition" ticket, were in the majority at the meeting but the "regular" ticket was helped out by proxies.

The new directors elected on the "regular" ticket immediately held a meeting and named the following officers for the ensuing(year: J. C. McCoy, President; A. Holland Forbes. 1st Vice-President; Samuel H. Valentine, 2nd Vice-President; Alan R. Hawley, 3rd Vice-President; Charles J. Edwards, Treasurer; Augustus Post, Secretary; Charles M. Manly, Consulting Engineer.

Augustus Post, being the only Director present at the meeting, read the various reports. The President's report was as follows:

what the aero club has done during the past year.

"Conducted St. Louis Gordon Bennett Balloon Race in conjunction with the Aerj^jpfiib of St. Louis, and the first motor ball$flTTace in the world.

"Installed an aeronautic exhibition at the Jamestown Exposition in the first building ever devoted to that purpose.

"Held its third annual exhibition at the Automobile Club Show.

"Held its second annual dinner at the St. Regis Hotel.

"Founded, through its members, new Aero Clubs in Pittsfield, North Adams, Boston, Canton, Milwaukee, St. Louis, Springfield, Denver, Los Arfgeles, Hartford and Seattle.

"G. H. Curtiss, member, won the Scientific American Trophy.

"Captain Thos. S. Baldwin, member, constructed and delivered the first dirigible ever owned by the United States Government (the tenth successful dirigible constructed by him).

"Orville Wright, member, made his first unprecedented flights in Washington. (The Aero Club, which published the first records of the Wright flights at Dayton, through its representatives witnessed the historic 57-minute flight at Fort Myer.

"Wilbur Wright, member, has in France duplicated the marvelous achievement of his brother in this country.

"The Red Wing, the White Wing, the June Bug, and the Silver Dart, respectively, were built by members of the Club.

"The Club represented America in the International Aeronautic Federation in London.

"The Club represented America in the Gordon Bennett Race at Berlin by three pilots of the Club.

"Through the courtesy of G. H. Curtiss, the Cfulffrag..aeroplane trial grounds and motors at Hammon&sport.

"Through tlfefeo-operation of the U. S. Signal Corps, trial grounds are offered the Club at Fort Meyer, Fort Omaha, and West Point, and a further offer of 'grounds has been courteously tendered through t-l^Lefig Island Motor Parkway.

"Through the zealous and able representation of the Club in Europe, its reputation as an active influence in the world of aeronautics has been immeasurably varied and established. It may be noted also that all the European aeronauts are following the American type of construction, both in motor balloons and in aeroplanes."

Wilbur R. Kimball, member, has also completed a helicopter which will probably have

been actually tried out before this number is issued.

Through modesty, no doubt, the Club did not mention the fact that one of its members, eighteen months ago, started (and still publishes) the only journal of aeronautics in America.

At the conclusion of this report, this statement was read :

WHAT THE CLUB PROPOSES TO DO IN THE FUTURE.

"In continuing the active work thus inaugurated the Club proposes :

"To secure extensive grounds for motor ballooning and aeroplaning, with hydrogen gas facilities, machine shops, and suitable buildings for storage, within easy distance of the city;

"To avail itself of suitable locations for ballooning at a distance from the sea;

"To acquire the best aeronautic library in the country;

"To hold its fourth annual aeronautical exhibition ;

"To hold its third annual banquet ;

"To hold the second contest for the Scientific American Trophy and the contest for the Lahm Cup, and to inaugurate new prizes for competition; to sanction races; to formulate rules and laws for the navigation of the air, and to have special lectures on topics of timely interest.

"Inasmuch as the number of American delegates to the International Federation is determined by the amount of gas used for balloon purposes during the year, the Club will continue to keep official record of all balloon ascensions made, irrespective of membership.

"The Aero Club of America, which has been the greatest factor in the awakening of the present activity in aeronautics, will continue to make itself the authoritative and up-to-date medium for the encouragement and development of aeronautics in this country, and to further promote the American Federation of Aero Clubs."

The Secretary reported that 40 members had joined during the year and that the present membership now stands at 286. The following resolutions were passed.

"Thanks of the Club to the retiring officers and directors.

"That the Aero Club of America by a rising vote make Wilbur and Orville Wright, now active members, Honorary members.

"That the Club give a banquet in celebration of the achievements of Wright Brothers.

"That the Club present a gold medal to Wilbur and to Orville Wright.

"That the Club extend its thanks and appreciation to Captain Thos. S. Baldwin for his achievements with the dirigible balloon which has placed the U. S. Army on a level with the most advanced armies of the world.

"That the Club extend its thanks and appreciation to James C. McCoy, Pilot, Lieutenant Foggman, aide; Nason H. Arnold, Pilot, Harry J. Hewat, aide; A. Holland Forbes, Pilot, Augustus Post, aide; for representing this Club in the Gordon Bennett Aeronautic Cup Contest, and thereby keeping America and the Aero Club in the front rank of international aeronautics.

"Its congratulations to the winner of the Gordon Bennett Aeronautic Cup Race held in Berlin, October nth, 1908.

"Its appreciation of the warm welcome the Deutsche Luftsehiffe Verein extended its representatives in the Gordon Bennett Aeronautic Cup Race in Berlin, October nth, 1908, and its hearty congratulations on the perfection of the arrangements for the reception of the Aero Club members and the conducting of the contest.

"Its thanks and appreciation to the Fire Department of Berlin and to the Lightship for the timely aid they rendered its representatives when in peril in the Gordon Bennett Cup Contest in Berlin, October nth, 1908, and that a copy of these resolutions be sent to each.

"Its thanks to Charles J. Glidden, W.illiam F. Whitehouse, A. Holland Forbes and A. Leo Stevens, for the interest shown and work done in stimulating ballooning during the year 1908, at North Adams and Pittsficld, Mass.

"Its sympathies to Mr. Bishop, our retiring-President, in his sickness and its heartiest wishes for his speedy recovery and its thanks for his very substantial work and efforts in behalf of the Club and particularly for his able representation of the Club in Europe.

"That the Club accept the offer of Mr. Bishop and Mr. McCoy to contribute towards the purchase of a Wright aeroplane for the use of the Club and that the Directors appoint a Committee to carry out this project.

"That the Club offer to take charge of funds for the erection of a monument inftnemory of Lieutenant Selfridge and ask the members, so inclined, to contribute.'' This was suggested in a letter from Lieutenant F. P. Lahm.

"That the Club publish the stories of their

Have Made Good

The Scientific American Trophy was won with a "Curtiss" motor.

The United States Government's dirigible balloon, which was successfully demonstrated at Ft. Myer and later at the army maneuvers at St. Joseph, was equipped with a "Curtiss" motor.

The aeroplane, "Red Wing", the first lieavier-thau-air machine to make a public flight in America, was propelled by a "Curtiss" motor.

Dr. Alexander Graham Bell's tetrahedral aerodrome has a "Curtiss" motor.

Captain T. S. Baldwin, who always "gets back" in his dirigible balloon, uses "Curtiss" motors.

Roy Kuabeushue's new three passenger airship is driven b}-a "Curtiss" motor.

J. Newton Williams' hélicoptère, the only flying machine of this type to get off the ground in America, had a "Curtiss" motor.

In fact, every aeronaut who is making a success in this country has adopted a "Curtiss" motor.

Our motors give the greatest power per pound weight consistent with reliability. All styles—one to eight cylinder, two to one hundred horse-power, air and water-cooled.

G. H. CURTISS MANUFACTURING CO.. - Hammondsport. N. Y.

ASK FOR AERONAUTICAL MOTOR CATALOGUE.

AERONAUT LEO STEVENS

THE LEADER OF BALLOON

and AIRSHIP CONSTRUCTION

THE KEEN SPORTSMAN

OF WIDE EXPERIENCE

USES A "STEVENS BALLOON."

ALL BALLOONS ABSOLUTE HYDROGEN

AND COAL GAS PROOF

VARNISHING BY

IMPROVED ELECTRICAL PROCESS.

ONE TO FIFTY PASSENGERS

ALSO REPRESENTING CARTON & LaCHAMBRE, LEADING BALLOON BUILDERS OF

paris, france.

Special Patented RUBBER BALLOON FABRIC, (German and French.)

THESE FABRICS HAVE BEEN TESTED—NOT IN EXPERIMENTAL STAGE.

MESSRS. A. C. TRIACA AND A. LEO STEVENS ARE READY TO DELIVER AEROPLANES OF THE FARMAN no. 1 AND DELAGRANGE TYPES AFTER TRIALS OF 1 MILE IN A CIRCLE.

TWO CENT STAMPS FOR REPLY.

Box 181, Madison Square, new York

SPRUCE

In all sizes and shapes, straight grain, clear white.

Price per foot, per i sq. in. cross section, - - - - - 6 c.

.Shellaced and prepared, - - - - - - - 8 c.

LAMINATED MATERIAL All designs, inside hollow, extra light, - - - - - 15 c.

WOOD PROPELLERS Estimates furnished, size laid out, without cost.

PATENT WIRE CLAMPS Don't use turn buckles, each - - - - - - - 15 c.

M. BOKOR, - - Morris Park, Westchester, N. Y.

L. BUMBAUGH

DESIGNER — CONTRACTOR — OPERATOR — CONSTRUCTOR

AIR SHIPS AND BALLOONS

Builder of Coey's "CHICAGO," the largest spherical balloon in the world. Works: Springiield, ills. S. 131h and Rutger Sts., St. Louis

jYo connection with any other concent.

NAVIGATING THE AIR

By the Members of the aero Club of America

■ An interesting record of the personal ideas and experiences of twenty-four distinguished men. This book is intended to be a summary of the present state of the art.

• Among the contributors: Wright Brothers, 0. Chanute, Prof. Win. H. Pickering, Prof. A. Lawrence Rotch, Prof. T. S. C. Lowe, William J. Hammer, Chas. M. Manly, Prof. David Todd, Dr. Oliver L. Fassig, Dr. A. F. Zahm, A. Leo Stevens, A. M. Herring.

300 PAfiF^ -f 32 pages of photographs showing ) <P| 1C nnstnflifl OUU r/\VJCO \ important developments in this science J «P !•£.£> pUMpiUU

One Year's Subscription and this Book ... $3.75 AERONAUTICS, 1777 Broadway, New York.

A TIMELY BOOK

THE PROBLEM OF FLIGHT, *&,ll*l»BSS^a

By HERBERT CHATLEV, B.Sc. (Engineering), LONDON Lecture in Applied Mechanics, Portsmouth Technical Institute SIXTY-ONE ILLUSTRATIONS OCTAVO CLOTH, $3.50 NET

The author takes advantage of the encouraging outlook for a practical solution to the problem of aerial navigation and in this work submits to the engineering profession an epitome of the knowledge at present available on the subject.

While intende especially for the engineering profession, the book should be of value to any one interested in a topic that is receiving so much study and attention at the present time.

OUTLINE OF CONTENTS—The Problem of Flight, Essenllal Principals, The Helix, The Aeroplane, Avlplanes, Dirigible Balloons, Form and Fittings of the Airship.

An appendix furnishes much instructive miscellaneous information.

AERONAUTICS

WANTED—Young German mechanic with FOR SALE—Glaishcr's "Travels in the

seven years' experience in aeronautic naviga- Air,"' from the private library of Alfred

tion wants a person of means to help push Chadwick. Large 8vo, cloth, fine illustra-

through an improvement on a heavier than air tions, London, 1871. In perfect condition

flying machine. Correspondence solicited. This is most rare and is offered at $5. Address P. O. Box 182, Staunton, Va.

FOR SALE—Aeronautical Annual (James FOR SALE—"The Use of Kites in the Ex-Means) for 1895, 1896 and 1897 at $1.50 each. ploration of the Upper Air" (Marvin) 8vo. Very rare. cloth, $1.50.

The Warner Auto-Meter

In a 20,000-Mile Endurance Test

Four Trips Daily between Pontiac and Detroit, Mich. —200 Miles Every 24 Hours

The Auto-Meter in this double daily century run is attached to a Chalmers-Detroit "Thirty."

Four times every day— |ff| rain or shine,

muddy o r

smooth roads—this car equipped with the Warner Auto-Meter leaves Hotel Pontchartrain at

Detroit for Pontiac, Mich., and return.

The Auto-Meter is attached to the dash and is depended upon to keep the schedule exact and make the different points at the terminals and en route within the required time.

The Auto-Meter was necessary because in such a gruelling test, where a certain speed must continually be maintained in a specified time, it could be relied upon to be accurate.

Silently and surely it does its work in any weather, under any conditions. To the fraction of a second or the fraction of a mile the Auto-Meter's record is infallible.

The Auto-Meter is used everywhere one wants to know exactly how tar and how last

In the New—York—to—Paris Race, the Thomas, the winner and only American contestant, was equipped with an Auto-Meter. The drivers of the famous car give the Auto-M'-ter due credit for its "silent assistance," which they say materially aided them in winning.

The Auto-Meter always has been used by the Glidden Pathfinders when they lay out the routes for the Glidden tour, because they know its accuracy may be relied upon.

On the dash of the best cars you will find, an Auto-Meter. Owners now find it a necessit)' as well as a convenience.

We frankly admit there are indicators at less cost, but in an out-and-out comparison where accuracy is demanded to a fraction, the reliable Auto-Meter is the only one that stands the test.

A speed indicator (?) that can't be depended upon is an incumbrance. Write for more details and arrange for a trial«<5f the Auto-Meter.

Warner Instrument Co.

Factory and Main Oflice

280 Wheeler Ave., Beloit, Wis.

Address your request for trial to our Nearest Branch Office.

Philadelphia, Cor. Broad and Race. New York, 1902 Broadway Boston, 925 Boylston St.

San Francisco, 550 Golden Gate Ave. Chicago, 1305 Michigan Ave. Buffalo, 722 Main St.

Indianapolis, 330^ N. Illinois St. Cleveland, 2062 Euclid Ave. St. I^ouis, 3923 Olive St.

Los Angeles, 1124S. Main St. Pittsburg. 3432 horbes St. Detroit, 239 Jefferson Ave.

In answering advertisements please mention this magazine.

Pilots and aides in the 1908 Gordon Bennett Cup Race at Berlin."

A. C. Triaca moved the election of Octave Chanute to honorary membership, which motion was carried.

A motion was carried that the Club appoint a Committee to visit the Aeronautic Society at one of its meetings and discuss the matter of co-operating in some way to aid the general good of the Art.

A letter was handed to the secretary, signed by the requisite number of members, asking for a special meeting to be held November 16, to change the by-laws, provide for and elect additional directors making the total number eleven instead of five as at present.

Aero Club of New England.

The Aero Club of New England will hold its annual banquet on Nov. 21st. All members are asked to be present.

Aero Club of Denver.

The Aero Club of Denver has now7 been incorporated and rooms are being fitted up The Technical Committee has already started the construction of a working model of a combination helicopter and aeroplane, the idea of one of the members, John N. Cage. In the Spring, an aero meeting will be held for the purpose of arousing interest. The Club now has a membership of fifty.

Aero Club of Ohio.

Three asc^isions have been made during the month by members of the Canton Club.

C. A. Dougherty, a prominent member of the club and proprietor of the Hotel Courtland, gave a very fine dinner to all the members of the Aero Club of Ohio who had actually been up in a balloon since the club was organized nine months ago. About 20 of those who had made ascents responded. After dinner the guests told of their experiences and had a good time generally. A vote of thanks was given Air. Dougherty and his charming wife for their hospitality.

Aero Club of Columbia University.

An aero club has been started at Columbia University by G. C. Loening, a student, and Dr. C. C. Trowbridge. The following officers were appointed: R. L. Fowler, President; G. C. Loening, 1st Vice-President; G. H. Warren, Jr., 2nd Vice-President; and Harold H. Content, Secretary and Treasurer.

The first honorary members elected were

Prof. W. Hallock and Dr. C. C. Trowbridge. Letters are being written to Count Zeppelin, the Wright Brothers, Delagrange and Capt. T. S. Baldwin asking them to accept honorary membership.

The purpose of the organization is to promote generally the interest in aeronautics. There are hftcen charter members and all have taken great interest. A great many are at work-on models. One condition of membership now is that the applicant deliver a thesis on aeronautics before the club, together with a model. Milwaukee Aero Club.

Tbe new balloon, presented by Col. Pabst, arrived about the end of October. Several ascensions will be made. In me first ascension, Major Henry B. Hersey, of the U. S. Weatlv.T Bureau at Milwaukee, will pilot Mr. John H. Moss, President of the Club: and Col. E. P. Vilas, one of the directors. Major Hersey, it will be remembered, accompanied Lieut. Frank P. Lahm when he won the first Gordon Bennett balloon race. A good quality of gas has been promised the Club by Mr. Sheldon Glass, President of the Gas Co. and also a member of the Board of Directors of the Aero Club. Mr. R. B. Brown, the Gas Company's Chief Engineer (who is also a member of the Club) is considered one of the gas experts of the country.

Permission has been secured to inflate on the grounds of the National Soldiers Home. This is an ideal spot being a natural amphitheatre of several acres with hills about 100 feet high on three sides. A large gas main runs along one side of this.

Springfield Aero Club.

The Springfield Aero Club was organized, in September, and incorporated late in October. Its president is Chas. T. Shean, one of the leading sporting men of the city, and many of the leading men of the city are on the Board of Directors, although not actively interested. Charles J. Glidden's ascensions here and those of Leo Stevens and Capt. T. S. Baldwin started the fever and the city is very much interested.

The city is very fortunate in having, in its heart, a small park about 100 feet from the Gas Company's plant, from which ascensions can be made, and it is not only convenient for the aeronauts and easy to reach, but is in the heart of the business district of the city so that every ascension draws large crowds. The place is Court Square.

The first ascension made here was on July 4th, when the "Heart of the Berkshires" and "North Adams No. i'" started simultaneously. Chas. J. Glidden has made seven ascensions from Springfield since then.

It is popular with N. E. Aero Club members, as it is only two hours from Boston, and the prevailing wind is westerly, so that the balloons generally move toward Boston. The country about, for hundreds of miles in every direction, is cultivated and thickly settled, so that landings are easy, and it is not difficult to get back to a railroad after a flight.

Harlan T. Pierpont has been appointed official pilot of the local Club, as well as of the N. E. Aero Club. He is an amateur. Herman Beinqi, an employee of the Gas Company, will be a professional pilot.

The Springfield Aero Club will have a 1,000 meter balloon in the Spring; the N. E. Club will keep its "Boston" here, and the new 60,000 cu. ft. "New England" will be stationed here. Also the newly organized Hartford Aero Club will have a balloon and make all its ascensions from Springfield for lack of a suitable place in Hartford. This practically insures four balloons here next year, in addition to one private one which some of the young fellows will have.

Junior Aero Club.

The Junior Aero Club is planning to have their first annual exhibition in January, 1909. Circulars are being sent out asking for entries of models, drawings, photographs, etc. Prizes will be awarded. A Board of Aviation will be appointed with Harold N. Piatt as President. This Board will receive and care for the models and their exhibits. Exhibits should be sent to the office of the Club, 131 W. 23rd Street, New York, Room 19.

This organization now has members in eleven states: New York, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Jersey, Maryland, Ohio, Illinois, Missouri, Colorado, Oregon and Washington. It will be remembered that this Club was organized by Miss E. L. Todd in the early part of this year with the help of a number of members of the Aero Club of America.

CORRECTION.

Referring to October issue: the distance made in the record ascent of the "Gross II" should read "282" kilometers.

ACTIVITY IN ST. LOUIS. By E. Percy Noel.

The Smith "sky automobile," as the inventor calls it, has been tested at John Berry's Motor works in St. Louis, where the mechanical parts of the new apparatus were ready for assembling on the framework. The gas bag will not be attached to the frame until the owners are ready to make the first trial aloft, probably about November 24 in East Street, St. Louis.

The frame is heavily constructed of spruce strips, bolted together at the points of intersection ; the longer members warped so as to form an arc like the bones of a whale. From the point at the bow to the end of the runner it measures 42 feet, but the main frame is about 18 feet shorter and apparently 9 feet wide. At each extreme corner of the main frame is mounted a two-bladed propeller, 6 feet in diameter, direct connected with shafting running the entire length of the main frame. The two shafts will be operated by chains, geared on a ratio of about 2 to 1, and actuated by a thirty horse power motor. The propellers are so arranged that their position may be altered from the horizontal; those in front will be pointed upward and those in rear pointed downward, all at a uniform angle by means of a single lever. Running at 500 revolutions per minute they are designed to pull the apparatus from and to the ground and when the desired elevation has been obtained to pull horizontally through the air. A rudder, 6 feet high by 4 feet long has been provided to direct the craft in the manner usual with dirigible balloons.

MOTOR DESCRIBED

The four-cylinder motor, weighing 275 pounds, with the water cooling system, will be controlled with throttle and spark, jump spark ignition being provided with storage battery and a four-unit coil. A disc clutch, with cork inserts, is a part of the power plant. This makes it possible to run the motor without the revolution of the propellers. The motor will turn at the rate of about 1000 revolutions per minute.

The owners plan to have about 300 pounds to spare in the lifting power of their hydrogen gas envelope, when the framework with all of the mechanism has been attached and expect that two persons may be carried, although the craft may be operated by one. They

plan to make the craft a "heavier-than-air" machine, although not in the strict sense of the term, the idea being to have the loaded ''sky automobile" 5 pounds heavier than the air. With this in view they believe that the propellers will have only 5 pounds to lift from the ground, and that there will be much more than sufficient power for the purpose. Hydrogen gas will he made for inflation on the grounds of the C. L. Gray Construction Company, across the river. The first filling of the envelope will be superintended by H. E. Honeywell, the builder of that part of the craft.

W. J. Smith, the inventor, was compelled to refuse an invitation from The Aeronautic Society to bring his sky car to the aeronautical meet at Morris Park track. Election Day. After making inquiries of his engineers Mr. Smith found that he could not possibly get to Xcw York in time unless he did so without a preliminary trial here. Since his craft involves a theory that has never been tested, except with a model, he could not exhibit in New York without a preliminary demonstration. It is possible that the new apparatus will be taken to the next exhibition of the New York society.

aero club balloon-

The trial trip of the 80,000 cubic foot balloon, intended for the Aero Club of St. Louis is set for an early date. H. E. Honeywell will be the pilot and A. B. Lambert with two or three others will accompany him. The balloon is ready and the first ascension would have taken place last week if Mr. Lambert had not been out of the city.

It is not the intention of the aeronauts to make a long voyage or to ascend to a great height; the trail rope will be used as much as possible and the balloon kept near the ground. This is the French method of ballooning favored by Mr. Lambert and other well-known balloon pilots. If there is a wind blowing, the amusement provided is only second to that of riding in a Wright flyer or some trustworthy aeroplane. The balloon skims over the fences and trees with the speed of the wind—whatever that happens to be.

It is a serious fact, a balloon voyage across the Atlantic is definitely planned. Dr. Frederick J. Fielding, president of the Aero Club of San Antonio, has decided to undertake the hazardous trip, and has written to II. E. Honeywell of St. Louis asking him to build the balloon and to act as pilot. Honeywell con-

siders the matter settled and as soon as terms can be agreed upon will begin the construction of a 300,000 cubic foot gas bag. The start probably will be made from New York next summer.

The balloon will be the largest ever constructed. It will be spherical in form, 85 feet in diameter. The car will not be the usual basket, but practically a motor boat, 12 feet in length. It will be attached to the gas bag by one-quarter inch Italian hemp netting, closely woven. The motor in the boat will drive a detachable propeller while the balloon is in the air. If it becomes necessary to descend to the sea this propeller will be removed and one for use in water be substituted. The boat will be built from a special design, 11011-capsizable, and as light as possible. The aeronauts will dress warmly, but will use a stove consuming slacked lime for heating and cooking.

four davs for trip

"We do not expect to have to descend until we reach the other side—England or the coast of France," said Honeywell, when seen at his balloon works, "but we are going to be prepared for it. Somebody crossed in a row-boat once. But we are going to keep as high up as we possibly can. That is where we will get the fastest air current blowing east. There is no doubt about the current being there and we can find it. We ought to make the voyage in four days. I don't think it will take longer than that. In our trip from Chicago last July we moved at the rate of sixty or seventy-five miles an hour some of the time. We are not afraid of storms, because we can keep above them, but, just the same, we will choose the most favorable time of the year,—June or September."

try-out from san antonio

Before Dr. Fielding and Honeywell let go at New York for their perilous trip across the ocean they will try out the monster balloon from San Antonio. In this voyage they will endeavor to reach the Atlantic Coast. If the air currents prove unfavorable and have a tendency to send the aerostat out to sea, another starting point will be taken, so that a record-breaking voyage may be made. The gas bag will be tested for its holding power several weeks or a month. According to Honeywell it will be made so that it will sustain suffi-

THE MONTH ABROAD.

Note:—Complete foreign news for the month is mailed abroad on the ist. It usually takes ten days for the mail from various countries to reach us. This makes it impossible to assemble, set up, print and mail before the 20th of the month. Foreign news from the ist to the time of going to press must necessarily be cabled news and, of course, subject to errors. Any errors are corrected in the following month's issue which takes up the foreign news where it leaves off the month previous.

Austria.

The YVels & Etrich monoplane is nearly completed, driven by a 24 h.p. Antoinette motor with a single traction screw.

Belgium.

In the newly opened exposition for arts and crafts at Brussels is seen an ornithop-tere of M. De La Hault, furnished with a motor of 100 h.p.. of only 800 pounds total weight, a propeller for dirigibles by Mr. Kluytmans that is placed in the center of the car, and an aeroplane model by a Mr. Koch with improved stabilizing devices.

England.

Moore-Brabazon has received the triplane he ordered from the Voisin Brothers, and will soon start experimenting with it. It is provided with a regular make of automobile motor, the Metallurgique.

new prize.

The "Daily Mail" has offered a new prize of $2,500 to a gasless machine which flies over the English channel in either direction. The least width is 211/2 miles.

The British army aeroplane, the first trials of which were noted last month, was again tried out on September 29, when it accomplished 78 yards. After removing the auxiliary steering planes affixed to each side of the machine, the triangular tail which forms a prolongation of the upper surface towards the rear being increased in size, and the radiator which previously extended in a "V" form in front of the motor replaced by two narrow vertical radiators, one on each side of the motor. Further trials were made on October 14 during one of which the machine flew for a distance of

some 200 feet at a height of 10 feet. The aeroplane easily alighted after this short flight, terminated at the will of the operator, Mr. Cody, by depressing the forward steering plane.

Before equipping the machine with new and larger propellers, another trial was made on October 16 when, after a few preliminary runs on the ground, the machine made a fine flight of 400 yards at a height of about 30 feet. Landing was necessary on account of trees and broken ground. In attempting to avoid a clump of trees, Mr. Cody pulled the lever too .sharply, the machine tilted and struck the ground with the left extremity of the supporting surface. The flight lasted 27 seconds.

With the exception of a very short flight of Sir Hiram Maxim's machine, the above constitute the first public flights in England.

Description of Army Aeroplane. "Briefly, \he machine as first tried, consisted of two\iiperposed planes, constructed f" of canvas strervhed on a wood and metal framework, 40 ft\long by 7^ ft. in depth; the vertical distance between the /P^auesaQjje/^ being 8 ft^ The ruclHer is carried [in the rear. To each lateral >^tr^rlity" of tne"^rj^jg

A

lower plane is fixed a smifrkhorizontal M plane, working on a centre pivot) while on (jj^/y^fa^l the top of the upper plane, in the centre, parallel to the line of flight, is fixed a small vertical plane— ^fawtv^ % &z <x*Hc d[\ys+£d{& I

"The small auxiliary planes/are controlled

by the same lever that works Ih-e^mall vertical plane referred to, and are designed to s^^&Pk tilt the machine towards the inside when turning, or to preserve transverse eqnilib- 9 :v1>J>r( rium. They therefore fulfill precisely the same object as the flexing of the main planes employed by the Wrights. The hori-^j^^j zontal governor, a single surfacqf is car- k-yj*** riedHn__front; while a triangular horizontal tail is situated in the"rear^'Vt&tfW \M

"The operator is seated in\the centre of the machine between the surfaces. In front of him is the motor, which drives two double-bladed propellers, situated one on either side of the motor, and working in Mj-^ , the space between the surfaces. The motor * is an 8-cylinder. 50-h.p. Antoinette, water

and air cooled, and is the one used in the dirigible which has now been dismantled.

"The first trial was made at Farnborough on September 21. Mr. Cody drove the machine. The object of the trial was simplj to test the balance of the machine and the action of the steering devices no attempt at flight being contemplated. As a matter of fact, the aeroplane proved to be incorrectly balanced, the weight being too far forward. During the trial run—a speed of about 15-20 m.p.h. was attained—the right-hand pivot plane came into contact with a post and caused the machine to swing roung sharply. The aeroplane was immediately brought to rest, fortunately but slightly damaged.

"Further trial runs were made on September 24 and 28; but on neither occasion was a flight attempted. The longitudinal balance is still defective; but the side-steering has answered very well, the aeroplane describing circles of a very small diameter.'' (English "Aeronautics.")

France.

Wilbur Wright's Flights Total over 12 Hours—1 Hour 9 Minutes with Passenger—Wins Aero Club Prize and First Payment rv Weiller Syndicate—50 Miles in one Flight with Passenger.

It has been figured that the total duration of Wilbur Wright's 72 flights in France, up to Oct. 15, inclusive, amounted to 13 hours, 49 minutes, (will it take place "all in one sitting" next year?). Thirty persons have been carried, including three women and a boy, a total distance of 431 miles.

Wins $1,000.

In the 1 hour 7 minute flight of September 28, described last month, Wilbur Wright won the Commission d'Aviation prize of 5,000 francs, open to September 30 for a closed circuit flight of 5 kilometers.

Taking up Wright's flights from where we left off last month—on the 9th of October he made six flights of about 4 minutes average with Lazare Weiller, Baron Dcutsch and Engineer Rernheim as passengers. On the 8th, in addition to the names given last month, he carried up Griffith Brewer. Hon. C. S. Rolls and Frank H. Butler.

Another New Record—250,000 Francs Earned.

October 10. Wilbur Wright carried M. Painleve, of the Institute, for 1 hour 9 minutes 45^Seconds. The official distance was 55 kilometers, but considering the curves the probable actual distance was 80 kilometers. There was no wind blowing. The flight ended after dark, having been delayed on account of the mending of a wire stay made necessary by a false start. It was the third long passenger flight, having been preceded by one of 55 minutes, 37 seconds, and one of 1 hour, 4 minutes. 26 seconds. (See "Aeronautics" for October.) The Weiller syndicate has conceded that the flights have fulfilled conditions and have made the first payment of 250,000 francs.

Oct. 12, 2 min. 30 sec. with a passenger.

On October 15, two flights were made of 1 minute 38 seconds, and 2 minutes 35 seconds, carrying MM. Mercanti and Gas-nier. Wright stopped his motor when at a height of 120 feet and made a long smooth glide to earth.

On October 2^ Wilbur Wright, having taken his machine to Tour}-, made a flight of 6 minutes 40 seconds, covering 7 kilometers in a strong wind. On the 23rd he made another flight of 2 minutes 30 seconds, following which were flights carrying a passenger of 3 minutes 17 seconds, 4 minutes 58 seconds, and 3 minutes 2 seconds.

On the 28th Count de Lambert began his lessons as an apprentice-aviator. For his first lesson he had three flights of 12, 8 and 15 minutes.n Oil tTic following day" the master and pupil made three more. 7 minutes 5 seconds. 17 minutes 34 seconds, and 19 minutes 25 seconds.

On the 30th one of the connecting rods of the motor broke*^uuT_sni^ished through the crankcase wdiile the machine was in mid-air. The descent, however, was made without trouble.

In a recent interview Wilbur Wright stated that the success of his machine was especially due to the high efficiency of its propellers, that light motors were not essential and flight could as well be attained with a steam engine.

He claims 70% efficiency for his propellers.

The inhabitants of the Le Mans district have subscribed a considerable <imi for the

purpose of giving a special souvenir to Wilbur Wright when he leaves Le Mans.

The Aero Club of the United Kingdom has elected the Wright Brothers to honorary membership and presented their gold medal for 1908 to them.

A brilliant banquet was given by the Aero Club de France in honor of Wilbur Wright's French accomplishments on November 5. M. Louis Barthou, Minister of Public Works, presided. The affair was concluded by moving pictures, illustrating the great moments in the history of aviation, namely: The winning of the Deutsch-Archdeacon prize, the Armengaud prize, Commission of Aviation, etc., stimulating interest in the competition for the great aviation prize of 100,000 francs which is expected to be won next year in a flight from one country to another. The Aero Club's great gold medal was awarded to Mr. Wright.

Mr. Franz Reichel, who made the first "hour flight" as passenger on the Wright machine in France, has been the first one to accurately describe the wonderful sensation of human flying. He says: "If in an aeroplane going straight ahead is a delicious sensation, turning is a veritable intoxication. It was during these evolutions that I felt that the air was conquered, well conquered." The Aero Club of America was represented by Cortland Field Bishop, ex-president.

Tt is said that fully one hundred Wright aeroplanes have been ordered from the Societe Navale De Chantiers De France. They will be fitted with Bollee engines and be sold at $5,000 apiece. Count de Lambert and Vicomte De La Brosse will receive the first two. (This seems an "awful lie.")

FARM AN FLIES 44 MINUTES—MAKES A "CROSSCOUNTRY" RUN IN HIS MODIFIED MACHINE.

On September 30 in competition for the Aero Club 5,000-franc prize, Farman accomplished a flight of 35 minutes 36 seconds, covering 34 kilometers. On October 2 he succeeded in remaining in the air 44 minutes 32 seconds, covering 42 kilometers at Chalons. ^ ^

On the 28th Farman made /nother long flightfand again another of About., n- mile with M. Painleve aboard. Following these, other 1 alterations were made and for the

first time in the history of aviation a flying machine travelled from one town to another. Leaving the plains of Chalons on the 30th no stop was made until he landed just outside Rheims, a distance of 27 kilometers, 20 minutes later. Owing to repairs necessary and the growing darkness the return was made with an automobile. His course took him over the houses and trees and the photographs of the flight bear witness. The altitude varied between 50 and 100 meters (300 ft.).

The following day, just to show us that he could if he really tried, Farman won the $500 prize for height, passing above balloons 82 feet from the ground.

It is to be noted that the vertical surfaces which were on either hide of the aviator and motor when Farman's machine was in America, have now been moved out about half way between the operator and the end vertical surfaces, the idea being to improve stability.

Another Flight over Hills and Dales— Bleriot Makes 9 Miles in His _^ Monoplane. - V/ it"

On October 2 the Bleriot V-I-H^made a flight of 4 minutes. On the 22nd Bleriot tried for the "height prize" and accomplished a flight of 6 minutes 40 seconds in a gusty wind. On the following day another attempt was made but the motor stopped on account of too much gas feeding and in landing the machine was damaged. On 30th still another attempt was made, but the motor stopped.

The next dayVaftgjHl short flight in the morning, he set off in the afternoon for Artenay, a small village, and nine miles were covered before landing. After a few necessary repairs the monoplane started back but had to stop once on the way.

The Pelterie No. 2 has just been finished, on the general lines of No. 1.

Skipped in last issue—9 minutes 33 seconds flight of Delagrange on September 19.

The dirigible "Lebaudy" made a sortie the end of October and showed a speed of 30 kilometers an hour.

The new Bayard-Clement airship, mentioned last month, made its maiden trip on the 29th with seven on board. The journey lasted fifty minutes. It resembles very closely the "Ville de Paris" with the ex-

*2- *?»v«-*wA*o

ception that the stabilizing appendages at the rear, of which there are four, are from the side, pear-shaped.

There is a movement on foot to put Ader's flying machine "Avion," for which the first flight in history is claimed 15 years ago, in commission again and test it. High results are claimed for it even compared to the Wright flyer.

The French "Society of Dirigible Balloons" has issued a prize list, naming five different models of 600, 700. 800 and 900 cubic meters displacement, from one to three passengers carrying capacity. The "popular model,'' 600 cubic meters, 16 h.p., for one person, costs $5,000 the most expensive model, 900 cubic meters, 45 h.p., for five persons, $11,000.

Mr. Levavasseur, the inventor of the Antoinette motor, has an aeroplane ready for trial.

Mr. Daussct, Municipal Counsellor of Paris, seeing Farman and Delagrange in the air, has concluded that he would use all his influence to procure the very best testing grounds for flyers and also insists that the city of Paris subscribe to a new prize.

On the 17th of October, the "Malecot" dirigible made a successful flight.

New Prizes—in France.

The journal "L'Auto" offers 12,000 francs for a flight over Paris by a specified route.

i.oco francs have been subscribed as a nucleus for a prize for an aeroplane small enough to start and land on an ordinary highway.

i.oco francs by Aero Club de la Sarthe as a height prize, with conditions making it possible for Wilbur Wright to compete (he was excluded from the other prize for height for not starting by his own power only"). Captive balloons must be flown over at a height of 30 meters.

10.000 francs by the municipality of Nice for the organization of a "Grand Prix d'Aviation," through the Aero Club of Nice.

The city of Bagneres offers 10,coo francs through the French national aerial league to the first aviator who effects a (light from Bagneres-de-Bigorre to Pic-du-Midi de Bagneres.

lOO.oco francs are offered by the Aero Club of France as a new prize for aeroplanes, to be competed for in 1999.

f

Germany.

On October 24, the overhauled "Zeppelin I" was sailed for the first time. With all the improvements incorporated in it after the experiences with the ill-fated No. 4, it has proved a wonderful success. Prince Henry of Pru-ssfrf made a very extended trip of se^fff*hours on Oct. 27th, being so delighted by his experiences that he continued man)r hours longer than expected.

On Nov. 7th, the Crown Prince of Germany shared his experience. By the decision of General Von Einem, the Minister of War, the Zeppelin ship lias been bought by the war office.

The national subscription for the construction of Zeppelin airships totals nearly 7 million francs.

Italy.

The new Italian war dirigible has undergone its first trials very successfully over Lake Bracciano, with Major Morris, Captains Crocco and Ricaldoni and a mechanic. It is constructed on good scientific lines by Major Morris. The envelope possesses a fish-like form of least resistance. A second vessel will be forthwith constructed by the same designer.

Spain.

At the park of Guadalajara, Captain Kindelan and Mr. Torres Queredo are testing a small dirigible of 950 cubic meters. Tt has two 24 h.p. motors, driving two propellers of 1.5 meters diameter placed at both sides of the car.

THE GREAT FLIGHTS.

1.—Wilbur Wright: 1 hr. 31 mill., September 21, 1008.

2.—Orville Wright: 1 hr. 15 niin., September 12, iocS.

3.— Henry Farman : 44 min., October 2, 190S.

4.—Leon Delagrange : 30 min. 26 sec, September 17, 1008. 5.—Wilbur Wright: two-man flight, 1 lir.

9 min., October 10, 1008. September, 1908, will probably go down in history as the most eventful month in the history of aviation.

INTERNATIONAL AERONAUTICAL CONGRESS.

President: Professor Willis L. Moore. Secretary: Dr. Albert Francis Zahm. Chairman Gen'l Committee: Wai. J. Hammer. Chairman Executive Com.: Augustus Post. Sec'y Committees: Ernest La Rue Jones.

Publication Notice.

The addresses, papers and discussions presented to the Congress will be published serially in this magazine, and at the earliest date possible, bound volumes will be distributed without charge to those holding membership cards in the Congress. Others may purchase the volume at a consistent price when ready or may take advantage of immediate publication by subscribing to this magazine at the regular rate.

In accordance with the program as published in the November number, the informal addresses of the Gordon Bennett contestants and others were concluded before entering upon the printing of the formal papers and discussions.

The sixteenth paper is continued in this issue : "Principles involved in the Formation of Wing Surfaces and the Phenomenon of Soaring," by Professor J. J. Montgomery, of Santa Clara College.

PRINCIPLES INVOLVED IN THE FORMATION OF WING SURFACES AND THE PHENOMENON OF SOARING* By Prof. J. J. Montgomery

In a study of the parahola, we find it has an intimate relation to the tangent at its vertex and the circumference of an oscillatory contiguous circle, whose center is at its focus, as shown in fig. 10; "a h" is the directrix: "a ibi" the tangent, and 'c' the focus. In the evolution of the parabola, 'f g' = 'c g,' 'k h' = 'c h,' etc. Subtracting the distance, between the directrix and the tangent, from "f g," "k h," etc., and the radii of the circle from "c g" "c h," etc.,

the differences are equal, i e., the perpendicular distances from the circle are equal to those from the tangent. A further study of this development, shows that all these lines, "f g," "c g," etc., form equal angles with the tangents to the curve, at the points of intersection. From these two considerations we see,

♦Begun in the October issue.

that equal impulses from the tangent "a h" and the circumference of the circle, will meet at the curve, producing- resultants in the direction of the tangents at these points. And finally, according to a well known property of the curve, all impulses from the center, will he reflected from a parabolic surface in parallel lines (as 'j' 'j') ; and vice versa, all parallel impulses (as 'j' 'j'), reaching the surface, will be reflected to the focus "c."

Before making application of these properties, I must call attention to a phenomenon of jets or streams. If two jets impinge on one another, as shown in (fig. 10 a), the particles will escape at the point of impact, in lateral movements "c," "c." If the streams are equal, the point of impact will remain fixed; but if they are not, it will be driven from the stronger to the weaker jet.

The application of these various elements is shown in fig. II; "a h d" as a parabolic surface placed in a fluid, and "S" a jet fixed in the line "a b." When an impulse from this jet, impinges on the surface, it will develop pressures against the surface as shown in (fig. 9). But as it continually moves away from the tangent line "a b," it produces pressures on the adjacent fluid, as shown by the arrow "f." And further, as it moves along the curve, meeting the reaction of the fluid, as shown at "o," it produces the phenomena shown in (fig. 10 a). And as the direction of impact, is parallel with the tangent at this point, one element of the resulting lateral pressure, is against and normal to the curve; while the opposite element is towards the fluid mass, and in the direction the normal "m n." But an analysis of the normal, shows it is composed of two equal elements, one. "m c,"' pointing to the center "c," and the other, "m j," perpendicular to the line "a b.'' As this impact of the stream, and reaction of the disturbed fluid, takes places along the entire surface, producing a normal pressure at every point, there is a diversity of pressures in the fluid mass, which diversity is harmonized by the analysis given ; all the elements represented by "m c," going to the center ''c," to build up a center of pressure, while the elements represented by "m j," develop parallel pressures against the fluid. These pressures being parallel with those represented by "f," combine with the latter to produce a compound effect. 1st. They impart to the adjacent mass the movements "p p p," and this movement sets up a rotation around the center "c." 2nd. The reaction of the disturbed mass against the impulses "f" and "j," is transmitted as an impulse, back to the surface, and is reflected to the center "c," thus increasing the compression at this point. As might be surmised, the reflected impulses, to the center "c," would have a tendency to

drive it out of position, but the impulse '"s" (as an element building up this rotation), is an opposing force, keeping it in place. Owing to the concentration of the various lines of force, and the restraining influences, and because of the rotation, the point "c" becomes a center of pressure, from which there are constant

radiating impulses, which reaching the curve, are reflected from its surface in lines parallel with the first impulses. But, as a radiating center sends out equal impulses in equal angles, there is a new distribution of pressure on the curve, because of these radiated impulses. An inspection of fig. 10, will show that the angle "i c e" - - "e c d." Hence, the impulses falling on "a g," equal those falling on "g d." The point "g," then becomes the center of pressure on the curve, due to the radiated impulses from "c," while "h" is that, due to the parallel impulses from the first reactions, "f," of the moving particles against the curve. But between the points, "g," and "h," there should be another central point of pressures, due to the elements "m n," (fig. II). The reason for this will appear in the following consideration. Suppose we have a number of elastic particles in a straight line, and a constant force act on the first; each particle successively will react against the force, thereby building up a gradually increasing pressure, till the last is set in motion. And owing to these successive increments of reaction against the force, the pressure will be least at the last particle, gradually increasing in an arithmetical progression to the first. From this it would appear, that the elements, "m n," should increase in intensity from "d" to "a," thereby causing the central point of pressure, from these elements, to be located near the front edge, (approximately one third the total distance).

(Another conclusion from this principle of successive reactions is, the greater the number of particles in series, the more intense should be the pressure ; and as a general result of this, the intensity of pressure on a surface should increase with its dimensions. And in the special application to wing surface in gliding movement (where the escape at the ends is cut off by the length of the wings), the intensity should be proportional to the width.

This principle seems to receive confirmation in the following experiment. If a plane be placed in a constant stream, perpendicular to its surface, the elevation of the water will increase from its edges to its center. But if the plane be doubled in width, the elevation at the center will be much greater than in the first instance: and as the elevation maybe taken as an indication of the pressure, the conclusion is obvious.

In an experiment, illustrated in fig. 12, some of the phenomena mentioned are shown, "a b" are two surfaces coresponding to "a h d," fig. II, placed in shallow water: "j" is a jet of air, near and parallel with the surface. The jet sets up a stream on the surface, which is cut by the point "a" and flows along the curves, as shown at "d." In flowing along, these streams, "d," set up movements, as shown by the small arrows, which pass into rotations around the points

KIMBALL & COLVIN

LIGHT GASOLENE MOTORS

45 WEST 34th STREET NEW YORK

LIGHTEST COMMERCIAL MOTOR IN THE WORLD

4 Separate Engines in One. Each under Separate Control.

Daily Demonstrations at Morris Park Race Track.

CAPTAIN THOMAS S. BALDWIN

NEW YORK'S LEADING MANUFACTURER

BALLOON

AND AIRSHIP

PILOT AND MANUFACTURER

BALDWIN'S VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL

Used in the U. S. Gov. Dirigible and Spherical Balloons

will last from five to six times as long as a varnished balloon. The weight is always the same, as it does not require further treatment. Heat and cold have no effect on it, and ascensions can be made as well at zero weather as in the summer time. The chemical action of oxygen has not the same detrimental effect on it as it has on a varnished material. Silk double walled VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL has ten times the strength of varnished material. A man can take care of his PROOF balloon, as it requires little or no care, and is NOT subject to spontaneous combustion. Breaking strain 100 lbs. per inch width. Very elastic. Any weight, width, or color. Will not crack. Waterproof. No talcum powder. No revaruishiug. The coming balloon material, and which through its superior qualities, and being an absolute gas holder is bound to take the place of varnished material. The man that wants to have the up-to-date balloon, must use VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL. Specified by the U. S. SIGNAL CORPS.

Prices and samples on application

Box 78 Madison Square P. O.

NEW YORK.

"c." Particles of chaff on the surface reveal these movements, while pins fixed at the foci of the parabolic curves, and extending above the surface, assist in observation.

If the planes shown in the last experiment are placed in a stream "S," fig. 13, the same development of pressures takes place, but the complete rotations are hidden because of the general movement, though they substantially exist in a general wave line. In this system, there are three general elements of action and reaction; first and second are P> and C, which mutually hold one another in balance, and act reciprocally in building up and maintaining the various movements and pressures; and the 3rd; these combined, reacting on the exterior stream, according to the statements in the discussion of fig. 7. Should one of the elements, B for instance, be removed by taking away the curve "a d," the development would be destroyed and there would be an escape from "C" towards the side ''B." And in order to re-establish the pressures on the curve "a b," there must be a readjustment by which the necessary element is derived from the stream. An inspection of the figures, shows that the rotary tendencies around ''f," press upon those of "c" and also on the rear of the curve "a b." Then if we draw a tangent of this circle (f) to the point "b," and so place the curve that the stream comes from the point "m," we find the desired adjustment; though the pressures on the curve are derived from modifications of the ideal movements.

On placing the curve "a b," so that the stream approaches in the direction "m b," fig. 14, we test the adjustment as follows: Fine sand scattered at "a," on the bottom, by its movements, will indicate that the approaching stream is cut by the point or edge "a." But if this point be lowered, there will be a pressure on the upper surface, causing a whirl "S." Whereas if it be elevated, a reverse whirl, "f," is produced.

In fig. 15, we have an illustration of the complete system of movements in this adjustment. The stream, "S," gradually rises and is cut by the edge "b." The portion flowing below the curve, slows up and is more or less ill-defined in its movement. But pressing against the curve, causes the water level to rise, and passes out as shown by the arrows "g." Near the surface of the curve there are jerk)- movements as shown at "c c c." Above the surface, the current sweeps around "a," leaving a deep impression, but turns and descends against the rear upper surface; and conflicting with the currents coming around the rear point "e," produces a violent disturbance. Some of the current, around "e," takes the direction "n," but terminates in the whirl "m." In the rear the various movements combine and form a displaced current, traveling in the direction "f." parallel with the original stream. Owing to the pressure, exerted bv the descending current on the upper rear surface, the effectiveness of that, on the under surface is reduced. An inspection shows the height of water from "e" to "h," to be only a little more than that from "e" to "m." While, owing to the deep depression at "a," and the elevation from "b" to "h," the greatest effective pressure is located in this region. The general movement of the current forms a

wave line, this being a resultant of rotary movements and the rectilinear movement of the stream.

But the complete rotation, indicated by the large arrows, gives a positive demonstration, and may be produced as follows:

Let the velocity of the stream be gradually decreased till a reverse current takes place on the surface. This reverse current will carry all the floating particles towards upper end of the stream. In this movement, these floating particles serve as an indicator for any general tendencies in the water; and on reaching the region of the curved surface, take up the indicated rotation, continuing to rotate around the surface, with perfect regularity as long as the stream continues; while the suspended particles of chaff, reveal the varied movements within the stream. In passing, I must state, it is not easy to produce this surface whirl. The movement of the water must be perfectly regular and under perfect control as to velocity. There must be no irregularities in the channel, and the water must be as free as possible from viscosity and any surface film ; rain water being the only kind I have succeeded with.

While this seems to be the ideal of the form and position of a surface for receiving fluid impulses and developing the proper reactions, there are certain modifications to be introduced in practice, as will appear from the following: It will be noticed in these demonstrations, that the free movements of the water are referred to the front and rear edges, there being no escape around the edges at the bottom or the surface of the stream. But if we take a curved surface, narrow enough to be submerged, part of the fluid will escape over the upper edge, and the reactions necessary to produce the rising current in advance of the plane, are only partially developed. Hence to have the front edge cut the current.

it must be elevated. This elevation of the front edge, increases as the surface is more completely submerged ; as the escape of the water over the upper edge is thereby increased. But if portions of the front edge, as shown at "a, b," etc., fig. 16, be cut off, to allow for the deficiency in the rising current, the front edge of the curve may be lowered, so that the remaining portion of the curve may assume its proper position. The application of this is readily apparent in the wings of a soaring bird. Towards the center, i. e., near the body, the curvature is at its fullest development. But near the outer extremities, where the air partially escapes around the ends, the sharp front curvature disappears, the wing surface becoming less curved and more narrow.

(Continued in the December issue.)

The advantage of the flying machine over the balloon may be seen in this instance. C. J. Hendrickson shipped his aeroplane, "knocked down," from Middletown, N. J., to the grounds of The Aeronautic Society at the Morris Park race track by express at an expense of but $1.25. A balloon costs a score more times that.

It appears that the express companies have no express rate on flying machines and this particular one was shipped as a "boat."

American aviators have been in misery these days. Mosquitoes have the habit of biting the flying men in the back of the neck while navigating the air. The impossibility of "slapping" during flight is obvious. Here is a remedy, found to be efficacious. Pour on a cake of solid ammonia as much oil of lavender as it will absorb. Mosquitoes will immediately take to the woods

ASCENSIONS.

Note :—The first name given is always that of the pilot on the trip.

Oct. 2. J. H. Wade, Jr., ascended from Canton in the "You & I" of Leo Stevens and accomplished a trip of 30 miles, landing in a cornfield near Sherrodsville, O.

Oct. 3- Charles J. Glidden and W. K. Morison left Springfield in the "Boston" at 2 05 p. m., landing at Somers, Ct., at 5 p. m. Highest alt. 4,000 ft. Dist. 14 miles.

Oct. 6. Arthur T. Atherholt and V. S. Loder left Philadelphia in the "Initial" in the evening, landing early the following morning near Leesport, Pa.

Oct. 6. Charles J. Glidden and AI. N. Glidden left Springfield in the "Boston" at 3:10 p. m., landing at Ludlow, Alass., at 5:10. Highest alt. 3,000 ft. Dist. 10 miles.

Oct. 7. William F. Whitehouse, A. Leo Stevens and W. R. Cross left Pittsfield in the "Heart of the Berkshires" at 11 a. m. and landed at 1:15 at Wilmington, Vt. Greatest altitude 5,300 ft. Passed over two deer just before making landing.

Oct. 10. Charles J. Glidden and Hiram Percy Maxim left Springfield in the "Boston" at 2:53 P- m- landing at 4:53 p. m. at Middle-field, Mass. Highest alt. 3,500 ft., dist. 36 miles. This makes 758 aerial miles for Air. Glidden and nearly 49 hours in the air in 24 ascensions.

Oct. 14. A. Leo Stevens and Air. and ATrs. Charles T. Shean left Springfield in the "Boston," landing at Belchertown two hours later. The same course was followed the following day by Alessrs. Van Sleet, Stevens and Airs. Stevens.

Oct. 15. William Van Sleet and Air. and Airs. Stevens started from Pittsfield in the "Heart of the Berkshires" at 10:40, landing

2 hrs. 50 min. later at Granby, Alass., after covering 65 miles. The wind started to blow the balloon back over its course and the descent was decided upon.

rack with automobile.

Oct. 17. Carl G. Fisher, with G. L. Rnin-baugh as pilot, started from Indianapolis at

3 o'clock, followed by a big six automobile. A change of current took the balloon out of sight of the car and after that the chasing had to be done with the aid of the telephone. When the balloon landed 65 • miles north of

Indianapolis near Al lami, the ear was far behind and before it caught up the balloon had all been packed up for return. Air. Fisher has ordered a balloon from Captain Bumbaugh.

Oct. 17. A. Leo. Stevens, A. B. Wallace, Jr., and D. F. Burritt left Springfield at 1 :55 in the balloon "Boston" and after being in the air 1 hr. 35 min. landed at "Water Pond" on the outskirts of the city, covering about 3 miles. Highest alt. 3,000 ft.

J. H. KENNY, MEMBER OF THE AERO CLUB OF Oil 10, TELLS OF THE ASCENT OF OCT. 21.

On October 21st at exactly 12 o'clock the balloon "All America" with 80,000 cubic feet capacity, ascended from the park in Canton of the Aero Club of Ohio having on board Aeronaut Leo Stevens, acting pilot; William H. Stolzenbach, William Gschwend, John Rommel and J. H. Kenny, all members of the Aero Club, as passengers. The getaway was a fine spectacle and the 2,000 spectators gave us a great ovation in the way of cheers, swinging of hats and handkerchiefs.

We immediately mounted to an altitude of 3,000 feet going in a northwesterly direction, getting at once above the smoke and haze in the atmosphere and almost out of sight of land. For an hour we were completely lost. Our compass showed that we were drifting northwest by north and we think we passed over the Summit Reservoir, where we struck a westerly current which carried us at an altitude of about 1,500 feet over Warwick. Here we got in communication with the people on the ground who gave us our bearings, telling us we were passing over Warwick in a westerly direction. From this point we floated over Fasten stil! going west, and we were a happy bunch as we had vision of larding in Indiana. Then over Ritteman Station, then went west by north over the town of Ritteman, then directly northwest over Seville. Here we had difficulty in getting people to answer our questions. We were going at great speed and they wanted to know who we were; where we were from, and where we were going. To this last question we laughingly answered "We don't know." Finally a little girl whose voice carried up to us plain and distinct, informed us that we were headed northwest and passing over Seville. We had been so busy talking to the people that the first

thing we knew, we found we were descending rapidly and in a few seconds our drag line was running along after us, 30 feet of it on the ground. Here we discovered how precious a bag of sand, which we looked upon as common old dirt which could be scooped up anywhere, is in the mind of an aeronaut. By quick work Mr. Stevens got rid of bags, which he mourned over for fully ten minutes, when we began to ascend again, going up until we reached an altitude of around 1,200 feet, where Mr. Stevens endeavored to keep her. He explained to us the difficulty of keeping a balloon on a perfect equilibrium.

Leaving Seville, we passed directly over Chippewa Lake where our course changed to northwest by north carrying us over Whittlesey and on over Litchfield Station and the town of Litchfield. Here our course was again changed to directly northwest, then we floated on over LaGrange where the inhabitants informed us we were within eight miles of Oberlin. It seemed but ten minutes when upon calling down to a couple of farmers, who by the way, wanted us to come down and have some cider, we were informed that we were one-half mile from Oberlin. We calculated that we were not over 11 miles from Lake Erie towards which we were drifting rapidly, and as none of us had any desire to try navigating the Great Lakes in a balloon, we decided to land in Oberlin, "a dry town.''

Mr. Stevens selected a point where to land. He gave Mr. Stolzenbach instructions to cast anchor which upon striking ground, bounded along, tearing a section out of a rail fence, then caught in the soft ground of a cornfield where it soon took hold and we were once more on terra firma, so quick that we could hardly realize that our trip was over. We got busy at once folding up the bag and netting, sacking them for shipping, in the meantime getting one of the one hundred people, who seemed to have sprung up out of the ground upon our landing, to go after a rig to take us and our outfit to the express office where we arrived at 5:20, one hour and ten minutes after landing. We left Canton with 28 bags of sand and had 6 bags left when we landed.

Aeronaut Stevens took the utmost pains to fully explain every part of his work in handling the balloon and what would be done under certain conditions, etc., which was exceedingly interesting to us as we all of us fully expect to become full fledged pilots.

Ballooning is certainly the most exhilarating sport that the writer ever participated in and we all look forward with the greatest anticipation to another ascension.

Oct. 22. Harlan T. Pierpont, who is qualifying as official pilot of the Springfield Aero Club, made his third ascension in the "Boston" with Capt. T. S. Baldwin at 12:15, landing two hours later in Feeding Hills, six miles away.

Oct. 22. William Van Sleet and Dr. S. S. Stowell left Pittsfield in the "Heart of the Berkshires" at 11 a. m., landing at North Hilton, N. Y., near Saratoga, shortly after 3 p. m. Distance about 125 miles. They did not break thè previous distance record from Pittsfield held by them of 135 miles to Kingston, N. Y.

Oct. 24. A. H. Morgan, A. Leo Stevens and H. H. Timken made a fine flight from the Canton club's grounds at 1 :55 p. m., landing at 5:15 near Hunterstown in Northeastern Ohio, about 70 miles from Canton.

Mr. Johnson Sherrick, President of the Aero Club of Ohio, tells of the landing as follows : "The farmer on whose place they landed kindly invited them to supper, which they very gladly accepted. Imagine Mr. Stevens' surprise on being introduced to the » farmer's wife as the great aeronaut, Leo Stevens," the woman announced that she was his long lost relation. She seemed also very glad that she had a good meal on the table for him and his two fellow sailors of the air."

Oct. 26. Lieut. Frank P. Lahm, Lieut. B. D. Foulois and Lieut. J. G. Winter made an ascent in the "Signal Corps 11" from Washington at 12:23, landing at Annapolis, Md., at 2:53 p. m., a distance of 28 miles.

Oct. 27. Dr. Thos. E. Eldredge, Dr. Geo. H. Simmerman. Mrs. Thos. Rose and Mrs. Win. A. Norcross made a trip in the "Philadelphia,"1 from Philadelphia, landing 2 miles east of Bordentown, N. J. Highest alt. 9,300 ft.

A TRIP IN THE RAIN. '

Oct. 28. A novel experiment in ballooning never before tried in New England and probably never attempted in the whole country, was made here today in sending up the balloon "Pittsfield in the Heart of the Berkshires" during a pouring rainstorm. Aeronauts have speculated considerably as to what might be the result of such an experiment, some contending the balloon would immediately be

driven back to earth by the cloud-bursts. The results were therefore interesting as practically settling the controversy, proving that a ■ balloon would not only remain up, but might be brought back to the earth's surface and elevated a second time without refilling.

The balloon had been inflated for the proposed trip of Charles J. Glidden, and Win. Carroll Hill, of the Associated Press, of Boston, who arrived from Boston on the i 125 p. m. train. Owing to the heavy rain and the fact the visitors desired to make a longer trip than would be possible under the conditions. William Van Sleet and Dr. Sidney S. Stowell, both of Pittsfied, proposed the experiment of making the ascension in the rain.

The drip of the rain from the bag poured in a stream from the appendix of the balloon over the heads and shoulders of the aeronauts as they took their place in the basket and were cast off. While ordinarily 460 pounds of sand ballast would be required to balance the balloon on rising, so heavy was the balloon from absorption of water that six bags, or 240 pounds, balanced the balloon. One bag was exhausted in rising and the balloon went to 1,000 feet above the city.

For more than half an hour the balloon hung almost motionless, the slight drift being to the southeast over the city. Being the first time of the many ascensions here that a balloon rising from the gas works a mile to the east has traveled over the city. The residents flocked to the streets and windows, schools were let out and store keepers and shop hands quit work to gaze at the balloon.

Meanwhile President Luke J. Minahan of the Aero club of Pittsfield with Charles J. Glidden, Wm. Carroll Hill and Superintendent Crafts of the Pittsfield gas works, followed the balloon in an automobile, conversing with the aeronauts by megaphone constantly as the balloon passed over the principal streets of the city. 1 Contrary to expectations the balloon was not beaten down by the rain but maintained its 1000 feet elevation, even rising to nearly 2000 feet at one time.

Two miles southeast of the city the balloon was brought down by use of the escape valve, three elderly women rushing from their homes and excitedly pulling on the drag rope bc-for the automobile part}' could reach the scene.

Dr. Stowell left the bag and Superintendent

Crafts took his place and a second start was made, this time for an elevation of 4000 feet, or 2500 feet above the city, and a half hour's trip of a mile drift in the same southwesterly direction, after which the balloon was pulled down again by the drag rope by the automo-

g. l. bumbaugh and carl g. fisher

ix the; "newest stunt."

bile party but one bag of sand ballast being used.

The experiment proved beyond question the possibility of a balloon rising in a rain storm and of preserving an admirable equilibrium under such conditions.

The trip was the tenth for the pilot Van Sleet, the fourth for Dr. Stowell and the first for Superintendent Crafts.

As soon as the balloon is properly dried it will be shipped to Fitchburg where Mr.

Glidden and Mr. Hill will make an ascension, to be followed by nine other trips with Mr. Glidden as pilot.

Oct. 28. G. L. Bumbaugh, W. G. Wall and M. E. Haywood left Indianapolis and landed near Franklin, Ind. Duration 2 hours 15 min.

Oct. 30. William Van Sleet and M. Monard made an ascension in the balloon "Greylock" from North Adams in a northwes_Lgale landing at Whately, a distance of 40) miles, The rip cord had to be used in landing.

Oct. 30. Capt. G. L. Bumbaugh and Carl G. Fisher made the first ascension of its kind. In place of the basket, Mr. Fisher used a Stod-dard-Dayton automobile, for which he is the Indianapolis agent. The car was attached to the load ring of Coey's balloon "Chicago," in the usual manner and the ascent begun. A successful landing was made near Dayton, O., the balloon packed in the car and the run home made on four wheels. Though in the air 1 hour and 50 minutes only 7 miles were made. 700 lbs. of ballast were carried, the automobile being stripped of all superfluous weight.

Oct. 31. J. H. Wade, Jr., A. H. Morgan and H. Rendell left Canton at 11 ¡30 and made the longest flight yet made from the grounds of the Ohio Canton club . They landed in the evening at Coal Center, Pa., 140 miles away.

Nov. 2. L. B. Haddock, Mrs. Haddock, Norman Kenan and Walter Collins made a trip from Cincinnati.

Nov. 6. William Van Sleet and Win. Carroll Hill left Pittsfield in the "Heart of the Berkshires" and descended 3 miles east of Lunenburg, 1 '**<?s. After passing through B.tQrin' clouds to the height of 5.000 feet and the sun and moon were visible west and east while a squall raged down below-. The rip cord had to he used in making a rather rough landing.

An ascension was also made by A. Leo Stevens, Harlan T. Pierpont and Mr. Smith in the balloon "Boston" from Springfield. The details have not been received.

A. Leo Stevens entertained N. H. Arnold and H. J. Hcwat, who sailed one of the balloons entered by America in the Gordon Bennett, on their return to this country.

"Prof." Samuel A. King is looking for $25,000 to equip a balloon expedition to cross the Atlantic. Aero club members please communicate.

ACTIVITY IN ST. LOUIS. (Continued from page 29)

cient weight for at least one week from a single inflation.

"If anything should happen to the envelope while we are making the ocean voyage," said Honeywell, "so that the gas goes out, it will act as a parachute, and if there is any wind at all it will not fall on us when we strike the water, but blow out ahead. We would be able to cut it loose, if necessary. If it should lose gas so that we should have to get down on the water, we might be able to use the balloon as a sail, while still attached to the boat-car. The suspending netting and ropes will be so long that the car will hang about 75 feet below the gas bag."

Dr. Fielding has received a pilot balloon from Honeywell for immediate use in testing the gas at San Antonio. On account of the pre-occupation that the coming ocean voyage will require, Honeywell has temporarily abandoned the construction of his racing dirigible, but will carry out his plans later, he hopes.

BOOKS.

commission permanente internationale

d'aéronautique.—The complete proceedings of the session held at Brussels on the 12th to 15th of September, 1907. 200 pages, with figures, drawings and illustrations. Papers include technique of balloons and dirigibles, meteorological observations, the making of hydrogen gas, etc. Published by H. Dunod et E. Pinat, 49 Quai des Grandes-Augustins, Paris, at 7 francs.

wiE fliegt der vogel, by Karl Milla. A 28-page illustrated pamphlet on the flight, soaring and power of various birds. Published by B. G. Teubner, Leipzig, Germany, at 1 mk.

the war in the air, by H. G. Wells. Macmillan Co. has just gotten out H. G. Wells' famous fiction work in book form, 395 pages, 8vo., illustrated. The story is most realistic and the author displays a good knowledge of aeronautics. For sale by "Aeronautics," 1777 Broadway, New York, at $1.50.

St. Louis, Mo.—Airships.—Emil Baumann Manufacturing Co. incorporated by Emil Baumann, Adolf Baumann. Edward Seib, and others.

THE INCREASED LIFTING EFFECT OF CURVED AEROPLANES. (Continued from page 10)

exerts a minute constant pressure so long as it is in contact, which, as we have seen, foots up to the same amount as in the first and double that of the second case. The direction of the pressure is in all three cases the same; that is normal to the surface and the horizontal over

b

the vertical components is equal to-^- (Fig. 4)

just as in the case of the reactive stratum, already discussed.

It is interesting here to notice that the above conclusions hold good whatever the slant of the surface, or the angular length of the circular arc. A familiar illustration is that of the Pelton water wheel bucket, in which the arc approaches 1800, and the impinging stream of water is thrown back nearly parallel to its original direction. The economy of using this form of bucket rather than a flat one has long been known and understood.

Returning to the non-elastic ball, we have thus seen not only that it exerts twice the pressure on a circular surface as on a plane under like conditions, but by considering the stresses and strains within the ball we have been aide to understand pretty clearly why it does so.

We cannot follow clearly the pressures and motions that take place when a surface travels obliquely through the air, because the}' are very involved; we do know, however, that a narrow stream of air, which we have called "reactive stratum" behaves exactly like the non-elastic ball. When the stream of air is indefinitely wide, or what is the same thing, when a surface passes obliquely through a large body of air, we cannot therefore be far wrong, in attributing the lower pressure of the plane as compared to the curved surface to the same fact; that is, the plane makes more useless disturbance in the air and dissipates more energy in useless eddy currents or internal friction.

At Los Angeles, on Nov. 8th, there is to be a balloon contest in which attempts will be made to break the world's record for distance, the prevailing winds being towards the east. The old balloon "United States" and the "American," which A. Leo Stevens recently sold to St. Paul people, are entered. All the balloons will be filled with hydrogen. Of course, this will cost an enormous sum of money, but the results will be proportionate. Horace B. Wild, of Chicago, who many will remember with pleas-

ure at the dirigible races at St. Louis last year, will pilot the "United States."

ARMY NEWS.

The dirigible balloon arrived at Washington, D. C, from St. Joseph, on Oct. 12th. It has since been repaired, and several minor changes made in the car and gas bag. A speaking tube has been provided connecting the engineer and pilot, and the front section of the car has been entirely covered. It is now ready for inflation and will be operated on the drill grounds at Ft. Alyer in the near future.

Advertisements have been sent out inviting bids for the purchase of 250 gas cylinders for transporting compressed hydrogen. An ascension was made by officers of the Signal Corps on Oct. 26. 190S.

Air. Herring arrived with his aeroplane on Oct. 12th. The parts of the machine and engine were inspected by the Aeronautical Board of the Signal Corps at the balloon shed, Ft. Myer, Va., on Oct. 13th, at which time formal delivery of the machine was made. Air. Herring left that evening with his machine to make his preliminary trials at some other point. He is to return and make the official trials at Ft. Alyer within 30 days from date of delivery on Oct. 13, 1908.

The Wright Brothers have been granted an extension of nine months in the delivery of their machine, i.e., until June 29, 1909.

PATENTS.

Compiled monthly by Alunn & Co., 361 Broadway, New York.

Flying Alachinc, A. II. Friedel, 900,844; Flying Machine, H. B. Schiller, 901,486.

Horace B. Wild, of Chicago, Edward F. Herbert, Ernest & Claude Lloyd, J. C. Scott, Ray Harroun, and Carl Bates have, with the help of influence and some of the Chicago newspapers, obtained permission from the President of the South Park Board to use the golf grounds of Washington Park in Chicago to test out the flying machines now under construction by these late students of flying. Air. Wild has also granted permission to use the large White City garage which is about a block from the golf grounds, in which to house the machines and to do any machine work or repairing which may be necessary.

BALL BEARINGS.

Among the many attempts to conquer the airi working parts of the various mechanisms employed have been the cause of. more or less trouble on account of the extra power required to overcome friction.

Shafts running in solid bearings consume considerable power, require continual adjustment and lubrication and as a general rule have proven very unsatisfactory.

A number of leading aviators have adopted ball bearings to overcome this trouble with remarkable results as they nearly eliminate friction, require no adjustment or attention and only enough oil to prevent rust. At the high speed necessarily attained, solid bearings often run dry and the shaft and bearing cutting into each other stick fast. Should this occur at a high altitude the results would be disastrous and even the possibility of such a condition would be eliminated by the use of ball bearings.

On propeller shafts, whether vertical or horizontal, there is when propeller is in motion con. siderable end thrust which should be taken care of by thrust bearings of the ball type as they will greatly relieve the load on the motive power.

Ball bearings require much less space on the shaft than solid bearings and require much less care to keep in alignment.

On account of their general adaptability to Aeronautics, especial attention is called to the R. I. V. Annular and Thrust Ball Bearings as they are light, strong and reliable under all conditions and are used by the leading aeronauts with very satisfactory results.

A number of models showing the application of these bearings are on exhibition at the salesroom of the R. I. V. Co., 1771 Broadway, New York and their catalogue No. 19 shows the sizes made and carried in stock.

NOTES.

At a meeting of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers in New York, to be held on the morning of December 2nd, there will be a paper presented on the subject of aeronautics by Major Geo. O. Squier, Acting Chief Signal Officer, Washington, D. C. This paper, together with the popular lecture upon the same subject by Lieutenant Lahm, to be given in the evening of the same day, will form the most important and striking presentation of aeronautics that has been given in this country.

This is the first time that aeronautics has been considered by any of the national engineering societies of America. It is only now that the science of flying by mechanical means has been developed to the point where it would be thought advisable to place a record of the achievement and a statement of problems involved in the publications of an American engineering society. In taking this important step, the Society is to be congratulated on having its material from so authoritative a source and presented by engineers so unbiased and able as the two officers who are to appear before it at the December meeting. The data, photographs and drawings placed at the disposal of the Society for these papers are obtained through the courtesy of the War Department, where every bit of obtainable information upon aeronautics is on file, not only in respect to the work accomplished by the government and individuals in this country, but by governments and individuals abroad.

On Oct. 23rd, Prof. Carl E. Myers sent up a balloon which was exploded at a considerable height with a view to inducing a downfall of rain which was so much needed at the time.

In view of the many discussions in the past on the matter of the practicability of producing rain by explosions in the air, the report of Prof. Myers is of considerable interest.

"The mixed gases were placed in a balloon of 25 feet diameter, of 8,200 cubic feet capacity, early Saturday morning, the earliest moment possible for charging the largest vessel ever used for aerial concussions. The weather throughout these preparations was attended with an unusually high barometer, ; dicating 'set fair' weather, distinctly unfavorable, as previous frosts had caused precipitation of any excess moisture in aerial suspension.

"A slight fall of the barometer Friday night, with warmer weather on Saturday, and high winds from east of south near the ground, opposed by contrary winds higher up, made the management of the struggling balloon difficult to control, and impracticable to remove to a distance for explosion till after 4 p. m. Saturday, October 24, when it was carried with the wind and the aid of 16 men bearing the ballast bags weighing 90c pounds, to a ravine about a mile northwest

from the balloon farm, whence with four slow matches simultaneously fired, it ascended .about one mile, while drifting some seven miles in about seven minutes when the expected explosion occurred, accompanied by a brilliant burst of red-white flames which assumed the form of a cloud or rift, vertical instead of horizontal, as bright sun-lit rifts in clouds are. This fiery object grew darker and two descending gleams of light streamed fi om it.

"This brilliant spectacle lasted a few seconds, and after an interval of about 40 seconds a rumbling detonation was heard indicating a distance of about eight miles, and quite remarkable because it had to advance to us against the wind, which usually blows sound away. I have never before heard a noticeable report from an aerial explosion further away than 800 feet against wind currents.

"At 6 p. m. Saturday, the 24th, the barometer had fallen slightly, not reaching 'change.' At about 2 Sunday morning, with increasing wind, rain fell first slightly, increasing till morning, and at intervals during the forenoon and evening. The unfavorable conditions prevailing at the time of explosion were the high barometer and a reverse wind from the Adirondacks. at a high elevation and velocity, driving clouds or smoke away from tin. forests, while our lower or ground wind moved northward to feed forests fires."

COMMUNICATIONS.

To the Editor:—

My patent for a flying machine granted j' •■' 30th is designed to act as a bird's wing in that its aeroplane is filled with valves which act as do the feathers in a bird's wing, in that they open on the up thrust and close on the down pull. If you examine a bird's feathers, you will notice on one side of the quill is a narrow flange, on the other side it is broader. Further it will be observed that the broad side is always underneath the narrow side of its neighbor, so that on the up thrust of tin wing, the air forces the broad side to tilt down and the wing goes up with the greatest freedom, and on the down stroke the air forces the feathers to close thus offering full resistance to the air and thereby raising the birds from the ground.

I am convinced that this action is automatic as regards the movement of the feathers, the bird simply flaps his wing and the air does the rest. It is not possible to imitate the bird in toto in the construction of a flying machine with flapping wings for several reasons. In the first place, you are acting from the wrong end of a lever and it would require so much force to work the wing with sufficient velocity that the requisite power to do the work would glue you to the ground; too much wing surface would be required, and the down stroke would not develop enough power to compensate for the lost motion of the up stroke; again, the jar would be so great that your wing would be racked to pieces in a very short time.

In my study of bird flight, I have been convinced that some principle in the wing would have to be followed, but that the method of raising from the ground would have to differ. I would have a system of fans to be rotated with a sufficient velocity to create enough draught to raise the aeroplane from the ground.

In raising this aeroplane by this method, there will be a steady pull upward with no jar and I believe it will take less power to raise this apparatus than the method now in vogue and when once in the air, the matter of gliding and steering is an easy matter, comparatively. I estimate my aeroplane made of aluminum 20 x 30 feet with its necessary bracing, operator, motor, fans, fuel and etc. will not weigh more than 1500 pounds, maybe less.

Am not able to determine how much power will be required but light motors of great power are now made for this very purpose.

This is the first aeroplane which embodies in its construction the function of the bird's feathers, the valves small so as to act quickh on a full sized aeroplane. Would judge 4 x 14 in. would be about right.

I sec some one suggests the bee as a model to follow out but that is getting into still deeper water. I am satisfied the bird lifts itself with the primary feathers of its wing and that the balance of the wing, together with its tail, form the complete a«.ioplane and it is the primary feathers after which I model my aeroplane with its opening and closing valves.

E. M. La Penotiere.

FIELDING—SAN ANTONIO

70,000 Cu. Ft. Built and Piloted by HONEYWELL

WINNER LONG DISTANCE AND ENDURANCE CUPS

CHICAGO A. C. CONTEST, JULY 4, 1908

against a field of eight

THE DEFEATED

ILLINOIS, 72,000 cu. ft., J. L. Case, Builder.

UNITED STATES OF MINNEAPOLIS, 70,000 cu. ft., Mallet, Builder. CHICAGO, 110,000 cu. ft., Bumbavgh, Builder.

COLUMBIA, 75,000 cu. ft., Bumbaugh, Builder.

AMERICA OF ST. PAUL, 78,000 cu. ft., LEO STEVENS, Builder. KING EDWARD, 65,000 cu. ft., Canada.

CINCINNATI, 87,000 cu. ft., Haddock, Builder.

VILLE DE DIEPPE, 65,000 cu. ft., Mallet, Builder.

Honeywell with a. b. Lambert, Aero Club de France pilot, discharging ballast to avoid high smoke stacks.

Our material and workmanship speak for themselves. Write for samples and prices.

FRENCH—AMERICAN BALLOON CO.

H. E. HONEYWELL, Director

3958 Cottage Avenue, St. Louis, U. S. A.

|0L. Ill

DECEMBER, 1908

No. 6

BALLOON

RAGES

Berlin, 10, 11, 12 October

Point to Point Contest:—Winner Herr Meckel in the balloon Elberfeld made of CONTINENTAL Balloon Sheeting.

Gordon Bennett Race :—The Swiss

balloon Helvetia, pilot Col. Schaeck, remained in the air about 72 hours, beating the duration record, heretofore of 52 hours, 32 minutes by not less than 20 hours. According to a telegraphic report from Col. Schaeck to the "Berliner Tageblatt," the balloon behaved and preserved excellently in the storm and weather. The Envelope of the "Helvetia," which by this splendid result, made a duration record that has up to the present time been unattained by anyone, is made of CONTINENTAL Balloon Sheeting.

CONTINENTAL CAOUTCHOUC AND GUTTA PERCHA COMPANY

Hanover, Germany

NEW YORK BRANCH =. = = = . 1790 Broadway

R. I. V. RADIAL BALL BEARINGS

Used by Leading Aviators.

Light in weight-Strong and

Durable.

Variety of t3rpes and sizes in stock.

Absolutely Guaranteed.

All Sizes Hoffmann Steel Balls on Hand.

Send for Catalogue 19.

R. I. V. CO. 1771 Broadway, New York

612310

AERONAUTICS

Main OfBee 1777 Broadway New York

Published by AERONAUTICS PRESS, Inc. Wm. Getttnger, Pres. E. L. Jones, Treas.-Sec.

304 No. 4th St. St. Louis

Entered as second-class matter September 22, 1908, at the Postoffice, New York, N. Y., under the Act of

March 3, 1879.

Vol. Ill

December, 1908

No. 6

Aeronautics is issued on the 20th of each month. It furnishes the latest and most authoritative information on all matters relating to Aeronautics.

SUBSCRIPTION RATES.

One year, $3.00; payable always in advance.

Subscriptions may be sent by express, draft, money order or registered letter. WE CAN NOT USE CHECKS ON LOCAL BANKS UNLESS EXCHANGE IS ADDED. Send draft on New York. Make all remittances free ot exchange, payable to Aeronautics. Currency forwarded in unregistered letters will be at sender's risk.

Foreign Subscriptions.—To countries within the postal union, postage prepaid, $3.50 per annum in advance. Make foreign money orders payable to Aeronautics. No foreign postage stamps accepted.

Important.—Foreign money orders received in the Uuited States do not bear the name of the sender Foreign subscribers should be careful to send letters of advice at same time remittance is sent to insure proper credit.

MEN OF THE AIR IN CARTOON.

Novel Series of High Class Caricatures of Some of the Aero Clubs' Well

Known Men.

Commencing in this issue, we begin to print a series of cartoons of the leading members of the aero clubs of America. They will prove very interesting, and no one should miss any of the series.

The work is done by one of the best caricaturists in the country, one who has succeeded in bringing out the characteristics of many of the well known members in the most artistic and attractive fashion. The entire novelty of the idea at once attracts

attention, and the clever execution further commends the enterprise.

When the series is complete, the plates will be printed on vellum, hound in ooze calf, lined with silk, and printed under the club colors. These books will be a very handsome souvenir of the men who have done much to advance aerial locomotion.

Watch each issue for "Men of the Air in Cartoon," beginning in this number.

 

NOTE.

   

The supply of July

August and Sep-

We wouh

be very glad

to hear of

tember, 1907, and Fe

>ruary, Jul}', Aug-

any copies

of these issues

which we

usl and September,

1008, copies is en-

may secure

to supply the

>resent de-

tirely exhausted.

 

mand.

   

FRENCH GOVERNMENT $20,000 SUBSIDY FOR AVIATION.

In view of the lack of "real" interest in aeronautics in this country, and the good work which is being done abroad by the various aerial leagues, aeronautical organizations, prize-giving individuals, syndicates and municipalities, it is of "surpassing" interest to note that Baron d'Estournelles de Constand has asked the French Government what steps it proposed to take to encourage "aviation." M. Barthou, Minister of Public Works, replied that a sum of 100,000 francs would be inscribed in his budget for the encouragement of aerial locomotion, the Government reserving the right to decide how it should be spent. In his opinion, the Government should do its best to place open spaces at the disposal of aeronauts.

SCIENTIFIC BALLOONING AND WEATHER FORECASTING.

Following our many articles begging that balloonists increase the pleasure and value of their trips by taking observations and furnishing same to the Weather Bureau, the "Monthly Weather Review" for September, published by the U. S. Weather Bureau, contains an article by Dr. Bamler entitled "Scientific Ballooning And Weather Forecasting."

This article shows how valuable balloon ascensions may be made for forecasting.

BALLOONING OR AVIATION.

"I do not feel at liberty to renew my subscription owing to so little space given to the sport of ballooning. Your effort seems to be directed toward voluminous detail, relating to aviation. If the same effort were devoted to the sport of ballooning, then 'Aeronautics' would become a very interesting medium for the balloonist and aviator alike. Please send me copy of 'Ballooning As A Sport,' by Major B. Baden Powell."—Subscriber.

* * *

We have tried our best to give equal space and prominence to events in aerostation and aviation but here is a good strong "kick."

We would be glad if the readers of this journal would favor us with their ideas as to whether we have neglected aerostation, and whether we should give more, or less, space to same

Every balloon ascent made during the year has been recorded, often with the personal experience of the passengers; we have given full details of the Army dirigible; we have told of each new dirigible built abroad by individuals and governments; we have recorded all the balloon races and long distance and duration trips; Dr. Wegener has told us of his record trip of 52 hours just beaten in the Gordon Bennett.

No important event in aerostation (or aviation) has occurred anywhere in the world that has not been recorded. Those who read the foreign aeronautical journals know that this magazine gives more news and data than any foreign publication. And as this is the only aeronautical journal in America it does not appear to us at first sight that the criticism made by Mr. * * is quite legitimate—but we would like to hear from those for whom the magazine is published.

* * *

And we have received a letter asking why we don't "cut out antiquated balloons".

Now, if Santa Clans presented you with an editorship, what would you do?

IMPORTANT NOTICE.

In the November advertisement of The Adams Co., makers of the Adams-Farwell aeronautic motor, we erroneously stated the weight per horsepower to be "27" lbs. This should have been, of course, "2.7" lbs. per h.p.

FLYING AND ART.

The illustration on the front cover this month to our mind is very striking. Figuratively, the old age is watching the new. The demand for this picture is so great that it has been impossible to secure one for ourselves and we have been compelled to im-l pose upon the kindness of our esteemed con-| temporary, "Motor."

AVIATION PRIZES NOW OPEN FOrI COMPETITION—IN EUROPE.

The prizes listed immediately below total $209,100. There is but one prize in America, of $100.

Daily Mail, for a flight from London tol

Manchester ....................$50,000

Michelin annual prizes ........... 32,000

Michelin prize for Paris-Clermont-Fer-

rand flight ..................... 20,000

.Deutsch cup ...................., 14,000

Grand Prize Aero Club of France. 20,000 Deutsch prize for crossing the

Channel, carrying Col. Renard.. 5,000 Grand Prize of National Aerial

League ........................ 4,000

Archdeacon ...................... 600

L'Auto prize for height .......... 500

Twenty $200 prizes of Nat'l Aerial

League (see below) ........... 4,000

Prize of Aero Club of Nice ....... 2,000

Daily Mail prize for crossing the

Channel ....................... 2,500

Prize of L'Auto, Paris to Bordeaux,

with stops, 529 kilometers ..... 2,400

Prize of City of Bagneres-de-

Bigorre ........................ 2,000

Prize of City of Bagneres-de-

Bigorre ........................ 1,400

Prize of La Nature for 100 kiloms

in 2 hours in a straight line.... 2,000 Prize of Alphonse Falco for a flight

from Chalons military camp to

Issy-les-Molineaux, 165 kiloms... 2,000

Various prizes ................... 800

Prize of City of Paris, through Nat.

Aerial League ................. 3.000

Ruinart prize for crossing the

Channel ....................... 2,500

Consul General Dept. of the Seine. 1,000 Speed test, Pau to Biarritz and return, by these two cities ........ 4,000

Sporting Club of Monaco, race of

9.6 kiloms....................... 20,000

Aero Club de la Sarthe, for 100 m.

height ......................... 200

Pommery champagne concern, a

cup to the aviator who, during

the next three years, first covers

1000 kiloms. in 5 hours.......... 10,000

Petite Gironde to aviator who starts

from a spot in Bordeaux and

goes around a clock tower at

Cenon, 7.2 kilos................ 2,000

Galeries Lafayette ............... 500

Hotel Meurice ................... 500

Passega Prize, to beat Wright's

record of 66.6 kiloms........... 200

And they're coming right along! No wonder they build flying machines abroad and the Wrights go abroad to sell theirs!

Prizes Offered Aviators by National Aerial League.

Prize of Aviation Company for the first woman aviator who flies a kilometer in a circle.

Lazare Weiller prize for the first French aviator who will beat the height record established by Wilbur Wright.

Financial Life for the proprietor of an aeroplane capable of rising and having the smallest dimensions.

Arnoux prize, for an aeroplane capable of taking its flight on a national highway lined with trees and to land there after having covered at least one kilometer.

The prize Siot-Decauville, a cup, to the first officer who will cover on an aeroplane, of which he is the proprietor, a kilometer in a circle.

Andre Falize, to the first aviator who will rise from the Invalides, gain the Vendome column, and come back to land at the Invalides.

Three prizes of $200 each to the French proprietors of aeroplanes which will hold the record for flight in the strongest wind for five minutes.

Four prizes of $200 to the French proprietors of aeroplanes which will have covered a kilometer, piloting themselves, and under the conditions that they should not have before won the sum of $200

Three prizes of $200 to the French proprietors of aeroplanes piloting the apparatus themselves, and keeping the speed record for 1 kilom. which is to be covered successively to and fro. A landing between the two parts of the test is allowed. Total duration of the test must not exceed 15 minutes.

Prize Goupy, $200, to the aviator who will cover before January 3 the greatest distance in a straight line over variable ground and at a mean speed superior to 40 kiloms. an hour.

A prize of $400, of Bernard Dubos, for the same record on the 3d of March.

A prize of $200 to the aviator who on January 3 between 2 p. m. and 2.05 p. m. will cover the greatest distance in a closed circle without touching the ground.

S200 to the French aviator who will have risen by his own means in the shortest run over the same stretch going and coming.

"AERODROME No. 4" OF THE AERIAL EXPERIMENT ASS'N

By J. A. D. McCurdy, Sec. A. E. A.

Experiments with the June Bug seemed to indicate that more powerful tip controls would be an advantage, especially in attempting to complete a turn, and possibly describing a circle. To accomplish this end we gave the machine greater lateral extension than in the case of either of the former machines, (49 ft.) and also increased the area of the tip controls themselves, (40 sq. ft., total area). Although it was conceded that a plane having the form of the letter S (roughly) in cross section was the form having the greatest efficiency, as demonstrated by W. R. Turnbull of New Brunswick, we came to the conclusion that if a rib was formed up being of single curvature, it would take the form of the Turnbull curve when acted upon by the air pressure as the machine glided through the air, if the rear was unrestricted and flexible, but if the rib were moulded with the double curve form the air pressure would bend it up abnormally at the rear and hence produce a detrimental effect.

We, therefore, decided to make up our ribs for the "Silver Dart" (as A. E. A. No. 4 was afterward named,) having the single curvature form. The depth of the planes was reduced at the center from 6 ft. 6 in. to 6 ft., and the distance between the planes consequently reduced in the same ratio, (6 ft. 6 in. to 6 ft.).

We designed the ends of the supporting plane to have a depth of 4 ft., as in former cases, and also to be 4 ft. apart. This re-proportioning gave the lateral curve of the back edges an evener form and the machine as a whole, finer lines.

The fish-shaped material used all through is of heavier stock and hence capable of greater rigidity of structure.

Turnbuckles are used on each individual

wire, so that they can be separately adjusted to receive their proper strain. Two special instruments were devised; one as a tool for constructing the turnbuckle and the other a wrench to facilitate the screwing up of these turnbuckles.

The sockets used to connect the struts to the lateral chords are in their simplest form, doing away with the jack-joint used on the June Bug. The projecting spike at the end of the socket passes through the straps to which the guy wires are secured and then into the hole prepared in the socket connecting the sections of the lateral chords.

The tightening up of the turnbuckles of the guy wires prevents these spikes, from coming out. A single wire passing through the middle of the struts and connected by a V-wire to both the top and bottom chord at the lateral extremities of the machine seems to answer the purpose of steadying the struts better than two wires, as in former cases, and it also offers less head resistance.

The cloth used to cover the ribs, etc., forming the supporting surface is similar to that used by Capt. T. S. Baldwin for his Government balloons, although lighter in weight, (2 ozs. per square yard), and having silk on only one side of the rubber coating. It forms a beautiful surface, rubber side down, and is easy to handle, and capable of being cemented, as ordinary rubber. The tip controls were covered by making the silk in the form of a triangular bag and drawing it on tightly over the frame, thus making an equally clean surface on the top and bottom.

As in the case of the June Bug, a steel tube rib is placed at the junction of each section and acts as a spreader for the lateral chords.

The control panel is made exceptionally strong for various reasons. The bending moments are greatest there and also as the dead load is located at that point the racking strains tell more there than elsewhere. This panel is made up first and is complete in itself. The four wings when placed in position fit into projecting sockets from each side of this panel, and are secured in place by the same method employed throughout

the structure, viz., of attaching and tightening up tlie turnbuckles. Thus the four wings can be readily removed without disturbing the central panel, engine-bed, propeller or running gear.

The silk of the Silver Dart is made in sections corresponding to the panel where it is to be used, and laces to a steel rib at each end. Thus the whole machine, silk and all, is made in sections so as to facilitate in repair work, should we be unfortunate enough to have an accident. The advantage of having the silk in sections in "knocking down" the machine is also apparent. The ribs slide into pockets prepared on the silk, from the rear passing under the back lateral chord and butting

J. A. D. MCCURDV AT THE HELM

neatly against the back edge of the front chord and are secured in place by square tin caps which slip over the rear end. These caps, one for each rib, are strung on a wire which passes through a seam in the rear of the silk and is secured at its ends to the lateral margin of the aeroplane, and to the central panel, being drawn taut by means of a turnbuckle. There are two of these wires to a plane, one for the port wing and one for the starboard.

The rudder used on the Silver Dart is of quite small dimensions (4 ft. high by 2 ft. deep) and is constructed, as far as the silk-is concerned, similarly to the tip controls, i. e., covering made as a bag and drawn on over the frame work and laced at the top. As both sides of the rudder act at different times, this method gives them even resistances. The rudder is placed 11 ft. back from the rear lateral chord, and is supported simply by four hinged bamboos so con-

structed that by releasing two lateral guy wires the whole thing folds up flat against the rear of the planes. The rudder is operated by a small wire cable connected to the tiller of the front wheel. The bow control is double decked, rigidly constructed throughout and placed 15 feet forward of the front lateral chord. It is operated similarly to that used in the June Bug, by a direct bamboo rod, at the rear end of which is the steering wheel. Push the wheel forward it depresses the machine; pull it back and the machine rises; turn it to port or starboard, and the machine obeys respectively, whether on the ground or in the air.

The front control measures 12 ft. long by 28 inches wide and 30 inches between the planes. It is supported five inches back from its front edge by a bamboo cantilever truss.

It was our original intention to carry two persons in the Silver Dart, one sitting directly behind the other, hence a seat was designed for the purpose and made adjustable so that it could be slipped forward and backward readily in balancing up the machine. The second man would sit directly

over the theoretical center of pressure at our traveling speed, so that the carrying of the passenger on leaving him behind would not effect the balance. The tips are controlled by a device which does not interfere with the man sitting behind the operator, and the device is also adjustable with the seat.

The pole connecting the steering wheel to the front control can be lengthened out or shortened in determining where the operator shall sit, by means of a telescopic tube

which can be secured at any desired point.

The running gear or truck is almost the same as that used in the June Bug. There are improvements of construction and the ma ter^aM.^ heavier.

The engine used was especially built for the Silver Dart and is a Curtiss eight-cylinder, water-cooled, 50 horse power motor, which weighs without water or oil, but including all water connections and counter shaft, 202 pounds. It is placed into its bed immediately on top of the lower rear lateral chord, and braced directly from the stringer of the truck. Its being placed so low will produce less strain of the structure in landing and will bring the center of gravity of. the machine, as a whole, a little lower than in the case of the June Bug.

The radiator is designed somewhat after that used by the Wright Brothers, and the gasoline and oik tank (one tank having a partition) holds 10 and 2 gallons, respectively.

The propeller is driven by a V-shaped leather belt in the ratio of 1 to \]/2. (Engine turning 1500 revolutions and the propeller turning 1000). One propeller is used, and the thrust comes about through the line of resistance of the machine, but inclined above the horizontal 3J4 degrees. These are made of laminated wood and weight, including the two clamps, S1^ pounds; of 8 ft. diameter and 17 to 18 degrees pitch at the tip.

The supporting surfaces of the machine are given an angle of attack of' Qr4 degrees at their lateral margins. This angle is excessive for economical flights, but it facilitates rising from the ground. After the machine is in the air, the angle will be reduced to perhaps 6 degrees.

It is for this reason that the propeller thrust is a little above the horizontal when the machine is on the ground. The proper angle at which to place the counter-shaft for propeller can only be determined by actual experiment.

The actual work of construction of the Silver Dart was under the supervision of our foreman, Mr. Kenneth Iugraham, and too much cannot be said in his praise foi the care taken by him in the detail work and in generally rushing the assembling to a successful finish,

All the structural members of the Silver Dart, fish struts, wires, tubing, bamboo, etc., were carefully measured and in accordance with the method and co-efficients used by Mr. Octave Chanute. The head resistance of the machine was computed and reduced to its equivalent flat surface in square feet.

Fish Shaped Material.

Wings ..............................1928.5

Struts .............................1088.0

Additional fish ...................... 326.0

Xon Vibrating Wire.................976.89

Vibrating Wire .....................131 -30

Tubing .............................668.00

Timber ..............................365.5

Bamboo .............................245.0

Descrip. Sq. inches Co.-eff. Equiv. surface

Fish shaped.3342.50... .1/6......557-o8

N. V. Wire.. 976:89.... 1/2......488.44

Vib. Wire... 131.30----1.5......196.95

Tubing ...... 668.00----1/2......334-00

Timber ..... 365.50----1/ ......36550

Bamboo ..... 490.00.... 1/2.....245.00

Total .......................2186.97

Hence, the total head resistance—2186.97

sq. in. or 15.18 sq. ft.

All figures in square inches.

Total area of supporting surfaces.420 sq. ft.

Weight of machine, exclusive of engine and accessories.............345 lbs.

Weight of engine, propeller and

counter shaft, etc.................210 lbs.

Weight of radiator ................ 15 lbs.

Weight of water................... 30 lbs.

Weight of gasoline, oil and tank, full 110 lbs.

Weight of man, say................150 lbs.

Total .......................860 lbs.

And as 420/S60 = 2.04, ratio = 2.04 pounds per sq. ft., i.e., flying weight = 2.04 pounds per sq. ft.

Description of Curtiss 50 H. P. Motor Used.

The new 50 horsepower Curtiss motor used in the Silver Dart, has 8 cylinders in sets of 4 at an angle of 90 degrees. The cylinders are cast iron with copper water jackets; bore zYa "1., stroke 4 in. The valves are nickel steel, concentric, intake valve automatic. The connecting rods are

special forgings, with Parson's White Brass bearings, liberal dimensions. The shaft is i}£ in. chrome nickel steel specially treated and bored hollow. All bearings are ground to size. The lubrication is by splash system, pump feed. The ignition is effected by jump spark with single coil and distributor. The weight of the motor is 165 lbs.

control was mounted dir otly from the bow. A new Curtiss 50 h. p. water-cooled engine

TRIALS OF THE "LOON' PLANE.

DRO-

The Aerial Experiment Association's aeroplane, the "Loon", was given a trial on Nov. 28, over the waters of Lake Keuka. Just after about 400 yards had been covered, J. A. D. McCurdy, pilot, the propeller shaft was twisted off and the screw thrown into the water. The speed attained was calculated to be 20 miles p. h. A solid shaft was put in next day and a second trial made. Auxiliary ports in the engine were opened and after running about 100 yards with the 5-6-mile wind, by suddenly elevating front control, the bow would lift out of the water without any depression at the stern. A course was taken a mile down the lake, a turn, and back against the wind, thus covering two miles in 4 minutes, 26 seconds, a speed of over 27 miles an hour. It was calculated that the speed required to lift the June Bug off the ground was 23 miles p. h. Though the weight of the Loon was little more than that of the June Bug, the increase of 4 miles an hour was insufficient to get into the air, indicating that the suction of the water was greater than anticipated.

The above facts, and the following, obtained through the Secretary of the A. E. A., are very interesting.

While waiting to make trials of the Silver Dart, it was decided to equip the June Bug aeroplane with floats, which were built to support a total weight of 850 lbs. These floats, 20 ft. long, 18 in. beam, constructed skeleton-like of California Red Wood and covered with rubber oil cloth, weighed 60 lbs. each. They are spaced 7 ft. apart, like a catamaran, connected by trussing to lateral cords and central panel of the June Bug aeroplane. The vertical rudder was placed at the stern of the catamaran. The front

dro

:e an 8-ft. propeller of 6l/{ ft. pitch.

Patrick Y. Alexander arrives on December/26th in New York and leaves again on th«f 28th.

/Mr. Patrick Alexander has just paid 500 pounds to Mr. Griffith Brewer for a lost wager. Both men are enthusiastic aeronauts, and at a dinner on November 5, 1907, Mr. Alexander undertook to travel a mile by means of mechanical flight within a year or forfeit £500 to Mr. Brewer, who agreed to pay him ¿500 if he succeeded.

Mr. Alexander has made no attempt to win the money. Mr. Brewer will devote it to working out the problem of mechanical flight.

A short time ago Prof. Simon Newcomb wrote an article on the future of aerial locomotion which was a "discouragement" to enthusiasts, to say the least. He found all sorts of difficulties and made statements regarding impossible accomplishments by aeroplanes which were untrue, as aeroplanes before the date of the article had done things he claimed beyond reason.

Major B. Baden-Powell has answered Prof. Simon Newcomb most effectively and suggests that had Prof. Newcomb been fortunate enough to have experienced an aeroplane flight, as has Major Baden-Powell, Prof. Newcomb would have been in a position to have his views somewhat altered.

Prof. Henry H. Clayton of the Blue Hill Observatory, Boston, Mass., on November 15th, lectured on "Aerial Navigation" in the North Congregational Church of Detroit.

"Aerodrome No. 5," Dr. A. Graham Bell's tetrahedral structure, which is practically completed, will be tried after J. A. D. McCurdy has tried the Silver Dart. Dr. Bell is depending upon the Silver Dart engine for motive power at Beiun Bhreagh.

It is said that Otto Lilienthal during his several thousand glides was in the air a total of scarcely five hours.

A. M. Herring will probably be granted an extension of seven months, that is, until June 13th, when his aeroplane is to he delivered to the Signal Corps.

Signal Corps balloon No. 12, 1000 meters, has been shipped to Omaha for use at the aeronautical plant there.

Dirigible No. 1 was inflated the week of November 8th, in the tent on the drill ground at Fort Myer. On the 14th a heavy snow fell, the weight of which pulled down the tent. The dirigible was practically undamaged, but it has been decided to dis-

gontinue these experiments for this season, awe to lack of a proper place in which to house the dirigible.

An order has been placed with Janney, Steinmetz, and Company, Philadelphia, for ten trial gas cylinders, with a capacity of 200 cubic feet compressed hydrogen. High pressure valves for these cylinders were ordered at the same time.

One ascension was made Nov. 6th by 1st Lieut. Frank P. Lahm, pilot; and 2nd Lieut. John G. Winter and A. H. Forbes, passengers.

major squier and lieute

On Dec. 2nd, Geo. O. Squier. Ph.D., Major, Signal Corps, U.S.A., addressed the American Society of Mechanical Engineers at its morning session on "The Present Status of Military Aeronautics."

In beginning his remarks, he stated:

"It is a matter of first significance that the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, composed of a body of highly trained and serious minded men, should be considering in annual meeting assembled the subject of aerial navigation. Five years ago such a subject could scarcely have had a place on the list of professional papers on your program. The present period will ever be memorable in the history of the world for the first public demonstrations of the practicability of mechanical flight. In fact, at the present moment a resistless wave of enthusiasm and endeavor, sweeping away every prejudice, is passing over the entire civilized world, fixing the attention of all classes upon the problem of flight. France. Germany and England are in a state of frenzied interest in this subject, and each period of a single month sees some new step accomplished in the march of progress. The Universal Highway is at least to be made

ant lahm address a.s.m.e.

available for the uses of mankind, with its consequent influence upon our modes of life and thought."

There has not been given anywhere, to our knowledge, as concise and comprehensive a view of the present and future practical application of aerostation and aviation to Military Art.

Major Squier told of the work of the Aeronautical Division of the Army during the year.

Then, under the heading "Aerostation," he gave detailed dsecriptions of the military dirigibles of France, England, Germany and United States. Following this were notes on the general considerations which govern the design and adjustment of dirigible balloons: Buoyancy and Shape, Resistance of Air to the Motion of a Projectile, Analogy to Airship, Aerodynamic Adjustments.

Under the heading "Aviation," the Wright Brothers, Herring, Farman, Bleriot and June Bug aeroplanes were mentioned as representative aeroplanes of various types; following which were some general considerations which govern the design of aeroplanes; Support, the Principle of Reefing Computed Power Required to Tow Unit

Planes through the Air at various speeds and angles, Stability and Control, Resistance and Propulsion, most Advantageous Speed and Angle of Flight.

Under the heading "Hydromechanic Relations," he presented the relationship between ships in air and in water, skin-friction in air, with tables; observations of the necessary motors; the fundamental principles of propellers; and the limitations of the dirigible, aeroplane and helicopter.

In concluding his lecture, he spoke of "Aerial Locomotion in Warfare," the action of the Hague Peace Conference, influence of Aeronautics on the Military Art, Interior Harbors, Delimitation of Frontiers and the necessary arrangements to be made in case of war for the operation of dirigibles and flying machines.

Professor W. J. Humphreys, of the Weather Bureau, was called upon to speak upon the movement of air currents near and high above the earth in various sections of the world at different seasons of the year.

Dr. Brashaer spoke on Langley's work and the credit due him, expressing the "debt of gratitude that we owe to one of the greatest physicists that has ever honored this country."

This sentiment was echoed by George L. Fowler, who told of Dr. Langley's idea when he started his experiments, detailing some of his work and accomplishments.

The lecture, a very complete bibliography list of aeronautical societies and publications, together with a large number of beautiful full-page illustrations of dirigibles and flying machines, is printed in the "Journal of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers'" for December, which may be had at an expense of $1.00. The address of the Society is 29 West 39th Street.

Dirigible Balloons in Future Gordon Bennetts.

In the evening, Lieut. Frank P. Lahm presented an illustrated lecture on "Aeronautics." The first section of the lecture covered the sport of ballooning and Lieut. Lahm described in detail the preparation of a balloon for an ascent, the inflation, balancing, experiences during an ascent, the landing, packing-up and return home, each step being illustrated by a lantern slide. The

number of aeronautical organizations abroad and in this country were commented upon as indicating the great interest being taken in ballooning all over the world. The story of the three Gordon Bennett balloon races was told and the prophecy made that future Gordon Bennetts would be fought by dirigible balloons.

Then the history of the dirigible balloon was given, illustrated by past and present types, covering the range of action and importance of the dirigible balloon in Military Art.

Next the different types of aeronefs were taken up and the work of the Wright Brothers, Prof. Langley, A. M. Herring and the Aerial Experiment Association was enlarged upon.

The entrance of the United States government into aeronautic activity with both classes of apparatus was mentioned, together with the plans for an increased appropriation next year.

The lecture was concluded by motion pictures of dirigibles and the Wright Brothers' flying machine. The latter created a lively demonstration. The picture was most realistic, the aeroplane darting with lightning-like rapidity back and forth across the screen, to and from the spectators.

The Chairman of the meeting urged the members of the A.S.M.E. to take up the subject of flight and called for a vote of appreciation to "express in a formal way our sense of recognition to the Signal Corps and Secretary Wright this presentation of the achievement of the Wright Brothers through General Allen, Major Squicr and Lieutenant Lahm through whom wc have received this most illuminating presentation to-night. Resolved, that the thanks of the Society be tendered Secretary Wright, General Allen, Major Squicr and Lieutenant Lahm. As American citizens I want you to go away with a sense of recognition that last year the sum of $200,000 was asked for military experimentation in aeronautical lines, but no money was appropriated. This year it is to be $500,000 and yet America is not even apace with what has been done by the countries on the other side of the Atlantic. It is up to us Americans to sec that we are not left behind in the progress that has been made in 1908 in the direction of aerial flight."

BALLOON CENTERS OF AMERICA

THE AMERICAN CHAMPIONSHIP. By E. Percy Noel.

The present indications are that there will be a balloon race for the championship of the United States next year, and if such a contest is held it is practically certain that St. Louis will be the starting place. With this in view, D. C. Nugent, one of the vice-presidents of the Aero Club of St. Louis, will go to New York soon to confer with the Aero Club of America.

The date and possibility of the championship race hinges somewhat upon the decision of the International Aeronautic Federation in regard to the protest made by the Aero Club of Great Britain against the ruling of the federation that give the victory of the recent international race from Berlin to the Swiss Aero Club. If the federation confirms its ruling in favor of Switzerland, it is probable that the next international race will be held in the spring, as the climatic conditions of Switzerland would be unfavorable to ballooning in October. A race in the spring would preclude the possibility of a championship event here as a sort of eliminatory trial for the international race. If Great Britain gets the international race by its protest, the starting place will be somewhere in Europe—Germany or France, supposedly—and the date, October.

With the international race in the fall, the championship event in America would come either in the spring, or in September. It is intended that this event shall give a great impetus to ballooning in America, and that the success of the aeronauts who get from first to third place will encourage them to try to win the international race as representatives of the United States.

The recently balloon voyages from Los Angeles have demonstrated what has been known theoretically all along—that with the usual 80,000 cubic foot racing balloon it is practically impossible to make the transcontinental trip successfully, and leaves the best possible starting point for a balloon race, all things considered, at St. Louis.

The trials from Los Angeles have shown that it is necessary for a balloon to rise to (Continued onfolloivingpage)

LOS ANGELES AS A LONG DISTANCE BALLOONING CENTER. By J. S. Zerbe, Pres. Aero Club of Cal.

The' two balloons, the "United States" and the "American," which arranged to make long distance ascents from Los Angeles across the Continent, did not succeed in their venture. Sunday, Nov. 15th, was a cloudy misty day with no surface wind. The "American" was manned by A. E. Mueller, with J. K. Hutchinson, a reporter as assistant. The pilot of the "United States" was H. B. Wild; Mr. Levouxzes, assistant. Arrangements for inflating the balloons were not the best so that it was 4 p. m. before the "American" succeeded in getting away. The "United States" did not get sufficient gas to make an ascent that day.

The "American"' rose to an altitude varying from 2,000 to 4,000 feet, the general trend of the air currents being south and in a westerly direction, so that within a short time they were carried out to sea and a higher altitude again brought them back. During the night they floated over the city of Los Angeles and again started for the sea. By manouvering during the night a landing was finally effected in the morning near Hermosa Beach about 25 miles S. E. of the city.

The second balloon was finally launched the following day, and met with practically the same fate except that by taking a higher altitude and remaining in the air all night, a landing was made midway between Los Angeles and San Bernardino less than forty miles away.

The experience of the two navigators seem to confirm the views expressed by many here that there is no general easterly current here, but I expressed the opinion two months ago in a communication to the "Times" that at a high altitude, 10,000 feet and over, the anti-trades would be reached.

Last Sunday, Capt. Mueller determined to test the upper current, and to that end manned the "United States," with a small amount of ballast and provisions for a day. He ascended to an altitude of over 12,000 feet, and at once entered an air current at (Continued on following page)

CORTLANDT FIELD BISHOP

His hands are full of big balloons,

His pockets full of kites ; And aeroplanes around linn whizz

In swift erratic flights, Of helicopters he can talk,

On gliders he is wise, And everything pertaining to

A voyage in the skies.

He is a solid business man

And deals in real estate, He'd like to go to Mars and sell

Some villas up to date; And loaded with a house or two

Would make the long ascent— But he is needed here to be

The Club's ex-president.

SPRUCE

In all sizes and shapes, straight grain, clear white.

Price per foot, per i sq. in. cross section, - - - - - 6 c.

Shellaced and prepared, - - - - - - - 8 c.

LAMINATED MATERIAL All designs, inside hollow, extra light, - - - - - 15 c.

WOOD PROPELLERS Estimates furnished, size laid out, without cost.

PATENT WIRE CLAMPS Don't use turn buckles, each - - - - - -15 c.

M. BOKOR, - - Morris Park, Westchester, N. Y.

L. 13 IT 1YIB yVTJ Gil

Springfield, Ills.

DESIGNER — CONTRACTOR — OPERATOR — CONSTRUCTOR

AIR SHIPS AND BALLOONS

Builder of Coey's "CHICAGO," the largest spherical balloon in the world.

No connection with any other concern.

NAVIGATING THE MR

Bv the Members of the aero Club of America

^[ An interesting record of the personal ideas and experiences of twenty-four distinguished men. This book is intended to be a summary of the present state of the art.

11 Among the contributors: Wright Brothers, 0. Chanute, Prof. Wm. H. Pickering, Prof. A. Lawrence Rotch, Prof. T. S. C. Lowe, William J. Hammer, Chas. M. Manly, Prof. David Todd, Dr. Oliver L. Fassig, Dr. A. F. Zahm, A. Leo Stevens, A. M. Herring.

Iftft PAfiF<S / 32 pages of photographs showing ) «175 nnsfnflid OUU rmJCrO \important developments in this science/ .pl.iO pUMpdlU

One Year's Subscription and this Book - $3.75

AERONAUTICS, 1777 Broadway, New York.

OF ING

TIMELY HOOK

THE PROBLEM OF FLIGHT, .AJPESSSfES

By HERBERT CHATLEY, B.Sc. (Engineering), LONDON Lecture in Applied Mechanics, Portsmouth Technical Institute SIXTY-ONE ILLUSTRATIONS OCTAVO CLOTH," $3.50 NET

The author takes advantage of the encouraging outlook for a practical solution to the problem of aerial navigation, and in this work submits to the engineering profession an epitome of the knowledge at present available on the subject.

While intende t especially for the engineering profession, the book should be of value to any one interested in a topic that is receiving so much study and attention at the present time.

OUTLINE OP CONTENTS—The Problem of Plight, Essentia! Principals, The Helix, The Aeroplane, Avlplanes, Dirigible Balloons, Form and Fittings ol (he Airship.

An appendix furnishes much instructive miscellaneous information.

AERONAUTICS

No collection is complete without

BALLOONING AS A S PORT

By Major B. Baden Powell President of the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain

A hand-book of ballooning; a guide for the amateur

PRICE $1.10 A ERONAUTICS

THE AMERICAN CHAMPIONSHIP

{Continued from preceding page)

a height of 8000 feet or more almost at the very start. Balloonists know that this causes a great loss of gas, forced out, by the rise, through the appendix. Tf the appendix is made very small, or closed entirely, the gas bag is sure to burst from the tremendous inside pressure. The balloon Conqueror, in the international race, suffered by such an experience at the start from Berlin. This high altitude, necessary to pass above the mountains, when starting either for Los Angeles or Denver causes a loss of gas that of course shortens the life of the balloon's bouyancy.

Starting from St. Louis it is possible to weigh to just the slightest lift and, getting way, to pass over all high points with an altitude of 300 feet or so. The low altitude makes it possible to conserve the gas in the envelope, and so to accomplish the greatest possible distance.

Of the geographical situation of St. Louis, there is nothing to be said that is not already well known. The great lakes and the Atlantic Ocean are so far away that they may not be considered an attendant danger in ballooning from the centrally located point. The hazard of the Pacific at Los Angeles, and the rough and craggy mountains of Colorado, are in themselves sufficiently serious possibilities in those places.

Octave Chanute, the "father of aviation in America," addressed the City Club in Chicago a few days ago on ''The Development and Practical Possibilities of Flying Machines."

520 members have already joined the new Aeroplane Club in London. The first meeting of the Club took place at Clar-idge's Hotel, at 3 o'clock, on November 6th. Captain Windham, the founder of the club, is arranging to form minor branches of the club throughout the British Isles. Already some 200 members have applied to undertake the work as honorary secretaries. Under this scheme, if worked properly, it is hoped that the parent club will succeed in attaining a very responsible position among the aeronautical societies of the world.

LOS ANGELES AS A LONG DISTANCE BALLOONING CENTER

{Continued from preceding page)

which during his trip of six hours, averaged 30 miles an hour. He landed in Arizona, two hundred miles east and northerly, thus proving the existence of the great anti-trade winds, and if he had been equipped for a long voyage, no doubt have been able to break the world's record.

A movement is now on foot to test this out thoroughly and thus establish Los Angeles as the most available point to initiate long distance flights.

Oliver K. Chance, of Minneapolis, will start building, on January 1st, a combination balloon, helicopter and aeroplane. A small saucer shaped envelope filled with hydrogen supports some of the weight and aids in landing. A vertical mast extends through the center of the bag, at the upper extremity of which is a propeller having a vertical axis. Below the bag is a framework containing the motor and three other propellers, whose axes are horizontal, which propel the apparatus forward, guided by a vertical rudder. There are also two rudders in front. The whole apparatus is heavier than the air it displaces. Stock is now being sold to create a building fund of $3,000.

During H. B. Wild's trip to Los Angeles he lectured before the Polytechnic High School on Aeronautics. He writes: "Aeronautics all over the States is at a high pitch and during the coming summer many more pages will have to be added to 'Aeronautics' to keep in touch and publish all that is done."

W. J. Cochran, of Los Angeles, will soon start work upon his aeroplane. He is now getting out a rotating, two-cycle, six-cylinder motor. The aeroplane will have about 600 square feet of surface and will weigh (with 40 h.p. motor) only about 600 pounds. It is expected that after the first one is completed, other machines can be sold for $1000, using the special mctor mentioned above.

'CLEMENT-BAYARD," THE AIRSHIP UP TO DATE

By Carl Dienstbach

The first craft built by a factory exclusively devoted to aerial construction has surpassed all its predecessors by an air of finish and the almost complete absence of the experimental element. In a higher degree yet than the Ville de Paris, its immediate model, it is a perfected reincarnation of that work of genius which happened to be so far in advance of its time, Renard's "La France" of 1884. The Clement-Bayard is a simpler and more easily constructed one than the Lebaudy type, admirable though the latter may be.

ing a certain dragging effect, prevent pitching still more certainly.

The stabilization is so perfect that a very advantageous simplification of the whole design results from the discarding of all planes but those of the rudders proper. The outlines of the classic "La France" appear everywhere. The rudder, for instance, has the same trapezoid form and is set at the same inclination towards the rear at the same point of the car, which is also quadrangular. Of course it is double and therefore twice as efficient. There is also

The shape of the envelope surpasses that of the Ville de Paris in going back almost completely to the graceful lines of "La France." Although the all-important stabilizing devices serve as in the use of the Ville de Paris gas-inflated appendages of the balloon itself, their form has been simplified and made more efficient by providing only four of them of increased diameter, thickened toward the rear, which in produc-

The A utomobile the same single large front propeller of 5 meters diameter, but by a very clever change of details the centrifugal force takes up most of the strains of propulsion. It has a variable pitch, turns at 380-400 r.p.m., with a peripheral speed of 105 meters per second. A most striking homage to the work of the immortal Renard is the inverted cross supporting the principal bearing of the propeller shaft, so conspicuous in "La France."

But what an infinite refinement in detail everywhere! This new ship of the air looks convincing and confidence inspiring. The car has a steel tube frame throughout and the "habitable" part of it offers much • more comfortable quarters than the shorter one of the Lebaudys.

The car proper is terminated in front by a very large radiator for a motor of 120 h.p., which is situated directly behind, and with its dimensions suggests, indeed, the impressions of a steamship's power-plant and machinery. It is wonderfully accessible and the engine room is ideal in its comfort. Directly behind is the "bridge" of the ship, an actual superstructure from where the pilot has the same commanding position the captain on the water enjoys. He looks down on the engines directly in front of him and has the whole mechanical part, horizontal rudders and propeller included, all the time before his view. His aides are with him in his spacious and attractive chart-house.

The passengers are accommodated in a large comfortable cabin directly behind, but lower so as not to obstruct the captain's view towards the rear. All these compartments are inclosed by aluminum sheeting, giving an appearance of elegance and finish. The horizontal rudder, right in front of the pilot, of three planes with a framing of steel tubing like that of the vertical rear rudder, is identical with that of the Ville de Paris. It is aided by two balloonets in front and rear, which, by an arrangement of valves, may be inflated alternately.

The "Continental'' cloth envelope displaces 3500 cu. meters, has the length of 56.25 m. and a max. diam. of 10.58 m. Both balloonets inflated displace 1100 cu.m. The car is 28.5 m. long, 1.5 wide by 1.5 m. high. The vertical rudder has a surface of 18 sq.m. and the horizontal, 16 sq.m. The transmission is solid and positive in action.

AERIAL WAR IN FRANCE.

With the rapid increase in activity in aviation, the Automobile Club of France decided to interest itself to such an extent that in time it might control aviation as it now does automobiling. The Aero Club of France, which, until recently, has devoted most of its attention to balloons and di-

rigibles, became fearful that it might lose some of its prestige. Not to be behind the Aero Club of France, the National Aerial League, a body recently formed to promote aeronautics with a preference for aviation, creating interest by giving prizes, etc., also objected to the assault made by the Automobile Club. Finally, a meeting of the three organizations was arranged and a joint committee has been appointed to draw up rules governing aerial competitions and generally control flying. Each of the three bodies is left free to continue its own work, the Aero Club and the League continuing as before, the Automobile Club to conduct experiments, competitions and demonstrations.

Our friend, Mr. Bradley, in the "Automobile," says: "The Automobile Club realizes that as a sporting proposition, the automobile will have to give place to the aeroplane at no distant date. It will be manifestly impossible to get a crowd to watch automobiles run over roads at 70 miles an hour when aeroplanes can be seen traveling through the air at a hundred miles an hour. Thus, one who secures hold of the aeroplane industry and sport has a permanent and profitable position."

Both the Marquis de Dion and Ernest Archdeacon have resigned from the Aero Club of France and from the Automobile Club in order to devote their entire energies to the work of the National Aerial League.

The Automobile Club proposes to hold a great international race in 1910 for very valuable prizes.

Hydrogen for filling Balloons—According to M. Mouricheau-Beaupré's communication to the Academe des Sciences, the following simple method of preparing hydrogen for filling balloons is available. An intimate mixture is made of finely divided aluminum with powdered bichloride of mercury and sulpho-cyan-ide of potassium. When water is added to this powder there is a violent evolution of hydrogen gas, which can be regulated by the volume of water employed so as to keep the temperature down to moderative limits.

Mr. Hugh L. Willoughby suggests to those who are experimenting with aeroplanes, that the Ormond Beach, Forida, is the best place in the world for trying their machines.

NEWS ABROAD FOR THE MONTH

One notes the Decreasing Newspaper Reports in America of Important Events Abroad, a sign that Aeronautics is rapidly Progressing—Aeroplanes abroad make Adaptations of Wright Brothers and Aerial Experiment Association Construction—Newspaper men Acquire with Facility the Describing of Aerial Apparatus.

Note:—Complete foreign news for the month is mailed abroad on the ist. It usually takes ten days for the mail from various countries to reach us. This makes it impossible to assemble, set up, print and mail before the 20th of the month.

Belgium.

Count de la Hault's ornithopter, driven by a 100 h.p. motor, rose easily from the ground in secret trials.

New aero club at Dunkerque.

Triplane of Baron de Caters has now made some successful flights of 800 meters. Vivinus motor, 57 h.p., 1250 r.p.m. As the propeller speed reduces, the pitch increases.

England.

It is reported work on a new dirigible is being pushed along by War Office. To be considerably larger than the two predecessors.

On Nov. 4th, the Bellamy machine started down hill on three wheels to get in the air, when it is supposed to be kept going by a 6 cylinder motor. It travelled quickly down the slope and capsized.

The "Daily Graphic" balloon, in an attempt to break the world's balloon distance record, travelled from London to Russia and madev^TuT^ miles, within^ 26 miles of record. i Vs. " *2 *C*~ Lr»vv^

France.

Ascents of the "Bayard-Clement/' Making New French Record for Closed Circuit Ascent—the Lebaudy and Ville De Paris—Malecot II. The first trial, in which the average speed was 50 kilo, an hour, was mentioned last month. On the same day it made another trip of \l/2 hours. On Oct. 31st it made its third trip, one of 30 minutes. On Nov. 1st, it made new record for closed circuit flight, 4 hours 53 minutes, covering distance about 200 kiloms., with six passengers. On Nov. 2nd a half-hour ascent was made with seven on board. On the 17th, Sidney B. Bowman,

N. Y. agent for the Clement car, made a trip of an hour. On Nov. 20th, the Minister of Labor made an ascent of two hours. -

It is of interest to note that in this dirigible, the envelope is made of "Continental" sheeting—also used in the dirigibles Ville de Paris, Lebaudy, de la Vaulx, Republique, Col. Renard, Parseval, Zeppelin, Gross; and the aeroplanes Farman, Delagrange, Goupy, de Caters and de Crawhez.

The old Lebaudy still doing valiant duty at Chalais-Meudon, making instruction ascents. After being lengthened five meters, beginning Oct.-2nd, it made, including Nov. 10th, 17 ascensions of a few minutes to 3 hours., 8 min. duration, with usually six persons aboard.

The Ville de Paris is not idle at Verdun on the frontier. Several alterations have been made, lengthening the envelope and framework. On the first trial after changes, on Nov. 16, it had motor trouble and the ship drifted a couple of kiloms. before the wind, making a rough landing resulting in the breaking of the propeller shaft and considerable damage to framework. Repaired and made \l/2 hour trip on 24th, more trips on 27th.

A Malecot II will presently be constructed of greater dimensions and will take up trials next Spring. The Malecot I. has been badly damaged by the destruction of its hangar.

Wilbur Wright Wins Two Height Prizes.

Wilbur Wright continues the instruction of first pupil, Count de Lambert, working every day except Saturday and Sunday.

On Oct. 31st, Wright, at Le Mans, flew to a good height for 4 min. 30 sec, stopping his motor at 50 meters height and gliding to the ground, in the presence of an Army Commission. Another flight of 10 min. 37 sec. with member of Commission. On Nov. 10th, Mr. Wright started a new pupil, Capt. Girardville on a 15 minute flight. Count de Lambert, who has succeeded in operating

the machine in two flights, says its management is exactly as natural as that of a bicycle. On Nov. 12th, two flights were made with Count de Lambert of 15 to 20 min.; and one with Capt. Girardville of ten minutes.

On Nov. 13th, Wright won the Aero Club de la Sarthe $200 30-meter-height prize by flying at 45 meters height and was able to get into the air without using the catapult. Then another flight of 11 minutes at 60 meters height (197 feet). Two other flights were made. On the following day, five instruction flights in the rain. Circles were executed with a diameter of not more than 40 meters. On the 16th, one with Lambert, 19 min.; Girardville, 21 min.; two more with eminent Spanish gentlemen of 5 and 8 min. The last flight ended in a spiral glide. On the 17th, Lambert took charge of levers and made flights of 15 and 20 min. each, Wright taking the passenger's seat in these two for first time.

The "Societie Astra," with rights for France only, are booking many orders for Wright aeroplanes at $5,000 per. Air. Bishop advises ordering at once to secure a machine.

On the iSth, Wright won the A.C.F. second $500 25-meter-height prize, without using the catapult. A second flight of 9 min. 24 sec. was made with Frank S. Lahm. In a third flight with Girardville, after 19 min. the driving chain of one propeller broke and left only one screw working. The motor was instantly stopped and a successful glide made to the ground. The breaking of the screw did not cause the machine to lose its equilibrium. Mr. Wright took up the work of replacing worn parts before starting instruction of Paul Tissandier, the third pupil under the Weiller contract. Orville Wright will soon be in France to aid his brother.

Bleriot Again Smashes Machine—Builds Biplane.

On Nov. 4th, Bleriot attempted to beat his own distance record in a trip from Totiry to Etampes with his "VIII-ter." After making a few trial runs, in the afternoon he began flying. He had covered 1500 meters and was just turning around the hangar when the apparatus hit the ground and was completely broken. Bleriot wanted to clear a mound and by a sharp movement of the rudder the apparatus liad lifted itself but

in the same moment the lateral equilibrium seemed to be lost in consequence of a wind gust, the right wing touched the ground, broke, and the machine pivoted around on the one wing.

After two years of trials, Bleriot is still an admirer of the monoplane for fast flights, but believes in the biplane for a greater weight carrying machine. He is starting work on a biplane, which will have 60 sq. meters surface, to which he will add 8 sq. m. in movable tips. The 40 h.p. motor will be replaced later by a 90 h.p., with the hope of carrying four people, the machine to be built with that end in view. There will be one 3-mcter propeller, chain transmission, 480 r.p.m. The tips will be placed at the rear of the planes.

BLERIOT "VIII-TER"

These tips will automatically counterbalance each other and will serve the same purposM as the plane-twisting of the Wrights, Vith the advantage, according to M. Bleriot, that they will offer less resistance to the air and avoid loss of sustention which he observes when the wings of the Wright machine are twisted to turn or recover equilibrium. The common points of the two apparati will be: motor and operator placed side by side, chain transmission, and the lower plane placed as low as possible. The differences: wing tips, principal planes not movable, single screw, wheeled chassis, single propeller, single lever. Bleriot has a patented device in which all movements are in a single lever. He is also constructing a new monoplane designed for flying in a strong wind.

It is interesting to note the speed made in the cross country trip (see cover) mentioned last month. 14 kilometers of the trip

were covered in n minutes, a speed of 76.3 kiloms. per hour. The whole journey from Toury to Artenay and return, including two stops, was 28 kiloms. The "Aerophile" states the average speed was 85 kiloms. per hour.

Santos Dumont Again. On Nov. 17th, trials were begun with the new monoplane and several short flights were accomplished. In the last one, there was belt trouble and experiments stopped.

Antoinette IV. Nov. 16th saw the Antoinette IV. monoplane out for its first trial. It made good flights of 600 to 700 meters. The following day it made 5 flights of 200-300 meters. On the 18th, short flights. Suddenly the motor refused to stop, apparently, and, narrowly missing some guards, flew out of the field. The machine was turned downwards, striking the ground with great force, breaking the chassis, the revolving propeller plowing up the ground. Continuation of trials on the 24th.

Farm an Flies 10 Kilometers with Triplane.

Farman began, on Nov. 16th, trials with a triplane, making three flights of 2 to 5 kiloms. On the 17th, made a flight of 10 kiloms. On Nov. 21, two flights in a bad wind were viewed by military authorities. Farman is pleased with the stability and speed, after modifying the pitch of the propellers and the spread of the wings. He will soon try for the Michclin 1908 prize, up to the present conceded to Wilbur Wright. It is noted that though the machine is much improved, it is far behind the Wright, as it has double the power and not as much carrying capacity.

Farman is now working on lateral stability more than on anything else and is lamenting the lack of a reliable motor. He may have to come to America after all.

French Government to aid Aviation with $20,000.

In the French Chamber of Deputies, a number of leading members are urging a subsidy of $20,000 to the Aero Club of France for the encouragement of progress in aviation.

Pelterie Wins Prize. On Nov. 21, Pelterie won the third A.C.F. "200-meter prize" by a flight of 316 meters

at Buc in the monoplane "R.E.P. 2-bis" against a measured wind of 21.6 kiloms. an hour with perfect stability. Out practising in the afternoon with flights of about 300 meters.

Bits of News Around France. At Lille, a gliding school has been started by the Aero Club du Nord. The glider used is peculiar. The two wings are set at a strong dihedral angle. Forming the hy-pothenuse of the angle (front elevation) is a smaller horizontal plane. For 22 sq.m. the machine weighs 24 kilos. There is also a small tail with horizontal and vertical surfaces.

At the camp at Satory, under the supervision of engineers and artillery, a military triplane of silk is being constructed. There is a triplane stabilizing cell in front and rear. Single propeller in front of the aviator. Just beginning trials.

At Chaláis the War Minister has had tried several flying machines, notably a helicopter of Captain Doran, and an aeroplane of the Phillips Venetian-blind type, invented by Capt. Lucas Girardville.

During the last week of November, the Pischoff-Koechlin monoplane made six short flights of 300-500 meters. It has 23 sq.m. surface, weighs 245 kilos, with aviator, 17 h.p. Dutheil motor.

NEW PISCHOFE-KOECHIvIN

Delagrange will soon try four different types, including a triplane and a Wright machine. On Nov. 10th he resumed trials at Savigny-sur-Orge, making successful flights.

The Goupy triplane has made a number of flights at Issy. After eight flights of 200300 meters, in making a turn, the motor slowed down and the machine tipped and injured right wing. At times it made 60 kiloms. per hour.

The Aero Club of France is to offer medals to manufacturers of especially built motors to be tested by the Club.

On Oct. 31st began the training of the military in the discharge of dummy bombs from captive balloons at a height of 250 m. Upon striking the ground a cartridge exploded. The course of the projectiles in the air were photographed. Trials will be presently taken up with dirigibles and later on real charged bombs will be used. Oct. 31st is the 100th anniversary of the project being submitted to Napoleon 1st for the transporting of an army to England by balloons.

The "Chambre S3rndicale" of aeronautic industries, the first aeronautical "trust," presided over by the Marquis de Dion, is to have in May or June in the Tuileries a special exposition of this industry.

The Minister of Public Works has charged one of his subordinates to follow all aviation done in France.

New aero club formed at Nantes.

At Bagatelle, M. Pean has made some preliminary trials of his monoplane, equipped with two propellers, 12 h.p. Buchet motor.

The Renault aero motor has been much improved and has been run for three hours on the block without heating, developing 58 h.p.

Rene Gasnier, who was a contestant in last year's Gordon Bennett at St. Louis, has made a successful flight in a biplane.

A society has been formed at Toulon to give pecuniary aid to inventors.

The Aero Club of France is endeavoring to organize a lottery to raise $1,000,000, and as a sign of the times, the Government officials arc now very kindly disposed towards the project, while less than half a year ago they were much averse.

M. Sauniere, President Aéronautique Club de France, announces that he has finished the work of plotting the lighthouses and electric wires on the aeronautical maps. In the near future the Club will hold another contest for glitters and models. A catapult has been erected at their aviation park and M. Bonnet-Labranche has put his motor at the (disposition of the members of the Aviation Section.

The Automobile Club of Auvergne will create an Aviation Section.

The Automobile Club and Aero Club at Angers form a joint aviation committee.

The Automobile Club at Poitevin has started an Aeronautic Section.

The Aero Club de la Sarthe has instituted a new "height prize" for an altitude of 100 meters. If this flight is attained in any flight anywhere, the condition will be made times the recorded flight.

The Moore-Brabazon biplane flew at Issy on Nov. 20th. It is the first foreign machine to use an ordinary automobile motor. Out again on Nov. 24th. Will practice every morning. Flights of 20-30 meters on the 28th.

Germany.

Zeppelin I, Gross II, Parseval II Make Ascents. Germanv buvs Parseval and Zeppelin.

Repairs necessary on account of the accident recorded in the October issue, prevented further ascents with the Parseval II. until the end of October. On the 22nd of October it made an ascent of an hour with six passengers. Thanks to the new propellers, the ship behaved admirably and attained greater speed than before. On the 23rd, it tried to fulfill the height conditions on which depended acceptance by the Minister of War (remaining in the air at 1500 m. altitude for an hour). It was up 2 hours 45 min., the wind blowing 12 meters a second. On Nov. 4th, another trip of 4)4 hours was made. The Government accepted the ship and pays to the Motorluftschiff Studicngesellschaft 210,000 marks.

On the same day the Zeppelin I. made its first trip. Another trip on the 24th of 2 hours. On the 26th, an ascent of 2^ hours, with the Government Commisfion present. On the 27th, a 6-hour ascent with Prince Henry on board. 50 kiloms. were covered in an hour. On the 29th, the Duke Albrecht made a 3^-hour ascent. Nov. 2, a i-hour ascent. On Nov. 7, the Crown Prince made an ascent lasting 6l/2 hours. During the trip, the airship stopped at Donaueschingen just as the train of the Emperor pulled into the station. The Emperor was pleased with the precision of the maneouvre. The dense fog necessitated steering by the compass. The carrier pigeons when released were afraid to leave the ship. Good speed was maintained and the ship is pronounced the most successful of all that Zeppelin has constructed. On Nov. 10th, the Emperor visited Zeppelin and witnessed an ascent. After half an hour of evolutions, a descent was made, an ex-

change of passengers, and Major Gross entered the car and made another ascent. The Emperor presented Zeppelin with the Order of the Black Eagle. As mentioned last month, the Government has acquired the Zeppelin I., at an expense of $412,500.

Zeppelin IV.

At last, some inner history of the troubles on the long trip of August 5 by the Zeppelin IV., which ended in its burning, have been made public. It was found that the sun caused an unequal heating of the gas, mainly at the rear end, which could not be compensated by the rudders and resulted in ascending to the record height of 1800 meters, with a consequent loss of gas.

On Nov. 14th, the Gross II. (Military I.) started on a 24-hour ascent. Losing bearings in the fog, it was forced to descend and found itself over the Baltic Sea. The car was partially submerged for some time until towed to land by a steamer.

   

<

   
       
 

;

n

GROSS II

The directors of the coal syndicate of Westphalia have voted 200,000 marks for the construction of an aeroplane under the direction of Dr. Niemeyer.

A new aero club has been formed at Essen to construct a machine.

Directors of the Siemens-Schuckert Works have decided to construct special works at Nauen for the construction of dirigible balloons.

A Wright aeroplane is being built near Berlin by Mr. Meschner. The propeller has three blades. There are several other aeroplanes being built in Germany, which country seems to be lagging in aviation.

Italy.

Government buys Airship. The Minister of War and the Duke of Genoa have taken trips in the new military dirigible. A speed of 25 miles per hour has been attained in a 15-mile trip around Rome and the Quirinal. It has a 70 h.p. Clement-Bayard motor, driving two

propellers at the sides. It is brought out from the hangar on a carriage. It has been bought by the Government for $24,000.

Radical departure has been made by hanging a long frame from front to rear inside the bag, doing away with the air resistance of an exposed frame. This is going a step further than the Lebaudy, where a flat frame is directly attached to the cloth outside of the bag. The car of this Italian dirigible is hung from the internal frame by metallic suspension.

Russia.

Fourth Airship of the Month Bought by Russia.

Russia has decided to suspend work on its own dirigibles and order one from the Lebaudy concern of the type of the Republique, 61 meters long, 11 meters maximum diameter, 4000 cu.m. displacement. It will weigh 1200 kilos and be capable of 100 kilom. trips. Work has already commenced and it is expected to be ready in April. The motor will be of 90 h.p.

NEW MACHINES IN EUROPE.

Antoinette IV.—This new monoplane shows the influence of America on French construction by being - provided with a clever combination of skid and wheels, with the advantages of both, and wing tips. It is capable of successfully withstanding rough landings.

ANTOINETTE IV

The machine is an important modification of the first full sized model which was built, but never tried, a small model of which was illustrated in March, 1908, issue. The shape of the body and the mounting of the motor is identical. The wings in section are like those of the Gastambide-Mengin, from which, however, they differ in being set at only a slight dihedral angle. There are added triangular tip-controls hinged at the rear of the main planes like those recently employed by Farman. The motor is a fifty h.p. Antoinette. A velocity of 70 kiloms. an hour has been reached. The

2.2 m. diameter propeller turns at noo r.p.m. The pitch is 1.3. The tail carries a vertical fin, behind which is mounted the vertical rudder. The horizontal rudder is mounted on the rearmost part of the tail behind the vertical rudder and in turn provided with a vertical fin. The rear end of the tail rests on a simple skid, and there are two additional skids extending down from about the center of the wings. Thus, runs may be easily taken on the ground. The complete weight, pilot included, is 520 kilos. The total surface, 30 sq.m. Flying angle, 6 degrees. The radiator is situated alongside the body and consists of a series of aluminum tubes of 4 m. length, with a total surface of 7 sq.m. and weighs 7 kilos. The main surfaces of the machine, of parabolic profile, are wonderfully smooth varnished cloth, well stretched, and the apparatus can fly in the rain. The apparatus is really beautifully built.

Santos Dumont.—This new apparatus is, like the last, a monoplane, with the two wings set at a slight dihedral angle. The angle of attack is slight. Each wing measures 2.5 by 2.1 m., giving each wing a surface of 5.25 sq.m., a total surface of 10.5 sq.in. (the total is also stated as 9 sq.m.). The cloth is stretched over a bamboo framework.

NEW SANTOS-DUMONT

At the rear of a long bamboo pol'e stretching behind the main surfaces is a combination horizontal and vertical rudder with a skid extending to the ground in front of the tail. The single propeller has two blades of 2 m. pitch, turning at 700 r.p.m. This propeller is on a hollow steel shaft on ball-bearings. The 24 li.p. Antoinette motor and seat is placed about a meter below the wings on a 3-wheeled chassis. Motor has automatic carbureter and water circulation system. The radiators are made of flat tubes of considerable length, which are disposed symmetrically

on both sides of the pulleys, extending from above the wings nearly to the ground. The power is transmitted by a flat belt, with a tightener, which allows the screw to stop without stopping the motor. The aviator is behind the motor, with magneto and carbureter in front of him. At his side is the belt tightener and the rudder controls. Total weight, 135 kilos, including motor, which weighs 50 kilos. Santos Dumont. weighs 52 kilos, so that the total weight, ready to fly, will not be over 190 kilos.

New Farman Machine.—Here is an illustration of the new Farman triplane. Note

NEW KARMAN

the "wing tips" hanging from both upper and lower surfaces. These materially aided Farman in his cross-country trip recorded last month, in which trip the 17 kiloms. from town to town were made in 20 minutes, an average speed of 51 kiloms. per hour. The machine here shown has the addition of the third plane, 6.5 by 1.5 meters, and the extension of the upper surface of the box tail which were not present when he made the town-to-town flight.

The Bleriot and Antoinette monoplanes have also added to them "wing tips," originally introduced by the Aerial Experiment Association.

AT WHAT ANGLE GREATEST LIFT.

The important question is not so much at what angle the greatest lift is obtained, but at what angle the lift is greatest in proportion to the drift and head resistance. This varies with planes and with arched surfaces of various degrees of concavity. For surfaces arched from i/i2th to i/20th of their width the best angle of incidence to the relative wind is from 3 to 6 degrees.—Octave Chantite.

Aero Club of America.—At a meeting of the Aero Club on Nov. 23. Morris Bokor lectured on "Automatic Equilibrium and Safety Devices," and exhibited an interesting model of his own invention.

New Application of Plane-Warping and Movable-Tip Principle. The model is really a triplane aeroplane. The two upper surfaces are rigid, while the third and lower is not rigid and divided into two halves. These two halves are movable, in a vertical plane, in opposite directions. The frame-work which holds the motor and which may be called the car, is practically a pendulum suspended from

BOKOR MODEL

the planes. The system of planes is pivoted at the top of this car so that when a gust of wind strikes either extremity of the planes, the whole system tilts, while the car remains in a vertical position. The tilting of these planes automatically raises and depresses the two halves of the lower surface, in the same manner as the wing tips of the aeroplanes of the Aerial Experiment Association. There are two propellers in the rear. At the extremities of the two upper surfaces, and between same, are two small vertical planes which are operated by the aviator in steering to the right or left. In the front is a horizontal steering plane. In a large machine, the power plant would be equipped with a differential friction clutch designed so that in case the blades of either propeller become damaged, the power would be so distributed that the broken propeller would do the same amount of work as the good one. In practice, this would seem problematic.

During the lecture, Mr. Boker spoke on light material and described the different shapes and constructions, relative strengths and the construction of hollow spars. After the lecture, there was an interesting discussion among the members. The model made two flights in the presence of Mr. Wilbur R. Kimball, of 12 and 18 feet. The model weighs sJA pounds for 6 square feet of surface. The power is rubber bands in paper tubes.

A. C. A. to Hold Grand Prize Balloon Race Next Year—will have Wright Aeroplane for the use of Members.

A national balloon race is planned for Home time in June, 1909, to be held, probably, at St. Louis. The balloons which obtain good positions in this race will be considered as being first choices for the 1909 Gordon Bennett. Entrants in this national event will also be considered as entering for the Lahm Cup.

J. C. McCoy, Cortlandt Field Bishop, and Samuel H. Valentine are three of a syndicate of five which will purchase a Wright aeroplane for the free use of members, the syndicate to keep the machine in repair as well.

A special committee has been appointed and is receiving subscriptions for two gold medals to be given to the brothers Wright. The subscriptions are pouring in and each medal will cost in the neighborhood of $1,000, and be the largest medals yet presented the Wrights. There is also a committee to receive funds for the erection of a monument to Lieut. Selfridge. The London "Times" has started the subscription with $200.

On Dec. 1st at a meeting held at the club house, the members of the Aero Club of America presented A. Leo Stevens with a very handsome loving cup in token of the esteem in which they held him personally and as a reminder of the good work he has done for ballooning and for the club in this country.

Several members were called upon to say a few words: Lieut. Frank P. Lahm, J. Christopher Lake, Wm. J. Hammer, Samuel H. Valentine, G. C. Loening, Thaddeus Gray and E. L. Jones.

V H

. Z

is

§ 2

O

w

H

¡3

I s

0

u

2

z o

cn

n <u

O lO T3

:=: n

oj a

5? O H

n cn

be 2

° 1

ffi §

. -R

a $

J2 °

o ^

en _S

¿0 In

bo o m

o

aj cn R cn

"3 „,

1 &

a)

R a)

<u ho

is

5 s

ho iS

^ c

. o

i"

S i_,

be v

R 5

bo <u

2 *

T. o

R O w S

Ph r -s

cj -R

^ £ 3

R ^ h3

Jj J H

c a

rt a cn

c

?1

a D O R .R

O « in

.5 *J

<u o O 03

15 cn

o

&

cfl <r

c c

DC O

DC

c

o _o

CO

dc

Ul

-J DC

FOR SALE—Two complete captive balloon outfits, consisting of gas bag, net, valve, and car for 4 persons, controlled by motor windlass with clutch and brake, besides patent portable hydrogen gas works for inflation.

ALSO—One-man gas balloon ; one-man airship, 7 h. p. motor and gas works. Write for prices, inclosing stamp.

Have Made Good

The Scientific American Trophy was won with a "Curtiss" motor.

The United States Government's dirigible balloon, which was successfully demonstrated at Ft. Myer and later at the army maneuvers at St. Joseph, was equipped with a "Curtiss" motor.

The aeroplane, "Red Wing", the first heavier-than-air machine to make a public flight in America, was propelled by a "Curtiss" motor.

Dr. Alexauder Graham Bell's tetrahedral aerodrome has a "Curtiss" motor.

Captain T. S. Baldwin, who always "gets back" in his dirigible balloon, uses "Curtiss" motors.

Roy Knabenshue's new three passenger airship is driven by a "Curtiss" motor.

J. Newton Williams' hélicoptère, the only flying machine of this type to get off the ground in America, had a "Curtiss" motor.

In fact, every aeronaut who is making a success in this country has adopted a "Curtiss" motor.

Our motors give the greatest power per pound weight consistent with reliability. All styles—one to eight cylinder, two to one hundred horse-power, air and water-cooled.

ASK FOR AERONAUTICAL MOTOR CATALOGUE.

G. H. CURTISS MANUFACTURING CO., - Hammondsport, N. Y.

AERONAUTICS

Issued in conjunction with or separate from "Knowledge & Illustrated Scientific News" Devoted to aerostation, aviation, meteorology, aerology, etc. Edited by Major B. Baden-Powell and John H. Ledeboer

ISSUED MONTHLY

SUBSCRIPTIONS: " Knowledge" including Aeronautics - $1.90 "Aeronautics" alone - .75

Special rale lor 5 years ------ 6.25

27 CHANCERY LANE, LONDON, W. C, ENGLAND.

IT. S. Olfclfc

OFFICIAL PHOTOGRAPHER OF " AERONAUTICS " and THE NORTH ADAMS AERO CLUB

Photographs of all Ascensions at Pittsfield and North Adams

POSTCARDS lO CENTS Box 50... ort3» Adams, Mass. For Sale also at "Aeronautics"

AERIAL WARFARE

By R. I*. Hearne With An Introduction by Sir Hiram Maxim

This i.cwest book, beautifully bound and profusely illustrated, deals most interestingly and intelligentlv with aerial apparatus as applied to warfare. It is " up to the minute ". The illustrations are the finest that have appeared in any aero book.

Chapter - < Fiying Machines—Balloons—Dirigibles—Balloons in Warfare—Feasibility of Airships— 1 1'cations and Limitations—Aerial Fleets—Armament—Terrestrial Forces Against Airshi, r in the Air—Over-sea Operations—Can England be Raided—Coast and Colonial Defei err 1 Navigation—Aerial Law—Aerial Defence League—Aerial Photography—Airship, r Fire, etc.—AMERICAN ARMY AIRSHIP—WRIGHT BROS.' AEROPLANE-KIMBALL HELICOPTER. Price $¿.70 Postpaid..........AERONAUTICS

WANTED—$3,000 to built a new type aeroplane. Patentable —Positive automatic equilibrium. Self-starting. Safe.—Designed by professional aeronaut. One-half interest to "Backer."

Address Aeronaut Jos. A. Blondin, Box 155, Topeka, Kansas.

A RARE OPPORTUNITY—I am going to give to some man well connected with the business world a good interest in the most practical and most scientific flying machine of the age. The small machine I now have not only adjusts itself in flight and balances automatically, but does what advanced aeronautical engineers deemed almost impossible and what no other flyer in the world does. It will not fall to earth when propelling power is shut off. I want a man with about $3,000.00, or one who could promote a joint stock company among his friends to this amount to Join me. I will go to any part of the United States and fly my machine to the entire satisfaction of interested parties.

Address WM. C. DUNN, 256 Elm Street, Dallas, Texas.

WANTED—Young German mechanic with FOR SALE—"A System of Aeronautics ;

seven years' experience in aeronautic naviga- ' Comprehending its Earliest Investigation'

tion wants a person of means to^help push and Modern Practice and Art." By John

through an improvement on a heavier than air Wise, Svo. cloth, 310 pages, 15 or 20 lithograph

flying machine. Correspondence solicited. plates; Phil., 1856. Good condition. Offered

Address P. 0. Box 182, Staunton, Va. for $5.00.

FOR SALE—Aeronautical Annual (James FOR SALE—"The Use of Kites in the Ex-Means) for 1895, 1896 and 1897 at $1.50 each. ploration of the Upper Air" (Marvin) Svo. Very rare. cloth, $1.50.

FOR SALE—A perfect copy of Astra Castra, London 1865, at $15.00. Large quarto FOR SALE—The War in the Air, bv II volume, in blue cloth binding, profusely illustrated. In perfect condition. This is prob- G. Wells. Large Svo. illustrated, $1.50. ably the rarest aeronautical work to be found anywhere.

Auto=Meter Wins Again

Once More Shows ils Right to "First Place." In the Motor Park Way Sweepstakes the Auto-Meter assisted these winners in their respective classes.

isotta

chalmers-detk^.'t

buick

allen-kingston

Nassau Sweepstakes—Buick. Driven by Hugh Easter.

Jericho Sweepstakes—Chalmers-Detroit. Driven

by W. R. Burns. Motor Parkway Sweepstakes—Isotta. Driven

by Herbert L,ytle. First; Meadow Brook Sweepstakes — Allen

Kingston. Driven by H. Hughes. Second ; Meadow Brook Sweepstakes—Rainier.

Driven by E. A. Disbrow.

note what mr. disbrow says:

"I want to express my sincere appreciation of the wonderful accuracy and reliability of the Warner Auto-Meter, with which my Rainier cr.r M 32, an entrant in the recent Meadow-brook Sweepstakes, was equipped. The car finished second, two minutes behind the winner, the distance 211 miles over the Vanderbilt Cup Course, averaging 52 j£ miles per.

"I am enclosing the time by laps, and I wish you to note that the variations that for the nine laps is hardly a variation of one minute between them. Such consistent running would have been almost impossible without the assistance of your instrument. Its accuracy was simply wonderful, and I can assure you that the next race I drive my car will certainly be equipped with a Warner, and I consider it the most reliable and accurate instrument manufactured.

"Wishing you all the success you most certainly deserve I am, sincerely yours,

"(Signed) LOUIS A. DISBROW."

proof or auto=meters supremacy: The man behind the wheel is the man who knows—take his word for it!

Think of the accuracy of the Auto-Meter in time for each lap—hardly a variation of a minute between them.

For reliability and accuracy the Auto-Meter has no rival ; its record is never disputed now— the standard time and speed gauge by which others are judged.

It is known throughout all motordom because ^ absolutely dependable.

The best cars every-/ where are equipped with Auto-Meter because the Auto-Meter record is infallible. Not "nearly"; no guess work, but to the fraction of a minute or the fraction of a mile it is exact.

write for more details and arrange for a trial of the auto-meter.

Warner Instrument Co.

factory and main office

300 wheeler ave., - beloit, wis.

Philadelphia, Cor. Broad and Race. San Francisco, 550 Golden Gate Ave. Indianapolis, 330^ N. Illinois St. Los Angeles, 1212 S. Main St.

New York, 1902 Broadway Chicago, 1305 Michigan Ave. Cleveland, 2062 Kuclid Ave. Pittsburg. 3432 Forbes St.

Boston, 925 Boylston St. Buffalo, 722 Main St. St. Louis, 3923 Olive St. Detroit, 239 Jefferson Ave.

At this meeting, also, a resolution was passed urging Congress to vote favorably upon the matter of an appropriation for military aeronautic work.

J. H. Wade, Jr., A. H. Morgan and Charles Walsh have received pilot-licenses Nos. 15, 16 and 17, respectively.

The following are new members: Russell

A. Alger, Frederick A. Alger, W. K. M orison, Win. A. Johnson, Frank L. Lescault, Fred A. Hodgman and A. P.. Lambert.

A committee is at work and will shortly present a draft of a proposed revision of the constitution and by-laws.

Aero Club of New England.—The Aero Club of New England on Nov. 21st celebrated the 125th anniversary of the first ascension by man in a balloon with a banquet at the Boston City Club. About 55 were present.

Will Buy 77.000 Foot Balloon—Prof. Pickering New President.

Prior to the banquet a business meeting was held. It was decided to purchase a large balloon of 77,000 cubic feet capacity, which will cost $1200. This balloon may be used for racing. It is to be purchased by subscription and at the meeting $450 was subscribed in a few minutes, Charles J. Glidden giving $200, T. E. Byrnes $100, Frank B. Comins $100 and Mr. Gant $50.

Prof. W. II. Pickering was elected president to succeed Prof. A. Lawrence Rotch, who has been president for a year. The other officers chosen are Frank E. Stanley, first vice-president; Frank B. Comins, second vice-president; Alfred R. Shrigley, secretary; Harry G. Pollard, treasurer; Prof. W. H. Pickering, Frank E. Stanley, Frank

B. Comins, Henry Howard, T. E. Byrnes. W. P. Harris, Winfield S. Shrigley, directors; Prof. A. Lawrence Rotch, Charles J. Glidden, J. C. McCoy, foreign representatives; Henry Howard, W. E. Eldredge, Henry A. Morss, contest committee; Charles J. Glidden, H. H. Clayton, ascension committee; A. Leo Stevens, aeronautic engineer.

It was 8 when the members filed into the banquet room, and tied to each chair was a toy balloon. When the dinner was over Prof. Rotch acted as toastmaster ami he introduced as the first speaker Mayor George A. Hibbard. The Mayor spoke briefly, referring facetiously to the invitation Mr. Glidden gave him to go ballooning

and the outcome of it, that being the occasion when someone shot at the bag.

"No doubt there are a lot of people who would like to take a shot at me," said Mr. Hibbard.

He ended by stating that he hoped that when the members were fljdng over the city in their aeroplanes that they would look down upon Boston as being the cleanest an.d most honest city in the country and the peer of any other.

A. Holland Forbes, of the Aero Club of America, graphically told what happened in Berlin when the balloon in which lie and Mr. Post were in burst.

Charles J. Glidden gave a brief history of the formation of the Aero Club of New England. He traced the growth of the movement from its inception, Jan. 9, 1902, until now, when there is a waiting list and the membership is nearly 100.

The next speaker was N. H. Arnold, who was also a competitor in the Gordon Bennett race, and his description of the happenings when he and his companion found themselves floating in the North sea at midnight, with the water nearly to the top of the basket and not a friendly light in sight, was very graphic.

W. K. M orison of Minneapolis, who made the ascension a few days ago, during which the bag went up 11,100 feet, and when landing created havoc with wires, etc., at Rockville, Conn., told how it felt to be jolted about, sport of the wind. Augustus Post then spoke of the past and future of the heavier than air machines.

Vice-Prcs. T. E. Byrnes of the N. Y., X. H. & H. R. R. spoke briefly of his interest in the sport, and others who were called upon to say something were C. F. Barron, A. V. Wilson and Mr. Hill. Letters from Prof. Alexander Graham Bell and Orville Wright, regretting their inability to be present, were read, and messages were sent to Mr. Wright and Sec. Alfred R. Shrigley, the latter being ill at his home. It was nearly midnight when the affair was over.

Milwaukee Aero Club.—The balloon just purchased of A. Leo Stevens and presented to the Club by Mr. Gustav Pabst, was delivered and an ascension planned, as noted last issue. After waiting 15 days for a change in the very light wind, which blew constantly over the lakes—385 miles of open

water—the attempt was abandoned and the balloon will not now be used until the middle of April. Then active work will be taken up and some pilots made eligible for licenses.

The Club has very good grounds at the National Soldiers' Home, about five miles from the center of the city. A small house will be built for storing material, and eventually a good balloon house.

W. C. Devereux, a few days ago, starting from the West Division High School in Milwaukee, took 400 Milwaukeeites into the air on a trip with Major Hersey and Leo Stevens in the "All America," of Mr. Stevens. They travelled along at 35 and 40 miles an hour and saw the towns and villages and other little blots on the landscape come into view, and disappear in the distance. Then the passengers were taken up above the clouds for a little run and every few moments they were told where they were. A fine landing was finally made on the side of a hill, the lights were turned on and the aeronauts found themselves back in the school bouse.

Worcester Aero Club.—John P. Coghlin, president of the Worcester Automobile Club and one of the two Worcester men who are members of the Aero Club of New England, has been working to form an aero club in Worcester and as a result one was formed on November 18th at a meeting at the Worcester Club.

He has had many interviews with Charles J. Glidden, and the plans for the club have been pushed along. Charles J. Glidden visited Worcester and at a meeting at the Worcester Club encouraged the organization of an aero club and these are the charter members: William B. Scofield, Richard W. Green, Luther C. Brown, Eben F. Thompson, Irving Swan Brown, John P. Coghlin, H. W. Bell, George M. Bassett, Charles Crompton and Charles J. Glidden, honorary member.

A temporary organization was formed and John P. Coghlin was elected president.

The other officers were: First vice-president, W. B. Scofield; secretary and treasurer, Eben F. Thompson.

A pernianent organization will be formed and will be incorporated under the laws of Massachusetts. The club will buy a balloon which will be named Worcester.

Mr. Glidden has been in Worcester a few times looking over the sites suitable for a balloon park. He thinks he has found an ideal location in the vicinity of the Worcester gas works. The site is free from trees and overhead wires. It is also a good place to get gas.

Aero Club of Ohio.—Four ascensions were made during the month, as noted under "Ascensions." A fifth attempt was made on Thanksgiving Day. The bag was inflated and the basket attached, and three men all ready to go, but the constant swaying of the balloon made it impossible to balance it, and after an hour and a half of manoeuvring with twenty men holding it down. Dr. Thompson ripped the balloon open. This was a great disappointment, as there was a strong wind blowing and a record trip was expected.

During the year 24 ascensions have been made from Canton, Ohio, and 78 passengers carried.

Columbia University Aero Club.—On December 3 the C. U. A. C. held its inaugural smoker, at which were present all the members of the Club, Dean Hallock and Dr. Trowrbridge, and some prominent guests. Jay Gould and Harold G. Henderson presented theses which displayed a very good comprehension of the difficulties to be met with and of the ground work. Wilbur R. Kimball delivered an illustrated lecture. The other speakers were Dean Hallock, Dr. Chas. C. Trowbridge, A. M. Herring, Dr. Julian P. Thomas, Augustus Post.

The Aeronautic Society.—Since the Exhibition, the Society has been busy preparing for the Winter. The housing sheds are being boarded up "and lined. The regular well-attended Wednesday night meetings have been held each week.

Wilbur R. Kimball is working rapidly on an aeroplane, the helicopter being put in cold storage for the present. The reason being that he is desirous of making flights and that these can be more easily accomplished at this stage by the aeroplane than by the helicopter. However, work will be done on the helicopter right along, making changes here and there as are found necessary, lie feels that he would rather enjoy flying around while work is going on on the helicopter.

Aero Club of California.—At the December meeting at Los Angeles plans were initiated for an active campaign throughout 1909. The coast air currents will be tested by the sending up of 100 small balloons, covering a number of localities and at every hour of the day. Members of the club are dividing into groups according to their idea for construction of gliders which will be used in public competitive exhibitions. Later on it is planned to utilize aeroplanes.

The Club is compiling historical memoranda of flights in California, and will endeavor to make this complete from the first attempts, keeping thorough records on special blanks of all future flights. A tract of twenty acres in Los Angeles has been leased

and will be fenced and improved for the Club's grounds.

Roy Knabenshue, who has become a resident of Los Angeles, made successful exhibition flights with his 1908 dirigible in that city November 26 and 29. In the latter he ascended, from the Chutes ball park and traveled to Ascot park, three miles away, where an easy landing was made. The return trip was made in six minutes, and the landing at Chutes park was made at the exact point of starting.

Junior Aero Club.—Will hold an exhibition of models, pictures, etc., in connection with the Toy Show, Madison Square Garden, the week beginning December 18.

FLYING MACHINES SAFER TH INSURANCE

The following endorsement, now a part of accident policies written by the Fidelity & Casualty Company of New York, will be of interest to flying machine pilots.

Assuming the popular definition of an airship, the Company, in its anxiety to relieve itself from all possible chance of paying out any money, omits to make this endorsement cover the operation of a flying machine.

A certain Aero Club member, who has never been in a balloon, airship or flying machine, applied for an accident policy. It was discovered that the applicant was interested in aeronautics. Hence the difficulty.

Here is a copy of the endorsement: Form 195-A SPECIAL.

"It is hereby understood and agreed, anything in the policy to the contrary notwithstanding, that in the event of the As-sured's suffering any bodily injury while ballooning, while engaged as an aeronaut, while in or on any airship or balloon, or while performing any work or services on or connected with any airship or balloon, the Company's liability under this policy on account of the Assured's death resulting from such injuries shall not exceed Two Hundred and Fifty Dollars ($250.00), and the Company's liability under any other provision or provisions of the policy shall not exceed Fifty Dollars ($50.00).

SI BALLOONS AND AIRSHIPS TO

COMPANIES.

"Attached to and forming part of Accident policy No. * * * issued by the Company to Mr. * * * "

The assured had to sign this endorsement and have his signature witnessed.

The letter of E. E. Clapp & Company, managers, to the agent, is also of interest and is as follows:

"In order to continue on this risk it will be necessary for Mr. to

sign the enclosed endorsement in duplicate, the original to be attached to the policy and the duplicate to be returned to us. If, however, he refuses to sign it, the policy will have to be taken up and returned for cancellation, for without the aid of this endorsement we cannot insure Mr. * * *

"If the assured takes the point that he does not go up in the balloons or airships, he loses nothing by signing the endorsement. If on the other hand he does intend to make balloon ascensions or ride in airships, this Company will not insure him against that hazard except with the aid of this endorsement."

Considering an "airship" as a motor balloon, which designation is in so general use as to confine the word "airship" to cover this mode of conveyance, the operator or passenger in a flying machine is therefore exempt from the above endorsement on his policy.

INTERNATIONAL AERONAUTICAL CONGRESS.

President: Professor Willis L. Moore. Secretary: Dr. Albert Francis Zahm. Chairman Gen'l Committee: Wm, J. Hammer. Chairman Executive Com.: Augustus Post. Sec'y Committees: Ernest La Rue Jones.

Publication Notice.

The addresses, papers and discussions presented to the Congress will be published serially in this magazine, and at the earliest date possible, bound volumes will be distributed without charge to those holding membership cards in the Congress. Others may purchase the volume at a consistent price when ready or may take advantage of immediate publication by subscribing to this magazine at the regular rate.

In accordance with the program as published in the November number, the informal addresses of the Gordon Bennett contestants and others were concluded before entering upon the printing of the formal papers and discussions.

The sixteenth paper is continued in this issue: "Principles involved in the Formation of Wing Surfaces and the Phenomenon of Soaring," by Professor J. J. Montgomery, of Santa Clara College.

PRINCIPLES INVOLVED IN THE FORMATION OF WING SURFACES AND THE PHENOMENON OF SOARING* By Prof. J. J. Montgomery

Here, I must call attention to an important element. In discussing figs, io and n,I pointed out the positions of the centers of pressure, and in fig. 17, we find the application. Let "e b" be the horizontal, and also the direction of movement of the curve "a b," in its proper position. From the construction, we see that the center of pressures due to the direct reaction of the moving particles is at "f," while that due to the pressure emanating from the

center "c," is at "g." If we draw a normal from the point "f," its inclination is against the direction of motion, "e b." But one drawn from "g," inclines with it, or forward. The resultant of these two pressures is indicated by "h," and the normal to the tangent at this point, shows a slight forward pressure.

*Begun in the October issue.

Fromdie study of the fig. n we find that there is a third element of pressure "in n," whose intensity is greatest towards the front. This again changes the location of the center of pressure, placing it in advance of the point "h." And as the normal at this point inclines forward, there should be a perceptible forward pressure developed; a phenomenon I have noticed when testing my aeroplanes, and one which 1 believe has been observed by others.

These conclusions regarding the location of the center of pressure, seem to be confirmed by observations made when I first entered this study. Taking specimens of large birds, eagles, pelicans, buzzards, etc., newly killed, I braced their wings in the normal position of soaring. Then balanced the body by thrusting sharp points into it, immediately under the wings, (frequent corrections having been made to adjust the bracing so as not to introduce errors into balancing), and I found the center of gravity under a point in the wing, approximately corresponding with the point I have indicated as being the center of pressures.

Before leaving this part of the subject, I must call attention to two important elements: ist. From a study of figs. 14 and 15, it is seen, that it is the reaction within, or under the curve, that causes the ascending current in advance of the curve: hence, should there be an object within this space, which causes a resistance to the fluid movement, it, by reaction, will further increase this rising current; and as this is increased, the front edge may be lowered still more, and thereby the element of pressure on the forward surface augmented, which will partially compensate for the resistance due to the object. 2nd. In the use of two surfaces, one in advance of the other, the line of development is suggested in fig. 14. Suppose this surface be divided at "d," and the sections moved apart, the intervening space gives to each part an Individual^, but their mutual reactions give them an inter-relation. Hence, in the practical use of such surfaces, the curvature of that, forward, should be more pronounced, and its inclination greater than that in the rear. However, without a proper understanding how to determine these elements, dangerous mistakes might be made.

Having pointed out what seem to be the fundamental principles in the formation and adjustment of a gliding or soaring surface, I now place the whole idea in a single expression, as a stepping stone to the consideration of the mechanical principles, relative to the problem of the energy involved.

Conceive a long narrow surface, such as a bird's wings, in a horizontal position, having no formed motion, but being pulled down by gravity. In descending through the air, this surface sets up two whirls around its edges. And we readily perceive that the work of gravity in pulling the surface down, is divided between the descending surface and the whirls escaping around its edges. Now, suppose the surface be given a horizontal movement of such velocity that the complete system of movements, shown in fig. 15, is built up: then these opposite whirls being blended into one rotation, having its ascending element in advance of the surface, the work of gravity impressed upon the air, comes back to the surface, giving it an upward impulse.

Xow let us inquire what is the significance of this operation, relative to the question of energy. This point is well worthy of the sincerest inquiry; for who has not been enchanted and mystified by the beautiful movement of a soaring bird? And who has not asked the question, over and over again, from whence does it derive the power to perforin such feats, so much at variance with other phenomena and our ideas of motion?

Having passed through the ordeal of these perplexing questions, and been forced to their solution, by going back to the infancy of mechanics 1 am compelled to state, that some of the elementary questions, as they appear in our text books, have not been developed as completely as they should have

been, and thus, the minds of even the best students, have been left with some erroneous conclusions, attributable directly to a too restricted investigation.

In entering into this question, let me suggest, that we abstract our minds as far as possible from all knowledge and conclusions on the subject, so as to follow the building up of the demonstrations without prejudging them by ideas that we possess, or which must, in their natural order come later. As may be inferred from the preceding we shall simply go back to the most elementary principles, and expand them, emphasizing such points as relate to the question.

force and motion

A force acting upon a movable mass imparts to it a velocity which is a product of the force multiplied by the time of action ; v=ft.

The force may be a pure force, as gravity; it may be the pressure of a compressed elastic body, or it may be the impact of a moving mass. Regarding the force derived from a moving mass, it may be stated, that when there is a series of impacts, the element of time is composed of the duration of each impact multiplied by the number.

From a confusion of ideas on this subject, erroneous conclusions sometimes arise. A force is simply considered a force in a general way, and must produce so much motion and no more, the element of time and the factors that determine it, being entirely lost sight of. Experiments, illustrated in

a

A A

Fig. 18, will be instructive on these points, "a" and "b" are two masses fastened to rods and supported by the pivots "f" "f." Between them is the spring "c." In the ist experiment, let "a" and "b" be equal. If the compressed spring be released, it will drive the two masses apart, "a" reaching the point "d;" but in a 2nd experiment, let "b" be greater than in the ist, ("a" remaining the same), then when the compressed spring is liberated, the mass "a" is forced to a higher point, "e," owing to a greater velocity being-developed ; because the time of action is prolonged by the greater inertia of the larger mass "b." A full and clear conception of the formula v=ft., and a realization of the fact, that the masses operated upon, are important elements in determining the time, are necessary to an understanding of the present problem.

momentum

When a mass is in motion, we have not only the question of velocity, but also that of quantity of motion, or momentum, expressed by the formula m v. A unit of force, acting for a unit of time, on a unit of mass, will develop a unit of velocity: and the unit of mass, multiplied by the unit of velocity, gives a unit of momentum. Then introducing the element of mass into the formula, v=ft., we have m v—ft. Multiplying both sides of the equation by "n" units, we have n m v=n ft., a general expression for the generation of momentum. (In this expression, "t" signifies one unit of time.)

action and re-action

According to the well established principle of "action and re-action," a force can only impart motion to a mass by the re-action of another mass, the action and re-action being equal and opposite. As a positive deduction from this, it may be stated, that if we find a body moving in a given direction, there is somewhere, an equal and opposite motion. The first and most elementary way of expressing this motion, is in terms of momentum ; and representing the opposite directions bv -|- and — we have as a general expression, mv = m, v,. Let us now develop this formula in a special line, so as to give a rational explanation to what may appear as an absurdity in some processes which follow.

In the last formula let v=v11-|-v111; then substituting these and developing, the formula becomes-= m1 v1. For the purpose of using

m yu+rn vin

this formula to illustrate certain points, let us put it into figures.

Let m=i ; nij=2; vn=i ; vlu=-?,■; then from the formula, v1 is found to be f. We now place these figures in order and leave them for future use.

-- m, vv

m vn+m vnl

ixi + ix4 = 2xf Momenta =--= I s

impact of elastic bodies

The impact of elastic bodies presents phenomena which very few seem to have studied, still fewer understand, and which many are ready to deny on general principles. And because of certain vague ideas regarding motion and the exchange of momenta, there seems to be an inability to grasp the truths derived from some of the mathematical formulae, and to understand the phenomena of their experimental demonstrations. To have a proper conception of these, one must have recourse to a little more profound study than is afforded in the ordinary text-books.

In the present discussion, all that I hope to do, is to give a demonstration of the truth of some of the propositions, with general suggestions; as the revolving of the subject in its many phases would be too lengthy.

In presenting the formulae of the impact of elastic bodies, I shall develop a special case, so as to demonstrate, that what appears as an absurdity, is a rational conclusion in the light of the formula of "action and reaction" just developed. These are general formulae for the purpose of determining the velocities of two elastic bodies after impact, and cover all possible cases.

Let A and B represent two elastic bodies, having the respective velocities V and U; and let v and u represent their velocities after impact.

Then (A+B)v = 2BU+(A—B)V.

(A+B)u = 2AV—(A—B)U.

Let A=t, V=i, B=2, U=o.

Substituting these values in the formulae, ave find, v=^ ; u=-|; these being the velocities and directions after impact. Multiplying these velocities by the respective masses, gives the respective momenta; that of A being ^, and B, i^. This latter, to many, is a manifest absurdity; for as the original momentum of A is supposed to be only i, how can it give i^?

Let us analyze the problem, and assume that two equal elastic masses 111 = 1, and m^i, are acted upon by a force "f," which imparts a velocity i to each (fig. 19).

■ V--- ^M»tAl

Let m1 impinge on the elastic mass M=2. Then according to the formulae just presented, will rebound from M with a velocity vn=:-|. If this be so, we have on one side, two masses having a — velocity and momentum, 111 v=-l, 111! vix=4.

Referring now to the formula of "action and reaction," we see there must be an equal and opposite momentum of 1-^, and this we find in M=2, with V=j.

Now, let us combine these ideas with those presented under the discussion of fig. 18, and we have a universal expression of the phenomena of "action and reaction." In fig. 18, it was noted that with a given force, the resulting motion or momentum was dependent on the masses of the bodies acted upon. Hut it is apparent, this is not final; for a given force "f" (fig. 19), acting on m and m1, generates momenta which are a proximate result; but as m1 impinges on another mass M, the ultimate result of the action of the force is the momentum generated in M. In this case m1 may be considered a force acting on AI, and the momentum generated is measured by the intensity multiplied by the time, and the time is determined by the inertia of the masses.

An inspection of 'he system presented in fig. 19, shows that various ideas are presented according to the view taken. One is, that the force acting 011 m,, ultimately causes it to move against the force; another is, that nij impresses upon M, a momentum equal to its impact and reaction. Further, while we may (for the purpose of drawing special deductions), fix our attention on the movement of one or another of the masses, we must bear in mind, that it is only one of the operating elements in a system, and hence must not be considered by itself, but as an element related to the whole. Finally, whatever motion any of the elements may have, the algebraic sum of all the movements in the system must be zero.

In applying the formulae, of the impact of elastic bodies, to the case of two equal masses m, m,^ (fig. 20) : if m be moving with a velocity v, and m1 is at rest; after impact m1 moves with a velocity v, and m is brought to rest. But if the masses be moving against one another, with the respective velocities v and Vj; after impact, ml has the velocity v, while m has vv

©-> © ^/"^ ©_± 4--@

(Continued in January.)

JAPAN TO BUY DIRIGIBLE IN AMERICA.

Negotiations are being rapidly brought to a head for the building of a large dirigible by A. Leo Stevens for Japanese officials. This will mean much for our own country and what it means for Japan we cannot tell, but there are prevalent many vague rumors that many experiments are being conducted in Japan by the authorities and by individuals.

GORDON BENNETT CLASSIFICATION.

1st, Col. Schaeck (Switzerland), 1212 kilometers. 2d, John Dunville (England), 428.75 kiloms. 3rd, M. Geerts (Belgium), 413 kilometers.

America, through J. C. McCoy, gets 16th position with 205.5 kilometers; 22d, N. H. Arnold; and 24th, A. Holland Forbes. The distances made by the two latter are not calculated, as Arnold landed in the water and Forbes' balloon parachuted just out of Berlin.

The winner's distance is 119 miles behind the Gordon Bennett distance made from St. Louis last year. The duration of the winner's trip from St. Louis, however, is beaten by 28 hours.

Though Col. Schaeck's balloon "descended" into the water, a steamer took the balloon in tow after a couple of hours, and an actual descent was then made on land. Technically, a proper landing was made within the F. A. I. rides, which forbid descending in the sea, and he is given credit for the distance made from Berlin to the point at sea where he was picked up.

Several countries have joined in a protest, the decision having created a good sized "scrap," and it will be fully thrashed out at the next congress of the International Federation.

Wilbur Wright thinks the limit of ratio of power and weight has already been reached and that it will never be possible to lift a greater weight Avith a given horsepower than now.

ZERBE AEROPLANE.

J. S. Zerbe, president of the Aero Club of California, in Los Angeles, has nearly completed the machine shown in the illustration. A 40 h.p. Curtiss motor is now being installed.

There are twelve concave planes, in pairs. These planes can be tipped backward or forward, the set of six on the right working together and those on the left acting similarly. While the right-hand planes are tipped one way those on the left may be tipped the other.

By the manipulation of the planes Mr. Zerbe asserts he will be able to rise at any angle (the machine maintaining a level keel) or descend at any angle, lie also claims to be able to descend backward.

The machine weighs, complete, but 400 pounds, and a lifting power of 1000 pounds is claimed.

The manipulation of the machinery is very simple. A steering wheel is the only thing which Air. Zerbe needs to handle in operating the aeroplane, except in emergencies, when levers permit quicker adjustment.

Whenever the operator desires to tip the planes he turns the steering wheel one way or the other. Whenever he desires to throw one set of planes up and the other down, he pushes the wheel to the right or to the left. In a sudden gust of wind, levers can accomplish the same object much quicker.

Inherent stability is claimed for the device.

DIRIGIBLE BALLOON OPERATED BY WIRELESS.

M. O. Anthony, of New York, has been experimenting for a long time with a view to stopping, starting and controlling the steering and all movements of a dirigible balloon by wireless from the ground.

With the aid of A. Leo Stevens, the well known constructor, Mr. Anthony has been able to accomplish some startling results.

The model dirigible is 22 feet long and is, of course, inflated with hydrogen gas. The power is clockwork. The model is successfully operated by wireless from a keyboard in the hands of the inventor. It starts, stops, steers right, left or up and down by the mere touching of a key.

AUTOMOBILE CLUB OF AMERICA ENTERS AERONAUTICS.

The Automobile Club of America, the representative body in America of the International Federation of Recognized Automobile Clubs, has decided to appoint a committee to take up aviation. Messrs. George F. Chamberlin and Dave 11. Morris arc the committee in charge and they are earnestly endeavoring to complete a plan of organization at the earliest moment. It is not unlikely that a substantial prize will be offered for aviation.

BOSTON HERALD'S CUP RULES MODIFIED.

The rules of competition for the Boston Herald cup which was offered to a balloonist who, during 1908, starting from some point at least 100 miles from Boston, made a landing within 5 miles of Boston Common. No one has won this cup. In order to make the competition somewhat easier and to allow the members of the new clubs near Boston to compete, for 1909, the balloonist will have to start not less than 40 miles away.

During the past year a number of attempts have been made by expert balloon pilots to capture the Boston Herald Cup, but it was not won. Most of the ascensions were made from Pittsfield or North Adams, and the balloons went in all directions.

In only one case did a balloon pass within five miles of the Common. In that instance, it passed during the night over the Back

Bay, the occupants not daring to land because of church spires and house roofs, and finally came to earth on the South Shore.

THE SPRATT TOWING FLIGHT EXPERIMENTS.

Geo. A. Spratt, whose article in "Aeronautics" will be remembered with interest, has been making some experiments in towed flights. Mr. Spratt evidently believes with L. J. Lesh that much more experience can be gained, with less danger, during a towed flight than by making short glides down hill.

The towing flight, made last month, was accomplished against rather a strong breeze, with an automobile for tractive power. The glider lifted with a slide of about five feet and soon attained an elevation of about six feet. It was- then turned downward and proceeded for a distance at an elevation of from one to two feet. A sudden gust started it upward and in the endeavor to prevent a rise, Mr. Spratt turned it down too much and it struck the ground. He immediately started it up again and due to the same cause as before, it struck a little embankment. There were two screws pulled out and a strut broken in consequence. This is the extent of the damage. The distance covered over the ground was about one hundred and fifty feet.

The construction of the aeroplane is of the "thrown-together" style, to try out an idea. It is not practically built, a heavy base and skids having been attached to a surface framing not intended to carry such addition.

There have been too few trials with it to form a safe opinion of its merits, but the indications are favorable.

As to future expectations, Mr. Spratt states:

"I can say little except that I expect to repair this machine and continue to try it as long as there is anything left of it to yield information on the ideas expressed in its construction. If the tests continue satisfactory, I will then build one with more strength that we may feel safer and be justified in rising to a height that will not cause a contact with the ground whenever the course is depressed.

BALDWIN'S VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL

Used in lite U. S. Gov. Dirigible and Spherical Balloons

will last from five to six times as long as a varnished balloon. The weight is always the same, as it does not require further treatment. Heat and cold have no effect on it, and ascensions can be made as well at zero weather as in the summer time. The chemical action of oxygen has not the same detrimental effect on it as it has on a varnished material. Silk double walled VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL, has ten times the strength of varnished material. A man can take care of his PROOF balloon, as it requires little or no care, and is NOT subject to spontaneous combustion. Breaking strain 100 lbs. per inch width. Very elastic. Any weight, width, or color. Will not crack. Waterproof. No talcum powder. No revaniishing. The coining balloon material, and which through its superior qualities, and being an absolute gas holder is bound to take the place of varnished material. The man that wants to have the up-to-date balloon, must use VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL. Specified by the U. S. SIGNAL CORPS.

^^fl Prices and samples on application ^^fl

»BW| Box78M:twovo!Huarep'0' ?™m

WILBUR R. KIMBALL LIGHT GASOLENE MOTORS

WATER COOLED

50 H. P.

45 WEST 34th STREET NEW YORK

TWO CYCLE

125 lbs.

LIGHTEST COMMERCIAL MOTOR IN THE WORLD

4 Separate Engines in One, Each under Separate Control.

Daily Demonstrations at Morris Park Race Track.

"We tried it again on Nov. 30th in a wind, the gusts of which were strong enough to pick the operator up without any initial run. The machine showed itself very well again until mental confusion took possession of the operator, when he reached an elevation of about ten feet. He made a safe landing, and is anxious to try again, but the machine received the worst breaks it has yet had. It is repairable. The tow line was held by assistants.

"It is very little different from a Chanute glider with a seat provided with skids, suspended from the surface trussing, and the tail-vane shaft fastened to the seat. It spreads one hundred and forty eight square feet; the surfaces are arcs without a thickened front."

f' NEW CURTISS MOTOR.

The G. H. Curtiss Manufacturing Company have added to their extensive line of aeronautical motors a new 8-cylinder, water cooled, 3% inch bore and 4 inch stroke, developing 50 h.p. This engine has a crank case of special aluminum alloy. The shaft is chrome nickel steel made hollow, especially treated for toughness and carefully ground to exact size. The connecting rods are special drop forgings with liberal bearings. Cylinders are cast iron with copper jackets. The intake and exhaust valves are in the head and concentric. Vuxiliary ports are fitted and have covers so that they may or may not be used. Ignition is by single coil and by distributer. Lubrication by splash with constant supply from the gear pump. A light balance wheel is fitted to the sprocket with chain for transmission, although any transmission can be furnished. The shaft is inch in diameter. This engine lists at $2200, complete, with all accessories.

AERO PATENTS.

Compiled by Munn & Co., 361 Broadway, New York:

Flying Machine, J. & P. Cornu, 902,859, propeller for airships, P. S. Davies, 903,060.

THE ZEPPELIN I.

In the last number the wording of the first sentence under "Germany" in the

foreign news is somewhat misleading. The present "Zeppelin I." is the old "Zeppelin III." modified, as mentioned in the October number, and takes the place of the "Zeppelin IV.," which was destroyed by fire.

Carl G. Fisher of Indianapolis has just organized a stock company to build a 2l/$ mile automobile race track and for this purpose the company has purchased 350 acres of ground located just outside the city limits in the northern part of the city.

It is the intention in this ground to erect an aerodrome and have a small club house for the use of the members who wish to indulge in aeronautics.

C. & A. Wittemann, who were the first in this country to advertise that they had a plant equipped to handle aeronautical construction work, with gliders in stock, have found it necessary to build one new building and will soon start work on another. A full sized 40-foot power machine is now being built by them on an order and several gliders are now in process of construction which will be so* built that they will be easily "knocked down."

During 1908, up to the end of November, 164 balloon ascensions were made by various American aero club members, the greatest number, 3r, being made during July. Some of these were made abroad. This means a total of about seven million cubic feet of coal gas. During the first half of 1908, at the park of the Aero Club of France, there were 186 balloon ascensions made. Last year, members of the Aero Club of America alone used 2J/2 million cubic feet of gas which entitled them to three votes in the F. A. I. If all the aero clubs in this country were affiliated and the seven million cubic feet of gas had all been used in this country, the Aero Club would have five votes in the F. A. I., one vote being allowed for every 882,750 cubic feet.

Holly—"Do yon know my balloon reminds me very much of my wife."

Gus—"I suppose so; always wants to go to a different place from the one you wish it to."—Yonkers Statesman.

Cleve T. Shaffer, of San Francisco, is experimenting with a gliding machine.- The planes are 4 feet apart and measure 16 by 5 feet; the ribs are placed 1 foot apart and fastened to round spars; the vertical struts are V-shaped to lessen resistance; the wood used is spruce, with No. 20 music wire for trussing and stove wire for tying; ordinary 3-way plumber's "Ls" are used for corners and brazed bicycle tubing joints for the "Ts" connecting the uprights to the horizontal spars; a pivoted box tail of 24 square feet horizontal surface with 10 feet of vertical surface was used. Flown as a kite to learn manipulation of the rudder, the latter was found too heavy and was taken off. Another trial was made without the tail, but the machine then met with disaster.

Edward R. Gilbert, of Hartford, Conn., has just completed a model, his idea of a perfect flying machine. His model consists of a frame work supporting two horizontal propellers at the top and two vertical propellers in the front with a combination vertical and horizontal rudder in the rear. The blades in the horizontal propellers can be adjusted to any pitch or to no pitch at all. When the engines are started, the entire force of same will be used on the horizontal propellers for rafsing the machine into the air.

After the machine is in the air, the blades are gradually flattened until the propeller becomes a revolving disc and a part of the aeroplane surface. As this process goes on, the excess power of the engine is gradually applied to the vertical propellers at the bow, by means of friction clutches, thus gradually completing the change from a vertical motion of the whole machine to a horizontal one. The gyroscopic action of the horizontal propellers is depended upon for securing equilibrium, together with a perfectly balanced machine. The vertical shafts of the horizontal propellers are tubular and revolve around rods which are a part of the frame work of the apparatus. In speaking of his machine, he says: "In a perfected machine, it is of course evident that a forward rudder for securing elevation would also be necessary. The type of blade used for the horizontal propellers should be narrow instead of as constructed in the model, and I believe that the larger the diameter of these propellers, the greater would be the efficiency, as each blade would become more and more nearly like a separate aeroplane."

The citizens of Dayton, Ohio, the nome of the Wright Brothers, are planning an ovation when Wilbur Wright returns from abroad. Orville Wright is now at Dayton.

A Chauffeur by the name of Helfer is building a motor aeroplaue in a garage 011 Thirtjr-nrst Street, New York.

Prof. C. C. Kanaga, of Denver, is shortly to construct a full sized machine with the proceeds from the sale of a quarter interest in his patent. The machine is estimated to cost between $2,200 and $2,500, and will carry three light weight men. Two Curtiss 25 h.p. air cooled motors will be used, running four propellers, two in front and two in the rear. Jeffrey chain will be used to' reverse motion of the front and rear propellers. The machine will comply with the Army requirements as regards quick assembling and take-down. A kite which he has constructed, 8 feet 3 inches high, 10 feet 4 inches wide and cells inside 3 feet square, having in all 109 sq.ft. of canvas, pulls 300 to 400 pounds on a cable and lifts a 50 lb. sack of sand, besides its own weight of 11 lbs.

During 1908 Col. J. L. Gribble's airship, "The City of Louisville," has made nine ascensions, all of which were from the Kentucky State Fair Grounds. All were return trips, and on one occasion a flight of seven miles-was made, the machine being caused to land on the roof of a building at one of our prominent corners in the business district, after which it made an ascent and return trip to the Fair Grounds. The shortest time in the air on any of the occasions referred to was 25 minutes, and the longest about $x/2 hours. On all of these trips the ship was operated by Horace B. Wild. So successful were the flights in every respect, that in addition to paying the full contract price for the exhibition, the management of the Fair presented Col. Gribble with a very handsome silver loving cup appropriately engraved as having been awarded for the best airship flights ever made here on a similar occasion.

Note.—The name first given is always that of the pilot.

Nov. i. G. L. Bumbaugh made a trip from Indianapolis with Mr. and Mrs. Edmund Rosenburg, covering about 14 miles and making an easy landing.

Nov. 3. G. L. Bumbaugh, Dr. Goethe Link and R. J. Irvin left Indianapolis at 2:45 P- m-» landing near New Castle, Ind., at 4 o'clock, covering a distance of 47 miles. Dr Link 'tried some interesting experiments. At an altitude of 2,300 feet he took the pulse of the occupants of the basket, and he found that all of them beat at the rate of about 100 a minute. When they reached their highest altitude their pulse beat at the rate of 120 to the minute. The normal pulse beat is 72.

About ten miles from the landing place the anchor was thrown out, and the men had an exciting moment when the anchor barely missed a cow in the field. When the anchor rope crossed a fence the aeronauts thought the anchor would catch on the barbed wire, and they made preparation to descend. Instead the anchor jumped the fence and the aeronauts decided to go farther.

Nov. 6. Lieut. Frank P. Lahm, A. Holland Forbes and 2d Lieut. John G. Winter departed from Washington, D. C, in the Signal Corps, No. 11, at 11:30 a.m., landing at Revell, Md., at 12:36 p.m., covering 30 miles. At the start the wind blew 30 miles per hour and very nearly this speed was the average of the trip. As Chesapeake Bay was reached the balloon was struck by strong relative puffs from the east, making the basket sway and turn.

Nov. 7. A. H. Morgan, J. II. Wade, Jr., and Pierce Lonergan left Canton in the "Sky Pilot" and landed near Beaver, Pa., after a fast trip. First experience for Mr. Lonergan. Distance, 60 miles.

Nov. 9. G. L. Bumbaugh, C. S. Stone and Raymond Holcomb left Indianapolis

and covered 12 miles. This was a first trip for his two companions.

Nov. 14. J. H. Wade, Jr., and Ralph Lee left Canton in the "Ohio" at 10:30, landing at 4:15 p.m. 3 miles south of Transfer, Mercer Co., Pa. The start was made with very little wind and towards the north. The wind later veered. Distance, about 65 miles. This was first ascension for Mr. Wade after receiving his pilot license, and was the initial ascent for Mr. Lee.

Attempts to Break World's Record, from Los Angeles.

Nov. 15. A. E. Mueller and J. K. Hutchison left Chutes Park, Los Angeles, at 2.30 p.m. in the "American," inflated with hydrogen and coal gas, in an attempt to break the world's long distance balloon record of 1193 miles by a trip from Los Angeles east over the two ranges of mountains, the Coast Range and the Rockies. The balloon travelled in almost every direction during the night and in the attempt to get away from the westward current, threw out ballast, but was carried rapidly towards the ocean. After being in the air thirteen hours and being driven to sea four times, the balloon landed about 25 miles from the start, at Hermosa Beach, Calif., at 3.30 a.m.

Nov. 16. Horace B. Wild and Frank Le-royxez left Chutes Park, Los Angeles, in the balloon "United States," at 12.45 P-i"-» also with the expectation of breaking the record. This balloon was likewise filled with hydrogen and coal gas. In getting away, not quite enough sand was taken and the balloon did not "balance" until it reached 4,000 feet. At that elevation the wind was blowing towards the ocean and the balloon was dropped low and travelled back over Los Angeles, crossing the foot hills. The balloon then slowh- travelled over many towns at various points of the compass. After passing Santa Ana and six miles from the ocean, the current changed and blew the balloon over Mount

Baldy, reaching an altitude of j6,6oo feet. This was during the night, and the water used for the lime heater froze;. After crossing Mount Baldy, the balloon went over San Bcrnadino at good speed at 2.10 the following morning. ]t was half past seven in the morning when the balloon crossed Colton. The rope caught in the rocks and a boy freed the rope, but hung on and was carried up in the air. This necessitated making a landing to release the boy, and the trip was over.

During the course of the ascent, the balloon reached as far as Cima, in Colorado, 300 miles east of Los Angeles. This meant crossing the Coast Range and the great Mohave desert.

61 Miles in 60 Minutes.

Nov. 17. William R. Van Sleet and W. K. Morison left Pittsfield, in the "Heart of the Berkshires," at 2.55 p.m., landing at 3.55 at Rockville, Conn., a distance of 61 miles, after a somewhat exciting trip. This is over a mile a minute.

Soon after the gas was turned on at 12.15, tne wind blew the balloon about so that it had to be tied to a tree. Then, with 50 bags of sand in use" as anchors and 30 men clinging to the ropes, it reared and plunged about while manoeuvring for a balance, tossing the helpers about in the snow.

Secretary Kelton B. Miller and Treasurer Daniel England of the Pittsfield Aero Club, who were endeavoring to keep the balloon in check, were carried over 30 feet in the air, and came near being dragged away with the venturesome sky voyagers.

A cord became entangled in the appendix of the balloon, and David T. Cul-lcn volunteered to climb up through the network of ropes and uncoil it. Coming down, his foot got caught, and K. B. Miller and A. C. Daniels of Pittsfield climbed up 20 feet on the ropes, took off Cullen's shoe and assisted him down.

When the balloon finally got away the envelope was not more than half-full of gas, and there were only 2^ bags of sand aboard.

The balloon rose at once 8000 feet and

sailed southeast before a strong air current. It was lost to view over October mountain within 15 minutes.

Mr. Van Sleet tells of Wild Triv.

"We passed over Westfield at an altitude of 11,000 feet—the highest ever attained in this country. We were up 10,000 feet when we sailed over the Connecticut River and beating all speed records 'to a frazzle.'

"We had but i]/2 bags of sand left, but in the upper air we found a warm current which kept our balloon fairly firm. It was the most exhilarating experience I ever had.

"When I saw we were Hearing Rockville, Conn., I decided I had better get back to earth and let her die down about 5000 feet. Then we were caught in a wind whirlpool and sucked down like a flash.

"I saw a large factory apparently jumping up to meet us and threw out everything but our instruments. When we had cleared the building I pulled the rip cord and let go the 20-pound anchor. It caught in a tree, but we were going so fast it snapped off and we went crashing through the town 40 miles an hour.

"We tore down electric wires, ringing in a fire alarm, and smashed down a fence while a number of persons tried to catch the drag rope or grasp the basket to stay our progress.

"The balloon squeezed itself between two houses and finally wilted in an orchard belonging to Christian Numaker, who resented our involuntary intrusion. We had left Pittsfield at 2.55, and got back-to earth at 3.55."

Mr. Morison returned to New York at once. Mr. Van Sleet remained to ship the balloon back to Pittsfield. When he had it all packed and on a wagon the chief of police insisted upon his visiting the police station. There was a bill for damages presented for payment. Mr. Van Sleet telegraphed officials of the Aero Club and on their assurance that the club would settle for all injury to property, the police permitted Mr. Van Sleet to go, but kept the balloon as security, and Mr. Van Sleet went home by trolley cars.

1 lW/ ^

AERONAUTICS

45

Longest Trip of the Year made by Lambert and Honeywell.—Within 14 Miles of Lamm Cup Record—Bl'mbaugh Lea-ten by 30 Miles, Not Considering two Stops—Non-Stop Record Still held by Bumbal'GH. Nov. 18. Albert Bond Lambert, Aero Club de France pilot, and Honorary Secretary of the Aero Club of St. Louis, accompanied by II. E. Honeywell, a balloon builder, made a varied and unusual balloon voyage, starting from St. Louis November 18th at 12.30 p.m. and finally landing at a point 461 miles distant, near Tiger, Ga., November 19, 7 a.m. The aeronauts, using a 65,000 cubic foot aerostat, made two landings in the State of Illinois, 50 and 75 miles from St. Louis, and then continued through the evening and night to the extreme northeast corner of the state of Georgia, where a landing' was accomplished between two mountain peaks of 5000 feet altitude. The original intention of the balloonists was to beat Mr. Arnold's record and win the Lahm cup for the St. Louis club. But after the second landing it was found that the balloon had moved

LAMBERT AND HONEYWELL LEAVING

so slowly that it would be useless to continue the cup trial. They did not realize that they would make a long voyage. Describing his trip Mr. Lambert said:

"When we got away from the gas works, we were very heavily laden with some 1500

pounds of ballast, a trail rope weighing 140 pounds and other things, so when we were over the Mississippi River with scarcely any breeze it seemed that we would not get to the Illinois side, but we discharged one-half a sack of ballast and rose to a higher altitude, where we got an air current. Our trail rope was a 300-foot piece, iJ4 inches in diameter, and was new. When we let it out over the side of the basket the twists stayed in it and it got badly tangled. To straighten it we made a landing about 20 miles west of Boyd, III., but it became tangled again, so we descended when we reached Boyd. There we learned that we had been travelling no faster than 12 miles an hour. We knew that at this rate we could not hope to better Mr. Arnold's record, so we did not again notify the Aero Club of America of any intention to try for the cup. In fact, we thought that after an hour or so more in the air that we would descend and turn to St. Louis, but we had not been very long aloft before we got in a good current which carried us northeast at a height of about 5000 feet. We must have been over Indiana when we struck another air current which carried us southwards. We knew our direction by the North Star.

"A little while afterwards, about 9 p.m., we noticed the dull glow of fire far below us and caught the fumes of burning wood, and knew that we were over forest fires. To avoid them we rose to an altitude of 8000 or 9000 feet, at which height we remained nearly all night, but always beneath us was the dull glow of the fires. When dawn came and we saw that we were over mountains, I told Honeywell that I thought we were about 200 miles from St. Louis, probably over Kentucky. But he said that he did not think we had come that far. We were surprised when we finally learned that we were in Georgia.

"For about two hours before we came down the balloon hung almost motionless in the sky and I knew that we might not move for hours. So when we saw a suitable place to land we made for it. This was in a valley between two mountain peaks called Charlie and Glassy. It required considerable manoeuvring with valve and ballast to climb over the hills, searching for a bare spot among the trees which covered the mountain side. When we did find it we opened the valve and dropped

straight down. I threw out the anchor and it caught in what proved to be a dried up mill pond.

"The simple mountain folk who had gathered around us were incredulous at first—some of them did not seem to be able to realize that we were real men. 1 heard one man say to his wife, T told you they wuz real!' Then another asked me if we would not keep the balloon inflated for a while so that some of the other people living in the vicinity could see it. Honeywell did this, keeping it up for two hours, while about 150 people—they all belonged to one family—gazed at it. When we had done this and satisfied them that we were net revenue inspectors looking for moonshiners, they were very cordial in their manner. They would not allow us to pay for (anything—including the wagon 'that hauled the balloon 7 miles to a railroad. When we were leaving one of them said, 'Folks don't come heah often, but when they do, we's awful glad to see 'em.'

"It will give you an idea of the secluded nature of the country when I tell you that the railroad which we boarded runs only once a day, in one direction. We learned afterwards that if we had not landed where we did, we wotdd not have found a place except on top of the trees, the other side of the mountain. The rugged character of that country has to be seen to be appreciated. Our landing point was at an elevation of 1750 feet."

Mr. Williams Welch, of the Signal Service, has kindly figured the distance from Balloon Park, St. Loui,s, to Tiger, Ga., as 461 miles. This is within 14 miles of the distance made by Capt. Chandler last year, when he won the Lahm Cup, and is 30 miles farther than G. L. Bumbaugh and C. A. Coey made on June 1 from Quincy. Ills., to Clear Lake, S. D. The Bumbaugh trip, however, was without intermediate landings.

Mr. Lambert has made 13 trips to date.

Nov. 18. G. L. Bumbaugh and Carl G. Fisher left Indianapolis in the "Kathleen" at 2.30 p.m., landing near Greenfield, Ind., 20 miles distant, at 4.30.

Nov. 21. A. Leo Stevens, Miss Blanche Vignos and Charles Vignos left Canton in the "Ohio" at ii a.m., landing at 1.55 p.m. near Kent. After having lunch a new start was made and a final landing made at 2.50, 4^ miles north of Kent in Stowe township.

the trip, as follows: 11.30, four miles north of Canton at 4-corners; 12.10, directly over center of Uniontown; 12.20, farm of H. Wise; 12.45, directly over Springfield Lake; 12.52, passed near center of Springfield; 1.00, at outskirts of Akron; 1.20, at Tal-madge Star; 1.45, at Kent; 1.55, landed 1 mile north of Kent.

Nov. 21. G. L. Bumbaugh took up R. J. Irvin again and J. A. Bartley in the "Kathleen" for a 20-mile 2-hour trip. The Warner Instrument Co. must be intending to manufacture "autometers" for balloons, taking Mr. Bartley's trip as a significant sign.

A. L. Stevens, W. R. and H. H. Tim ken and W. F. Com stock in the "All America" Earn Mention on "Sky Pilot Trophy" in Trip over Hundred Miles ' from Canton. Nov. 23. A. Leo Stevens, W. R. and H. H. Timken and W. F. Comstock left Canton at 9.15 a.m. with the expectation of crossing Lake Erie and Lake Ontario, but in view of thé very strong wind, which necessitated the use of the ripping panel in landing, and the number of occupants of the basket, it was decided after starting not to attempt the feat. The landing was made at 1.35 within one mile of the water, at Erie, Pa. Out of the 32 bags started with, 17^4 were left. At times the balloon traveled at 45 m.p.h. The "Sky Pilot Trophy" was offered early in the year by Messrs. Wade and Morgan to the balloon making the longest trip over 100 miles out of Canton, up to Jan. 1, 1910. F. S. Lahm made the longest trip heretofore from Canton, 85 miles. The names of the occupants of the "All America" will be inscribed on the trophy. Any balloonist making 100 miles or over from Canton is entitled to have his name inscribed, the pilot of the balloon making the greatest distance over 100 miles before Jan. 1, 1910. Distance to Erie, 117 miles, as kindly computed by Mr. Williams Welch, of the War Department, U. S. A.

On this ascension, trial was made by Mr. Stevens of a siren, made by the Sireno Co., 39 Cortlandt Street, New York, with gratifying success. It is found by aeronauts when they call to people on the ground to ask for information, that by the time the people recover from their deep interest or astonishment the balloon has gone on too far for the replies to be

at the touching of a button. Before coming up to people the siren is started screaming and by the time the balloon is near the spectators are prepared to answer questions intelligently and clearly.

Another Trial for World Record. Nov. 23. A. E. Mueller and J. K. Hutchison left Los Angeles at 10.19 a.m. in the "United States," inflated with coal gas, landing at 4.10 in the bottom lands of the Colorado River. At noon the following day the aeronauts reached Ehrenberg, Ariz., on the Colorado River.

Story of the Trip. In telling of the trip, Mr. Hutchison said: "We crossed the mountains within a quarter of a mile of the summit of San Jacinto peak and continued a straight eastern course over the desert ranges. Midway between San Jaeinto peak and the Colorado River, a sudden stratum of cold air condensed the gas and hurled us from an immense height onto the rocks and desert crags below. By clinging to the rigging of the balloon we escaped instant death.

"With terrible force the empty basket swept the ground and was shattered. Two bags of ballast were torn loose and most of our scant store of provisions and outfit lost. Relieved of this weight, the "United States" leaped back into the sky to an altitude so much over 16,000 feet that the instruments failed to register the height. Then we resumed our eastward course, falling slowly to the elevation at which we crossed the Colorado River.

"Shortly after crossing the Colorado, the appendix rope of our balloon broke, the cold wind on the Arizona side of the river forced the illuminating gas from the bag and we were dropped with terrible speed onto the desert, the balloon dragging us through the cactus over a mile before settling.

"We only saved ourselves from being crushed by climbing into the balloon rigging. As the big bag emptied of its gas it bellied like a sail in the wind and the basket ploughed a deep furrow through the rocks and cactus of the plains.

"Badly bruised, we finally succeeded in extricating ourselves from the tangled netting of the balloon and started to hunt for the nearest habitation. Lost in the

bottom lands of the Colorado River all Monday night, we reached Elirenberg completely exhausted after many hours without food, Tuesday noon."

The Coast Range was crossed, the desert and the Salton sea. The distance from Los Angeles to the Colorado River at Ehrenberg is 220 miles. This means an average speed of 30.6 miles per hour.

The landing was made in the desert country on the Colorado Indian Reservation.

Indians who saw the balloon coming hurriedly left their wickiups and gathered for dances to ward off the evil spirits. None would come near or talk to the bal-loonists, who spent the night in one of the abandoned huts and walked 22 miles before reaching a town.

A subscription has been started for another inflation of the "American" and "United States" in order to make a new attempt to surmount the mountain ranges and reach the- plains.

Nov. 26. William Van Sleet, Rmil Bonz and William H. McDonald left Pittsfield, in the "Heart of the Berk-shires," landing at Walpole, N. II., fifty-five minutes later.

Dec. 6. II. E. Honeywell, accompanied by S. Louis Von Phul, who was making his first aerial voyage, ascended from the Rutger Street gas works, St. Louis, at 12.40 p.m. in the balloon Pegasus, 35,000 cubic feet. The day was particularly inclement as regards weather, but in spite of this the aeronauts with this small balloon were able to make a voyage of 57 miles. At 4.05 p. m. an easy landing was accomplished at Willisville, Illinois. The balloon was immediately loaded on the wagon and hurried to a railroad station, where a train was taken for St. Louis. The pair arrived in St.^Louis at about X p.m.

During the trip the aerostat was above the clouds for about one hour. The shadow of the balloon could be seen upon the clouds below, and at times there was a beautiful rainbow irridescence. When 45 miles from St. Louis, a homer pigeon was released which Hew to St. Louis.

Mr. Von Phul was exceedingly enthusi astie over his aerial venture and signilied his intention of making other balloon trips so that he may qualify for a pilot's license, as issued by the Aero Club of America.

AERONAUT LEO STEVENS

THE LEADER OF BALLOON

and AIRSHIP CONSTRUCTION

the keen

Sportsman

of wide experience

uses a "STEVENS BALLOON."

ALL BALLOONS ABSOLUTE HYDROGEN

and COAL GAS PROOF

Varnishing by

improved electrical

process.

ONE TO FIFTY PASSENGERS

also representing carton &. lachambre, leading balloon builders of

Paris, France.

Special Patented rubber balloon fabric, (German and French.)

these fabrics have been tested—not in experimental stage.

messrs. a. c. triaca and a. leo stevens are ready to deliver aeroplanes of the farman no. 1 and delagrange types after trials of 1 mile in a circle.

two cent stamps for reply.

box 181, madison square, new york

INDEX TO

Volume I. started with the first issue, July, 1907. Volume II. started January, 1908. Volume III., with the July, 1908, issue. On account of the great amount of miscellaneous data and news items, only a synopsis of headings is given in this index.

Beginning with the January issue, the reading pages will be numbered from 1 up so that the next index will refer to page numbers and render research work much more easy.

VOLUME III.

July Ascensions.

Stability of Aeroplanes, by Chas. J. Hendrickson.

Int. Aero'l Congress Papers (Italian War Balloon Accident); Kite Manipulation and Record Flight, by Dr. W. R. Blair.

Club Notes and Notes, Patents.

Wireless Telegraphing to a Balloon, by Norbert Carolin.

July—Aero Clubs and Prize Funds, Editorial.

June Aeroplane Flights in America (Aerial Exp. Assn.).

June Aeroplane Flights in Europe (Far-man, Delagrange, Bleriot, etc.).

Sport of Kings—Ballooning, by Arnold Kruckman.

Aeronautics in Great Britain, by London

Correspondent. Future of the Helicopter, by Paul Cornu. International Aeronautical Congress in

London, by London Correspondent. Knabenshue Dirigible.

My Initial Trip to the Clouds, Mrs. Cora

Thompson. Trials of Dufour Glider. Symposium (Prince Borghese,. Kress,

Kimball).

Extension of Area of Weather Reports for Aeronauts—Lightning as an Element of Danger in Balloon Work, by Prof. A. G. McAdie.

Distance of John Wise, by Williams Welch.

June Ascensions, Army News, Club News and Notes.

Adams-Farwell Motor.

August—Encouragement of Interest in Aviation, Editorial.

Symposium (Maj. Moedebeck, Prof. Rotch, Sauniere).

Farman in America, His Machine.

The Month Abroad (Bleriot, the Republique, the Gross II., Zeppelin IV.).

Army Aeronautics (Baldwin Dirigible).-

Scientific American Trophy, New Rules.

Aerial Experiment Association.

How it Feels to be Up in a Balloon, by Johnson Sherrick.

July Balloon Racing (Chicago, St. Paul, Brussels, etc.).

September—Military Aeronautical Appropriation, Editorial. •WilbjtT and Orville Wright's Flights, De-| script ion! of Machine. Evolution of Two-Surface Machine, by Octave Chanute. The First Government Airship, by Jerome S,

Fanciulli. Breguet Gyroplane__«————Kimball Helicopt££_.-<■—

New British Army Airship (Dirigible II).

Army Aeronautics, Patents.

The Month Abroad (Dirigible II, Ferber IX, Gastambide-Mengin, Zens, Republique, Delagrange, Parseval, Gross II, etc.).

Gordon Bennett and Other Balloon Races, Club News and Notes; Ascensions.

Observations and Tests of Marvellous Soaring Power of Birds in Calm and Storm, by Israel Lancaster; Discussion by Dr. A. F. Zahm.

Note on Destruction of Bleriot Monoplane, by Dr. A. Graham Bell. Efficiency of Curved Surfaces.

October—Aerial Leagues, Editorial. High Kite Flight.

Lieut. Thomas E. Selfridge's Death.

Gyroscopic Action of Propellers, Dr. A. Graham Bell.

Army Aeronautics (Wright aeroplane, Dirigible I).

Construction Details of Wright Aeroplane,

by H. H. Brown. Aerial Experiment Association. First Ascension by a Woman in Canton,

by Gladys M. Tannehill. Berliner Helicopter.

Foreign Letter -("Dirigible II, Wright, Delagrange, Farman, Parseval, Gross, etc.).

Evolution of Two-Surface Machine, by Octave Chanute. Report on French Motors, by W. Rupert Turnbull.

Principles Involved in Formation of Wing Surfaces and Phenomenon of Soaring, by Prof. J. J. Montgomery.

Exact Measuring of Balloon Distances, by Williams Welch.

High Explosives as Power for Flying Machines (Carl Barns).

Club News and Notes; Ascensions, Patents.

November—British Aero Club's Aviation Grounds.

Proper Ascension Records, Editorial.

Philadelphia Inquirer Airship, by Thos. t Logan.

Herring Aeroplane. / ^TTcre!fs"etf Lift nig—Effert of Curved Aeroplanes, by Edw. W. Smith.

First Exhibition of The Aeronautic Society, by Win. J. Hammer.

October Balloon Racing (Gordon Bennett, etc.).

Activity in St. Louis, by E. Percy Noel.

The Month Abroad (British Army aeroplane,^ Wright, Bleriot, Farman, etc.).

Principles Involved in Formation of Wing Surfaces and the Phenomenon of Soaring, by Prof. J. J. Montgomery Ascensions, Patents, Army News; Club News and Notes.

December—

Principles Involved in Formation of Wing Surfaces and the Phenomenon of Soaring, by Prof. J. J. Montgomery.

Gordon Bennett Classification.

Aerodrome No. 4 of Aerial Experiment Association, by J. A. D. McCurdy.

Club News and Notes; Patents, Army Aeronautics, Ascensions.

Los Angeles as a Long Distance Ballooning Center, by J. S. Zerbc.

Zerbe Aeroplane.

Spratt Towing Experiments.

At What Angle Greatest Lift?

American Championship, by F. Percy Noel.

Aviation Prizes, a list.

The Month Abroad (Wright, Parseval, Gross, Clement-Bayard, Farman, Bleri ot, Santos-Dumont, etc.)

Loon Hydroplane.

Clement-Bayard Airship, by Carl Dienstbach.

New Machines (Antoinette IV, Santos Du-

moiit, Farman.) hiving Machines and Insurance Companies. New Curtiss Motor.

COMMUNICATION

To the Editor :—

I note with interest the experimental apparatus of Emile Berliner, described in the October issue of "Aeronautics," and I wish to state that this is not new to me, for in the year 1905 I perfected and since have patented a flying machine having two or more combined rotary devices, revolved in opposite directions to each other, with means for safely descending to the earth, if the motive power should fail. Suppose Mr. Berliner's aero-mobile had risen to about 500 feet in the air, and his motors should stop ; how would his machine get to the earth with safety? I believe that my combined rotary devices have practically solved the problem of aerial navigation and that they will be employed in the practical flying machines of the future. This is the first that I have ever given out in regard to my invention.

J. Holmes Wilson.

Articles of incorporation have been filed in San Francisco for the Rekar Helicopter Airship Co. The new corporation is organized by Alexander Otts, John J. Rekar and C. W. W. Otts. According to the articles the new company asks to "acquire, operate and manufacture ships, airships and aerial craft for the navigation of either air or water, and to conduct the business of transferring passengers, freight and mail in airships or other vehicles."

Dr. A. Rudy, of W. Raleigh, N. C, is now building a man carrying helicopter for experimental purposes. Dr. Rudy is spending his efforts in the line of soaring without a motor.

Major Henry B. Hersey, of the U. S. Weather Bureau at Milwaukee, who, it will be remembered, accompanied Frank P. Lahm in the first Gordon-Bennett balloon race, in speaking of the recent third contest for the Gordon-Bennett cup says: "The numerous accidents, collapsing of the "Conqueror" and the Spanish balloon in the Gordon-Bennett race and etc. has had a had effect, but I think it will soon he forgotten."

G. L. Bumbaugh, St. Louis balloon builder, has made 20 airship flights during the year, all successful trips.

CONSIDER BOTH COST AND WEIGHT

of such parts as radiator, cooling fan, water pump, water piping, secondary distributor, wiring and muffler when making comparisons and remember that the

ADAMS-FARWELL MOTOR does not use any of these

while the carburetor, oil tank, oil pump, spark coil and, in fact, everything but the battery and gasoline tank are included in our prices.

r\ r\ i ■ No extras to buy _ _ ..

36 H. P. no weight to add 97 lbs.

No water to boil THE ONLY MOTOR THAT STAYS COOL ALL THE TIME.

Get our Catalogue No, A-14

THE ADAMS COMPANY, Dubuque, Iowa, U. S. A.

NOTE:—Dun and Bradstreet both give us the highest rating of any concern in this tine.

C. and A. WITTEMANN

DESIGNERS— CONSTRUCTORS—DEVELOPERS OF

AEROPLANES, GLIDING MACHINES, MODELS, SEPARATE PARTS

Experiments conducted. Large grounds for testing.

GLIDERS IN STOCK

WORKS 17 OCEAN TERRACE AND LITTLE CLOVE ROAD.

P. 0. Address—Box 40, STAPLETON, STATEN ISLAND, NEW YORK. Tel. 390-L WEST BRIGHTON.

TO THE LIVE MAN STTr1^

cessories, automobillng, and in fact keeping in touch with all that is transpiring the world over in motordom, and who realizes the value of keeping informed about all that concerns it, should be a subscriber to The Steam Motor Journal, 15c. a copy, $1.00 a year.

the steam motor journal co.

1409 WELTON STREET,

DENVER, COLO.

ARMS AND (©) THE MAN

THE NATIONAL H1L1TARY WEEKLY $3.00 a year

General James A. Drain, Editor

ft ARMS AND THE MAN serves every arm of the service in both the Army, the Navy, the Marine Corps and the National Guard. Its columns are open for all military aerorautical discussions,"in connection with the work of the Signal Corps.

150:2 11 Street, N. W.

Washinoton, D. C.

FIELDING-SAN ANTONIO

70,000 Cu. Ft. Built and Piloted by HONEYWELL

WINNER LONG DISTANCE AND ENDURANCE CUPS

CHICAGO A. C. CONTEST, JULY 4, 1908

against a field of eight

THE DEFEATED

ILLINOIS, 72,000 cu. ft., J. L. Case, Builder.

UNITED STATES OF MINNEAPOLIS, 70,000 cu. ft., Mallet, Builder. CHICAGO, 110,000 cu. ft., Bumbaugh, Builder.

COLUMBIA, 75,000 cu. ft., Bumbaugh, Builder.

AMERICA OF ST. PAUL, 78,000 cu. ft., Leo Stevens, Builder. KING EDWARD, 65,000 cu. ft., Canada.

CINCINNATI, 87,000 cu. ft., Haddock, Builder.

VILLE DE DIEPPE, 65,000 cu. ft., Mallet, Builder.

Honeywell with A. b. Lambert, Aero Club de France pilot, discharging ballast to avoid high smoke stacks.

Our material and workmanship speak for themselves. Write for samples and p s.

FRENCH—AMERICAN BALLOON CO.

H. E. HONEYWELL, Director

3958 Cottage Avenue, St. Louis, U. S. A.

iL. IV, No. 1.

JANUARY, 1909

THE AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERIAL LOCOMOTION

RST AMERICAN

riATlON PRIZES

D0,000 FOR MILITARY

WILBUR WRIGHT

MAKES WORLD'S

RECORD FLIGHT —

CRONAUTICS — GLIDING FROM A BALLOON AT 2,000

ÍET - THE PERFECT FLYING MACHINE - OVER THE

COAST RANGE IN A BALLOON.

PRICE, TWENTY-FIVE CENTS

AERON A'U (TICS

International Balloon Races

Berlin, 10, II, 12 October Point to Point Comest :—Winner Uerr Meckel in the balloon Elberfeld made of CONTINENTAL Balloon Sheeting.

Gordon Bennett Race :—The Swiss balloon Helvetia, pilot Col. Schaeck, remained in the air about 72 hours, beating the duration record, heretofore of 52 hours, 32 minutes by uot less than 20 hours. According to a telegraphic report from Col. Schaeck to the "Berliner Tageblatt," the balloon behaved and preserved excellently in the storm and weather. The Envelope of the "Helvetia," which by this splendid result, made a duration record that has up to the present time been unattained by anyone, is made of CONTINENTAL Balloon Sheeting.

DIRIGIBLES CONTINENTAL Balloon Sheeting

used in the Zeppelin, Cross, Ville de Pari«, Lebaudy, de la Vaulx, Republique, Renard, Parseval, etc.

CONTINENTAL CAOUTCHOUC AND QUTTA PERCHA COMPANY

Hanover, Germany

NEW YORK BRANCH = - = = ' > . 1790 Broadway

R. I. V. RADIAL BALL BEARINGS

Used by Leading Aviators.

Light in weight-Strong and

Durable.

Variety of types and sizes in stock.

Absolutely Guaranteed.

All Sizes Hoffmann Steel Balls on Hand.

Send for Catalogue 19.

R. I. V. CO. 1771 Broadway, New York

AERONAUTICS

Published by

TYTaitl Office

AERONAUTICS PRESS, Inc. 304 No. 4th St.

1777 Broadway _ .

Wm. Gettinger, /V<?.s. St. Louis

New York _,

E. L. Jones, rreas.-Sec.

Entered as second-class matter September 22, 1908, at the Postoffice, New York, N. Y., under the Act of

March 3, 1S79.

Vol. IV

January, 1909

No. I

Aeronautics is issued on the 20th of each month, formation on all matters relating to Aeronautics.

It furnishes the latest and most authoritative in-

SUBSCRIPTION RATES.

One year, $3.00; payable always in advance.

Subscriptions may be sent by express, draft, money order or registered letter. WE CAN NOT USE CHECKS ON LOCAL BANKS UNLESS EXCHANGE IS ADDED. Send draft 011 New York. Make all remittances free ot exchange, payable to Aeronautics. Cuireucy forwarded in unregistered letters will be at render's risk.

Foreign Subscriptions.—To countries within the postal anion, postage prepaid, $:t.f>0 per annum in advance. Make foreign money orders payable to Aeronautics. No foreign postage stamps accepted.

Important.— Foreign money orders received in the United States do not bear Hie name of lhe sender. Foreign subscribers should be careful to send letters of advice at same time remittance is sent to insure proper credit.

AMERICA TO STIMULATE AVIATION—WHEN ?

The many appeals to red-blooded American citizens to subscribe to prizes for the encouragement of aviation, made by prominent individuals and the Press, are still without result. Members of aero clubs have objected to our urging the need for prizes— the very ones whom one might think were most interested. On one occasion we reprinted an editorial from the "Steam Motor Journal," which was very much to the point. The objection raised was "Who ever heard of the 'Steam Motor Journal?'"

Only last month the Chicago "Examiner" printed the following:—

"Cortlandt F. Bishop, president of the Aero Club of America, deplores the apathy of his countrymen in matters of aerial locomotion. He says that all France is excited over our Wilbur Wright; that every I cam*

and Darius Green in Europe is a feted, prize-pampered darling of the public, and, in general, that people over there are out cm a fly. while Americans keep poking around on their legs.

"Now. we might dismiss these reflections on our featherless state without remarks if it were not for the sting in them. There is a suggestion that the United States isn't what it used to be in affairs of the creative imagination.

"There was a time when America was the envy of the world in the field of invention. In Europe its name was a synonym for ingenuity; and the things we didn't do in mechanics were the things that couldn't 1)0 done. We gave men steamboats and cotton gins, telegraphs and electric lights, airbrakes, sleeping ears and real locomo-

It*

tives, sewing machines, bathtubs, typewrit- effete Latin races' sent us by a favoring

ers, cash registers, McCormick reapers and Providence just to stab our spirits and stir

a thousand other things they didn't know our blood?

they wanted. "It would seem that the supreme con-"This power of the American mind to qucs* of invention is reserved for the realm conceive things that do not exist and of the air and that the goddess of the crea-straightway bring them to pass has been the tive imagination is not a Wingless Victory, peculiar genius and glory of this land, its "Wake up, America! Wake up!" aura of universal fame and title to iramor- Suppose $5,000 were offered in prizes of, tality. Lesser breeds might plod on in say, $500 each to the aviators who accom-poor creaturehood, but it was deemed that Plish 200 meters in a flight. The aviator America had undergone a kind of national must "ot> of course, have covered this distransfiguration and had passed over into a tance previous to the offering of the prize, wonderful estate of sheer creative life. This sum of money would help each one

"Is this a dream that is to fade into a

of ten along a little. What a stimulus this would be? The Aero Club of France has

erav morning of disillusionment? .... . „___

e J b a similar prize, known as the 200-meter

"Or are the swift motor cars, wireless prize" of a value of but $40, and this has

telegraphs and aerial enthusiasms of 'the done good work.

BY THE WAY, THERE NOW IS AN AVIATION PRIZE

IN AMERICA

it has just occurred to "aeronautics" to try its own medicine— but perhaps that is hardly the correct way to express it ! we have been COMPLAINING of an AILMENT—the LACK of prize money in america. the PRIZE MONEY is the MEDICINE, and instead of taking it ourselves we are going to be the DOCTOR.

the medicine is not new, but is a favorite prescription of old dr. brindle, bray and others ; and is taken in small doses.

^$250 for 500 meters

As stated above, the prizes offered by the aero club of france.

even of $40 each, have done wonderful work in stimulating progress, in our humble way, we are glad to pattern after the A. C. f.; and to this end we propose to make last year's suit do for all winter and to set aside $£50 to be competed for under the conditions following :

conditions

To each of the first four aviators who, during the year 1909, cover a distance of 500 meters in a straight line over a course laid out in advance of the tiial, measuring from the point of leaving the ground to the point of landing, the sum of $50. The contestant must not have made this distance previous to competing.

Entries for the competition must be made by telegraph not less than 24 hours in advance.

In case of trial being made at a distance from New York, the contestant must furnish as proof of his accomplishment: an affidavit signed by a suivejor stating the distance travelled after leaving the ground, the affidavits of two other witnesses of the flight, one of whom must be a bona fide representative of one of the local newspapers, and a photograph of the machine in flight, together with a description thereof.—That's all !

AERONAUTICS

MEN OF THE AIR IN CARTOON.

Series of Caricatures of Some of Those Prominent in Aerodromics.

Commencing in the December, 1908, issue, we began the printing of a very interesting series of cartoons of well-known aeronautic enthusiasts.

The work has been done by one of the best cartoonists in the country and he has succeeded in bringing out the characteristics of the victims in most attractive fash-

Impressions of the entire set have been" made on fine vellum, in tint, and bound loose in ooze calf, making a very handsome souvenir of the men whose caricatures appear. Those desiring the set may communicate with us in regard thereto. We will be glad to hear of others who will submit to the pleasant pastime of being cartooned. .«

ANOTHER AMERICAN PRIZE IN AMERICA—CORTLANDT FIELD BISHOP OFFERS GREATER FLYING MACHINE PRIZE.

Cortlandt Field Bishop, President of the Aero Club of America, has offered to the Club for their acceptance the sum of $1000, the prize to be known as the "President's Prize."

This was planned last year before Mr. Bishop went abroad and is now a fact. Besides being of the utmost value to the Art it removes the possibility in the future of the Club's members being called "parlor aeronauts" by the newspapers.

The conditions, in short, are as follows: The thousand dollars is divided into four

prizes of $250 each, to be given to the first four aviators who, during 1909, cover a kilometer. Competitor must not have made this distance previous to competition. Contestant must notify Club at least 24 hours in advance, and pay an entry fee of $5. If trial is to be made within 25 miles of New York, Club will pay fare of its representative; if further than that, contestant must pay fare; or if within 25 miles of an affiliated club, the latter will send a representative. Each of the four winners will also receive a silver medal commemorating the event. For this, many thanks!

The Secretary of War has extended thel date of delivery of Mr. Herring's aeroplane unitl June 1, 1909.

The majority of the Balloon Detachment have been sent to Ft. Wood, and practical work in aeronautics has been suspended for the winter.

$500,000

FOR ARMY AERONAUTICS?

The matter of Military aeronautics is now before Congress, and it is hoped by Spring

the approval of the Secretary of War's recommendation will have placed the Signal Corps in a position to proceed with Military Aeronautics on a scale its importance warrants :

The Secretary of War in his Annual Report to the President, dated December 10, 1908. reviews brief!}' the progress made in practical Aeronautics during the past year, noting the principal events; then mentions the ptblic Mights of the Wright Brothers and states that "The rapid progress that is now being made in Aeronautics apparently

indicates that the age of practical mechanical flight is at hand." He then cites the number of officers and men on aeronautical duty in foreign armies and compares this with the small number in the Signal Corps..'

England now having 5 officers and 40 meii'l exclusively used for aeronautical work; France, 24 officers and 432 men; Germany, 20 officers and 465 men; Russia, 79 officers and 3.255 men; Italy, 5 officers and 80 men; Austria, 15 officers and 186 men; Spain, 9 officers and 104 men. On the other hand, the United States has at present only 3 officers and 10 enlisted men engaged exclusively on aeronautical work.

He further says: "During the past year the Signal Corps of the Army has been instrumental in materially advancing the progress of aerial navigation by the encouragement it has given to owners and inventors of dirigible balloons and aeroplanes," citing the contracts with Mr. A. M. Herring and the Wright Brothers for aero-I planes, and with Capt. T. S. Baldwin for a dirigible balloon. The report concludes:

"An estimate has been submitted to Con-

gress for consideration at the present session for an appropriation of $500,000. With this sum it is believed that the Signal Corps will be able to take up this rapidly developing military auxiliary in a manner commensurate with its intrinsic importance."

In the May number we gave a form of letter which those interested were asked to write to their Senators. We urge prompt action now in the hope that Congress may see fit to approve of this new request for an appropriation. Write a letter to your Senator, calling his attention to the wonderfully rapid. strides now being made in Aeronautics, and impress upon him the necessity for his realization of the need that America make some effort to keep abreast <if the times. Even this sum is small enough.

"What will it profit a' nation to become mistress of all the seas if a rival nation succeeds in " gaining the mastery of the 'Grand Ocean,' the only one truly worthy of this name—of the ocean which has no bounds and whose borders extend above the entire surface of the earth?"

Jan. 1, 1.909.— Dr. ML W. Thompson. Dr. J. G. Foltz and William E. Mast left Canton in the "Ohio" and landed 1 mile south of Ligonier, Pa., after a trip of 4 hrs., 30 min.

Mr. Williams Welch, of the U. S. Signal Corps, has kindly computed the distance from the center of Canton to the center of Ligonier as 121*4 miles. To get the exact distance, the precise place of landing should be marked upon a Survey map. This beats Mr. Stevens' record from Canton, recorded last month by 3J4 miles and the above aeronauts also >errr n right to have names on Skv Pilot Trophy.

Note:—The first name given is always tha< of the pilot. Dec. 5.—Dr. H. W. Thompson, William Fornes and Louis Brush left Canton in the "Ohio" at 11 a. m., landing 3 miles north of Hanlin, Pa., at 2:30 p. 111. Distance about 85 miles.

Dec. 23.—Dr. H. W. Thompson, Dr. A. W. Cloud and Frank Elson left Canton in he "Ohio," landing 3 miles west of Salem, J., a distance of 28 miles.

Dec. 29.—Dr. H. W. Thompson, Harvey fL Feighner and G. A. Leonard ascended irom Canton in the "Ohio" at 12:45, landing 3 miles south of Mogadore. O., at 2:50 p. m. Distance. 18 miles.

AERONAUTICS

FLYING MACHINES AT THE MORRIS PARK VOLERY.

Shneider Bi-Curve Machine Completed—Butler and Kimball Machines.

SHNE1DEK .MACHINE.

The Aeronautic Society found a real live flying machine in its stocking Christmas morning. It made its appearance suddenly at the Morris Park grounds all ready to

the temperature, the track was too soft for use mi that cold weather must now be awaited before further trials.

The machine is of the bi-surface type, 30 foot spread of main supporting sur-

SHNEIDER MACHINE.

fly, except for the reassembling after its removal from 216 Coney Island Avenue, Brooklyn, the home of Mr. Fred Shneider, its constructor. Mr. Shneider had been a member for some time but few knew that

faces, same 6 ft. front to rear, and spaced 5 ft. apart. The supporting surfaces are curved 1 in 10. The ribs are flat and placed on top of the cloth covering.

There are two planes for lateral equi-

SHXE1DER MACHINE.

he was building a machine. On December 29th it was all assembled and the motor run. The following day the machine ran along the track during tests of the motor. On the following days due to the rise in

librium between the main surfaces, at each end, measuring 6 by 3V2 ft. There is a rear horizontal tail 5 by 6 ft. A horizontal control, 12 ft. by 3l/2 ft., is placed in front at the end of a framework, the center of

the control being g ft. from the forward edge of the main surfaces. The total horizontal surface, supporting and other, is 43a sq. ft. for a total weight of the machine and man of 630 lbs., which makes a weight of 1.46 lbs. per sq. ft., or 1.7 lbs. per sq. ft. of the two main surfaces. The weight 630 lbs. includes 450 for the machine and 180 for the operator.

The front control is operated by the turning of a small steering wheel; the steer-

be used. The propeller shafts are each 20 inches above the lower surface.

The motor is an Adams-Farwell air-cooled 36 h.p., one of two just delivered and is similar to the one now in use by Mr. Emile Berliner in Washington. The motor has 5 cylinders, 4% in. bore and 3^ in. stroke and is run up to 1,800 r.p.m. The weight is 97 lbs. including the carbureter. A very complete description of this motor was given in the June, 1908,"issue. It is

Ml

         

I

       

1

J

           
   

p

 

p

 

r

 

p

a-

 

p

 

p

 

F

P

   
                                     
     
   

1

y w

Plan View KIMBALL AEROPLANE KO 1

P ' Propellers (8)

E= Engine

A - Avi atoi

R-Vertical Rudders N Q - Equl11brating Planes

H= Front Horiz. Sadder-

W' Wheels of Chassis J Wire Rope Tranamisi-ian

( '

         

H

tu oh t

ing to the right or left, (both on the ground and while in the air) and the equilibrium planes being operated by a second and third wheel.

The tail is a combination wheel and surface. \ The wheql supports the machine while on the ground and is used for steering both while on the ground and in the air. The small vertical surfaces below the main planes at either end aid in turning left or right and serve the purpose of protecting the ends of the machine in landing.

Fish-shaped struts are used with piano wire bracing.

The three aluminum propellers are 68 inches in diameter. The blades are easily removable and can be quickly adjusted to any pitch. The two outside propellers are driven by chains inclosed in a tube, the third one being on a counter-shaft. All are driven through bevel gears geared i to 2. Various pitches will be tried but it is figured that a 6o-inch pitch will probably

mounted in the rear above the lower main plane and just inside the struts. The operator is in front.

Postscript:—The propellers have now been altered, replacing the aluminum blades with sheet steel discs of approximately 18 in. diameter. The gasoline tank has been raised to feed by gravity and a larger oil tank has been installed.

KIMBALL Bl-CURVE MACHINE.

Wilbur R. Kimball, as mentioned last month, is rapidly completing a 2-surfacc aerodrome at the Morris Park Volery of The Aeronautic Society, of which he is Secretary.

This machine will be unique, in that it has 8 low pitch propellers of 4 blades each, located in the center of the frame of the main surface and between the two supporting surfaces, curved about 1 in 20. The spread of the machine will be about 42 ft., the surfaces 6l/2 ft. front to rear, and 50 ins. between them. Tn making this machine,

most of the framing of the helicopter, described in the September issue, lias been utilized. Though the elliptical struts and lateral pieces are all of very small diameter they are well braced with wire and the frame work is very rigid.

Each of the propellers are mounted on ball bearings and are driven by wire cable transmission. The operator will sit in front of the 50 h.p. 4 cylinder 2 cycle motor, of which Mr. Kimball is the agent, and just ahead of the main surfaces. There will be no tail, but there will be two vertical rudders at each end of the main surfaces for

right and left direction. Three horizontal rudders at each end of the machine, between the surfaces, are expected to maintain lateral stability. A 2-surface horizontal is placed in front.

BUTLER AEROPLANE

W. R. Kimball is building at Morris Park a novel aeroplane for Mr. Wm. H. Butler. No details are available further than that it will be different, so far as Mr. Butler knows, from any other aeroplane ever built. A 100 horse-power engine will be used and Mr. Butler expects "to do better and. go further than anyone else."

FOREIGN PRIZES AVAILABLE FOR COMPETITION IN AMERICA.

The Michelin prize is open for competition in America on the condition that the flights be verified by a club affiliated with the Federation.

As stated in the April, 1908, issue, the Michelin annual $4,000 prize is given to the operator of any flying machine which holds the record of the year. Each year, however, the rules may be changed by the Federation. For 1908, the minimum distance required was 20 kilometers. The winner of the cash prize, through his club, also holds the Michelin Cup, of the value of $2,000 until won by someone else, and is given, in addition, a bronze replica of the same to keep. If, under the rules laid down, the prize is not won in any one year, the money is added to the $4,000 offered for the next year. These $4,000 prizes are, offered annually for eight years, including that for 1908 just won by Wilbur Wright. There is also the Grand Prize of $20,000. as given in the April number.

But—this money is not offered in America by an American.

Gordon-Bennett Aviation Prize.

James Gordon Bennett, proprietor of the New York Herald, living abroad, has given into the hands of the Aero Club of France for competition, under F. A. I. rule*, through Cortlandt Field Bishop and Henry de la Vaulx, an international cup of the value of $2,500 and three cash prizes of $5,000 each, for the first three annual com-

petitions. Cup is to be competed for annually between the 1st of May and the 15th of November, exact date to be set by the club in possession of the cup previous to the first of April. The first competition must be held in France. The subsequent competitions to be held in the country of the winner.

Entries close the 1st of March in each year. The rules will be changed annually by the F. A. I., and copies sent to affiliated clubs giving distance, whether in a circle or out and back, nature of the grounds, etc., and it will then be the duty of any club holding a competition to find a course as near as possible in conformity with the requirements.

The boys of the Los Angeles Polytechnic High School have organized an Aero Club to be affiliated with the Aero Club of California. They number forty members, divided into two sections. Each section is now building a glider, which they propose to enter in the contests at the first meet of the Aero Club of California.

Not to be far behind the Philadelphia "Inquirer," the Los Angeles "Herald" has begun to pay attention to aeronautics and in the Dec. 20th issue, devoted five columns to this subject, besides having a page in the supplement.

MY FIRST AND ONLY (THUS FAR) BALLOON ASCENT

By Blanche Vignos.

After I saw the first balloon ascension under the auspices of the Canton Aero Club, I had a great desire to take a trip into the clouds. When my friends asked me in jest "Wouldn't you like to go?" they were surprised at my enthusiastic reply.

My brother and I had long looked forward to an aerial trip, and when late one afternoon Mr. Leo Stevens asked if we would be ready to make an ascension the following morning we were glad to take advantage of the unexpected opportunity.

miles of our destination. We hadn't learned how fickle our craft was nor how easily u was lured from the direct path by the different currents of air we encountered. This is one of the delightful features of ballooning.

A heavy mist hung over the earth which prevented us from seeing a great distance, but when we had risen above it we saw the fulfillment of the old adage that there is a silver lining to every cloud. It was a glorious sight, the sun shining from the

THE ALPS FROM A BALLOON

November twenty-first, the day of our ascension, was a beautiful Indian-summer day. With little breeze stirring, the balloon ascended evenly and calmly from the park, and before we realized it we were several hundred feet in the air, our friends appearing to us as indistinct blurs on the landscape. We leisurely crossed the city to the north and were able to distinguish the various buildings and residences of our friends. We were traveling almost directly north, at the rate of ten miles an hour, chasing our shadow. We at once came to the conclusion we would land at a point east of Cleveland on Lake Erie. Although we traveled the distance 50 miles in a zig-zag course, upon landing we were within 22

clear expanse of the heavens, which was of the deepest blue, such as I have only seen in Southern Italy or in our own state of Colorado. There was not a vestige of cloud in all directions— nothing but the clear deep blue of a bright spring morning. On the horizon there appeared the most delicate tints of rose and heliotrope. Such a beautiful sight, together with the perfect stillness, can not fail to inspire the soul and uplift the heart in praise of He who has done all things well.

We were not always so far above the earth. Soon we dropped below the clouds. The sight of the earth below is as inspiring as that of the sky above. It spread itself out like a huge map—only more real,

more vivid, than any map that was ever made. Near Talmadge there is a point where six separate country roads converge. You have little idea how beautiful they appeared to us! We named the intersection the "Talmadge Star."

After leaving Canton, Greentown was the first place we recognized. We talked with the residents of Uniontown, passed over the center of Springfield lake, and took dinner near Akron. But it wasn't much dinner that any of us ate. we were so interested in the wonderful sights below and above us.

We spoke to a number of people. One woman inquired if that was really what they called a balloon. Many inquired our destination, which we invariably gave as Cleveland. One man asked if we expected to get to Heaven. We replied, "You wotddn't think so if you were here with us"—it was uncomfortably warm.

We made two landings: our first on a farm near Oregon Corners. We were travelling very low, the drag rope trailing through the tree tops and rustling through the corn fields, when we saw three boys out

hunting. Mr. Stevens called to them to catch the rope and pull us down. They either didn't understand or were too dazed by the novelty to move. After repeated urgings they fell to work with a good will, and we soon found ourselves on Mother Earth. We remained only a few minutes and made a second ascent, remaining in the air for another hour. Then, because we were going away from the towns having railroad connections with Canton, we made a final landing. Almost as gently as when we left the park, we came back to earth, several miles north of Kent. Mr. Stevens got out of the basket, and with the assistance of a farmer and his son, they guided the balloon across the cornfield over a wire fence into the pasture beyond, where it was deflated.

It took a good hour to pack the balloon. The farmer then bundled us all into his wagon and drove us to Cuyahoga Falls, where we took the trolley for Canton.

I enjoyed every moment of the trip, experienced no fear, and look forward to many more ascensions.

Col. Max C. Fleischmann of Cincinnati has decided to give up aeronautics as a sport, as it works a sacrifice to the two sports of which he is most fond, yachting and big game shooting. Col. Fleischmann has a habit of doing everything in a thorough manner, and for this reason has resigned from the Aero Club of America in favor of his two greater loves.

C. L. Downer of Salt Lake City has completed a five-plane aeroplane model, one of many others, and has had remarkable success with it. The materials used are very light and weigh but a trifle over one pound. It is three feet in length and has a lifting surface of 2.2 sq.ft. With a shooting start, flights have been made as long as 125 feet.

Walter Wellman, of polar airship fame, has brought suit against "La Vie an Grand Air" claiming $100,000 damages by reason of an article printed under the title "Les Dessous du Bluff Wellman."

The bicurve machine approximating the Farman biplane in type, which has been under construction for some time by Mr. Howard Rinek of Easton, was finished last month and is awaiting a motor. This has now arrived and as soon as it is erected and connected, trials will begin.

It is of interest to note that G. H. Cur-tiss Mfg. Co., during the past year, has sold 40 aeronautical motors. Of course, many of these were the two-cylinder airship motors so well known.

Henry Phipps, William H. and George P. Butler have resigned from the Aero Club of America.

On January 8 the body of Lieut. Foertsch, pilot of the German balloon "Ilergesell" in the duration contest on October 12th from Berlin, was taken from the North Sea. Nothing is known of what became of his companion, Lieut. Hummel.

Aero Club of Pittsfield. Thirty-two ascensions have been made since the begin ning, April n, 1906. Eight were made dur ing 1906, seven during 1907 and seventeen during 1908.

Aero Club of New England. Twenty-six ascensions have been made by members of the Club from Sept. 15, 1907, to date, and fifty-three people have been carried up, including the pilots. In twenty-four of these Charles J. Glidden was either passenger or pilot. Eighteen of these ascensions were made in America and seven of them from Springfield.

Columbia Univ. Aero Club. A smoker was held on January 6 at the St. Regis. Francis L. Ives, member, read a paper on "Mechanism for Maintaining Equilibrium in Heavier than Air Machines." Felix Reisenberg, member, who was with Walter Wellman on his three-hour voyage for the Pole, gave a most interesting description of the airship, the start, and the landing. A. Leo Stevens spoke on ballooning and encouraged the members to "get into the air." In the near future, several of the members will make ascents. Augustus Post told of his experiences in Berlin.

Aero Club of Ohio. Twenty-seven ascensions have been made under the auspices of the Club since its inception, beginning with that of December 20, 1907