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American Magazine of Aeronautics: Jahrgang 1907/1908 als digitaler Volltext

Die Zeitschrift Aeronautics war in den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika (USA) das Gegenstück zur vergleichsweise deutschen Zeitschrift Flugsport. Im American Magazine of Aeronautics wurde allerdings nicht nur über die US-amerikanische Entwicklung der Luftfahrt berichtet, sondern auch über den internationalen Luftverkehr, über Erfindungen, über Patente sowie über Flugwettbewerbe und Veranstaltungen. Als die Zeitschrift erstmals im Jahre 1907 erschien, hieß sie "American Magazine of Aeronautics"; der Name wurde mit der Ausgabe Februar 1908 in "American Magazine of Aerial Navigation" geändert. Abermals wurde der Name mit der Ausgabe September 1909 in "American Magazine of Aerial Locomotion" geändert. In den folgenden Jahren wurde die Zeitschrift nur noch als "Aeronautics" herausgegeben. Nachstehend kann der komplette Jahrgang 1907/1908 als digitaler Volltext eingesehen werden. Alternativ kann der komplette Jahrgang 1907/1908 frei und kostenlos als PDF Dokument (53,1 MB) heruntergeladen werden. Weitere Jahrgänge des American Magazine of Aeronautics stehen in der Übersicht zur Verfügung.


American Magazine

...OF...

Aeronautics

GORDON BENNETT INTERNATIONAL AERONAUTIC CU?

To be competed for at St. Louis, October 19, 1907

VOL. 1

JULY, 1907.

PRICE, TWENTY-FIVE CENTS

No. 1

0

Published by

AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERONAUTICS CO. 142 West Sixty-Fifth Street

New York, N. Y., U. S. A.

in J. E. Linde Paper Co.

AT BEEKMAN & CLIFF STS.

is Headquarters for papers of EVERY DESCRIPTION, Cards, Boards, Envelopes, Pads, Twines, etc., and operates plants for Ruling, Cutting. Padding, Punching, Perforating as well as Envelope making. It desires at this time however, to call your particular attention to several of its most popular brands of writing papers suitable for office stationery.

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Copyrighted, 1907, by Jamestown Official Exposition Co. First Building in the History of Expositions to be Devoted Entirely to Aeronauties.

AERONAUTICS AT THE JAMESTOWN EXPOSITION.

By Israel Ludlow, Superintendent of the Bureau of Aeronautics.

During the winter of 1906 and 1907 there was appointed through the efforts of the officials of the Jamestown Exposition an Aeronautical Committee, including government officials, members of the Aero Club of America, noted scientists and prominent sportsmen. This Committee was officially called the Jamestown Aeronautical Congress. Willis L. Moore, Chief of the United States Weather Bureau, was offered and accepted its Presidency. The Exposition officials agreed to construct and fence in an Aeronautical Concourse, to erect a special building, and to transport free of charge all exhibits to and from the Exposition Grounds; the Aeronautical Congress agreed to gather all available exhibits of balloon material, scientific instruments adapted for aeronautical purposes, balloons, airships, aeroplanes, hélicoptères- and orthopters, and to make such further efforts as might naturally be in the plan and scope of their organization.

A programme of aeronautical events, including balloon races, airship competitions, aeroplane and kite contests, and pigeon flights were arranged for. The Bureau of Aeronautics was created by the Exposition to correspond with the Bureaus of Yachting, Athletics, Music, etc. Owing to the exceptional inclement weather which prevailed during the Winter and early Spring and to the fact that the United States Government was very late with financial assistance which it has invariably extended of late years to international expositions, the Exposition as a

whole was in an incomplete state on its opening day, and the Aeronautical Building in particular was delayed, making it impossible to adhere strictly to the arranged programme.

The Aeronautical Concourse was dependent for gas upon a three inch main running from the City of Norfolk to the Exposition Grounds, a distance of seven and a half miles. This pipe line was not completed until early in June, and all balloon flights were postponed.

The first aeronautical event was a pigeon flight on May 9th. Five hundred and six pigeons were released for a race to Washington, D. C. It was very successful. A bright clear morning and a gentle southwest wind insured a fair race and no favor. Before leaving the Exposition Grounds the pigeons^ circled twice and then disappeared in the direction of their homing station. Some of the birds were not racers, and the fastest birds hung back with the slowest. The speed was about forty-five miles per hour.

A remarkable feature of this and a succeeding race to New York and Philadelphia was that the Washington pigeons flew to the west of a grand-stand that was directly north of the releasing point, and the New York and Philadelphia pigeons flew to the east of it, correctly selecting the direction for their homeward flight to an exact degree in the points of the compass, although when they passed the stand the birds were flying so low that some flew under its roof. Only half a dozen birds were nonplussed by the broad expanse of water of H'ampton Roads and Chesapeake Bay and turned back. The other's, without hesitancy, went on towards the points from which they were brought in closed crates in express cars.

The next event was the pigeon race of May 19th. About twenty-three hundred birds from New York and Philadelphia took part. The birds were all thoroughbreds and the race was exceptionally successful. The same favorable weather conditions prevailed and the release occupied barely four seconds from the time the lids were thrown open until the last pigeon left the crates.

Pigeon Flight at Jamestown Exposition, May 13, 1907.

The pigeon coops were arranged in a complete circle upon the backs of benches about three feet above ground. The birds, when released at 11.15 A. M., rose in a gigantic column and the sound caused by the violent beating of their wings was one not easily forgotten by those above whose heads the whirling pyramid of pigeons rose. An idea of the swiftness of their wing beat may be gained, when

it is said that cameras which were able to depict a running race horse sharp and distinct, showed but a blur of the moving wings of many of the birds. This lot of pigeons without hesitancy and without circling took a line straight to a point north by east and disappeared before the spectators conld fully grasp that the event was over on the Exposition Grounds.

The birds made remarkably fast time and reached New York and Philadelphia in the early afternoon. They travelled at the rate of fifty-nine and a fraction miles per hour. The winning birds in New York district were owned by Henry Ingram of Paterson, N. J., whose pigeons arrived at 4.05.42; Paul F. Miller, Williamsburg, Brooklyn, arrived at 4.17.48; F. W. Davis, Borough of Manhattan, New York City, 4.16.52; Adolph Busch, Staten Island, New York, 4.06.49: J. W. Booth, Essex, N. J., 4-27.34; M. G. Meller. Plainfield, N. J. 4.10.04.

There was a slight superior speed in rate per mile travel by the New York over the Philadelphia birds which is believed to be due to the fact that all the pigeons followed the Atlantic sea coast line, and that the Philadelphia birds turned inward when opposite that city, while the New York birds kept 011 the ocean front to New York City.

There was considerable discussion among the pigeon fanciers present at the release on the Exposition Grounds as to which crates were the best, those whose tops opened upward or those whose front ends swung outward. Opening the entire top gave a quicker release, while the pigeon fanciers in favor of a front end opening claimed that in allowing the birds to rise en masse there was danger of their beating their wings against each other and fracturing a pinion. The question was not settled by the race as the point arose too late to take definite notes on the matter.

During the last week of May, Lincoln Beachey, a professional aeronaut under the management of Charles J. Strobel, made a series of dirigible balloon flights from the Aeronautical Concourse over the Exposition Grounds landing each time upon the Parade Ground. These flights were very successful and attracted wide local attention. Mr. Beachey had his airship under full control and was able to turn it within its own length. He negotiated very successfully some difficult starts and landings, handicapped by tall turrets on the Warpath and by pine trees.

Early in June, Eugene Godet, a French aeronaut also under the management of Charles J. Strobel, brought to the Exposition in bond a French airship of the latest construction and approved pattern. On the afternoon of June 7th after a day of most strenuous effort to repair a broken shaft, the airship was brought out of the Aeronautical Building in which it was housed, and the engine tested. The day had been a beautiful one, practically no breeze stirring, but late in the afternoon a wind sprang up in the eastern quarter and brought with it heavy clouds. At this time a few drops of rain were falling and the breeze was freshening every minute. It was with some trepidation that Mr. Godet's assistants saw him essay to make a flight.

There was a crowd of several thousand persons present who would have felt very much disappointed if no flight were made, and to whom an explanation that the weather conditions were unfavorable would have been highly unsatisfactory. Under these circumstances Eugene Godet determined to go up. The wind now freshened until it was blowing between 10 and 12 miles an hour. At his word "Let go" all hands released their grasp on the framework of the airship. Godet rose, advancing slowly upward, slightly against the wind, until the breeze from over the top of the building caught him, when his airship was pushed backward beyond the Aeronautical Concourse into other parts of the Exposition

Grounds. There for a few.moments he again held his own, at a height probably of a hundred feet from the ground. Not being pointed directly into the wind, he drifted sidewise. When dangerously near a tall windmill near the water front, he turned his airship and presented its broadside to the full force of the wind.

With great rapidity he shot directly towards and struck two tall pine trees near the Inside Inn. The force of the wind drove his airship through the branches, breaking his propeller in two. causing the two halves to drop to the ground. His rudder also was completely wrecked, and hung downwards. Pro-pellerless and rudderless be drifted over the roof of the Inside Inn and out over Hampton Roads. He immediately upon passing through the trees pulled his safety \alve, but struck the water the first time about 503 feet from shore. He sank but a few inches and rose buoyantly, making a leap urged by the wind (which was now half a gale) of 800 feet at an elevation of approximately 20 feet, before striking the water a second time. In successive leaps, each of shorter lengths and punctuated by deeper immersions, he went over Hampton Roads toward Old Point Comfort and Fort Monroe which were about live miles distant.

Anchored in Hampton Roads was the line of battleships and many navy launches put off to the rescue, as well as row boats from the Exposition side. A launch belonging to the Battleship "Minnesota" was the first to reach the aeronaut, and its occupants grabbed the drag-rope, but were unable to tow the balloon against the wind, and the launch was dragged through the water by the airship until the airship struck the Battleship Alabama. At this time it was surrounded by six launches. Godet was in no danger,—he refused to desert his ship and remained in the framework until hauled upon the foredeck of the battleship, where the gas envelope was deflated. It was packed and returned to the Exposition Grounds by the launch. The framework was so wrecked that a new one has been constructed.

On June 8th, dedication exercises were held in the Aeronautical Building. Robert H. Sexton, Chief of the Department of Congress and Special Events, Augustus Post, Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Jamestown Aeronautical Congress; Harry St. George Tucker, President of the Jamestown Exposition; Admiral C. id. Chester of the U. S. Navy and myself were the speakers. Admiral Chester's speech was especially noteworthy being devoted to the advocacy of the aeroplane as an engine of warfare. He laid especially stress upon the possibilities of the Jamestown Exposition. He stated "that the U'. S. Government would look to private experimenters for the practical solution of the problem of aerial locomotion, and that he hoped that the Exposition at Jamestown in bringing together the models and ideas of many inventors, would be of great value to the science, and that the effort of the Jamestown officials deserve the enthusiastic co-operation of all interested in aerial navigation.

Numerous exhibits are now installed in the building and in addition construction work on airships, aeroplanes and balloons will be carried on steadily during the time of the Exposition. There are now two airships and an aeroplane being built. The postponed balloon competition will be carried out if possible. The gas-pipe line has been tested, and has been found capable of delivering seven thousand five hundred cubic feet of gas per hour. Great interest is evinced in the aeroplane contest on September 14th for the Scientific American Cup of one thousand dollars, and in the kite contest in the latter part of October for the Octave Chanute trophies. Eugene Godet will make daily ascensions, (weather permitting) during the months of July and August in his airship which has been completely repaired.

Copyrighted, 1907, by Jamestown Official Exposition Co. Jamestown Exposition—Aeronautic Building on Right.

CONDITIONS OF SUCCESS WITH FLYING MACHINES.

By O. Chanute.

Fascinated by the now acknowledged success of the Wright brothers in America, and tempted by the facilities which light motors, so recently developed, offer for rising on the air, some 30 or 40 European aviators have built or are building, "de toutes pieces," motor-equipped flying machines on wheels, in the hope of speedily accomplishing mechanical flight. Thus far (June, 1907), they have been unsuccessful. They have made some fairly long jumps with their wheeled grasshoppers, but nothing like continuous flight has been accomplished.

It is believed that these aviators are beginning at the wrong end and taking the longest path to success. They will meet continued mishaps and some of them may get hurt. Paradoxical as it may seem it is necessary to know how to use a flying machine before trusting oneself to really fly with it. Assuming that all the other prerequisites mentioned below have been complied with, it is yet indispensable that the machine shall possess equilibrium in the air under all circumstances and turmoils of the wind, and that the operator shall know how to manage it.

Those other prerequisites which should govern the design are the following: 1st. Ability to steer, both horizontally and vertically. Without this ability disaster is sure to follow.

2d. Adequate amount and shape of sustaining surface. Some of the European machines are loaded to 2V2 to 4j<2 pounds to the square foot, thus requiring high speeds for support. For a beginning it is not advisable to load the machines more than il/2 to 2 pounds per square foot. As to the shapes, both in plan and in cross section, it is advisable to seek for those surfaces which afford the greatest "lift" in proportion to the "drift," provided they are stable. This will best be developed by laboratory experiments, which seem to have been neglected.

3d. Least possible resistance of framing and hull. Very little consideration has been given to this: Notably by Santos-Dumont, in whose apparatus the head resistance must have been five or six times the drift, thus requiring much power. Col. Renard once figured out that for best results the head resistance should be equal to the drift and that the ?i'ork done was a minimum when the

resistance of the drift was equal to three times the resistance of the hull.

4th. Lightest possible motor in proportion to its weight. This is obvious enough. Gasoline motors have now been reduced to a weight of 4 or 5 pounds per horse power.

5th. Best efficiency of propeller. Much remains to be found out. The controversy between adherents of the beating wing and of the screw propeller is still unsettled. The best forms of the latter are not determined. It is a subject for laboratory experiments.

6th. Equilibrium. Equilibrium has at last been recognized as the most important condition to fulfill. It is possible to develop a flying machine which shall be automatically stable in the air; which will right itself up in every wind gust, if there is enough height or space to do so before it comes down to the ground, but such a machine is not yet known. With the small leaps of the motor-driven machine there is no room to operate an automatic stability device. It is true that those short leaps are an element of safety to the operator. He cannot fall far and is in small danger of personal injury, but the machine is nearly sure to be broken in coming down at each test and this costs time and money for repairs. It is very probable that the present motor-equipped machines about to be tried will give unsatisfactory results, simply because the men who arc testing them have had no previous experience in handling such an apparatus in the air. This it is that defeated some year's ago the efforts of Maxim, Ader, Langley, Kress and others, who had nevertheless produced intelligent designs. This brings us to the last condition to be fulfilled.

7th. Learning Iwzv to fly. There is a way, practiced by all little birds, in which the use of a flying machine may be learned. It is to begin by gliding. The fledgeling tumbles out of the nest, he flutters desperately, he generally loses his equilibrium and then he glides down with seldom serious hurt. The parent bird then helps him back from branch to branch and teaches him the use of his wings. Captain Ferber recently published in "Omnia" an amusing account of a vulture who was taught first to glide and then to fly by a man.

Something analogous will have to be done by aviators. This is preferably accomplished by first building a gliding machine of the type which is intended for the flying machine and testing it personally on a sandy hillside to develop its defects in stability and to learn its control. This was the course recommended to the French aviators by myself in a paper published in "Aerophile" for August, 1903. At first they accepted the advice and made a lot of gliding experiments with moderate success, on the sand hills near Berck, but they became impatient at the slow progress accomplished, tried other methods, such as going up as a kite towed by a launch, and then they were tempted by the light motors to "get ahead of the Wrights," oblivious to the fact that the latter had spent three years in gliding before they ventured to put on a motor. Now, M. Leon Dclagran'ge, after making quite a number of short flights (the longest about 200 feet) with his motor flying machine, has found it advisable to go with M. Voisin, the cleverest of the French flying machine pilots, to experiment with a gliding apparatus on the sand hills near Le Tonquet.

The mode of conducting such experiments has been described by the various experimenters. It consists in first testing the apparatus as a kite and measuring accurately the "lift," the "drift," the "head resistance" and the location of the "centre of pressure" at various angles of incidence. If the relations between these conditions prove unsatisfactory they can be altered by changing the cross section by trussing the ribs. Then glides can be made by running and jumping into a

head wind, noting carefully the angle of descent, which should be finally as flat as possible with adequate stability.

It is great sport; the chances of accident arc not great to careful men who proceed step by step, and it enables the aviator to develop gradually the best shapes of surfaces and framing for his particular design; while, more important than all, it gives him experience and skill to manage his motor flying machine when he finally comes to the point of testing it.

THEORY OF BALLOON LEAKAGE.

By A. F. Zahm, Ph. D.

In order to compute the rate of leakage of gas through the envelope of a balloon under given conditions, it is well first to derive a rational formula, then to determine the physical constants of the formula by direct experimentation. An attempt is here made to derive a suitable formula, based upon well established laws governing the motion of fluids.

The leakage through the canvas at any point of the balloon envelope is due to two causes; viz., to the internal pressure at the point and to the osmotic diffusion which may prevail there independently of the pressure. By summing these over the entire envelope an expression is found for the total leakage.

Suppose that, owing to osmotic diffusion a units of mass of gas creep through a square unit of the canvas per unit of time under no internal pressure. Then the entire leakage all over the balloon, per unit of time, due to osmosis, may be represented by the formula:

L, = a S

where 5" represents the surface of the envelope.

Again suppose that b units of mass of the gas permeate a square unit of the canvas per unit of time under one unit of pressure. Then under p units -of pressure the leakage will be V/> times as great, since the flow of a gas through an orifice is approximately proportional to the square root of the pressure, for the conditions here considered. Hence the entire leakage all over the balloon per unit of time, due to internal pressure, is given by the formula:

La = \>f ? dS

which can be integrated when the buoyancy of the gas and form of the surface are given.

The total leakage of gas per unit of time over the entire envelope of the balloon due to osmosis and pressure combined, being the sum of the above terms may therefore be written:

L = aS + byV dS..........................(A)

which is the general formula sought for the mass rate of leakage, and is applicable to a balloon of any shape.

In order to render this general expression more convenient in practice, let us adapt the integral term to some common forms of balloons. And first suppose that the balloon is a surface of revolution about a vertical axis.

If the bottcm point of the balloon axis be taken as origin, (and y he the vertical distance to any level plane section, the buoyant pressure all over this section may be written:

P = Po + y 7

in which />0is the pressure at the bottom of the balloon and y is the buoyancy of a cubic unit of the gas. Also if dS be the area of an elementary horizontal belt, or zone, of the surface, of radius .r, and width ds, it may be written:

dS = 2 7T x ds

in which ds is an element of the generating curve. Substituting these values of the pressure and surface in the general leakage formula it becomes:

L = a S + 2 7t b /"(Pn 4- y y)2 x ds

which is applicable to a vertical surface of revolution whose contour is given.

If the balloon be of spherical form the value of L is still more simple, for we may in that case write:

dS = 2 n r d y

in which r is the radius of the surface. Substituting this value of dS, and the above value of />, the general leakage formula becomes :

L = a S + 2 7T b ry*(p0 + ^ y) d y

which is the general formula for the mass rate of leakage of a spherical balloon inflated under pressure.

In case the bottom of the balloon, supposed full of gas, is left open, fi0=o and the formula becomes:

1 R

L = 4 7T a r2 + f n b r"

which is applicable to the ordinary free or captive balloon.

In computing the leakage of small balloons inflated under considerable pressure, such as rubber balloons, the buoyant pressure may be neglected and the formula becomes:

j

L = 4 7T a r2 + 4 ^ b r2 p1

or

L, = (a + bVp) S In order that the various formulae here derived may be practically available for computation it is necessary that the physical constants a and b be determined by direct experiment for the diverse gases and fabrics under suitable conditions.

By a proper arrangement of the apparatus, the results of experiment can be very simply expressed by means of formula (A). If the gas under constant pressure p, be made to pass through a level aperture of one square foot rrea S, covered with the fabric to be tested, and if the mass leakage per unit time L, be observed, the relations between the leakage and pressure will be given by formula (A) as follows:

L, == a + b-y/p

in which L and p are the values observed and a, b the physical constants to be determined for the given gas and fabric.

A convenient way to exhibit the results would be to plot L and ^/p on plane section paper, thus obtaining a straight line for a diagram. A more convenient way still, would be to plot L and p directly on logarithmic paper, thus obviating the work of extracting the square roots, and still obtaining a rectilinear diagram.

The advantage of having a working formula was suggested to me by a conversation with Captain Chandler who has in hand some experiments for the U. S. War Department to determine the leakage coefficient for various balloon fabrics. April, 1907.

ENGLISH AERO CLUB EXHIBITION.

By Wilbur R. Kimball.

If such a thing were necessary, the study of aeronautics in England certainly had a stimulus at the Aero Club Exhibition and Contest in April. The exhibition at Agricultural Hall from the 6th to the 13th, followed by the competitive tests at Alexandra Palace on the 15th, was a natural sequence of events tending to stimulate interest in this subject to the utmost. While there was considerable space given up to balloons and their accessories at the exhibition, the fact that the display of aeroplanes and flying machines proper occupied some eighty-seven stands is sufficient guarantee of the comprehensiveness of the exhibit and of 'the trend of thought of a large number of inventors.

Although many of these models exhibited an utter lack of knowledge of fundamental principles, yet there were a considerable number that appealed to the better judgment and by actual test demonstrated a considerable measure of practicability. Most experimenters with kite-flying are aware that nearly any shaped surface or combination of surfaces that do not form a wedge can be raised and held in the air by a flying line, and, conversely, a wide variety of surfaces can be driven in the air in such a manner as to maintain the apparatus in the air, but with wide variations in necessary steadiness, speed and efficiency of motive power. Those machines which carried themselves to the best advantage were undoubtedly of the type with which has been associated the names of the Wright Brothers, Herring, Chanute and others still earlier, namely, a single section of the familiar box kite with variations in the controlling devices and curvature of the surfaces.

A V. Koe's Model

At the morning contest in Central Hall of the Alexandra Palace, it was estimated that a thousand people were in attendance. There were twenty-nine entries and fifteen competitors for prizes. Undoubtedly the decided increase over previous exhibitions in the size of the models was due to the stipulation that to be eligible for entry the model must weigh not less than two pounds, nor more than fifty pounds. The prizes offered by the club were $750, $375 and $100, respectively, with a condition that the models must fly at least fifty feet starting from an altitude of not more than five feet. The first prize was not awarded and will be held as a fund for use in future competitions. The

second fell to A. V. Roe and the third to W. F. Howard. The judges were Professors Huntington and Wayneforth, Col. Capper, Roger Wallace and P. Y. Alexander. Mr. Roe's winning model was of two superposed planes, driven at the rear by a single propeller. The motive power was twisted rubber mounted in a long triangular framework extended well in front. Indoors it flew a distance of about eighty feet at a height of about a foot above the floor, not doing quite as well at the outdoor contest in the afternoon. Mr. Howard's machine was a single plane bent at its longitudinal diagonal so as to form a dihedral angle. It was of very light kite-like construction with a small clockwork spring motive which drove one small propeller at the front. A considerable number of trials were made, the majority being satisfactory. Contrary to the Roe model, it made its longest flights in the open of something over a hundred feet against seventy-five feet at the morning trials.

the machine is under way. Tn regard to flapping wing machines it has always seemed to the writer that, as in other mechanical movements, a reciprocating movement should always be replaced by a rotary motion where possible.

The action of some of the models was erratic and disappointing in the extreme, owing to the rapid deterioration and changing conditions of the twisted rubber used as a motive power, a fact which explains why models which had probably been carefully adjusted for the contest a few hours before caused their owners dismay by their antics at the public demonstration. Rubber ages very rapidly when under strain or even exposed to light and heat and as practically any small model has a "critical speed" necessary for complete equilibrium, slight variations are likely to cause disastrous results.

Of the fifteen competitors, seven made their machines cover a greater or less distance in free flight. Of these, five used twisted rubber, one a clock spring and one a rocket. One or two small petrol motors were attached to models but these developed troubles too serious to be overcome in time for a demonstration. This is to be regretted in one case in particular, that of the Chubb helicopter, as the design and workmanship merited recognition. In this machine two screws were mounted on vertical shafts, one inside the other, with a transmission system that permitted them revolving in opposite directions. A vertical rudder was provided for maintaining a given course, and a bowsprit projecting in front for a counterbalancing weight to compensate for the shifting of the centre of air pressure ahead of the centre of gravity. There

W. F. Howard's Model.

Of the other models exhibited and tried, a number deserve more than passing mention. Judging from the number of designs of each, the relative importance of the aeroplane, the flapping wing machine and the helicopter or direct lift machine are favorites in the order named. While the last undoubtedly consumes more power in overcoming inertia at the start, this excess of power becomes available for increased speed when

is probably no surer mark of correct design in small models than the provision for such an adjustment. With one exception, all of the successful machines were launched from the hand, thus furnishing the power necessary for acceleration without drawing upon the slender store of power until the flight was fairly under way. The exception was the Balston machine, a kite-like structure of two superimposed aero-curves on each side of a central bamboo framework containing the motive power driving a propeller in the rear. Twisted rubber was the power. It lifted itself clear of the floor and covered about 12 feet in the air. The distance flown by a small model is the least significant of any feature, providing this be long enough to make sufficient observation of its equilibrium and afford an approximate estimate of the power absorbed.

It is more than probable that there was not sufficient inducement in the prizes offered to bring out the best designed machines and that more than one "dark horse" is in position to bring out a man-carrying device when the psychological moment arrives.

FIRST PRIVATE AERODROME IN AMERICA.

The illustration is that of the aerodrome of G. H. Curtiss at Hammondsport, N. Y. This has been built in response to a need for a large building in which

1 I

G. H. Curtiss' Aerodrome.

to continue his experiments and is the first one to be built solely for private use. Captain Baldwin has been using it during the past Winter in making some radical alterations in his airship. The building measures 40 by 75 feet, and is 27 feet high.

THE METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS ABOVE SAINT LOUIS.

By Professor A. L. Rotcli, Director of the Blue Hill Meteorological Observatory.

In the circular letter from the president of the Aero Club of America concerning the next Gordon-Bennett balloon race, it is said that the observations of the Weather Bureau with kites and pilot-balloons at St. Louis show that the upper air moves towards the east. While, of course, this has long been known from the observations of the drift of the upper clouds, 1 desire to point out that our government Weather Bureau has made no observations with pilot-balloons at St. Louis and that the observations quoted are those obtained by this Observatory. With the co-operation of the St. Louis Exposition, the first registering balloons in America were liberated from St. Louis during the autumn of 1904 by my assistants, Messrs. Clayton and Fergusson, and the experiments have been continued at my expense and with aid of the Smithsonian Institution during the past two years at different seasons. As the observations obtained have a special interest in view of the selection of St. Louis as a starting point for the international balloon race next October, I give some facts which may be useful to intending competitors.

The balloons used in my experiments were the rubber balloons of Prof. Dr. Assmann, which are well known in Europe. Each balloon was filled with hydrogen gas and carried a self-recording barometer and thermometer, constructed on Teissererenc de Bort's system, which a parachute covering the upper portion of the balloon brought safely to the ground after the balloon had burst on reaching the maximum height commensurate with its expansion. 56 of these balloons were sent up during the years 1904, 1905 and 1906, and, by remarkable good fortune, 53 balloons with their instruments were found and returned to this Observatory on payment of a small reward to the finders. The records of barometric-pressure and temperature were usually decipherable and from the automatically recorded times of the ascent of the balloon at St. Louis and its descent at a place whose distance and direction from St. Louis are known, the average direction and velocity of its drift can be calculated.

Classifying according to altitude all the ascensions at different seasons of the year, I have obtained the figures for the movement of the air at different heights above St. Louis, which are embodied in the accompanying table. No. 1 embraces the balloons whose maximum height was less than 16,000 feet. No. 2 those in which the maximum height was between 16,000 and 33,000 feet, No. 3 those between 33,000 and 49,000 feet, and No. 4 those of 49,000 or higher.

I,evel

No. of Ascensions

Mean Max. Altitude (Feet)

Mean Altitude (Feet)

Mean Distance Travelled (Miles)

Mean Velocity (Miles perhr.)

Mean Direction from St. I,.

4

9

52,500

26,000

117

47

S. 8l° E.

3

16

40,500

20,000

155

56

S. 85° E.

2

13

23,500

I 2,OOO

IOI

33

S. 87° E.

i

8

II,500

6,000

42

25

S. 79° E.

It will be seen that the velocity, and consequently the distance travelled increases up to the third level, above which there is a slight decrease, and that the lowest balloons took the most southerly course (S. 790 E.) while the level 2 balloons

went nearly due east (S. 87° E.). Naturally, there were great individual differences in velocity and direction. Thus, in level 1, which will hardly be exceeded by the racing balloons next October, one balloon on Nov. 23, 1904, which reached a height of 7,600 feet, travelled 55 miles at an average velocity of 51 miles an hour, while the next day another balloon at a slightly greater height followed the same course but went 90 miles further. The minimum velocity was shown by a balloon on May 17, 1906, which, though it rose to a height of 14,700 feet, travelled only 15 miles northeast at an average speed of only u miles an hour. It appears probable, however, that the balloons which compete in the International Cup Race will travel at the rate of about 25 miles an hour towards a point slightly south of east, the distance, of course, depending upon the length of time that the balloons can keep afloat. In level 3 two balloons in November, 1904, which reached heights of about seven miles travelled at an average speed of 100 miles an hour, one 280 miles east, the other 255 miles south southeast. As this is the average velocity in the upper and lower air strata, the velocity at the maximum altitude in both cases probably much exceeded 100 miles an hour, but such velocities are shown by the measurements of the drift of cirrus clouds at Blue Hill to be not unusual in winter over the United States. Assuming that the mean temperature for October at St. Louis is 59° F., the temperature at two miles will be about 350 F. and at four miles about 150 F. Though far beyond the reach of the manned balloons, it may be interesting to state that in January, 1905, at a height of about nine miles,—uo° F. was recorded by one of the balloons, which is among the lowest natural temperatures ever observed, and that the following July—75° F. was registered at a height of less than nine miles.

FIRST NATIONAL BALLOON RACE IN AMERICA.

A national balloon contest between amateurs for distance will be held at Providence, R. I., Wednesday, July 31, 1907, or the first favorable day thereafter, in connection with "Old Home Week,'' a typical New England custom of having at more or less frequent periods a reunion of former and present residents. This occasion is the first that Providence has had.

A gasometer of 500.000 cubic feet will supply pure coal gas of .43~44 specific gravity through a 12 inch pipe direct to the grounds. At least six balloons are expected to compete and arrangements will be such that these can be filled simultaneously in one hour.

The race will start from a ten acre level field near the Pawtucket gas works, just out of Providence. There is a magnificent automobile speedway through Blackstone and Swan Point Park, and several trolley lines, direct to the grounds, adjoining Riverside Cemetery on the north, less than three miles from the State capitol, center of Providence.

Gas will be furnished free to contestants, their transportation and that of their balloons will be paid and they will be guests of the city during their stay

Three silver cups will be offered to the entrants making the three longest trips. Another cup will be offered to the first automobile or motorcycle to come up with any balloon at its point of descent, provided such arrival is within thirty minutes of the time of the balloon's landing.

Capt. Thomas S. Baldwin is expected to make some demonstrations with his new dirigible "20th Century," the largest and most powerful in this countiy.

The committee in charge of this event is E. L. Jones and A. L. Stevens. Entries are requested to be sent in at the earliest moment, addressed to E. L. Jones, Chairman, 142 West 65th St., New York. Entries close July 15th.

THE AERO CLUB OF PHILADELPHIA.

By Joseph Jackson.

If one were to look for the genesis of the Aero Club of Philadelphia, he would find it in the first aerial .voyage of its president, Mr. Alfred N. Chandler. The quiet, unostentatious trip made by Mr. Chandler in the Spring of 1906 passed off with so much satisfaction that immediately some of his friends and acquaintances became enthusiastic in their admiration of the sport and the organization of the first balloon club in Philadelphia, and the second one in America, quickly followed as a natural consequence.

Mr. Chandler had been widely known as a yachtsman and automobilist, being a member of the Corinthian Yacht Club and owner of the schooner-yacht "Vigil" which for two years won every race in the yacht club cruises. He was also recognized as one prominently identified with gentlemanly sports, including auto-mobiling, being now president of the Automobile Club of Philadelphia; but when it became known that he had purchased a balloon and proposed to make an ascent it created great public commotion and there were some who ventured to persuade him to change his mind. This was owing to a popular misconception of the dangers of ballooning. It is extremely difficult to persuade most persons that a balloon voyage is not necessarily dangerous. The success of Mr. Chandler's first trip, if it had any far reaching effect, convinced many who previously were sceptical, that a trip through the air, under proper auspices and circumstances, may not only be entirely safe but positively beneficial.

On May 12th, 1906, Mr. Chandler, accompanied by Henry S. Gratz and Charles Levee, a pilot of the Aero Club of France, startedVJfrpm the Athletic Grounds, adjoining the gas works, at Point Breeze. Mr. Chandler used bis own balloon Initial, and, consequently, was the first amateur in this country to ascend in his own aerostat. In Europe this is so common as not to call for comment, but in this country the introduction of a private balloon was so unusual as to excite attention. Having been elected a member of the Aero Club of America and of the Aero Club of France, this pioneer aeronaut decided that membership in these organizations was an empty honor if one did not become an active aerial navigator. With this idea in view and with a belief that he would be assisting to make the sport popular among sportsmen, be started off in the Initial from Point Breeze that May afternoon.

As this ascent is in a measure historic, it may be permissible to record that the start was made at 1.15 P. M. in the presence of a large throng, in which was Samuel A. King and A. Leo Stevens, professional balloonists. The aerostat has a capacity of 35,000 cubic feet. The descent was made at South Amboy, at 2.50 P. M. The distance travelled was about 70 miles, and the greatest altitude reached was 3000 feet.

The greatest enthusiasm on the part of clubmen followed this attempt to bring ballooning into the circle of sports in this country, and the next day there was considerable talk of forming an aero club in this city. The fact that ballooning could be done safely, as evinced by Mr. Chandler's experience, gave immense impetus to the movement, and, on May 24th, there was held at the Racquet Club, a meeting attended by about twenty enthusiasts.

A permanent organization was subsequently formed. Alfred N. Chandler was elected President; Henry S. Gratz, First Vice President; Dr. T. Chalmers Fulton, Second Vice President; E. A. Custer, Secretary; and Dr. P. B. Thatcher, Rev.

Dr. George S. Gassner, F. L. Richardson, and Dr. Samuel J. Ottinger, Directors.

The first ascent under the auspices of the club was made on May 26th, two days after the preliminary meeting. Arrangements had been made for a race The balloons, "Initial," owned by Mr. Chandler, and "l'Orient," belonging to the Aero Club of America, were to start with Mr. Chandler in his aerostat, Mr. Levee, pilot; and Mr. Gratz in "l'Orient," with Mr. Stevens, pilot. Each was also to carry a newspaper man to report the race. The wind, however, was blowing too strong, and there being great danger of fouling in getting off, only the Initial, in charge of Mr. Levee, and carrying two newspaper men, was released at 2.33 P. M. and was soon speeding northeast in a 22-knot breeze. At 3.45 P. M. the balloon descended on a farm near Newtown, about 23 miles from the starting point. On this occasion there was flown to the breezes the first aero club pennant to make its appearance in this country. The colors being blue, gold and blue.

On July 26th, 1906, the first scientific experiment undertaken by the club was made. On this date Drs. Fulton and Ottinger in the balloon l'Orient, which is a bag of 35,000 cubic feet gas capacity, made an ascent from Point Breeze, where all the ascents of the club are made, owing to the proximity of the gas works. Although the ascension was superintended by the veteran aeronaut, Samuel A. King, Drs. Fulton and Ottinger having had past experience, went up without a professional pilot. In several particulars this was one of the most remarkable ascents ever made in this city. An altitude of over 20,000 feet, or nearly four miles, was reached, and that great height was arrived at while the aerostat drifted only about ten miles. The start was made at 2.1S P. M. and the descent near Media, about 7.30 o'clock.

Drs. Fulton and Ottinger were trying for height and not long distance. They made a new record for altitude in this neighborhood, and also were able to conduct a number of important experiments in connection with aerotherapy. For sometime what has been named aerotherapy has been recognized by European physicians as a great agency in the treatment of diseases of the respiratory tract and of the circulation, and it was possible during this voyage to carefully investigate this department of medical knowledge.

Two other ascents were made under'the club's auspices in the year 1906. On one of these trips, Dr. Ottinger had for companion, Mr. Henry S. Gratz, and on the other, Mr. Alfred T. Atherholt.

The last trip was made on October 6th, when Mr. Atherholt accompanied Dr. Ottinger. The balloon used was Mr. Chandler's aerostat Initial. The aerial voyagers had the most exciting trip in their lives. For six hours they were in the midst of a hurricane, they encountered an aerial thunder storm, nearly descended into a lake, and, altogether, saw something of the seamy side of ballooning but made a safe landing. They left Point Breeze at 12.20 P. M., met a hurricane at Mt. Pocono, at 2.30, and landed at Rockaway, near Passaic, New Jersey, at 5 o'clock. In all, 233 miles had been covered in 385 minutes.

Another memorable trip under the club's auspices, was made by Mr. Chandler. This was on March 23rd. of this year, the only voyage, so far undertaken this season. The balloon Initial was used, and Mr. Alan R. Hawley, member of the Aero Club of America, went along as amateur pilot. Mr. Hawley, it might he mentioned, was qualifying as pilot for the International Race to be held in St. Louis this Summer. The start was made at 12.25 P. M., and as the wind was almost direct east, the trip ended on the Atlantic City meadows, where a landing was made at 3.10 P. M. An attempt was made to reach the sand beach at Atlantic City, but a repelling sea breeze near the surface prevented further progress in that direction. During the voyage, an altitude of 7,000 feet was reached, which

was attained immediately before landing, the descent from that altitude being made in y]/2 minutes.

This trip showed conclusively that Philadelphia is favorably situated for starting with a balloon, for if the wind is blowing from any direction excepting the west, a fairly long voyage is possible. At present several members of the club are building a monster balloon, the Ben Franklin, which is to have a capacity of 92,000 cubic feet.

AEROMOBILES SOON TO BE ON THE MARKET.

The Vacu-Aerial Navigation and Manufacturing Co. of America has been for some time working on a machine which they believe to be about perfected. In an interview with Dr. A. Rudolph Silverston, the General M'anager, he said:

"I expect to begin experimenting with a finished machine between the first and the fourth of July. If we do not have any breakdown we possibly will give a demonstration July fourth.

"There are only a few words that I can say at the present time regarding the machine, and they are more than we have said to anybody else. The principal part of our machine consists of a tubular body made entirely of aluminum, 25 feet long and 8 feet 3 inches in diameter. We have two sets of planes, each one 60 by 6 feet. Including the tubular body, we have a plane surface of nearly 1400 square feet. As far as indications now go, our weight will not exceed, including machinery and car, which is below the tubular body, 800 pounds. The horse-power is supplied by a Curtiss motor, and is the same motor used by Mr. Curtiss at Ormond Beach last January or February, which made the fastest mile ever travelled in the world, namely, a mile in 26 2-5 seconds, or 139 miles an hour. The motor is guaranteed to furnish 40 horsepower, but easily develops between 60 and 65. The upper plane surface on our machine insures a perfect maintenance, automatically, of equilibrium in both directions. As far as models have shown, we can rise almost instantly from the ground and descend with equal facility and safety. You will observe that we carry about Yz pound to the square foot of surface. We have employed nothing else but aluminum and steel, except for the wing surface, where we naturally used oiled Japanese silk. Comparing our machine, taking into consideration the horse-power, plane surface and weight, with the apparatus of the Wright Brothers and of Santos-Dumont, we should be able to carry from 2000 to 3000 pounds.

"We have absolute confidence in out-doing any machine so far put before the public and have no hesitancy in saying that we have in this production actually solved this vexing problem. From what we know from model flights, we can travel in any desired direction under any and all conditions in absolute safety, and in that regard, far superior to any automobile or steamboat. We are employing a number of patent devices to secure safety to the operator and passengers. I lay stress on passengers because if we have only a pretty toy, and are incapable of reducing this invention to a commercial basis why, then we quit. Our aim and intentions are centered entirely on a commercial solution. If this machine proves what we claim, we will at once engage in the actual manufacture of this machine, with many new devices attached, and we have gone so far already as to locate a very extensive and large plant near this city. [Milwaukee.—Ed.].

"Our president, Mr. William Woods Plankinton, is in thorough accord with my views and more sanguine than these few words express."

GORDON BENNETT INTERNATIONAL AERONAUTIC CUP RACE.

St. Louis, October 19, 1907. Official Entries.

Aero Club of France: 3 balloons. But two of the contestants, Rene Gasriier and Alfred Le Blanc, have thus far been named.

Aero Club of the United Kingdom; 3 balloons. Contestants not yet named, but Hon. Chas. S. Rools and Mr. Griffith Brewer are certain to be appointed.

Deutseher Luftschiffer-Verband: 3 balloons; "Pommern," of 2200 cubic metres capacity, "Todewils" of 1000 cubic metres capacity and the "Dusseldorf" of 2250 cubic metres capacity. The pilots are Herren Freiherr von Hewald, Hauptmann Hildebrandt and Hauptmann von Abereron, respectively.

J. C .McCOV. ALBERT B. LAMBERT,

Honorary Secretary Aero Club of St. Lcuis.

Real Aero Club de Espana: 2 balloons of 2200 cubic metres capacity each. Pilots, not named.

Aero Club of America: 3 balloons of 2200 cubic metres capacity each. Pilots, Lieutenant Frank P. Lahm, winner of the Gordon-Bennett Race of 1906, at Paris; J. C. McCoy, balloon "America," and Alan R. ITawley, balloon "St. Louis." A. B. Lambert will be Mr. Hawley's Companion. The Societa Aemnautica Italiana entered two balloons: the "Vittoria," of 2200 cubic metres capacity, pilot Alfred Vonwiller, and the "Roma," of 2250 cubic metres, pilot Major M. Moris. The entry was not sent within the time limit under the rules (February 1, 1907) and the Federation Aeronautique Internationale felt itself obliged to disallow the entry.

The official date of the race has been set for October 19, 1937, at Forest Park, St. Louis, Missouri, there being a full moon cn this date.

Gas will be pumped under pressure through a 24" main from a gasometre holding 4,000,000 cubic feet of coal gas.

A portion of the Park has been set aside for the start of this race, which will be enclosed and grand stands erected to accommodate the spectators.

In addition to the Gordon-Bennett Cup for which this race is run, there have been offered the following prizes:

$1000 to the contestant making second place, offered by Adolphus Busch.

$750 to the contestant making third place, offered by the United Street Railways Co.

$500 to the contestant making fourth place, offered by B. Nugent & Bro.

$250 to the contestant making fifth place, offered by the St. Louis Times.

At vSt. Louis, during the month of October, the prevailing winds are from the South and Southwest and have an average velocity of over 10 miles an hour. On account of the currents of air, it is predicted that no contestant will be able to make any great distance to the West, that probably all the balloons will sail away to the eastward. The average temperature for that month at St. Louis is 6o° P.

t AL,A.N R. HAWKEY

LIEUT. FRANK P. UHM

Hon. Chas. S. Rolls has just been awarded the Silver Medal for the longest time spent in the air by any pilot of the French aero club during 1906. This award is made on his record of 26 hours 18 minutes in the balloon "Britannia" in last year's Gordon. Bennett. This is entirely different from the Gold Medal awarded him for longest duration in the Gordon-Bennett.

William Woods Plankinton, it is reported, has also purchased a balloon.

A new airship company is being formed by Win, J. Brewer, of Trenton, N. J. The plans call for from two to four cigar shaped gas bags supporting an aluminum framework 35 feet long. A 40-horsepower engine will furnish the motive power.

THE AERO CLUB OF ST. LOUIS.

By J. W. Kearney, Secretary.

The Aero Club of St. Louis was formed the early part of this year and is the direct result of this city's having been selected as the place for holding the contest for the James Gordon Bennett International Aeronautic Cup.

Wlhen the officials of the Aero Club of America decided on St. Louis as a place for holding the race, it was suggested that an Aero Club be organized to take charge of the preliminaries and do whatever work was necessary in conjunction with the affair.

The Club was organized on January 7th with a Charter Membership of 37 of the leading citizens of the city. On January 29th a permanent organization was effected and the work of securing members was inaugurated. In ten days the limit of 300 was secured and it was

LEWIS D. DOZIER, President, Aero Club of St. Louis.

later decided to increase the membership to 400. The additional 100 members came into the Club in a very short period and the Club now has a waiting list.

More than one hundred of the four hundred members of the Club are millionaires, and in the organization are to be found the representative men of St. Louis in all lines and professions. There are railroad presidents, bank and

FRANCES D. HIRSCHBERG, Treasurer Aero Club of St. Louis.

trust company presidents, merchant princes, the leading physicians, surgeons, and lawyers of the city and one Roman Catholic Archbishop.

The officers of the organization are:— L. D. Dozier, President; Former Governor D. R. Francis, D. C. Nugent and G. H. Walker, Vice-Presidents; F. D. Hirschberg, Treasurer; A. B. Lambert, Honorary Secretary; J. W. Kearney, Secretary.

The Ascension Grounds selected are in the east end of Forest Park, which is one of the largest parks in the world. Immediately opposite the park and directly facing the Ascension Grounds, the Club has leased a dwelling for a Club House. A Gasometer is but a few blocks away, and it is from this tank that the balloons will be supplied with gas at the time of the International race.

In conjunction with the James Gordon Bennett contest, which is for ordinary balloons, the Aero Club of St Louis.has decided to hold competitions for Dirigible Balloons and Aeroplanes. These events will be held on or about October 22nd or very close to the date of the James Gordon Bennett race.

For these competitions, the Aero Club of St. Louis has offered prizes

j. W. KEARNEY, Secretary, Aero Club of St. I,ouis.

AEROPHOBIA.

"Germany is a nation which is second to none in the production of a special form of genius possessing an aptitude for one-sided exaggeration. If a particular combination of circumstances can produce a dangerous situation, there always seems to be someone ready to exploit that as the one and only point of view from which to observe the subject in question. As an example, there is the supposed danger which would accrue to Great Britain through the possession by other powers of immense aerial fleets, and the possibilities of which have been set forth by Regierungsrat Rudolf Martin—with a foresight which is not altogether original—in a book entitled "The Era of Aerial Navigation."

amounting to $5000. There is to be one Grand Prize of $2500 for the Dirigible Balloon or Machine of any kind which makes the best showing in the contest, provided it makes the 6-mile course, turning two goals within 30 minutes. There is also to be a prize of $1250 for the Dirigible Balloon which makes the best showing and a similar prize for the Aeroplane or any other style of machine which gives the best account of itself in the competition.

The winner of the Grand Prize is not to be allowed to compete in either of the two latter events.

In case the Grand Prize of $2500 is not won by any of the competitors, the money is to be divided equally between the Dirigible Balloons and the Aeroplanes or other style vehicles,, each class getting $1250. This will be split up into Second, Third and Fourth Prizes as follows :—Second Price, $625 ; Third Prize, $400; Fourth Prize, $225. The First Prize in each class will remain at $1250.

It is the intention to make the James. Gordon Bennett Cup Contest of St. Louis the occasion of a General Aeronautic Carnival, hence the events arranged by the St. Louis Club. The Club has secured pledges from the leading hotels in this city not to raise rates during the Aeronautic events, and it is more than likely that railroads will be induced to make special rates for the affair. Much interest is being taken in St. Louis in the matter, and it is believed there will be an enormous crowd in the city when the contests take place.

"One of the chapters, and perhaps the one which will be of most interest to Britishers, is that headed "England no longer an Island," in which the author allows his imagination some freedom of flight as to an invasion of this land by Germany. At the present stage of aeronautics such phantasies, even if presented in a well balanced form, are apt to be a little ridiculous. That the author should have entirely overlooked any inconveniences or difficulties which the occupants of the various individual ships might experience of effecting a landing is a comparatively small matter, but we frankly fail to see that any useful purpose could be served by such a book, unless the author hopes to inspire our own military authorities with an even keener desire to keep in touch with aerial development than they already possess."—Automotor Journal.

PROGRESS IN AERONAUTICS.

For I dipt into the future, far as human eye could see,

Saw the vision of the world, and all the wonder that would be;

Saw the heavens fill with commerce, argosies of magic sails,

Pilots of the purple twilight, dropping down with costly bales;

Heard the heavens fill with shouting, and there rained a ghastly dew

From the nations' airy navies, grappling in the central blue;

Far along the world-wide whisper of the south wind rushing warm.

With the standards of the people plunging thro' the thunderstorm.

Locksley Hall.—Tennyson.

At no time in the history of aeronautics has the year opened as aus-piciousl}-. The problem of aerial navigation by a heavier than air machine has practically been solved. There remains now the development of the machine to a general commercial use.

In March, 1906, the Aero Club of America officially announced that the Wright Brothers had positively done what no other human beings had ever before accomplished. This announcement was made only after obtaining positive proof, and was so startling that even now the majority of the aeronautically interested abroad do not accept the authoritative statement of the Aero Club of America. America has the honor of being the first to "successfully" navigate the air.

What the Wright Brothers have actually accomplished follows:

Sept. 26, 1905—Distance, 17,961 meters (11% miles); time, 18 min. 9 sec: cause of stopping, exhaustion of fuel.

Sept. 29, 1905—Distance, 19.570 meters (12 miles); time, 19 min. 55 sec; cause of stopping, exhaustion of fuel.

Sept. 30, 1905—Time, 17 min. 15 sec; cause of stopping, hot bearing.

Oct. 3, 1905—Distance, 24,535 meters (i5j4 miles); time, 25 min. 5 sec; cause of stopping, hot bearing.

Oct. 4, 1905—Distance, 33,456 meters (20^ miles); time, 33 min. 17 sec; cause of stopping, hot bearing.

Oct. 5, 1905—Distance, 38,956 meters (24 1-5 miles); time, 38 min. 3 sec; cause of stopping, exhaustion of fuel.

"It will be seen that an average speed of a little more than 38 miles an hour was maintained in the last flight. All of the flights were made over a circular course of about three-fourths of a mile to the lap, which reduced the speed somewhat. The machine increased its velocity on the straight parts of the course and slowed down on the curves. It is believed that in straight flight the normal speed is more than 40 miles an hour. In the earlier of the flights named above less than 6 pounds of gasoline was carried. In the later ones a tank was fitted large enough to hold fuel for an hour, but by oversight it was not completely filled before the flight of October 5.

"In the past three years a total of 160 flights have been made with our motor-driven flyers, and a total distance of almost exactly 160 miles covered, an average of a mile to each flight, but until the machine had received its final improvements the flights were mostly short, as is evidenced by the fact that the flight of October 5th was longer than the 105 flights of the year 1904 together.

"The lengths of the flights were measured by a Richard anemometer which was attached to the machine. The records were found to agree closely with the distances measured over *thc ground when the flights were made in calm air over a straight course; but when the flights were made in circles a close comparison was impossible because it was not practicable to accurately trace the

course over the ground. In the flight of October 5th a total of 29.7 circuits of the held was made. The times were taken with stop-watches. In operating the machine it has been our custom for many years to alternate in making flights, and such care has been observed that neither of us has suffered any serious injury, though in the earlier flights our ignorance and the inadequacy of the means of control made the work exceedingly dangerous.

"The 1905 flyer had a total weight of about 925 pounds, including the operator, and was of such substantial construction as to be able to make landings at high speed without being strained or broken. From the beginning the prime object was to devise a machine of practical utility, rather than a useless and extravagant toy. For this reason extreme lightness of construction has always been resolutely rejected. On the other hand, every effort has been made to increase the scientific efficiency of the wings and screws in order that even heavily built machines may be carried with a moderate expenditure of power. The favorable results which have been obtained have been due to improvements in flying quality resulting from more scientific design and to improved methods of balancing and steering. The motor and machinery possess no extraordinary qualities. The best dividends on the labor invested have invariably come from seeking more knowledge rather than more power."

(Signed) Orvillb Wright,

Wilbur Wright.

In September, 1906, M. Santos Du-mont, who has built several more or less successful dirigible balloons, made a flight of about 25 yards with a motor driven aeroplane having the following characteristics:

General Dimensions.—Length, 32 ft.; greatest width, 39 ft.; weight with one passenger, 465 lb.; lift per square ft. 5 lb.; lift per 1 H. P., 19.4 lb., at a velocity of about 30 miles per hour.

Sustainers.—Two box type wings, each 18 ft. by 11 ft.; surfaces 7 ft. apart, sustaining area 861 sq. ft.

Suspension.—The long protruding girder which carries the car is fixed at one end to the sustainers; at the other end a box shaped rudder is fitted.

Car.—A willow basket fixed in the girder above mentioned.

Propulsion.—Aluminum two bladed propeller, 6 ft. in diameter, fixed in rear of the sustainers.

Steering in a vertical plane.—The rudder can be 'moved right or left, by means of a steering wheel.

Steering in a horizontal plane.— The same rudder can be moved up and down by means of a steering lever, and the whole machine rises and falls accordingly.

Equilibrium.—No special apparatus. The machine fell to the ground and was seriously damaged. In October he again tried and succeeded in travelling a distance of about 195 feet through the air after having run along the ground for a distance of 243 feet.

A third trial was made on November 12th, in which he maintained a uniform flight for about 720 feet at a speed of 25 miles an hour. This won for him two prizes, one of 100 francs for the first aeroplane to fly 195 feet, and one of 1500 francs for the first to go at least 325 feet without touching the earth. He failed to win however the Deutsch-Archdeacon prize of 50,000 francs for the first aeroplane which will fly from a given point a distance of 5-16 of a mile, and return to starting point. In the spring of 1907 he made an unsuccessful trial with a new machine.

AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERONAUTICS 25 ____i.

Denmark has made a name for itself by the accomplishment of Herr Ellehommer, who, in January, 1906, flew a distance of 162 feet against the wind. The motor was then stopped and an easy descent made. The machine was of the "Wright t}rpe."

The work of the Wrights, Herring, and Chanute in America, Santos Uumoiit in France and Ellehommer in Denmark has added numbers to the heavier than air school, as is proven by the multitude of experimenters along this line.

Bellamy is working on an aeroplane at Weybridge, England, with which to compete for the Daily Mail and other prizes. This machine has a bamboo structure carrying a double decked aeroplane at each end. The front planes are 32J/2 by 9 feet. The rear planes measure 22^ by 9 feet. Both front and rear planes are placed Z-lA feet apart. Lying lengthwise between them are two triangular side sails inclined up and out. The upper and lower planes are divided vertically into cells. The machine is driven upward by a horizontal plane and steered horizontally by a vertical rudder placed in the rear. A 50 H. P. Panhard motor in the center of the forward plane supplies power by chains to fans.

Clarke is experimenting at Alder-shot along the line of the Wrights. His machine is similar, with the following exceptions: "At the rear, the Wright aeroplane had a single vertical plane acting as a rudder, but the Clarke device consists of two vertical planes, which are traversed about a third of their length from the top by a single horizontal plane. The main surfaces are curved on the principle of a bird's wing, and the aeronaut takes a recumbent position on the center of the lower aerocurve. Used as a kite, very satisfactory experiments have been made with this aeroplane."

M. Cornu constructed a model which, during trials, rose in the air "most satisfactorily and maintained a steady course." The weight was 2,ol/z lbs. and the power used, 1^4 horse. He is now building a large machine, fitted with a 25 H. P. motor.

The Antoinette engine people are building a machine on the designs of Capt. Ferber and M. Levavasseur, using a Levavasseur motor.

Capt. Ferber has also completed two machines of 24 and 100 II. P. respectively.

Vuia has a machine which comprises "a pair of enormous wings with a motor driven propeller. It runs on a light quadricycle frame, which the propeller has proved itself able to drive at a considerable speed and even uphill.''

Very satisfactory results have been obtained by Paul Barlatier and M. Blanc, with a single aerocurve model, having a complicated tail some distance behind. A 2 H. P. Buchet motor drives two propellers in front. It is said the inventors are building a larger machine, to be equipped with a 12 H. P. motor.

Esnault Pelterie is experimenting with an aeroplane attached to an automobile. At a speed of 56 miles an hour the machine developed a lifting power of 99 pounds.

Albert Bazin has a curious machine with wings, a tail, and a hull for the driver. He uses a liquid carbonic acid motor to drive a two bladed pro, peller 7 feet in diameter.

On April 8, 1907 the Delagrange ; Aeroplane made a fairly successful flight, though damaged in landing. The wind aided the descent of the machine when the motor was stopped. The distance covered was 164 feet. In a previous flight, however, he covered 196 feet.

M. Bleriot has developed a birdlike machine, having an elongated

body, two large outspread wings with the tips turned upwards, and two vertical rudders. The two wing surfaces form a single plane. It is fitted with a 24 H. P. Antoinette engine, having a propeller 5J4 feet in diameter. The machine flew about 20 feet on the first trial. It was found that 16 H. P. would raise the machine from the ground. A gust of wind upset the machine on the second trial.

The French Government now has two dirigible balloons, the old "Le-baudy'' and the new "La Patrie." The latter has made some very successful flights, in good time against a wind of over 30 miles an hour.

Henry de la Vaulx built, in 1906, a navigable balloon, which has made several more or less encouraging flights.

Captain Kindelan designed for Spain a dirigible, t 15 feet long, with two very light 24 H. P. Levavasseur motors.

Henry Deutsch's enormous dirigible "La Ville de Paris," 205 feet long, with a 70 H. P. Motor, was first tried out in the Fall of 1906. The initial flight was a disastrous one. Only a short distance was traversed when the guide rope caught and in disentangling it the envelope was destroyed.

Count Zeppelin has achieved the greatest success in the lighter than air school. The results obtained by him, considering the general impracticability of dirigible balloons, is well nigh marvellous. Zeppelin has secured the co-operation of the German Government in his experiments. The Emperor and some wealthy associates have subscribed $250,000 for the conduct of these researches.

The English Government is experimenting with gliding machines under the direction of Colonel Templar, of the Military Ballooning and Aeronautical Department. Their gliders have two planes similar to the Wright

glider. After being lifted into the air with kites they are released. Mr. Cody, in one instance, made a glide of l/2 mile. The English War Office has under construction an airship, similar to the Lebaudy. Its lifting capacity will be over three tons.

The Russian Government has been working with aeroplanes for the past three years and the Chief of the Russian Balloon Corps claims that the "balancing problem has been solved by him, but he had not fitted any aeroplanes with motors."

Walter Wellman and Major Hersey are starting this year from Spitzbergen with their airship in an attempt to reach the North Pole. The ship is 196 feet long, 46 feet in diameter and has a capacity of 226,000 cubic feet. It has a lifting capacity of 22,000 pounds.

NOTES.

Patrick Y. Alexander writes that he will be over for the Gordon-Bennett Race at St. Louis, going from there to the Congress at Jamestown Exposition October 28th and 29th.

A. Leo Stevens has recently leased a building 197 x 120 feet at Hoboken, N. J., to be used as an addition to his balloon factory.

Col. Max C. Fleischmann, of Cincinnati, Ohio, has purchased from J. Hoddick, a balloon manufacturer of that city, an 85,000 cubic foot balloon.

Dr. Oliver L. Fassig, who has been the Director at Mount Weather since its establishment, is now Director of the Climatological Service of the Weather Bureau, Maryland and Delaware Section, at Baltimore. Dr. W. J. Humphreys is the new Director at Mt. Weather.

If ten balloon trips make an aeronautic pilot, is the man who has made trips by the hundreds a better pilot? Can America win this year's Gordon-Bennett ?

Alan R. Hawley's balloon which is to-represent St. Louis in the International race, is now finished. Mr. Hawley made his first flight in it from Paris June 14.

AERO CLUB OF AMERICA.

The regular Monday evening lectures have been discontinued for the Summer. Great interest 'has been taken in these informal affairs and an effort will be made in the Fall to make those proposed even more successful, if possible. Following is a list of the subjects treated since the inauguration of the idea.

Israel Ludlow— "Equilibrium."

W. R. Kimball—

"Elementary Principles of Heavier-Than-Air Machines."

T. T. Lovelace—

"Earthquake at Kingston,'' Illustrated.

Carl Fischer— "Pigeon Flying."

A. M. Herring—

"Aerial Propellers and Light Metals."

Carl Dienstbach— "Propellers."

W. R.- Kimball—

Demonstration of His Helicoptere Model.

AVm. J. Hammer— "Illuminated Dust."

Harry E. Dey— "Light Motors."

C, H. Taylor—

"Explosive Engines."

From time to time there are opportunities for club members who do not own balloons to make ascents. It would be advisable for those wishing to make trips to place their names on fde with the Secretary in order that they may be communicated with when such occasions arise.

The Club has now arranged that its rooms are open to members every da}' and evening throughout the entire week. All foreign aeronautical magazines are kept on file and much interesting reading will be found in the library, to which is constantly being added both new and rare books on aeronautics.

Word has been received by the Aero Club of America, that the Aero Club of Spain will have but two balloons in the Gordon-Bennett race, instead of three as originally entered.

IS THERE AT ANY TIME DURING THE FLIGHT OF A DIRIGIBLE BALLOON A GREATER AIR PRESSURE AT ANY OTHER POINT THAN AT THE THEORETICAL "NOSE?"

Consider a course from one point to another with the wind blowing at an angle with the line drawn between the starting and finishing points.

To gain the objective point the dirigible must be headed to the windward of the objective point. The theoretical angle of direction can be determined by compounding the speed and direction of the wind and the speed and direction of the airship. If the direction of the wind is across or opposed to the direction of travel, a greater distance, with relation to the air, must be traveled and it is self-evident that there would be increased fuel consumption.

Theoretically, the machine would head directly into the relative wind if the natural wind were uniform. However, the wind is not stable—it consists of a succession of gusts.

There is increased pressure on the windward side during the momentary increase in the speed of the wind. There is also an unbalanced excess of pressure on the lee side during a lull in the wind. These changes cause the airship to assume a twisting movement which is further complicated by the gyroscopic action of the screw and the gyrostatic action of the air-stream flowing in a curved path along the "nose" of the bag, the combination of all the forces producing a sort of "corkscrew" pitching of the balloon which increases in violence with the increase in speed of the wind as well as with increase in speed of the screw.

AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERONAUTICS

Ernest LaRue Jones, Editor

Published monthly by

American Magazine of Aeronautics Co.

142 West 65th St., New York, U. S. A.

VOL. I. JULY, 1907. No. i.

American Magazine of Aeronautics is issued promptly on the first of each month. It aims to furnish the latest and most authoritative information 011 all matters relating to Aeronautics. Contributions are solicited.

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A LETTER TO AERONAUTS.

The American Magazine of Aeronautics is very desirous of obtaining accurate and complete records of all balloon and airship flights made in America during each month.

We would appreciate it very much if you would send us such records at the end of every month and we would be very glad to supply you with the blank forms for the purpose upon request.

May we not expect to hear from you?

American Magazine of Aeronautics.

PRIZE WANTED

For Heavier-Than-Air-Machines

(Without Gas Bag).

It is of the utmost importance that a cash prize of a considerable amount be hung up to encourage and reward the successful work of the hundreds of aeronautical inventors in this country.

As it is now, there are many claiming that they have a practical flying machine. There is an almost insurmountable difficulty encountered by these inventors in bringing their machine to the attention of capitalists. After they have completed their work they find that it has all been in vain— they either cannot enlist capital or come to the conclusion that a flying machine is of no value for business purposes or for sport. Many see no future for a machine and do not put their ideas into any concrete shape.

Here is an instance of the present difficulty. A certain man claims most positively he has a machine that will lift into the air double its own weight. He still has to arrange for steering mechanism and means for propulsion. He does not wish to use any more of his own money nor that of his friends until he can see a return for the money invested in the event of bringing the machine to a successful completion. If there were a cash prize of $25,000 available, he would at once procure the necessary funds and complete his machine. He is willing to take his chances on the machine's not fulfilling the conditions. He merely wants something to work for, something that will repay him for the time and money expended.

The prize should be at least $25,000. There are several prizes of $50,000 offered abroad. The money should be available to the successful contestant immediately upon his fulfilling the conditions under which the prize is contested—say, the flight out and back over a mile course, with provisions in the rules for turning, ascending and descending, &c, to prove the machine's absolute dirigibility.

This method would eliminate the many impossible machines now built or projected. It would provide a suitable reward to the successful man. There would then be no trouble in finding a market for the machine.

AERONAUTICS IN ENGLAND. By Major B. Baden Powell.

I feel somewhat in the position of that well-known author who, in writing a book on the natural history of Ireland, had a chapter on "snakes," but which consisted solely of the sentence, "There are no snakes in Ireland." But the present subject is rather different, for, while unable to say much about it, I have reason to believe that a good deal is being done in England in the construction of apparatus for navigating the air. I have heard rumors of at least five inventors at work on large machines, but each of them is trying to keep the matter dark, and, therefore, what few facts I have gleaned must be kept to myself for the present. On a future occasion, however, I shall hope to be able to send some description of them. So much, then, as regards flying machines, or that system known in France as the "heavier-than-air" type. This term, it seems to me, is not a happy one. Many machines have been suggested and even tried, to-wit, the latest of M. Santos-Dumont's, which are heavier than the air they displace, and yet which include a large gas balloon. I suggest as simpler and more explanatory the term "gasless" for those machines which rise in the air solely by the aid of propelling machinery.

Gas-filled airships are not much in favor in England, and there is probably not a specimen, in working order, to be found in the country.

Ballooning, pure and simple, forms a different subject and is one in which great strides have been made of late. The strides, however, have been rather in the number of ascents and in the increase of amateur aeronauts than in any technical improvements in the apparatus or methods. "Balloon parties" at country houses have become the rage (in a very limited sphere, I admit). I was staying lately with a friend, where there were ten guests, and three balloons went up, taking all the house party. Then we have had some interesting contests. The "Harbord Cup," presented by the H'on. Mrs. Assheton Harbord, drew ten balloons to the starting point at Ranelagh (near London). A point, Goring railway station, was decided upon by the Committee just before the start, as winning post. This was over 40 miles distant, yet three out of the ten starters managed to descend within a few hundred yards of the point selected. A contest which is likely to prove still more interesting, is the "Hedges Butler" cup, which is to be competed for on June 29. This prize is to be awarded to the owner of the balloon which makes the longest voyage on that day. But we in England are so very dependent on climatic conditions that it becomes very doubtful if the race will be a success. Not only is it as likely as not to be blowing strongly, but our prevailing winds, westerly and southwesterly, soon carry one from London to the North Sea and a run of 60 to 70 miles is the most that can then be hoped for.

A. M. OF A.'S GERMAN CORRESPONDENT.

Dr. Hermann Stade, Member of the Royal Meteorological Institute of Germany and Secretary of the Deutscher Luftschiffer-Yerband, will contribute a monthly article to this magazine. In the August issue Dr. Stade will write upon the "Status of the Aeronautical Science in Germany."

WINGS MORE EFFICIENT THAN SCREWS.

Several special claims are made by Mr. John Spies for the airship wings be has designed. He has been experimenting for over forty years, and he thus expounds the fundamental principles which have guided him in all his experiments:—"That a successful airship must be 'heavier than air' was one, that the machine must be 'rigid' was another, and that it must be in a condition to rise from the ground by its own power was the third. As my teachers in all these endeavors, I consulted birds in their actions and constructions. Not only birds, but other living creatures also came into my observations. None of them could 'fly' without their wings, and it became firmly settled in my mind that in wings was contained the mystery and solution of flying.

"To make such as would elevate and propel was the great object of all my experiments. I have made uncounted numbers of wings, singles and pairs, of all shapes and sizes. It was an easy matter to get such as would elevate, but to make them also propelling devices was something that puzzled and baffled me over and over again. Often I was near losing hope of ever getting to that point, but still kept on, and at last success crowned my perseverance.

"I can now show to any interested person wings that will do exactly what those of a bird perform. They will with every stroke, up or down, elevate and propel, but, in reality, the downstroke is the lifting and the upstroke the propelling one, the latter with great force. Actual experiments with a s H. P. gasoline motor, the wings measuring nl/2 ft. in length by 7 ft. across at their widest part, made in five sections, gave proof positive that they will lift 100 lb. and

more, and I know now that in the use of wings is contained the solution of the great problem of aerial navigation.

"A pair of wings properly constructed and driven by a 10 H. P. motor have greater propelling force than a screw propeller driven by a 50 H. P. motor. Of all these points I have proof, and will now go before the public to demonstrate the truth of assertions."

The model wings illustrated are 10 ft. long, lightly 'constructed of cane and silk, and were attached to a 5 H. P. motor weighing, with tank, 100 lb. The result, according to Mr. Spies, was that with each downstroke the whole affair was lifted 6 to 8 in. from the ground, thereby demonstrating the lifting capacity of wings of this description. In the upstroke, he declares, four men holding on to the frame felt a distinct strain of forward movement. This, in itself, demonstrates, he maintains, the possibility of their driving an airship in any direction desired.

LONG DISTANCE BALLOON RECORDS.

1836—Longest journey starting from England by balloon. Made by Green, Halland and Mason, who crossed to Nassau, 500 miles. Time, 18 hours.

1859—Longest trip in America. Made by John Wise, who travelled from St. Louis to Henderson, N. Y., 1,150 miles. Time, 19 2-3 hours. This was his four hundred and sixty-first voyage.

1870—During the siege of Paris an aeronaut reached Norway, 1,000 miles. Time, 15 hours.

1900—Henry de la Vaulx barely made the world's record, held up to this time by John Wise, by travelling from Paris to the Russian border, 1,200 miles. Time, 35M hours.

1906—Two German aeronauts hold the record of 52 hours in the air.

SCHOOLS OF INSTRUCTION IN AERONAUTICS ESTABLISHED IN GERMANY AND FRANCE.

On Ma}' 1, 1907, a school was opened at Chemnitz for theoretical and practical training in the construction and management of airships. The director. Herr Paul Spiegel, is a man of exceptional ability and of broad experience in ever}' phase of balloon construction and management. He has made over 600 ascents. The tuition for a year's course has been fixed at $149, payable in monthly instalments. Examination will be held at the close of the course, April 30, and certificates of proficiency will be given the graduates. The training will be confined almost exclusively to the field of balloon construction and operation.

In France there is no actual "school" for training aeronauts in which a definite course is pursued. Such practice and instruction in aerostation as is offered is provided by the clubs and by the Government in connection with the military service. In Paris there are four important aeronautical societies or ballooning clubs, and five similar organizations elsewhere in France. These clubs were created for the promotion and practice of ballooning as a sport as well as for scientific study and experiment. In some of these young men are given practical training, taught the theory and construction and use of balloons, their proper care and navigation.

If the students acquire a certain proficiency and pass a prescribed examination, they are permitted, when drawn for military service, to enter the Bataillon d'Aerostiers, established in the old zoological garden located between Versailles and St. Cyr. The post is under the control of a commandant and the men are taught and practice the handling and care of the

Government balloons, of which there arc several of a capacity of less than 900 cubic metres.

The second and more important institution of this kind in France is known as the "Establishment Central du Materiel de l'Aerostation Militaire," at Chalais-Meudon, midway between Paris and Versailles. It has been in existence nearly a hundred years, and is divided into two general departments-—the factory where the balloons and equipment are made and the department of tests and experiments. There is no definite course of instruction. It was there that Colonel Renard twenty-three years ago built and experimented with "La France." the first dirigible balloon.

AERONAUTIQUE CLUB DE FRANCE.

By Monsieur J. Sauniere, President.

The Exhibition of small model aeroplanes, which took place under the auspices of the Section d'Aviation of the Aeronautique Club de France on June 9th at the Galerie des Machines, brought together sixteen competitors with twenty exhibits entered, of which fifteen apparati were actually presented by the following: Messrs. Par-tiot, Budin, Paulhan, Audiguey, Des-cognier, Fourgeaud, Ballandier, Bu-guiere, Henry, Razet and Queffeleant.

The best flights were obtained by the Langley type aeroplanes of Messrs. Budin and Paulhan. The jury, which was composed of Messrs. Archdeacon, Captain Ferber and G. Voisin, awarded them two First Prizes, silver medals, the apparati being similar. Bronze medals were awarded to Messrs. Audiguey and Buguet for the mechanical work on their models.

We can announce another trial in the near future, for which M. Archdeacon has offered a prize.

The Directors of the Aeronautique Club de France after having admitted twenty-one members, confirmed the decision of the Sports Committee relative to the contest of the 26th of May, awarding First Prize to M. Lassagne, Second Prize to M. Cormier and Third Prize to M. Vernanchet.

It has been decided to put gas at the disposal of members at the price of 130 francs per 1,000 cubic meters and to grant subsidies to pilots representing the A. C. D. F. in national and international races.

The Section d'Aviation is making plans for the organization of a great international contest for small model aeroplanes, with and without motors, for which numerous prizes will be offered.

NOTES.

A visit to the balloon factory oi Mr. Stevens the other day was rather surprising. No less than eleven balloons were found, either completed or in course of construction. One of 80,000 cubic feet capacity is for the United States Government. Mr. J. C. McCoy, one of the representatives of America in the Gordon-Bennett Race this year, is having one built of 36,000 cubic feet. Another of 60,000 cubic feet goes to a Mr. Baxter, in Florida. Still another goes to far-off Johannesburg, South Africa. Mr. Elmer Van Ranken, of Gloversville, X. V., is having an airship built which will contain 9,500 cubic feet of hydrogen. Two captive balloons have gone to an enterprising couple of young men at Norfolk, who are operating in a park of their own just outside the Jamestown Exposition. The other purchasers are: Oscar Ilendler, James II. Hare, Joseph Cali and William Thaller.

The Aero Club of Belgium will hold an international balloon contest for distance on September 15th, at Brussels. Entries are invited, and prospective contestants are asked to get their applications in as soon as possible.

Dr. Julian P. Thomas has practically completed the alterations which he has been making to the dirigible balloon which he purchased from Major C. J. S. Miller last year. The envelope has been lengthened considerably, and an

entirely new frame work has been constructed.

Prof. Otto Luyties, an engineer who was associated with Prof. Wood of John Hopkins University in his aeronautical experiments, tested out his flying machine on June 15th, but met with a slight accident. In being pulled along by an automobile, the machine fell with such force as to 'smash the front .wheel supporting the framework and the propeller.

Percy F. Megargle and George T. Tomlinson are planning to construct an airship with which to make flights at the Jamestown Exposition. Mr. Tomlinson announces his intention of beating Lieutenant Lahm's record of 402 miles.

Some idea of the interest in this country in the dirigible balloon may be gained from the fact that, in addition to a number of balloons, seven airships are in course of construction at the "balloon farm" of Mr. Carl E. Myers.

The illustration is that of the "King-Fisher," the invention of Mr. Jacob Fisher, of Columbus, O. The envelope is 74 feet long, 22 feet in diameter and contains 14,000 cubic feet of hydrogen, the lifting capacity being 900 pounds. The propeller blades are adjustable to various angles and are driven by two light motors whose fly-wheels act as friction discs to drive the propeller fast or slow. Situated on either side of the car are two other screws having blades that furl at any desired portion of a revolution and open to drive the ship up or down, forward or backward, to right or left, as may be desired, and at varying speeds. It is claimed that this airship has remarkable equipoise.

AERONAUTICAL MOTORS.

It is intended to publish in each number a description of the various light motors now on the market which are adapted for use in dirigible balloons and heavier-than-air machines-

CURTISS MOTORS.

The G. H. Curtiss Manufacturing Co., Hammondsport, X. Y., foresaw the approaching demand for light and powerful motors and two years ago began to devote a great deal of attention and study to this type of engine.

Having already developed their cycle motors to a high degree of efficiency, they began to experiment with multi-cylinder engines until they brought their present line of engines to the same high standard^

These motors range from i to 8 cylinder and from 3 to 100 H. P. They have found that the most practical design of motor for aeronautical work is the S-cylinder, the cylinders being set at an angle of 90 degrees. The power from such an engine is constant, each explosion stroke commencing when the preceding one is but half over.

A Cuitiss Kighl--ylin<ter Molor.

A 100 11. P. motor now being built will weigh less than 3 pounds to the horsepower. The hollow crank shafts are made of chrome nickel steel. All bearings are ground to size and the boxings are made of a special alloy which is very light and at the same

time extremely strong and durable The cylinders, pistons and rings are ground to size and are interchangeable. All bolts and studs are made of a special grade of nickel steel,

while the aluminum crank case is also made of a special alloy. The

ignition is effected by the use of a single jump spark coil and a distributor attached to the commutator. This system is so efficient that only four small dry cells are necessary. The lubrication is by the splash system with two sight feed oilers supplying oil constantly to the case from which compression is relieved through the hollow shaft.

Corporal Edward Ward and Private Joseph E. Barrett have been assigned by the Commander at Fort Wood to the balloon workshop of A. Leo Stevens to study the various processes in the manufacture of the balloons.

Russell E. Gardner, a member of the Aero Club of St. Louis, has recently purchased from Campbell & Honeywell the old balloon "Mars" and has rechristened it at a recent ascent the "St. Louis."

The Real Aero Club de Espana has ordered three balloons from Surcorf for this year's Gordon-Bennett.

CHRONOLOGY OF RECENT EVENTS

May 20. First race of the season for the Aero Club of France, in which fourteen balloons started.

May 24. Walter Wellman leaves London for Spitzbergen. The start for the pole will be made between July 20 and August 10.

May 25. Ten balloons race from Ranelagh for the Harbord Cup, awarded to the competitor descending nearest to a predetermined spot. Won by Mr. Frank H. Butler in his balloon "Dolce Far Niente," making a landing within 100 yards from the mark.

May 30. Lincoln Beachey makes a long flight in his dirigible, near Boston, Mass.

May 19. Balloon race at Mannheim. Nine balloons started for H. R. H., the Grand Duke of Baden's cup and other prizes. Won by Capt. H. Von Abercron, landing after a trip of 263 miles, in France.

June 2. A military balloon in charge of Captain Olivelli is struck by lightning at an elevation of 1300 feet, during an ascent at Rome and set on fire, resulting in the death of the aeronaut. This is the first balloon on record to have been struck by lightning. The cause is ascribed to its coating of metallic paint.

June 2. Ten balloons make ascents at Barcelona, Spain.

June 2. Dr. Alexander Graham Bell arrives in Halifax to begin work on his tetrahedral kite, which is to be equipped with a 15-horsepower motor weighing 120 pounds.

June 6. Beachey flies his airship at Boston. Owing to engine trouble the balloon was carried over the harbor. Repairs to the engine, while drifting with the wind, enabled the pilot to regain shore in safety.

June 7. Eugene Goudet makes a flight in his dirigible at Jamestown Exposition. Owing to some trouble the balloon dived into the waters of Hampton Roads, striking the warship "Alabama," whose sailors rescued the aeronaut.

June 7. Dowager Queen Margherita, of Italy, offers a cup for the successful balloon passage of the Alps.

June 8. A. Roy Knabeushue makes an ascent in his dirigible at Hartford, Conn. At the height of 1000 feet over a river, the gas suddenly condensed, bringing the ship down with great rapidity. Knabeushue disappeared beneath the water, but succeeded in disentangling himself. The ship was badly damaged.

June 8. Santos-Dumont attempts flight with his combination dirigible balloon and aeroplane. In starting, the propeller struck the ground and the balloon collapsed.

June 9. Dedication at Jamestown Exposition of the first building at any exposition in the history of the world devoted exclusively to the aerial branch of transportation.

June 12. Nine balloons race from St. Cloud.

June 20. Leon Beachey made a very successful flight in his airship at South Beach, Staten Island. Various maneouvres were executed and a gentle landing made at the conclusion of the trial. The ship has but a 10 horsepower engine, which is to be regretted.

June 25. Lincoln Beachey in his airship makes a trip of eighteen miles measured in a straight line, from South Beach, over New York Bay to Hell Gate, landing once in Battery Park at the lower end of Manhattan Island. The crowd damaged his propeller in making this stop, but after hurried repairs the trip resumed, passing over the sky-scrapers of Lower New York and up the Island. The broken propeller began to give trouble and the aeronaut shut off the engine and allowed the balloon to drift, with intention of making a final landing on Ward's Island. A sudden gust of wind seized the little bag when over Hell Gate and whirled it into the water, the envelope striking a buoy and being torn. Difficulty was encountered after leaving Battery Park. There was considerable wind pressure on the side of the envelope which blew the ship to the eastward, despite the work of the motor. The envelope has a capacity of 6500 cubic feet and the motor is 10 horse power. The entire ship weighs but 250 pounds.

June 27. Captain Thomas S. Baldwin makes the first flight in his new airship "Twentieth Century" at Hammonds-port in the presence of War Department officials. The trip lasted thirty minutes and was most successful. The envelope measures 52 feet in length and 17 feet in diameter and contains 9000 cubic feet of hydrogen. A 16 horse-power Curtiss motor drives the two screw propellers. Captain Baldwin will make an ascent in August for the Aero Club of America.

NEW AERONAUTIC BOOK.

The Aero Club of America has published an exceedingly interesting book, in which technical papers appear side by side with accounts of famous balloon trips and prophesies for the future.

Among the contributors of scientific articles are, the Messrs. Wright, A. M. Herring, Octave Chanute, Prof. W. H. Pickering, Dr. Alexander Graham Bell, Dr. Oliver L. Fassig and Prof. David Todd.

To those who have forgotten events a half century ago, Prof. Lowe's story of his balloon trip from Cincinnati, Ohio, to Unionville, South Carolina, during the Civil War, will prove of exceptional interest. Lieutenant Lahm writes the story of his famous flight from Paris to Scotland in last year's Gordon-Bennett Race.

The book contains twenty-three chapters, in addition to a preface and introduction. Sixty-five illustrations add considerable to its attractiveness.

Each member of the Club is entitled to a copy of this book free of charge through a special arrangement with the publishers, Doubleday-Page & Co.

Credit must be given to Messrs. Post, Hammer and Ludlow for their labors in making the book an accomplished fact.

RARE AERONAUTIC BOOKS FOR SALE

This magazine will publish each month a list of such rare books relating to aeronautics as it is able to secure.

If you desire any of those listed, kindly send check with your order for the amount stated. Should the book ordered be sold previous to the receipt of your order, the money will be promptly returned.

Astra Castra (Hatton Turner). Royal 4to, cloth, gilt top, uncut, London, 1865............$15.00

By Land and Sky (John M. Bacon). Four illustrations. 8vo, cloth, uncut, London, 1901$ 2.50

A Balloon Ascension at Midnight (G. E. Hall). Plates by Gordon Ross. Svo, boards, uncut. San Francisco, 1902. Limited edition .................. 2.50

An Account of the First Aerial Voyage in England (Vincent Lunardi). Portrait of Lunardi by Bartolozzi and plates. Crown Svo, half calf, uncut, London, 1784. Autograph "V.

Lunardi" on fly-leaf......... 15.00

Travels in Space (G. S. Valentine and F. L. Tomlinson). Introduction by Sir Hiram Maxim, 61 plates. Svo, cloth, London, 1902............... 2.00

My Airships (Santos-Dumont). Illustrated. Crown Svo, cloth, uncut, London, 1904......... 2.50

Proceedings of the International Conference on Aerial Navigation, Chicago, August 1-4, 1893. Plates, Svo, cloth, New York, 1S94 ................. 2.50

La Machine Animale (J. Marey). Illustrated, Svo, cloth, Paris, 1S78, French ................ 1.25

Experiments in Aerodynamics

(S. P. Langley). Illustrated,

4to, cloth, Washington, 1891.. 2.00

Five Weeks in a Balloon (Wm. Lackland). 12 mo., cloth, N. Y., 1869.....•................ 2.50

Balloons, Airships and Flying Machines (Gertrude Bacon). 12 mo., cloth, N. Y., 1905 .... 1.00

Balloon Travels (Robert Merry).

12 mo., cloth, N. Y., 1865 .... 2.50

Conquest of the Air (John Alexander). 12 mo., cloth, London,

Wonderful Balloon Ascents (F.

Marion). 12 mo., half leather,

N. Y., 1S71.................. 2.50

Travels in the Air (James Glai-

sher). 8vo., cloth, Phila., 1871. 7.50

Crotchets in the Air (John Poole). 12 mo., cloth, London, 1S38 ......................... 5-00

The Motor and its Chief Application, Wings, Propulsion in Air, etc. (Com. of Pat., 1849). Svo., paper .................. 1.50

PRIEST INVENTOR OF NOVEL AIR-SHIP.

The REVEREND DR. JOSEPH AULINO, Knight of Honor, Author, Dr. of Divinity, Prof, of Latin and Greek, in the Italian Universities for eighteen years, contends that universal peace is an established institution by reason of his novel invention. He claims that the force of wind will draw the balloon into it. The Reverend is with-holding details until his patent rights are fully protected in all of the countries of the world. After twenty years of study and experimenting he has at last perfected an airship which he claims is the sole solution of the Aerial Navigation problem. His plan is to have the driving and steering apparatus attached to the gas-bag instead of the car structure but with full control of the machinery centered in the car. It is by the application of the power of recoil that the balloon is to be controlled. The harder the wind blows, the better the balloon can be guided by it.

A hundred thousand dollar corporation has been formed for the manufacturing of the Reverend's device, at the head of which corporation Reverend Dr. Joseph Aulino takes place.

The classification of the stock is exclusively common. A demonstration of his device is promised within a short time. The secretary of this company is Mr. Edward Fischer Brown, of 150 Nassau Street, New York City. Many years of Mr. Brown's career have been devoted to the study of aerial navigation. He is a poet well known on the East Side as well as an ardent advocate of Zionism. He has been connected as secretary and treasurer of the Liberal Emmigration League, a philanthropic institution and has assisted many hundreds of emigrants in entering the port of New York. As soon as the patent rights will be protected, photographs and detailed data will appear iu this publication.

CASPAR WHITNEY, IN "OUTING".

With the loyal object of hanging upon the Pole the beautiful Aero Club Hot ""aS with which, at a New York love feast recently he was presented, Walter Wellman is preparing to float northward. Mr. Wellman is of a hopeful nature; with a sand bag or so, a few personal belongings, and, let us pray, something material to cheer the journey through the light, hot air, he will take seat beneath his huge gas bag and trust for the best. Since he will have very little more control over the direction of his balloon than either you or I sitting comfortably on earth, it is well his nature is thus hopeful.

To the less spectacular, if more practical, mind a trip across the Atlantic or even across New Jersey might suggest itself—especially since chance of reaching the Pole would seem to be equally as good from that starting point as Spitzbergen. Of course there might not be so much advertising in it—and we should like to see Mr. Wellman get all the notoriety he courts—and return to enjoy it.

For the rest, we cannot take Wellman and his gas bag seriously; aerial navigation has not yet advanced beyond the mere toy stage with the longest of its flights still within eye range. As for sending up a balloon to be blown whither the wind listeth—well, I hope Wellman is provided with a stout drag and a long rope.

Perhaps Mr. Whitney has not heard of the Wright Brothers whose flight of over twenty-four miles in a heavier-than-air machine is a matter of record. We would consider this distance beyond ordinary "eye range."

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TH\T THE PROBLEM OF AERIAL NAVIGATION HAS AT LAST BEEN SOLVED

is announced by such authorities as Dr. Alexander Graham Bell; and this book gives for the first time an authentic summary of the /^ present state of Aeronautics.

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"Major Moedebeck is already too well-known to stand in need of any introduction ; for many years past he has been one of the leading spirits in German Aeronautical circles. It was in no slight degree due to his efforts that several of the German Aero Clubs, and in particular the Aero Club of the upper Rhine, were founded ; for years he edited the journal of the Berlin Club, previously to founding the Illustrierte Aeronautische Mitteilungen, at Strassburg. The present book serves as an introduction to the study of the history of Aeronautics ; and as such we have rarely met with a more lucid and clearly stated résumé of one of the most fascinating pages in the world's history. The future of aerial locomotion, again, is touched upon in the final chapters of this really valuable and eminently sane book ; not the least of the merits of which consists of the splendid series of illustrations and photographs, for the greater part taken by the author himself."—Batlooning and Aeronautics.

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FOREIGN AERONAUTICAL JOURNALS.

IV AERO NA UTI QUE Official Publication of the Aeronautique Club de France Subscription, Quarterly 58 Rue J. J. Rousseau,

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ILLUSTRIERTE AERONAUTISCHE MITTEILUNGEN Official Organ of the Deutscher Luftschiffer-Verband Subscription, Monthly Karl J. Trubner,

17 francs. Strasbourg (Alsace)

VOSDOUCHOPLAVATEL Subscription, ("The Aeronaut") Ertelew 18,

15 francs. St. Petersburg.

L'AERO-REVUE Bulletin of the Aero Club du Rhone and Sud-Est Subscription, Monthly 4 Rue St-Gervais,

9 francs. Montplaisir-Lyon.

BOLLETTINO DELLA SOCIETA AERONAUTICA ITALIANA Subscription, Monthly 70 Via della Muratte,

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LA REVUE DE L'AVIATION Subscription, Monthly 104 Rue de Richelieu,

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L'AEROSTATION

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AERONAUTICAL JOURNAL Official Organ of the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain

Quarterly 27 Chancery Lane,

London, W. C.

THE CAR ILLUSTRATED A weekly Journal of Travel By Land, Sea and Air

Subscription, 1/16/ro 168 Picadilly, London, W.

L'AEROPHILE Official Bulletin of the Aero Club of France Subscription, Monthly 84 Faubourg St. Honore,

12 francs. Paris.

BULLETIN OF THE AERO CLUB SUISSE Subscription, Bi-monthly Imprimerie Haller,

5 francs. Berne.

BALLOONING AND AERONAUTICS Subscription, Monthly 45 Grafton St.,

18 shillings. Tottenham Ct. Rd., London, W.

LA CONQUETE DE L'AIR Official Organ of the Aero Club de Belgique Subscription, Bi-monthly 214 Rue Royale,

4.50 francs. - Brussels.

WIENER LUFTSCHIFFER-ZEITUNG Official Organ of the Wiener Aero Club Subscription, 12 kronen.. Monthly 1 St. Aunahof, Vienna.

L'AERONAUTE Official Organ of Societe Francais de Navigation Aerienne Subscription, 8 francs. Monthly 19 Rue Blanche, Paris.

Our Aero Club—Providence Balloon Race—Light Engines—Gordon Bennett International Aeronautic Cup Race—Manageable Balloons—The Scientific American Flying Machine Trophy—Balloon Voyages —Aero Club of America—Aero Club of the United Kingdom—Aero Club de Belgique—Aero Club de France*—Aéronautique Club de France—The Dirigible Balloon—Pittsfield Gas—The New Bleriot Machine—Chronology of Principal Recent Events—News Notes—The Highest Ascent by Man—New Aeronautic Books—Future Events—Aeronautics in the Current Magazines—Aeronautical Patents Issued —Rare Aeronautic Books—B r i t i s h Aeronautical Institute—Henry Farman— Captain Ferber.

LA

VOL. I.

AUGUST, 1907.

PRICE, TWENTY-FIVE CENTS

No. 2.

Published by

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New York, N. Y, U. S. A.

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is Headquarters for papers of EVERY DESCRIPTION, Cards, Boards, Envelopes, Pads, Twines, etc., and operates plants for Ruling, Cutting, Padding, Punching, Perforating as well as Envelope making. It desires at this time however, to call your particular attention to several of its most popular brands of writing papers suitable for office stationery.

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American magazine of Aeronautics,

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY

AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERONAUTICS CO.

Ernest LaRue Jones, Editor and Owner 142 West Sixty-Fifth Street, New York, U. S. A.

Vol. I August 1907 No. 2

American Magazine of Aeronautics is issued promptly on the tenth of each month. It aims to furnish the latest and most authorilative information on all matters relating to Aeronautics. Contributions are solicited.

SUBSCRIPTION RATES. One year, $3.00; payable always in advance.

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Important.—Foreign money orders received in the United States do not bear the name of the sender. Foreign subscribers should be careful to send letters of advice at same time remittance is sent to insure proper credit.

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our aero club.

The Aero Club of America was formed by several sportsmen, expcri-mentors and scientists, for the laudable purpose of advancing the development of the science of aeronautics, for the encouragement and organization of aerial excursions, conferences, expositions, congresses and the conduct of meets, contests and exhibitions of air-ships, balloons and inventions designed to be propelled through the air.

Has it taken any steps to carry out its avowed purpose? YYe think it has, so far as it has been able under numerous handicaps.

In January, 1906, it held its first exhibition at the 69th Regiment Armory. Considering the limited time in which to secure exhibits, the affair was a pronounced success. A goodly number of exhibits were brought to light and people were awakened to the importance of aeronautics and the actual work that had been previously done by experimentors.

During the Summer of 1906 a few balloon trips were made, thirty-three, in fact, by members of the club from different points. These were enjoyable trips, as most of the members making them were novices, and they did nut consider the inconveniences to which they were put in order to make these flights.

In September renewed interest was manifested in ballooning because of the winning of the Gordon-Bennett International Aeronautic Cup by the Aero Club of America, through its representative. Lieutenant Frank F. Lahm, on the occasion of the first contest for this cup. This success brought to America the handsome trophy for competition this year, among the aero clubs of the world, at St. Louis.

The second exhibition of the Club was held in December at Grand Central Palace, and was even more of a success than the previous one.

This year a number of flights have already been made, and we are now looking forward to the Congress at Jamestown Exposition and the Gordon-Bennett in the Fall.

What the Club most needs is a park, situated so that good gas can be obtained, where members may make flights. This should be not over thirty miles from New York, with many trains each way. A member could then telephone to the grounds in the early morning and have his balloon all ready for him when he arrives in the afternoon. An aeronaut could thus go on any day on which the wind was favorable and would not have to go off a hundred miles and wait for favorable winds, wasting his time on the hotel verandah, as has been the experience in many cases heretofore.

In France, in the case of at least two clubs, all the resources of the society are expended wholly in providing ascensions for its members, the number of which during any given year being governed by the condition of the treasury. Each ascension is in charge of a competent pilot designated by the president from among the members. The only requisite is that a member shall have been of six months' standing and pay to the treasurer a number of days before the ascension 20 francs ($4) as his contribution to the expenses of inflation and return of material after the descent. If a trip of over 50 kilometres is made, the members who have made the ascension are required to pay jointly the expenses of return for the distance exceeding the prescribed 50 kilometres.

It does seem reasonable to suppose that our Government might pay a share of the expenses of each trip made by a member, in return for which the member .would agree to furnish certain information to the Weather Bureau The Government does now send up small balloons for the purpose of making meteorological records and for studying the currents of air. If the same amount of money now expended by the Government in this way were applied to the expenses of members' flights, the Weather Bureau would secure much more complete information at the same cost. More flights woidd be made and more records obtained. There would then be an inducement to members to purchase balloons. The expense now prohibits many. Of course, this arrangement would, perhaps, work a hardship on some members in demanding these complicated records, but such work by the member would be of considerable value to him in future trips. There are many who attribute Lieutenant Lahm's victory to the knowledge and experience of Major Hersey, of the Weather Bureau, who accompanied him. One can hardly imagine but that the experience gained in collecting these records would be of value to those trying for long trips. When the Aero Club instituted its ascents the Weather Bureau asked for copies of the records kept by the aeronauts and same have been furnished to some extent. These records, however, have merely shown the altitude reached and the direction of the winds, which information the Bureau's own stations, of course, furnished.

Land could be secured for little or nothing at many towns in New Jersey and along the Hudson River. The matter of securing the proper gas is the greater question. There is also the matter of expense in erecting suitable buildings for the housing of members' aerostats, the club building, the cost of maintenance, a superintendent and helpers. It might be able to secure the funds by solicitation among the wealthy members of the club, but the better way seems to interest the Government in some such project.

The Balloon Corps of the Army might make this Club Park a sort of station where soldiers could be instructed in ballooning through taking active part in the ascensions of members. Those of the Army studying aeronautics for military purposes could accompany the members and take the necessary records and notes for their own use and for the Weather Bureau on a sharing-of-expense plan.

This magazine would be glad to receive for publication the views of Aero Club members on this subject, with the idea of bringing about the realization of some system whereby ballooning would become more popular as a sport and as a means of acquiring scientific knowledge.

IMPORTANT NOTICE.

We have received numerous letters of inquiry from people who subscribed last year to the "Aeronautical News," of which the editor, Carl Dienstbach, issued but one number. We wish to state that this publication is in no way connected witli the above-mentioned journal, and we have not assumed its contracts. Had there been any possibility of our not continuing to publish the American Magazine of Aeronautics we would have promised our subscribers in the initial number to refund all subscriptions paid in case of discontinuance of publication.

PROVIDENCE BALLOON RACE.

We regret to announce the abandonment of the proposed balloon race at Providence. R. 1., on July 31.

The City of Providence invited, through its committee, aero club members and others, to participate in a distance contest, proposing to pay all expenses of the entrants, furnish several handsome cups as prizes, and to entertain the aeronauts during their stay. After five entries had been received and all arrangements practically completed the city found that it could not fulfill its promise and was compelled to request the withdrawal of entries. This contest would have been the first of such importance ever held in this country.

A LETTER TO AERONAUTS.

The American Magazine of Aeronautics is very desirous of obtaining accurate and complete records of all balloon and airship flights made in America during each month.

We would appreciate it very much if you would send us such records at the end of every month and we would be very glad to supply you with the blank forms for the purpose upon request.

May we not expect to hear from you?

LIGHT ENGINES By Harry E. Dey.

Perhaps in the future, when the art of flying becomes an every-day event, the need of a light engine will disappear; but at present we have got to get every part down to the limit of lightness, even to training down the operator to a living skeleton. It is best, however, not to be too economical with the wing structure—a break there spells death. With the engine, however, an accident would generally be followed by no more serious consequence than would be the case with an automobile under similar circumstances, unless the landing enforced thereby should be in water, or some other undesirable location.

I do not wish to be understood by the above as favoring weak construction in the engine, but it is unnecessary to calculate the proper strength and then multiply it by ten for good measure.

In designing a light motor our first object should be to avoid all unnecessary parts, and the most important of these will naturally be the water and water cooling system, with its pump, radiator, pipes, jacket, etc.

The high speed of the flying machine is very favorable for air cooling; the practically steady load, however, is not. Perhaps the strong cool draft due to the former will balance the constant full load which the automobile air cooled motor does not h,ave to meet.

For cooling purposes, it is desirable to have as large an amount of cooling surface as possible. My method of accomplishing this has been to use steel tubing for the cylinders, of very heavy guage, and rotate them before a gang of milling cutters so as to cut deep grooves around the tube, the cutters being about one-sixteenth inch thick, and spaces about one-thirty second inch apart; thus providing flanges one-thirty second inch thick and spaced one-sixteenth inch apart, of any desired depth. One-half inch for the latter is ample. The remaining thickness of the cylinder Avail need not be over one-sixteenth inch for cylinders up to six inches bore. The heads may be similarly treated, provided they are not made of too complicated a design; if made of the common side valve construction they may be rotated about two centers, the main center and the valve center.

The side valve construction, however, is not desirable as it gives too large an absorbing surface for the heat, the object in designing being to have the minimum surface possible on the interior, and the maximum attainable on the outside. For this same reason a long stroke is desirable, for even with the longest stroke that is practical the explosion takes place in a very flat compartment, which necessarily gives a very large amount of surface relative to the cubical contents. Of course this flatness lengthens out until the dimensions are reversed as the piston travels along, but this latter condition is only reached after the charge has lost a very large amount of its heat, due to the expansion and work accomplished.

It is common practice in air cooled designing to use a very low compression compared with water cooled practice. The compression spare is made large in proportion to the stroke and mechanical inlet valves are used so as to obtain atmospheric pressure, as near as possible, at the end of the suction stroke. I do not .approve of this method, however. I believe that the better plan is to provide a very small compression space and then throttle the incoming charge by means of a strong spring governing the automatic inlet valve. This restricts the charge to the desired amount to give the proper

AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERONAUTICS

compression in the small compression space. This compression may be carried considerably higher thjan in the other type, for it is reached so much later in the stroke that it does not have time to heat and pre-ignite, and, also, the pressure drops so quickly after the piston begins to travel downwards that the heating is not nearly so severe; especially on the exhaust valves, as the pressure has nearly reached zero by the time they 'are opened, and low pressure means low heat.

The economy of this system is undeniable, as it obtains a much greater expansion from the explosion, accomplishing what the compound engine was designed to do, but without all the complications, and port and friction losses of the latter. Besides the ladded economy due to using higher compression.

The tight crank case should hardly be necessary for our work. "Up above the world so high" we should not be bothered with the dust, and an open crank gives not only lighter construction, but also greatly assists in cooling, as it allows the cool fresh air to get up inside the cylinder and around the piston. In this case, of course, direct lubrication has to be provided, as the splash system is out of the question. The crank shaft cylinders and cam shaft supports may be of skeleton construction, while the crank shaft should be of a very liberal diameter, bored out hollow and mounted upon ball bearings. The cam shaft should "also be mounted in a similar manner. These shafts should be made of chrome nickel steel.

The cylinders may preferably be made of nickel steel of about thirty per cent, alloy, which is rust proof, and also has the reputation of being a good anti-friction metal. It certainly stands heat well, as is proven by its wide use for valves, thirty-five per cent, composition being usually used for that purpose.

Many engineers at the present time are designing their engines for this purpose with staggered cylinders set in V form, relative to one another. This has an advantage for air cooling, where the engine is set fore and aft, as it allows the air to circulate around the cylinders better, the position being a very bad one for those that are set directly behind one another. The V form also has the advantage of shortening the length of the engine, and consequently saving slightly in weight. I should prefer, however, a typical six cylinder engine design, as it is better balanced, and more symmetrical in every way, and if there is anything I do dislike, it is an unsymmetrical piece of mechanism. The disadvantage in cooling may be overcome by setting the engine crosswise, and gearing to a transverse shaft by means of bevel gears located at the center of the crankshaft; or, the engine may be placed in the usual transverse manner and a scoop arranged on one side to catch the air from the front and cause it to strike the cylinders roadside on. This would probably be the better of the two methods.

The lightest of all methods, however, is the revolving cylinder type, the cylinders act as a flywheel, and their cooling properties are ideal. This type of engine has been used to same extent on automobiles, one company have had it upon the market for several years. It appears to me, however, somewhat on the order of freaks, although I must confess that I cannot put up a very strong argument against it.

With a six cylinder engine the propellers will probably take the place of a flywheel, thus lightening the engine to that extent.

The connecting rods should be made of rolled material, chrome-nickel or vanadium steel, being blanked out from heavy sheet metal, the central portion being given an I beam section by milling out a wide shallow groove on each side. The lower end should be designed to retain a ball bearing, while the

upper end should be adapted to retain a bronze bearing for the wrist pin. Both ends may be fitted up in a thoroughly mechanical manner, although at first sight it might not appear so.

The piston and rings should be made of cast iron, as it is the most satisfactory metal for this purpose. This, as well as the connecting rod, should be made up to the limit of lightness, for, to a large extent, the speed of the engine is limited by the weight of these parts, and "speed is power." As the motion is reciprocating and has to be reversed twice during every revolution, this gives a very hard blow each time upon the crank pin and wrist pin bearings. This is another argument in favor of the long stroke engine, as the blows are proportionately less frequent, but are also lighter as there is a longer travel during which the change of motion is made.

One thousand feet per minute is considered a conservative piston speed in automobile practice. This probably should not be exceeded in aerial work, for the latter is so much more severe, full load and highest speed being kept on continuously. This factor should be kept fully in mind when designing an engine for this purpose, and the engine should consequently be rated more conservatively.

The valves should be located in the top of the heads. Each cylinder having one large mechanically operated one for the exhaust, and two, or more, small automatic ones for the intake. The two small automatic valves are quicker operating and can be more conveniently located than a single large one. With the latter, the head has to be made of considerable larger diameter than the cylinder especially to accommodate it, unless they are placed at an angle.

I should preferably use the jump spark system of ignition with a single coil and distributor, the coil wound for a single cell of storage battery. A cell good for several hours use need not exceed one pound in weight.

Exhaust pipes and muffler may be dispensed with as luxuries for the future generation to adopt.

The carbureter may be made up of sheet metal construction so as to be very light.

GORDON-BENNETT INTERNATIONAL AERONAUTIC CUP RACE,

Owing to difficulty in securing the necessary amount of gas on Saturday, October 19th, the race has been postponed until the following Monday at 3:30 o'clock.

It is not unlikely that the Spanish entry will also be shut out of the race by the action of the Federation, leaving but three foreign clubs to compete: Aero Club of France, Deutscher Luftschiffer-Verband and Aero Club of the United Kingdom. M. Mix and M. Chas. Levee will be the companions of pilots Le Blanc and Gasnier respectively, composing the French team. Mr. Griffith Brewer will be the only representative of the English Club. If the Spanish entry is not admitted there will be but nine balloons in the race.

Just after the Gordon-Bennett race the St. Louis Club will hold a series of contests for dirigibles, and "gasless" machines if same can be secured. They plan at present to offer $5,000 in all, divided as follows: $2,500 to the dirigible or gasless machine covering a six-mile course in the best manner in 30 minutes; $1,250 to the dirigible which makes the best showing; $1,250 to the gasless machine giving the best account of itself. Should none of the competitors win first prize of $2,500, it will be divided equally between the dirigibles and gasless machines, each class receiving $1,250.

MANAGEABLE BALLOONS.

Until the year 1903 the use of manageable balloons was confined to scientific men and for the purpose of sport, but since then they have been found useful for strategical purposes.

The famous French engineer, H. Juilliot, having made several ascents in the balloon "Lebaudy" (constructed by himself) has also proved that they will render valuable assistance in times of war.

In consequence of the success of these experiments the French Government has purchased a similar balloon from the firm Lebaudy Bros, in 1906, to which they have assigned the name "Patric." The firm of Lebaudy Bros, had ere this presented the balloon "Lebaudy" to the Government.

The "Patrie" is somewhat larger and quicker than the "Lebaudy," and particular care has been taken by the builders to bring it up to date with all the latest improvements that their experience has taught them.

The trial trips of the "Patrie" which took place in November, 1906, have fully established the fact that this can be considered the proper type of manageable balloon.

But to return to the "Lebaudy," which has been completely renovated since it made the descent on the 20th of November, 1903, which caused it a little

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damage; this balloon has a volume of 2,950 cubic meters, the diameter at the Maitre-couple being 10.30 meters and its length is 57.75 meters.

The fabric of these balloons consisted at first of two layers of cotton, one of which was painted yellow (yellow being the only color which will withstand the sun's rays) with a sheet of rubber in between. Now, however, another sheet of rubber has been used, same being placed on the inner side of the layer of cotton in order to make it stronger and to protect the fabric from the inroads which impure hydrogen gas makes. This impure gas caused much damage to the fabric which was first used. Since this time, however, the manufacturers have been successful in obtaining pure hydrogen gas in their factory at Moisson.

Great stress should be laid upon the fact that in the four years (1902-1905) no less than 75 ascents were made in the "Lebaudy" without an accident to a single person.

In the ascents made in 1905, one officer at least always accompanied the aeronaut, as also at different times did several Generals and the Minister of War.

In addition to this these balloons have the following advantages:

Their easy management, their ability to withstand all climatic influences, their great carrying capacity, the safety with which ascents can be made, as also the returns to earth, and their usefulness in allowing photographs to be taken from great distances, and for the throwing of explosives.

All these have built up for these balloons an unbroken link of experimental successes and improvements which offer good proof that they can travel a distance of 100 miles around, provided that the natural surroundings offer sufficient protection to render the balloon invisible to the enemy, and that a good watch is kept.

Perhaps it would be advisable in the future to provide special places for these balloons in camp.

The ascents made at Toul (France) have proved that these balloons will play a great part in sieges, viz.: they will be very valuable in making recon-noissances, because they will be able to discover the position of an approaching army, to watch its camp, to obtain photographs of its fortifications and to

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keep the besieged in touch with the outer world. Whether the dropping of explosives from these balloons into the enemy's camp will be successful in effect remains an open question for the present.

On the other hand they are placed at a disadvantage because of their being exposed to the sight of the enemy and to their tendency to break down, but their freedom of motion in a 113- direction would enable them to escape this former danger.

It has not yet been determined to what height these balloons can rise so that the enemy could elevate their guns to a proper angle.

The matter of fact is that the safety of the balloons in reality depends upon the tactics employed by the aeronaut.

But in any case the trials of the "Lebaudy"' as mentioned above fully prove that the balloons can be rendered most valuable in assisting in times of war and it appears to us that in the not very distant future it will be able to establish fleets of these airships, of which "Patrie" ma}' possibly be a foundation.

The Continental Caoutchouc and Gutta Fercha Co. of Hanover, Germany, has the representation for the United States.

THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN FLYING MACHINE TROPHY.

A special committee of the Aero Club of America, appointed for the purpose, has formulated the following provisional rules governing the competition for flying machines of the heavier-than-air type, which will be inaugurated at the Jamestown Exposition on September 14 next.

It is the intention of the Scientific American, in offering this trophy, to have it always open to competition by inventors the world over. Should the trophy be won by the representative of a foreign aeronautical club, this club, if a member of the Federation Aeronautique Internationale, may become the custodian of the trophy; but the future competitions, even if held abroad, shall be carried out under the same rules and conditions used by the Aero Club of America in the competitions held here.

Xext month's issue will contain a photograph of this beautiful trophy, which is now in course of manufacture.

Rules Governing the Competition.

1. This competition will be held annually, and the conditions of the trials will be progressive in character, so as to keep abreast of the state of the art. The first contest will be held at the Jamestown Exposition on September 14, 1907, and all entries for this contest must be made in writing and sent to the secretary of the Aero Club of America, 12 East 42d Street, New York-City, prior to September 1, 1907. The rules governing future contests will be formulated by the contest committee of the Aero Club of America in accordance with the results obtained and the lessons learned in this first contest.

2. All heavier-than-air machines of any type whatever (aeroplanes, helicopters, orthopters, etc.), shall be entitled to compete for the trophy; but all machines carrying a balloon or gas-containing envelope for purposes of support are excluded from the competition.

3. The machine which accomplishes the required flight in the shortest time and with the best display of stability and ease of control, shall be declared the winner. If several machines perform equally well, the committee shall have the right to demand further flights in order to determine which is the best. If no machine makes the required flight on the date set for the contest, the one that subsequently first accomplishes such flight shall be declared the winner, and shall not be entitled to make a further flight until the next year, under the changed conditions of the contest.

4. The flights shall be made in calm air, if possible. If a wind of over 20 miles an hour is blowing, no trial need be made. Aeroplanes may start by running along on wheels on the ground under their own power, but no special track or launching device will be permitted. A smooth, level roadway, or a reasonably smooth, turfed field will be provided from which to make the start. Machines need not fly more than a few feet above the ground, or higher than is necessary to avoid obstacles. They should be capable of being steered both horizontally and vertically, and of alighting without being damaged. If there is a wind blowing, the flights shall be made in such direction as best suits each operator. The start should preferably be made against the wind.

5. The committee shall make arrangements to accurately time and measure all flights, as well as the distance traversed and time taken in starting and stopping. Accurate observations of the speed of the wind and other weather conditions at the time of the flight shall also be made and recorded by the committee. Complete specifications of the competing machines, giving weieht. supporting surface, details of motors and propellers, etc.. together with a description of any performance that the machine has made, shall be

forwarded to the contest committee with the entry or when application is made for a trial.

6. Anyone desirous of making a flight at any subsequent time can arrange for such a test by communicating with the contest committee of the Aero Club of America, at least fourteen days in advance, and asking this committee to appoint a suitable time and place for the trial. If the committee believe the machine to be impractical, it can require the inventor either to prove the incorrectness of such belief by an informal demonstration with the machine itself, or by demonstration in some other satisfactory way which will show that the machine is operative.

7. The first flight shall be for a distance of one kilometer (3,280 feet) in a straight line.

8. After every competition, the name of the winner will be inscribed upon the trophy. If it is won 'three times in different years by any competitor, the trophy will then become his personal property.

BALLOON VOYAGES. By M. Montgolfier.

It is said, with great mistake, that trips in free balloons are dangerous and very expensive. This is not so. It is proven that since the materials of which free spherical balloons 'are made have been perfected, there is now no more danger. Since the great aeronautical display of 1900—since aeronautics have ceased to be the field of acrobats and showmen alone and has become a sport and a scientific mode of investigation, there has not been recorded in France one single accident in free balloons. That is because ascensions to-day are made by enlightened people who have learned technical aeronautics.

The Aeronautique Club de France has greatly helped in this work of popularizing ballooning by its publications, ascensions, fetes, competitions and lectures. This Club has a library, with a reading room, a park for aerostation and one for aviation. By means of small assessments the members have the privilege, in turns, without any expense, of making balloon flights, and, further, they have all the facilities to make as many ascensions as they wish, with the minimum of expense. Every member receives the official journal, La Revue de 1'Aviation. Ladies are allowed to become members of this Club, forming the Ladies' Committee, and have the same privileges as all other members.

Numerous are those who have already experienced the charm and enthusiasm of an excursion in the air and all are unanimous in their declarations of the apparent immobility of the car—there exist no trace of uneasiness. Vertigo is impossible even to sickly people, one does not feel a breath of air, not a movement, nor the sensation of going up or down, not even the one of travelling. The voyager is entirely taken up in admiration, and with the ideal beauty of the landscape. Concerning the uncertainty of landing, of which the profanes speak—it is a fable, for one can land when and where he wishes, and more gently even than in an elevator. In modern ballooning the "dragging" does not exist any more. (On account of the use of the rip-cord.—Ed.) The work of this Club can not be too much encouraged. It is subsidized by the City of Paris and is placed under the patronage of the Minister of Public Instruction. It has not only democraticized aerial excursions in placing them within the reach of all, but has done much in technical researches of the highest interest and value. It has a school where are prepared men for entrance in the First Ingenieur Battallion Balloon Corps, at Versailles. This preparatory school sends out each year a great number of men, well instructed and esteemed by their superiors.

AERO CLUB OF AMERICA.

To Members:

Will yon not kindly send the Club accurate records of all ascensions made in order that our file may be complete? The number of our delegates to the International Congress is directly dependent upon the number of trips made. As a matter of Club interest every one is urgently requested to promptly report their voyages, and as detailed as possible. Blanks will be supplied to. those who have not already received same. AUGUSTUS POST,

Secretary.

New Members:

Frederic W. Lord, President Lord Electric Co., 213 W. 40th St., New York. Dr. J. Wesley Bovee, Physici'an, 815 Conn. Ave., Washington, D. C. Lee S. Bnrridge, President Sun Typewriter Co., 317 Broadway, New York. William Gettinger, Publisher, 51 Nassau Street, New York.

Messrs. Cortlandt Field Bishop and Frank S. Lahm have been appointed delegates to the Conference of the International Aeronautic Federation, Brussels, September 12.

THE AERO CLUB OF THE UNITED KINGDOM. By Harold E. Perrin, Secretary.

The Race for the Hedges Butler Challenge Cup took place at Ranelagh on Saturday, June 29th, 1907. The following balloons competed:

Name of Balloon. Competitor.

Aero Club IV.................-V. Ker-Seymer.

City of London.................F. H. Butler.

Venus ......•..................J- Is. C. Moore-Brabazon.

Britannia ......................Hon. C S. Rolls.

Nebula •.......................Hon. Mrs. Assheton Harbord.

Kokoro ........................Prof. A. K. Huntington.

Lotus .........................G. Brewer.

Sapellite.......................Viscount Royston.

Pegasus.....................• Col. J. E. Capper, C.B., R.E.

Enchantress ...................E. Bucknall.

The start was made in a heavy thunder storm, and most of the competitors were driven down by the very heavy rain. Col. J. E. Capper, C.B., R.E., accompanied by Major Crookshank. made the longest journey. Having got clear of the thunder norm, he continued his journey down to Bramber. near Worthing, where he was obliged to make his descent, as the wind was carrying him directly over the sea. All the other competitors made their descent quite close to the starting place. Col. Capper therefore holds the Hedges Butler Challenge Cup for th:s year. The rules for this Challenge Cup stipulate that in the event of any member winning the Cup on three consecu-ti\ e occasions it will become his absolute property.

Mr. Cortland F. Bishop, president of the Aero Club of America, and Mr. Alan R. Hawley, one of the team representing the Aero Club of America in the forthcoming Gordon Bennett Aeronautical Race, have been elected members of the Aero Club of the United Kingdom.

Mr. Hawley, who has been making several ascents both in Paris and in England, competed for the Hedges Butler Challenge Cup in conjunction with Viscount Royston. Owing to the bad weather, they were only able to make a short trip, but succeeded in winning the second prize, being a cup offered for the second longest journey by the Ranelagh Club.

AERO CLUB DE BELGIQUE.

An International Balloon Contest for distance will be organized by the Aero Club de Belgique on the occasion of the reunion, at Brussels, of the F. A. I. and the Commission Permanente Internationale d'Aéronautique, on Sunday, September 15. It will be held in the Park du Cinquantenaire. Several prizes, the majority of which are important, will be given the winners in this inter-club race.

AERO CLUB OF FRANCE.

Georges Besancon, Secretary.

The first half year of 1907 has been marked by numerous ascensions, which show the growing interest of our society for the encouragement in aerial navigation and the allied sciences.

In the splendid park of the Aero Club among the hills of Saint Cloud from the 1st of January to the 30th of June there were no less than 191 departures of balloons, consuming 172,480 cubic metre of gas and lifting 511 passengers, of whom 54 were ladies.

These ascensions were distinguished by the aerial voyages of : Prince Albert of Belgium; Mr. Louis Barthou, Minister of Public Works; General Picquart, Minister of War; and three ascensions of officers of the engineering corps that are called to drive the future war balloons.

The annual club book of the Aero Club of France for 1907, which is to-day mailed to all members, is now a large and thick book of over 200 pages. An extract of this book is mailed to all persons asking for it. Said extract gives all inquiries and answers many questions concerning the advantages given to the members and can be had free of charge by writing to the office of the Aero Club, 84 Faubourg Saint Honore, Paris.

Aviation at Touquet.

These last days, with a good north-west wind, MM. Leon Delagrange, Charles Voisin, Henry Farman and Colliex made quite a few trials in soaring over the dunes of Touquet.

Starting from different heights, varying from 10 to 15 meters, with a motorless aeroplane, Chanute model of about 18 square metre of surface, the experimenters realized some flights of 40 meters.

The experiments in soaring shall be continued on the same shore, which is good and practicable for this kind of work.

AERONAUTIQUE CLUB DE FRANCE.

By Monsieur J. Saunière, President.

At the last meeting of the Board of Governors it was decided to give free of charge to members who desire it, 500 cubic metres of gas to be used in ascensions. Four balloon ascensions have been arranged for the week of July 21-28 at the Rueil gas works, the pilots to be designated for each trip, without any expense to the members.

THE DIRIGIBLE BALLOON. By Israel Ludlow.

To make a successful flight in a dirigible airship is one of the most difficult problems presented to the aeronaut. In the first place there are many points to be noted in the building of an airship.

The choice of a suitable motor is the first essential. Unless the motor is of minimum weight and maximum power the gas envelope will be unable to lift it off the ground. Not only is the smallness of weight to be taken in account, but it must be of the greatest effective power, safe driving and length of working time.

The choice of a suitable propeller is hardly of less importance and can only be made after thorough tests, in connection with the particular motor. Propellers of large driving power do not always create the most breeze when revolved.

Then the framework offering little resistance and having the smallest possible compass must be constructed and the motor and propeller rigidly attached; and after that is done the framework itself must be scientifically and carefully hung to the balloon so that when the engine is working and the propellers revolving the oscillations, due to the vibration of the motor and the velocity with which the airship moves, are as small as possible.

The weight of the aeronaut must be considered, and the air resistance his bod}r offers in traveling are not unimportant points.

The gas envelope must have the smallest practical cross section. Since the shape of the envelope must be the thing that is to be figured on under all circumstances, the diameter can be determined only after each individual item is figured up, and the mathematical result obtained, which is the basis of the construction work. The shape of the envelope must offer the least head and side resistance, while possessing at the same time the greatest volume and the greatest longitudinal stability, incompatible elements that must be carefully harmonized. Everything must be made light to the breaking point, and under these circumstances it is not surprising that accidents continually happen, due to the changing wind, to striking obstructions in ascending and descending, and to the irregular action of the motor, or from the loss of gas, due to condensation, and sometimes from the carelessness of the aeronaut.

Having knowledge of these different sources of accidents the public should view the effort of the aeronaut with consideration. If they are interested in the matter scientifically they should observe the five points of construction and see where the aeronaut has put the centre of gravity of his ship; and its relative position to the centre of resistance; or how he has put the point of application of the driving propeller, and what method he uses to prevent any turning movement between the driving force and resistance, of how the distribution of the lifting forces is used in connection with the distribution of weight along the framework; of the system by which the aeronaut raises and lowers his airship by moving his own weight forward and backward; and the movements to one side and how the equilibrium is preserved. The entire safety of the aeronaut depends upon his careful calculation of all these points, and the angle or tilt that can be made with safety.

Changing the direction of flight causes a bending and strain; traveling through the air forward, a horizontal strain, and pitching of the airship an unequal strain. Results must be obtained by the use of a rudder; otherwise he is at the mercy of the wind. .

A practical system of aeronautical navigation has not yet been put into practice, due to these difficulties, of which only a general idea is here given; improvement is rapidly made and each flight shows the possibility of building a more perfect airship.

The flights of Eugene Godet with his cylindrical gas bag with conical ends are interesting because they are among the initial efforts of man to perfect the practical airship, which is destined to bring such important changes in science, sport and war. It is only within the last few years that powerful and light motors capable of driving the huge gas bags through the air have been available.

These light engines, weighing only two to five pounds per horse power, have come into existence because hundreds of thousands of dollars have been spent on them by automobile^ manufacturers and aerial scientific work ha: profited immensely accordingly.

The aim of aeronauts generally is to make airships capable of accomplishing long voyages and at great speed. A balloon may use different air currents in various strata of the atmosphere, but an airship with a good motor can go with or against the wind in any desired direction.

godet's dirigible at jamestown exposition.

Eugene Godet has suspended a triangular bamboo frame directly from the envelope by means of strong cordage; he lias made his gas bag long and in proportion to the width as 6 is to i. The rudder is placed in the rear and the propeller in front.

One of the huge iron-clad warships now anchored in Hampton Roads is an engine of destruction that had it been brought into existence fifty years ago could have conquered the world. There is no doubt that the next fifty years will see the development of the aerial warship, which will make the iron-clad of today as far out of date as the wooden hulls of our fathers. A duty rests upon those charged with official responsibility to investigate more fully the possibilities of aeronautics.

Great Execution Possible.

The Hague Conference in 1900 adopted a resolution to be in force for five years declaring that missiles should not be thrown from balloons, owing to

the liability of injuring non-combatants. This regulation has expired and there is little likelihood of its ever being renewed, since there have been great improvements and almost perfection attained in the construction of dirigible airships by the War Departments of France and Germany, who were the foremost advocates of the Hague resolution.

A question of overwhelming importance is: Shall the Government of the United States be a laggard in the development of this branch of the military service?

In land and naval warfare a balloon or airship may be used to discover the strength and advance of the enemy, even from great distances, or when their attack is from submarine boats, for be it known that in looking down into the water from a balloon objects in its depths become visible. Aerial devices may be employed for signalling between distant points, and to improve the advantage wireless telegraphy gives. Harbors and other navigable wateis may be explored and superior effectiveness may be given to artillery and naval fire.

The cost of a modern warship is about six or seven millions, but a warship is but paper if attacked from above. Forts have no protection if missiles are shot with accuracy from an aerial station. It would be very easy to send up a captive balloon from the aeronautic concourse of the Jamestown Exposition to the height of one mile, where it would be safely out of the range of Fort Monroe and all the guns of the warships anchored in Hampton Roads. Yet from this point of vantage dirigible balloons, like that of Eugene Godet, carrying high explosives instead of an aeronaut and guided by much the same method as marine torpedoes are, could be launched unerringly against the warships and the neighboring forts and cause the destruction of property to the extent of hundreds of millions of dollars.

poor gas at pittsfield.

The ascensions made this year from Pittsfield have been most unsatisfactory on account of the very poor quality of gas supplied. In no case has it been possible to carry more than one or two bags of ballast. In some cases no ballast was carried and no instruments. Furthermore, the gas company says it cannot supply gas after 10 o'clock in the morning. The last instance is the ascension of William F. Whitehouse and A. L. Stevens on August 1. Arrangements have been made by Mr. Stevens with E. C. Peebles, Superintendent of the gas works at North Adams, to make his ascensions in the future from that place.

a word of encouragement.

A subscriber writes: "The 'American Magazine of Aeronautics' is especially welcome at this time when so much interest is manifested in aeronautics, both as a science and a sport. The magazine ought to be read by every aeronaut and everybody interested in the advancement of the science. America has long been in need of just such a magazine —a paper giving all the current events in this field of science.

"A few years ago a periodical on aeronautics made its appearance in Ohio but it lasted through only one volume. * * * A vacancy has long been existing in our list of scientific periodicals but this vacancy has been filled by the 'American Magazine of Aeronautics.'"

THE NEW BLERIOT MACHINE.

From "L'Automcbile."

Bleriot made some very interesting trials with his former machine but it did not render all the satisfaction the inventor anticipated, especially in regards to the stability. He was not discouraged by such trifles and with perseverance, the only means to success, constructed a new machine entirely different from the former cue.

The new soaring machine is of the Langley type. It is composed of a rectangular frame, pointed at the rear, and at each end are fixed 2 planes forming between them an cbtuse angle.

In the front of the frame is placed a 24 HP. Antoinette motor with the propeller. The pilot has within easy reach a very ingenious handle allowing him to operate separately or simultaneously the two rudders placed at the extreme ends

godet's dirigible at jamestown exposition.

of the 2 front wings. The pilot is seated inside of the frame, at the rear of the machine, in rather narrow quarters, only the upper part of his body being visible.

This soaring machine is placed on 3 wheels. The surface of the wings is 17 square metres; the weight is 250 kilos.

In the early morning of July 13th, Bleriot proceeded to experiment with his new machine at Bagatelle. At about half past seven his first experiments had not proven very successful and with the propeller advancing at the rate of one metre, 1 metre 10 centimeters and 1 metre 40 centimetres per revolution, he did not succeed in raising the machine from the ground.

Bleriot then gave up the experiments under the impression that the front of his machine was too heavy. This excellent engineer will no doubt be obliged to enlarge the surface of his front wings but he anticipates attaining interesting results with the new soaring machine now in construction, a machine equipped with a 50 h.p. motor.

CHRONOLOGY OF RECENT EVENTS.

June 29. Ten balloons start from Ranelagh for the Hedges Butler Cup. Hon. C. S. Rolls' balloon "Britannia", in ascending, struck the "Nebula", disabling it for the contest. Mr. Alan R. Hawley was a passenger in Viscount Royston's "Sapellite". The longest distance was accomplished by Col. Capper in his balloon "Pegasus," landing at Bramber, near Shoreham. A thunderstorm occurred at the time of the start and the aeronauts had varied exciting experiences.

July 3. The French Government dirigible, "La Patrie" makes a sensational and most successful trip over Paris.

July 5. M'. Vuia makes a trial of his new aeroplane. The machine rose to a height of five meters when it inclined and fell. The propeller and some tubing were broken.

July 6. Major von Grossi's dirigible, it is reported, makes some highly successful trials at night, maintaining a speed of 30 miles an hour.

July 6. Twelve balloons race from Paris under auspices of the Aero Club of France. Messrs. Leblanc and Gasnier, the French representatives in this year's Gordon-Bennett Race, secured Third and Fourth Prizes respectively. Mr. Alan R. Hawley was a passenger in Levee's balloon and secured fifth place, landing in Bavaria, near Saarbruck, a distance of 368 kilometres. The longest distance was made by M. Bachelard, 601 kilometres.

July 7. Beachcy makes a very successful flight from Luna Park, Washington, in his dirigible, alighting on the Munsey Building, after circling it. After a stop of an hour, he resumed his journey, sailed around the Washington Monument, and back to the start.

July 7. Thirteen balloons race from Liege under the auspices of the "Liege-Attractions" and organized by the Aero Club de Belgique.

July 14. On the occasion of the French national holiday, ''La Patrie" sails over the marching troops in the review at Longchamps.

July 17. The Bleriot aeroplane flies a distance of So yards. The machine was slightly damaged in alighting.

July 22. Premier Clemcnccau and General Picquart, the Minister of War, makes an ascension in the Lebaudy dirigible, "La Patrie" from Meudon to Paris and return by way of Issy and Les Moulineaux. The Minister has asked the War Department for $1,000,000, it is said, to be devoted to the building of a corps of twenty military airships and attached to the various fortresses, the first five being delivered by March, 1908.

July 26. The Bleriot aeroplane makes a successful flight at lssy. A distance of 125 yards was accomplished in a straight line at an altitude of about 15 feet, followed by a long curve of 165 yards.

July 29. A German military airship makes a flight of an hour's duration over Berlin, and disappearing in the direction of Tegcl against a 12-mile breeze.

NOTES.

Mr. Otto Luyties, of Baltimore, who has been experimenting for a considerable length of time with a machine of the helicopter type, both individually and in collaboration with Prof. Wood of Johns-Hopkins, has nearly completed a full sized machine calculated to lift one person in addition to the operator.

In an interview with Mr. Luyties he said: "Some little laboratory work was done, but the most of the work has been with the large machine. The ratio of supporting power to horse-power has been found not to be directly proportional to the diameter, or other known function; and for this reason it is impossible to accurately compute the dimensions of a successful large machine from laboratory experiments. For this reason I have done more of my work on the large machine. Machines having high horse-power have the advantage that the weight of the operator is relatively small. Many experi-mentors have taken great pains to make their, say, 10 horse-power engine weigh four pounds or less to the horse-power. Now, an operator weighing 150 pounds would burden such an engine with 15 pounds to the horse-power, whereas, in a large machine, of, let us say, 100 horse-power, the operator would burden the motor with only iJ/2 pounds to the horse-power. Therefore, in large machines extremely light construction of the engine is not so essential. As a matter of fact, though, large engines can be made to weigh less per horse-power than small ones.

"All the above features favor experiments on a large scale, in addition to the fact that machine work of moderate quality is relatively more accurate. The principal purpose of my experiments is to obtain data on a large scale for the future construction of helicopters. I intend to continue work along this line if the results of my experiments warrant it."

As a reminder of their pleasant balloon voyage together on July 12, Colonel Max C. Fleischmann has presented Mr. A. L. Stevens with a handsome silver flask.

The attitude of the International Aeronautic Federation in shutting out the Italian and, possibly, the Spanish entries in the Gordon-Bennett race for this year is certainly not in accordance with the generally accepted code of sporting ethics. Where there is a misunderstanding or delay in entering races, owing to unfortunate information, it is usually considered only just to make exceptions and admit the applicants. Such action is sportsmanlike, but the action of the I. A. F. is anything but that. Of course, the reason given is that the applicants did not comply with the letter of the rules. The result of this action is that it gives the French four more chances of winning the cup.

The phenomenon of St. Elmo's fire was witnessed by Alan R. Hawley, Frank R. Cordley and Chas. Levee on their trip from St. Cloud on the 20th of June. At the height of about 1100 metres the light appeared at various points on the netting and rigging, lasting about fifteen minutes.

The U. S. War Department has another new balloon, of 95,000 cubic feet capacity, awaiting test at Fort Omaha. A very complete hydrogen plant has been erected and it is expected to produce this gas at a cost as low as that of coal gas. The plant also includes an aerodrome and shops. Special attention will be given to aerial photography, using telephoto lenses.

There are now two balloons called "St. Louis," and the incident has caused considerable question in France, where Mr. Hawley's "St. Louis" has just made its trial trip. The other "St. Louis" is owned by Mr. Russell E. Gardner, a member of the Aero Club of St. Louis. Mr. Gardner's balloon was named some time before Mr. Hawley's.

It is reported that Japan has ordered ten military balloons of a German concern.

Wilbur Wright made his first balloon ascent of record at Paris on July 17 in company with Alan R. Hawley.

Count de la Vaulx is building a large dirigible for military purposes, the envelope to contain 3,000 cubic metres of gas. The main object will be perfect dirigibility. The airship can be easily taken apart and packed in four cases and transported from place to place, while the Lebaudy must operate from a fixed base. The speed estimate to be possible of attainment is 25 miles an hour in calm air.

Joseph A. Blondin, of Albuquerque, N. M., has ordered from A. L. Stevens, the balloon manufacturer, a 30,000 cubic foot captive balloon, with outfit.

Samuel G. King, a Philadelphia aeronaut, has practically completed the "Ben Franklin," a balloon of 92,000 cubic feet. The initial ascent is to be made shortly. This will make Mr. King's 451st ascent.

We have received some very interesting toy flying machines from Mr. William Morgan of Fort Plain, N. Y. They are of paper, aeroplane type, with two propellers in front. They fly very well.

The French team in the Gordon-Bennett sails for America on September 28th, on the "Provence."

Gail Robinson, sailing one of Knabenshue's airships, dropped from an altitude of several thousand feet on July 13 at Springfield, Ohio. In order to facilitate his returning to the starting point he allowed the ship to ascend to a considerable height, where he was struck by counter currents of air. The propeller was forced against the end of the envelope, ripping it open. Robinson climbed out and seized the sides of the tear with his hands, the weight upending the ship and parachuting to the ground. The engine was smashed.

The Wellman expedition may be delayed somewhat by reason of the damage done to the balloon shed at Spitzbergen by the recent heavy storm. The airship was uninjured and the start may be made the first part of August.

The aeronautic exhibit at Jamestown Exposition is attracting considerable attention. Two more airships have been placed on exhibition, another balloon, a hydrogen plant and the famous Herring glider.

The trials of the machine now building by the Vacu-Aerial N. & M. Co., of Milwaukee, have been delayed in order to strengthen certain parts and to obtain a suitable propeller. The machine is practically finished, however, and a trial flight is expected in the near future. The company is most enthusiastic over the prospects.

A. C. Benades and three assistants were seriously injured on July 20 by an explosion of hydrogen while handling a dirigible.

England now owns the largest free balloon, "The Mammoth," of 106,000 cubic feet capacity. A trial ascent showed that its size was distinctly an advantage. Other large balloons: in 1S89 a 107,000 cubic foot balloon made a free flight, carrying twenty people; "La Patrie," the French dirigible, contains 108,000 cubic feet; the Leipsig balloon of 110,000 capacity remained in the air with eight passengers for over twenty-four hours in 1897; Andree's balloon was of 160.000 cubic feet; the "Geant," whose ill-fated trip in 1863 will be recalled, held 215,000 cubic feet; Walter Wellman's new dirigible has a capacity of 265,000 cubic feet; the London captive balloon of 1869 held 424.000 cubic feet; the airship of Graf von Zeppelin has a capacity of 360,000 cubic feet; Godard's "Montgollier," which made a couple of ascents in 1864, contained 500,000 cubic feet. The largest balloon ever built—a captive—was one at Paris in 1878 which had a capacity of 875,000 cubic feet.

Signor Usuelli, the well-known Italian aeronaut, has added another over-the-Alps trip to his record, rising to a height of 6.800 metres at one point. The landing was made near Bolzana in the Tirol. The Queen Margherita of Italy has this year offered a prize for a balloon trip over the Alps, provided the aeronaut makes the passage between Chamonix and Tarvispass. Flights over these mountains are rather dangerous and necessitate rising to at least 5,000 metres. Usuelli and Crespi have heretofore held the records and will make especially strong attempts this year to win the Queen Margherita Cup.

Mr. A. B. Lambert of St. Louis has returned from Europe and is telling his friends of his balloon trips while abroad.

The Parseval dirigible has been found by the German Government to be better adapted for its purpose than the Lebaudy, which they attempted to purchase some time ago. Major von Parseval has been permitted to resign from the army in order to take up more actively aeronautic study.

Mr. Charles J. Glidden, founder of the Glidden Tour, has become actively interested in ballooning and will shortly go abroad.

A. Roy Knabenshue has completed a new dirigible, the largest in this country. The envelope measures 105 feet in length by 17 feet in diameter. The frame is 45 feet in length. A 16 horse-power 54-pound motor drives two propellers placed one on each side amidships. The net is done away with, the weight of the frame and motor being supported by hempen rigging attached direct to the envelope in the manner known as "side suspension."

Frederic Longwell, of Michigan City, Ind., is planning to build a combination dirigible balloon and aeroplane. The gas bag will lift 570 pounds of the 700 total. The planes below the bag are expected to force the machine into the air.

A special camera is being designed by the Goerz Optical Co. for use in balloons and airships. It will be of the "Reflex" type, self-contained, tele-photo lens, the making of an exposure automatically bringing into place the new film, with other novel features.

Count de la Vaulx is expressing himself in the public prints to the effect that "the aeroplane is useless except as a toy or for sport.''

It is reported that Santos-Dumont has bet M. Archdeacon $10,000 to $1,000 that within 8 months he would make a motor boat travel ico kilometres an hour; and in six months an aeroplane to fiy 500 metres. "This wager arose as the result of an even bet of $10,000 by Archdeacon with Charron that May, 1907, would see a motor boat do 75 kilometres. Charron says Archdeacon would have won if business had not prevented devoting the necessary time to the construction of a boat."

Cromwell Dixon, the fourteen year old boy who, a short time ago, constructed a small dirigible balloon, propelled by his own energy, made a flight with it a few days ago which turned out to be rather exciting for the aeronaut. At the height of 2000 feet he discovered that he was still rising rapidly through shortage of ballast. He crawled along the framework to the valve and let out enough gas to start him downward. Starting his pedaling again he descended slowly, making a good landing.

G. H. Curtiss, the mrtor manufacturer, has been in Nova Sc. tia at Dr. Bell's experimental station placing a 40 horse-power 8-cylindcr motor in a Bell tetrahe-dral kite.

Captain T. T. Lovelace is building a dirigible, the frame of which will be 45 feet in length, built of Shelby steel tubing 22 guage, 11/16 in. diameter, with kiln dried spruce forced inside. The 2-bladed propeller will be 10 feet in diameter, placed forward. A combination vertical and horizontal plane rudder will be balanced at some distance from the forward point. The envelope will be of Japanese silk, 15 feet in diameter by 90 feet long, side suspension, with a capacity of about 9000 cubic feet. A 2-cylinder 16 horse-power Peugeot motor from the Prospect Motor Mfg. Co. will supply the power.

THE HIGHEST ASCENT BY MAN.

To the Editor of the American Magazine of Aeronautics :—

I desire to correct an error which, through no fault of mine, appeared in Chapter IX, "The Balloon in Science and Sport," contributed by me to the Aero Club book, "Navigating the Air". On page 123, in speaking of the Berlin Aeronautical Society it is said : "About ninety ascensions have been made by its members, inclndii g an ascent by Professors Berson and Siiring to the height of 34,000 feet; an ascent by Glasher, in zvhich lie claims to Iiave risen to 37,000 feet, the greatest altitude ever reached by man ; and a voyage of 53 hours, which is the longest time a balloon has remained in the air, by the Wegener Brothers." The words now italicized were not in the proof which I returned to the editors and were evidently inserted by them, because they thought that the off-quoted "record" of Glaisher (not "Glasher") had been forgotton. As a matter of fact, the insertion of these words is absurd, since Glaisher's ascent was made in 1862, 19 years before the Berlin Society was founded and of which he never was a member. Of more importance, however, is the fact that it does injustice to my colleagues, Professors Berson and Siiring, who undoubtedly reached, in 1901, the record-height stated, whereas that attributed to Glaisher is now believed by authorities everywhere to be far too high. An account of Glaisher's memorable ascent, with the reasons for doubting his claim to have reached 37,000 feet, will be found in Chapter III of my book, "Sounding the Ocean of Air", in the Romance of Science Series, London, 1900.

On page 11S of my article in the Aero Club book there, is a mistake in spelling the name of the late Professor Hazen, who has probably made the highest ascent in this country, although he rose to less than half the height attained in Germauv.

A. LAWRENCE ROTC1I.

NEW AERONAUTIC BOOKS.

DAS ZEITALTER DER MOTORLUFTSCHIFFAHRT. The writer of "Berlin-Bagdad," Rudolf Martin, treats of the advancement in aerial navigation by means of the dirigible balloon and its effect on the great powers as regards its use in war. Although the imagination of the author is somewhat stretched, the book is very interesting and will furnish food for considerable thought.

The subjects discussed are as follows: At The Threshold of The New Era, The First Presentiment of The Revolution, The Significance of The Revolution, The Abundance of Aerial Apparatus, Any Point Attainable, By The Shortest Way, With The Greatest Speed, With The Least Cost, With The Greatest Safety, The Ease of The Journey, Heavy Loads not Adaptable to Aerial Traffic, In Time of War, War on Land, War on Sea, War in Air, Transportation of Troops Through Air, Political Reaction, Greater Countries and Greater Commercial Unions, England an Island No More, Japan and America, France and Germany, The Advancement of Civilization. The book is published by Theod. Thomas, Leipzig, Germany.

THE PARADOX OF THE DIRIGIBLE BALLOON. W. Hampson, M.A., in "Paradoxes of Nature and Science," argues very effectively the hopelessness of aerial transportation by means of self-propelled gas bags. He says: "Swimming in a fluid-like air and swimming on a fluid-like water differ from traveling on the ground not only in the manner and means of support, but also in the fact that the fluid itself which supports the traveler may be and often is in rapid motion itself. When this is the case the contrivance for traveling is at the mercy of the supporting fluid, unless it can travel through the fluid as fast as the fluid itself is likely to travel. And to have real independence of movement it must be able to do a good deal more. It must be able to move through the fluid much faster than it is ever likely to find the fluid moving."

Even allowing to balloons the immemorial privilege of sailing ships, to "lie by" in times of hurricane, they must be swifter than strong winds, and even storms. To have to wait for days and even weeks, as they do now, till the wind has dropped to something like a calm before venturing out, is hardly to have accomplished 'the conquest of the air.' As well might a mouse boast of its conquest of the cat on the ground that, having waited till she was asleep, it had then crept out of its hole."

The comparison is somewhat harsh but the paradox of the practical dirigible balloon contains the following contradictory requirements: To be independent, or even safe, in a fluid as swift as the winds, it must be as swift as an express train. To resist the air pressure at such a speed it must be very strong, and therefore heavy. To float by its own lightness, it must be very large for its weight, and therefore weak. To move swiftly with so large a bulk it must have powerful and therefore heavy, motive apparatus. It must be, in four words, heavy and light, weak and strong.

The author describes the wing motion of birds, with diagrams, the action of the boomerang, and treats of aviation generally.

The book is published by E. P. Dutton & Co., 31 West 23d St., New York.

future events.

Aug. 18. Balloon Race at Bordeaux.

Sep. 12. Annual Conference of International Aeronautic Federation, Brussels.

Sep. 15. International Race at Brussels.

Sep. 29. Grand Prix at the Tuileries, Paris.

Oct. 21. Gordon-Bennett International Race at St. Louis.

Oct. 28-29. Aeronautical Congress at Jamestown Exposition.

Nov. 15. International Exposition of Aeronautic Photographs at Paris.

aeronautics in the current magazines.

The Scrap Book, July number, contains a ten-page article by C. F. Carter, "The Flying Machine is Here; the principles upon which navigation of the air depends have been discovered and their successful application assured." The writer allows his imagination freedom in the first half of the story.

The second half is practically a resume of what has thus far been done upon which prophesies for the future may be based.

McChire's for July; Walter Wellman gives a very complete description of the dirigible "America," in which he is now about to start for the Pole. Though the article is a technical one yet the ordinary reader cannot fail but be deeply interested in his plans and appreciate the unbounded faith of Mr. Wellman in his attempt.

Appleton's, in the August number, has succeeded in inducing M'Cready Sykes, the New York lawyer, who was so greatly appreciated at the Aero Club Banquet, to write most humorously some considerations of aerial law. The automobile of Judge Reardon, an American jurist sojourning in France, is caught by the anchor of M. Rambaud's aeroplane and jerked ungracefully through the air at high speed. Various complications swiftly follow. The story is exquisitely told and reveals the marks of a master hand.

aeronautical patents issued since january 1.

Air ship, G. W. Byron ..................................... 839,548

Airship, J. Meden ........................................... 840.078

Airship, H. H. Johnson .................................... 840,339

Aerial navigation brake, G. G. Schroeder .................... 841,581

Aerial transportation system, G. G. Schroeder ................ 841,582

Balloons, car of navigable, P. H. Unsinger .................. 842.505

Flying machine, W. Morgan ................................ S43476

Aerial navigation, H. M. Bellows ............................ 844.771

Airship, J. A. Elston ...................................... 845-539

Aeroplane or craft for aerial navigation, A. & TI. Dufaux...... 846,830

Airship, J. M. Miller ........................................ 847.965

Air Ship, G. G. Schwahek .................................. 8^,055

Airship. J. E. Taylor ...................................... 849,029

Flying apparatus, A. Brandl ................................ 849,971

Flying machine, A. p. Bliven .............................. 850,616

Airship, J. Shukwech ....................................... 850,800

Airship, T. S. Baldwin .................................... 851,481

Flying machine, M. Nial .................................. 851,895

Flying Machine. B. Connolly ................................ 852,221

Air ship, H. Faehrmann .................................... 853,542

Air ship, G. Bold ........................................... 853,760

Air ship, E. Baumann ...................................... 854,555

Air ship, advertising or other. J. C. Burnell .................. 854,461

Aerial vessels, sustaining device for, I. Gruber................ 855,94s:

Flying machine, R. Lewitz ................................... 856,073

Kite or Flying Machine, Connection Device for the frames of Aerial Vehicles and other Structures, Dr. Alexander Graham

Bell and H. P. McNeill .................................. 856.83S

Flying Machine. F. E. Felts.............................. 857.166

Kite, H. Lurz ............................................. 859.395

Air ship, L. Haines.......................................... 859,765

Flying machine, W. H. Cook ................................ 860.447

Air ship, C. L. Buckwalter .................................. S6i,oi7

RARE AERONAUTIC BOOKS FOR SALE

This magazine will publish each month a list of such rare books relating to aeronautics as it is able to secure.

If you desire any of those listed, kindly send check with your order for the amount stated. Should the book ordered be sold previous to the receipt of your order, the money will be promptly returned.

Astra Castra (Hatton Turner). Royal 4to, cloth, gilt top, uncut, London, 1865............$15.00

An Account of the First Aerial Voyage in England (Vincent Lunardi). Portrait of Lunardi by Bartolozzi and plates. Crown 8vo. half calf, uncut, London, 1784. Autograph "V.

Lunardi" on fly-leaf......... 15.00

Travels in the Air (James Glai-

sher). Svo., cloth, Phila., 1871. 7.50 Crotchets in the Air (John Poole). 12 mo., cloth, London,

1838 ...........'.............. 5.00

By Land and Sky (John M. Bacon). Four illustrations. Svo, cloth, uncut, London, 1901 2.50 A Balloon Ascension at Midnight (G. E. Hall). Plates by Gordon Ross. Svo, boards, uncut. San Francisco, 1902. Limited edition .................. 2.50

Proceedings of the International Conference on Aerial Navigation, Chicago, August 1-4, 1893. Plates, Svo, cloth, New

York, 1894 ................. 2.50

Five Weeks in a Balloon (Win. Lackland). 12 mo., cloth, N.

Y., 1S69.....•................ 2.50

Wonderful Balloon Ascents (F. Marion). 12 mo., half leather,

N. Y„ 1871 ........•......... 2.50

My Airships (Santos-Dumont). Illustrated. Crown Svo, cloth,

uncut, London, 1904......... 2.50

The Dominion of the Air. The story of aerial navigation. Illustrations from photographs. Crown, Svo, cloth. London,

11. d......................... 2.00

My Life and Balloon Experiences. Photograph of author. Crown, Svo. cloth. London,

18S7 ......................... 2.00

Travels in Space (G. S. Valentine and F. L. Tomlinson). Introduction by Sir Hiram Maxim, 61 plates. Svo, cloth, London, 1902............... 2.00

Balloon Travels (Robert Merry).

12 mo., cloth, N. Y., 1865 ____$ 2.50

Experiments in Aerodynamics (S. P. Langley). Illustrated, 4to, cloth, Washington, 1891.. 2.00

Conquest of the Air (John Alexander). 12 mo., cloth, London, 1902 ......................... 2.00

The Motor and its Chief Application, Wings, Propulsion in Air, etc. (Com. of Pat., 1849). Svo., paper .................. 1.50

La Machine Animale (J. Marey). Illustrated, Svo, cloth, Paris, 1878, French ................ 1.25

Balloons, Airships and Flying Machines (Gertrude Bacon). 12 mo., cloth, N. Y., 1905 .... 1.00

BRITISH AERONAUTICAL INSTITUTE.

An institute has been formed by the Aero Club of the United Kingdom having the following principal objects:

To encourage the study of aeronautics in all its branches; to arrange lectures and demonstrations on all matters connected with aviation; to enable members to compete for prizes arranged for by the Aero Club; to examine and report on proposals for practical aviation; to form a library. The annual dues are 10/6.

FROM AUTOMOBILE TO FLYING MACHINE.

Henry Farman, a prominent English automobile driver, is having an aeroplane built similar to that of M. Delagrange. A 20 H. P. motor supplies the power to a propeller placed forward. The weight of the machine is estimated at 550 pounds, with 323 square feet of lifting surface.

CAPTAIN FERBER BUILDING A NEW MACHINE.

Captain Ferber has recently sold his 40 H. P. aeroplane and, in the middle of May, started work upon a new one, measuring 12 by 12 metres, to be equipped with a 50 H. P. Antoinette motor. The machine is expected to be completed by the first of August.

AIRSHIP

^ ^ BALDWIN'S ^

« "CALIFORNIA ARROW" ^

Patented.

The "CALIFORNIA ARROW" was the first airship, the one from which all the present airships have been copied, and has made more successful flights than all the others put together.

I GUARANTEE ALL MY EXHIBITIONS.

Last season, out of 53 starts I returned to the exact starting point 51 times.

ONLY FLYING

at the ST. LOUIS EXPOSITION operated by Roy Knabenshue

~v

J&J>7mk ^,*~*» rS,Jf**-<,J ^SKjbm

ONLY FLYING

at the PORTLAND EXPOSITION operated

by Lincoln Beachy

NOTE.

I have ballooned around the world twice, giving ascensions in almost every country you can think of, including North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, China, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, etc.

I design and manufacture, Free Balloons, Captive Balloons, Airships, and in fact everything in the hydrogen line of aeronautics. Information relative to dates and terms, cheerfully furnished upon request.

Send for my new book "UP IN THE AIR."

Captain Thomas S. Baldwin, Airship "CALIFORNIA ARROW"

Box 78 Madison Square P. O. New York City.

FOR SALE—Complete Captive Balloon Outfit.

5903

hydrogen-tight balloons buoyant hirships

All sizes from smallest models of lightest weight to largest captive or long voyage vessels with or without motors.

Patent machine varnished, hyd rogen-proof fabrics, ready for speedy construction.

Best varnish made.

Patent hydrogen gas generator systems, complete, all sizes.

Estimates made.

Practical professional advice given.

Largest, most reliable manufactory in America.

Operated 28 years.

140 gas balloons for U. S. Government.

Instructions given. All sorts of experiments conducted.

Only American Institute of Aeronautics.

Any kind of gas balloon ascents, captive or free, or airship flights made at any time or place.

carl e. myers,

BALLOON FARM, FRANKFORT, N. Y.

AERONAUTICAL ENGINEER AND CONSTRUCTOR

AERONAUT LEO STEVENS

BALLOONS

contractor to U. S. government

Box 181, Madison Square, new York

The Scientific American

and Scientific American Supplement

ALL the latest aeronautical information is published in the Scientific American and Scientific American Supplement. Correspondents in the leading cities of the world furnish the latest details of aeronautical progress in their localities. In this manner the art is covered exhaustively. So far as possible every article is illustrated with actual photographs of the machine described.

Nothing of aeronautical importance escapes the Scientific American or Scientific American Supplement.

SUBSCRIPTION RATES.

UNITED STATES AND MEXICO Scientific American (weekly) one year - $3.00

Scientific American Supplement (weekly) one year 5.00

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MUNN & CO., Publishers

scientific american office

361 BROADWAY, - NEW YORK

POCKET BOOK OF AERONAUTICS

By Major Hermann W. L. Moedebeck

(English Edition)

Cloth, 496 pages, $3.25

"Major Moedebeck is already too well-known to stand in need of any introduction ; for many years past he has been one of the leading spirits in German Aeronautical circles. It was in no slight degree due to his efforts that several of the German Aero Clubs, and in particular the Aero Club of the upper Rhine, were founded ; for years he edited the journal of the Berlin Club, previously to founding the Illustrierte Aeronautische Mitteilungen, at Strassburg. The present book serves as an introduction to the study of the history of Aeronautics ; and as such we have rarely met with a more lucid and clearly stated résumé of one of the most fascinating pages in the world's history. The future of aerial locomotion, again, is touched upon in the final chapters of this really valuable and eminently sane book ; not the least of the merits of which consists of the splendid series of illustrations and photographs, for the greater part taken by the author himself."—Ballooning and Aeronautics.

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FOREIGN AERONAUTICAL JOURNALS.

L'AERONAUTIQUE Official Publication of the Aéronautique Club de France Subscription, Quarterly 58 Rue J. J. Rousseau,

3 francs. Pans.

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THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN TROPHY FOR FLYING MACHINES OF THE GASLESS TYPE.

In presenting" to the Aero Club of America the handsome trophy which forms the frontispiece of this issue, the proprietors of the Scientific American have sought to stimulate progress in the science of aerial navigation not only in our own country, but throughout the world. They have endeavored to accomplish this by making the trophy an international one, open to competition annually by anyone who has a heavier-thau-air (gasless) machine which shows itself capable of flying under its own power. It is intended to make the conditions of the annual contests progressive in character so that they shall as far as is possible, be always a step in advance of what has been or is being done in the line of aerial navigation by heavier-than-air machines at the time of the various contests. Uy making the prize more difficult to win, each year, it is thought that a practical flying machine will eventually be evolved, liesides being open to international competition, there is a provision (o the effect that the trophy shall become the property of anyone who wins it three times in different years. Thus a special inducement is given to the winner of the first contest to improve his machine, if, necessary, in order to win two of the subsequent contests. That the first one may not be too difficult of accomplishment, yet that it may be somewhat in advance of what has already been publicly done, it was decided to have this competition for a flight of one kilometer (3.280 feet) in a straight line. The first competition will be held at the Jamestown Imposition on the 14th instant, and at least one aeroplane—that of Israel Ludlow—is expected to compete.

This new aeronautical trophy is the handsomest and most valuable one that has ever been offered for an event of this kind. The trophy perpetuates

in silver the Langley model aeroplane, which was the first self-propelled model to fly half a mile, this distance having been covered above the Potomac river in May, 1896. That the machine invented by Prof. Samuel P. Langley was by no means the failure it was painted is evidenced by the fact that Bleriot, in France, has recently made several successful short flights with a machine of this type, fitted with only a 24 If. P. motor, while Santos

D

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—Scicn-tific psL\xzcr\ca.\\. "Jvopkv for kcv-'aci-- tk«.v»-«.-.'ur My l (tvu-..0, iTtack\tv:3 u offea'c.? for «.a»w«..uo.f coii-.pc titaovi tiviocr ^^_>lktkc rufcj -uvo vc^utatiovi» foriavukitcC' .aivi1 proYivuC.i«.atc> f v tkc

Xt is Mstir«.ctfr urcocrstooc tkat tkc tropkvas to kc tkc propcrtv-"f tkc CfuC «.ar-S xio«-of tkc vncvnfcrs tkcrcof,cscc-pt aav tkc eveavt tkat «aa-.v «.-t-«c persovi skafl unr. tkc tropkv tkrcc trinciavi irkick co.sc it as to kc.'iivc kas pcroonci.rpropcrtv_.

(Ofkoylo tkc tropkv ivitoit Pv tkc rcprc-cittAtia-c of soxave fórex^av j^crc *^7l£fukat skalt hccoiavc tkc propcrtr of su.ck Ckif, t-ait it -.-«.«.ali Pc -alticci" to compctitioav iixiocr tkc sanie tenti» axib eovibitaons as if xt ii-crc staff keto Py tkc fulcro Ciuf of bancone-i..

^jfkoulo tkc kofoax-«,«j tFfuf'.j'or any. rco.soa-«_,f c ox3po.a-.>cs<, tkc ta-opky ^3 ska.it i-ci'crt to tkc .sonors, tc> l-c competei for, lwu'ct?cr,tiriì,«:v- tkc

-sciane tctrxvs ciaic-coavcntioa-is a? afitai'crc ketb \cv tkc^-Lcro Cini' of

Riaver ica..

'(ac coaibitaons un«?cr irkick tkc covripe ti tii'c test? ano trial.- skalf kc wiaoc skaffPc bc t'ertavi vie.* f»£ tkc C?omrriittcc of Coaitrof of tkc >\cro CfuP of^la-r;crac«.i,cir^ suck eonottioais sf«.aff Pc nicvbc pavere.--u'c in tkcir sci'critv of tcst.as flaraspojsaf fc,an orber to^fostcv cvaib ZcvcCop tkc progress of tkc art- o^f etcriaf «ava^citaon.

Dumont, with his double surface machine, required 50 H. P. and has recently raised this to 100. Because Langley, with his model aeroplane, was the pioneer, it was thought but fitting that his name and his machine should be perpetuated. Hence, in the Scientific American trophy, Laugley's model is seen soaring through the clouds, with the sunlight breaking through upon it. The globe represents the firmament, the heavens being shown on the

front and the Xortli American continent on the back. Stars are seen peeping through the clouds and several birds are vicing with the aeroplane in flight. On top of the globe, which is supported on a whirlwind rising from a suitable pedestal, a large American eagle bearing a wreath of victory, has just alighted. On each side of the pedestal base, graceful winged horses spring forth, ridden by male figures bearing aloft olive blanches. As can be seen in a measure from the photograph, the trophy is a very beautiful affair. One needs, however, to see this handsome piece of silver itself to appreciate completely its beauty of design and execution. It stand> 32 inches high over all and is valued at $2500.00; but its real value is much greater, for it will serve to encourage and stimulate invention and improvement in that most recent and interesting of sciences, the science of aerial navigation.

THAT PRIZE!

In the July number we appealed to our readers for a cash prize in competitions of "gasless" machines. We asked for a considerable amount, we know, but we indulged, perhaps unfortunately, in a belief that there might be enough wealthy sportsmen who would appreciate the aid that such a prize would lend.

In making the amount as large as we did we thought that this great United States would be able to devote

$25,000

to such a purpose when little countries like France and England can each offer prizes of $50,000. Though personal applications have been made to man}r to subscribe toward such a prize we have thus far met with failure.

To repeat—the proposition briefly is somewhat as follows: There are hundreds of inventors of aerial apparatus, good, bad or indifferent. Among them all there may be something of value. The majority are devoting their earnings and their spare time to experiments on a small scale. After reaching a certain point the}* can go no further for lack of funds. They cannot obtain funds from capitalists for the reason that no one is willing to expend money until he sees a good chance of getting it back—with interest. Now, then, we have the inventor, the idea, the capitalist. We want to get them together. If the capitalist sees that by expending a few hundreds on further experiments he may gain a few thousand he is willing to take a chance. Tf we have the prize hung up we have the incentive. An inventor with a possible machine can say. "Mr. Capitalist, there is that prize. 1 think 1 can win it. Will you risk, say. $500 or $1,000?" The capitalist then has something to figure on. But until we get this prize the inventor cannot reach the capitalist.

$5,000

We have in mind a man who believes lie lias something practical. That belief is nothing new. Hut we believe he has something at least worth a trial. The machine, moreover, it is claimed, is complete and awaiting final flight. The inventor desires, in case he makes a successful ilight, to be reimbursed, at least, for his expenditures. He asks that a prize of but $5,000 be offered contingent upon his flying 1,000 feet. Such a flight would be the record

public flight to date by a "gasless" machine. This attempt is desired at the earliest moment.

We mention this instance as a case in point. No one is prepared to say whether this or that machine may not be developed into something practical. If the prize is not won the donor, or donors, will not be losers. If the prize is won, they will still be gainers by the knowledge that they have made possible an actual demonstration of the practicability of dynamic flight.

Are there not in this broad land of ours some men whose purses are likely to leak along philanthropic paths?

GERMAN $5,000 MOTOR PRIZE.

A German aeronautic society has offered prizes to this amount to induce German inventors to work on light motors. The prizes are restricted to German manufacturers and the motors must be of 20 h.p. Major Gross, Prof. Klingenberg and Major von Parseval are members of the committee.

THE CLUB.

Out of three hundred members there are a bare dozen who have made actual balloon flights. The rest have been deterred—by what reason? Among other objects the Club was formed to promote the sport of ballooning, but the members have failed in the majority to take advantage of the opportunities offered.

In order to provide a greater inducement, a movement is on foot to purchase new envelopes for the Centaur and Orient and have as many members as possible make trips. It is planned to appoint pilots who will offer their services without charge, and to furnish the balloon and gas at a flat rate of, say, $20, to any member making his first ascent, the Club paying the balance of the cost of gas and miscellaneous items. Thus a member having never before made an ascent can do so at a sole outlay of $20, in addition to his railroad fare. The balloons will be stationed at some advantageous point, probably Pittsfield, and returned there after each ascent. Applications to be received and accepted in the order of receipt. In case the member fails to use the balloon on the date assigned he forfeits the $20 deposited with the application. Alan R. Ilawley is the promoter of the scheme and it is one to which every member should lend his aid. To provide the necessary sum to enable the Club to do this it is suggested that members be assessed $5 each. Air. Hawley feels that he has done his share towards the promotion of this most delightful of all sports and is anxious to see some competitors for long distance honors.

Philadelphia also might be a suitable location for a permanent aerodrome. There is good gas to be obtained there and the situation of that city is excellent. It is no nearer the sea than many ballooning centers abroad and one can run down in two hours from New York after telephoning to have the balloon ready upon his arrival. There is 110 time lost in going a great way from New York and, perhaps, after arriving, having to wait for a breeze. We attend to our daily business right along and on finding a good breeze after breakfast, telephone, answer the morning's mail, take the train and we are off the ground shortly after our lunch in Philadelphia.

ATMOSPHERIC EXPLORATIONS CONDUCTED BY THE BLUE HILL METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATORY.

At the Milan meeting of the International Commission for Scientific Aeronautics it was decided to concentrate the work of exploring the air this year upon four grand series of ascensions, in addition to the usual monthly ascensions. The former last several days and observations are to be obtained not only by balloons and kites but also by special observations of cloud drift and upon mountain summits. The first of these quarterly ascensions was appointed for the week commencing July 22d. and, as has been the case for several years, co-operative kite-flights and cloud observations were made at Blue Hill Observatory. It is supposed that the United States Weather Bureau Station on Mount Weather, Virginia, which has recently taken up the work of exploring the free atmosphere, also participated in this series of ascensions. Unfortunately, light winds prevailed on Blue Hill during almost the entire week, so that but four kite-flights were possible and only on the 27th was the height of a mile and a half attained. During an evening flight, the top kite and the meteorograph broke away, and the latter has not yet been recovered. Had a small steamer been equipped for kite-flying in Massachusetts Bay, as was done for the first time by Professor Rotch in iqoi, the kites would have been rendered independent of the wind by the motion of the vessel either in the direction of the wind or against it, for, in order to lift the kites, a velocity of at least 14 miles per hour is required, which is more than the average velocity of the wind in Summer on Blue Hill. Kiteflying was continued during the following week in more favorable conditions and of the three flights, the highest on August 2d reached an altitude of nearly two miles.

Although no efforts were made in America to secure observations over the ocean, as was done abroad. Professor Rotch, the Director of Blue Hill Observatory, and a member of the International Commission, extended his field of work by sending Mr. Clayton to the White Mountains to obtain observations in the free air at the height of Mount Washington and on that mountain itself. Such an investigation had already been conducted privately by Mr. Ferguson of the Blue Hill Observatory, who had installed self-recording instruments on the summit of Mount Washington and at Twin Mountain Stations for the purpose of comparing the conditions on the mountain with those shown by instruments lifted by kites to the same height. Between July 21st and 28th Mr. Clayton obtained three such series of observations with kites at a height exceeding that of Mount Washington (6300 feet), and on the days when the wind was too light to lift the kites, he carried the instruments up the mountain. The records seem to indicate a greater wind velocity on top of the mountain, and probably a lower temperature, than in the free air.

Professor Rotch intends to resume the work of exploring the air at great heights by sending up more sounding balloons from Saint Louis next October, the successful experiments already conducted there being described in the first issue of this magazine. The situation of Blue Hill on the Atlantic coast precludes the use of balloons, but Saint Louis has proved an excellent place for this work. It is intended to make the ascensions during the first half of October so as to include the third, which is the date fixed for the international observations.

A LETTER TO AERONAUTS.

The American Magazine of Aeronautics is very desirous of obtaining accurate and complete records of all balloon and airship flights made in America during each month.

We would appreciate it very much if you would send us such records at the end of every month and we would be very glad to supply you with the blank forms for the purpose upon request.

May we not expect to hear from you?

AERO CLUB OF AMERICA.

To Members:

Will you not kindly send the Club accurate records of all ascensions made in order that our file may be complete? The number of our delegates to the International Congress is directly dependent upon the number of trips made. As a matter of Club interest every one is urgently requested to promptly report their voyage?, and as detailed as possible. Blanks will be supplied to those who have not already received same. AUGUSTUS POST,

Secretary.

August Ascensions.

Aug. i.—A. L. Stevens and William F. Whitehouse in the ''Stevens No. 20,'' 623 cu. metres, at Pittsfield, Mass. Ascent at 12.08 p. m., descent at 12.33 p. m. Gas verjr poor and no ballast or instruments could be carried. Mr. Whitehouse's first ascent. Initial flight of new balloon.

Aug. 7.—A. L. Stevens in the "Stevens No. 20," at Pittsfield. Ascent at 1.15 p. m., descent at East Windsor 3.01 p. 111. Gas very poor. Distance 19 miles.

Aug. 29.—A. L. Stevens and William F. Whitehouse in the "Stevens No. 21," 1000 cu. metres, at North Adams. Ascent at 2.50 p. m., descent at Som-ersville, Conn., 6.55 p. m. Distance 50 miles. Initial flight of new balloon.

Aug. 29.—Alan R. Hawley in the "Stevens No. 20," 623 cu. metres, at North Adams. Ascent at 2.43 p. m., descent at Indian Orchard 6 p. m. Distance 43 miles. All ballast used.

ON THE RESISTANCE OF AIR TO THE MOTION OF PLANE

SURFACES By Otto G. Luyties.

As our atmosphere is so light a medium it is apparent that aerial navigation will ultimately be accomplished successfully by utilizing its inertia rather than its buoyancy.

Reaction devices of many kinds have been suggested, including aeroplanes, orthogonal flyers, flapping machines, helicopters and so forth. Even dirigible balloons are reaction devices in so far as they depend upon the inertia of air for the resistance to their propellers, while they are themselves retarded by the inertia of opposing air currents.

For these reasons I hope that the following discussion of the pressure of a frictionless elastic fluid upon a relatively moving plane will be of especial interest to aeronauts.

If a plane surface be moved normally relative!}' to a fluid such as air the impinging particles will offer a certain resistance. The power required to overcome this resistance will be the pressure times the a'clocity

and will be equal to the change in the energy of the air particles or half their mass times the square of their velocity. We may write this

P v = i in v2

The mass of the air will evidently be the weight of the air per unit of volume divided by g and multiplied by the area and the velocity so that

(w \ 2 w i -a v lv = - a v g / 2g

Hence

w 2

p = — a v

1 or

In the above deduction we assume that the entire kinetic energy of the air particles is employed in resisting the advance of the plane. We furthermore assume that the particles exert no other effective pressure on the plane.

It is, however, conceivable that certain particles would rebound with an energy equal to that of their impact. Such particles would exert a double pressure due to reaction as well as impact. Every particle rebounding in this manner, however, will collide with one still approaching the plane and either counterbalance its energy, or deflect it from its path. Therefore, under the assumption of a double pressure due to reaction as well as impact, the number of striking particles will be reduced by one-half, so that the total pressure on the plane will be the same under either assumption.

The peculiar action of rebounding particles colliding with others still approaching we ma}' refer to as interference. This action will be most pronounced in the case of normal planes and will be negligible in the case of sharply inclined planes, the rebounding particles falling in with the prevailing-stream lines. This is an important consideration in deducing the pressure on inclined planes.

Suppose that a plane makes an angle a with the line of its progress. It will then be foreshortened in proportion to the sine of this angle, the number of particles whose path is blocked being reduced in such proportion.

The energy of the impinging particles will accordingly be

W 3

E = - a sin a v

i 2g

But the particles will rebound from the plane with an equal energy

w . :i

E = ~ " a sin a v r 2g

making an angle « with the plane on the other side of the normal.

The power acting on the plane will therefore be the resultant of these two; namely,

/ w A

E =1- a sin a v |2 sm a

» v 2g /

The direction of action of this resultant power will be normal to the plane as the components are equal and symmetrically disposed. Therefore, the pressure on the plane will be normal, a peculiar fact which has long been known from experiment.

To find the pressure on the plane we observe that the normal pressure times the normal motion equals the normal resultant of the energy.

V „ = E

1 v ii ii

Iii this case, however, Vn is much less than the velocity of the particles

as an inclined plane progresses normally only in proportion to the sine of the angle.

Therefore

V = v sin a 11

and

whence

( ^ 3 \

P V = P v sm a =1 - A sin a v i

i n i \2g /

2 sm a

( w 2\

P =1 - A v 12 sin a = P X 2 sin

1 V2g /

The pressure of a frictionless elastic fluid on a relativel}' moving sharply inclined plane is accordingly equal to the pressure on an equal normal plane moving at the same speed multiplied by twice the sine of the angle of inclination.

The pressure on an inclined plane is, however, affected by interference, such interference increasing with the square of the angle.

As we have already shown this interference in the case of a normal plane will be equal to half the total pressure we might otherwise expect. It will therefore be numerically equal to sin 2 a when the full normal pressure is expressed by 2 sin a.

The normal pressure on an inclined plane is accordingly

v" 2 / 2 \

= - A v I 2 sin <7—sin a )

1

1 2g

This is a general formula for plane surfaces which will be found to agree reasonably well with experiment at any angle.

Substituting the value of the pressure on a normal plane we find

= P ^2 sin a—sin

V = i

The accompanying table gives the normal pressures for various angles as computed by the new formula compared with Langley's experimental results and with the formulae and figures of several other investigators.

It is apparent that the new formula agrees most closely with Langley's and Thibault's figures and that it is of comparatively simple form.

On further consideration it becomes apparent that the interference is very small for small angles so that sin2 a is negligible for planes of very acute inclination.

For these we may write

P = 2 P sin a

For small angles, furthermore, 2 sin a is essentially equal to 2 «

sin i°. The sine of one degree is approximately one sixtieth, so that we obtain

P (2 P a X -j- )= P — V 60/ 30

This formula should be very convenient and is correct within 10% for angles up to 150, which is well within the limits of our accuracy at present.

The pressure on a 50 plane for instance will be — J- and on a io° plane will be 14} = 1'3 of the pressure on a normal plane.

It appears incidentally that the question of interference brought up in this article should be further analyzed, as it undoubtedly has an important

bearing on the well known shifting of the centre of pressure with changes in the angle. The amount of interference probably differs for various curvatures of the surface and for different outlines and various ratios of height to breadth.

The purpose of this article, however, has been to discuss the question of the pressure of an elastic frictionless fluid on a relatively moving plane and to derive a general formula, which we have found to be

w

From which we obtain the ratio

And for small angles

— A v ^2 sin a—sin : ratio P = P^2 sin a—sin

P, IN TERMS OF P

La il gl ey

Langley

Luyties

Ducheinin

De Louvrié

Thibault

Rayleigh

Hastings

Luyties

von Loessl

Hutton

Weissbach

Angle a

Resultant Ì Recorder /

Component \ Recorder j

2 sin a—sin a 2 sin a

2

1 + sin a

2 sin a (1 +cos a) 1 + cos a + sin a

(4 -I- 7T) sin a 4 + 7t sin a

2 sin a a

30" sin a

sin a

.150

.160

10°

15° 20° 30° 45°

.300 .400

.600.780 .930

60°

.300 .440 .570 .7S0 .910

035.166 .318.45L.567 .7-50, .914, .98

035

035

.174

.10;

146

.337 .486

.319'. 457

.328

.420

.273 ¡.384

035,. 174 .347 .518

033 .1671.333 .500

or

.OS'

000'.008

1741.259

.2641.351

030 .06

.612 .800

.945' .990

5S1 .789 1.000

.764

.641

1.09S

342 .500 .7071 .866

750

I 17 .250

"50

90°

1.000

1.000

l.OOO

1.000

1.000

1.000

1.000

1.000

1.000

1.000

* Intended for small angles only.

AERONAUTICAL MOTORS. It is intended to publish in each number a description of the various light motors now on the market which are adapted for use in dirigible balloons and heavier-than-air machines.

*v:■■ &■ t> • V »5» 'jlr'

The lightest motor in the world is

now made by the Antoinette people. The ioo-hp., i6-c}rlinder motor to be used in the new Santos-Dumont aeroplane weighs complete but 130 kg. (286 lbs.) This motor develops, brake test, 123 hp., which brings the weight per horse-power down to 1.05 kg. (2.3 lbs.)

Almost as light is the Pelterie aviatic motor of 35 hp., weighing slightly less than 100 lbs., or, per horse-power, 2.8 lbs. The Automobile has this to say about it:

"Its arrangement is unique in that the six cylinders composing it are mounted on a crankcase barely long enough to accommodate two of their size were they placed in the ordinary manner. This

antoinette.

also greatly simplifies the engine by making possible the employment of a two-throw crankshaft, each group of three cylinders acting upon a common crankpin. Air-cooling is employed, of course, and the cylinders, which are set at an angle of approximately 90 degrees to one another, are also staggered so that each one gets the full benefit of a direct cooling current. Considerable ingenuity has, of necessity, been exercised in the arrangement of the valve-operating mechanism, the three push rods for the front group of cylinders being of the usual type employed in connection with rocker arms, while the other three are jointed and operate at an angle as shown, the inlet valves being of the automatic type. No details of the dimensions of the motor or of its speed are given, though the latter as well as the compression must naturally be high in order to produce its rating of 35 horse-power. It is of considerable interest as demonstrating to what lengths light weight and compactness may be carried where the internal combustion principle is applied to the design of a motor for aeronautical purposes.

pelterie.

A STORY WITHOUT WORDS.

The trial of the new Ludlow aeroplane in Hampton Roads, off the Jamestown Exposition, during the month of August.

Copyright by the Jamestown Official Photograph Co.

The aeroplane mounted on pontoon boats about to be launched. Captain T. T. Lovelacb in his bathing suit ready for the ride.

Copyright by the Jamestown Official Photograph Co.

Towed by the t\ S. naval tug Potomac across Hampton Roads: theaeropiane

passes in front of the battleships at anchor.

i

Copyright by the Jamestown Official Photograph Co.

The aeroplane's nose goes down into the water, the rear rises upward and the experiment comes to an untimely end due to the water logging of the pontoons.

THE LOST ORATOR. (Tune of the Lost Chord)

Seated one day in my airship,

I was weary and ill at ease, As my gas-bag drifted idly

Over the waving trees; I knew not what I was doing.

But I heaved a sand-bag then. And it struck on a farmer's shoulders

And he cussed nothing like amen.

His oaths came through the twilight And punctured the evening's calm;

At handling deck-hand language This Reuben could take the palm;

His words told of pain and sorrow And desire to take my life;

All because of that innocent sand-bag He was bent upon bloody strife.

I have tried, but I try all vainly,

To arouse those sounds divine, But I always dump my sand-bags

On some milder fellow's spine; Tt may be some other balloonist

Will hear that talk again, And will write it on fireproof paper,

With a patent asbestos pen.

—Denver Republican.

DIRIGIBLE BALLOON AND HEAVIER-THAN-AIR MACHINE

CONTESTS AT ST. LOUIS.

It is expected to bold competitions for dirigible balloons and gasless machines on October 22, at St. Louis. The *Scientific American trophy is available for competition, as well as the cash prizes offered by the St. Louis Club. These competitions will be conducted under the auspices of the Aero Club of St. Louis, which has appropriated the sum of $5,000.00 for aeronautical competitions and exhibitions, to be participated in by dirigible balloons and by aeroplanes, or any heavier-than-air vehicles for navigating the air, which are absolutely free in their flight, after their start has been made, and which require no permanent or visible connection with the earth.

The subjoined rules have been adopted to govern the competitions, the Aero Club of St. Louis reserving the right, however, to amend or alter the same at any time prior to a formal entry being filed, or subsequently. In the latter event, persons who have entered' shall have the right to withdraw if they do not consent to the amended rules and their entrance money shall be refunded. The club also reserves the right to promulgate, as occasion may require, minor rides or regulations not inconsistent with the general rules.

General Rules and Regulations. I.

Entries.

(a) The competitions will be open to all forms of vehicles without limitations as to the power employed or the mechanical principles involved, except as hereinafter specified.

(b) All vehicles admitted to the contests must be absolutely free in flight after the start has been made. No vehicle requiring any permanent or visible connection with the earth will be admitted.

(c) Xo vehicle can start unless satisfactory to the committee.

(d) All entries will close October 1st. If requested, entries will be considered as confidential until that date.

(e) As an evidence of good faith, an entrance fee of $10.00 will be required, which will be refunded when the contestant occupies the space assigned him with an apparatus conforming to the rules.

(f) Each vehicle shall carry at least one person in its flight.

II.

Competitions.

The sum of $5,000.00, appropriated for prizes, will be divided into offerings for competitions in two classes, as follows:

Class A—Competition for dirigible balloons, open only to that particular form of vehicle.

Class B—Competition for aeroplanes and other heavier-than-air vehicles of an}' form which have no gas bag attachment.

III. Prizes.

Class A—The sum of $2.oco.oo will be given the competitor who. in strict accordance with the rules, shall make the round of the course with a dirigible balloon in the best average time, and the sum of $500.00 will be given to the competitor who. in strict accordance with the rules, shall make the round of

*Rules of competition for this trophy were printed in the August number.

the course with a dirigible balloon in the next best average time. No prize shall be awarded any vehicle in this class which does not cover the full course at least once in continuous flight without touching the ground.

Class B—The sum of $2,000.00 will be given the competitor who, in strict accordance with the rules, shall make the longest or best continuous flight with an aeroplane or any heavicr-than-air vehicle admissible under the rules, and the sum of $500.00 will be given the competitor who, in strict accordance with the rules, shall make the next longest or best continuous flight with an aeroplane or any heavicr-than-air vehicle admissible under the rules. The committee in making its decision has the right to consider the average height, distance, time and general behavior of the vehicle, together with its merits for practical use. No prize shall be awarded any vehicle in this class which does not make a continuous flight, without touching the ground, of at least 100 feet.

IV.

Conditions.

(a) In no event will more than one award be made to any one vehicle.

(b) If it shall appear at the cb se of the trials that two or more competitors have equal records, the Aero Club of St. Louis reserves the right to prescribe a further trial or trials under the same rules and regulations governing the preceding contests.

V.

Course.

(a) The prescribed course will begin and end in or adjacent to the enclosure of the Aero Club of St. Louis.

(b) The course will be triangular in shape and will have a total length of about three-quarters of a mile, the start and finish being made from the home goal. The course will be marked by captive balloons or in such other way as the Aero Club of St. Louis may deem best adapted to define the goals.

(c) Each competitor will be permitted to choose the direction in which to start, but he shall start from the home goal, turn around each of the outer goals, and return to the starting point.

(d) The time occupied in a trial will be measured from the moment the vehicle, entirely free from the ground, passes across the line at the starting goal to the moment of passing over the home goal.

VI.

Contests—How Conducted.

(a) The trials shall take place on or about October 22nd, the exact date to be fixed later by the Aero Club of St. Louis, who shall also have the privilege of extending the time for the tests from day to day, as deemed necessary or advisable.

(b) The average speed of the machines shall be computed for the actual air-line distance over the ground, making no allowance for the wind or the deviations from straight lines to or from the established goals.

(c) The judges may, in their discretion, permit a contestant to go over the course more than once in continuous flight, and in such event the average time of such trials shall be considered the time made by such contestant.

(d) If any mishap or accident should occur to a contestant or his vehicle after the start is made, the judges, in their discretion, may permit another trial.

(e) The time for the trials shall be set by the committees in charge of the competitions.

(f) The conduct of the contest will be in charge of a committee or committees to be appointed for that purpose by the Aero Club of St. Louis.

(g) The Aero Club of St. Louis will provide a suitable enclosure for the aeronautic grounds and defray all necessary expenses connected therewith, but each competitor must provide any special structure or apparatus required by his entry at his own expense.

GORDON BENNETT INTERNATIONAL RACE. St. Louis, October 21, 1907. Arrangements.

The postponement of the James Gordon Bennett International Aeronautic Cup Contest to be held at St. Louis was made necessary by the inability of the Laclede Gas Light Company of St. Louis to supply the proper quality of gas on the date originally set. The race was to have been held on Saturday, October 19th, while the date now fixed is Monday, October 21st. The gas for the balloons is to be supplied from a large holder ott Chouteau and New-stead avenues—a few blocks removed from the ascension grounds in the east end of Forest Park.

This holder supplies a large section of the City of St. Louis with its gas. Ordinarily the gas stored in it is a mixture in which water gas predominates. As water gas has much less ascensional power than coal gas it was necessary to make arrangements for providing coal gas for the race. The Laclede Gas Light Company held that in any ordinary week day the demand on them for gas is so great that they could not possibly put the Chouteau holder out of commission for two or three days.

It is necessary to empty this holder of all the ordinary illuminating gas it contains and then to re-fill it with coal gas made with a special reference to its lifting power. Saturday afternoon and Sunday are the only days, the company held, when it could make this change.

Now that consent has been obtained for changing the date of the race from Saturday to Monday, it is the plan of the gas light people to commence emptying the holder on Saturday afternoon of its regular illuminating gas and as soon as it is thoroughly free of the water gas mixture, to re-fill it with the special quality of coal gas that is to be made for this aeronautic race. The holder will be filled to its capacity Sunday and on Monday the balloons will be supplied from it. In this manner the holder will only be out of commission for general use one busy day—Monday—as Saturday afternoon and Sunday are holidays.

It is the intention of the Gas Light Company to commence the manufacture of special coal gas of high lifting power a month or so before the race takes place. All of the Company's coal gas will be made of that particular quality during this period, so that everything will be in perfect working shape when the time for the race comes round, hi this way, the company expects to give the contestants a quality of gas of considerably more lifting power than is usually supplied them. The greatest pains will be taken to produce the most perfect gas for balloon purposes that it is possible to make from coal.

The Aero Club of France has named Maurice Mallet as their member of the Contest Committee.

Entries.

The line-up to date, as received by cable and unconfirmed, is as follows— ii balloons:—

France......Aero Club of France, 2 balloons. Pilots, Alfred LeBlanc and

Rene Gasnier. Aides, M. Mix and Chas. Levee.

England.....Aero Club of the United Kingdom, 3 balloons. Pilots and aides,

Hon.. C. S. Rolls, Griffith Brewer, Prof. A. K. Huntington, J. T. C. Moore-Brabazon, Lord Royston and Mr. Moore-Brabazon.

Germany.. ..Deutscher Luftschiffer-Verband, 3 balloons, namely, "Dusseldorf,"' "Pommern" and "Schwaben." Pilots and aides, respectively, Hanptmann von Abercron and H. Iliedemann, Oscar Erbsloh, llerr Meckel.

America.....Aero Club of America, 3 balloons. Pilots, Lieut. Frank P. Lahni

(alternate Major Henry E. Hersey) in the "United States," Alan R. Hawley in the "St Louis" and J. C. McCoy in the "America."

Hon. C. S. Rolls, Griffith Brewer, Prof. Huntington, Hanptmann von Abercron, Oscar Erbsloh, Lieutenant Lahni and Major Hersey were contestants in last year's Gordon Bennett.

The entries of Spain and Italy have been thrown out by the Federation Aeronantique Internationale on technicalities.

CHRONOLOGY.

Aug. 6. Bleriot makes two consecutive flights of 122 metres (400 feet) and 143 metres (469 feet), each without coming to r.jst. The aeroplane landed on the ground between the jumps, but continued Pight after running about 12-metres (39 feet). On landing after the second flight the propeller blade and shaft were broken. Equilibrium is maintained by the movements of the operator.

Aug. 9. Elmer Van Vranken, of Gloversville, N. Y., makes a flight lasting: 40 minutes in a dirigible built by the Steele Manufacturing Co. After executing various manoeuvres the return trip was begun against a strong head wind. A short distance from the point of start some one seized the drag rope, and, despite protests,- pulled the ship to the ground. In all, five miles were covered.

Aug. 10. The French military balloon "Patrie" makes a flight from Paris to the country seat of the President of France at Rambouillet, fifty kilometres (31 miles). Making a landing on the lawn, the four officers pay an hour's, visit and start off again at a speed of 60 kilometres (37 miles) an hour.

Aug. 14. The Hague Conference forbids the throwing of explosives front balloons and airships in war, it is reported.

Aug. 18. Capt. Thos. S. Baldwin makes first public flight with his new-twin screw dirigible.

Aug. 23.—Carl F. Myers makes initial flight in his new collapsible dirigible "No. 23" at Saginaw, Mich. An i8-mi!e wind drove the ship a distance of six miles from the start. On the wind lessening, the return was successfully made under power.

Aug. 24. The "Ben Franklin," the largest balloon in this country, makes its initial flight at Philadelphia. It has a capacity of 2,600 cubic metres (92,000 en. ft.) of gas, accommodates twelve persons and carries 150 bags of ballast. Six persons ascend and travel a distance of 160 miles.

Aug. 27. The German military dirigible and the Parseval ship make simultaneous trips, the various manoeuvres lasting several hours. It is claimed that the flights of this day excelled the past work of the French Patrie.

THE NEW BALDWIN DIRIGIBLE.

Captain Thomas S. Baldwin's new airship is a radical departure from old methods in at least one particular. The principal feature is the double propellers, placed one behind the other. Captain Baldwin claims actual increased •efficiency in addition to, in this way, doing away with the torque. The following illustration shows the two propellers.

baldwin's airship.

The engine is of the vertical type, four cylinders, air cooled, weighing 100 pounds, with a rated horse-power of fifteen. Mr. G. H. Curtiss, the builder of the motor, states: "It is evident that when these large engines are used some arrangement must be made to do away with the torque. In some of our •experiments we have had frames turn up in a horizontal position from the resistance of propellers whirling in opposite direction. In addition to this advantage, the twin propellers have a stronger pull than the single propeller. As you will note from the photo, they are placed one in front of the other, and are operated by a shaft within a shaft instead of reverse gears to reverse motion of the rear propeller and turn it at the same speed in opposite direction. It appears to us that with the high speed engines this construction will be absolute!}' necessary on any dirigible balloon."

The first flights at Hammondsport were most successful. In the illustration shown below, Mr. Cur.tiss is the operator. The first public flight was made by Captain Baldwin at Schuetzen Park on Sunday, August 18, in consid-

G. H. Curtiss in tite Baldwin Ship.

erable wind, during which flight, though short, he executed several manoeuvers and found his ship at all times under perfect control. The landing was made within a few feet of the starting point.

AERONAUTIC CALENDAR.

Sep. ii. Conference of the eleven clubs comprising the Deutscher Luftschiffer-Verband, at Diisseldorf.

Sep. 12. Annual Conference of International Aeronautic Federation at Brussels.

Sept. 14. Competition of gasless machines at Jamestown Exposition for

the Scientific American Trophy. Sep. 15. International Race at Brussels.

Sep. 29. Grand Prix at the Tuileries, Paris.

Oct. 2i. Gordon-Bennett International Race at St. Louis.

Oct. 22. Competitions for Cash Prizes offered by Aero Club of St. Louis

and for the Scientific American Trophy. Oct. 28. Aeronautic Congress at Jamestown Exposition. Nov. 15. International Exposition of Aeronautic Photographs, at Paris.

NOTES.

Twenty balloons are entered for the French club's Grand Prix Sept. 29.

Lieut. Lahni has written for Outing Magazine for October an article on "Ballooning and Aerial Navigation."

Cortlandt Field Bishop, President of the Aero Club of America, will sail for America on October 2, on the Kronprinzessin Cecilie.

Both Strobel and Baldwin have announced their intention of competing for the St. Louis Club's dirigible prize.

-1—

Cortlandt Field Bishop expects to bring over with him a new balloon for his own use.

According to "Le Matin," the French government is asking for funds to build three more airships of the "Patrie" type.

Count von Zeppelin is rushing work on his new airship in order to complete it before the International Congress at Brussels September 12-15.

Major B. Baden-Powell's "Ballooning as a Sport" should be read by every one at all interested in ballooning or intending to take up the sport.

Col. Max C. and Mrs. Fleischmann and Mr. Stevens made an ascension from North Adams on September 5th.

Lincoln Beachey during the month of August, at Jamestown Exposition, made 11 successful flights in his dirigible. The U. S. Government has detailed 10 soldiers for duty at the Aeronautic Building.

Col. Max C. Fleischmann, of Cincinnati, has written for the September Cosmopolitan an account of his experiences hunting in Africa and the Far North. Now for ballooning!

While the balloon of Russell E. Gardner, member of Aero Club of St. Louis, was being inflated on August 30. a team attached to a tallyho became frightened and ran into it. The balloon is a total loss.

On August 31 a cable was received to the effect that England's dirigible which has been building at Aldershot for the last two years, is about to be completed. It is said to approximate the type of La Patrie.

From the latest reports it looks as though Wellman will have to delay his polar trip another year. We wonder what will be found to delay next year's start.

E. B. Bronson has written for the October "American Magazine" an interesting description of a balloon voyage back in '74 which lasted 26 hours, a record for twenty-five years, in which he took part and of which he is the last survivor. The article is entitled "An Aerial Bivouac."

J. B. Pursell, of Chattanooga, has been working on a machine somewhat along the line of Santos-Dumont. A fire destroyed the greater part of it a few days ago.

On August 29 a wind storm struck the Iowa State Fair Grounds, blowing an electric wire against Knabenshue's airship, which caught fire and was •destroyed, together with a captive balloon which he was operating.

In last month's "Chronology" it was erroneously stated that Bleriot made a flight of 165 yards. He made one flight of 125 metres and another one of nearly T50 metres, the distance being measured by M. Archdeacon.

Germany is now worried over the possibility^ of France obtaining details of her fortifications, etc., by means of airships. Alarmists are urging the passing of laws prohibiting foreign airships from navigating the free air above German land, and authorizing the destruction of such trespassers by ''artillery or otherwise."

discovery—"Do you expect to discover the North Pole?"

"Not immediately," answered the arctic explorer; "for the present I am content with discovering new methods of discovering the pole."—Washington Star.

Does this refer to Wellman?

Cleveland Moffett will describe in the October number of McClure's the remarkable tactics by which Frank P. Lahm won the International Balloon Race in Paris, when America, competing against the greatest countries of the world, captured the famous Gordon-Bennett trophy, and thus brought it to this country.

Automotor Journal for August 24 has epiite a lengthy article on the effect of wind on the speed of automobiles. Wind screens of various sizes, solid surface and gridiron, were placed on automobiles and time over a measured course taken. The figures obtained at various rates of speed are of practical interest to the aeronautical experimentor.

Joseph A. Blondin expects to start October 12, from Albuquerque, N. M., on a long distance trip in his new balloon, competing for the Lahm Cup. The start will be made at sunset and, figuring on the prevailing winds, the anticipated course is toward northern Texas, Colorado or Kansas. Hydrogen gas will be used and a trial made of two devices for economizing ballast which Mr. Blondin has invented. This should be an interesting trip, especially in view of the rare atmosphere at the start.

To carry out his part of the wager with Archdeacon, Santos Dumont is now at work on a hydroplane which he promises will make 100 kilometres an hour. The boat is cigar shaped, about 10 metres long, with the greatest diameter well forward. A 16 cyl, 12S h.p. Antoinette motor will supply the power.

Of considerable information to the aeronaut was a lecture recently given

in London which was illustrated with moving pictures of various birds in flight, starting flight, landing, etc. We believe this is the first time that an attempt has been made to secure pictures showing the continuous movements of various large birds.

Going the new de la Vaulx portable airship one better, Mr. Myers of Frankfort has devised and had in operation a complete dirigible which is veritably a "pocket edition." The bag folds up into a package two feet square the car forming another 20 x 20 x 30 inches, and the 36-foot frame reduced by telescoping to form a rack 8 feet long by 22 inches triangular section, weighing but 32 pounds. On August 23. at Saginaw, Michigan, this airship, which he has named "No. 23." attempted a flight in an 18 mile wind, against which the 7 hp. motor was not quite able to propel it. The wind slowly drove the ship back a distance of 6 miles where a landing was made at 7 p. m. Later the wind died down and at 11 o'clock the ship was back in Saginaw under its own power.

A. Q. Dufour. of 717 Cass St., Milwaukee. Wis., is experimenting with a gliding machine having the following characteristics: q feet long by 22 feet wide, the two planes being placed 4 feet apart; a rigid tail-piece 6 by 7 feet; elm framework, which he has found to be flexible and tough with small weight: mounted on four 14 inch rubber tired wheels; total weight, 120

pounds; operator, 150 pounds; 6 angle planes have maintained good equilibrium. To obtain momentum the inventor utilizes an inclined runway dropping 1 in 4 feet, 15 feet from the ground at the lower end, 40 feet long. Owing to the comparative great weight of the operator the glides have been short.

Carl F. Myers has for some time past been conducting some experiments at his "balloon farm" at Frankfort, X. Y., for the purpose of ascertaining how long hydrogen gas can be retained in a balloon without appreciable loss, the handling and decanting of gas from one vessel into another speedily and the operation of captives and airships for long periods exposed to all variations of weather. The extremes of hot, cold and rainy days were experienced during the early part of July when the rainstorms even wrecked buildings in the vicinity. Beginning the week of July 4th Air. Myers operated a captive balloon, making a free flight in it in the late afternoon of July 4, landing for the night and starting again in the morning. The balloon was in practically

Photo by H. K. Klein.

Photo by E. E. Klein.

dufour aeroplane.

dufour machine in flight.

continuous use during five days without being re-inflated. Since Jul}' 6th this balloon, with others, has been almost continually inflated out of doors exposed to all weather.

On Monday, July 29, a motor airship was substituted, with which the same evening a Mr. Coughlin, of Dayton, made several flights to learn its control. Tuesday evening the same ship made several flights for further practice. Wednesday the gas from this ship was turned into another of exactly the same pattern and Mr. Coughlin left for Dayton with his ship, where he will use it for exhibition purposes, the other ship remaining out of doors. Up to August 2d the envelope was still tight. The fierce hail-storm of this date, no harm to the envelope and no gas was lost.

CORRESPONDENCE.

Editor, American Magazine of Aeronautics, New York City.

Dear Sir:

M3* work with internal combustion motors has been entirely in connection with automobiles, but the reading of the article on light engines by Mr. Harry E. Dey in the latest issue of your periodical has brought up several points, regarding which 1 desire enlightenment. I realize that motors for this purpose may be radically different in design from automobile motors, for constant instead of varying speed is desired, and the freedom from road shocks permits the reduction of weight in webs, braces, etc.

The present development of these motors has been due almost entirely to the growth of the automobile industry, and the makers have devoted a vast capital of cash and time in the improvement of efficiency. Their goal has been the production of a motor of the greatest power for the least weight, and T should think that the results of their researches might be taken as the starting point in the design of a motor for airship work.

An internal combustion motor derives its power from the action of the heat units contained in the fuel, and the greater the volume of the charge that is drawn into the cylinder, the greater will be the pressure developed by its combustion. The compression of the charge is, of course, a great factor, and the more the charge is compressed the greater will be the pressure developed, for the expansion of the gases will then occur within a more limited space. The advantage of compression, however, does not lie in this to the extent that is commonly believed, for its chief importance is that it provides a means of making the charge more uniform. Tests have shown that even the best of carburetors furnish a most imperfect mixture, and that a considerable proportion of the gasoline enters the cylinder, not as vapor, but as liquid in a finally divided condition. The function of a carburetor is not the mixing of the air and gasoline, but their proportioning, and the action in the cylinder during the compression stroke is depended on to combine the two elements, and to render the mixture more uniform.

The maker of an automobile engine strives to take into the cylinder the largest possible charge, and to compress it as highly as is possible without danger of preignition; to reduce the volume of the charge and to compress it to a greater extent, as suggested hy Mr. Dey, would be against his principles. The limit of practical compression for air cooled engines is accepted as being from 50 to 55 pounds, a higher compression resulting in preignition. Preignition from high compression results in combustion so quick as to be almost a detonation, and this is a condition that must be scrupulously avoided. Combustion by the propagation of the flame, following ignition by spark, is comparatively slow, but ignition by high compression occurs in all portions of the charge at practically the same instant, and the pressure would be developed so suddenly that the piston—or cylinder-head would probably blow through before the inertia of the piston could be overcome.

To reduce the volume of the charge taken into the cylinder means the reduction of the number of heat units available, and a consequent lowering of the initial explosion pressure; the volume of the charge has nothing to do with the extent to which it may be compressed without danger of preignition. Unless the application of an internal combustion engine to the

propulsion of an air ship contains elements so subtle as to be understood only by the initiated, the reduction of the charge as a means of increasing the power would hardly seem logical.

The use of an automatic iidet valve as against the mechanically operated type seems a step backward to one familiar with automobile work, for experience has shown the necessity of providing a positive mechanism. A spring cannot be classed as positive, even when it is kept cool; and when it is enclosed in the inlet pipe, as the spring of an automatic valve mibt be. the chances against its remaining in proper adjustment for any length of time arc greatly increased. The action of a mechanically operated valve is positive, being controlled by the action of a cam, and by a heavy spring that is exposed to the cooling action of air currents, and automobile makers arc unanimous in their conclusion that the automatic valve is erratic, difficult to adjust, liable to stick, and not dependable. It is true that the use of an automatic valve means a reduction of weight, but it would seem to be at the expense of safety.

A long connecting rod will increase the efficiency of the engine, but will also increase the weight. Economy in the use of fuel is desirable, but when it is obtained at the increase of the weight of the engine it would seem a doubtful expedient. Greater length of connecting rod results in less piston side thrust, but this may be obtained with a short rod by off-setting the crank shaft. This reduces the side thrust during the power stroke, while in-creasing it on compression, and as the expansion pressure is higher than compression pressure, the crank shaft may be offset until the side thrust is equal for the two strokes.

The use of steel for cylinders has been the subject of much experiment, for its use in place of cast iron in saving of weight and smoothness of surface are obvious; but the difficulties of lubrication and the tendency to lose a true circular form have precluded its adoption. If the heating were uniform, it might be a different story, but for cylinders of practical size, the difference in temperature between the two ends has resulted in twisting and warping. In this connection, the use of a cast iron piston in a steel cylinder might be questioned, for the difference in their co-efficients of expansion, (untempered steel .00001198, cast iron .00001234) would indicate a liability of the piston to sieze.

As I have stated, these comments are made from the automobile point ■of view, which prevents the free acceptance of the statements, but if the use of internal combustion engines for air ship work involves a deviation from ■accepted principles, I might suggest that the production of a successful and reliable motor for the purpose would be facilitated if automobile engine ■designers could be informed of the exact requirements.

ROGER B. WHITMAN, Technical Director. X. Y. School of Automobile Engineers.

Editor American Magazine of Aeronautics:

Will Mr. Samuel A. King, of Philadelphia, kindly let us know through your columns the dimensions of the balloon he used at Minneapolis in September, 1881.

This balloon was claimed to be the largest ever constructed at that time. It certainly was a beauty, the form being simply perfect from an artistic standpoint, and it v. as a most inspiring sight to the lift}' thousand people that witnessed the ascent.

I have often wondered why this bailorn is never mentioned among the big balloons of the past.

This balloon was filled with hydrogen, and it was the intention to make the trip from Minneapolis to the Atlantic Ocean. In addition to Mr. King there were several reporters and a weather man. They became becalmed after going about half a dozen miles and descended to camo over night in a cow pasture half way between Minneapolis and St. Paul. A gale of wind came up in the night which lasted nearly a week. This caused them to abandon the trip.

My business at that time took me to Minnehaha Kails every day and I well remember the appearance from there of the great dome projecting so far above the tree tops. It was too bad to have a trip that was so well provided for. and started so auspiciou.-dy, spoiled through somebody's fool idea of camping out for the night on Mother Earth.

HARRY E. DEY.

NEW AERONAUTIC BOOK.

The Development of Motor Airships in the Twentieth Century, by Major Gross, the Commander of the Royal Prussian Airship Battalion, illustrated. The solution of the problem of the dirigibility of airships has been more nearly approached by the present successful experiments with motor airships than at any previous period, especially with the Patrie and the Zeppelin. In this exposition a concise demonstration is given of the progress made with modern airships, especially the advantages and disadvantages of the present proposed three types—the rigid Zeppelin, the semi-rigid Lebaudy, and the pliable Parseval. The book is published by Otto Salle, Berlin, W. 30, price 1 Mark. Printed in German.

A REMARKABLE COLLECTION OF PRINTS, CUTTINGS, ETC., RELATING TO BALLOONS AND AERONAUTICS.

This comprises three volumes of loosely bound pages, 14 x 16 in., on which the items are mounted on one side only, and a portfolio containing about 40 large prints, water-color drawings, lithographs, etc., mounted on cardboard 22 x 15, also a miscellaneous collection of music, posters, caricatures, etc., relating to the subject.

Among the items in the collection are:

Genuine contemporary accounts and illustrations of early experiments and the first balloon ascents (1783). Six different contemporary illustrations of Lunardi's balloon (1784). Portraits of the following: Montgolfier (2 different), Charles (3), Dr. Black (2), Cavallo (2), Lunardi (4), Blanchard (2), Sadler (2), Garnerin (2), Green, and many others. Colored caricatures by Rowlands!>n, Cruikshank, and others. Autograph letters and signatures by Green, Coxwell, Simmons, Burnaby, etc. Complete illustrated article on "Aerostation" from Encycl. Londinensis. Many items printed at C. Clark's private press. Full illustrated accounts of Lunardi's and Blanchard's ascents (784L Major Money's descent in the sea (1785), Garnerin's parachute (1802), Cocking's parachute and accident (1837), Hampton's parachute (1839), Nassau balloon. Monk Mason's airship (1843), Henson's aerial steam carriage (1843), Coxwell and Glaisher's ascent (1862), "Le Geant" disaster, Franco-Prussian war, Arctic propositions. Loss of Mr. Powell (1S81L Crossing of Channel by Burnaby (1882), Baldwin parachute (1888), Maxim's experiments, Lilienthal (1893), Andree's Polar balloon, Langley's and Phillips's experiments, etc.

The whole is carefully arranged in chronological order, and forms a complete history of ballooning and aeronautics from the earliest time to the twentieth century.

This collection is absolutely unique, and no amount- of money would be likely to secure a similar lot without years of trouble.

Tt is certainly one of the most complete collections on the subject in existence. It is now for sale at $600.

AERONAUTICS IN THE CURRENT MAGAZINES.

Everybody's for August contains an exceedingly interesting paper on "The Mystery of Bird-Flight," by Harold Bolce. The action of the various birds in rising from the ground, sailing and landing is discussed in a most sensible way. The article is particularly noteworthy for its photographs. Tt is not an exposition of a flying machine but a mere statement of curious facts and to the student of aviation it will provide new ideas.

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With chapters on recent history, personal experiences, and a guide to the practice of Ballooning. ^ Illustrated by photographs.

Published by

W. BLACKWOOD &. SON, EDINBURGH and LONDON. agents for America, AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERONAUTICS

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by the scientific and active members

 

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of the Aero Club of America

 
 

An interesting record of the personal experiences of the twenty-four men most distinguished to-day in the art and science of flying.

 
 

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is announced by such authorities as Dr. Alexander Graham Bell; and this book gives for the first time an authentic summary of the present state of Aeronautics. i

 
 

W() natrpi; ^rs "f Photographs showing im- ~. , . . olmj udgefc, p0i tan/developments in this ne?c science. «pl.oo possl pdlu

 
 

AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERONAUTICS

 
 

142 WEST 65th STREET

 

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american magazine

OF

That Pi

SUMMARY

—Gordon Bennett Interna tional Race—Flying Machine and Airship Competitions at St. Louis—Aero Club of America —Jamestown Aeronautical Congress — French Preparatory School for Military Aeronauts—The Antoinette Aeroplane—The Gammeter Orthopter—International Aeronautic Conference at Brussels — Considerations of the Helicopter — Farman Aeroplane—De La Vaulx Aeroplane —British Military Airship—Malecot Airship—Japan and America — Chronology — Aeronautics in the Current Magazines — The New Parseval — History of Airships — Aeronautical Motors — Notes— Correspondence — Santos Dumont — Scientific American Cup.

VOL I

OCTOBER, 1907.

No. 4

Published by

AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERONAUTICS CO.

142 West 65th Street - r - - New York, U. S. A

price, twenty-five cents

The "SUN" Typewriter No. 2

Modern business methods demand the use of the typewriter in correspondence. To gain a man's attention your letter must be typewritten. Do not waste good effort in accomplishing nothing with long hand letters. Show that you mean business by business-like letters. The "SUN" suits the need of the inventor, the merchant, the writer. Let us tell you about it.

SUN TYPEWRITER COMPANY 317 Broadway = = New York

ree. altitude barometers, recording thermometers, recording hygrometers, statoscopes.

Used by ALL Aeronauts, here and abroad Built by M. JULES RICHARD, Paris, France.

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14 church street, new york. sole u. s. rep.

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Get YOUR Copy of the

Official Gordon Bennett Race Program

NO W

THE OFFICIAL program of the Gordon Bennett Aeronautic Cup contest, St. Louis, Mo., October 21, 1907, will be in keeping with the magnitude of the event. It will be an interesting, superbly printed and illustrated 64-page souvenir, containing pictures of the contestants, their aerostats and of the airships and aeroplanes to be used in subsidiary events, as well as complete records of the aeronauts and an account of former aeronautic achievements.

A copy of the official program will be sent to any address in the United States or Canada on receipt of the price, 25 cents. In quantities of 500 or over it will be sold at a reduction.

As a circulation of 100,000 is estimated and the rates are low, the program is a splendid proposition for advertisers. Send at once for rates and reserve space promptly.

THE LESAN-GOULD ADVERTISING & PUBLISHING CO.

—st. louis, missouri--REPRESENTING THE AERO CI„UB OF AMERICA

In answering advertisements please mention this magazine.

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fn answering advertisements please mention this magazine.

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American magazine of Aeronautics.

published monthly by

AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERONAUTICS CO.

Ernkst larue Jones, Editor and owner 142 West Sixty-Fifth Street, New York, U. S. A.

Vol. I October, 1907 No. 4

American Magazine of Aeronautics is issued promptly on the tenth of each month. It aims to furnish the latest and most authoritative information on all matters relating to Aerouautics. Contributions are solicited.

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THAT PRIZE—ONCE MORE I

It is possible that the Aero Club may merit some of the frequent criticisms that it is not doing what it might for the advancement of the science to which it is pledged.

Of course, as can easily be reasoned by any sensible person, the Club cannot be expected to avail itself of the countless opportunities to finance the construction of machines guaranteed by their inventors to fly on half a trial. This would surely necessitate the assistance of Mr. Bishop's ''Croesus/''

Rut it can offer cash prizes for flights, by gasless machines, of ever increasing-distances. The inventor would then have something concrete to aim at and it would make producers of the many whose energies are now latent for lack of a stimulus.

We trust there is no need of repeating the various conditions now confronting the inventor of aerial apparatus. We believe these have been quite fully sot forth in previous issues.

We suggest herewith a most feasible plan of securing such a prize, or prizes,—■ a plan that will appeal to the business man and the capitalist in the light of an actually good investment.

Let us contribute—200 of us—$25.00 each, making a sum of $5000. This will do nicely as a basis for the future. Offer this to the inventor, in America, who will first fly a given distance, say, 1000 feet, on condition that in case he wins the prize, the two hundred contributors to this sum will share a one-fourth interest in the invention. This gives the capitalist something to show for his investment, the inventor has a cash return for his labors, and we are ail iu shape to form a working corporation. The outlay of each member of this syndicate is ridiculously small but the aggregate is fairly large. The inventor gives but a fourth interest and has a business basis upon which to work. If one member wishes to subscribe for more than one share, that is his privilege.

There are several machines now building or built in this country which give promise of results. There may be some of which we do not know. Of course, it is understood that this is not open to the Wright Brothers.

We want to appeal to our readers and ask their suggestions. Xow is the time— not to-morrow. We have mentioned this idea to several of our friends who are glad to aid. To make a definite start, we add their names.

American Magazine of Aeronautics.

Lee S. Burridge.

Wilbur R. Kimball.

Octave Chanute.

Thos. 0. Washburn.

A. L. Westgard.

Alan K. Ilawley.

William Ilawley.

(Jeorge M. Kirkner.

I))-. C. T. Adams.

('has. Jerome Edwards.

GORDON BENNETT RACE.

On October 21, at Saint Louis, lor the second time since its offering, some of the best balloonists in the world will compete for the Cordon Bennett International Aeronautic Cup.

This now most famous of all ballooning trophies was given, in 1906. by Mr. James Cordon Bennett, the proprietor of the Xcw York Herald, whose gift to the automobile world has done so much to stimulate the sport of automobile racing. LTp to September no. 100(i. there had not been an actual "international"' balloon race.

Many had been so called but it remained for Mr. Bennett to give to balloon racing a truly international aspect.

This cup, of the value of $2..500. and $2..100 in cash in addition, was placed in the custody, for the time being, of the Aero Club of Franc*1 and was contested for the first time at Paris, September 30, 190G. Again this year 31 r. Bennett generously provides $2,500 in cash to the winner, besides the cup. Supplementary cash prizes to the extent of $2,500 are offered by the Aero Club of St. Louis to those contestants finishing second, third, fourth and

cordon bennett international aeronautic cup. Ill til.

Last Year's Race.

There are few who do not know the story of Lieutenant Frank Y. Lahm's victory with Major Henry B. 'Mersey over fifteen of the most skillful pilots in Europe: bow, starting twelfth from the park at St. Cloud, they crossed the English Channel by night, not knowing whelher the wind would change and blow them out to sea ; on over the English towns and villages almost to Scotland, landing finally at Fyling Dales, a distance of a little over four hundred miles.

17

7, 1S77, entered After two years' 1903, as instructor

lieut. frank p. lahm.

Lieutenant Lahm was born at Mansfield, Ohio, November West Point in June, 1897, and became a lieutenant of cavalry, campaign in the Philippines the young officer was detailed, in

of French again at West Point. He joined

the Aeio Club of America but before he had

an opportunity to make an ascension under

its auspices was sent to the French cavalry

school at Saumur. France, as foreign attache.

There, under the tutelage of his father, a

veteran aeronaut, he made many ascents and

qualified as a pilot of the Aero Club of

France.

When the Cordon Bennett race was announced, the Aero Club of America immediately began to look for its champions. The short space of time prevented anyone from going from here and Lieutenant Lahm and Santos Dumont were named by cable to represent the Aero Club of America.

At the last moment before the start, Charles Levee, who was to acompany the Lieutenant, was forced to withdraw and it looked as though he would have to go alone. But Major Ilersey, of the Wellman expedition and at one time attached to the F. S. Weather Bureau, offered his services as aide just in the nick of time. That they were accepted with the greatest of pleasure you can be assured.

It was five o'clock when the start was made in the "United States,'* a balloon belonging to Mr. Frank S. Lahm, Lieutenant Lahm's father. At eight o'clock it began to grow dark and lights twinkled in the little French villages near the coast. The cross-channel trip cannot be told better than by the Lieutenant himself and we quote his description from ''Navigating the Air:'*

''At seventeen minutes past 11 p. m. we slipped quietly out over the English Channel, the end of the guide-rope just off the water, and began the second and most interesting part of our trip. Our direction on reaching the Channel would have taken us out to the southwestern extremity of England, but again the wind veered and we were traveling west of north.

"To describe the beauty of the Channel crossing would require the pen of a master. With a full moon shining overhead, an almost cloudless sky, the balmy air, and, except for the gentle breaking of the waves beneath us. not a sound to disturb the perfect calm, nothing could be more charming, nothing more delightful. With occasional reference to the compass and North Star, we knew our direction was good, so had no uneasiness on that score. Sitting on the bottom of the car on the ballast bags, occasionally looking over to see if the guide-rope was clear of the water, if not, throwing out a scoopful of sand to send us up a few feet, we quietly ate our long-postponed dinner of sandwiches, chicken, eggs, fruit, coffee and other good things which we had laid in before starting. Once a little sailing vessel slipped under ns and disappeared in the night. This was the only sign of life we saw in the Channel. The revolving light on the coast at Havre was on our right at the start, but we soon left it behind.

"At 2.30 a. m. a revolving light appeared ahead of us, and we knew we were approaching the English shore. On coining closer we were able to recognize that this light was on a light-ship. An hour later we were over the terra firma of old England. Soon afterward the lights of a large city appeared on our left. We knew this must be Chichester, in the county of Sussex.

"Then the friendly moon deserted us, and heavy mists covered up the lowlands, so that we lost sight of the earth, catching only an occasional glimpse of the black tops

of the trees under the end of the guide-rope. The first color of dawn showed itself in the east before five o'clock, but due to the mist and fog, it was past six before we were able to distinguish clearly the ground beneath us. We were forcibly impressed with the fact that the English farmer is not an early riser, for the loud and continued shouts of my companion did not bring forth a response until past seven. Then we learned that we had crossed the counties of Sussex and Hampshire in the fog, and were then over Berkshire.

"All morning we journeyed up over England, past Warwick Castle, past Stratford-on-Avon. Then the warm sun came out, heating and expanding the gas in the balloon and carrying us higher and higher in the air.

"At two o'clock in the afternoon we had readied an altitude of 10,000 feet. As we rose higher, our direction changed to east of north. From the direction of clouds at a lower level than ourselves, and of the smoke at the ground, we knew that the lower currents of air would take us farther to the west, so we started down in the hope of being able to change our direction sufficiently to take us into Scotland. A few minutes more brought us to the brown and barren moors, and then the coast of the North Sea loomed up straight ahead of us. It was necessary to hasten the descent, so I opened the valve and allowed a good supply of gas to escape. Down we came until the guide-rope was trailing on the moors. We knew it was just a question of minutes until we should be at sea; but as the wind had changed slightly, we hoped to continue long enough to reach a more settled district, and possibly a railroad station. A few minutes more and we had reached the edge of the moors; then a little railroad appeared to the right, running along the coast. Another minute and a small station was in sight. A farm-house ahead looked inviting, so we decided to land. But T had overestimated the gripping power of my anchor, for on striking the ground it tore up a little sod, then let go, and the wind carried us on. A stone wall served only to twist the shank of the anchor.

"Finally, due to the loss of gas, the car struck the ground in a field a half mile past the house, jumped up just high enough to clear a stone wall, came down again, turned on its side, dragged a few yards after the tugging balloon, then stopped. On striking the second time, I pulled the "rip cord" which tears a large strip out of the top of the balloon. The gas rushed out. and our good steed which had carried us so many miles lost his strength and lay stretched out on the meadow, a flat and empty bag."

Thus was won for America this magnificent cup. The other representative, Santos Dnmont, fell by the wayside after having covered some eighty-seven miles.

This Year's Race.

Unfortunately, Lieutenant Lahra, America's first choice, will be unable to compete at St. Louis and it is expected that Major Henry B. Ilersey, his alternate, will take his place. It is also regrettable that there will be but nine balloons in the coming contest. Spain had entered two balloons, as well as Italy, but on account of their not technically complying with the rules regarding the entries the Federation saw fit to bar them from this contest. Of course, the small number of competitors adds greatly to the chances of each but our own contestants have been most anxious that the number of starters should be as large as possible and have expressed their regrets that the love of sport did not weigh somewhat in judging the irregular entries. Switzerland, also, desired to compete but was late in making up her mind. It might be suggested that the date for the closing of entries be advanced from February in each year to a month or two later.

The contestants this year are as follows:

America—Aero Club of America. Major Henry B. Hersev in the "United States/' 2,100 cubic metres capacity; Alan \\. Hawley in the "St. Louis/' 2,200 cubic metres; J. C. McCoy in the "America."of 2,200 cubic metres. Augustus Post

will accompany Mr. Hawley and with Mr. McCoy will go Captain Chas. De F. Chandler.

England—Aero Club of the United Kingdom. Griffith Brewer and the Hon. Lieutenant Claud Brabazon in the balloon "Lotus II," of 2,150 cubic metres. This is the same balloon as was used by Santos Dumont in last year's race, having been revamished and repaired.

Germany—Deutscher Luftsehiifer-Verband. Oscar Frbslöh in the "Pommern/* 2,200 cubic metres; Captain Hugo von Abercron and Hans Hiedemann in the "Düsseldorf," of 2,250 cubic metres; Paul Meckel in the "Tschudi," of 1,300 cubic metres.

France—Aero Club of France. Alfred Leblanc and M. Mix; Kene Gasnier and Chas. Levee. The names of the balloons are not yet known.

The balloons "United States." "Pommern.'' "Lotus II" and the "Düsseldorf" were participating balloons last year. Major Hersey was companion to Lieutenant Lahm, Griffith Brewer was companion to Frank IT. Butler and Erbslöh was companion to Abercron in last year's race.

The only American made balloon in the race is that, of .7. C. McCoy, manufactured by A. Leo

Ste^ens. alan r. hawley.

All honor to Mr. Bennett, the Aero Club of America, and the competitors L

maj. henry b. hersey.

j. c. mccoy.

Arrangements.

A special Contest Committee has been appointed to judge the contest as follows:

Cortlandt Field Bishop, Samuel H. Valentine,

Maurice Mallet. L. D. Dozier,

Augustus Post, Frank S. Lahm,

Chas. Jerome Edwards, Chas. J. Glidden.

Captain Hildebrandt will supervise the inflation of the German balloons, Maurice Mallet the French and A. Leo Stevens the American.

The start will take place in Forest Park, where special pipes have been laid, viewing stands erected and everything possible done to make the affair pass off smoothly.

Most of those who go to St. Louis will take the "Southwestern Limited''' of the New York Central, leaving at 2 :00 p. m., Thursday, October 17, arriving at St. Louis the following day at 5 :00 o'clock p. m. This train is equipped witb Pullman observation cars, buffet-library, smoking car, dining car, barber shop, stenographer and maid.

The field instruments for the use of the Contestants have been loaned to the Aero Club of America bv M. Jules Eiehard.

*j

Subsidiary Contests.

At the same time, the Lahm Cup, offered by the Aero Club of America, is available for competition, to be awarded to the competitor of affiliated clubs who in America exceeds Lieutenant Lahm's record of 402 miles.

The Aero Club of St. Louis will hold on the following day, October 22, contests between dirigible motor balloons and between "gasless"' flying machines, $5,000 in cash being offered in prizes. Full details and rules have been published in this magazine in previous numbers. The Scientific American trophy is available for •competition.

FLYING MACHINE AND AIRSHIP COMPETITIONS AT ST. LOUIS.

For the first time in history, so far as we know, there is expected to be actual "races" between gasless flying machines at St. Louis. At least two have actually entered machines: Mr. H. C. Gammeter, of Cleveland, with an orthopter, and S. Y. Beach, of the Scientific American, with an aeroplane. Mr. Beach is trying his best to finish the machine in time and it is the hope of everyone that it will be possible for him to be present.

Messrs. Baldwin, Strobel and Cromwell Dixon, the fourteen-year-old boy who recently constructed and successfully Hew a small airship, have announced their intention of competing for the dirigible prizes.

These competitions will occur on Tuesday, October 22, the day after the start of the Gordon Bennett, under the auspices and control of the Aero Club of St. Louis. $2000 cash goes to the winner and $500 to the contestant winning second place in each of the two types of contests. A three-quarter mile course is provided for the airships and a flight of one hundred feet must be made by the heavier-than-air machines in order to be eligible to the prizes.

AERO CLUB OF AMERICA. New Members.

F. F. Fletcher. Newport, TL 1.

G. TL Curtiss. Hammonds-port, X. Y.

Hon. .lames M. Beck. 47 E. (54th St., Yew York.

11. C. Gammeter, Cleveland, O.

Albert C Triaca, 14G W. 5(5th St.. New York.

September Ascensions.

Sept. 5.—Colonel and Mrs. Fleisehniann and A. Leo Stevens in the Stevens 21, 1000 cubic metres, at Xorth Adams. The balloon moved slowiy up the valley over Stamford, Yt. At Hartwellville it disappeared in the clouds. The landing was at Meriden, X. IT., 127 miles. Time in the air, T1/^ hours.

Sept. 15.—Charles J. Glidden and M. Leon Barthou, of the French Ministry of Public Works, in the Aero Club Xo. 2. 1550 cubic metres, at St. Cloud. 11:1(> a. m. Descent between Yevre-le-Chatel and Yevre-la-Allle, near Pithiviers, at 3 :4(> p. in. Highest altitude, 92GG feet. Distance 52 miles. This was Mr. Glidden\s first "rnir" in the air.

Sept. 21.—Captain Charles De F. Chandler and .J. C. McCoy in the Army Xo. 10 at Washington, D. C. Descent at Harmon, 9 miles from Baltimore. Time in the air 2}C hours. Altitude reached. 4000 feet.

Sept. 30.—Captain Chandler and J. C. McCoy in the Army Xo. 10, at Washington, D. C. Landing at Princess Anne. Md. Crossed over Chesapeake Bay during fiio-ht. Distance 20.5 miles.

Membership Cards.

Membership cards for 1907 are being issued to members in good standing.

International Race.

Members are urged to take upon themselves individually to aid in every way possible to make the visit of our foreign colleagues a pleasant and enjoyable one and are requested to come to the Club as often as possible. The club is open every evening. Monday and Friday nights are special "Club Nights'" and there is always a goodly number present. Those intending to visit St. Louis at the time of the race should send in their names at once in order that proper arrangements can be made.

THIRD ANNUAL EXHIBITION.

The Aero Club of America will again this year join hands with the Automobile Club of America and hold its Third Annual Exhibition of aeronautic apparatus at Grand Central Palace. Xew York, October 24-31.

On account of the aeronautic exhibit at Jamestown it was thought that it might be difficult to arrange a successful exhibition, but the Club has met with agreeable surprises and it is not unlikely that this one will surpass the two previous. In addition, it has been possible to obtain all the exhibits from Jamestown.

Among the exhibits will be found the following: Balloons—Nirvana of Dr. Julian P Thomas. Initial of Alfred X. Chandler, America of J. 0. .McCoy. Psyche of J. C. McCoy. St. Louis of Alan ]>. Hawlev. The America and Si. Louis are competing balloons in the International Race. It is also expected to have on exhibition the balloons of the foreign contestants in this race. Dirigible Balloons— Santos Dumont Xo. 9, Smithsonian Institution; the California Arrow, Captain Thos. S. Baldwin; one from Charles J. Strobe!; Xew York. Dr. Thomas; two from Capt. T. T. Lovelace; Xo. 23 of Carl Iv Myers. Acronanlic Molars—Aero & Marine Motor Co., G. II. Cnrtiss Mfg. Co., Prospect Motor Co.. the famous Antoinette motor from Adams Mfg. Co. Full Sized Flying Machines—Orthopter of IT. C. Gammeter. Aeroplane of S. Y. Beach, W. M. lxeil's gliding machine. Models—Airship, C. Bnsclmer; kite balloon and regulation balloon. August IJiedinger; airship, Peter Tkatchenko; aeroplane. A. A". Wilson; glider. Louis 11. Hall; living machine, Carl Ilarhnan ; flying paper models, William Morgan; S-wing aeroplane, William

A. Eddy; flying model helicopter, W. P. Kimball. Fairies—Continental Caoutehoue Co. Kites—Henry Bodeniyer, C. S. Ward well, Silas J. Conyne. Miscellaneous—Bearings, Wm. J. Brewer, C.E.; propellers, Carl Hartman; drawings and photographs of proposed machines; photographs of various balloons and airships, aerial photographs, etc.; model electric advertising balloon, Lord Electric Co.; balloon wireless outfit; an educational exhibit of the American Magazine of Aeronautics; balloon cameras, lenses., etc., C. P. Goerz, American Optical Co. Exhibits are constantly coming in and the list will be considerably longer by October 24. Moving pictures of the International Pace will he shown daily during the Show on the same floor.

The Aero Club has been favored this year in obtaining the third floor of the Palace instead of being placed near the roof as last year, thus avoiding the crush and annoyances connected with the viewing of the exhibits in 1906.

JAMESTOWN AERONAUTICAL CONGRESS.

On October 28-29 there will assemble in the Aeronautic Building at the Jamestown Exposition a notable gathering, for the purpose of presenting papers on the work of the past aeronautical year. It is regrettable that the unfortunate management of this Exposition should have prevented the elaborate plans from being carried out in their entirety. The lack of exhibits has been one result. Of balloon ascensions there have been but two, and a half dozen dirigible flights. To obtain a special building for this particular branch of science, however, was considerable of a thing and we have not been too much discouraged.

The committee has been favored thus far with the following papers:

"The Best Inclinations for the Surfaces and Propeller Shafts of Dynamical Apparatus/'- by T. W. K. Clarke, Assoc. M Inst. C. K.

"Principles Involved in the Formation of Wing Surfaces and the Phenomenon of Soaring," by J. J. Montgomery. Ph.D.

"The Navigation of the Air," by Israel Lancaster.

"Experiments With Model Flying Machine," by Edward W. Smith.

Promised and to be received are the following papers:

"A Device for Extending the Area of Weather Reports," and "Lightning in its Relation to Aeronautics," by Professor Alexander G. McAdie, U. S. Weather Bureau, at San Francisco.

"The Use of the Gvroseope in Flying Machines," by Lieut. Robert Henderson, Chief Engineer of the U. S. S. "Missouri."

"On the First Observations with Sounding Balloons in America Obtained by the Blue IIill Observatory in 1904-7 at St. Louis," by Professor A. Lawrence Botch, Director of Blue Hill Observatory.

"Kite Experiments and Observations at Mt. Weather," by Dr. W. J. Humphreys, Director.

A paper by Mr. S. P. Fergusson, of Blue Hill Observatory.

SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN CUP COMPETITION.

It was hoped to have a contest for this cup at Jamestown on September 14th and there were a number there to witness the trials. Owing to the incompleteness of the machines it was not possible to have the tests. There is now no date set but it can be competed for at any time upon due notice tinder the rules.

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THE PREPARATORY SCHOOL FOR MILITARY AERONAUTS.

FOUNDED BY L'AERONAUTIQUE CLUB DE FRANCE.

By M. J. Sauniére, President.

It was in the year 1794 that the Committee of Public Welfare thought to utilize captive balloons, upon the suggestion of M. Guy ton de Morrean, to observe the movements of the enemy upon a battlefield.

The first trial was made by M. Coutelle with the first company of military balloonist* during the siege of Maubeuge, since when it was tried by Charleroi at the

battle of Fleurus, of illustrious m e m o r y , when be transported h i s inflated balloon, and in the year following assisted at the siege of Mayence. ín 1815 Carnot reconnoitred at Anvers.

Notwithstanding the indisputable services rendered by captive balloons in these various instances, it was necessary for the events of 1870, where the aerial post rendered well-known services, in order that, in 1874, the study of milita r y ballooning should be taken up seriously.

It was then that the founding of the establishment of Chal-ais-Meudon, under the instructions of the regretted Colonel Renard, was accomplished and the complete creation of the system still in use.

Today, for the requirements of instruction, four companies of balloonists, distributed for four years in the different garrisons of the regiments of the

french captive balloon. . 0

engineers, are combined under the orders of Commander A ron, in the same battalion stationed at Versailles, where there is a park complete with shed and apparatus for the making of hydrogen.

At Chalais-Meudon is found the Laboratory of research for experimenting in

connection with military ballooning and the central headquarters for supplies in this connection.

The course of instruction is very complex, because, outside of ballooning, mechanics, and the inn king of the gas, it comprehends necessarily the school of the soldier and the main ideas of the work of the sapper, mines, fortifications and practical bridge making in the engineering corps. Pushing aside the difficulties which are presented under these conditions, the instruction of such a balloon corps, it seemed to the founder of the Aeronantique Club de France that a special preparation for young men desiring to enter service in this branch of the army could be easily organized. There was then created the Preparatory School for Military Balloonist s. now seven years old.

The assistance which this institution has been to the Army could not be better stated than in the words of the first commander of the balloon battalion, Lieut. Col. Ilirschaiier: "The preparatory school of the Aeronantique Club is the nursery of the under officers of my battalion."

Instruction is given the young men in evening classes. The pupils are recruited from all professions and belong to all classes of society and they may follow the course without interfering with regular occupation. The professors, members of the Aeronantique Club, have given for the most part, their services to the engineers in the bailoon department and are old pupils of the school, possessing all the qualities necessary to ably conduct the patriotic work which is entrusted to them and of which they acquit themselves with the greatest disinterestedness and most complete devotion.

The matters taught are relative to the construction and varnishing of the balloons, their handling, management, the manufacture and the properties of the gas. and the use of the instruments for making observations. The practice comprehends the process of filling the balloon with gas. sewing and rope making necessary in the construction and repairing of balloons.

Moreover all the pupils are compelled to practice gunnery and at long distance, (in f!>00 more than 15,000 cartridges were fired).

This program completely realized permits not only the preparing of future military balloon experts but also of developing a taste for aeronautics and creating young men who could become on their return to service, capable aeronauts, having had real balloon practice.

The patriotic work of the Aeronantique Club is then of double value compared with a work essentially commonplace?

lint all the young men who follow the course during the year which preceded their departure to their regiment have not profited equally by the lessons received and a selection is made by means of examinations which they are made to undergo by a commission of officers appointed by the Minister of "War and the pupils who have the best notes are put into a company of aeronautical engineers for a two years' service.

The importance of the school grows daily but not too rapidly, as aerostation seems sure to play in future wars a part of considerable .importance by the presence of a new element of offense and defense, the dirigible balloon.

In the near future a French aerial fleet will be a reality, thanks to the balloons of Engineer Gnillot. and one may be sure that the pupils of the Preparatory School of Military Aeronauts founded by the Aeronantique Club of France will form the best corps of its forces.

THE ANTOINETTE AEROPLANE.

The Automobile.

At the Lein shipyards in Perreux there is under construction a new aeroplane called the •'Antoinette,1' the design of Capt. Ferher and M. Levavasseur, the maker of the motor known by that name. It is unique by reason of the fact that no wires are used to obtain rigidity.

It is shaped like a long fish, with a triangular section backbone of aluminum.

Placed above at the head is a central plane at the lateral extremities of which are two smaller planes, the same triangular system of construction being employed. These two smaller planes are movable for the purposes of elevation and depression. A rudder at the tail guides the machine to the right or left. The entire apparatus, with a 100

the antoinette aeroplane.

The Automobile.

h.p. 100 kilog. Antoinette motor will weigh, with the operator. Captain Ferber himself, not more than 500 kg. (1,100 lbs.). The propeller is 7.87 feet in diameter. It is expected to be finished within a few weeks.

The picture shown is that of the model which, it is stated, has flown very successfully.

THE GAMMETER ORTHOPTER. By H. C. Gammeter.

For several years past I have made a very careful study of the principles of aerial navigation and have kept in close touch with the experiments of such men as Langley, Maxim, Manly and others, besides devoting most of the past Winter in Florida studying bird flight. In this held alone much might be written but as space is limited I will say that my conclusions were, that as Nature exemplifies the highest type of perfection, I deemed it advisable to copy it as near as practicable for a beginning ami thereafter modify it to suit conditions.

The wonderful lifting power of movable wings impressed me very favorably and appealed very strongly, especially as a means of arising, hovering and alighting. In my first experiment I shall depend entirely upon the wings, both for lifting and propulsion, as of course you will observe that the wings have rigid anterior and flexible posterior edges which latter act as propellers both in the up and down strokes.

The form of the wings is a close copy of Xaturc except the outer three-fifths

Photos by Moore & Brackelt, Cleveland, O.

which are valvular, greatly reducing resistance on the up stroke, and, owing to the angle they take when open assist in propelling.

The feature in which my efforts have been exceedingly successful is the transmission which is not only exceedingly light and strong but very simple and reduces friction to a minimum. This consists of a light 20 inch gear of manganese bronze (preferably steel) containing a ball race cut into its face, leaving teeth upon both sides. This in turn revolves within a rigid split ring held in the frame of the machine and contains a corresponding groove for the balls. This ring at the bottom contains the bearing for a pinion from the clutch which latter is of an internal cone type and controlled by means of a lever adjacent to the steering wheel.

The connecting rods to wings connect to gear from opposite sides and clear the horizontal supports of ring. The wings are hinged at two points to the tubular frame 30 inches apart, from which two diagonals meet the braces from bamboo members and converge at a point in line with connecting rods. Thus it will be seen that the thrust of one wing is virtually in line with that of the other, permit-

ting a strong, light and ideal construction. This has been a stumbling block to many who believed in the superiority of flapping wings.

Only one rudder will at first be used, balanced and horizontal, and controlled by means of a cable to steering wheel, which latter also contains throttle lever and spark advance as in an automobile. The body of the machine is of steel tubing 1G to 22 gauge, while the wings are of bamboo covered with Japanese silk.

Although the last mentioned, yet foremost all through my experiments is the matter of stability. This important subject, without the complete mastery of which aerial navigation can never succeed, has been the great difficulty in all attempts thus far made and when success was finally achieved by Langley it was only after many discouraging failures which, of course, could not be made in a man-carrying machine. My first object was to obtain stability by means of a low center of gravity; means for shifting the weight of operator; and by keeping the area of planes as small as possible to eliminate the danger from wind gusts. More important perhaps than either of these is placing a horizontal flywheel in the center of the plane (this is to be enclosed). It is remarkable the amount of resistance this wheel at 1500 r.p.m. affords against a sudden change in any direction. ' After a careful study of the true gyroscope I abandoned it as being entirely too complex.

Provision is also made for a propeller but merely to test its efficiency, as I do not think I shall use it unless it is deemed desirable to do so after being thoroughly launched in the air, in which event the wings may be held stationary and propeller used.

Dimensions: width 30 feet, tip to tip; length 12 feet, including rudder; area of body, including rudder, 48 square feet; area of wings, 154 square feet; total area 202 square feet. "Weight: 290 pounds including flywheel and fuel; 440 pounds complete with operator. Engine: 7 h.p. Curtiss; weight 50 pounds, 70 pounds with clutch; speed 1200 r.p.m.; speed of wings 75 per minute.

Tests. Owing to illness I had to defer outside tests but shall probably take them up again next week. Tests made inside of building showed very encouraging results. At 75 beats per minute the machine was lifted clear of the floor when the clutch was thrown in but failed to do so thereafter owing to confined area and lost inertia of air. When suspended, the machine showed approximate forward pull of 24 pounds. Transmission worked perfectly but bamboo is not as strong as it should be, owing to being softened in steaming and bending. This necessitated piano wire stays above.

THE INTERNATIONAL AERONAUTIC CONFERENCE AT

BRUSSELS.

The International Aeronautic Federation, organized on October 14, 1905, in Paris, to formulate laws to govern balloon races, trials of dirigibles and flying machines, met this year in Brussels, September 12. To this conference the American delegates were Messrs. Cortlandt Field Bishop and Frank S. Lahm.

Little business was transacted and the affair took the aspect of a social gathering. On the 14th the delegates went to Antwerp where they were shown over the Military Balloon Establishment. In the evening they were entertained at a banquet given by the Belgian Aero Club.

Sunday afternoon occurred the start of the international race which was won by Oscar Erbsloh, one of Germany's representatives in the Gordon Bennett at St. Louis. The distance made by him was G03 miles.

The next congress of the I. A. F. will be held in England.

SOME CONSIDERATIONS OF THE HELICOPTER.

By M. Paul Cornu.

In the March number of La Rcznte dc I'Aviation there appeared an interesting paper on the subject of the aeroplane by XL Armengaud. In this article he criticised the helicopter type of machine and the April number of the same esteemed journal contained an answer to the remarks by M. Paul Cornu.

It will be remembered that in- 1906 M. Cornu conducted some experiments in which a small model was arranged to run along, and be checked in its rise, a telescopic rod which allowed it to rise about 6.5 feet. The machine elevated itself in the air most satisfactorily and maintained a steady course. It was driven by a 2 hp. motor which actually developed 1.5 hp. and the weight of the machine was nearly 31 lbs.

By request we reprint below M. Cornu's reply.

"We note a few objections relative to the helicopters to which we think we can answer, having constructed a number of devices with motors which have given very encouraging results, since they have lifted and operated under their own power, these experiments having been publicly noted and recorded in the Eevue de VAviation. We are completing at this moment the construction of a model of this kind with a 24-h.p. Antoinette motor.

"M. Armengaud doubts that one can obtain as good results with the helicopter since there have not been worked out efficient propellers. This is the experience with all helicopters and is causing further experiments. Nevertheless, the plan must not be condemned for that, for the best propeller can certainly be found.

"In the course of this article the writer (Armengaud) demonstrates the superiority of the aeroplane over the helicopter through this example: the 50-h.p. motor of M. Santos acting upon the propeller gives a lifting force of 145 kilograms (319.65 lbs.) only, while the same motor driving an aeroplane sustains 300 kilograms (661.38 lbs.).

"According to this argument, the aeroplane forms a multiplier and this explains the difference; but if this multiplier were applied to the same propeller, that is to say, by giving a suitable pitch and proper dimensions, we can feel assured in depending not on a theory, but on a personal experiment, that the same motor of 50 h.p.. would have lifted not 300 but 400 kilograms. Objection will be made that the aeroplane gives at the same time forward motion in addition to sustaining power, but with our helicopters we obtain equal propulsion without the loss of any new force. In the aeroplane the sustaining force is a consequence of the propulsion, while in the helicopter it is the propulsion which is the consequence of the sustaining force, and in addition we have natural stability which is so deficient in the aeroplane.

"If the aeroplane were actually superior to the helicopter nothing will prove that the latter will not catch up for the time lost, the former being merely ahead at the present time.

"In the automobile art it was the steam carriage which won all the first races, but this did not prevent them from being badly beaten by the gasolene engine. Perhaps it may be the same in aerial navigation. Between the aeroplane and the helicopter we believe all the more in the success of the latter, in that it is exempt from the difficulties of starting and landing, and has far more natural equilibrium.

"Progress is too often delayed by prejudices and false theories. A'ery often it has been said by even experienced investigators in the art. Tn the present state of air navigation the helicopter is impossible,' but the 'actual state of the science" the investigators nearly always (as well said by M. Archdeacon) modify it every day, and what appears a dream today can actually be the reality of tomorrow; besides, a number of encouraging features have been written us by a number of mechanics who, like ourselves, see in the helicopter the true mechanieal solution of the problem, of aerial navigation. An important communication has been made on this subject to' the Academy of Scienees at Athens by the Naval Lieutenant Tsouchlas and Artillery Lieutenant Hakavas who both conclude in favor of the helicopter."

FARMAN AEROPLANE.

This lias now been completed by Messrs. Yoisin. The total surface is 559 square feet, measuring 32.8 feet in length by 33.456 feet in width. A 50-h. p.

Automotor Journal.

motor drives a propeller 0.8!) feet in diameter by 3.G1 feet pitch. Total weight is 1100 pounds. You will note the curved planes and the large 2-plane horizontal rudder in front (right of photograph).

DE LA VAULX AEROPLANE.

In view of la Yaulx's statements that the gasless machine is impracticable, many will watch with more than ordinary interest the results of his experiments with this type of machine.

A main framework of rectangular section, 22 feet long, has been erected in the general form of a torpedo. Extending outwards ou both sides and up is a rectangular plane, from the lateral extiemities of which extend two other planes, the spread over all measuring 49 feet and provides 437 square feet of supporting surface. Nearly one half of the length of the main framework projects out beyond the front edge of the plane surface. Stretching out behind are two rods carrying the horizontal rudder. Above the horizontal plane is the vertical rudder. The single engine drives two 6-foot propellers located on longitudinal spindles above the middle plane. There are three masts,two at the junction of the central plane and the side wings, and one forming the axis of the vertical rudder. The surfaces are stayed by steel wires converging at the tops of the masts. The total weight of 880 pounds distributed as follows—body of machine 220 pounds, the aeronaut 220, the engine 154, fuel and water 110, parts and accessories 176 pounds.

THE BRITISH MILITARY AIRSHIP.

France and Germany may now have a worthy rival in the aeronautic accomplishments of the first dirigible to be designed for war purposes by the English Government. While the first flight revealed numerous slips in judgment, still none that cannot be remedied.

The first trial was made on September 10, with Colonel Capper, Mr. Cody, an American of kite fame, and Captain King as passengers. The ship rose to the end of the rope, 150 feet several times and was pulled down each time in order to ascertain the force of the wind. Then it was allowed to rise to the height of about 400 feet and maneouvre over a distance of half a mile. After fifteen minutes work the belt driving the fan broke and a descent was made. In the afternoon a second trial took place in the presence of Colonel Templar, a couple of the wings having been removed. In trying to maneouvre too close to the ground the ship lurched and

bent the framework somewhat. At five o'clock a third trial was made against the increasing wind and proved quite satisfactory.

Exact figures have been difficult to obtain and the length of the envelope is given as anywhere from 80 to 110 feet. The characteristics of the airship are as follows; blunt sausage-shaped GO,000 cubic foot bag of goldbeater's skin, having a diameter of 30 feet, encircled by four broad white silken bands which, with the net, support the triple framework; the space between the car and the envelope, 30 feet; a canvas covered, canoe shaped metal frame forms the 30-foot ear, in the front of which is placed an 8 cylinder "Y" motor driving by belts over wire spoked pulley wheels the two 10-foot 2-bladed propellers supported by a tubular girder extending crossways through the car; the motor is high up above the forward part so that the wire spoked flywheel is about in the center of the car. The torpedo shaped gasolene tanks are placed above on an intermediate framework; automatic device for regulating pressure in envelopes; the large hinged wings on either side act as horizontal rudders and a large star shaped vertical rudder is placed in the rear.

SS

m

■ l

aft

7

'1 I I-

MALECOT AIRSHIP—AEROPLANE.

The second week in September a new French combination attempted its initial flight at Meaux. Below the 108-foot, diameter 24 foot, gas bag is a longitudinal plane, 66 feet long having 1938 square feet of surface. The bag is held in shape by means of balloonettes inflated with a fan. A Buchet motor drives a single propeller 10.49 feet in diameter. Beneath the openwork girder which supports this

_ large plane is the

cage for the engine and below this the basket for the passengers. The basket is s 1 u n g to the framework by a rope and is apparently intended as a balance weight, for when starting it is shifted to the rear to tilt the nose up and vice versa. The framework is attached to the bag by the side suspension system.

During the week ending September 14 it was brought out for trial but as the ship rose the cable carrying the basket fouled and some little

IK

The Car.

damage was done.

THE NEW VUIA AEROPLANE.

The new Vuia machine had its first try-out on dune 3 for the purpose of testing its motor. It is practically the old one remodelled, lightened and provided with a new S-cyljnder 24-h. p. Antoinette motor.

The machine is constructed of steel tubing and slung on axles, the one in front being fitted with steering knuckles and the rear axle dead. The axles are trussed and the frame underslung on heavy coiled helical springs. As in the former machine, the propeller is in front and the two rudders at the back. The driver is seated under the motor in the center of the framework and steers with a wheel. The motor is water cooled with automatic intake and exhaust valves. The cooling is by the thermo-siphon system and ignition by high tension jump spark, the accumulator being carried underneath the seat. The propeller is direct driven and the shaft is on ball bearings. Splash lubrication is used.

The spread of the carrying surface is 7.9 metres (25.9 ft.) and the length 7 metres (23 ft,). The shape of the surface is the same as in the former machine. The height of the parabolic curve of this surface has been cut down from a 24th to a 30th of the width of the surface. The curve is maintained in the length as well as in the width. The center of gravity is very low. maintaining the general good stability in former trials. To aid in this and to give greater safety the length of the sustaining surface lessens towards the extremities. The center of pressure has been found to be two-fifths of the distance from the front of the machine. The axis of the screw does not pass through the center of gravity.

The sustaining surface is in two parts that can be closed. Eleven steel tubes spread the canvas wings and are stayed with light piano wire attached at the top to a central arc and at the bottom to the frame of the machine. The two vertical axes are maintained rigid by steel guy wires. The wires are fitted with turnbuekles. The surface of the vertical rudder has been doubled and the horizontal rudder placed further from the center of the machine. Between the rudders and the sustaining surface is a horizontal surface of 2 square meters for automatic longitudinal stability. The horizontal rudder is only used to correct longitudinal instability produced by the increase or decrease of speed as the result of the displacement of the center of pressure.

The comparative smallness of the supporting surface has the advantage that it will resist greater winds and in case of stoppage of the engine the speed reduces-

the new vuia aeroplane.

less rapidly. ''Lilienthal with a plane of 14 square meters (150.7 sq. ft.) and a weight of 95 kilos (198.4 lbs.) maintained himself in perfect equilibrium in winds which varied from (i to 10 meters (19.GS to 32.80 ft.) per second. If Lilienthal carried with his plane nearly 7 kilos (15.4 lbs.) per square meter at a speed of 8 meters (2G.24 ft.) per second, one can make a motor aeroplane carry 14 to IG kilos per square meter (10.70 sq. ft.) at a speed of 12 meters (30.3G ft.) per second."

JAPAN AND AMERICA. By Rudolph Martin.

Author of "Berlin—Bagdad."

Through the progress of the motor airship the power of (Jreal Britain is decreased. The power of Japan however increases as the motor airship progresses. On the neighboring continent to Great Britain there live powerful nations of great wealth and of the highest intelligence in the problem of aerial navigation. On the Eastern Asiatic Continent neighboring Japan there arc no large nations of equal wealth and industry who realize the importance of aerial navigation. The Russians would no more use the airship in battle than they at one time would use the battleship. Xo more would the Chinese be likely within the next decade to land armies on the territory of Japan by means of airships. The great expanse of China and Siberia would be easy to the Japanese plan of conquest. Also tlie most remote cor-

ners of the Chinese Empire could easily be reached by Japan's fleets of airships. Not only in war but also in peace the fleets of England, Germany and France have forced a more advantageous handling of their merchandise as well as the merchandise of other nations. If the fleets of airships of Japan navigated all over China every Chinaman would be bound to respect the power of Japan. The trade with China of the Americans, English and Germans would be in danger of decreasing. The sea power of the far away nations would be far behind the power Japan would have in the air, being so close by. The Japanese would no more need the approval of England through a conference. Japan appreciates to the fullest extent the superiority of her position. The strength of the Japanese fleet cannot be lessened by the hostile fleets of airships of neighboring powers. The strength of Japan does not depend, like the strength of England, on her sea forces. Japan is the only island which can put forth quickly a strong standing army. While the need of a large standing army is felt more by Great Britain as the certainty of the motor airship becomes felt, so the Japanese experience more joy at their large standing army. The motor airship shows them the possibility of putting their army any place in Siberia or China by the shortest possible route and with the greatest speed. The future mobilisation of Japan will be far more rapid than it was in 1904. With their land. sea. and air powers, the Japanese are also in position to lay claim to the Philippines and to place their flag over them. Only through co-operation with Germany, England and France will it be possible for the United States to insure their continued ownership in the Philippines.

Up to the present time there has always existed the possibility that Japan or an European power could blockade the ports of the United States or even land troops. As soon as the United States are in possession of a powerful fleet of airships, the war fleets of the foreign nations would be at a great disadvantage. The airships could clearly have within view a distance of from 200 to 400 miles out to sea. Only, the airships could not go too far from the shore or too far from their supply of gasoline. It is positive that the United States will increase their power on the American continent as the motor airship develops. Up to the present time they have kept out of the conflicts in South and Central America so as to avoid becoming mixed up in an international war. In the future the United States will not only be superior at sea but also on the land. The wealthy, industrious, and sporting United States can in the future carry on a war in the interior of South America solely from the air. The maintaining of a large fleet of airships by the United States is the same as the maintaining of a large standing army. The compulsion of all to serve in a large standing army is not according to the American ideas. As the United States are not neighbors to a powerful nation having a large standing army and appreciating the benefits of airships they have no occasion, like England, to fear a hostile army. The superiority of the American fleet will not, so long as it keeps to the coasts of South and North America become endangered by hostile fleets of air ships. Without extraordinary effort and without urging, the United States will adopt motor airships as a power.

Only with much toil and perhaps not without a struggle Japan will develop the motor airship which offers her such an opportunity. The motor in the air threatens particularly Germany, whose people, however, are far advanced in the knowledge of aerial navigation. But the motor in the air offers Germany, also, a possibility of overcoming the danger, namely, by leading all other nations in the problem of aerial navigation. This offers Germany the greatest opportunity in the history of the World.—From "Das ZcitaUcr dor Motor! uftschiffahrt."

CHRONOLOGY OF PRINCIPAL EVENTS.

Sept. 2. Walter Wellman starts for the Pole in the airship "America." The balloon was towed three miles by the steamer "Express" and then let loose over the Polar Sea. The speed attained estimated about twelve miles an hour. A snow-

storm was encountered, the compass failed to work and after three and one quarter hours, covering fifteen miles, it was decided to land. On account of the lateness of the season the attempt has been postponed another year (?).

Sept. 7. Bleriot makes three trials this week at Issy with little success, despite the new 50-h. p. motor.

Sept. !). Ludlow's kite makes an unsuccessful flight over Hampton Roads, Ya., towed by L. S. Torpedo Boat "Gwin."

Sept. 10. The British military airship makes its appearance at Farnborough. Although a slight mishap to the driving belt cut short the initial flight the ship achieved somewhat of success. In all, three separate tests were made and the various evolutions were, considering conditions, satisfactorily performed.

Sept. 12. The Yille de Paris, the rival of the Patrie in speed, security and manageability, maneouvres over Paris. The former can carry more weight than Patrie and makes a speed of 25 miles an hour.

Sept. 11. The Parseval dirigible carries up the ^Minister of War and other officers at Tegel. About twelve trips made in one day. Ascents have been made almost daily of late.

Sept. 15. International Balloon Pace at Brussels -won by Oscar Erbsloh, one of the German contestants in the Gordon Bennett race at St. Louis. Distance traveled 003 miles. Twenty-two balloons started.

Sept. 17. Bleriot makes a flight of about 587 feet, when the motor suddenly stopped. The machine was dashed to the ground and badly damaged, M. Bleriot being injured about the head. In the start the motor ran along the ground for 90 feet, rose to a height of -10 feet and proceeded at an estimated speed of 10 miles.

Sept. 21. Louis Malecot makes first actual trip in dirigible balloon-aeroplane.

Henry Deutseh, owner of Yille de Paris journeys in it to a shooting party at his Gaillon estate, alights easily, and joins his friends. The '"chauffeur" takes it back to the "garage."

Sept. 23. Malecot makes another ascent but a high wind damaged the ship to such an extent that no further trials can be made with it this year.

Sept. 21. Zeppelin makes a flight lasting four hours and seventeen minutes over Lake Constance and five different states. With both motors in operation it outdistanced the numerous steamers on the lake. The speed estimate was thirty-eight miles an hour. With the Count there were nine men.

Sept. 26—2S. Count Zeppelin continues experimental flights, witnessed by Prof. Hergesell and Major von Kepler. The Government has appropriated $10,000 to aid in these experiments, and it is reported that the Government has taken the outfit. On the 28th the propeller broke. Aeronauts rescued by boats and ship towed to shed by steamer.

Sept. 27. U. S. Government announces its intention of building a dirigible.

Sept. 29. Nineteen balloons start in the Grand Prix race of the French club.

Heavy fog and rain; won by M. De Lobel; landing made in the North Sea; Aeronauts rescued by steamer: after floating an hour and ten minutes.

Sept. 30. Zeppelin makes a flight of seven hours. During that time a landing was made to take on board a representative of the Ministry of war.

New English dirigible makes second and a successful flight. Travelled sixteen miles and attained a speed of twelve miles an hour against the wind. Time in air, free, fiftv-seven minutes.

AERONAUTICS IN THE CURRENT MAGAZINES.

Cosmopolitan for October. '"The Problem of Air Flight." by Waldemar Kaempffert. This interestingly written article is a resume of the accomplishments in aerial locomotion to date, both in aerostation and aviation. Not counting one or two rather important omissions the article is a most instructive one to the general public.

American Magazine for October. Our genial club man, E. B. Bronson, has written an exciting account of the now famous trip of the Donaldson balloon of '74. Of the participants in this memorable excursion Mr. Bronson is the sole survivor. He relates some stirring incidents and one will greatly enjoy reading of his "aerial bivouac."

McClure's for October. Cleveland Motfett tells the story of last year's Gordon Bennett and the memorable trip of Lieutenant Lahm and Major Hersey, a tale which bears re-telling very well.

Recreation for October. Alan B. Hawley has written the "Observations of an Amateur Aeronaut," in which he tells of the joys of trips in the clouds, the cost of ballooning, etc. Mr. Hawley is evidently trying to do missionary work and we wish him good success.

The Strand for October contains an article by Captain Homer YY Hedge, the founder and first president of the Aero Club of America. In this he mentions the best-known airship and balloon flights which have been made since the starting of the Club, touches lightly upon recent events and speaks of the coming race.

Outing for October contains the story of last year's Cordon Bennett written by Lieutenant Lahm himself.

THE NEW PARSEVAL.

The recent successful flights of the new German dirigible balloon has caused excitable Teutonic enthusiasts to start writing all sorts of stories of the possibilities of the annihilation by The Fatherland of tbe other European nations. In spite of all these prophesies one can with difficulty believe that a motor driven gas bag will ever be a feature of the wars of the future.

The peculiarity of this balloon is its propeller. Instead of solid blades, there are four strips of fabric with weights at the end, held rigid, when in motion, by

the i906 parseval.

centrifugal force. At rest they hang down. This is not exactly an innovation, although it is new in practice. A Mr. Hollander, of New York, has had this plan embodied in a propeller for several years. In his device the blades are coiled up inside a cylinder when at rest, the centrifugal force gradually pulling them out through slits against the pull of a spring. ,

Major Parseval states that more powerful motors are necessary to drive against a fairly strong wind. In this new model the extremities have been made more pointed.

THE

The. first attempt at a dirigible balloon was in 1784 when the Duke of (Jhartres had built an egg-shaped envelope, propelled bv oars. Some little result was obtained. In 1834, 1S4S, 1S70, 1879 and 1SS2 other crude attempts were made, mostly without result.

In 1852 Henry Gif-fard devised an airship of a spindle shape and this form has been quite closely followed ever since. A steam engine drove a screw 'propeller. After this came many designs on paper only.

In 1872 Paul Haen-lein's dirigible with a gas engine definitely proved its navigability. An electrically driven airship was produced in 1883 as a result of the recommendation, in 1881, of Albert and Gaston Tissandier.

From 1SS4 to 1885 Penard and Krebs experimented with "La France,*' using a 9-h.p. electric motor with screw propeller and obtained very good results.

Dr. "Woe-Kerf. in 1S96, built a cigar-shaped dirigible and used a benzine engine. This was unsatisfactory and in the operation of an improvement to the engine the ship caught fire and was destroyed. Aluminum screw propeller.

Between 1895 and 1897 David Schwartz constructed a rigid aluminum airship, with a 12-h.p. benzine motor operating a, screw propeller. A flight was accomplished and a safe landing made but the ship

HISTORY OF AIRSHIPS.

By Aeronatus

stevens at brighton beach.

was not able to proceed against the wind. After being deflated the pressure of the wind together with the vandalism of the spectators wrecked the ship. From this time on screw propellers continued in use.

Up to this time the laws relating to air resistance were not sufficiently understood, the motive power under estimated and the action of the screw propeller little known.

In 1898 Santos Dumont made his first flight and in 1902 succeeded in sailing around the Eiffel Tower and back to the start at St. Cloud in 30 minutes, winning the Deutsch prize of $20,000. Up to 1905 Santos Dumont had built fourteen different airships and this number has since grown to sixteen.

At the same period the Graf F. von Zeppelin made some phenomenal flights over Lake Constance in 1900, in the Spring of which year was announced the offer of M. Deutsch of 100,000 francs to the first dirigible to rise from the park at St. Cloud and describe a closed arc in such a way that the axis of the Eiffel Tower should be within the interior of the circuit and return in half an hour. That Zeppelin had no small ideas is evidenced by his ship, 420 feet long. It had the form of a prism of 24 surfaces, carried two cars, each containing a 1G h.p. benzine motor.' In constructing this ship he had little to go by as previous ships bad all been comparatively small. In 1905 his ship was rebuilt and equipped with two 80 h.p. motors.

In 1902 Augusto Severo made an ascent with a 98-foot ship, equipped with two Buchet motors, one of 12 h.p. and the other of 24 h.p. Fourteen minutes after ascending the balloon exploded.

Baron Bradsky-Laboun, in 1902, made some experiments with a 71-foot airship but came to grief.

In 1902 appeared, also, the famous English dirigible of Stanley Spencer, who navigated his airship from the Crystal Palace, London, to Harrow. In September of the same year he attempted to sail from the Crystal Palace around the tower of St. Paul's Cathedral and back to Sydenham. He sailed over and partly around St. Paul's, but did not find it possible to get back to Sydenham. After describing a semi-circle about the cathedral he sailed away to his establishment at Highbury where he executed several maneouvres to the astonishment of his workmen. From there on to Alexandra Palace where he made more evolutions, finally descending at New Barnet, a distance of 17 miles from Crystal Palace. He was an hour and a half in the air.

In France at the same time appeared the Lebaudy ship. From October 25, 1902, to November 21, 1903, it made thirty-three ascents. An accident on landing destroyed the envelope and in 1904 a new one was built. From 1904 to 1905 thirty ascents were made with this, but this one likewise was torn to pieces on landing. In 1905 appeared the third Lebaudy ship, "La Patrie," whose accomplishments are known to all the world. In 1906 this was sold to the French Government. With this ship have been made the greatest successes in airship history, although Germany now claims to have its equal in the "Parseval," and the new English airship has shown up well in the first trials. Then there is Deutseh's "Yille de Paris" which has this Fall been making good flights.

In America many small dirigibles have been built, A. Leo Stevens designing the first, and all have been successful to a remarkable extent, when the general low power is taken into consideration. It is to be regretted that no one has undertaken the building of a high-powered ship, though Captain Thomas S. Baldwin has this year introduced a higher powered motor and twin propellers. The results have been most favorable. The pioneers have been A. Leo Stevens, Capt. Baldwin and Carl E. Myers.

To Santos Dumont actually belongs the credit for introducing the dirigible

into active use. Although his ships have been made in France, one can hardly say that to France belongs the honors. All the credit is due France for the later Lebaudy. but it will be hard upward climb for her if she expects to retain her apparent present lead.

(N. e. Automobile Journal) la villk de paris.

AERONAUTICAL MOTORS.

It is intended to publish in each number a description of the various light motors now on the market which are adapted for use in dirigible balloons and heavier-than-air machines.

Antoinette.

We have been repeatedly asked for a description of this motor and below we have attempted to give the principal points.

Constructed on the "V" principle, the cylinders being at an angle of 90° with each other and 45° from the vertical. The number of the evlinders can be varied from 8 to 24.

Each crank in the crankshaft carries two connecting rods. In this wav the number of bearings in the cylinder is the same as in the ordinary type of engine with half the number of cylinders. In other words, the number of bearings on the crankshaft is reduced one half by this construction.

The engine is reversible by the simple operation of rotating a small wheel on the end of the cam shaft. Thus it may be reversed easier than a steam engine. This reversal is effected by changing the relation of the cams with the position of the piston in the stroke, similarly to the Stephenson link motion in the Steam Engine. One of the 2 to 1 cam shaft pinions is made loose on its shaft which it drives by means of a small clutch mechanism, the position of which can be varied through 90°. This mechanism consists of a loose pin titted into a corresponding hold in the cam shaft spur wheel. This pin can be pulled outwards by means of a knob and rotated through 90° when it falls into another corresponding hole. The ignition timing is not upset by this operation, as the ignition plate is driven directly off a spur wheel meshing with the 2 to 1 wheel in the cam shaft.

The ignition is by special high tension coil with a single trembler. Begularity of timing is thereby effected, and there are no troubles due to lack of synchronization.

The contact maker has internal contacts, and is extremely robust.

The carburation is on the principle of introducing liquid petrol directly into the cylinder through an automatic inlet valve. Each cylinder is fitted with its own carbureter or petrol injector and are all connected to a common petrol supply ■circuit, fed by a small petrol pressure pump driven from the main shaft of the

•engine. The amount of pressure on the whole petrol system can be varied at will by means of an eccentric on the pump. In this way each carbureter receives its pre-determined and all the same quota of petrol, thereby producing the extreme regularity of running for which this engine is noted. The air necessary for the carburation is taken in through the bell mouth on the top of each cylinder. By this system all large air inlet pipes with sharp coiners and bends, and carbureters liable to disarrangement are eliminated. Each cylinder receives its exact quantity of fuel at the time when it is required and without any reference to the action of any other cylinder. There are. consequently, no back pressures in pipes and no starving of one cylinder by the suction of another, and the weight of all parts is reduced to a minimum.

Another fundamental principle which has been followed in this engine is the reduction of piston speed in feet per minute to a minimum. The cylinders are all short stroke, thereby permitting high rotative speeds.

The oiling is by one forced feed oil pump, which is integral with the petrol jmmp, and the speed of which varies with the speed of the engine. There are only two pipes leading away from this pump, and these lubricate all the hearings of the engine and other parts requiring lubrication. The inlet valves are automatic. The exhaust valves are mechanically operated all off one cam shaft.

Constructional Points.

Cylinders.—High tensile' east aluminum-alloy heads securely bolted to cast iron cylinder with a brass water jacket spun on. These cast heads are a special feature of the engine, reducing its weight considerably and forming a combustion chamber of wonderful heat conductivity, the specific conductivity of aluminum

being about the same as that of silver; the cooling water is able to take away the heat units generated by the explosions much more rapidly than in the case of a cast-iron combustion chamber. The cylinder is cast iron turned all over, thereby ensuring equal expansion. Crank case, aluminum casting. Connecting rods, cam shaft, valves, valve seatings, all special high tensile alloy steel. Pistons, cast iron each with 3 rings and concave top. Absence of vibration owing to the large number of impulses per revolution.

NOTES.

G. Ft. Curtiss has been with Doctor Bell at his laboratory at Beinn Bhreagh the greater part of September.

It is said the Tille de Paris, the privately owned dirigible of Henry Deutsche, has cost him $-100,000.

The brothers Wright went to Berlin on September 16th and were "sympathetically received/' it is said.

La Patrie is out of commission temporarily in order to lengthen and strengthen the frame.

Walter Wellman seems to be convinced that he can reach the Tole with his airship "America." On arriving at Tronhjem he stated, "our confidence in our ultimate success, given an average Summer, is uuehanged."

A professional aeronaut descended in a parachute at Warsaw, landing near the Warsaw barracks. He was promptly arrested as a suspicious character. Let us hope this doesn't happen to our foreign competitors in the St. Louis race.

A. Leo Stevens has charge of the instruction of the IT. S. Army Balloon Corps, which has recently been augmented, and is now in Washington engaged in the active schooling of the men.

On August 31st Dr. Alexander Graham Bell entertained his friends at Beinn Bhreagh on the occasion of the completion of an outlook tower, "the first iron structure built of tetrahedral cells/'

It is certainly gratifying to know that America wiil have one balloon of home manufacture in the Gordon Bennett. A. Leo Stevens is working hard on a new "America" for J. C. McCoy. _

The Tille de Paris is again in the air, after being in the hospital as a result of its buckling some months ago. Its first flight after repairs was most satisfactory. The length is 203 feet, greatest diameter 31 feet. A TO-h. p. Argus motor drives a Penard propeller.

E. A. Gathmann, of Bethlehem, Pa., has been experimenting for a long time and has devised a new propeller which, he states, gives an actual lifting efficiency of 85 lbs. per h. p., a 6-h. p. gasoline motor giving a measured thrust on the scale of 510 lbs. A "heliconef" will be built to employ this form of propeller.

The balloon which Messrs. Brewer and Brabazon will use in the Gordon Bennett is "The Two Americas" used by Santos-Dumont in last year's Gordon Bennett as one of our representatives, when it was fitted with a motor and propellers for regulating the altitude. It has been revarnished and rechristened the "Lotus IT."

The balloon detachment of the Signal Corps, consisting of ten men, is stationed at Washington Barracks, D. C. and is receiving practical instruction in the preparation and filling of balloons, repairing, etc., under the direction of A. Leo Stevens. Two ascensions were made during September by Captain Chas. De Forrest Chandler and J. C. McCoy.

The Lebaudy people have cancelled their contracts to build dirigibles for other countries than France, as a result, evident^, of having made some sort of agreement with the French Government. A well-known German rubber concern had a selling arrangement with them for the sale of their airships in Germany and America but this has now been cancelled.

Cortlandt Field Bishop sails for America October 2 on the Princessin Cecilie; Frank S. Lahm and the French team, September 28 on La Provence; Griffith Brewer and Lieut, the Hon. Claud Brabazon, October 5, on the Lusitania.

In stating the distance traveled by the new Ben Franklin Association balloon •on its first trip in the September number we were misinformed as to the distance traveled. The landing was made at New Egypt, N. J., a distance of 37 miles from the start—not 1G0 miles.

The long distance record with England as a starting point was held by Charles Green, Robert Holland and Monck Mason from November, 1836, until November, 1906, when A. Leslie Bucknall and Percival Spencer traveled from London to Nevy, Lake of Geneva, 402.5 miles. The former party landed at Weilburg, in Nassau, Germany, a distance of 372.5 miles.

A good suggestion for the balloonist in the vicinity of open water was made in Foren' Aft some time ago. In place of the usual cone-shaped bag attached to a ring the writer suggests a square, cone-shaped funnel as shown in the sketch, as it will fold up more completely.

Motor Print, a magazine supposedly devoted to automobilism, has for a long time gone considerably out of its way to viciously attack the doings and anticipations of the Aero Club of America, and some of its members individually. There is no reason that we know of why Motor Print should see fit to do this but as most of the statements and characterizations are obviously untrue no great harm will accrue to any except Motor Print. It is published in Philadelphia!

A fifty-five-foot dirigible has been completed by George Yager, Charles and Otto Bayersdorfer, of Omaha, Neb. The frame is the same length as the envelope. The capacity is 8000 cubic feet, with a lifting capacity of 480 pounds. The propeller is hung on a ball and socket joint and does the steering as well as pulling, no rudder—so called—being used. The 7-h. p. gasoline engine weighs 50 pounds and the frame 47 pounds. Its first four flights have been successful.

The floating balloon shed of the Graf. F. von Zeppelin on Lake Constance, was finished the middle of September. This was damaged by storm some time ago. Further trials are being made with the present ship. It is reported that another ship, considerably larger than the present model, is soon to be under way. Several new designs will be tried out, the principal improvement being in the steering apparatus. It is also intended to install a wireless apparatus and a searchlight.

Experiments at Issy during September with a helicopter devised by Messrs.

Breguet and Bidder. Apparatus consists of four propellers in a nearly horizontal plane driven by 40-h. p. engine and as the framework was incomplete an armchair was used for purposes of trial. Although weighing about half a ton it is stated that the machine lifted itself and the aeronaut into the air—"four men being required to hold it down.

We are informed by a letter from W. S. Haskell, of West Berkeley, Cab, that a "National Airship Company," of San Francisco, has in course of construction a dirigible. He says: "The ship is nearly completed. I was at the yards this afternoon (Sept. G) and found a large cigar-shaped canvas more than six hundred feet in length being filled with air for the purpose—one of the workmen said—of doing some work on the inside. The inventor himself was only visible by his voice which sounded from the hollow depths warning me that it was his busy clay and that he had no time to talk. He is very zealous in his undertaking and seems confident of success. There were something like eight men at work on the visible side of the ship and probably as many more on the inside of the canvas. It looked as though they would be able to make a trial trip within a week or two, but, of course, there is much work to perform on so large a structure. The silk is strong and well corded and eross-stitched so that there is no danger of ripping. The bag was held down by weights while the motor pumped air into it."

It is to be regretted that there are so many fantastic ideas for the solving of aerial locomotion, ideas which are preposterous at the very outset and obvious to even the veriest novice. Those responsible seem never to tire of exploiting them— on paper. No business man with money is going to invest in the building of a machine until some preliminary work has been done to bear out in some degree the statements of the inventor. One man, for instance, has been seven years trying to sell an idea for a bird-wing machine, giving his whole time and living upon his children. No model has ever been made and he refuses to make one. He says the drawing proves everything. Such stubbornness would be ludicrous were it not for the fact that the man has wasted so much valuable time and energy which should have been directed along proper lines. They "are not all dead yet."

A new long-distance record to be attempted. J. L. Tannar, A. E. Gaudron and Charles C. Turner, a representative of the London Daily Graphic, are planning to break the world's long-distance balloon record. Mr. Tannars giant balloon will be employed and most minute arrangements are being perfected.

A sea anchor will hang below the car and on each side are air-tight cylindrical floats to keep the ear afloat if landing is made in the water. A few feet above the ear is a platform supporting a canvas enclosed apartment which is reached by a rope ladder. The neck of the balloon can thus be reached from the platform and the food and drink will be kept there. Projecting from the side of the car is a writing tablet and a small electric lamp is suspended from a nearby rope. On the outside of one corner of the car is a "ballast thrower." A lever on a level with the top of the basket simplifies the discharging of ballast and saves considerable labor. An electric bell will ring the instant the drag rope touches the ground. The barometer even will give audible signals of ascent or descent from certain predetermined levels. Carrier pigeons will be carried and released at intervals.

Berlin, Sept. 14.—Walter Wellman has sent the following cablegram to the Lol'al Anzeiger from Tromsoe:

"After the steamer Express cast off the cable, the balloon America did excellently, but an increasing wind soon gave us a hard struggle, and the storm drove us toward some high, jagged mountains near the coast, where the airship would have been destroyed if she struck.

"There then ensued a hard fight between the storm and the motor. The latter triumphed, and we slowly rounded the north end of Foul Island in the teeth of the wind. Our confidence in the America had so increased in the meanwhile that I gave the order to start for the north pole.

"The wind, however, increased to twelve miles an hour, and the snow fell so thickly that we could not see a quarter of a mile. Just then the compass failed to act owing to defective construction. We were completely lost in a snow storm above the Polar Sea and threatened with destruction. After a brief deliberation we decided to try and get back to the Express to rectify our compass and start again.

"It was impossible, however, to keep in one direction, and we were again carried into dangerous proximity to the mountains. Vaniman, the engineer, then started the motor at top speed, and the America moved a second time against the wind, which probably was blowing fifteen miles an hour.

"She circled three times in the teeth of the wind. We saw the Express for a moment, but immediately lost her again. We would have returned to the Express if we could have seen where to steer, but under the circumstances the only thing possible was to try to land. With this idea we stopped the motor and let the America drift over the glacier.

"At the end of Foul Bay we used a trailer filled with provisions and a brake rope. Both acted well and dragged over an ice wall 100 feet high without damaging the provisions.

"After crossing the glacier we opened the valve, and landed on the upper glacier, half a mile inshore. The landing was effected so successfully that material weighing nine tons descended three hundred feet and touched the ice with no shock or damage whatever excepting several bent tubes and broken wires. The numerous delicate instruments were not injured: The self-registering barographs, meterographs, and manometers continued running after the landing. The mantle of the balloon can easily be repaired.

"The America was in the air for three hours and fifteen minutes, and covered about fifteen miles with her own machinery. She made three loops against the wind, proving her power and capability of being steered. The ascent was successful in every respect. The America is from every standpoint the strongest airship and the most durable for a long journey that ever has been built. She held the gas splendidly.

"Later in the same day the Express found us, and fetched the steamer Frith-joff with men and sledges from the camp. The crew of the America lived for three clays comfortably in the gondola while the work of rescuing the balloon was in progress. They could have lived there for nine months had it been necessary. The entire airship, including even a part of the gasoline, was returned to the camp in three days.

"The balloon and the entire outfit have been made ready for the Winter, and three men have been left on guard.

"After this successful attempt we were all convinced that the America, in normal summer weather, can make her way to the pole. We all regard this plan as rational, practicable, and feasible. The thing can be done, and what can be done shall be done."

COMMUNICATIONS.

Aeronautic Motors.

To the Editor,

American Magazine of Aeronautics. Dear Sir:

In reply to Mr. Poger B. Whitman's criticism of my article on light engines, will say, that, like Mr. Whitman, my experience in gasoline engine design has'been limited thus far to automobile work, in which I have had about a dozen years' ■experience as a designer with several prominent companies. I have had, however, some views upon the subject of designing that I consider a little in advance of present practice, and this small compression space plan is one of them. An engineer that would design a steam engine to take steam the full length of stroke, except for some special purpose, perhaps, would be laughed at; and yet, that engine would give much more power than one with a cut-off. Why should a gasoline engine designer, then, do with his engine just, what he would laugh at the steam man for doing? For when he squeezes in all the mixture that he possibly can, and consequently has to exhaust with sixty pounds or more pressure, he is certainly doing the same thing.

Automatic valves are a nuisance when applied to the ordinary engine, but when supplied with a strong spring and given a flat seat, using a small compression space engine, they are perfectly reliable. What little stick there is then is so small in comparison with the strength of the spring that it is negligible. The suction, of course, being very much stronger with the small space mentioned, as the vacuum is then more perfect.

A higher compression may be used with this plan, as the above normal pressure is reached so late in the stroke that the piston is ready to pass over the center, so that by the time the explosion takes place the piston is over the center; and I believe that it is generally conceded that the quicker the inftamation can be made to take place the more satisfactory the explosion, that is, as applied to gasoline, some even going so far as to ignite in two or more places at once.

The small four cylinder engine that I exhibited at the Aero Club Show last year has a compression space of only fifteen per cent, of the total space, and I have had excellent residts from it at ninety pounds compression. At a higher pressure it will run along at a good gait with the ignition current cut off. There is no hammering, however, due to premature firing. Before building this engine I had an article in the Horseless Age expressing my views upon this subject, which was later criticised by a correspondent who predicted all kinds of dire results if the spring ever weakened, or broke. It would certainly wreck the engine. I stuck to my theory, however, tried the engine out with all kind of springs, from the very weakest up to fourteen pounds, the latter was the strongest that the one and a quarter inch valve would suck down, the result is that I would take a step farther and adopt a twelve and a half per cent, compression space for my next engine.

On account of being able to use a higher compression the cylinders will not have to he made very much larger than in present methods, while the rest of the engine would be just the same, as these parts are designed for horse-power, and not according to size of cylinders.

As to the springs of an automatic inlet valve getting excessively hot, there is no need of this occurring, as they are placed right in the path of the excessively cold incoming charge, and, contrary to Mr. Whitman's statement, they can be placed outside if desired, the stem passing through the casing.

1 do not claim that the long stroke will lighten an engine. In my early days I approved of the short stroke. That was some years ago. In the engine in view in mv article. I was not sacrificing every thing for lightness.

The Panhard company have been using steel for the cylinders of their racing

cars for several years past. I have not heard of them giving them up yet. My own personal experience in that line has given very satisfactory results.

1 cannot agree with Mr. Whitman in his statement that the function of a carbureter is not to mix the charge. If that were the case, one form of nozzle would be just as good as any other, while we all know that a wide range of results is obtained from different types of nozzles; also that wire gauze inserted in the piping will often greatly improve the action, due to the stirring up effect received therebv.

HAEEY E. DEY."

AN APPRECIATION.

To the Editor,

American Magazine of Aeronautics. Dear Sir:

. Several weeks ago I received the first number of the American Magazine of Aeronautics. I was very much pleased to know that the United States have at last an Aeronautical Journal. This country has a tremendous number of inventors; the special journal describing different discoveries and inventions of other countries or of other inventors prevents loss of their precious time and mental forces of great ability in investigating and discovering of the things which were investigated and discovered a hundred years ago.

The Aeronautical Journal, besides its great use as a recorder of all events, successes, failures of past time and so on, provides a wide field for discussion of various topics of the broad problem—the creation of the aerial craft and application in practical life for transportation of passengers with safety and necessary speed. This great purpose can be reached by the combined efforts of several faculties of the brains, such as great scientific knowledge, technical experience, extreme courage, perseverance, perfect physical development, sound judgment, good business and organizing abilities. In short—you cannot find now these qualities in a single individual, although you can meet lots of men thinking or claiming they are such men and that they soon will show to the whole world the decision of the problem. Ninety per cent, of them are either ignorant maniacs, believing that only shortage in money hinders them, or swindlers, looking upon air-navigation as a way to get money for their selfish sakes.

For the sound and honest people really interested in rapid solution of the problem there are two ways now: First, to wait until Nature presents to us such a wonderful individual as prescribed above; second, to combine our faculties and forces altogether to work honestly, helping each other and protecting the product, of the work of honest inventors from theft by fraudulent or dishonest people.

What can hinder us from success in the second case? First, the false, exaggerated ambition of inventors; second, the selfish desire "to make money" by invention "in secret." The fal£e ambition, as I noticed in my large persona! acquaintance with a great many of inventors, belongs mostly to very average men, and they are exceedingly jealous of the success of others. Their envy makes them always want to lower and to dishonor the men of real ability and knowledge. The-best medicine for them is sound judgment and open discussions about their "inventions." The selfish secretness is not very dangerous, it shows only that one is inclined to appropriate the work of others, whose articles he reads or the results of their experiments he applies, and does not wish to repay for the things he has gotten. They are not so hopeless as the first class and can be put on the right way by punishment of the public opinion of their fellow specialists.

Ending this letter I would like to remind my fellow aeronauts of the opportunities to be derived from the existence of the American Magazine of Aeronautics: (1) The acquaintance of all Americans interested in Aeronautics; (2)»

the possibility of being in touch with all progress made by aeronauts of the whole world in practice and theory; (3) the creation of professional morality, which will give good assistance to the promotion of aeri-navigation by helping honest inventors and persecuting the swindlers; (4) the best intermediary between the inventor, workman and purchaser. And thus, everyone who is interested in aeronautics ought to help Mr. Jones in his hard work as an editor and publisher of such a special journal.

Yours verv truly,

(Signed) ' F. A. POSTNLKOV, Lt.-Col., Military and Civil Egr.,

Aeronautic Grad.

The Longest Balloon Voyage.

To the Editor of the American Journal of Aeronautics:

It is stated in your first number, page 30, that John Wise traveled, in 1859, from St. Louis to Henderson, New York, a distance of 1150 miles, in about 19 hours, and this statement is frequently quoted as an American record for distance, which practically equals the world's record of 1193 miles, made by Count de La Vaulx, in 1900.

In view of the international race for the longest distance, soon to start from St. Louis, it seems desirable to explain that although Professor Wise may have traveled the distance stated, the length of a balloon voyage is always reckoned as the shortest distance between the starting and landing points, and for Wise's voyage

I find this to be about 870 miles. This distance has been exceeded several times in Europe, and the time which Wise remained in the air has been more than doubled. During the international balloon races from Berlin, in October, 1906, some of the balloons kept afloat about 24 hours, but owing to the fact that they moved in a circuitous course, none of them landed more than 250 miles from Berlin, and this was taken as the record for the distance traveled. The distance traveled by Lieut. Lahm in the Gordon-Bennett race, which he won last year, is officially stated to be 647 kilometres from Paris, which is 402 miles, and not "about 410 miles," as he states on page 42 of his article in the Aero-Club book, "Navigating the Air."

Finalty, it may be interesting to mention that one of the early balloons, carrying only self-recording instruments, drifted 700 miles over Europe. This balloon, which was made of silk or other fabric, lost its gas slowly and so kept afloat nearly

II hours, but even the small rubber balloons, which are now used for meteorological purposes and which burst on reaching their extreme altitudes, may go a long distance. For example, one of these "sounding balloons/' which was despatched November 25, 1904, by the Blue Hill Observatory from St. Louis, fell 280 miles away, the journey lasting only 167 minutes, and the balloon during that time rising to a height of seven miles.

A. LAWRENCE ROTCTL

Blue Hill Observatory, September 28. 1907.

SANTOS DUMONT NO. 16.

Several modifications have been made. Substitution has been made of a three-blade propeller for the old two-blade. The old aluminum framework rested on one bicycle wheel. It has since been enlarged to take an axle with two wheels and this will assist in maintaining balance in the preliminary runs. It is necessary to attain a speed of from 37 to 50 miles an hour.

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RARE AERONAUTIC BOOKS FOR SALE

This magazine will publish each month a list of such rare books relating to aeronautics as it is able to secure.

If you desire any of those listed, kindly send check with your order for the amount stated. Should the book ordered be sold previous to the receipt of your order, the money will be promptly returned.

Astra Castra (Hatton Turner). Royal 4to, cloth, gilt top, uncut, London, 1865............$15.00

An Account of the First Aerial Voyage in England (Vincent Lunardi). Portrait of Lunardi by Bartolozzi and plates. Crown Svo, half calf, uncut, London, 1784. Autograph "V.

Lunardi" on fly-leaf......... 15.00

Travels in the Air (James Glai-sher). Svo., cloth, London, 1871........................ 10.00

Crotchets in the Air (John Poole). 12 mo., cloth, London, 1838 ......................... Soo

By- Land and Sky (John M. Bacon). Four illustrations. Svo, cloth, uncut, London, 1901 2.50

A Balloon Ascension at Midnight (G. E. Hall). Plates by Gordon Ross. Svo, boards, uncut. San Francisco, 1902. Limited edition .................. 2.50

Five Weeks in a Balloon (Wm. Lackland). 12 mo., cloth, N. Y., 1869...................... 2.50

Wonderful Balloon Ascents (F.

Marion). 12 mo., half leather,

N. Y., 1871 ........•......... 2.50

My Airships (Santos-Dumont). Illustrated. Crown Svo, cloth, uncut, London, 1904......... 2.50

The Dominion of the Air. The

story of aerial navigation. Illustrations from photographs. Crown, Svo, cloth, London, n. d......................... 2.00

My Life and Balloon Experiences. Photograph of author. Crown, Svo, cloth. London, 1887 ......................... 2.00

Travels in Space (G. S. Valentine and F. L. Tomlinson). Introduction by Sir Hiram Maxim, 61 plates. 8vo, cloth, London, 1902............... 2.00

Balloon Travels (Robert Merry).

12 mo., cloth, N. Y., 1865 ....$ 2.50

Aerodynamics. Illustrated. 1891. 2.00

Conquest of the Air (John Alexander). 12 mo., cloth, London,

1902 ......................... 2.00

The Motor and its Chief Application, Wings, Propulsion in Air, etc. (Com. of Pat., 1849).

Svo., paper .................. 1.50

La Machine Animale (J. Marey). Illustrated, Svo, cloth, Paris,

1878, French ................ 1.25

Balloons, Airships and Flying Machines (Gertrude Bacon).

12 mo., cloth, N. Y., 1905 .... 1.00

CLASSIFIED ADVERTISEMENTS.

These columns are open to everyone at t. cents a word.

Situations Wanted.

By young man interested in aeronautics. Has studied electrical engineering and is now in electrical laboratory. N. C.

By young man student of aerial navigation. Desires ,to work with some advanced experimentor. O.A.D.

Exhibits Wanted.

For aeronautic exhibition of Aero Club of America, Grand Central Palace, New York, October 24-31. Transportation paid on exhibits both ways. Address Aero Club, 12 East 42d St.

For Sale.

Goerz-Ansehutz balloon camera with or without telephoto lens. Used by prominent aeronauts abroad and offered as prizes at International Aeronautic Photographic Competition. G.

Books Wanted.

Please send us lists of any rare and contemporaneous aeronautic books, pamphlets and prints which you have for sale. American Magazine of Aeronautics.

-—- I

40 A M ERIC AN MAGAZINE OF AERONAUTIC s

Airship—Baldwin's California Arrow—Patented.

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BALLOONING AS A SPORT

By Major b. Baden Powell.

<J With chapters on recent history, personal experiences, and a guide to the practice of Ballooning.

<I Illustrated by photographs.

Published by

W. BLACKWOOD &. SON, EDINBURGH and LONDON. agents for America, AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERONAUTICS

Price Postpaid, $1.10

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Incorporated under the laws ol the State ol New York

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Can be focused at the level of the eye, it takes pictures AS WE SEE THEM

which no other camera will do when focusing at the height of the chest.

For time and instantaneous exposures. The official camera of this magazine

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NAVIGATING THE AIR

by the scientific and active members of the Aero Club of America

An interesting record of the personal experiences of the twenty-four men most distinguished to-day in the art and science of flying.

th\t the problem of aerial navigation has at last been solved

is announced by such authorities as Dr. Alexander Graham Bell; and this book gives for the first time an authentic summary of the present state of Aeronautics.

WO na<rp<! J" of photographs showing iut- ?, ~ , . .

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AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERONAUTICS

142 WEST 65th STREET

A 2_r/ /V%sr)

international congress number

AMERICAN MAGAZINE

OF -

summary

international Aeronautica ceedings—Gordon Bennett Race—The Winners Story—The Trip of the America—Flying Machine and Dirigible Competitions at St. Louis—A new Flying Model—Aerology in Germany—October Ascensions —Notes—Notes of a Russian Military Aeronaut on the ap plication of Ballooning to Land and Naval Warfare— Communications—Light Engines—Aeronautic Calendar— Development of an Aeroplane—Chronology of Principal Events—Aeronautic Clubs of the World—Corre-lence School of Aeronautics in America— le Mystery of Bird Flight—Nationa Balloon Race at St. Louis.

»1 C(

VOL. 1.

NOVEMBER, 1907.

No. 5.

Published by

AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERONAUTICS CO. 142 West 65th Street......New York, U. S. A.

PRICE, TWENTY-FIVE CENTS

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Modern business methods demand the use of the typewriter in correspondence. To gain a man's attention your letter must be typewritten. Do not waste good effort in accomplishing nothing with long hand letters. Show that you mean business by business-like letters. The "SUN" suits the need of the inventor, the merchant, the writer. Let us tell you about it.

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ballooning as a sport

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Only American Institute of Aeronautics. Any kind of gas balloon ascents, captive or free, or airship flights made at any time or place.

CARL E. MYERS,

BALLOON FARM, FRANKFORT, N. Y.

American magazine of Aeronautics.

published monthly by

AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERONAUTICS CO.

Ernest LaRue Jones, Editor and Owner 142 West Sixty-Fifth Street, New York, U. S. A.

Vol. I November, 1907 No 5

American Magazine of Aeronautics is issued promptly on the tenth of each month. It aims to furnish the latest and most authoritative information on all matters relating to Aeronautics. Contributions are solicited.

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LAST CALL FOR THAT PRIZE!

We have constant])' been telling of tlic necessity for a money prize for gasless machines. We have tried to get some enthusiastic individual to devote Five Thousand Dollars for this purpose hut we have failed. We have tried to secure contributions from various people to make up this sum-and have failed. At last, almost

in desperation, we outlined a plan for ¿00 to give -$¿5 each and take a share in an interest to be acquired in the patent covering the machine winch won the prize. With this bait we did manage to secure the promise of ten Aero Club members to join the syndicate (not "skinclicate'"). Three others also ottered their aid.

The possibility of obtaining this prize seems so remote that we express our sincere appreciation of the promised co-operation of our twelve friends following and ask them to consider the matter as if it had never been broached:— Lee S. Burridge, Wilbur 1>. Kimball, Octave Chanute, Thos. G. Washburn, Alan R. Hawley, William Hawley, George M. Kirkner, Dr. C. T. Adams, Ohas. Jerome "Edwards. A. L. West-gard. Henry A. Davis, William Morgan, Ourselves.

NEXT YEAR'S GORDON BENNETT.

There has been a great deal of feeling in the Aero Club over the selection of the representatives of America in the 1!)0< Gordon llcnnetl. 11 is to be hoped that next year an elimination race will be held, which will go far towards the selection of the best men and will definitely prevent any criticism of the action of the committee on selection. The charge of favoritism could not then be brought and everyone would, perforce, be sati-died.

GORDON BENNETT RACE.

Goerz Photo. general view of the park, pommern on the extreme right.

On October 21, in the golden rays of the setting sun, departed from Forest Park at Saint Louis nine balloons, bound for—one knew not where. As the monster globes left the ground and drifted slowly away to the West in the gathering dusk, one felt a sense of awe and nnnaturalness. The scene was an inspiring one, with the fad in e; sun lending a beauty indescribable. A hundred thousand watched the receding spheres out of sight and reluctantly returned to their homes and hotels to wait for news.

From the number of places that reported balloons one might have been led to believe that the sky was a sort of balloon-milky way, but we knew better.

The first word of a landing was from Major liersey. Another long wait before we heard from the English balloon, the second to descend, after making the shortest distance. Then no more reports of landing till the morning of the 23d when they came fast for awhile. By noon we had heard from all except the Isle de France and we were wondering if it would beat the Pommern. At last we heard the news that the Isle of Prance had at last dropped and we pored over the maps for the last time. The race was over.

Perfect gas was supplied and the inflation went on rapidly, indeed faster than the sand bags could be moved. All the balloons started on schedule time and there was not a hitch. Great credit is due the Commission in charge of arrangements and special credit must be given to Mr. Stevens whose direction of the inflation was admirable. Like a general he deployed his soldiers and the filling went on like a well-planned attack. French clubs can no longer boast of superiority in the handling of a balloon race.

President Bishop has been authorized by the Board of Directors of the Club to challenge the winning club in behalf of America.

Order of Finish.

 

These distances

are figured to the exact

spot of landing and are official.

 
 

BALLOON

PILOT

DESCENT AT

MILES

1

Pommern

Erbsloh

Asbury Park, N. J.

872.25

2

Isle de France

Le Blanc

Herbertsville, N. J.

866.87

3

Dusseldorf

Abercron

Dover, Del.

797-35

4

America

McCoy

Patuxent, Md.

726.42

5

St. Louis

Hawley

Westminster, Md.

714-50

6

Abercron

Meckel

Manassas, Va.

690.55

7

An j on

Gasnier

Mineral, Va.

672.79

8

United States

Hersey

Caledonia, Out., Can.

623.95

9

Lotus II

Brewer

Sabina, 0.

360.67

AM E Ii1 C AN MAGAZINE OF AERONAUTIC >S'

7

Prizes Won.

ist. Oscar Erbsloh, Gordon Bennett Cup and $2500, given by Mr. Bennett. 2nd. Alfred Leblanc, $1000, given by business interests of St. Louis. 3rd. Von Abercron, $750, given by business interests of St. Louis. 4th. McCoy, $500, given b)r business interests of St Louis. 5th. Hawley, $250, given by business interests of St. Louis.

In addition, the contestants finishing first, second and third receive one-half, one-third and one-sixth, respectively, of the entrance fees. All contestants

will receive medals.

chart showing general direction travelled by balloons. numbers refer to order of finish

New Records Established.

Record duration in balloon races by balloon " Isle de France," 44 hour* and 5 minutes.

Record distance in the United States, measured in a straight line, beating former record of 870 miles made by John Wise, by about 2 miles.

World's Records.

Record distance, 1193 miles, held by Henry de la Vaulx, Paris to Russia, October 9, 1900.

Record duration, 52 hours, held by Dr. Kurt and Dr. Alfred Wegener,. April 5-7, 1906.

STORY OF WINNER'S TRIP.

By Oscar Erbsloh.

Oscar Krbsloh, a German wholesale merchant, was born in 1879, at Elberfeld. He served in a cuirassier regiment. lie is known in Germany as a successful horse-show exhibitor. His aeronautic experience dates from 1904. In 1905 he qualified as pilot in the Niederrheinischer Yerein fiir Luftschiffahrt, of which society he is now a director. He has made 54 free ascensions, landing in Germany, France, Belgium and Holland. His most noteworthy voyages were one from Dussehlorf to Scrau of 940 miles, one from Paris to Dieuze, lasting 22 hours. He was aid to Von Abercron in the first Gordon Bennett race. In the balloon used at St. Louis he won the Brussels International Competition, September 15th last, against 22 competitors. After a voyage of 30 hours he landed at Bayonne, France, a distance of 630 miles.

When I left Si. Louis at four oVloek T did not like very much to start first he-cause 1 could not see any other balloon before me to act as pilot. In every other race 1 saw a great deal of the other balloons going up ahead of me for the different currents and the speed of the wind at different altitudes. So ] conferred with my companion. Mr. Clayton, and we decided it would he best for us to go at about five thousand feet elevation, and after going towards the Northwest at the start we turned around very soon and at this height traveled toward the East. That was near Alton and we stayed the whole night at this altitude.

It was very hard for us to keep our bearings by the maps because there were no mountains on them hut only rivers or railways. We crossed quite a number of rivers and cities and the next day, as we did not know very well where we were, we went down to ask people, thinking we could get a correct answer as many papers had instructed the people to answer immediately to the aeronauts if they asked. But when we shouted down. "What is the name of yonr town,' or "what is the name ofthe next railway station," they answered, "Where did you come from ?" And when we told them we came from St. Louis they wanted to know, "Where are you going When we asked them the third time we were so far away that we could not understand what they answered. So that it was very hard to tell where we were. Sometimes a woman was standing in the house ose\r bkbsl1111. loor and didn't know what to do when we

asked her. but just went inside and shut the door. She may have been afraid of us.

About three o'clock in the afternoon we came to a farmer who gave us the right answer and told us we were near Port Washington, Ohio. After that we did not lose our hearings because I knew it was very important to keep our bearings on account of the ocean, and without knowing the exact place where we came to the ocean we might have thought it a bay or large river or something like that and would have tried to cross it and so gone out over the sea. In the evening, at about seven o'clock, we passed over Pittsburg, and it was very interesting to see this large city, with the lights and fires, railways, street ears and all those things, and it was just the hour for the moon to rise. After that we had a splendid voyage.

During the night we crossed the Alleghnnies and it was a lovely sight for us to look down on the valleys and mountains, following the surface of the earth.

Half an hour before we got to Philadelphia we saw the splendid residence suburbs and came down to 500 feet and asked how far to Philadelphia. They told us 38 miles, and then 2(i miles, and we enjoyed the view very much. When we arrived at Philadelphia there was a thick fog in the valley, with the tops of the chimneys apparently about a foot out of this fog. It was early morning and the smoke began to curl out of the chimney tops. Down in the fog we could see the electric cars running lighted, looking just like submarine boats. Passing over Philadelphia at a speed of about 35 miles an horn- we heard the whistles of the factories, which made so much noise that we could scarcely hear our own words. We were forced to go a little higher as in our direction there was the tower of a church. It was not our intention to ascend hut were forced to do so on this account. We had intended to wait until the sun had risen and taken us up himself. xVs we watched, the sun rose and drove the fog away.

After leaving Philadelphia we tried for the last time to get a more northerly direction, because we still hoped to go over Yew York and get into Massachusetts or Connecticut. But we could not find a current towards the northeast, although we went up to to,000 feet and found only a little current going east. So that we saw by our maps that we would get to Asbnry Park. We tried when we came slowly down to get as near to the coast as we could, but as we did not see any place just at the sea-shore fit for landing, we had to come down in the street of the city and landed with o\ir car standing in the street and the balloon lying on some hushes about three or four feet high.

When we got out of our car there were about two or three hundred people standing around, and after ten minutes there were about a thousand. It was such a crowd that we could scarcely stand up, and there was no way to attend to our balloon—we were so pressed in by this crowd that we couldn't make a step. I found two police officers and asked them to take the guide rope and make a circle around the balloon to keep the public out. Then we were able to take the net off and carry the balloon out of the bushes to another place and fold it up. f was very sorry when 1 saw a piece of the net gone. I think a man took it as a souvenir. 1 had four flags with me, and a German who came up asked me whether I could not give him my German flag. I gave it to him. and after ] had been asked whether I would sell my other flags, I told the man 1 would not do it. In the meantime they took them away.

Several gentlemen came up and invited me to go down in their automobile to the telegraph office and said that there was a wagon of the express company coming to take the balloon to the station. When I arrived at the telegraph otlice there were about twenty or thirty there, and the Mayor of the place made a speech and welcomed us to the City of Asbury Park, inviting us for luncheon as guests of the City. It was a very hearty reception. About four o'clock we left for Yew York.

The whole trip was a very hue one and 1 enjoyed it very much. The weather was splendid and the moon very useful to us, as we had twenty-four hours of night altogether. I think it was the finest trip I ever made in my life, and 1 shall never forget it. I hope that I shall again have occasion to come back and make one more trip to this country, it may he that I will come again in two years. If the Americans come over to Germany next year I don't doubt that they will come to take back their prize, and so the Germans will have the occasion to come once more to this counti'y where we have found such a warm and hearty welcome and reception, and we hope to give this reception to our American friends in Berlin when they come there for the next vear's contest.

FLYING MACHINE AND DIRIGIBLE COMPETITIONS AT

ST. LOUIS.

It is to be regretted that there were no gasless competitions as had been arranged for on Tuesday, October 22, the day after the Gordon Bennett Race. Mr. Ludlow constructed one of his kites and tried to get it into the air, towed by an automobile, on Wednesday. The space in the enclosure was too short in which to get up speed, besides not being suited for fast running. After several unsuccessful attempts further trials were given up.

J I. II. Wixon. of Chicago, bad delivered on the grounds a beautifullv constructed huge model aeroplane of distinctive type but it was not unpacked. General regret was expressed that Mr. Wixon did not give a demonstration. Many were interested in the machine as it lay in an open crate.

The same day, however. Captain Thomas S. Baldwin gave two fine exhibition flights in the California Arrow, 'the weather was favorable and the flights were a

Goerz Photo.

captain thomas s. baldwin's california arrow.

pronounced success. Various manoeuvers were executed and at. all times the ship was under beautiful control. "'Jack" Dallas also made a flight in The Strobel but met with trouble. The motor stalled as he was about to land and the wind drove the craft in the nearby service wires. Luckily no great damage was done. Cromwell Dixon, the fourteen year old boy, of Columbus, after a bad staid left the Park in bis "skycyc'le1' and pedalled over the city, landing across the river at Vienna, a distance of seven or eight miles.

On Wednesday was witnessed the pretty sight of four shining silk dirigibles siiling "round. Each one had a designated position in the enclosure, with a guard of soldiers. The course was laid from a line in the grounds out to and around the Blair Monument and return, three-quarters of a mile. A gusty wind was blowing in <he face of the pilots as they started.

Promptly at two o'clock Captain Baldwin climbed on the frail looking frame of the California Arrow and started. A gust of wind caught him and whirled him around. Quickly the ship was again headed into the wind but tacking had to be resorted to in order to reach the Monument. Horace B. Wild, who defeated Beachev at Chicago, sailing the Baversdorfer-Yager Comet, also had a good staid but got in bad currents almost immediately, and circled around in a vain attempt to make headway. The engine stopped and the wind blew the ship swiftly over the Park to the south where it landed a half-mile away.

In the meantime Jack Dallas in The Strobel started low during a calm and was well on his way to the Monument when Captain Baldwin finished his first trip, in 9 :30. Dallas made the course in good shape but just as he neared the grounds the

Goerz Photo. jack dallas starting,

driving chain broke and the ship drifted over the finish and info the open fields beyond, the time for the course being- 8 :50.

Lincoln Beachev then started easily and travelled in a nearly direct line, out and back, doing it in 1:15. During an intermission the Ludlow kite was brought out and towed by an automobile several times within the enclosure in a useless attempt to get it in the air. The confined space and roughness of the ground both tended to defeat the trials.

The restless crowd was anxious to see the dirigibles race again and Captain Baldwin, thoroughly aroused by his defeat in the first series, made his second start. The wind was much worse this time and lie could not even get to the Monument. After heading again and again into the wind without making much progress forward he gave it up and made his descent.

In another attempt to lower the record set by Beachev in his iirst flight, Dallas started for the second time but. while lessening his own former time, failed to touch Beachey's. After Baldwin's second trip the Arrow was taken to the tent and the bag removed and transferred to a new and untried frame, with two 2-bladed

propellers and a 20-horsepower engine. After the net was attached it was found that in the haste of building this new frame and installing a heavier motor in the two weeks left before the race after the idea came into mind, that there had been an error in judgment in the placing of the motor to preserve balance and the bag had to be taken off and re-attached to the old frame. G. II. Curtiss had intended to ride in this third trip with the new frame and engine. The transfer was rushed and soon Baldwin was off on his third trip, doing much better this time and lowering Beachey's record by 10 seconds.

Dallas started again and almost immediately after, Beachey; the former on the third trip, Beachey on his second. Over the top of the St. Louis Aero Club house could be seen the two ships, end on, one going, the other coming. When Dallas crossed the line again in (J. 10 he stood the winner, but his victory was short lived. Straight as an arrow and with the speed of a bird came Beachey, with a record of 4:40. The landing was prettily made and the enthusiasm of the great crowd that filled the reviewing stands and blocked the wide drives knew no bounds.

Goerz Photo. r.tNCoi.n beachey descending.

Cheer after cheer went up when the winner's time was announced. America had never seen such a demonstration of airships before, whether in number or flights.

As the crowds left. Wild could be seen struggling back to his tent. The numerous starts and landings he had made in his game elfort to regain the enclosure had lost him a third of his gas and the hag could he seen flapping up and down in waves as the operator tilted it up or down. At last he descended almost in front of his tent, just in time to get an ovation.

Universal sympathy was expressed for the veteran Captain Baldwin who is so well-known in St. Louis, but fate just seemed to be perverse. As the sun neared the horizon the wind became less and less and when Beachey started on his second and last flight there was hardly a breath of air. A nasty pull' seemed to spring

up each time Baldwin started—none of the others had that ill luck to as great a degree.

Of the $2,500 offered in prizes, $1,500 goes to Beachev, $750 to Jack Dallas, and $250 to Captain Baldwin. Cromwell Dixon also received a purse of $375 from the St. Louis Club. Following is the order of finish and time. It is to be noted that the best records were made in the last flights later in the afternoon.

Operator. Time.

Baldwin ................................................9 m. 30 s.

Wild.................................................Did not finish.

Dallas...................................................8 in. 50 s.

Beachev ................................................ 7 m. 15 s.

Baldwin, second trial............................Did not cover course.

Dallas, second trial .......................................7 m. 23 s.

Baldwin, third trial .......................................7 m. 5 s.

Dallas, third trial.........................................G m. 10 s.

Beachev. second trial ......................................4 m. 40 s.

Points of Interest.

California Arrow.—Envelope 0,000 cu. ft. capacity, length 5G ft., diam. IS ft., silk; Curtiss 4-cyl., air-cooled engine. 15-hp., weight 100 lbs., 1,500 r. p. m.; 2-bladed propeller, canvas, 10 ft. diameter; spruce triangular frame, cable stayed, weight 75 lbs.; no ballast carried; weight of operator 210 lbs.

The Strobel.—Envelope 6,000 cu. ft. capacity, length 52 ft., diam. 15 ft., silk; own make of engine. 4-cyl., air-cooled, 10-hp., 75 lbs., 1,500 r. p. m.; 2-bladed

cromwell dixon's skycycle.

propeller, canvas; spruce laminated triangular frame, 42 ft. long, steel wire stayed; rudder has horizontal planes.

The Beaehey.—Envelope 37 ft. long, silk; motor and frame same as The Strobel; 2-bladed propeller, with blades about a foot square, of wood, screwed on the ends of the arms.

The California Twin Screw.—Envelope same as California Arrow; 4-cylinder

14 AM EU IC AN MAGAZINE OF AERONAUTICS

Curtis* air-cooled 20-hp. motor, weight 110 lbs.. 1,350 r. p. m. ; frame weighs 105 lbs.; two 2-bladed propellers, f) ft. diam.. turning in opposite directions.

The Comet.—Envelope 10.000 cubic feet capacity, length 55 ft., diameter I8V2 ft., silk; frame spruce, length 40 ft.; engine 7-hp., weight 4-1 lbs., rebuilt Curtiss 2-cylinder opposed, no crank case.

Cromwell Dixon Skycycle.—Envelope 40 ft. long, diameter 17 ft.; the frame consists of two strips bowed like the gunwale of a boat, with a bicycle frame with pedals hung about in the center, chain drive to 2-bladed propeller.

A NEW FLYING MODEL.

George A. Lawrence, of Sayre, La., who has been experimenting for a considerable length of time, seems to have succeeded very well thus far with his models. Mr. Lawrence has made the following statement to this magazine:

"With the large model illustrated below 1 have succeeded in making several very successful flights. On October 1st it made seven small flights, the longest

being a little over 200 feet, at a height of about 15 feet. Another flight was made on October ft of about 60 feet, during which flight the above photograph was made, and also one of less distance. The object of these low flights was to test the efficiency of the rudder, the test proving entirely satisfactory.

"The 4-cylinder, 2-cycle, 60-h.p., G50 r. p. m. engine for the large machine is one of my own design and construction and will be completed in the early spring. Xearly all the supporting surfaces can be adjusted to any degree of angle while the machine is in flight. The weight will approximate US0 pounds, including myself as operator, supported by about 1.100 square feet of sin-face. The spread from tip to tip of wings will be 37 feet, 28 feet from front to rear, and 18 feet in height from top of plane to the wheel base. There are three vertical and four horizontal rudders. The machine is also equipped with a 9-h.p. emergency engine, located in the rear, for safety in forward gliding to the eartb in case of accident to the big one. The propeller is 3 ft. in diameter and will revolve at 1.500 r. p. m... as J don't want any more than 50 or (¡0 pounds pressure forward."

the lawrence model in flight.

FLASHLIGHT OK CONGRESS From left to right, front row: Kimball, Hammer, Zalim, Hewitt, Chester, Moore, Allen, Post, Jones.

INTERNATIONAL AERONAUTICAL CONGRESS.

President: Professor Willis L. Moore. Secretary : Dr. Albert Francis Zahm. Chairman Gen'l Committee : Wm. j. Hammer. Chairman Executive Com.: augustus Po.st..^ Sec'y Committees : ernest La Rue jones.

Summary of Meeting.

Morning Session, October 28.

The meeting was called to order by the Chairman of the General Committee. Mr. William .J. Hammer, at 11 o'clock in the morning, in the Assembly Room of the Automobile Club of America, New York.

Mr. Hammer explained that on account- of the close proximity of the dates of the Gordon Bennett International Aeronautic Race, the Annual Aero Club Show, and the Congress, the previous removal of the entire aeronautic exhibit from Jamestown Exposition to the Exhibition at .Yew York and the improbability of securing" an attendance at Jamestown, it had been decided by the officers of the Congress to hold its sessions in Xew York on the dates scheduled.

The Chairman then introduced the President of the Congress, Professor Willis L. Moore, Chief United States Weather Bureau, who addressed the meeting, rem ling' portions of his paper, a "General Resume of Aeronautics."

Messrs. J. C. McCoy, Alfred Leblanc. Rene Gasnier, and Major Henry B. Kersey, were then called upon in turn by the President and cheerfully responded with accounts of their trips in the ({onion Bennett Race at St. Louis.

Admiral C. M. Chester was introduced and read a very interesting paper. "The Airship for the Navy." a consideration of the aid which an airship would be to the Xavv in time of war.

Afternoon Session, October 28.

General James Allen, Chief Signal Officer of the United Stales Army was next introduced by the President. General Alien told of the present activity of the Signal Corps in aeronautic work and of its plans for the future as now under way.

A committee of three, Messrs. J. C. McCoy, Professor A. Lawrence Rotch, and Carl E. Myers, upon motion duly seconded and unanimously carried, was appointed to draft a resolution expressing the sense of the meeting as regards the urging of the United States Congress for an appropriation for aeronautical work in the Army. The following resolution was subsequently submitted and unanimously approved and a copy ordered transmitted to President Roosevelt: ".Resolved, by the International Aeronautical Congress assembled together at New York, that the President of the United States be requested to call the attention of Congress to the advisability of providing the departments of the Government charged with these duties, funds sufficient to establish aeronautical plants commensurate with those of other nations.''

At the request of the President, Major George 0. Squier, of the United States Signal Corps at Fort Leavenworth, Kans., supplemented the remarks of General Allen by a general review of the advantages of an aeronautic division in active operations.

A general discussion of the properties of coal and hydrogen gases, the availability and cost of each, their manufacture, et cetera, then followed.

Mr. Carl E. Myers was called upon and read his paper, "Hydrogen Gas Ballooning/' a summary of his experience with hydrogen for balloons.

The President next called upon Mr. Wilbur P. Kimball, who told of the recent progress abroad with gasless flying machines and of his experiments with a model helicopter.

The possibility of aeroplane flight without motor was discussed by Elias E. Pies, who has been experimenting toward this end.

llerr Paul Meckel, the third representative of the German aero club in the Cordon Bennett Pace, then gave his story of the trip, followed by Professor Moore's remarks on the occasion of the Gordon Bennett Race being held in this country this year and its tranference to Germany in 1908.

A telegram was read from Lieut.-Col. William A. Glassford, expressing his regret at not being able to be present to read his paper, and the President called upon Mr. Gustave Whitehead, who told of the active experimenting now in progress in the United States, the possibilities of success in the near future, and his own work and plans.

Doctor A. E. Zahm presented the following papers, in full or by abstract: "Soaring Flight," by Octave Cbanute; "LTse of the Gyroscope in Flying Machines," by Lieut. Robert Henderson. Chief Engineer, U. S. S. Missouri; "Some Model Aéroplane Experiences and Details of a Man-Carrying Aeroplane."1 by A. Y. Roe, member of the Aero Club of the United Kingdom; "Experiments with Model Flying Machine," by Edward W. Smith, University of Pennsylvania; "The Best Inclinations for the Surfaces and Propeller Shafts of Dynamical Airships," by T. W. K. Clarke, Associate Member Inst. C. E., Surrey, England ; "Curvature a Relative Term," by George A. Spratt ; "Equilibrium and Control of Aeroplanes," hv L. J. Lesh ; giving a resume of same, illustrated by diagrams.

At four o'clock the meeting adjourned for the day.

Morning Session, October 29.

On the meeting being called to order by the president, Mr. Bishop, President of the Aero Club of America, was called upon and delivered a few remarks on the Gordon Bennett Race. After which, Captain Chas. De F. Chandler, of the United States Signal Corps, told of his trip with Mr. McCoy in the balloon race, supplemented by a few remarks from General Allen.

Herr Oscar Erbsloh, the winning German contestant in the Gordon Bennett described his long trip, the landing, and told what the Americans might expect when they go to Germany next year to bring back the cup.

A resolution was passed extending to Herr Erbsloh and his aide, Mr. H. IT. Clayton, the hearty felicitations of the Congress on their success in win nine: the Cup.

A resolution was passed extending by cable the felicitations of the Congress to Mr. Henry Earman on his successful aeroplane flight of October 2G.

Dr. P. Polis, of the German Meteorological Survey at Aachen, who is in the United States to study American methods in meteorological stations, told of the work being done in Germany and of what he saw in our own bureaus.

Dr. A. E. Zahm, Professor of Mechanics at the Catholic University of America. Washington, gave an abstract of his paper left over from the preceding day. "'Wind-Tunnels for Aerodynamic Experiments, their Construction and Equipment," with graphic illustrations.

The succeeding paper, "First Observations with Sounding Balloons in America. Obtained by the Blue Hill Observatory/' was delivered by Professor A. Lawrence Botch, Director, Blue Hill Observatory. This paper brought out a number of questions and Professor Moore stated the plans of the Weather Bureau for introducing the work begun previously by Professor Botch.

Professor A. J. Henry delivered "The Use of Upper Air in Forecasting.'-' giving a general idea of the methods for obtaining date upon which to base forecasts.

Mr. S. D. Mott then addressed the meeting on his work with helicopters designed for the use of meteorologists in securing upper air data.

Afternoon Session, October 29.

Professor W. J. Humphreys, Director of Mt, Weather Observatory, lectured after lunch on the "Possibility of Extending Our Knowledge of the Sun and of Atmospheric Absorption.''

The two papers of Professor A. G. McAdie. of the Weather Bureau at San Francisco, "Fxtension of Area of Weather Beports for Aeronauts/' and "Lightning As an Element of Danger in Balloon Work,'' were read in Professor McAdie's absence by Professor Henry, followed by a short discussion of the use of aluminum coating for balloons and its relation to lightning.

Dr. W. B. Blair, of the Mt. Weather station, was then introduced and gave an interesting talk on "Kite Manipulation and the Becord Flight'' of October 3 ; 23.00O feet.

Mr. E. B. Bronson suggested the holding of another international congress next year and, after general discussion, Messrs. Cortlandt Field Bishop. Augustus Post, William J. Hammer, Professor A. Lawrence Botch. Charles M. Manly, Dr. A. F. Zahm. and Octave Chanute, were appointed to consider the advisability of holding an annual congress "in this country and to arrange for affiliation, if deemed advisable, with foreign international congresses.

Dr. Zahm presented, "Principles Involved in the Formation of Wing Surfaces-and the Phenomenon of Soaring," by Dr. J. J. Montgomery. Professor of Physics, Santa Clara College, and "Obseiwations and Tests of Marvelous Soaring Power of Birds in Calm and Storm/' by Israel Lancaster. Before reading the latter paper. Dr. Zahm said: "In the latter eighties Mr. Lancaster described, at a meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, some remarkable instances of soaring flight which set Professor Langley to thinking about the possibility not only of soaring, but of flying through the air. Professor Langley began his aeronautic work at that time and never after left it off."

A resolution of thanks to the Automobile Club of America was then passed, expressing appreciation by the Congress of its kindness in offering the use of its rooms.

Messrs. Cortlandt Field Bishop, Dr. A. F. Zahm. and Mr. Ernest L. B. Jones,

were appointed a Publication Committee to arrange for the printing of all the papers and discussions presented to the Congress, same to be delivered in bound volumes to members of the Congress.

Dr. \V. J. Humphreys read, in the absence of the author, the paper of Professor Cleveland Abbe, of the IT. S. Weather Bureau, on "Helicopters for Aerial Besearch/'

A vote of thanks was tendered Dr. Zahm for his efforts in securing the papers and his aid toward making the Congress a success.

A telegram of congratulations was read from Professor David Todd, dated at the summit of the Andes.

After being favored with some aeronautic motion pictures by Mr. P. H. White, the Congress closed.

Papers and Addresses Presented.

Presidential Address.—General Resume of Aeronautics; by Prof. Willis L. Moore, Chief of the Pnited States Weather Bureau, Washington,' D. C.

Addresses of the contestants in the second James Cordon Bennett International Cup Pace.

The Air-ship for the Xavv; bv Admiral C. M. Chester, Pnited States Xavy, Washington, D. C.

Our Army and Aerial Warfare; by Lieut.-Col. William A. Glassford, Chief Signal Officer of the Department of Missouri. Pnited States Armv, Fort Omaha. Xeb.

Use of the Gyroscope in Flying Machines; by Lieut. Robert Henderson, Chief Engineer, LT. S. S. Missouri, Boston, Mass.

Some Model Aeroplane Experiences and Details of a Man-Carrying Aeroplane; by A. V. Poe. member of the Aero Club of the Pnited Kingdom, 47 West Hill, Wandsworth, London, S. W., England.

Experiments with Model Flying Machine; by Edward W. Smith. University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.

The Best Inclinations for the Surfaces and Propeller Shafts of Dynamical Airships; by T. W. Iv. Clarke, Associate Member Inst. C. E., St. Catherine, Maple Road, Surbiton, Surrey, England.

Curvature a Pelative Term; by G. A. Spratt, P. F. D. Xo. 1, Coatesville, Pa.

Equilibrium and Control of Aeroplanes; bv L. J. Lesh, 200 Peel St., Montreal, Can.

Wind-Tunncls for Aerodynamic Experiments; their Construction and Equipment; by Dr. A. F. Zahm. Professor of Mechanics, the Catholic University of America, Washington, I). C.

On the First Observations with Sounding Balloons in America Obtained by the Blue Hill Observatory; by Prof. A. Lawrence Botch, Director, Blue Hill Observatory, Hyde Park, Mass.

The Use of Upper Air Date in Forecasting; by Prof. A. J. Henry, U. S. AAreather Bureau, Washington, D. C.

The Possibility of Extending Our Knowledge of the Sun and of Atmospheric Absorption; bv Prof. W. J. Humphreys, Director of Mount Weather Observatory, Bluemont, ATa.

Extension of Area of Weather Beports for Aeronauts; by Prof. A. G. McAdie, U. S. Weather Bureau, 1500 Merchants Exchange Building, San Francisco, Calif.

Kite Manipulation, and the Pecord Flight; by Dr. W. P. Blair, U. S. Weather Bureau, Bluemont, Va.

Observations and Tests of Marvelous Soaring Power of Birds in Calm and Storm ; by Israel Lancaster, Fairhope, Ala.

Principles Involved in the Formation of Wing Surfaces and the Phenomenon of Soaring; by Dr. J. J. Montgomery, Professor of Physics, Santa Clara College, Santa Clara, Calif.

Helicopters for Aerial Research; by Prof. Cleveland Abbe, U. S. Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C.

Hydrogen Gas Ballooning; by Carl E. Myers, Frankfort, IS". Y.

Lightning as an Element of Danger in Balloon Work; by Prof. A. G. McAdie.

Power Required to Drive an Airship; by Prof. C. M. Woodward, Dean of the School of Engineering and Architecture, Washington University, St. Louis, Mo.

Soaring Plight; by Octave Chanute, Consulting Engineer, Chicago, 111.

Publication Notice.

The addresses, papers and discussions presented to the Congress will be published serially in this magazine and at the earliest date possible bound volumes will be distributed without charge to those holding membership cards in the Congress. Others may purchase the volume at a consistent price when ready or may take advantage of immediate publication by subscribing to this magazine at the regular rate.

Following will be found the opening address of the President, Professor Willis L. Moore. D. Sc., LL.D., Chief of the F. S. Weather Bureau, a "General Resume of Aeronautics,"' and those of Mr. J. C. McCoy and Alfred Leblanc, contestants in the Gordon Bennett Race, representing America and France.

President's Address.

We meet to interchange ideas on aeronautical subjects at a particularly auspicious time. In calling attention to the more important achievements in the development of methods for the conquest of the air, and in forecasting the future of this important held of human activity, 1 have drawn liberally upon the knowledge and experience of that splendid man and engineer Octave Chanute. Since the last International Aeronautical Congress, that at Milan in 1906, two practical solutions of the problem of aerial navigation have become established. Several dirigible balloons have been produced which are truly and efficiently navigable, and a dynamic flying machine has been evolved which has flown many times, the maximum being 21 miles at a stretch. Moreover, there have been great advances in meteorology, so that we are now well on the way to the domain of the air.

There have been previous congresses on aerial navigation, more or less international; at Paris in 1889 and in 1900, at Chicago in 1903, at St, Louis in 190-1, and at Milan in 1906. There was also a conference at Brussels from the 12th to the 15th of September of this year, at which papers were read on the periodical movements of air currents, atmospheric dynamics, the speed of the winds, and the varying temperatures at great altitudes. The previous congresses chiefly discussed the means and methods that might be employed to achieve success; they pointed out the conjectured way; and now that success has come, in a rudimental way at least, it remains to discuss further the evolution to be accomplished and the possible uses of balloons and flying machines. The paramount fact is that in order to be practically efficient the dirigible balloon should attain an inherent or "proper" speed superior to that of ordinary winds. Scientific observations in France have shown that at Paris, at a height of say 300 feet above the Seine River, the probabilities of encountering a wind of less speed than 32 miles an hour are 708 in 1000. That the chances of wind of less than 28 miles an hour are 815 in 1000, so that the possibilities are that a balloon possessing the latter speed could hold its own on 297 occasions, or days of the year. The probabilities of winds less than 45 miles per hour are 963 in 1000.1 However, the speed of the wind increases rapidly with the height; the registering anenometers on the Eiffel tower having demonstrated

'Andr6, " Les Dirigeablcs, " Ch. Beranger. Ed. 1902.

the fact that at a height of 1,000 feet the wind is not infrequently twice as fast as it is at the ground.

The dirigible balloon lias now attained a measured speed of 28 miles an hour. Its evolution has taken up over 50 years. Giffard ascended with a spindle-shaped balloon and a steam engine in 1852 and attained 0.71 miles an hour. De Lome obtained 6.26 miles per hour with power in 1872. Tissandier increased this to 7.82 miles per hour in 1884 with an electric motor, while the next year Benard and Krebs attained 14 miles an hour with the same kind of a motor. Then came Count Zeppelin in 1900 who reached 18 miles an hour, and then the sensational flight of Santos Duniont in 1901 around the Eiffel Tower at 19 miles an hour with a gasoline motor, which he was the first to apply to a dirigible balloon. With the hope of improving upon these achievements the wealthy French sugar refiners, Lebaudy Brothers, authorized their engineer, Jlr. H. Julliot, in 1900, to build a new dirigible balloon at their expense. This was first navigated in 1902 and attained 24 miles per hour. Improvements were made in 1903, 1904, and 1905, and in 1906 the perfected "Lebaudy'' balloon was given to the French Government for war purposes. The latter at once ordered a duplicate, "La Patrie,*' with which a speed of 28 miles an hour has been obtained during the current year; and it is stated that a whole fleet of similar dirigibles, five to begin with, has been placed under construction.

Meanwhile the Germans have produced several war dirigible balloons; that of Major Parseval, that of Major Gross, which both have been claimed to exhibit 28 or 30 miles an hour and that of Count Zeppelin, whose immense balloon, rebuilt for the third time, is said by the newspapers to have attained 34 miles an hour. The British Government has also been secretly building a war dirigible balloon at Alclershot. It was first tested September 10 and October 5 of this year, and while perhaps not equal in performance to the French or German airships it constitutes a hopeful beginning.

In the United States the Government has done practically nothing toward building dirigible balloons. This has been left to private initiative and as the only returns possible thus far are from public exhibitions, Mr. Stevens, Mr. Baldwin, and Mr. Ivnabenshue have built and flown small and slow airships. They could have shown more speed if they had built larger ships, but this was beyond their means, for the "Patrie'' is said to have cost $60,000. On the other hand Mr. Wellman has built a very large and moderately fast airship in the daring project to reach the North Pole, and it is earnestly hoped that his third attempt next year will be crowned with success.

It is thus seen that dirigible war balloons have been developed to an inherent speed of 28 to 30 miles per hour. This is not likely to be exceeded very soon, for although the possible speed increases with the size, the danger and difficulties of handling such frail structures increase also. It is probable that the Zeppelin airship, 413 feet long and 38^2 feet in diameter, is on the border of impracticability. The present speed, although inferior to that of the flying machine which begins with 38 miles per hour, may prove satisfactory on comparatively still days, but it remains to be ascertained by practice to what height balloons will have to ascend to be reasonably safe from gun tire and what winds will thus be encountered.

The balloon possesses, however, two advantages over the flying machine. First, it can lift a greater proportional or surplus weight with increase of size. If this is not utilized for a more powerful motor, projectiles may be taken up. Mr. Julliot has stated that the "Lebaudy'' can carry some 30 bombs, each loaded with 22 pounds of Melenite and that the unbalancing which results from each bomb when thrown overboard can be overcome in 18 seconds by pumping air into the "ballonet" and letting out an equal weight of gas. It remains to be proved how accurate the aim may be. On the other hand, the larger is the flying machine the-

more it will weigh in proportion and the less will he the proportional surplus weight. The second advantage is that in a contest between the two the balloon, by discharging ballast, can rise vertically much faster than the flying machine and that the upper position confers great advantage both for attack and defense, as evidenced by all contests between birds. The chief use in war, however, both of the dirigible balloon and of the flying machine will be in scouting and in directing artillery fire by use of wireless telegraphy. They will carry very little surplus weight and their offensive operations will be limited, although occasional lucky shots may prove decisive in their consequences, such as the destruction of a war ship, of a powder magazine, or of a general staff.

Although the United States has done very little toward developing the dirigible balloon it has produced the first practicable flying machine. Maxim in 189-f, Ader in 189?, Kress in 1901, and Langley in 1903 (two of them Americans) had experimented with full-sized man-carrying machines but had not obtained satisfactory results. They undertook too much at once, i. e., to work out simultaneously the form of the machine, its equipoise, its motor and its propeller. They were defeated by the lack of equipoise. Their apparatus proved unstable and more critical, still they had no previous experience or practice in handling it. Lilienthal had stated, as early as 1895, that the first problem to be solved was that of equilibrium and control, and that tliis could only be acquired by experiment and practice. His advice was followed by Pilcher and by Channtc and subsequently by Wilbur and Orville Wright, of Dayton, Ohio, whose improvements have led to success. After three years of experiments with gliding machines, they added a motor and a propeller of their own design in 1903, and were enabled on the 17th of December to make four flights with their dynamic flying machine, the longest being 852 feet in length against an icy, gusty wind blowing at 20 miles an hour. They greatly improved upon this in 1904 and finally perfected an apparatus which flew, in 1905, 24 miles on a stretch at 38 miles per hour.

When first these achievements were made known in December, 1905, there was general incredulity. It did not seem possible that a problem which had baffled mankind for six thousand years should have been solved while the public had no premonitory information of impending success. It was presently discovered that there had been preliminary successes for two years by these two gifted mechanicians, but that the performances had been kept secret for fear that the construction and operation of the machine should be copied by other searchers and that the inventors should lose their reward. Investigation established the truth of their claims, these are now generally conceded, and a swarm of inventors (some thirty or forty in Europe, most of them in Erance), at once engaged in attempts to imitate the feat.

The first in point of date was Mr. Vina, a French inventor, who experimented his Xo. 1 machine in February, 1906. He was the first to show that an aeroplane flying apparatus could rise upon the air by running upon wheels (four in this case) upon an ordinary road. The machine rose a score of times and flew a few feet, but almost invariably was broken in alighting. Mr. A^uia built his Xo. 2 machine in 1907, and tested it in June and July. He rose to a height of 16 feet and flew some 65 feet, but the stability proved defective and the apparatus fell and was broken. Mr. Aruia was only slightly bruised.

The next to get ready was Mr. Santos Dumont, of balloon and Eiffel Tower fame. With his Xo. XIV bis., an aeroplane on wheels and 50-horsepower motor, he made a flight of 200 feet on the 23d of October, 1906, and of 723 feet on the 1st of Xovember, this being to the present time the longest flight on record save those of the Wrights. On both occasions the apparatus was injured in alighting, and then Xo. XA7 was built, which was broken on its first public trial, March 27, 1907. Then the repaired XIA^ bis. was tried April 4, and broken. Then Xo. XAH was produced, this being a mixed apparatus comprising a spindle-shaped balloon and an areoplane, the whole mounted on wheels. This was tested June 8. but was

unfortunately wrecked on the first, trial. He has now built another apparatus with 100-horsepower.

Meanwhile Mr. Delagrange, a French sculptor, bad an aeroplane built with a 50-horsepower motor mounted on three wheels. It was first tested in February, 1907. It was broken and mended several times, and after a number of trials a flight of 200 feet was obtained March 30 and of 164 feet April 8, the apparatus being again broken. Mr. Delagrange then joined Mr. Archdeacon and the two have had built a modified apparatus, which, after some preliminary experiment-! over water, is to be soon tested over land.

Mr. L. Bleriot, an able French engineer, has had built by Mr. Voisin no less than three types of flying machines on wheels. The first was like a Hargrave kite and gave unsatisfactory results, the next was a monoplane, shaped like the winged seed of the maple. It was tested April 5, 7, 15 and 19, broken and abandoned, and the third essentially a Langley aeroplane, mounted upon three wheels and provided with a motor of 24-horsepower, since superceded by one of 50-horsepower. It was tested on July 7, 11, 15, 25. and 31 and on August 6 and 10, the longest flight being of 469 feet, and breakages generally resulting at each trial. Finally on 17th of September, after making a flight of about 150 yards, it pitched down from a height of nearly 50 feet and was smashed. Mr. Bleriot had his face badly cut and was bleeding profusely when he was rescued from under the debris. His injuries, however, were, happily, not serious.

Thus it is seen that the flights thus far have consisted of little more than grasshopper-like jumps and that almost, every trial has resulted in mishaps and breakages. Yet the inventors are undoubtedly learning. They have been plucky; they have mended and altered their machines time and again, and they may after a while acquire the science of the bird. Fortunately no lives have been lost or serious injuries sustained, and so other French inventors are prepairing to try machines which they have completed. Mention may be made of Captain Ferber. who has an aeroplane equipped with a motor of 100-horsepower, Mr. Kapferer, Mr. Farman, Count de la Yaux, Mr. Fsnault Pelterie, Mr. Seux, Mr. Barlatier, while in England the government has built, in great secrecy, an aeroplane machine which is now ready for testing in a secluded spot in the Highlands, and four or five aviators have built flying machines of their own. Moreover, in France, in Germany, in Austria, in Denmark, and in Switzerland there are over a score of other aviators whose names have been published as having flying machines under construction with which to tempt fate. There is no telling what arc their chances of success. The whole of the civilized world, so to speak, is in expectance and it is understood that Wright Brothers are in Europe negotiating with various war departments for a sale of their secrets.

Now that the air is to be navigated the study of meteorology becomes more important than ever before.

Activity in the exploration of the upper air for meteorological purposes has been manifest in various quarters of the globe. In Germany, kite and balloon observations have been made continuously at Lindenberg since 1902. In France, under the direction of M. Teisserenc de Bort, the well-known work with sounding balloons at Trappes has been continued. At the beginning of the present year an expedition was sent by the French Meteorological Service to Swedish Lapland, within the Arctic Circle. Although the surface temperatures at this far northern station were much lower than at Trappes, the upper air conditions within the Arctic Circle confirmed, in a remarkable manner, the results obtained at Trappes in France.

In a joint investigation of the upper air conditions in the trade wind region of the Atlantic, in the vicinity of the Azores, Madeira, and Cape Yerde islands, M. Teisserenc de Bort and Prof. A. Lawrence Roteh, of Blue Ilill Observatory, Hyde Park, Mass., established the existence of the traditional counter trades. These investigators have shown that the vertical sequence in the air currents near Ascension,

south of the equator is:—Trade winds from the southeast; diverse winds from the southwest; counter trades from the north. Xorth of the equator, as in the vicinity of the Azores, the winds of the lower strata blow from northeast and east; above 3,000 feet, as a rule, from northwest to northeast.

The United States Weather Bureau at its observatory on Mount Weather, Ya.. began the systematic exploration of the upper air with kites, on June 20 of the present year. Since that time ascents ranging from one to four miles above the station have been made daily, except on Sundays and on holidays. On October 3d, 1907, an altitude of 23,111 feet above sea level, or a little over four miles above the station, was reached, this being, so far as known, the greatest elevation hitherto reached with kites. At the above-named height the temperature was found to be 5.4° F. below zero. The details of this remarkable flight will be communicated to the Congress by Dr. Wm. P. Blair of the Mount Weather staff.

The valuable information secured by the kite observations is telegraphed daily to the Central Office of the Weather Bureau in Washington, and is there used in the forecast service for the Middle Atlantic and Xew England States.

Meteorological stations on Pikes Peak and on Mount Washington, in the United States, and on Ben Xevis, in Scotland, have been abandoned, especially as the data secured at those places were found to be of little or no use in the making of weather forecasts largelv because of the disturbing influence of the radiation from the nioun-tain itself; but, now that the kite has been developed to such a high state of efficiency that at Mount Weather but one observation was missed in three months, it will be possible to reopen these stations and get readings of instruments far above the peaks, which will be more useful to the weather forecaster than any surface observations.

In other parts of the world much valuable work has been done and unexpected facts have been brought to light, especially by the flights of unmanned balloons, which have ascended 7 to 9 miles above the earth's surface.

It is evident that the first application in aerial navigation will be the art of war, and it is clear that its main usefulness will be in reconnaissance, for the loads which can be carried will be small. Balloons have now reached nearly their limit of speed and will always be comparatively slow. Flying Machines begin with 38 miles an hour and may attain in future 60 to 75 miles an hour, with a radius of action perhaps 200 or 300 miles. It is now interesting to speculate as to what further uses may grow out of these powers and what the development is likely to be. Commercially very little is to be expected from either balloons or flying machines. Carrying freight is out of the question and even profitable smuggling is doubtful. For passenger traffic the number carried will lie so small and the cost so great that no competition is possible with existing modes of transit. Moreover, there will always be danger, but even before this has been minimized aerial navigation may serve in sport. This has already occurred with balloons and will be more pronounced with flying machines. The latter will be useful in explorations of otherwise inaccessible places, such as mountain tops, swamps, or densely wooded regions, and also in rapid surveys of desert or insalubrious stretches, provided that supplies of petrol can be obtained within the radius <5f action : for the petrol motor alone has made aerial navigation possible and is the sine qua nan of its success.

Balloons and living machines will undoubtedly be used in carrying dispatches and even mail service may be attempted but deliveries will be irregular. If the wind blows from the right direction the speed may be great, but if it blows the wrong way the trip may be long. Upon the whole, now that success has come, we see that the conquest of the air has more limited practical uses than was imagined when it was not known how that success was to be achieved, but it may develop new uses of its own and prove an important benefit to mankind.

The Voyage of the America, By J. C. McCoy, Pilot.

We cannot say too much in praise of the preparation and the plans which Avere carried out so successfully in St. Louis by the Committee in charge, under the direction of the Business Men's League of St. Louis. Everything went off in the most approved style and epiite equal to any contests that I know of that have been handled abroad. As the appointed hour approached, 4 o'clock, we found that every balloon was prepared, thanks to the able manner in which the inflation of the nine balloons was managed and every balloon left the ground directly on the minute. The gas furnished by the St. Louis people proved to be the very best quality of coal gas for ascensional force; there could not have been better stability than the gas furnished us at this time. 1 have not had an opportunity to talk with the other pilots, but no doubt they will agree with me with regard to it. We arc also under very great obligation to the weather reports furnished us which I found almost invaluable to us in our work in the air. There were given to us by the Weather Bureau forecasts of weather which might affect the balloons. They were handed to us on the ground just before our departure. 1 do not think a race has ever been held before where such full observations regarding the conditions of the air were known.

So far as our own work was concerned, 1 was accompanied by Captain Chandler. We had a very fortunate start. 1 located my balloon 300 feet above the ground until darkness came on. This gave me a good opportunity to observe the drift of the wind as affecting those higher in the air. The haze and smoke was very great and the other balloons were obscured. Those which had risen to a considerable height we were able to see because they were well above the smoke of St. Louis. I never saw Major Ilersey's balloon until well up in the air. He was about three or four balloons ahead of mine in arising. We traveled a very little west of north the first part of our trip, but later in the evening the current carried us more to the north toward Lake Michigan. We never got west of the Illinois Pi ver. As morning approached, in the early morning, we located ourselves at Grafton, Illinois, traveling in the direction of Lake Michigan, but a change of the wind in the early hours brought us more easterly, and at six o'clock, at 1200 metres above the earth, traveling almost east, which direction we were able to keep all the day. At that time there was a strong northeasterly current near the ground, but at 1200 metres the current was south of east and we made this easterly current which was about only (¡00 metres thick. We kept ourselves in this current until four or five o'clock, but coming nearer to the ground we lost the current and were unable to locate ourselves in it again, owing to loss of gas. The condition of our balloon at this time, losing some amount of gas. made it difficult for me to obtain a permanent equilibrium except at about 1200 metres. Of course we were practically not gaining a foot, simply traveling on the are of a great circle equally distant from St. Louis and very discouraging.

That night about 12 o'clock we crossed the Allegheny Eiver in the vicinity of Wheeling and entered into the coke regions of Pennsylvania. The whole earth was lighted up by the coal industries and looked as if we were looking clown into the infernal regions. We doubted very much the necessity of making descent in that region. It was very thrilling, that sight. During the night we approached the mountains and our altitude was necessarily much greater. We went up somewhere in the neighborhood of 3,000 metres. Heavy storm clouds came up below us and the cold became intense. The temperature was below freezing, though I do not remember the exact figures. It made quite an impression on us, though, you may be sure. The balloon would make great sweeps to the earth and drop sometimes as much as a thousand metres. The first thing in the morning, as soon as the daylight appeared and we were able to see, the clouds had disappeared and we identified Harper's Ferry and we were quite rejoiced to think that wc would be able to make a landimr at Washington. The landing from St. Louis to Wash-

ington had been discussed and we were quite enthusiastic about landing at Wash-inglon, but second thoughts suggested the wisdom of not coming down at Washington but continuing our journey as far as circumstances would permit. As we were traveling at that time due east we soon saw the waters of Chesapeake Bay and decided to make our descent as near the shore of Chesapeake Bay as would be advisable. At the ground, we found a very strong wind blowing. We thought it was blowing about -10 miles an hour. The situation was critical to us. We had left without an anchor and 1 was somewhat concerned as to how we were to get down. I told Captain Chandler he would hit as hard a hump as he ever had in his life. 1 fc said, "(Jo ahead, I can stand as much as you can." We got nearer and nearer and the attacks of our guide rope which we had let down were, perhaps, as vicious as anything could possibly be on earth. It got caught on a rail fence and it made nothing of that rail fence. It simply picked it up clean. Once it got caught in the top of a tree and I told the Captain he would have to hold on tight, and it broughl that balloon up! you can imagine a motor traveling 30 or 10 miles an hour and coming in contact with an obstruction. Well, it brought, our balloon up very quickly, although fortunately we suffered no real injury. Fortunately, also, the to]) of the tree came away with a horrible crash and the guide rope let go. 1 gradually brought the balloon down to where the guide rope was spread out over a great surface of the forest, so I thought 1 would prepare to light at the edge of the forest, dust before reaching the edge I held the valve and the balloon settled down between the trees as softly and gently as ever a balloon could.

THE VOYAGE OF THE ISLE DE FRANCE. By Alfred Leblanc.

In stalling, the wind was towards the west, and we were hoping to make a voyage into Canada, but the wind changed directly towards the northeast, and we then expected to reach the Coast. We did reach the Coast, in Yew Jersey, but. we still hoped to continue, and so land on Long Island, but the wind drove us back, and we were obliged to land somewhere near the place where the German balloon landed, though at that time we did not know the German balloon was so near, or we might have made some effort to pursue the voyage further. The landing was very easy and the whole voyage resembled very much a trip over the plains of Europe, the most interesting portion of the trip being the crossing of the Alleghanies. which presented some novel features.

NOTES OF A RUSSIAN MILITARY AERONAUT ON THE APPLICATION OF BALLOONING TO LAND AND NAVAL WARFARE.

By Lieut.-Col. F. A. Postnikov.

The first practical application of ballooning to military purposes took place during the French Revolution when the Republican army had the possibility, during the siege of Manheige, to observe the effect of its artillery on the besieged city, thanks to the energy and enterprising spirit of Coutel, and was thus enabled to rapidly take possession of this fortress. This was at the end of the ISth Century. Up to the Franco-Prussian War no more or less serious adaptation of aeronautics to the armed struggle between nations can be quoted during the entire lengthy period preceding it. During one year only of this war more practical applications of ballooning were made than during the whole intervening time. Paris, cut otf from the world in general and from France in particular by the iron ring of German troops, took extensive advantage of aerial means of communication which the German army was incapable of breaking. During this siege sixty-four balloons flew out of Paris taking along from the besieged city its mail and carrier pigeons for the receipt of news from

without. Thus 3,000,000 letters were sent and forwarded to their destination. This war proved to the entire world the importance and necessity of the adaptation of this new fighting means in fortress warfare and we see that in all European countries the creation of balloon sections and the establishment of schools for the preparation of experienced aeronauts, as the school of Moudon in France, that of Berlin in Germany, and of St. Petersburg in Russia. In all more or less important fortresses of Austria, German)', France and Pussia were organized fortress balloon companies consisting in the average of two officers and 100 rank and file, and supplied with material in sufficient quantity as to be able, in time of war, to furnish a threefold contingent.

It may be easily understood that balloon parks, projected for action in fortresses, were encumbered by apparata and material of great weight, as these were to be moved over small distances and on excellent fortress roads. But the colonial wars,, as that of the French in Tonkin and the British in South Africa, waged in countries witli bad roads and far from manufacturing centres, showed the necessity of creating light mobile balloon parks adaptable for field warfare. The foundation of field balloon parks was thus laid. Their usefulness, however, was recognized only by a small number of specialists and was greatly contended by many military authorities.

The Russo-Japanese War, which radically changed the views of military authorities on the methods of waging modern warfare, also showed the necessity of applying field balloon detachments not only to fortress but also to field warfare. With the enormous armies of the present time and with the great range of modern artillery fire, military operations being pursued covertly, cavalry reconnaissance, especially on broken terrain, becomes very difficult and, in some cases, absolutely impossible. The balloon, on the contrary, possessing an enormous horizon and being almost invulnerable to hostile shots, has its field of action continually increasing in reconnaissance and in transmission of orders at the same time to all detachments, operating at enormous distances from each other, by means of preconcerted signalling. Neither belligerents at the beginning of the Russo-Japanese War had organized balloon detachments, and therefore none of them could profit by the advantages which could be derived from the existence of trained field balloon detachments, and both sides hurriedly endeavored to improvise from the means on hand detachments of this new arm. The Japanese during the investment of Port Arthur succeeded only towards the end of the siege to create a balloon park, the material of which was far from perfect, evidently on account of the lack of technically competent officers in this branch of the service. The Russians, who had sent to the theater of war one fortress balloon section, soon appreciated the nnwieldiness and inconvenience of fortress material operating on the bad roads of Manchuria. Tn the beginning of 1905, the Russians organized four balloon companies and introduced in these detachments a completely new process of obtaining hydrogen with the aid of aluminum. This allowed them to have material in field parks several times lighter than that of fortress detachments. Unfortunately for ballooning, the revolutionary movement in Russia and the conclusion of peace with Japan brought about by it. did not allow the test of the practicability of these detachments in serious operations and during a sufficiently lengthy period of time.

During the same war, balloons were for the first time applied in naval defense. The idea of adapting balloons to naval warfare had existed for some time and experiments were even made in France of balloon ascensions from the deck of men-of-war and flights above the surface of the sea for the purpose of maintaining communication with conveying vessels. Observations, made from balloons on the sea. give the following advantages to the commander of the squadron making them: instead of ordinary radius of observation of twelve miles, the modern balloon gives a radius of sixty miles and the balloon does not divulge the presence of the squadron, as approximately at the distance of 12 miles it is invisible to the hostile observer even in clear, sunny weather, and, moreover, it renders it possible to see objects

under the water, such as mines and submarines, which are absolutely impossible to detect from the deck of a vessel.

The first practical application of balloons in naval warfare was made in Vladivostok after one destroyer and one cruiser of the Vladivostok squadron had been damaged by Japanese mines, of which an enormous quantity was strewn around the port of this city. At the request of Admiral Yessen a balloon detacbment was formed under command of the military engineer Postnikov. It was composed, in the beginning, of one officer and twenty sailors and later, in view of excellent results achieved, it was increased to four officers and 120 sailors performing balloon guard service around Vladivostok and sometimes reconnoitering the banks of Japan with the squadron of Admiral Yessen. During the almost daily activity of this detachment numerous valuable observations and experiments were made with regard to the various shapes of balloons, the stability of various balloons with various velocities of the wind, the degree of visibility of submarine mines of various colors, the possible range of observation under various conditions of weather and illumination by the sun, as well as the practicability and successfnlness of various means of obtaining hydrogen. The latter was obtained by means of three processes—the old way by means of acids, the new mode by means of aluminum and also by electrolysis, for which even an electrolytic plant had been constructed which manufactured hydrogen of excellent quality. It was kept in a compressed shape in steel tubes under a pressure of 200 atmospheres. The evident usefulness of balloons in naval warfare induced the Russian Government to look favorably upon the offer of Count Stroganov, amounting to 1,000,000 roubles, destined for the purchase of a cruiser specially adapted for ballooning. A fast passenger steamer was bought for this purpose in Germany and reconstructed so as to present a floating plant for the obtaining of hydrogen, and a depot and barracks for the balloon detachment. This steamer was. according to the project, to join the squadron of Admiral Rojest-venski in the vicinity of Madagascar, but the reconstruction lasted so long that it had only reached the banks of Spain when news was received that Admiral Rojest-venski had entered the waters of the Pacific Ocean and it was decided that this balloon cruiser "Puss" should return to the Baltic Sea.

AEROLOGY IN GERMANY. By Dr. Reinhard Siiring.

For about twenty years Germany has been greatly occupied, almost more than any other country, in the study of the physics of the upper atmosphere. Several circumstances have favored the progress of these investigations. The zeal and the ability of experts, first of all Assmann and Person, Hergesell. lvoppen,—the aid of the government and last but not least the personal interest of the German emperor in all aeronautical questions, combined to advance scientific ideas and plans with the greatest rapidity. The study of the physics of the free atmosphere has become a special branch of science, and only this branch will be discussed here.*

Three things especially are noteworthy about the German methods for the study of aeronautical physics: First, the successful attempts to observe systematically and exactly the meteorological elements at great heights, in order to gain a meteorology and climatology of the upper atmosphere in addition to that of the surface of the earth; second, the active participation in expeditions, especially in marine ones; and, last, the refined experiments for improving instruments and methods. The results of these endeavors appear in admirable scientific papers.

The founder of modern aeronautical science in Germany is Dr. Assmann and

*For this the name "''Aerologyv was proposed at the International Conference held last year.—Editor.

to liis energy we owe the first government observatory, wliieh was built near Berlin in 1899. Here the meteorological conditions at some distance above the earth by means of kites and balloons were recorded as frequently as possible. As to kite-ascents the work at the Blue Hill Observatory of Professor Eotch was used as a model, hut in order to effect ascents in any kind of weather much additional Avork had to be done. The methods and the results appear in the "Ergebnissc" of the Aeronautical Observatory, four large volumes of which have been hitherto published. The observatory, which was removed in 1905 from Berlin to Linden berg, near Beeskow, 60 kilometers eastward, has succeeded in making daily ascents with kites or captive balloons for nearly five years without any interruption. In this way valuable material has been gathered so that Ave are now well informed about the conditions of temperature and wind up to at least a height of two miles. A great number of the ascents have even attained a far greater height; and the record in high kite-ascents (20,000 feet) was reached here last year.** The example of the Prussian Government was soon followed by the German "Seewarte" at Hamburg. A small aeronautical station was established there, hut as it uses only kites—only very rarely pilot balloons—daily ascents are not feasible. Besides the work at these observatories, special ascents Avith pilot-balloons are likeAvise undertaken at the meteorological institutes in Strassburg and Munich.

For kite-ascents high speed steamers are of great use as they can modify the wind artificially in order to lift kites in light winds or to prevent breaking the Avire in stormy Aveather. But Avhile this method had previously been used on voyages only*** progress is being made in Germany by building "floating observatories." The initial one Avill be inaugurated this year on Lake Constance in Southern Germany Avhere Count Zeppelin also makes trials of his dirigible balloon; and it is intended to erect a similar observatory on the coast of the Baltic Sea, near Danzig.

The technical experience gained in aeronautical and meteorological experiments suggested trying ascents in regions of interest abroad. First of all Ave must mention the cruises of Professor Hergesell, on the yacht of the Prince of Monaco in the Mediterranean above the regions of trade-winds, and also in high northern latitudes. It was a feature on these expeditions that they not only made use of kites but also of pilot-balloons, for at small heights the former frequently met Avith calms and then could not rise higher, while balloons used in tandem succeeded in gaining elevations of many thousands of feet. Tavo closed balloons tied together Avere sent up, one of Avhich exploded and the other, bearing the instruments, sank slowly until they aarere supported on the ocean by a "floater."**** Last year Prof. Hergesell at 80° N. Lat. sent his balloons up to 25,000 feet. Some astonishing results Avere reached by these expeditions during the summer months. For instance, there Avas found an unexpectedly Avarm temperature at considerable heights above the Arctic Ocean, evidently produced by direct heating by the ever-shining arctic sun. On the other hand Professor Hergesell was able to sIioav that near the Nonvegian shores the heating of the atmosphere by the Gulf Stream only extended upAvard a few hundred feet. Further remarkable progress has been made by the German navy in furnishing her surveying vessels Avith apparatus for aeronautical research. In the beginning of this year H. M. S. "Planet," the first vessel thus equipped, returned from a voyage along the western shores of Africa, then penetrating to about 50° South and returning by the Pacific and Indian Oceans. A second ship, H. M. S. Hove, has explored the atmosphere this summer between Norway

**A height of 23,000 feet was reached at the Mt. Weather station of the U. S. Weather Bureau in October, 1907.—Editor.

***The first experiments Avere made by Professor Rotch in 1901 from a tugboat in Massachusetts Bay and also on a transatlantic steamer.—Editor.

****Kites and registration balloons Avere also used by the expeditions sent in 1905 and 1906 to the North and South Atlantic bv Messrs. Teisserenc de Bort and Botch.—Editor.

and Iceland. At the same time ascents were made by Professor Hergesell near Spitzbergen as well as by a private expedition, conducted by Captain Hildebrandt between Iceland and the Azores.

Finally we must mention the endeavor to improve instruments for aeronautical research. For manned balloons Assmann's aspiration-psychrometer has been prescribed as a normal instrument by the International Aeronautical Committee. Also for kites we have had for some time past exact instruments, for instance those of Marvin, yet the registrations of the apparatus of pilot-balloons were unreliable imtil lately. But the recent investigations in the compensation of aneroid barometers (Hergesell and Kleinschmidt), in the sluggishness of thermometers (Hergesell. de Quervain, Maurer) and of hygrometers (Kleinschmidt). have shown us exactly the errors of these instruments. We must also mention especially among many others, the following investigations: The methods for pursuing pilot-balloons and thus studying the movements in the upper atmosphere by means of theodolites (de Quervain, von Bassus) ; the methods for finding the position of the balloons by surveying instruments (Marcuse, Wegener) ; and the studies in atmospheric electricity by Prof. Ebert in Munich.

It is a matter of course that with such valuable auxiliaries all questions of the physics of the free atmosphere are being greatly promoted. We need only recall the studies to explain the warm layers of the atmosphere at a height of 30,000 to 40,000 feet, discovered by Assmann and Teisserenc de Bort ; the investigation of the circulation between areas of high and low pressure; the formation of strata and waves in the atmosphere; the differences between différent latitudes; between land and sea, etc. It is earnestly to be hoped that Germany will continue to take a chief part in the international endeavor to solve all these important questions.

LIGHT ENGINES. By Walter L. Brock.

I have read with interest the article and letter of Mi'. Harry K. Dey and Mr. Roger B. Whitman respectively, and being interested in the production of light motors thought I would add my mite to the discussion.

Light weight and fuel economy seem to be the special requirements to be met. together with reliability and suitable durability. The relative value of light weight and fuel economy would seem to depend on the particular conditions of use. Thus, for flights of short duration, the motor weight would be the predominating factor, but as the distance is increased the weight of fuel would become a larger factor, and for very long flights would become so important as to permit the addition of considerable weight to the engine, if such addition would cause a greater saving in the weight of fuel carried. For the present the motor weight is the most important factor.

Light weight per horsepower may be obtained by increasing the power output of a given size engine and by decreasing the weight of construction. The power developed by a given size engine depends on the Mean Effective Pressure in the cylinder and the Revolutions per Minute of the engine.

To obtain a high M. E. P. the maximum possible weight of the charge should be introduced into the cylinder, compressed as highly as permissable. ignited at the proper point, expanded with little loss of heat to the surrounding walls, and exhausted with a minimum back pressure. As the speed of an engine is increased the weight of the charge decreases, clue to the increased resistance of the valves which lower the pressure on the suction stroke and raise it on the exhaust. The result is. that for any particular engine there is a certain speed at which the product of the M. E. P. and R. P. M. is a maximum, thus giving the greatest power output.

Large valves, properly timed, thus constitute an important element in the design. The automatic inlet valve has considerable lag in opening and in closing if the valve be of any size, due to its inertia. A stiff spring helps the closing but increases the resistance to the entrance of the charge. As the automatic inlet valve is not very reliable and since with a suitable arrangement an extra spring is the only additional part required to enable it to be operated mechanically, it would appear to be poor practice. Jn fact, one would be justified in adding considerable weight to the engine for the sake of obtaining the increase in power obtainable through the use of mechanically operated valves.

That increasing the compression increases the power can be shown both theoretically and practically. The increase is most noticeable in high speed engines, as a small clearance enables the functions of the exhaust and suction strokes to be carried out more thoroughly. The combustion of the charge takes place more rapidly when the charge is highly compressed, which is very desirable, the time required for combustion being much longer than is commonly supposed. Ignition should take place at the proper time on each compression stroke. Whether produced spontaneously or by spark makes little difference, providing it is not too early. It is best, however, to avoid it by a good margin, as it is rather irregular in time of occurrence. Whether ignition should be by jump spark with non-vibrator coil, or by make and break is a question which may never be decided. Vibrator coils are not suitable for high speed engines, as the variation in point of ignition is too great, due to the slowness of the vibrator. 400 vibrations per second is the highest any vibrator has been known to work.* If the engine were running at 2,400 r. p. m. there would be a possible variation of 36 in the point of ignition. Light weight magnetos or dynamos will undoubtedly be produced as batteries of any type are either very heavy or have little capacity. High speed engines with a large number of e}dinders require a good deal of current.

When only the expansion stroke is taken into consideration it would seem that the cylinder should be kept as hot as it can stand. The suction and compression strokes are best carried out in a cool cylinder. The hotter the cylinder the less the weight of the charge admitted on the suction stroke due to its being heated and expanded upon entering. A hot cylinder also increases the work of compression and the danger of preignition. Tests show that when miming with full load the cylinder should be quite cool, even in water cooled if the maximum power and economy are to be obtained. With high loads the cylinder should be much hotter to obtain good economy. Since cooling eifect is obtained at the expense of weight or power a low temperature may not be desirable. The conditions in an airship being very favorable for the air-cooled engine, it will not be easily displaced by a more complex system of cooling.

High speeds enable one to increase the out-put of an engine considerably. How far it may be carried depends upon the design and lubrication of the engine. Since very high speeds are obtained at the expense of a large increase in the amount of lubricating oil used and of fuel economy the speed eventually used may be quite moderate.

Light construction is a matter of design and experiment. The very strong, durable materials produced for the auto enable small factors of safety to be used while by going to the expense of machinering it out much weight ma}r be removed where it is not required but is usually left. Since cast iron is the weakest and least reliable form of iron its use will probably disappear in spite of its excellent wearing and heat resisting qualities, Pistons may be made of cast steel or pressed from a mild steel. The cylinders may be cast steel or machined from tubes or forgings. The present difficulty due to warping will undoubtedly be overcome.

Various types of engines are being developed to reduce weight. The general tendency being to increase the number of cylinders for each crank-pin, thereby re-

*Vibrators have been known to attain 800 per second.—Ed.

ducing the weight of the crank-case and crank-shaft. "While two cylinders per crank-pin is the usual practice as many as five have been used. The latter represents about the practical limit. Enough cylinders should be used to avoid a fly-wheel (about six) while how many more are used will depend largely on the power of the engine as it does not pay to increase the size of the cylinders above a certain point. This is due to the fact that the allowable piston speed does not increase much as the stroke is increased and a short stroke is not suitable in many ways for large diameters.

In as much as the two-cycle engine in some of its forms offers superior inducements in regard to light weight and fuel economy it is safe to say that this much abused type of engine will become a strong contender for primer honors. The long neglected Bray ton cycle may also be developed.

THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN AEROPLANE

By L. J. Lesh.

Summing up my experiments for this Summer in a few words, I have accomplished the following results.

About fifty flights have been made, one over water and the rest over land. The towing agent in the flight over water was a fast_motor boat; over land a horse has supplied the pull necessary for support.

The longest flight was made over the river St. Lawrence, the distance from the starting point to where I finally touched the water being six miles. The flights over land have ranged in length from two hundred feet to about half a mile. The greatest height reached during the experiments was nearly seventy-five feet, during a flight over land.

The longest period of suspension in the air was about twenty-four minutes, during the flight over the river. The flights over land averaged a quarter of a mile in length and lasted about sixty seconds. Thus it will be seen that I have covered about eighteen miles during all the flights and that the total time spent in the air has been considerably less than an hour and a half.

1 have experimented with two machines the specifications of which are as follows:

Area of supporting- surfaces..................240 sq. ft 175 sq. ft

Weight .........".......................... 60 lbs. 50 lbs.

Length of wings, tip to tip................... 22 ft. 16 ft.

Width of main surfaces...................... 6 ft. 6 ft.

Height of machine......................... 4 ft. 4 ft.

Curvature of surfaces....................one in seven..........one in twelve

Material of framework .................... chiefly % inch round spruce rods.

Joints.........................................Steel bolts and steel tubing.

Cloth covering of surfaces.................... Unbleached muslin, unvarnished.

Strange as it may seem, when one takes into consideration the difference in lifting, surface, both of my machines seemed to require about the same speed through the air for support. The length of the preliminary run was about the same and the smaller machine did not seem to have any greater speed at the moment of landing than the larger apparatus.

In experimenting with a towing line 1 have found that it is not necessary to make the start directly into the wind and that landings'can be made safely with the wind blowing from the side if care is taken to prevent the wings from inclining at too steep an angle of incidence. The framework is very liable to be broken if the surfaces are not tilted forward to horizontal at the moment of landing.

It is quite impossible to quarter into the wind and keep the wings from tilting laterally by the use of a rear vertical rudder alone. Either the operator must shift his center of gravity as the center of pressure moves up the ascending wing, or the disturbance must be overcome bv the use of a certain svstem of forward rudders. I

have succeeded in quartering into the wind at a height of only about eight feet, with the wings parallel to the ground. Steering and balancing was accomplished in the first machine by shifting my weight and in the second machine by manipulation of the forward and rear rudders.

I have tried to adjust the bridle of my machine so that the resultant pull, or rather resultant of the distributed pull, comes at the point to which .1 hope to attach the propeller. I have chosen to attach the main line to the machine by a bridle because in this way the pull is made to come constantly from the same angle while if the towing rope were attached directly to the machine the latter might quarter into the wind at one angle and the rope might point off in another direction. Of course in a motor machine the line of effort of the propeller (line produced outward from the crank-shaft) would remain constant and 1 wished to operate under these conditions in my preliminary flights.

___The similarity between motor and towing flight becomes more and more apparent as one enters into a careful study of the two. Gliding flight at small angles of descent certainly provides the best possible training for an experimenter who has in mind the development of a mo-torless soaring machine, but the value of this kind of work to a prospective "motor aeroplanist"' looks doubtful. A soaring machine would certainly provide great sport but the difficulties to he met in accomplishing the-feat look insurmountable at present.

Of course it might be possible to soar indefinitely on the side of a hill, but to perform the real thing one would have to rise in towing flight to a height of several hundred feet and then either fly along until an ascending column of air was met or cut loose and glide towards a spot where such a phenomenon was known to exist.

It seems to me that the feat of soaring had better be postponed for a time until more is learned of the trend of wind currents and the management of dynamic machines at great heights.

In conclusion, 1 wish to acknowledge my debt of gratitude to Mr. Octave Chanute, whose kind assistance made this undertaking possible in the first place and whose sound advice has greatly facilitated the carrying out of my plans.

THE START " IN NO. 2.

CHRONOLOGY OF PRINCIPAL EVENTS.

Oct. 1. Test is made of, the apparatus for changing the elevation of the Zeppelin dirigible by means of a 220-pound lead weight which is moved forward and backward on a rod. Within a period of twenty minutes the height was changed from 1G5 feet to above 1,000 and back again to 165 feet without loss of gas or ballast. On September 30th a flight lasting 9*4 hours, corrected figures, was made, the distance covered being about 200 miles. The wind was stronger than in any previous test but the ship encountered no difficulty and the speed was estimated at 30 miles an hour.

Oct. 3. The highest altitude ever reached by a kite in the United States is recorded by Professor A. J. Henry at the Mt. Weather Observatory who sent a kite up to 23,000 feet. The temperature at that height was 5 degrees below zero.

Oct. 5. English Dirigible Xo. 1 sails from Famborouc;h to London, a distance of 35 miles, manoeuvreing over the city and landing on the outskirts. The flight lasted 21/; hours. Disappointment felt at the inability to return and the conclusion is reached that the ship is practical only in favorable weather. Average speed in this trip, 24 miles going with an 8-mile wind. Envelope holds 54,000 cu. ft. of hydrogen.

Oct. 8. Zeppelin manoeuvres over Lake Constance and the nearby mountains, remaining 1'% hours in the air. Count Zeppelin denies the story that he has sold his ship to the German Government but admits they have purchased his shed. This is the last time, it is reported, this model will be taken out.

Oct. 10. The German military balloon makes two very successful ascents, sailing over Berlin and Charlottenburg, staying in the air 21/. hours.

Oct. 10. High wind tears the English Dirigible Xo. 1 loose from its moorings. The lower frames were smashed and the ship is all but a total wreck.

Oct, 10. Henry Deutsch offers his dirigible La Yille de Paris to the war office of France to be used for national defense.

Oct, 11. The German military dirigible flies from Tegel six miles to Berlin 1 and returns under cover of night. With the falling of the dew the ship came close to earth and the gathering crowd in the streets was dispersed by a shower of water ballast.

Oct, 12. The Daily Graphic mammoth balloon leaves Crystal Palace. London, in an unsuccessful attempt to break la Yaulx's distance record. The balloon crossed the Xorth Sea to Denmark and travelled over Scandinavia with great speed. The bearings were lost in a fog and a descent made at Brocha. Sweden, at 1 :30 p. m., Sunday, October 13. The distance made. 003 miles covered in 19 hours. The flight, however, is remarkable as it is the longest cross-channel trip yet made. Thinking a large lake was the open sea the aeronauts hastily slid down the guide rope and left the balloon to shift for itself. It was afterward recovered, somewhat damaged. The balloon has a capacity of 107.903 cubic feet and lifts two tons weight. The diameter is 59 feet. This is the largest balloon now in use.

Oct. 15. Henry Farman makes a flight of 935 feet, breaking the Santos-Dumont-World's record of 723 feet, at a speed of 25 miles an hour. The landing was made without a mishap, except to bend one of the wheels slightly. He maintained perfect equilibrium and had complete control of the machine. After a few preliminary runs against a fresh breeze the 50 horse-power motor was started at full speed. After a run of about 300 feet the front rudder was raised to a slight angle and the apparatus immediately rose into the air to a height of about 30 feet, maintaining that height throughout almost the entire distance. In speaking of his flight, Air. Farman said: "By what 1 did to-day 1 am convinced I can fly a mile or more without the slightest difficulty. The machine obeyed the rudder perfectly and throughout the flight I had it in complete control."

Oct. 22. Esnault Pelterie makes a series of flights of from 300 to 500 feet in length, turning to avoid obstacles, rising and descending. The machine resembles a butterfly to the lay observer, with movable curved wings inclined by levers. At the tips of the wings, which have 1G1 square feet of surface, are small wheels to prevent damage in case they strike the earth. A seven cylinder motor of 25 horse-power, weighing 90.8 pounds, furnishes the power, starting at the first turn. A 4-bladed propeller is used and the total weight, with operator, is 52S pounds.

Oct. 23. Farman makes half a dozen flights at Issy. A new propeller of larger diameter has been fitted. Almost as soon as the engine was started the machine left the ground and at an altitude of from 0 to 18 feet flew a distance of (520 feet in 15 2-5 seconds. The usual rolling motion of an aeroplane was noticeably absent.

In the second trial it was necessary to change the course to avoid a standing automobile and as the chance of making a long flight was gone the motor was stopped and landing made.

After that flights of only 300 to 500 feet were made.

Oct. 26. Farman again makes several flights of from 300 to 900 feet. The machine rose easily at the will of the operator and travelled at heights varying between 30 and 40 feet. Xo shock was felt on landing.

Oct. 26. La Patric manoeuvres again over Paris, after an overhauling, carrying five officers and two ladies. During the flight the right propeller was lost and the ship drifted aimlessly around for an hour but the descent was finally accomplished in safety.

Oct. 26. Farman covers 2.530 feet, nearly a half mile, in 52 seconds. After running along the ground for about 600 feet, the head of the machine was raised and the flight begun, continuing at an elevation of 3 to 18 feet. In the morning he covered 1,191 feet in 30 seconds. In the afternoon the first flight was of 1,050 feet in 27 seconds, then 1,345 feet in 31 3-5 seconds, so that the record of Santos Dumont was broken three times before on the same day. By this flight Farman wins the Archdeacon cup and a money prize offered by the Aviation Club de France for the first flight of 984 feet or more.

Oct. 27. Esnault Pelterie makes several short flights, varying from 150 to 500 feet and turning; in a semi-circle. A slight accident befell the wing- of the machine in landing and further trials were postponed.

Oct. 31. Parseval dirigible refuses to start for the several hundred engineers assembled. Major Parseval explained the principles of the ship and on attempting to give a demonstration found the sparking apparatus was out of order. The balloon was returned to the workshop.

OCTOBER ASCENSIONS.

October 2. Captain Chas. De F. Chandler (Aero Club of America) in the Signal Corps No. 10, 2,200 cubic metres, at Washington, D. C. Landing at Laurel, Md., 22 miles from Washington. Highest altitude 4,500 feet. Very little wind.

October 2. A. Leo Stevens (Aero Club of America) and F. H. White in the Psyche, 1,000 cubic metres, Washington, D. C. at 4:10 p. m., landing at Columbia, Md., at 7:20 p. m. Distance, 37 miles. Highest altitude, 6,000 feet.

October 3. Captain Chas. De F. Chandler (Aero Club of America), Captain F. B. Hennessy and Corporal Ward, in The Signal Corps Xo. 10, 2,200 cubic metres, at 12:49 p. m. Landing at Marlev. Md., 3:30 p. m. Distance, 31 miles. Highest altitude, 3,000 feet.

October 15. J. C. McCoy and Capt. Chas. De F. Chandler. (Aero Club of America), balloon Psyche, 1.000 cubic metres. Start in St. Louis at 2 p. m. Landing at Jacksonville, 111., at 5:15 p. m.. a distance of 87 miles. Went through thunderstorm half an hour after start.

October 17-18. Captain Chas. De F. Chandler and J. C. McCoy (Aero (dub of America) in Signal Corps Xo. 10, 2,200 cubic metres, from St. Louis at -1 :1S p. m., the 17th. Landing at Walton, W. Va., 12:33 p. m. (Central time), the 18th. Distance, 475 miles; elapsed time, 20 hours, 15 minutes. This trip won the Lahm Cup for the first time since its oifering, beating the required distance (402) by 73 miles. This was the third time the Cup had been competed for. Former trials: J. C. McCoy and Capt. Chandler on April 30 in the America. 135 miles; July 4, Carl E. Myers in the Carlotta, 3 miles.

October 17-18. Alan P. Hawley and Augustus Post (Aero Club of America) in the Stevens 21, 1,000 cubic metres, from St. Louis 6:30 p. m.. landing at 6:30 a. m. the 18th at Boggstown, Intl. Distance. 225 miles. Flapsed time 12 hours. Average speed 21 miles.

October 21. Major Henry B. llersey and A. T. Atherholt, Alan P. Hawley and Augustus Post, J. C. McCoy and Capt. C. De F. Chandler (Aero Club of America). See records of Gordon Bennett Pace.

October 26-27. Henry S. Gratz (Aero Club of America). Samuel A. King, pilot, J- E- Pech, Dr. George H. Simmerman, J. L. Mayer, John Longacre, Dr. T. E. Eldridge (Ben Franklin Aeronautical Assn), from Philadelphia in the Ben Franklin, 2,600 cubic metres, at 2 :35 p. m. First landing made at Aura, X. J., at five o'clock, distance 19 miles. Messrs. Gratz and Longacre left the balloon at this point and returned to Philadelphia. The others started again at 1 a. m.. the 27th, landing at Dwight. Mass., 225 miles from Philadelphia, at 9:30 a. in. Altitude reached, 15,400 feet.

October 12. Joseph A. Blondin (Aero Club of America) in the Albuquerque, 1,000 cubic metres, from Albuquerque, Xew Mexico, at 11:55 a. m. Landing was made on the mesa west of Con-ales, 2:55 p. m., a distance of 16 miles. Considerable interest attaches to trips made in this part of the country on account of the rarity of the air. In speaking of the trip. .Mr. Blondin said:

"I should estimate that 1 reached an altitude of fully (i.OOO feet above the ground, or between 11.000 and 12.000 feet above sea level. I figure my altitude chiefly from the fact that I could look down upon the tops of the Sandia mountains and could get a magnificent view of the plains and the farther range east of the Sandias. The highest point of the Sandias is approximately 10,000 feet. I believe. The top of the Sandias is thus 5.000 feet higher than Albuquerque, and I was fully a thousand feet higher than the mountain tops.

"The landing was a trifle rough, as 1 had neither trail rope nor anchor to break the fall. The car struck the ground heavily, rebounded possibly twenty feet in the air, struck again, roled on its side and dragged for a distance of some fifty yards across the mesa. Finally it jammed against a, hillock of Spanish needles, which enabled me to get an extra hitch on the valve rope and hold the valve open until all the gas escaped and the bag settled to the ground.

"The effect of the sight of the balloon on the natives was interesting. While up in the air 1 was shot at at least eight times between here and Corralles. but owing to the altitude the bullets fell short. Or at least they did not come close enough to bother me. There was a great uproar as I passed over Alameda, eight miles north of here. The hens set up a great cackling, roosters crowed, dogs barked, people shouted and the noise was incessant as long as the balloon was overhead. The blending of these unusually discordant sounds heard at an altitude of 4.000 to 5.000 feet made them seem to form a most agreeable and musical harmony.

"The view of the Pio Grande Valley, the adjacent plains, the mountains and the country beyond is of a grandeur which it is impossible to describe. It was overwhelmingly magnificent. The whole country lay spread out like a map. the mountains were dwarfed by the altitude, the river shone like a band of silver through the valley and the distant views were awe-inspiring. For at least two hundred miles in every direction the vista extended, and it was a vista such as one does not often sec. Perhaps the prettiest prospect adjacent to the city was the view of the Bluehcr gardens in Old Albuquerque, the plats lying spread out in geometrical precision with the colors making them resemble a crazy quilt."'

The gas was very poor and prevented a longer trip.

NOTES.

Dr. Julian P. Thomas has purchased the Pommern. the winning balloon in the Gordon Bennett, from Herr Krbsloh.

A man by the name of Wels. in Trautenau. Austria, is said to have accomplished a glide of 950 feet from an elevation of 65 feet.

A. Roy Ivnabenshue, whose dirigible, tents and paraphenalia were recently destroyed by fire, announces his intention of using a 25 horse-power motor in the new dirigible to be built.

The large dirigible which was being built, by the National Airship Co., of San Francisco, broke from its mooring and was blown by the strong wind several miles and destroved.

On September 30 there came into active life the Aviation Club de France. Messrs. L. Delagrange, Paul Roger, A. Buisson, G. A7oisin, Henry Farman, the Marquis A. de Puybaudet and Comte G. de Fayolle, and others were present. M. L. Delagrange was elected President.

Santos Dumont has, it is reported, abandoned the attempt to make 100 kilometres an hour with his hydroplane, owing to the impossibility of securing a good working motor. In a trial he covered 300 metres at a speed of between 50 and 60 kilometres an hour.

Engineers are at work improving La Patrie. As soon as this is finished a start will be made on the five other airships ordered by the French Government, the Republique, Democratic. Liberté. Vérité and Justice.

Money is beginning to flow to the inventors. J. Uherkovich de Uherkocz, 213 East 22d Street, Baronne, X. J., has induced City Recorder Lazarus and others to organize a company to build his orthopter. Here's to success!

Zeppelin is to build another airship, No. -1. This is to be still larger than the present ship and equipped with 300 horse-power, undertaken, it is said, at the suggestion of the German government which has appropriated $125,000. It is to carry 18 men. Part of the material now in the No. 3 will be used in the new one.

Dr. T. Chalmers Fulton. Pres. of The Ben Franklin Aeronautical Soc. of the U\ S., will lecture before the Department of Fhigineering and Technologv at the Drexel Institute. Tuesday. Nov. 12th. at 4 o'clock P/M. Subject: "The Problems of the Future—Aerial Navigation, the result of Thirty-three Years of Study and Many Trips Aloft."

II. C. Gammeter has shipped the orthopter on exhibition at the Aero Show to the Curtiss plant at Hammondsport, where a building will be erected to house it and further experiments conducted. Great appreciation was expressed of the fine workmanship displayed in the machine, which was the only full-sized gasless machine on exhibition.

Special appropriations are reported to have been made by the Japanese Government for the promotion of aeronautics. Balloon ascents at Tokio are frequent, but the details of the work and the number or quality of the dirigibles planned or in course of construction are closely guarded.

M. Capazza, the Belgian, whose balloon Paul Nocquet used on his ill-fated trip, has invented a combination aeroplane and dirigible capable of carrying five people in addition to 20,000 pounds, and of staying aloft for 15 hours. The machine has several screws and is of an imperfect lenticular shape.

Among the interesting exhibits at the Show were the flying paper models of William Morgan. These ingenious toys have given him the inspiration for a large machine which is now in course of construction at Fort Plain, N. Y.

On October 2 Eugene Godet attempted a flight in Ids dirigible at Jamestown Exposition. The propellers struck a water tower near the Inside Inn and were knocked off. After ascending rapidly and then down into the water of Hampton Poads, he rose again and drifted toward Xewport Xews. Landing was made at Hampton, twelve miles from the start, most of the trip being over the water.

On his return to this country the press agent spirit of Frederic Thompson was found on the job. He announced his project to build a balloon park at Fort George and offers $25,000 to the first to fly from Fort George to Coney Island. We hope that this is true, but we heard last summer of a passenger line of dirigibles between these two points which same did not pan out.

On October 1, Dr. Alexander Graham Bell, F. W. Baldwin, of Toronto; G. H. Curtiss, of Hammondsport; J. A. D. McCurdy, and Lieutenant T. E. Self ridge, organized the "Aerial Experiment Association.*' Lieutenant Self ridge is Secretary. Experiments now under way will be conducted by these five acting in cooperation. I'he headquarters are at Beinn Bhreagh, near Baddeck, Xova Scotia, but for the winter a change may be made to Hammondsport, X. Y.. at the Curtiss shops.

At Fort Omaha the construction of the government balloon bouse and hydrogen gas house for generating and compressing gas for balloon purposes is progressing. The space is somewhat limited, but plans are under way for increasing same. The balloon shed will be of steel superstructure with corrugated steel sheathing, foundations and floor of cement. The gas building will be of brick and concrete with corrugated iron roof.

Those who visited the Aero Show saw an entirely different type of motor, exhibited by the Aero & Marine Motor Co., 60 Pemberton Square, Boston, of which a detailed description will be given later. The G. H. Curtiss Mfg. Co. of Hammondsport, X. Y., exhibited four airship motors, 1, 2, 4 and 8 cylinders, of their regular type. Another feature of the motor section was the 130 horse-power engine used in Cooper Hewitt's hydroplane.

"There is always the consolation that when Uncle Sain really sees the situation he takes no half-way measures, and so 1 look upon the present agitation and attention to aerial machines of warfare as fortunate in that Congress will be convinced of the necessity for radical action to enable us to 'catch on* and catch up. Uncle Sam has long since emigrated to Missouri and has succumbed to his environment, but like the man that has been asleep be wakes up with refreshed life and as soon as 'shown* is Ihe most active man possible."*—Colonel Ghis^ford in the :'0>nnli<i Her."

Aeronautics is, or are, certainly booming in America-according to surface

indications. There is a certain interest taken in the subject by a great many, but a very few are interested to the extent of $3. Still, it may be possible that the American Airship iXr Balloon Corporation, capital $200.0(10. of which Israel Ludlow is Vice-President and Charles J. Strobel is President, will find more than we have. This ambitious concern expects to build dirigibles for the United States Government, flying machines, balloons, etc.. in addition to cornering the show business for this country.

At a banquet of the Aerial Experiment Association at Halifax, a cup was given

G. H. Curtis in acknowledgment of his making the fastest mile ever traveled by a human being (in 20 2/5 seconds). This performance was accomplished on January 23, 1907, at Ormond Beach, Florida, on a Curtiss motorcycle. Another "favor,"'' in the form of a cup, was presented to Captain Thomas S. Baldwin, in honor of his successful flights at Halifax with the California Arrow, and of the fact that he has been an aeronaut for 32 years, having made his first ascension in 1875. Captain Baldwin was the first man to use a parachute in America.

Xow that so much attention is being paid to the problem of navigating the air, it may not be amiss to recall that a strange effort in this direction was made just 400 years last month. It was in September, 1507, that King James IX sent a special ambassador from Edinburgh to France. An adventure]', John Damian, who had gained the favor of the king, said that he would reach France before the ambassador by simply flying there. He had a pair of huge wings made of eagles' feathers, fastened them to his body, and in the presence of thousands of people he launched himself into the air from the walls of Stirling castle. Instead of rising, though, he fell to the ground and broke his leg. The air navigator's excuse for his failure was that some cock's feathers had been mixed in with the eagle's plumes, and that these influenced the body earthward.

On October 15th the following was received from the Aerial Experiment Association :

"We are nearly ready to put a large machine into the air, and it is possible that within the next week or so. we may fly the machine as a kite, with a sand-bag in it of the weight of a man. If the experiment is successful, we shall place a man in the machine (without a motor) and allow him to glide down to the water from an elevation. J do not think it will take us longer than about a week or ten days to reach this stage. I doubt very much whether we shall be able to make an experiment with a motor-driven machine before the cold season comes in, although we have our motor and propellers completed. We do not think it would be safe to start at once to put a man into the air in a motor-driven machine flown as a kite and towed by a motor-boat. We propose to allow our aviator to have considerable practice in gliding-flight before putting the motor and propellers into the machine."

The Allgemeine Autoinobil Zeitung. in its issue of October 25, has this to say of the Wrights: "It is reported that the Brothers Wright have sold their flying machine for 2.000,000 francs to an American-English syndicate and that there are already under way negotiations with the English government for the further sale. We might put a heavy question mark after this information, judging by the news distributed through the press dining the last few weeks and remembering that such news maintained that the brothers had sold their flying machine to a French syndicate, in which even it was specified how much money was paid in and how much stock the Wrights had received for their invention. East week the Wright brothers were in Berlin where they were said to be in negotiations with the German government also for the sale of their machine ( ??).''

The continuation of the Aero Club of St. Louis and the holding of a large aeronautical carnival each October was virtually decided upon at the meeting of the Board of Governors at the St. Louis Club. The members were unanimously in favor of the perpetuation of the organization for annual contests.

The club voted to increase the membership from 400 to (¡00, due to the large number of applications pending. President Dozier was empowered to appoint a committee of three to recommend a programme and the prizes for the aero contests next October. This committee is to report at a special meeting to be called soon.

The Aeio Club of St. Louis is to he in absolute charge of all aero contests in St. Louis, was the club's decision.

A letter, conveying the oiler of Augustus A. Buseh and Edward A. Faust of a cup to be known as the dlusch Trophy and valued at -$1,000 or more, was read. Acceptance was deferred until a later meeting. A letter conveying the thanks of the Club will lie written by Secretary Kearney.

The report of the Chief Signal Officer of the United States Army for the year ending dune 30, 1907. contains the following under the head of "Military Aeronautics;" "During the past year investigation and experiments have been made with a view of securing hydrogen in large quantities at low cost. The results were not satisfactory, and it has been decided to establish a plant for producing hydrogen by the electrolysis of water. Orders have already been placed for the necessary electrolytic cells and the electrical machinery. This plant will be established at Fort Omaha. Xeh.. and the Quartermaster Department has already prepared plans for a suitable building to inclose this hydrogen plant, and also a large steel balloon house of a size sufficient to fill hydrogen balloons and to carry on experiments with any size and type of dirigible balloons or flying machines which may in the future be presented for trial. Hydrogen for captive and dirigible balloons will be compressed in tubes at high pressure at this Omaha plant and shipped to any point where required for use. this method being considered preferable to using portable generators.

"The Signal Corps has recently purchased a complete military captive balloon, with all appurtenances, with a capacity of 300 cubic metres, and also an ordinary spherical balloon with a capacity of 2200 cubic metres, which was designed to be filled with coal gas and used for preliminary instruction of officers and enlisted men of the Signal Corps in the elementary principles of aeronautics. This balloon on the trial trip made a successful voyage from Washington to Harrisburg, Pa., a distance of 101 miles, in four and one-half hours.

"In addition to the installation of a gas generating plant and balloon house at the Signal Corps post. Fort Omaha. Xeh., it is also intended to provide practical instruction in military aeronautics suited to the needs of the three service schools at Fort Leavenworth, Kan.

"Paragraph 34, General Orders Xo. 145, War Department, August 16, 1906, now requires theoretical and practical instruction in aeronautics at these schools, but the instruction has thus far been limited to a theoretical study of the subject due to a lack of suitable equipment for this station."

THE MYSTERY OF BIRD FLIGHT.

Everybody's Magazine.

"In the excellent article on "The .Mystery of Bird Flight,' by Harold Bolce, in Errri/bodi/'s for August, allusion is made to the fact that the size of the wings decreases in proportion to the increase in size of'the body of the flying creature, and it is called "a most puzzling paradox, perhaps the most mysterious of the enigmas of bird flight."

"As the solution of the problem of aerial navigation depends largely on an accurate knowledge of the principles governing bird flight, and as the problem is daily becoming of greater popular interest, it may be well to state that the proportion of wing surface to weight follows a very simple and easily understood law.

"The sustaining power of the wings depends not on their area, but on their displacement. If we take two wings of equal width, but one double the length of the other, and move them through the segment of a circle, the larger one will displace four times the air that is displaced by the shorter one. But if we keep the wings of

equal length, but have one double the width of the other, the wider one will displace only twice as much air as the narrower one. The sustaining power, therefore, varies directly with the width of the wing, but varies as the square of the length.

"If we assume that the wings of all birds are of the same proportionate shape, and that all birds are equipped with the same power of flight—both assumptions being correct only in a very general way—we have the following equation for determining their wing area :

"The wing surface in square feet equals the square of the cube root of twice the weight in pounds. If we apply this law to some of the birds as given in the table of wing areas in Mr. Bolce's article, we obtain the following figures:

Weight in pounds ^J*]™*

Screech-owl.......... o.33 0.776 2.35

Sparrow-hawk...... .336 .69 2.05

Blackheaded gull... .619 .92 1.49

Goshawk............... .641 .84 1.31

Fish-hawk............ 2. So 3.01 1.10S

Turkey-buzzard.... 5.6 5.33 .95

Flamingo ............ 6.34 3.50 .55

Griffin-vulture...... 16.52 11.3S .6S

Condor................ 16.52 9.80 .59

"Mr. Bolce states that "the Australian crane, for instance, weighs over three hundred times more than the sparrow, but in proportion has only one-seventh of the wing area of the smaller bird." Under this law, with a wing area of only one-seventh proportionately, it should weigh 343 times more.

"Mr. Bolce also states that "the stork weighs eight times more than the pigeon but in proportion has only half as much wing surface." This agrees exactly with this law.

"I do not know whether this law governing wing areas is known to others studying aerial navigation. I found it necessary to reduce it to a definite formula in my investigations.

"Applying this law to human flight, if a man should equip himself with artificial wings, and the combined weight of man and wings should be 200 pounds, he would need a wing surface of 54.17 square feet. A flying machine weighing 2.000 pounds would require a wing area of 250 square feet. H. R."

Xew York.

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AERONAUTIC CALENDAR.

Xov. 15.— International Exposition of Aeronautic Photographs, at Paris. Dec. 8.—Aeroplane race at Issy les Moulineaux.

CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS IN AMERICA.

Messrs. Albert C. Triaea and P. B. Whitman, of the Xew York School of Automobile Engineers, intend to inaugurate about January 1st. 1008. a school for the instruction of amateurs in aerostation and aviation.

Col. Espitallier has arranged a series of forty lessons, divided into four parts: spherical balloons: dirigibles: aviation, aeroplanes, helicopters, hydroplanes, etc.: and practical application of the principles of aeronautics. The material for these papers has been collected from authorities all over the world. There will be a directing committee composed of those most renowned in aerostation and aviation. Practical lessons in ballooning will be under the charge of Charles Levee, a pilot of the Aero Club of France.

COMMUNICATIONS.

To the Editor.

American Magazine of Aeronautics. Dear Sir:

In your October number 1 have noticed among your list of communications, the letter headed "An Appreciation," and signed by F. A. Postnikov, Lt-Ooh, Military and Civil Eng., Aeronautic Grad.

It strikes me that he is making a serious mistake in his accusations, in reference to the inventive genius, inasmuch as he is striking at the one that we must look toward for the successful accomplishment of aerial navigation.

His claiming that ninety per cent, of inventors being ignorant maniacs is absurd. I admit that there are some very ignorant ones, and also some maniacs, but I have found that the most ignorant ones are not in the inventive class, but in the class that think that they are going to be "swindled," owing to their "'selfish desire'' to keep the money that they have in their possession.

For the sound and honest people, really interested in the rapid solution of aerial navigation, there is only one way, let the man with the capital take hold, hand in hand, with the man with the brains (do not consider him an ignorant maniac, because he toils in his little shop, in secrecy, to the small hours of the morning, while the man of money is idling his time at the clubs, wasting his money on his own "selfish desire"' for pleasures) and work honestly.

Money is a very hard thing to get by the average mechanic, but brains of inventive qualities are still harder to obtain. Therefore, the man with the capital should step forward and assist the man who oftimes is bright and intelligent, and one who has matured his plans, and is being made a maniac owing to the lack of funds that are hindered by the "selfish desire'" of the man with the money. What is our greatest obstruction to the success of aerial navigation? It certainly is not the lack of ambition of the inventor, as he is only too anxious to bring his invention before the public, to show what he can do. as all the average mechanic has to glory in is in showing his accomplishments.

What hinders him most ? The lack of money! And the cause of this is the "selfish desire"" of those that have it to keep it in their possession, or for their own pleasures.

Again, why is America so far behind European countries in aerial navigation? Because the American man of money is so full of this "selfish desire"' that he must set ten dollars coming in before he will spend one out. In foreign countries the man with the capital will assist the inventor, therefore they have obtained better results. As to the false ambitions of inventors, those people accomplish little, their achievements do not amount to enough to interest any one, while on the other hand, the "selfish desire" of the money man can be classed with the false ambitious inventor, as he is a greater obstruction toward the perfection of aerial navigation.

Xow, then, let us cut this "selfish desire" and let the man with the money invest with the manual and mental work of the inventor, and run a chance with bright thoughts and see if there shall not be something accomplished. Do not consider that ninety per cent, of the inventors are fools, but vice versa, and do what you can to help the cause along, as the average mechanic has the brains and no money, and

the average money man has no-well has not the inventive ability, as he does

not see time to waste on mechanics. Therefore, I ask the man of money to place it with the man of brains, and then we shall see success.

I am sure that the American Magazine of Aeronautics shall be of great assistance towards the perfection of the future aerial craft.

Yours truly,

D1LL0X HOFFMAN, M. E.

AERONAUTIC SOCIETIES OF THE WORLD.

To those who are unacquainted with the actual status of aeronautics the following list of aeronautical societies or clubs will prove most surprising. There are at the present time thirty-seven organizations whose energies are applied to the solution of aeronautical problems and it is not at all unlikely that this number will be added to very frequently.

A. INTERNATIONAL SC1ENTL

FIC SOCIETIES.

1. The International Commission for Scientific Aeronautics. Founded in Paris, September. 1896. The members include the directors of meteorological institutes in all countries. The object of the Commission is to investigate the conditions holding in the atmosphere up to the highest limit attainable by kites and balloons. Simultaneous ascents are made with this object from various meteorological stations all over the world on the first Thursday in each month.

2. The Permanent International Aeronautical • Committee. Founded by a resolution of the International Aeronautic Congress at Paris in 1900 in order to carry out the expressed wish of the Congress to advance the progress of aeronautics by scientific advice, and to prepare for the following congress. Offices, in the buildings of the Societe d'Encouragement, 44 rue de Rennes, Paris. The transaction of business is regulated by statutes published in 1901. The congress elected 33 members, who received the right to elect other members and to appoint sub-committees for special subjects.

B. FEDERATION AERONAUT I-QUE INTERNATIONALE.

Founded on the 14th of October, 1905, in Paris. It has formulated special rules and regulations which

are adopted by all amalgamated societies and clubs. The societies and clubs belonging to this Federation are indicated by an asterisk. (*)

C. NATIONAL SOCIETIES. *I. Deutscher Luftschiffer-Verband,

Founded at Augsburg on the 28th of December. 1902, for the purpose o? increasing the genera! interest in aeronautical matters, and more especially for:

(a) Supporting a monthly aeronautical journal (Illustrierte Aeronautische Mitteilungen1).

(b) The publication, of a yearbook.

(c) The Superintendence of the training of aeronauts.

(d) The publication of the qualifications necessary for an aeronaut as laid down by the society.

Address, Care of Hauptmann Hildebrandt, Kirchstrasse 2, Charlotten-hurg.

The following German societies belong to this National Federation.

1. Berliner Verein für Luftschiffahrt. Founded August 31, 1881, in Berlin. Fublished the Zeitschrift für Luftschiffahrt from 1882 to 1900, when the Illustrierte Aeronautische Mitteilungen was adopted as the official journal of the Verein. The Verein owns several balloons and has arranged numerous ascents, under the patronage of H. R. H. the Kaiser. The society has instituted stations for balloon ascents all over Germany, wherever the balloons can be convenienti}' inflated. Headquarters, Dresdenerstrasse 38, Berlin, S. 14. Number of members 807, including 134 qualified aeronauts.

2. Münchener Verein für Luftschiffahrt. Founded November 21, 1889. at Munich. Published annual proceedings up to 1901. Contributed to the Zeitschrift für Luftschiffahrt up to 1898, and subsequently to the Illustriete Aeronautischen Mitteilungen. Owns balloon equipment and has arranged numerous ascents since

{889. Membership 383, including 53 qualified aeronauts. Headquarters, Kaufingerstrasse 26, Munich.

3. Oberrheinischer Verein für Luftschiffahrt. Founded July 24, 1896, at Strasbourg. Published the III. Mitteilungen des Oberrheinischen Verein für Luftschiffahrt up to 1898, when this journal was re-organized as the 111. Aeronautische Mitteilungen. Owns balloon equipment and has arranged ascents since 1897. Membership 200, including 25 qualified aeronauts. Headquarters, Munsterplatz 9, Strasbourg, I. E.

4. Augsburger Verein für Luftschiffahrt. Founded in June, 1901, at Augsburg. Owns balloon equipment and has arranged ascents since 1901. Membership 321, including 36 aeronauts. Headquarters. Carolinenstrasse 83, Augsburg.

5. Niederrheinischer Verein für Luftschiffahrt. Founded December 15, 1902, at Barmen. First ascent January, 1903. Owns balloon equipment. Membership, 633, including 15 aeronauts. Headquarters, Königstrasse 35, Barmen.

6. Posener Verein für Luftschiffahrt. Founded December 2, 1903, at Posen. First ascent, December 19, 1903. Membership, 83, including 9 aeronauts. Headquarters, Gartenstrasse 10, Posen.

7. Ostdeutscher Verein für Luftschiffahrt. Founded June 11, 1904, at Graudenz, West Prussia. First ascent July, 1904. Number of members 150, including 10 aeronauts. Headquarters Ostbank für Handel und Gewerbe, Pohlmannstrasse 9, Graudenz.

8. Frankischer Verein für Luftschiffahrt. Founded May 12, 1905, at Würzburg. First ascent February, 1905. Membership 150, including 6 aeronauts. Headquarters, Bergmeisterstrasse ii. Würzburg.

9. Mittelrheinischer Verein für Luftschiffahrt. - Founded May 11, 1905, at Coblenz. Membership 83, including 4 aeronauts. Headquarters, Casinostrasse 37, Coblenz.

10. Kölner Klub für Luftschiffahrt.

Kallenburg 1-3. Köln.

11. Physikalischer Verein im Frankfort A. M., Stiftstrasse 32, Frankfort.

12. Motorluftschiff - Studiengesellschaft m. b. H., Spandauerweg, Berlin.

II. SOCIETIES OF OTHER NATIONS.

13. Wiener Flugtechnischer Verein. Founded August 18. 1887, in Vienna, as an offshoot of the Oesterreichischer Ingenieur Verein. Contributed towards the cost of Wilhelm Kress' flying machine. Membership about 90. Headquarters, Esehen-bachgasse 9, Vienna, I.

14. Wiener Aero Club. Founded in August, 1901, at Vienna. The club possesses its own grounds and balloon equipment and has organized ascents since 1901. Publishes a monthly journal, Wiener LuftschifferZeitung. Membership 79, including 9 aeronauts. Headquarters, Annahof 3, Vienna, I.

15. *Aero Club Suisse. Founded March 30, 1901, at Berne. Owns balloon equipment. First ascent July 11, 1902. Membership 140. Headquarters, Hirsehengraben 3, Berne.

16. Aeronautical Society of Great Britain. Founded January 12, 1866, and consequently the oldest aeronautical society. First general meeting June 27, 1S66. Brought out from 1866 to 1892 annual reports and has published quarterly since 1897 the Aeronautical Journal of Great Britain. In 1901 the society founded an aeronautical museum. Membership 120. Headquarters, 53 Victoria St., London, S. W.

17. *Aero Club of the United Kingdom. Founded in January, 1902, in London. Headquarters 166 Pica-dilly, London, W.

18. *Aero Club of America. Founded in November, 1905, in New York.

Number of members, 300. Headquarters, 12 East 42nd St., New York.

19. Aero Club of Philadelphia.

Founded in Philadelphia, 1906. Number of members, 40. Headquarters, Philadelphia, Pa.

20. Aero Club of St. Louis. Founded in January, 1907. Headquarters, St. Louis, Mo. Membership, 350.

21. Aero Club of Chicago. Founded in May, 1907. Headquarters, 79 Randolph St., Chicago, 111.

22. Svenska Aeronautiska Sallska-pet. Founded at Stockholm, December, 1900. Membership 80. Headquarters, Stockholm.

23. Société Francais de Navigation Aérienne. Founded in Paris, August, 1872. Publishes a monthly journal, LAeronaute. This society is the oldest aeronautical society in France. Number of members, 103. Headquarters, Hotel des Ingenieurs Civils de France, 19 Rue Blanche, Paris.

24. Aéronautique Club de France.

Founded October, 1897. Has branches in Paris and Lyons. Its objects are the propagation of a knowledge of aeronautical matters and the education of as many aeronauts as possible among the civil population. Membership, 350 in Paris, 150 in Lyons. Its official organ is L'Aéronautique, published quarter^ since 1902. Ladies are admitted as members. Annual distribution of medals and prizes to balloon conductors belonging to the society. Headquarters, 58 Rue J. J. Rousseau, Taris.

25. *Aero Club de France. Founded in Paris, December, 1898. Adopted the monthly journal L'Aerophile as its official organ in 1901. The club is distinguished for its great activity in aeronautical matters. In 1900 it offered the Deutsch prize of 100,000 francs to the first aeronaut to start from the Park, St. Cloud, go around the Eiffel Tower and return to starting point within 30 minutes. The prize was won by Santos-Du-mont October 19, 1902. In 1903 nu-

merous medals were offered in connection with various competitions and balloon sports. Membership 700, including 60 aeronauts. Headquarters, 84 Faubourg St. Honore, Paris. Owns balloon equipment.

26. Académie Aéronautique de France. Founded in 1902. Headquarters, 14 Rue des Goncourts, Paris.

27. Societie des Aeronautes du Siege. Founded in 1902, the membership of the society being confined to persons who escaped from Paris during the siege of 1870-71 by balloon. In 1903 the society had only 31 members.

28. Aero Club du Sud-Est. Founded in Bordeaux in April, 1905. Number of members, 175, including 10 pilots. Owns balloon equipment. A section of the club was formed at Pau in December, 1905, comprising 21 members. Headquarters, Bordeaux.

29. Aero Club du Rhone. Headquarters, 4 Quai Pêcherie, Lyon.

30. Aero Club du Nord. Headquarters, 4 Rue de la Gare, Roubaix.

31. Club Aéronautique de l'Aube.

Headquarters, 23 Place de la Bonneterie, Troye.

32. Automobile Club de Nice (Section Aéronautique). Headquarters,

7 Promenade des Anglais, Nice.

33. *Aero Club de Belgique. Founded in Brussels in February, 1901. Membership 300. Owns balloon equipment and publishes a fortnightly journal, La Conquête de l'Air. Headquarters, 5 Place Royale, Brussels.

34. *Societa Aeronautica Italiana.

Under the patronage of the King of Spain. Founded in Rome, March, 1904. The society is divided into three sections: Rome with 136 members, Turin with 29 members and Milan with J7 members. Owns balloon equipment. Headquarters, Via Delia Muratte, 70, Rome; Via Davide Bert-oletti 2, Turin; Via Secco 2, Milan. (Continued on page 45.)

RARE AERONAUTIC BOOKS FOR SALE

This magazine will publish each month a list of such rare books relating to aeronautics as it is able to secure.

If you desire any of those listed, kindly send check with your order for the amount stated. Should the book ordered be sold previous to the receipt of your order, the money will be promptly returned.

Astra Castra (Hatton Turner). Royal 4to, cloth, gilt top, uncut, London, 1865............$15.00

An Account of the First Aerial Voyage in England (Vincent Lunardi). Portrait of Lunardi by Bartolozzi and plates. Crown 8vo, half calf, uncut, London, 1784. Autograph "V. Lunardi" on fly-leaf......... 15.00

Travels in the Air (James Glai-sher). 8vo., cloth, London, 1871........................ 10.00

Crotchets in the Air (John Poole). 12 mo., cloth, London, 1838 ......................... 5-00

Flying and No Failure. Very rare reprint. Pamphlet. London, 1751.................. 3.00

By Land and Sky (John M. Bacon). Four illustrations. 8vo, cloth, uncut, London, 1901 2.50

A Balloon Ascension at Midnight (G. E. Hall). Plates by Gordon Ross. 8vo, boards, uncut. San Francisco, 1902. Limited edition .................. 2.50

Five Weeks in a Balloon (Wm. Lackland). 12 mo., cloth, N. Y., 1869.....•................ 2.50

Wonderful Balloon Ascents (F. Marion). 12 mo., half leather, N. Y., 1871 ........■......... 2.50

My Airships (Santos-Dumont). Illustrated. Crown 8vo, cloth, uncut, London, 1904......... 2.50

The Dominion of the Air. The story of aerial navigation. Illustrations from photographs. Crown, Svo, cloth, London, n. d......................... 2.00

My Life and Balloon Experiences. Photograph of author. Crown, Svo, cloth. London, 1887 ......................... 2.00

Travels in Space (G. S. Valentine and F. L. Tomlinson). Introduction by Sir Hiram Maxim, 61 plates. Svo, cloth, London, 1902............... 2.00

Balloon Travels (Robert Merry).

12 mo., cloth, N. Y., 1865 ....$ 2.50

Aerodynamics. Illustrated. 1891. 2.00

Conquest of the Air (John Alexander). 12 mo., cloth, London, 1902 ......................... 2.00

The Motor and its Chief Application, Wings, Propulsion in Air,_ etc. (Com. of Pat., 1849). Svo., paper .................. 1.50

La Machine Animale (J. Marey). Illustrated, Svo, cloth, Paris, 1878, French ................ 1.25

Balloons, Airships and Flying Machines (Gertrude Bacon). 12 mo., cloth, N. Y., 1905 .... 1.00

CLASSIFIED ADVERTISEMENTS.

These columns are open to everyone at 3 cents a word.

Situations Wanted.

By young man interested in aeronautics. Has studied electrical engineering and is now in electrical laboratory. N. C.

By young man student of aerial navigation. Desires to work with some advanced experimentor. O.A.D.

Financial Assistance.

Financial assistance to build a flying machine I have invented, based 011 a principle hitherto ignored by inventors. I can convince anyone interested that it meets all the requirements for a successful machine. I do not expect any money to be invested until I convince the person interested that my invention is worthy support and far superior to any yet public. I invented this machine over a year ago. I would like to hear from people who are in a position and are inclined to promote experiments in aeronautics. Address, J. A. La Bille, North Platte, Neb.

(Continued from page 44.)

Aviation Club de France—President, L. Delagrange; Address, 3 Rue Taitbout, Paris.

AERONAUT LEO STEVENS

CONTRACTOR TO THE U. S. GOVERNMENT AT THE PRESENT TIME

INSTRUCTOR TO ARMY BALLOON CORPS

Box 181, Madison square, new York

Airship—Baldwin's California Arrow—Patented.

I design and manufacture, Free Balloons, Captive Balloons, Airships, and in fact everything in the hydrogen line of aeronautics. Information relative to dates and terms, cheerfully furnished upon request.

CAPTAIN THOMAS S. BALDWIN

Airship California Arrow

Box 78 Madison Sq. P. O,, New York

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Used on all successful airships and by scientific men and aeronautical experimenters generally.

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Estimates made. Practical professional advice given. Largest, most reliable manufactory in America. Operated 28 }7ears. 140 gas balloons for LT. S. Government. Instructions given. All sorts of experiments conducted.

O11I3* American Institute of Aeronautics. An}* kind of gas balloon ascents, captive or free, or airship flights made at any time or place.

CARL E. MYERS,

BALLOON FARM, FRANKFORT, N. Y.

American magazine of Aeronautics.

published monthly by

AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERONAUTICS CO.

Ernest LaRue Jones, Editor and Owner 142 West Sixty-Fifth Street, New York, U. S. A.

Vol. I December, 1907 No. 6

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SUMMARY.

Editorial—Aero Club of America—New Aero Clubs in America—Ballooning and How I Became Addicted to the Habit—Roshon Aeroplane—Gordon Bennett, 1907—Bleriot Aeroplane—Santos Dumont Aeroplane—Pelterie Aeroplane — International Congress Papers — New Aeronautic Books — November Ascensions — Chronology—Notes — Aeronautic Calendar — The Aero Song — Communications—U. S. Army Aeronautics—Aeronautic Societies of the World.

THE NEED FOR A CLUB PARK.

Up to December 1st. 1007. 5G balloon ascensions have been made by 2o members of the Aero Club of America during the year. The majority of these have made but one or two trips each.

This is somewhat better than the record for UKKi but it can still be improved upon greatly if in some way the conditions for balloon ascents were made easier. The two balloons of the A. C. A. are now out of commission and unfit for use; and out of the 300 members there are but 7 privately owned balloons in the club. This means that members must either borrow these balloons or rent or buy balloons from manufacturers, of whom there are two in the club. Messrs. Myers and Stevens.

The cost of gas and rental does not figure so much as the loss of time incident to making a flight. If one goes to Pitts lie! d or Xorth Adams, which arc. of course, ideal locations, one loses practically three days' time: and that is under favorable weather conditions.

It does seem that the great need is a park somewhere near Xew York where private and club balloons may be stored and where gas can be obtained at short notice.

For instance, West Point, in' its scheme of beautifk-ation and enlargement, could be made a ballooning center for the East. It is a good location and has the advantage of being a military post. We would like to refer to an editorial in the

August number in which a plan was outlined by which the Government might cooperate with aero clubs to their mutual advantage.

If this were not possible, there are other towns along the Hudson River where gas could be secured, at least after some modification in the plants, still more convenient than West Point. For instance, there is one town in mind. 33 miles from New York, with trainst at least every hour, and an express stop, where there is a new gas plant. A large three-story brick building adjoins the works, on the same property. This building was intended for purposes in connection with the manufacture of gas but has not been used up to the present. In this building could be stored balloons and all facilities for repairs and experiments could be installed. The plant can furnish 500,000 feet of gas in ten hours, at the rate of 20.00(1 feet an hour—at least, that is the present rate of manufacture. While the gas is a mixed gas, coal gas could be furnished. Suppose a club should purchase.such a plant and modify it to produce coal gas alone. It could supply the town at the regular rate, pay all expenses and have gas for ascensions without cost.

With good facilities for making flights more members would take advantage of opportunities and there would he more privately owned balloons and more chartered ascents.

Near the same place- is a practically new race track, with buildings, where experiments with flying machines could be conducted. There are machine shops in the town and there seems to be many advantages for general aeronautic work.

It is to be hoped that 1908 will see a great increase in the number of balloon ascents and in aeronautic activity in this country.

AERO CLUB OF AMERICA.

The annual meeting was held November 4, at which the old officers were reelected. Mr. James Gordon Bennett was elected an honorary member. The Gordon Bennett Cup was officially presented to Herr Oscar Lrbsloh, the winner of the contest of that name.

At a meeting of the directors held November 27, the Lahm Cup was awarded to Captain Chas. De F. Chandler in recognition of his flight of 475 miles, from St. Louis, Mo., to Walton, W. Ya.. October 17-18.

New Members Elected.

Mr. Ralph Upson Mr. A. 11. Morgan

Mr. J. H. Wade, Jr. Mr. W. G. Critchlow.

Members Posted for Election.

Mr. De Witt C. Morrell Mr. Williams Welch

Mr. Leroy M. Taylor Mr. A. Holland Forbes

Mr. John D. Larkin. Jr. Mr. William Paine Everts.

The Automobile Club of America kindly offered the privileges of its rooms to

the Aero Club on the occasion of the former's regular monthly dinner and smoker,

Tuesday, December 3.

NEW AERO CLUBS IN AMERICA. Aero Club of New England.

On November 21, at Young's Hotel, Boston, on the 124th anniversary of the first ascent by man in a balloon, was formed the Aero Club of New England, with 40 members. Professor A. Lawrence Botch was elected president; Chas. J. Glidden, 1st vice-president; Frank E. Stanley, 2d vice-president; Alfred R. Shrigley, secretary; Harry G. Pollard, treasurer; A. Leo Stevens, aeronautical engineer.

Addresses were delivered by Professor A. Lawrence Rotch, Professor W. IL

Pickering, Messrs. Charles .1. Glidden. A. V. Wilson. A. Leo Stevens. T. L. Bvrnes and L. .1. Minahan.

Pittsfield has heen selected as the official park.

SOME OF THE FOUNDERS OF THE A. C. OF N. E.

The Aero Club has oti'ered a silver cup of the value of $100. donated by the Boston Herald, as a trophy to the pilot of any balloon starting 100 miles from Boston, air line, and landing within 5 miles of Boston Common. Notification must be made ¿1 hours before starting of the attempt by any pilot to win the trophy.

The matter of a challenge to the Aero Club of America, the Aero Club of Philadelphia and the Aero Club of St. Louis, for a race of 3\U hours' duration from Pittsfield, Mass., the winner to be the one landing the greatest distance from Pitts-field within the specified time, was referred to its Contest Committee. Messrs. George L. McQuesten. Henry Howard and W. E. Eldredge. The competition is limited to balloons of less than 40.000 cubic feet capacity.'

Pittsfield Aero Club.

The Pittsfield Aero Club was formed at the 1 hotel Wendell. Pitlstield. .Mass.. November loth, with the following officers: president. Mr. L. d. Minahan: vice-president. Mayor A. H. Bagg; treasurer. Lx-Mayor Daniel Kngiand ; secretary. Mr. Iv. B. Miller, proprietor of the Berkshire Daily Eagle.

It is the intention of the club to purchase a balloon which will be rented during the season to its members. The club can do a great deal towards the encouragement of the sport of ballooning, especially as it is likely that the majority of ascents in this countrv will be from Pittsfield.

The Aéronautique Club of Chicago.

On November 'Ï2<\ the Aéronautique Club of Chicago was formed, with twenty charier members. A contract has been Jet for a balloon and it is expected to hold a series of races at Chicago during the summer of IOCS. A cup of the value of $1,000 has already been donated.

The officers are: Mr. C. A. Coey. president; Mr. Charles E. Gregory, vice-president; Mr. A. B. I'errigo, secretary: M. 11. C. Foster, treasurer.

Aero Club at Columbus.

The citizens of Columbus, Ohio, are about to form an aero club and secure permanent grounds where annual races may be held and where club members may make ascensions as often as desired.

At a meeting held at the Board of Trade on December 1st the matter was discussed in detail and the raising of funds was referred to a committee.

It is planned to hold a long distance race on next Decoration Day and all members of aero clubs in America owning balloons who wish to take part are requested to communicate with Mr. Henry 1'. Mattach, c/o Neil House. Columbus. A handsome cup will be olfered.

Another club is soon to be formed in Louisville, Fy., by Messrs A. I'. Shirley, J. L. Gribble and others.

BALLOONING, AND HOW I BECAME ADDICTED TO THE

HABIT; DIRIGIBLES.

By A. Leo Stevens.

Being an address delivered before the Aero Club of New England upon the occasion of its organization meeting.

During my early schooldays there was one particular story that impressed more than all the rest—that of a "professor" who was to ascend in a monster balloon, lie had allowed two children to get into the car. with permission from their parents, but before the ascent was made a violent storm came up which tore the balloon loose from its moorings, taking the two youngsters on a wild ride. The professor slated that if the children knew enough to pull the rope which hung almost at their hands, they would descend safelv to Mother Firth.

The storv impressed me so much that I felt that if I had been in the car I would have pulled the cord. I told my rather of my feelings and my ambition but he plainly told me I would be frightened to dealh. 1 waited my chance and every time 1 saw a balloon I was there to help.

I never will forget the first real balloon that I saw, bulging out to its fullest capacity in the public square of my native city. Jt was a beautiful creature to my imagination, and how errandlv it left the earth !

On the next opportunity of seeing a balloon I struck up an acquaintance with the aeronaut, shoveled the iron, carried the acid, helped to haul the water, chop the ice and did all the running, ruining my knockerbockcrs with the acid, as I found out the next morning. Father was/interested in the amusement park from which the ascension was to be made. The aeronaut promised to take me up and I worked like a trooper. But the following day when the balloon was inflated he told me the balloon was too small to carry two. As the day was Sunday, the Marshall played an important part and the ascent was not allowed to take place until the following day. I tried to persuade my boy friends to "borrow" the balloon by mistake but the plan failed.

1 told my father I was going up and he replied, "Take safety knickerbockers with you and go as quick as yon want," never thinking that J was truly in earnest.

In my rage, I stole to my father's hunting outfit, took a large knife and rushed panting up the hill to where the balloon was swaying in the air, full of hydrogen gap. The professor had gone to lunch; 1 jumped in the car, cut the ropes and left at railroad speed. Xot until I was high in the air did I realize what 1 had done. The whole city seemed like a mass of Water to me and I crouched down in the basket and thought what father and mother would do to me when 1 got—back? All this time 1 was travelling at the rate of twenty miles an hour and on peeping over the edge of the basket again 1 found no trace of the earth. Of course, I had no ballast, as it was all cut away when I started.

Finally, however, I descended safely on the outskirts of Canton, binding in a tree and tearing my clothes to pieces. The professor claimed the balloon was wrecked and received $500 from my parents, the cost of my first flight.. A year or two after this 1 made my second trip and have been "going up" ever since, enjoying life far above the earth.

The first dirigible balloon in this country 1.produced in 1900 and 1 brought to this country, through a Mr. Skinner, a De Dion Ronton engine. 1 made several successful flights with this machine and designed many inventions of importance: among them, the sliding balance which enables the operators to set the machine at any angle and the aeroplane arrangement which brings the machine safely to earth. J was the first in the world to put the propeller in the forward end of the ship: as 1 found pulling the load was much steadier than pushing it.

Next year there will be balloons in all directions and 1 propose putting out a motor balloon which will enable the operator to go in any direction, using the present spherical balloon. 1 will use the motor made by the Aero &" Marine Motor Co.. right here in Boston. Mr. "Washburn has convinced me that it is the greatest motor yet constructed. Shortly we will see the dirigible made of steel and the journey from Boston to Europe will be accomplished in two days. The balloon and airship has come to stay and with the present rapid improvements we will accomplish this in less than live years. First we must get our passengers accustomed to the upper air and teach them how to become experienced pilots and acquaint them with the engines of the air. Look uj on the dirigible as a steamship. We could not drive the Lusitania across the ocean at enormous speed unless we applied the power. It is the same with the dirigible, 'the coming machine will be made of reinforced steel, with great strength and lightness.

A balloon for three costs but $800 and the gas for this balloon. $:!,"), including the help for inflating. Ballooning is the grandest and least expensive sport in existence; far superior to any other sport of human beings.

Xow that we have formed an aero club here in Boston, let us show the world wb.-d ballooning is. In half a decade we will surpass all other countries.

THE ROSHON AEROPLANE.

The aeroplane of )lr. J. \Y. Boshon. of Harrisburg, Pa., has just been completed but no trials have yet been made. The use of the large number of superposed planes makes a description of it of interest.

The inventor has spaced the surfaces as far apart, one above the other, as the width from front to rear. Along the front of the machine is a set of 13 superimposed, long, narrow canvas planes. The lower of these measures 1 foot by 24 feet and the upper ones are 1 foot by 12. Six feet to the rear is another set identical with those in front.

THE ROSHON AEROPLANE.

In addition to the small surfaces are 3 large horizontal ones. Two of these are G feet by 21 and the other G by 12 feet. This gives a total horizontal surface of 810 square feet, with small size. The whole apparatus measures 24 feet wide. 8 feet in depth and is 17 feet high. The weight, is 225 pounds. The motor, 75 pounds, and the operator, 115 pounds, bring the total weight ready for flight up to 115 pounds. The surface per pound is 2.02 square feet, a loading of less than 1,0-pound per square foot.

The motor is a 7 h.p. Curtiss, driving a propeller 8.5 feet in diameter, geared to 200 r. p. m. "It is expected to get up preliminary speed by running down hill, in which case the motor may have sufficient power to keep up the speed."

Very little efficiency can be expected from the rear surfaces as they must needs follow in a current of air which is already traveling downward and can. therefore, offer but little support, unless these rear surfaces be inclined at a considerably greater angle than those in front, while at the same time these rear surfaces offer practically an equal drift or resistance to forward motion as those in front.

Turning the rear surfaces at a steeper angle would destroy the apparatus's power of automatically maintaining its equilibrium, and when inclining them at a greater angle the only way in which they can be made to cany any considerable portion of the load is to incline the whole apparatus at a very steep angle, something like 2(1 to 30 degrees with the horizontal, a condition which would involve a tremendously heavy pull of the screws to keep the apparatus afloat, in that, a thrust of over 40 per cent., and possibly even over 5ô per cent, of the total weight of the apparatus would have to be furnished by the screws. Assuming a total weight of 400 pounds would necessitate a screw thrust of 200 and to produce this thrust at living speed would require an engine of upwards of "?Ô h.p.

GORDON BENNETT, 1907.

From the logs of the contestants and various other source* a map has been prepared, showing the actual comse taken by the balloons in this race. A table of the actual distance traveled bv each and the average speed is given below:

Photo by C. W. Bright.

ST. LOUIS ANJOU LOTUS II DUSSELDORF ISLE OE FRANCE UNITED STATES POMMERN

A BERCRON AMERICA

READY TO START, GORDON BENNETT, 1907. The crowd is watching the flight of the pilot balloon sent up by Professor Kotcli.

Actual Sliced per

Distance JI our T raveled

Isle de France..................n;$ ->8

Du^seldorf ....................!>13 •><!

l'ommern .....................'.Mil ?!"»

America ......................848 "i'l

St. Louis .....................;;)s •>:»

Anjon ........................* !>o 'i 1

Ahercron .....................1SS <?3

ended States .................;'.<; 43

Lotus 11 ......................Ho :ii

The average distance would, therefore, be 80*2.44 miles, at a speed of -27.11 miles

per hour.

THE NEW BLERIOT, NO. 7.

In its last flight the Bleriot Xo. G fell from a height of about 75 feet and was so badly damaged that the inventor decided to construct an entirely new machine, embodying several modifications suggested by Former experiences.

new hleriot no. 7.

The new machine carries an 8 cylinder Antoinette engine of 50 h.p. It has two large wings in front and two small ones in the rear. Those in front have a total surface of "379.5 square feet; those in the rear, 80 square feet. Behind all is a vertical rudder. The manner of construction has not been changed.

The body of the apparatus is of wood, covered with a layer of paper. The body is spindie-shaped, of rectangular section, very sharp in front, tapering to still more of a point in the rear.

the bleriot no 6.

The steel and aluminum -l-bladed propeller, with a diameter of 0.88 feet, is located at the extreme front. The length of each blade is :5.5S feet. At 1.000 r.p.m. the pull is from 275 to V?S5 pounds.

>

The operator is seated in the interior of the body, with the verv ingenious mechanism which operates both the vertical rudder and small horizontal planes at the same time. The total weight of the apparatus, ready to launch, without the operator, is 715 pounds. The body is 22.'.Hi feet long. In the first trial of the machine the rudder behaved poorly and one of the wheels was bent in landing. While the accident was not serious, it sufficed in delav work to some extent.

NEW SANTOS DUMONT AEROPLANE, NO. 19.

This latest aeroplane, which has been nicknamed "The Butterfly." is of an altogether different type from, his former machine. The main framework is of steel tubing, mounted on three rubber-tired wheels, two forward and one in the rear, those in front being slanted inwards to receive the machine vertically should it come down sideways in ronndng a curve. The supporting surface consists of two varnished silk wings. Hi.7 feet from tip to tip and (!.5(i feet from front to back, stretched over a

The AutomoHle

MOTOR AND PROPELLER OF SANTOS DUMONT'S FLYER.

bamboo frame, 'there is a small horizontal hexagonal plain1 in front at a level with the wheels and two vertical planes of the same shape on either side of the main frame, under the wings. There is also a combination horizontal and vertical rudder in the rear, mounted on a bamboo cardan-shaft 20 feet in length, fitted with a universal joint. The machine weighs, complete. 113.2 pounds. The' 2-bladed propeller is 1.35 meters (4.42 ft.) in diameter, driven bv a 2-cviinder opposed horizontal Dutheil &- Chambers motor of K-20 h.p.. which weighs 22 kg. (48.4 Vm\) complete.

THE ESNAULT-PELTERIE AEROPLANE.

The single plane machine of Robert Ksnault-l'elterie resemble.-- very much a butterfly, with flexible wings, mounted on wheels. At the tip of each wing is also a small wheel to prevent damage in case a wing strikes the ground during flight. The total weight of the machine (528 pounds), with operator, is divided as follows: Aeronaut 1(35; motor and propeller complete with carbureter, pipes, etc.. 121; sustaining surface 132: body 44: horizontal rudder 22. wheels and frame 22: gasolene 22.

The 25 horsepower. 7 cylinder motor weighs complete without screw, ready to start. 00.8 pounds, or 3.87 pounds per horsepower. The crank shaft alone weighs 5.5

pounds. The motor was designed in its entirety by Pelterie. The motor is perfectly balanced by reason of the number and arrangement of the seven cylinders, which assure one explosion at 2-7 the of every revolution.

The Automobile

I'EI.TERIES SEVEN-CYLINDER MOTOR, SHOWINti CAM MECHANISM.

For each cylinder each individual valve is governed by a rocker insuring admission and expulsion of the gas. One single cam shaft operates all seven valves. There is one carbureter for a group of four cylinders and a second for a group of three.

the esnault-pelterie aeroplane.

M. Pelterie has tried to make light weight by extreme simplicity of parts without ■detracting from the strength of the motor. In spite of this, the apparatus is solid 'enough to make \2 trials in two days without mishap.

INTERNATIONAL AERONAUTICAL CONGRESS.

President: Professok Willis L. Moore. Secretary: Dr. Albert Franc-is Zahm. Chairman Gen'l Committee: W.m. J. Ham.mer. Chairman Executive Com.: Accrsxi's Post. Sec'y Committees: Ernest La Rue Jones.

Publication Notice.

The addresses, papers and discussions presented to the Congress will he published serially in this magazine and at the earliest date possible bound volumes will be distributed without charge to those holding membership cards in the Congress. Others may purchase the volume at a consistent price when ready or may take advantage of immediate publication by subscribing to this magazine at the regular rate.

In accordance with the program as published in the November number, the informal addresses of the Cordon Bennett contestants and others are concluded before entering upon the printing of the formal papers and discussions.

Following will be found-the addresses of M. Uene Gasnier, Major Henry B. Hersey and Paul Meckel, their experiences in the Gordon Bennett race and the story of the winning of the Lahm Cup by Capl. Chas. De V. Chandler: followed by the paper of Admiral Chester.

My Voyage in the Gordon Bennett, by Rene Gasnier.

1 will try to explain to you a little of the had luck I had in this race. I started toward the north, until we were almost sixty miles south of Chicago. I was with the other contestants and on the second day I saw two balloons on my right hand, and two balloons on my left band. In the evening I was very high, at one time almost 1,000 feet. As my balloon was in a good place. 1 thought 1 could do nothing but remain there. At that height the current was a little south-east, and when 1 crossed the Ohio f crossed it about SO feet under another contestant. T crossed the Alle-ghenies at a part where the mountains are very high. This was a very good spot, because in the Allegheny mountains I had a good wind. 1 was, going almost 30 miles an hour. When 1 crossed the top of each mountain the wind was much stronger, hut between each top of the mountains I was going very slowly.*f After having passed the Allegheny mountains, the next morning the sun rose at about half past five or six o'clock, and at that time the wind was blowing in the south; then 1 went very close to the land with my anchor out. and with my guide rope on the land, f was going southeast. 1 continued a little while south-easterly and then found myself going to the south. When J saw that. 1 saw there was nothing to do but go further down, and I came down and landed in a field at half past six. 1 was sorrv not to go further as when 1 landed 1 still had nine sacks of ballast.

*Prof. Willis L. Moore.—When Mr. Gasnier said he moved slowly between the mountains and swiftly when he was over the "mountains, 1 thought it was the principle of water flowing over a dam. Probably that accounted for the swift velocity that he got passing over the top of the mountain, and not very far from it; and when he came over the valley, he encountered a much less velocity of the wind, for the air that carried from over the mountain top went down the mountain side, and he passed on out of it into a lower stratum of air. This is simply a suggestion that came to my mind.

jProf. A. Lawrence T'otch.—I am glad the President brought out this suggestion. It is true, as we found by experiments we made near Alt. Washington last summer. The observations made on the summit of Mt. Washington indicated a very considerably greater velocity than from a kite which floated at the same height over the adjacent valley. How high this velocity continues one does not know. Certainly on a mountain top itself the velocity is very much greater than the velocity in the same height of free air; and I think the suggestions^ of Professor Moore are the correct ones, that the velocity is increased just as in the case of water flowing over a dam.

The Trip of the United States, by Major H. B. Hersey.

I am sorry I cannot, tell a better story but 1 just did the best I could, and will tell you a little about it. In the first place, 1 want to add my testimony to that of Mr. McCoy, in regard to the management of the race as a whole. You must all remember that this was the first balloon race ever held in America. To our French brethren it is an old story. They have their aeronauts thoroughly trained, their attendants for filling balloons, that are tilled thousands of times, and it is easy work for them from long experience. Every year in Paris several races, national or international, are held, but here in America this was our first, attempt, and I think, under the circumstances, that our foreign competitors will agree that we did very well in getting the balloons filled promptly with a good quality of gas, and getting them off on time without any accidents or disasters of any kind.

I think that the management of this race should be very highly complimented and congratulated on the thorough and efficient way in which they did their work, especially Mr. Stevens, who had an enormous job on hand, and while thoroughly familiar with handling balloons, he was not familiar with handling races. Captain Baldwin lent his assistance in every way possible and altogether I think it may be considered a wonderfully successful race from every point of view.

The balloon which 1 had charge of, the United States, the same one which 1 assisted Lieut. Lahm in managing last year, was the second one to go up. We went up a little lighter than 1 would have liked, so that we attained a height of about 000 metres before stopping, and took a course very nearly northwest. This gradually shifted a little more to the north. Two of the balloons. Monsieur Le Blanc's, and the Ponnnern, the German balloon, we could see for some time; the German balloon especially, as it was quite high. We crossed the Missouri Fiver just about dark and were gradually working down to the guide rope. A short time later we crossed the Mississippi near the mouth of the Illinois. By this time our course was very nearly due north. We passed between the Illinois Fiver and the Mississippi, close to the Illinois at times, at one time passing over it, our guide rope touching the water occasionally. A little motor launch was coming down the river and we hailed them and asked about the place and the distance from St. Louis and had epiite a little chat-with them before we passed out of hearing, asking them to telegraph the Club at St. Louis, which they said they would do.

During the night we kept down, the guide rope touching occasionally, hitting the tree tops, and we drew pretty near a straight line north passing Galesburg. We could call the people all night long to know exactly where we were. At different points we could inquire of someone, and then by keeping to our directions, we knew about where we should be, verifying it every time we could hail someone. The altitude was from 300 to 500 feet. Our guide rope was about 300 feet long and it would occasionally touch ; but most of the time it was off the ground. At Macomb, Ills., we hailed a freight train crew lying on a siding waiting for a passenger train to pass, and got our location there; and at several different places up through the state we would find some one. In one place we spoke to the manager of some manufacturing plant where there was quite a high smoke stack, and asked him what place it was. He said: "Macomb; but don't run your damned old balloon into this smoke stack."

The night passed rather pleasantly but toward morning it was rather cool. I was dressed quite warm, but my companion, Mr. Arthur T. Alhcrholt, did not follow the advice given him and sulfered considerably from the cold.

About daylight we were passing over Northern Illinois, going east or nearly east. We knew that we must be, from the last station picked up, nearly to tha Wisconsin line. Finally we came to a place called Crystal hake. There were two or three places with a "Lake" attached to the name. Then Lake Michigan came into view. There was quite a nice little towm on its shores but we could not quite make it out at First. There was a peculiar looking large building and as we swung along over it we called out, but could only get the last word, "City." It was a short

name and finally we got it: ''Zion City,'' and knew we were passing over Brother Dowie's headquarters. T threw down some cards there for telegraphing in and then we went directly over the lake, with the sun just coming up in the East. We gradually rose, very steadily, going to about 1,500 metres from the lake, and crossed it more than 30 miles an hour, pretty nearly straight east: just a little north of east at the beginning, but the latter part of the distance straight east.

We had crossed Lake Michigan and were able to pick out most of the places that Ave passed. Sometimes we were too high to call down and verify, but then with our map we would draw our pencils across the places that we passed, and afterwards found them to be correct. We finally crossed Michigan, from Lake Michigan to Lake St. Clair. In passing along there we averaged 40 miles an hour, making careful measurements on the map. in crossing Lake St. Clair we could see Detroit very plainly, in fact, we passed over its northern suburbs.

Bight across the centre of Lake St. Clair we went, making, according to our map. 50 miles an hour. Our course then bore a little more to the southeast and we went straight for Lake Erie. We had used a great deal of ballast keeping our equilibrium, or trying to keep it as nearly level as possible, but 1 felt that we had a good chance of crossing Lake Erie all right and heading for Xew York on our course. We had reached the eastern end of Lake Krie, on the south shore along about Dunkirk. The sand ballast being the most easy to handle. T began throwing away our spare provisions, water bottles, and things like that. The sun was very low when we went over Lake Erie and the gas was cooling somewhat rapidly. We got down nearly to the lake and had come down to a lower strata when quite suddenly we changed to the northeast, and struck for the Ontario shore, reaching it about half the length of Lake Erie. There we came down rather low, hut kept up to probably 1,000 metres. There T threw out some ballast. I was trying to gain an equilibrium —our course bore to the East—before reaching Lake Ontario, because one never knows how much ballast it will take to establish that equilibrium at night as compared with day. At one time a change from night to day may take 10 to 15 sacks of ballast, and at another time but 5 or 6. When once you get that equilibrium, usually two or three sacks will take you a long way; but in the change from night to day the cooling of the gas is very uncertain, and it is indefinite as to how much will be needed. 1 got down a little too low trying to get this and the guide rope stuck in a wire fence, bringing the balloon down some distance, so that, while it tore loose from the wire fence—tearing out one strand of the guide rope—it put so much of it on the ground, that the friction of the rope from holding in that, strong wind, dragged the balloon down. We had to throw out a large amount of ballast to get the thing loose. We struck up very rapidly. We got near Lake Ontario, and I knew when it came down from any height it would take a good deal of ballast to stop us. We only had eight sacks left and T did not think it wise to attempt going the length of Lake Ontario at that time of the night, f still believe I did what was right.

Of course, when 1 found out that at the rate 1 was going, by one o'clock I could have beaten the distance made by the Pontine rn, I felt as though 1 should have liked to have kept on longer; but my basket was not prepared with any safety arrangement at all. Several of the balloons had their baskets lined with cork, inside and out; the German balloon especially. If it fell in the water it would keep floating a good many hours but I had nothing of that kind. My companion agreed with me fully and thought it would be unwise to go out on the Lake in that condition ; so we pulled the valve cord, let out some ballast and came down. It became dark, and we made a very good landing,—a mere matter of luck, because we could not tell where it was. We struck in a ploughed field, that had been ploughed some days beforeand was entirelv drv. We cut loose the anchors and came down. 1 hardly felt the jar as the basket"struck the ground, and I pulled the ripping cord. The anchor hook caught into the soil and held and the balloon was deflated almost instantly. We made a very nice landing.

The balloon landed with the end within six or eight feet of the fence, along which a road passed. A moment or two later a farmer came along in a wagon, and we enquired if we could get some one to help us. He said he had to go eight or ten miles further but lie would take us along to the next neighbor, who, he felt sure, would help us through. He drove us about a quarter of a mile over to this farm. We reached there just before supper and th<? man invited us to take supper with him, which invitation we were very glad to accept.

We had had a rather busy time and had not eaten regularly in the balloon. He gave us a nice supper of farm things; plenty of good milk, hot biscuits, etc.. then the whole family turned out to help pack the balloon. The farmer hitched up his horse and buggy and took us into the nearest village, about seven miles from there, so that we could telegraph our landing; and the next morning we brought in the balloon. We shipped it back to 11 r. Stevens. Mr. Atherholt took a train for Philadelphia and 1 took one for Milwaukee, arriving home that night.

1 am very sorry I did not do better than 1 did ; but in view of it all, I do not feel that I made any mistake.

I kept low during that night to try to get as far north as possible, because I felt sure the next day's tendency would be to go to the southeast, and 1 wanted to get to Maine or some place in the East. If 1 had continued our course across Lake Erie and over Xew York State, we would have stood a very good show of being well up in the front. But as it was, Ave took the luck we had, and certainly we congratulate the winners on their success, and all of those engaging in the trip, on a most excellent and memorable flight. I cannot say positively, because I never read thoroughly of all the races, but 1 doubt very much if there has ever been a balloon race held in the world in which as many balloons nmde as many miles as they did in this race. That is, in which nine balloons made as many miles as the nine balloons in this race did. It may be that it has been done before, but I don't think so. We have had one of the most successful races ever held.

The Story of the Abercron, by Paul Meckel.

I can only say that I think the other German aeronauts are glad to be here and we all wish to thank all of you for the very nice arrangements we had; especially for the very nice reception we had in St. Louis on the part of the aeronautic club, and from the members of the German Club, and the other gentlemen there. I am very glad that we will have the occasion next year of receiving you in Berlin for the third competition and we will do our best to make very fine weather for you. and we hope a good many of your members will come over and see it.

Of the arrangements at St. Louis, 1 can only tell what I know of my own experience. It was not the first time I had taken part in an international contest, and I must say that the others and myself were very ,m,uch pleased with the arrangements. The gas was excellent and the whole arrangement very good. What we did not like very much, for instance, was that the gas was stopped at noon, and did not come on again until 4 o'clock, so that we could go on again with the filling, but, of course, it was your first time and there were so many balloons in St. Louis. Mr. Erbsloh told me that yon had not had experience in 'filling so many balloons. I must say that the gas was excellent. I never saw such a thing before, being only lighting gas. We were very much astonished at that, to find that we came into the second night with such gtrcat facility, and we had no trouble at all to keep the balloon at a steady height; even the first night, but especially the second night. We went from a height of about 10,000 feet down to the next height, of about SOO feet, without dropping any ballast, and the balloon got its equilibrium that time and went up higher later on. about 1,G00 feet, and kept there, without dropping any ballast, or the opening of the valve. It kept at the same height during the whole night, and 1 regretted very much to be obliged to land the next morning, because

Ave saw water ami 1 thought it was the ocean. 1 must say that it is not very complimentary to yon, but your maps arc not very good. We had the topographical map. and the postal map, and the railway maps, and everything we could get.

We had very good speed on the second morning, just he tore landing—about 50 or GO kilometres an hour, so that it Avas impossible for me to make any inquiry from the people: especially because I had my guide rope down. It made a very great noise and we could not understand any answer from the people: otherwise 1 could have found the situation, just as 1 did the first day. When you know where von are, then, of course, in a State like Ohio, or the surroundings of St. Louis, it is very easy to know your situation, because you can then see your railways: Avhen vou have lost that thing, it is very difficult to find the situation then, because on these maps there are only the towns and the railways, and nothing else. The streams that we encountered were not there, it was very difficult for me on the second day and so 1 thought it was necessary for me to land, because 1 saw the Avhole surface of water, and the small sailing craft on it. Then, of course, 1 did not knoAv it was the Potomac River, Avhich it really was, and thought it was the Ocean, f had a very good excuse to land and did not go on.

My balloon was the smallest of its kind in the race. It held only 1,43? cubic metres and all the others had 2,'200, almost twice as much, and 1 started with 14 sacks of ballast. All the others had more, one starting with 41. 1 could have gone on at least 100 miles further. After landing, 1 had 21/._L sacks, and Avhile landing I used two sacks, just to come (Ioavu more slowly. 1 could have spared it and not used one sack. The shock would have been only a little bit harder. Yon Abereron, could have gone on 500 miles.

it was very interesting, the first night, going over the Alleghenies. We sometimes went from 200 to 300 feet above the summits of the mountains. We crossed very pretty valleys and could see these hundreds and hundreds of coke ovens. It Avas extremely interesting to see this wild scenery, especially after the first day. The first day it was not so interesting, because your cities are quite square and I did not use the compass at all, and 1 saw the land just going from east to west. We did not feel on the second night so much cold as on the first night, although Ave Avere higher. The second night we Ave re 1,000 metres and the first night about 800 metres.

The Avhole arrangement was excellent. 1 can congratulate you upon the whole affair.

The Winning of the Lahm Cup, by Capt. Chas. De F. Chandler.

Mr. McCoy and 1 Avere without experience as compared with our foreign competitors and avc thought Ave Avould like to have a preliminary trip. 1 thought the best thing to do Avould be to enter for the Lahm Cup, even if we didn't get it. We didn't say anything about it beforehand, except to certain individuals. We arrived at the gas Avorks late in the afternoon and finally got away Avith a good breeze— eighteen or twenty miles an hour—and Avent up to the northern part of Ohio, turning to the southeast, and then doAvn into West Virginia. 'The (irst night Avas unusually warm; I don't expect to experience Another night like that in a balloon. We did not even put on our overcoats.

That night we stayed pretty low. We talked to the fanners all along the way, and found our course from these towns and from various cities which we recognized. About one o'clock in the morning, we did not know just where we were and called out in the megaphone, getting an answer from some farmer. We asked Avhere we Avere. ITe said "Hendricks County, Indiana.'' We avctc just a mile north of Indianapolis and saAv the lights of the city. Keeping that same altitude, the wind shifted to the southeast. I don't know avIiv it should do that at that altitude.

One peculiar thing about the sounds that night was that the chickens, ducks, etc., made a great noise, Avhen the balloon was going over. They seemed to discover it. and 1 think that was why the farmers got out—they thought somebody was in

their chicken coops. They did not always discover the balloon, and when they did, the first question they asked was, "where arc you going?"" but we did not know, ourselves.

Occasionally shots were tired at the balloon—we must have had twenty or thirty lired at the balloon. A great many farmers did not seem to understand what the balloon was. One man in West Virginia expressed himself in very forcible lan-

the start for the lahm cop.

guage in inquiring what that was up in the air. This was in the day time, too.

After we crossed the Ohio Fiver—it was a pleasant day—we were headed just about for Charleston. West Virginia, and we thought that would be a good place to land and get a train back to St. Louis. Many of our friends, when we started, were very solicitous and thought we would not return in time for the international race. We expected to come down near Charleston, but about twenty miles from there the wind changed and took us up towards the northeast. We went further into the West A'irginia mountains. We knew we would be a long time in getting out and decided to get down as soon as possible. We found by the map that we had exceeded the 40<? miles made by Lieutenant Lahm. and had made 4To miles up to that point. When we landed we had about one-third of our ballast left.

As it was, we got in a very bad place in the mountains. It took us "¿4 hours to get to the telegraph office. The roads were very bad. Part of them were down in the bed of the stream and the driver who undertook to haul the balloon, stated it would take us two days to get to a railroad station. We could not travel at night at all. Finally we got back to St. Louis, arriving there Sunday morning, a day before the race.

THE AIRSHIP OF THE NAVY.

The Heavier Than Air Machine.

By Admiral C. M. Chester.

In all the discussion that has gone on during the past year, which has been an eventful one in the histoiy of aeronautics, there is no small amount of material for thought, regarding its application to military seivice. While the Xavy

generally, comes under this classification, it has such a distinctive Held in military science, that the usual treatment of the theme does not meet these distinctions.

Writers who are competent to discuss such matters from a naval standpoint, are limited in number. None but seamen who have become familial- with a seafaring life, and understand the varying moods of the ocean and its enveloping atmosphere, can treat the subject understanding!v. As a rule, such of our officers who might take up the study of aerial navigation, are at present so actively employed far away from points on terra-firm a where experimentation with airships is usually made, that the opportunity has not yet arisen that should definitely bring this subject before the Navy. Some experiments with airships which took place at the dames-town Exposition during the past summer, gave a few officers, who were stationed there, a chance to note some of the possibilities of aerial navigation for naval purposes, and it is understood they were deeply interested.

They were at least agreed, that the Xavy could not too soon add the art of aerial navigation to its list of requirements, if it is to maintain its standing as a leader in naval science.

A number of foreign navies have gone into the subject of aeronautics quite elaborately, but as little of their work has been allowed to be made public, we are not permitted to know what may be expected from their investigations.

Quite recently, however, brief articles accompanied by pictures have been published, indicating that captive balloons have actually become a part of war equipments of the Austrian Xavy. Furthermore, some of the secret history of the Russian-Japanese War. which has gradually come to light, shows that not in the Army only but in the Xavy as well, captive balloons have been used to good advantage as scouts.

For instance, it is learned that one of the Russian cruisers of the Vladivostock Squadron, which committed so much havoc among the Japanese transports and merchantmen during the late war between those nations, had installed on its decks a captive balloon, with which, fully inflated, the ship made more than one examination of the coast of the island of Nippon without being seen.

While the information thus brought to light is meager, sufficient is learned from the reports of actual practice to substantiate what theory has* heretofore pointed out as fact, that the airship is likely to become the long sought for antidote against attacks from submarine vessels. The elevation which the airship attains enables an observer to take, gives him a means of discovering the movements of the submarine vessels under water, and floating mines and stationary mines submerged much beyond the draft of a ship, may be detected.

IJie seaman, from time immemorial, has used the mast head of his vessel as a lookout station from which to pilot her through the intricate coral channels of the tropics, the light color of the coral formation making it easily discernible, even from this slight elevation, but the greater elevation possible from a balloon enables an observer to see the characteristics of the bottom in not too dee]) water even though its color may nearly accord with that of the water.

Such knowledge as this, will at times be worth a fortune to a naval commander, and it must be agreed that if he is to reap much benelit from the subject, the naval man should take his share of the work and the expense of developing the art of mechanical flight as a military measure. Many officers of the Navy would like to study aerial navigation, and 1 may say there is no class of people in the country better qualified, by education, mechanical ability, and experience allied to the subject than are the officers graduated from the Naval Academy. It is to be hoped that the authorities may see that the matte]- is of such importance as to warrant the establishment of an Aeronautic Corps, as has been done in all the principal armies of the world, as well as in the Bussian. Austrian and. as I believe, other navies of Europe.

The event which has brought io our shores this year a Congress of eminent

men, was the winning by us of the aeronautic trophy, for which the representatives of the leading nations of the world competed, and which they came here to recapture.

The race was won on scientific principles that are perfectly familiar to seamen,, and their application at the time of the last international race in Europe last year might well be termed a "seamen's trick," such as occurs in nearly every ocean race,—viz., the taking advantage of the laws of storms. Any day that presages a coming storm, here, you may see hundreds of vessels at anchor on the beautiful waters of Hampton Roads, waiting "till the clouds roll by", and the storm has passed over until its southwest quadrant overlies our Atlantic coast. Taking advantage of the cyclonic character of the storm, with the wind in their favor, they spread their sails and proceed to the ocean, with the assurance of a safe and quick trip to their destinations in the south. This is like unto what Lahm and Hersoy did in the balloon race of last year, when they put their ship in the quadrant of southerly winds low down in the atmospheric sea, rather than seek the higher altitudes their competitors took. By so doing they were carried north from Paris to England, and reached the ''farthest north''- of that little island, and thus won the cup against seventeen competitors. This was old time navigation, but it was done with an old time airship, as the balloon is and, as the result showed, fitted the conditions of the occasion.

The aeroplane on the other hand, cannot be left to the will of the wind, but must plough through the air overcoming the forces of the wind in the direction of the goal, rather than do, as has been done in the past, both in ocean and aerial navigation, set the sails and let nature do the rest.

Xo one factor in the problem of mechanical flight has been so important to the solution of that problem, as the introduction of the explosive engine, which is now also becoming one of the prime factors in designing the war ship of the future.

While the aeroplane must be heavier than air, it is evident that its weight should not be so great as to destroy its buoyancy, under the conditions of motion, which its motive power must give.

Formerly, the weight of the machinery of a vessel was much greater in proportion to the displacement than it is now, otherwise it would be impossible to secure the high speed of our trans-oceanic liners without sacrificing so much of their carrying capacity as to make them unprofitable to navigate. So in the flying machine, the evolution of the engine presages our success in mechanical flying.

In 1894 Sir Hiram Maxim flew an aeroplane weighing five tons, a distance of 400 yards. His engine was driven by steam generated from naphtha fuel, and had a weight equivalent to 10 pounds per horse power. Santos Dumont's aeroplane is motored by explosive engines weighing only 2 pounds per horse power, and it is claimed that airship machinery weighing but little over one pound per horse power is possible of construction.

Thus in the evolution of the hydro-carbon engine, has the weight of machinery been reduced to one-tenth of what it was a few years ago.

The dirigible balloon is now part of the equipment of nearly all the armies of the world, but, as already stated, it is not a machine profitable for general use on shipboard, and naval men should give their attention to the development of the aeroplane, which is peculiarly a naval weapon, and opens great possibilities for utility. Some features showing the adaptability of the aeroplane for service on board ship, I would itemize as follows: 1st. Its compactness. 2nd. Its location near to a machine shop. 3rd. Its adaptability for scouting purposes. 4th. Having the power at hand for initial movement. In explanation of these points I would state:

1st. A few months ago it was my privilege to examine the laboratory of that

indefatigable worker and enthusiastic scientist, the Prince of Monaco, what might be styled a mechanical bird, which was not much larger than- its natural prototype, the albatross.

The whole mechanism of this wonderful contrivance, so simple and yet so convincing that 1 said at once, '•therein lies the secret of the naval 'Bird of Prey.'" 1 have not yet heard that it has flown, but one feature of the machine, which I recognized as having been introduced into our own naval architecture many years ago, with such marked success that I was led to hope the result might lead to a speedy solution of the problem. The compactness of the Monaco invention suits jt particularly to naval conditions.

2nd. Probably no factory in the country is so well fitted to make small repairs to machinery, and has such a variety of mechanical skill to use it, as a battle ship. Such a machine shop, is, therefore, always at hand for the repairs and adjustments of the parts of a Xavy airship, without which no mechanism can be kept in order.

3rd. Lord Xelson, when chasing the vessels of his arch enemy, Xapoleon, in the early part of the last century, said that what he missed most in the composition of his fleet was scout vessels, which he properly styled "the eyes of the fleet." It is only necessary to read of his campaigns in the light of this expression, to appreciate what an advantage a small, compact aeroplane, carried by each of his ships would have been to him. An observer, raised in an airship above the ocean, may not only extend his view over the water but the sea may be made to give up some of its secrets. This last factor in scouting is of more importance now that we have the submarine to deal with, than was the search for an enemy in Xelson's day.

In actual war, then, the naval "Bird of Prey" may be launched into the air from a battle ship and give timely warning of an approaching enemy. Just as the balloon acts for the army on shore, and swooping down destroys them very much as does the albatross upon her living prey in the sea.

4th. The greatest difficulty to be overcome in the problem of mechanical flight, is providing suitable means to give the airship initial motion. Langley, for instance, built an airship, which all now recognize to have been upon right principles, and his model did, in fact, fly, hut his plans came to naught as far as the machine itself was concerned owing to defects in his launching ways. Mechanical flight is only possible when a momentum through the air is acquired of about seventeen and one-half miles per hour. As the machine must .start from rest, some means to produce movement, outside of itself, must be had before its own motor can act with sufficient power to attain this speed. It is commonly done down an inclined plane. This may readily be constructed on board ship, but generally the ship's own headway through the air may be sufficient, and herself become the launching platform. If her engine \vill not drive the vessel that fast, it will only be necessary to steam her head in to the wind, when a relative speed through the air will be gained equal to her own advance, plus the rate of the wind in the opposite direction. Thus, by a simple movement of the helm, the ship may become the launching platform for the aeroplane.

One thing is certain, any design for an airship will be of little value until it has become so mechanically adjusted as to be able to overcome all conditions of the atmosphere that militate against its flight, and as these conditions are chronic, perpetual treatment is necessary. The doctors are always at hand on board a man-of-war, with suitable remedies to mend the breaks.

Instances might be multiplied, to show the possibilities of the aeroplane in connection with naval conditions, but it seems needless at this time to say more, in order to indicate of a serious study of aeronautics as applied to the Xavy, and to the development of a machine that promises so much as a war implement.

Mav wc not also hope that the men who have done so much for the development of the flying machine, and who arc still earnestly and patiently working for its practical perfection, may. in the spirit of patriotism, be led to give to our Xavy,

the benefit of their experience, and with its officers, help to bring to the service of their country the result of their labor, which shall become a new and wonderful ally to the battle ship, in the future conflicts of the sea. Until the dawn of that more glorious day, which we all hope to see, when, through the efforts of our International Congress of Peace, "the bird of prey"' may be transformed into the dove that bears "the olive branch."

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NOVEMBER ASCENSIONS.

Everyone making balloon ascents is requested to send in to this office as full a report of their trip as possible.

Xov. 5. Messrs. A. Leo Stevens and Charles J. Glidden (A. C. A.) in the "Stevens 21" from Pittsfield, Mass., 10:46 a.m., landing at Xorth Springfield, Yt., at 2:12 p.m. Highest altitude reached, 8.200 feet. Elapsed time, 3 hours, 26 minutes. Distance. 71 miles. This makes two ascents for Mr. Glidden.

. Xov. 9. Messrs. A. Leo Stevens (A. C. A.) and E. II. White in the "Stevens 21" from Xorth Adams, Mass.. 12:10 p.m.. landing at Xew London, X. H.. at 5:05 p.m. Highest altitude reached, 7,000 feet. Elapsed time, 4 hours, 55 minutes. Distance, 74% miles. Cold. Passed over snow-clad mountains.

Xov. 9. Messrs. Oscar Erbsloh (D. L.-Y.), Dr. J. P. Thomas (A. C. A.), Mrs. Thomas, Capt. T. T. Lovelace (A. C. A.), \A. Pobert Henderson, U. S. X., and Dr. Eudolph Erbsloh in the "Pommern" from Philadelphia, Pa., landing at 175th Street, Xew York. Distance, 97 miles. Xew York was announced before starting as the objective point.

Xov. 14. Dr. T. Chalmers Fulton (Ben Franklin A. S.) and Major William S. Lloyd in the "Initial"' from Philadelphia, Pa., at 2:05 p.m., landing at Port Eepublic, X. J., 3:42 p.m. Elapsed time, 1 hour, 37 minutes. Highest altitude 8,400 feet, Temperature at start 46° F.. at highest altitude, 23.4° F.' Distance, 56 miles. Start made in high wind, which continued. It was necessary to use the rip-cord in landing as the anchor would not bold in the sand.

Xov. 15. Messrs A. Leo Stevens (A. C. A.) and -lames F. Lord in the "Stevens 21" from Xorth Adams, Mass., at 11:01 a.m., landing at Fremont, X. IL, 4:15 p.m. Highest altitude 1,500 feet. Passed through snow storm. Elapsed time, 5 hours, 14 minutes. Distance, 108 miles.

Xov. 17. H|on. C, S. Foils, Lieut. Frank P. Lahm (A. C. A.), Lord Eoystou and Mr. Bernard Fedmond from Chelsea, England. It was planned''to land as close as possible to the country house of Mr. Claude Crompton, The wind was favorable and the landing was made within a few hundred yards of the house half an hour before they were expected.

Xov. 19. Messrs. A. Leo Stevens and A. Holland Forbes (A. C. A.) in tbe-"Stevens 21" from Pittsfield, Mass., at 12:35 p.m., landing at Milford. Ct.. at 4 :15 p.m. Highest altitude reached, 11,480 feet. Elapsed time, 3 hours. 40 minutes. Distance. 88% miles. Landing made in high wind and balloon dragged considerable distance. At the high altitude the heat was excessive.

Xov. 21. Messrs. Charles Walsh and John 1). Larkin, Jr., (A. C. A.) in the "Initial" from Philadelphia at 2:15 p.m.. landing at Milford, X. J., at 4:42 p.m. Highest altitude. 2.200 feet. Temperature 70° 'at 1.600 feet, 40° at 1.700 feet. All the trip in and above clouds except during occasional descents to get location. Elapsed time, 1 hour, 57 minutes. Distance, miles. This trip completes, for

Mr. Walsh, the ten necessary to qualify as a pilot.

Xov. 25 Messrs. A. Leo Stevens. J. I). Parkin. Jr.. L. M. Taylor. A. II.. Morgan, J. H. Wade. A. Holland Forbes (A. (\ A.) and F. H. White in the All America from Pittsfield, Mass.. at 10:55 a.m.. landing at Canterbury, X. II.. at -1 :30" p.m. Distance. 103% miles. Elapsed time, 5 hours. .'55 minutes. Highest altitude. 12,970 feet.

Xov. 29. Mr. Frederick II. White in the "Stevens 20" from. North Adams, at 11:03 a.m., landing at Fitchburg, Mass.. at 3:15 p.m. Elapsed time. 4 hours. 12' minutes. Distance, 73% miles.

CHRONOLOGY OF PRINCIPAL EVENTS.

Xovember. 5. After numerous attempts M. de la Grange left the ground for about 150 feet, after a run of GOO. He made a false movement with the steering-apparatus and not having time to correct it the machine was dashed to the ground and wrecked, with the exception of the motor. Farman was at the other end of the field, ready for a flight, when the accident occured. He started flight at once and arrived on the scence earlier than most of the automobiles.

Xov. 6. The Bieriot Xo. 7, while running on the ground, skidded, crumpling" the frame and damaging the left wing. Propeller struck the ground at high speed and crushed it. Bieriot kept his seat and was unhurt.

Xov. 1-3. Dr. Kurt Wegener, in the balloon "Zieglor." of 1431 cubic meters, made a trip from Bheinfelden. Germany, across the English Channel to London in 401/2 hours. The balloon was held in readiness and let go during the night as soon as the proper wind came. Dr. Wegener holds the world's record (52C. hours) for duration and in this last trip came close to beating the next best record. In the record trip, April 5-7, 1906, he traveled from Berlin north to the upper end of Denmark, and return to Aschaffenbur°\ to the southwest of Berlin, a distance of. follow ing the course of the balloon up and back. 780 miles.

Xov. 7. Farman twice beat his former record of 771 meters, the longest measured flight being 800 meters (2624 feet), though the second flight which was not measured, was 100 meters (328 foot) longer. He was in the air in this flight 1 min. 10 sees, and was able to steer his machine sufficiently to describe an '"S" and' landed easily.

According to press dispatches a bill will be laid before the Reichstag upon its assembling, appropriating money for Zeppelin to build the new airship. It is also-said the imperial authorities are considering the question of repaying hi in all the-money he has spent in experimenting with airships.

Xov. 8. La Pa trie made a circular trip over Paris lasting 4 hours. Distance covered estimated at 140 km. (84 miles).

Xov. 9. After a number of preliminary flights, Farman flew 1 m. 1 I sees, at about 10 feet from the ground, over an estimated distance of 1 <);>(» meters, during which he succeeded in making a complete circle, returning to within about U) meters of the start. Subsequently be made some ••exhibition" flights, executing various"-

THE FARMAN AEROPLANE.

curves. Judging from these flights, lie will soon win the Deutsch-Archdeacon prize of 50,000 francs, offered to him who shall accomplish first 1 kilometer flight and returning to the start after rounding a post 500 meters away. "At first the machine rolled slowly along the ground, but quickly gathering speed it shot off into the atmosphere at a gentle angle. Once in the air it became evident that Mr. Farman had his apparatus thoroughly in hand. As he gradually inclined the rudder the head responded to the touch. Around came the plane, inclining slightly toward the ground. As the curve became more and more pronounced there was no swaying and the stability of the apparatus did not appear to be affected in the slightest degree by the circular movement.

Keeping the rudder over at a moderate angle, Mr. Farman succeeded in bringing the head of the plane right around until it was bearing toward the starting point. Then he straightened the rudder and started for home at full speed amid the deafening cheers of the onlookers. The flight lasted one minute and fourteen seconds.

When Mr. Farman descended from the machine he was almost overwhelmed by congratulators, among whom none was more enthusiastic than M. Archdeacon, who left the manoeuvring ground convinced that within a week he will be $5,000 out of pocket.

Before dark Mr. Farman accomplished several other flights. The last flight, in the form of a huge "S" down the field, enabled him to demonstrate with what facility he can bring his apparatus to a horizontal position by judicious use of the rudder when for any cause whatsoever the horizontal position has been lost."

Xov. 11. Farman out again and in a heavier wind than usual. He left the ground for a short distance in the first trial. The motor did not respond and the second was no better.

Santos FJumont completed "Xo. 19.'v The trials in which it was towed by an automobile proved promising. The engine is now to be installed.

Xov. 14. M. Pischoff practiced with his new machine. The motor worked poorly and only limited speed was attained. In making a sudden turn the apparatus fell over on one wing and dashed into a fence, damaging the propeller and the front portion of the machine.

Farman flew at first start, describing a large semi-circle. Descended to adjust motor. Then made two or three more flights. Suddenly when describing a large circle one of the propeller blades snapped off, striking the ground. It was turning at 1500 r. p. m. but fortunately the propeller broke when the force was directed downward.

The Yille de Paris, after being deflated for G weeks or so to allow of various

alterations and the fitting of a new Yoisin propeller, sailed over Paris. Traveled against a wind of 7 meters (¿2.96 feet) per second. The new screw has a pitch of 6 meters 30 centimeters and turns at a maximum speed of 180 r. p. m. In this flight at 140 r. p. m. it developed a speed of 42 kilometers (25.2 miles) an hour. The maximum altitude was about 1000 feet.

La Patrie also out and made a successful ascent.

Nov. 1G. La Patrie maneouvred near Versailles. Photographs were made of the military manoeuvres below. Navigated at a height of 1,300 meters (4,2G4 feet) and it was claimed to be out of range of any projectiles which could be aimed by an enemy.

Nov. 17. Santos Dumont made unsuccessful attempt for Dentsch-Archdeaeon prize. At first trial did not leave the ground. In succeeding flight he covered about 200 meters (G56 feet). During the flights the wheels were damaged' but were repaired on the ground. The machine seems to be stable but Dumont lacks skill. The motor worked imperfectly.

Nov. IS. Farman accomplished a kilometer in competition for the Deutsch-Arcbdeacon prize. The machine touched the ground for an instant twice during the flight; once just before making the turn at the 500-meter post and once just after rounding the post. The return was made to the starting point but by reason of the machine's touching the ground the prize was lost. Orville Wright was present and expressed surprise that the prize had not been won before.

The Ville de Paris, with five passengers, traveled from Sartrouville to Jssy-le-Moulineaux where the aeroplane flights are made. After watching Farman's flights, the airship changed passengers, taking on M. Georges Besancon, Secretary of the Aero Club of France, M. Jacques Fan re, M. Pobert de Potbschild, in addition to the pilot Fapferer and the mechanic Panlhan, and traveled to Montesson at a constant altitude of about 380 meters. The trip from Issy to Montesson consumed 3 hours and 37 minutes.

Nov. 10. Count de la Vaulx tried out his new aeroplane but was thrown from the machine during flight, due to the breaking of a wing.

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falling under it, gasoline taking fire.

Nov. 21. L The Ville de Paris made another trip.

Santos Dumont made several flights, the longest being from 30 to 40 meters. Just on landing one of the propeller blades snapped off and the machine fell on its side and was somewhat damaged. The motor partially broke loose when the blade flew off. The propeller blade traveled a distance of 120 meters, almost burying itself in the ground. Farman states that he believes the propeller could cut its way through 10 people. The Santos Dumont ntaehine will not be out again for some time.

Nov. 23. Farman competed for the third time for the Dentsch-Archdeaeon prize. He made but one flight of 120-150 meters. A violent wind and rainstorm came up and lasted all day. lie flew from the shed to the starting point, a distance of 000 meters (2052 feet) and then started on the course. The wind was blowing at 12-18 miles an hour and caught the machine sideways. To prevent being blown

PLAN OF DE LA VAULX MACHINE.

out of the field descent was made. "In the squalls which repeatedly struck the machine Mr. Farman showed great presence of mind, and was able by judicious use of the rudder to keep the apparatus on a tolerably even keel. At times the angles assuredly appeared alarming, but by keeping the motor working, contrary to the practice of most aviators when in difficulties, Mr. Farman endeavored to make the huge plane obey him. hi is success was loudly praised by experts."

La Patrie sailed from Paris to Verdun, with four men aboard, 238 kilometers (1-12.8 miles) in 7 hours and 5 minutes, a mean average speed of 20.4- miles per hour. At the Eiffel Tower a wind blowing 11 meters a second was encountered. November 30th a sudden violent gust of wind tore the airship from the grasp of the soldiers at Verdun and was last reported as having come to earth in Ireland. There were conflicting reports as to whether anyone was on board the ship or not.

THE AERO SONG. Dedicated to the Aero Club of America. By A. Morrison.

Come ye who dare to plow the air. This glorious summer weather, And by balloon.

This afternoon. We'll sail the blue together.

Chorus.

In Cloudland! In Cloudland! Oh to rise! And Soar! As a bird, evermore.

Thro' skies of pearl and rose and gold. To mount the way,

That leads, they say. To Paradise!

Sure nothing quite yields such delight As to be free of tether; And land or sea,

What can there be. Like cruising thro' the ether? (Chorus.)

Where we can rise in grand emprise, All worldly empire ending; And, as we float.

In passing note, The vesper star ascending. (Chorus.)

So here's a song, for those who long, To voyage 'round the planet; That voyage thro'

Empyrean blue; And nothing now to ban it! (Chorus.)

Where sea mews wing and skylarks sing, And naught is that annoys us. A bark sans keel,

A ear sans wheel, Our aero-mobile will poise us! (Chorus.)

Then while we may. come love, away, Beyond Earth's grossness drifting; Where hearts are thrilled, And souls are filled. With a divine uplifting! (Chorus.)

NOTES.

The Springfield, U., News of November 3 contains an interesting article on aeronautics comprising the ideas of Mr. John Bryan, of Riverside, Ohio. In one place Mr. Bryan states:

"Up near Yellow Springs, Ohio, where T sometimes reside on Riverside Farm, we have two little black jackasses. "We have a p.'.ek-sacldle resting upon a light frame support just quite touching but not resting upon Jack's back. We now load three two-bushel sacks of wheat upon the pack-saddle. The three sacks of wheat weight 360 pounds. AVe now strap the pack-saddle to tlu asses" back by broad, easy bands around his belly.

"We then attach the cords of a captive balloon or gas bag to the top of the pack-saddle or load. The balloon's lifting strength is 400 pounds; that is, it lifts the 360 pounds load and 40 pounds of the jackass. That jackass now steps off with the 360 pounds load and 40 pounds lighter than he could walk on his own legs without it. Xatban Clark, a 12-year-old boy, leads the ass away to the grain elevator at-the village; or by increasing the lifting power of the balloon by putting in a little more gas, Xatban can ride the ass and the ass not have any increase of load. The ass only guides the balloon and affords such slight propulsion as it needs."

Mr. H. IT. Clayton, who accompanied Erbsloh in the Gordon Bennett, addressed the meeting of the Boston Scientific Society on November 12, the subject being •'Scientific Aspects of Ballooning," illustrated with lantern slides of the race. Mr. Clayton concludes from his experience in the Pommern that unless interfered with by local mountains or currents induced by them, it would he possible to land a balloon at any prearranged point. The Pommern was diverted from this course by natural'obstacles in western Pennsylvania, and so came to Xew Jersey. With a better knowledge of the country and with a little experience he believes that the run could have been longer, since on landing thev had about one-third of the ballast remaining.

While aloft Mr. Clayton made a number of interesting meteorological observations. He found a dailv change of wind that he did not know of before. The practical etfect of this was that the track of the balloon was not a straight line. The change in the wind drove it in a zigzag. Compared with the other balloons the course of the Pommern was very straight, but there was in it this divergence which experience might perhaps eliminate.

The Pommern went 953 miles to make a line of 876 miles and arrived at its limit on the coast four and one-half hours ahead of its nearest competitor, the French balloon of Le Blanc. The other balloons were, however, nearly at the end of their resources, while the Pommern had ballast enough for another twenty four hours. The descent was made necessary because the balloon was at the edge of the ocean.

The Buckwalter Airship Co., of boudonville. ()., has been incorporated to build airships that will "carry passengers."

The Spanish Government has recently purchased a drachen-balloon for military use. During the week of October 2 it made a flight in the presence of King Alfonso.

On Top of the Stage Coach. "What a clear view! Xot a single airship in sight !"--Ji(;/ciij.

Mr. Frederick 11. White will deliver a lecture on ballooning, illustrated with slides and motion pictures, at the Y.MC.A. in Boston on December 19th. The affair is being held under the patronage of the Aero Club of Xew England.

Another Frenchman, Julien Arbin, of Meaux, has plans for a helicopter which he claims will travel as slow as 10 miles an hour. The framework is to be 32.S feet in length by 9.8 feet wide. Ten 10-foot horizontal propellers will be driven by a 100 hp. motor. The total weight, including two passengers, one at the motor and one at the rudder, is calculated to be about 2040 pounds. Tne cost is estimated at $20,000.

The end of October saw the close of a series of experiments with a captive balloon, conducted by the Italian Government. The balloon was inflated from tin; deck of the ''Elba/" The aeronauts were able to see the movements of the "enemy" in the mimic attack and photographs of the cruiser "Francisco Fenuccio" and the city and peninsula of Augusta were taken.

Renault Freres have put on the market an aeronautic motor.

"The Gar," of November 13, in giving the contestants in the 1 DOT Gordon Bennett leaves America with hut two balloons. Mr. Hawlev being omitted altogether.

The "Korea-Asia Daily" quotes Colonel Cody, who is said to have had a great deal to do with the building of the English "Kulli Secundus," as saying. "While the French, German and English armies are progressing in military airship building. America is lax. Airships are now placed on the Franco German frontier. One-spectacle of the next war will be battles in the air. The advantages of the airship are that from it an enemy can be observed, explosives can be dropped and besieged towns relieved. Airships are not dangerous, because gas is kept in separate compartments, and one or two bullets would not be effective against them. When 1 have-completed my British contract I shall return to America and urge upon the Government the advantage of having an airship to watch, for instance, the hostile natives in the Philippines."

During November, at the Mississippi State Fair at Jackson, the "California Arrow" made nine very successful and pretty ascents; six with Captain Baldwin aboard, two with Mr. Augustus Post, Secretary of the Aero Club of America and one with Mr. A. P. Shirley, of Nashville. On one trip Captain Baldwin sailed from the grounds to the State House, about a mile, landed and called on Governor Yarda-man and after circling thd Governor and the State House returned to the aerodrome. Five other exhibition flights were made, lasting from 20 to 30 minutes each. Mr. Post's two half-hour trips were exceedingly well conducted. The weather was perfect and though Mr. Post had never before sailed an airship his operation of it was correct in every respect. During the one trip the airship was headed into the wind and "hovered" over a foot-ball game that was in progress. Mr. Shirley also made his first airship flight and though his flight was not quite as long as the others he piloted the ship as ably as an expert.

Mr. Wilbur Wright has returned to America.

"The present aeronautical activity recalls the kite craze of fifty-live years ago,, when kite carriages were being extensively built and experimented with. With the aid of two kites a carriage was pulled twenty-five miles an hour."—Chinnjo Journal.

From an account given in the Neue Freie Presse of the recent experiments of Mr. Wels at Trautenau with an aeroplane which he has invented, it would seem that on Oct. 8 he was successful with four flights, beginning with 104 yards and ending with 262 yards. The apparatus, which has no motor at present and is simply a

gliding plane, lias a supporting area of about 430 square feet. The flight is launched from the sloping side of a hill near the works.

Alfred Le Blanc, who was second in distance traveled in the St. Bonis international balloon races, and first in the length of time in the air, received from the Aero Club of France a gold medal. He says of his American experience: "The organization at St. Louis was wonderful and the quality of gas excellent, while the pressure was such that all the balloons could have been inflated in two hours and a half, which, of course, could not be done in Paris/' St. Louis is glad to know that its first attempt is so well appreciated by experts. It expects to accomplish bigger things in its aeronautic programme of next October.

The latest recruit of the corps of aeronautic experimenters in Paris is M. Kluvtmans, a Dutch engineer, who has invented a new type of steerable balloon. This is a cylindrical aerostat divided into two equal parts, between which a screw revolves, thus giving the motive power in the axis of the airship instead of from below, as in the ease of the Patria.

Almost a full sized model of the machine, brought bv M. Fluvtmans to Paris, has won commendation from eminent aeronauts.

It is reported that the Engineering Department of the Russian Ministry of War has appointed a special Commission to take charge of the construction of a dirigible. The envelope is to be made in Russia.

Announcement made that the well-known Siemens-IIalske-Sehuekert Electric Co. has decided to make a business of building military ships and selling them. The company has begun the construction of an airship designed to outstrip in speed and power all those so far built. It has also been experimenting with gasless machines.

The English Government started work on a successor to the Dirigible No. 1 which met with an accident after a trip to London, recorded last month. The new ship is to have an added weight carrying capacity of about 1400 pounds over that of the former and it is expected that the new 100 horsepower engine will drive it at a speed of 40 miles an horn- in calm air. The following table shows a comparison of the new airship and the Nulli Secundus as altered since its voyage over London:

Xulli New

Secundus. Airship.

Engines (horse-power) ............... 50 100

Gas-bag capacity (cubic'feet).......... 54.000 04.000

Gas-bag diameter (feet) .............. 30 42

Lifting power, including equipment and

passengers (pounds) ............... 3,400 4.S00

Speed per hour, in calm (miles)........ 17 40

Maximum number of passengers........ 3 G

Announcement is made that M. Oharron, M. de Contade and M. Mallet have formed a company for the purpose of building dirigibles. It is said that three were ordered b}r private people and one for the use of visitors to Paris who wish to make trips. The cost of passage on a trip is estimated to be from 500 to 1000 francs ($100-200) for each passenger.

The following "ad" recently appeared in three Chicago newspapers: "WANTED—Brave chambermaid, cook, deck hands and night watchman to sail on an airship; good wages; none but persons with stead}' nerves need apply."

In returning to America on November 21, Wcllman said: "I am not dis-

couraged. I expect to make another effort cither next year or the year after and if J can only find favorable weather I can reach the pole. My*****test of the 'America' was a success."

"At the unveiling of Eodin's bust of Henley in Westminster Abbey/" said a Xew York editor, "a number of good stories were told about the poet. H. G. Wells praised Henley's conduct of the New Review. Of course, this periodical failed, yet it was undoubtedly the besf'^edited magazine of the last century. In it Henley introduced to the world new writers of such distinction as Joseph Conrad, Kenneth Grahame, W. B. Yeats, Air. Wells himself, and so on. One day as Mr. Wells and Henley stood in the office of the magazine, discussing rather sadly its gloomy prospects, a funeral went by with slow pace. Henley leaned out of the window and looked at the funeral anxiously. Then he turned to his companion and said with a worried frown: 'Can that be our subscriber?' —Washington Star.

This does not refer to the American Magazine of Aeronautics.

In the Kreisblatt, a newspaper published at Iloechst. near Wiesbaden, Germany, there recently appeared the following advertisement: "Can anyone favor me with the names of the balloonists who. when passing over the village of Bied last Thursday evening, dropped a bag of ballast down inV chimney and completely ruined a fruit tart which 1 was above?—lulia Schmidt, 14 Britzelgrasse, hied."

if the correspondents of the local newspapers studied up a little on the subject of aeronautics they would not be so ready to print the "hot-air" so plentifully fed to them and we would also be spared the fantastic statements and stories that have been already in months.

Si. Louis and Aerial Navigation. The St. Louis Aero Club has decided to make balloon racing an annual event in that city. Plans are perfectly, it is said, "for a week of aeronautics" in St. Louis in October. 1908, and so generous will be the prizes that balloonists from all parts of the world are expected to participate in the contests.

Chicago is not as yet a balloon center, and does not pretend to be, although it has more wind to spare for ballooning purposes than any other city in the country; therefore, it hesitates somewhat to offer St. Louis any advice on aeronautics.

The time is almost certain to come when we shall take the lead in ballooning as in everything else, but before that time comes balloons will have to be so constructed that they will revel, so to speak, in our prairie zephyrs and lake-breezes, and be able to navigate them with ease and suffer no sort of trouble while being carried in three or more different directions by our fresh air currents.

But we are not giving local ballooning much thought as yet. We are too busy now striving to navigate the surface of the earth. As soon as our traction systems are thoroughly reorganized and our traction lines completely rehabilitated, so that we shall not have to give so much attention to balancing ourselves from straps, we may take up aeronautics and give our hearts to the sport. If we ever do, St. Louis may as well learn now as any time, we shall put into ballooning the same energy, the same enterprise, the same spirit that we put into everything else when we settle down to serious work.

However, perhaps for the very reasons we have stated, we are in a better position to give St. Louis advice than if we were a balloon center ourselves, or were thinking of becoming one in the near future.

We can at least be disinterested. We can at least advise St. Louis as an outsider. And we should be privileged, under the circumstances, to offer our counsel to our sister city for what it is worth.

Our idea, then, is that St. Louis is going about this annual balloon race in the

wrong way. We noticed the other day that just as soon as a balloon was sent up in St. Louis it proceeded to get as far away as possible from that city. Every balloon that was sent up took a course of its own. the aim of each and all of them being, apparently, to get away regardless entirely of the direction in which it traveled. St. Louis could see the balloons for only a few minutes, because they traveled with greater speed when leaving that city than they did at any other time.

Xow, there is nothing novel in the fact that balloons hurry away from St. Louis when they see nothing ahead to prevent them from escaping. So it occurs to us that what St. Louis should do is to plan an aeronautic contest which would be practically the teverse of the one now in mind. That is. the balloons should start from different, points throughout the country with the St. Louis as their destination. St. Louis could then safely offer even more generous prizes than she proposes to offer now to the balloons that would land there.

It may require a quarter or a half century of annual contests before a single balloon lands in St. Louis, but when one does land there then St. Louis may well claim that she has solved the aerial navigation problem, and can well afford to pay over the prize, provided it shall not be discovered that the balloon in question landed there entirely by accident.—Chicago Jiiter-Oreon.

One on the Sexton.

Alexander Graham Bell, whose experiments promise to give him as wonderful a success with the flying machine as he had with the telephone, at a dinner in Washington told this story:

"'Many years ago an aged friend of mine visited a church in Maine one Sunday morning. As soon as the sermon began, my friend, avIio was very deaf, took from his pocket an ear trumpet in two parts and proceeded to screw the parts together.

"While he was engaged in this work he noticed that the sexton, from his seat near the pulpit, kept frowning and shaking his head at him.

"Finally, just as my friend got his trumpet joined and made as if to put it to his ear. the sexton hastened to him and whispered fiercely:

"' 'Ye can't play that here. If ye do I'll put ye out.' "—Los Angeles Outlook.

Mr. Israel Ludlow is inaugurating an aeronautic lecture tour, beginning after the close of the Jamestown Exposition. The talks will be illustrated by moving pictures of the 190G and 1007 Gordon Bennett, the Santos Dumont aeroplane, the Ludlow kite, and various others relating to the art.

Colonel Gadke. retired, of the German army, has published his views on the dirigible in war. He comments on the great success attained thus far in the building of dirigibles hut points out that, so far as he is aware, the greatest wind that has been faced by La Patrie was about fourteen meters a second, and that the ascents made have been under favorable circumstances, such as would not be met in time of war. He goes on to say that the dirigible can only be considered from the standpoint of use as a means of reconnoissance and transmitting orders or communicating between a besieged fortress and the interior of the country, the armies in the held and the Government. Colonel Gadke also considers the meeting in the air of hostile airships and their attempts to destroy each other.

In view of the opinion of some that an elimination race for the purpose of selecting a team is unfair and impracticable, it may be of interest to know that the Niederrheinischer Yerein für Luftschiffahrt, on August loth, held a contest whose object was to find out which balloon should be one of the three to represent Germany l'n the Gordon Bennett race for 1907. The three balloons which look part were as follows: "Elberfeld." pilot Milarch ; companions. Spindler and Yogt— "Abercron.'" pilot, Xiemyer; companions, Althoft and Diepcnbrock—"Düsseldorf." pilot, von

Abercron; companions. Weiss and Stach. The Düsseldorf made 384 miles, the Elberfeld 300 miles and the Abercron 312 miles. The Wiener Luftschiffer Zeitung remarks "it would appear that the Düsseldorf was superior to the other balloons."

A new aeroplane is nearing completion at Sartrouville under the direction of Kapferer and Paulhan. who assisted in building the Aille de Paris. This machine is said to approximate the Langley type.

M. La Las is reported to have made a kilometre against stream and a kilometre with the stream in 1 min. oO1/^. sees., allowing for time taken in turning. This is a mean speed of 38.5 miles per hour. The time, however, was not taken officially.

In spite of the good work Earman is doing abroad, it is the general opinion in America among those who ought to know that he has about reached the limit of possibility with his present machine. The main difficulty seems to be transverse stability, though we have not yet heard of him making his turns and evolutions in a strong wind.

ID Edgar S. Smith, a student at a college in California, has been experimenting with a gliding machine for some time. On November 2, through the carelessness of the boys who were assisting in the launching, the aeroplane suddenly dipped and struck the ground from a height of GO feet. The machine was a wreck but the operator escaped uninjured. Work was stalled on a new one at once.

When aerial navigation gets into the racing! class generally, how would you like to be an airship jockey?

Society balloonists who endanger the public by dropping ballast on the heads of pedestrians have been dubbed in England "air hogs." The English language keeps on growing all the time.

Mr. Charles 1\. Hamilton will fly one of Mr. A. Roy Knabenshue's airships next summer.

The "California Arrow" has made nine successful flights during 1907 with Captain T. S. Baldwin as pilot.

On November 27 Mr. ft. II. Curtiss, of llammondsport, N. Y., made the first flight in a new twin-screw dirigible, the invention of Captain Thomas S. Baldwin.

On November 13 Dr. Alexander Graham Bell finished his latest kite "The Signet."

"The famous flying machine built by the Brothers Wright is still attracting attention, and 1 now learn from a sure source that the negotiations with the German Government have been brought to a satisfactory close. The latter have agreed to pay a large sum for the American inventors' secret, and all now depends upon a series of trials to be made in Germany, and in which the Wright machine must accomplish the performances claimed for it. When speaking with the Wright Brothers" representative. 1 naturally asked why they did not come forward and compete for the £2,000 prize offered by Deutsch-Archdeacon for a kilometre circuit. "We are running for higher stakes' was the answer immediately given me."—The Car.

U. S. ARMY AERONAUTICS.

The balloon house which was constructed some years ago at the Signal Corps post of Fort A Tver, Ya.. and recently occu])icd by the Quartermaster's Department, has now been again turned over to the Signal Corps. It will be used for overhauling all Signal Corps balloon material, and conducting experiments, until such time as the new buildings are ready at Fort Omaha. Xebraska.

Some time during the month of December. 190L the Signal Corps will probably issue a specification and advertisements inviting proposals from manufacturers in the Fnited States to build a small 2-man dirigible balloon for the Signal Corps. These advertisements will be sent to any persons in the Fnited States who are prepared to build dirigible balloons, if they will apply to the Signal Office. War Department, for a copy of the specification, and stating their experience and facilities for manufacturing dirigibles.

CURTISS MOTOR VEHICLE CO.

Announcement is made of the completion of the organization of the Curtiss Motor Vehicle Company, of Ilammondsport. X. Y. The company is a consolidation of two or three concerns. It will manufacture the Curtiss engine and motorcycle, dirigible balloons, riving machines and also a low priced automobile.

'The officers are: Mr. W. G. Critchlow. President: Mr. G. IT. Curtiss. Vice-President and General Manager: Mr. L. 1). Massen. Secretary Treasurer.

Dr. Alexander Graham Bell's Aerial Experiment Association will make Ham-mondspovt the Winter headquarters.

NEW AERONAUTIC HANDBOOK.

TEE J'h'OBLEM OF FLIGHT, by Herbert Chatley. lb Sc. is the latest work •on aeronautic? and should appeal to the practical man. The contents of the book are as follows: Causes of Progress in Aeronautics—Classes of Air-vessels—Dirigible Balloons—Gasless Machines—Balancing—Xine Essential Principles—Chanute's Criteria—Nature of a Helix—Thrust, Velocity, Weight and Power—Values of "w" —Helix Shafts—The Level Governor—Thrust and Fesistancc—Position of Axis of Thrust—Vertical Helix—Types of Propellers—Construction of Helix—Eesistance of Air—Wind Pressure and Inclination of Plane—Besearehes into Subject of Wind Pressure—Balancing of Aeroplane Systems—Stresses in Stays—Starting Aeroplanes—Angle of Elevation—Aera—Insect Flight—Bird Flight—Besearehes of Petti grew .and Ma rev Vertical Fans—Artificial Bird—Equation of Motion— Ascensional Force—Fesistancc to Balloon—Electrical Machinery—Besearehes of Renard and Krebs—Form, of Minimum Resistance—Sine Curve—Author's Helicon of—Rudder—Motor and Fittings—Balancing—Stability—Oscillation. The book is fully illustrated and has much useful data. Published by J. B. Lippincott Co.: obtainable through this magazine. Price $3.50.

AERONAUTIC CALENDAR.

Dec. 8.—Aeroplane race at Issy les Moulineaux.

J9jL—Internationa] assembly of dirigibles in Italy, under the auspices of the So cieta Aeronautica Italiana.

36

AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERONAUTICS

EB=Pa

COMMUNICATIONS.

Editor of the American Magazine of Aeronautics, New York City.

Dear Sir :

In Professor Langley's " Aerodynamics," on page 60, he says the weight of his experimental aeroplane, when it is exactly balanced by the upward component of the air pressure, is equaled by Pa cos a ; Pa being the normal pressure. I suppose that he worked it out somewhat as follows :

Pet ABC be the surface of the aeroplane, and EDC a horizon- A tal line; then the angle BCD will be the angles. Then let KB represent the normal pressure, Pa. By the resolution of forces the upward component (equals W) will be EE or DB. Now, since the angle EBD is also equal to the angle a, then DB=EB cos a, or W=Pa cos a.

Thi-; is all very clear ; but, if BD=W, its normal component by the resolution of forces will equal BG, and not BE ; and the weight of the apparatus, in resisting the normal pressure of the air, would only be represented by BG. This being the case, it would appear by the resolution of forces that, while the vertical component of the normal air pressure balances the weight, the normal component of the weight does not balance the air pressure. Otherwise stated : W=BD=EB cos a=Va. cos a (by Langley); but, reversing the formula, Pa2= BG=BD cos a=W cos a. Pa2 is intended to represent Pa as found by the

second method. If Pa2=W cos a, then W=Pa2 Pa cos a\ but Pa2 should equal Pa, in which case

—. Therefore, Pa2

a . ' cos a

—=cos a. Of course, this

is impossible, except when a=0 : but what is the matter with the formulas ; wThich is right ; and what is the correct balance?

Will you kindly explain this matter, and greatly oblige,

Yours very truly, R. W. S.

A NEW FLAPPING WING MACHINE.

Mr. Stanislaus von Wiszcewsky has applied for patent on a new flapping

wing machine. The wings measure 25 feet from tip to tip and 8 feet from front to rear. The total length of the machine from front to rear, including rudder, is 16 feet. There are 10 "flaps" to each wing which are intended to offer little resistance to the air on the up stroke but to furnish lifting power on the down stroke. In speaking of his machine, the inventor stated :

"Studying natural flight all my life, I never found any reason to doubt that flight was anything but a mechanical art; merely a question of levity and power. The wings are levers of the second (?) order. The tips of the wings of nearly all flying the wiszcewsky machine. creatures move in a vertical direction,

up and down at the beginning of the flight, about 30 feet in each second. The resisting air (the fulcrum) yields to

the wing's center of pressure, which is near the tip, in half a second (on the down stroke of the wing) 12 feet, or 24 feet in one second of effective lifting. Thus, in order to lift the body (relatively to the ground) 1 foot, it must actually be lifted 25 feet in each second. According to this law, an eagle weighing 10 pounds would have to develop nearly one-half a horsepower at the beginning of its flight. A natural flying machine weighing 600 pounds needs close to 30 horsepower to start it into the air. Considering the loss by friction, etc., I think a 40 horsepower motor is necessary. This explains why all attempts of men to fly with wings have failed for lack of a sufficient light motor of great power. Many models having india rubber for power were successful because rubber can, for a short time, develop more power per pound than any motor so far invented. I have never heard of a full sized machine which had wings light and strong enough for the purpose. Bamboo sticks can never serve as levers for a 40 horsepower motor. The wings of my machine are not only light and strong enough but are on the down stroke, in its concaveness and obliquity, a true counterpart of the bird's wings, and more effective than the natural wings, because the reaction on the up stroke is reduced to a minimum."

AERONAUTICAL SOCIETIES OF THE WORLD. Reprinted by Request. International.

The International Commission for Scientific Aeronautics.

The Permanent International Aeronautical Committee, Pres., Prof. Hergesell,

Meteorological Institute, Strasshurg, i.F, Germany. Federation Aéronautique Internationale. 84 Faubourg St. Honoré, Paris. France.

ddie clubs marked with an asterisk (*) are members of this federation.

National.

Fra y ce.

*Aero Club de France. 84 Faubourg St. Honore, Paris, France. Aéronautique Club de France, 58 Pue d. d. Rousseau, Paris. France. Academic Aéronautique de France. 14 Rue des Goncourts, Paris, France. Société Francais de Navigation Aérienne, li) line Blanche. Paris. France. Société des Aeronautics du Siege. Paris. France. Aero Club du Sud-Fst. Bordeaux, France. Aero Cl id) du Rhone. A Quai Pêcherie. Lyon. France. Aero Club du Nord. 4 Rue de la Gare. Poubaiv, France. Club Aéronautique de l'Aube. 23 Place de la Bonneterie. Troye. France. Automobile Club de Nice. Section Aéronautique, T Promenade des Anglais, Nice, France.

Aviation Club de France. 3 Rue Taitbout, Paris. France.

Gkr.maxv axi) ArsTiìiA.

^Deutscher Luftsohi Her-Verband, co Hauptmann Hildebrandt, Firchstr. 2. Charlottenburg. Germany.

Berliner Verein für Luftschiffahrt. Dresdenerstrasse 38. Berlin. S. 14. Germany.

Münchener Verein für Luftschiffahrt. Kaufingerstrasse 2(5. Munich, Germany.

Oberrheinischer Verein für Luftschiffahrt, Münsterplatz 0. Strassburg, i. E., Germany.

Augsburger Verein für Luftschiffahrt. 83 Carolinenstrasse. Augsburg. Germany. Niederrheinischer Verein für Luftschiffahrt. 35 Königstrasse. Barmen. Germany. Posener Verein für Luftschiffahrt. 10 Oartenstrasse. Posen. Germany.

Ostdeutscher Verein für Luftschiffahrt, Ostbank für Ifäudel und Geweihe, 9 PohlniannStrasse, Graudenz. Germany.

Frankischer Verein für Luftschiffahrt, 31 Bergermeisterstrasse, AViirzbnrg, Germany.

Mittelrheinisehei* Verein für Luftschiffahrt, Casinostrasse 37, Coblenz, Germany. Kölner Verein fur Luftschiffahrt, Kallenburg 1-3, Köln, Germany. Physikalischer Verein in Frankfort a.VT., Stiftstrasse 32, Frankfort, Germany. Motorluftschiff-Studiengesellschaft m.b.lL. Spandauerweg, Berlin, Germany. Wiener Flugtechnischer Verein. Eschengasse 9, Vienna I, Austria. Wiener Aero Club, Annahof 3, Vienna f.. Austria.

Belgium.

*Aero Club de Belgique, 5 Place I»ovale. Brussels. Belgium. Aero Club des Flandres. Flanders, Belgium.

England.

♦Aero Club of the United Kingdom, 1G6 Picadilly, London, AV.. England. Aeronautical Society of Great Britain. 53 Victoria St., London, S. AAT., England.

Italy.

♦Società Aeronautica Italiana. Via delle Mnrattc 70. Pome. Italy.

Spain.

♦Real Aero Club de Fspana. Alcala 70, Madrid, Spain.

Switzerland.

*Aero Club Suisse. Ilirschengraben 3. Berne. Switzerland.

Sweden.

*Svenska Aeronautiska Sallskapet. Stockholm. Sweden.

Russia.

Russian Aeronautical Society. Panteleimonskojaz. St. Petersburg.

America.

♦Aero Club of America, 12 East 12nd St., New York. Aero Club of Philadelphia. Philadelphia, Pa.

Ben Franklin Aeronautical Societv of the Lnited States. Schuvler Building. 6'th

and Diamond Sts., Philadelphia, Pa. Aero Club of St. Louis, 7 01 Locust St., St. Louis. M>. Aero Club of Chicago, 79 Handolph St.. Chicago. 111. Aéronautique Club of Chicago. Chicago, 111. Aero Club of New England. Hôtel Touraine, Boston, Mass. Pittsfield Aero Club, Pittsfield. Mass.

Errata.

In publishing the list of societies in the November number through an error the Ben Franklin association was omitted, and it was stated that the Italian Society was under the patronage of the King of Spain. This should have read '"King of Italv."' We also neglected to state that the Swedish club is also a member of the F. A. I.

RARE AERONAUTIC BOOKS FOR SALE

This magazine will publish each month a list of such rare books relating to aeronautics as it is able to secure.

If you desire any of those listed, kindly send check with your order for the amount stated. Should the book ordered be sold previous to the receipt of your order, the money will be promptly returned.

Astra Castra (Hatton Turner). Royal 4to, cloth, gilt top, uncut, London, 1865............$15.00

An Account of the First Aerial Voyage in England (Vincent Lunardi). Portrait of Lunardi by Bartolozzi and plates. Crown 8vo, half calf, uncut, London, 1784. Autograph "V. Lunardi" on fly-leaf......... 15.00

Travels in the Air (James Glai-sher). Svo., cloth, London, 1871........................ 10.00

Crotchets in the Air (John Poole). 12 mo., cloth, London, 1838 ......................... 5-00

Flying and No Failure. Very rare reprint. Pa in p b 1 e t. London, 1751.................. 3.00

By Land and Sky (John M. Bacon). Four illustrations. Svo, cloth, uncut, London, 1901 2.50

A Balloon Ascension at Midnight (G. E. Hall). Plates by Gordon Ross. Svo, boards, uncut. San Francisco, 1902. Limited edition .................. 2.50

Five Weeks in a Balloon (Wm. Lackland). 12 mo., cloth, N. Y., 1869.....■................ 2.50

Wonderful Balloon Ascents (F. Marion). 12 mo., half leather, N. Y., 1871 ........•......... 2.50

My Airships (Santos-Dumont). Illustrated. Crown Svo, cloth, uncut, London, 1904......... 1 40

The Dominion of the Air. The story of aerial navigation. Illustrations from photographs. Crown, Svo, cloth, London, n. d......................... 2.00

My Life and Balloon Experiences. Photograph of author. Crown, Svo, cloth. London, 1S87 ......................... 2.00

Travels in Space (G. S. Valentine and F. L. Tomlinson). Introduction by Sir Hiram Maxim, 61 plates. Svo, cloth, London, 1902............... 2.00

Balloon Travels (Robert Merry).

12 mo., cloth, N. Y., 1865 .... $ 2.50

Aerodynamics. Illustrated. 1891. 2.00

Conquest of the Air (John Alexander). 12 mo., cloth, London, 1902 ......................... 2.00

The Motor and its Chief Application, Wings, Propulsion in Air, etc. (Com. of Pat., 1S49). Svo., paper .................. 1.50

La Machine Animale (J. Marey). Illustrated, Svo, cloth, Paris, 187S, French ................ 1.25

Balloons, Airships and Flying Machines (Gertrude Bacon). 12 mo., cloth, X. Y., 1905 .... 1.00

CLASSIFIED ADVERTISEMENTS.

These columns are open to everyone at cents a word.

Capital Wanted.

I have a light weight gas turbine proposition and would like to interest capital for the development of same. I have had twenty-five years in sheet metal and mechanical work, spinnings and stamping, as a manufacturer. For further particulars address, JAM, this office.

Opportunity to have constructed a flapping wing machine. Will furnish all details and supervise work without charge. See description this issue. Address Stanislaus von YVisczewsky, 94 Division St. New York.

For Sale.

Goerz-Ansehutz balloon camera with or without telephoto lens. Used by prominent aeronauts abroad and offered as prizes at international Aeronautic Photographic Competition. G.

Books Wanted.

Please send us lists of an}' rare and contemporaneous aeronautic books, pamphlets and prints which you have for sale. American Magazine of Aeronautics.

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THE PROBLEM OF FLIGHT

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BALLOONING AS A SPORT

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Die "Wiener Luftschlffer=Zeitung" erscheint jeden Monat und bringt ausser gediegenen fachwissenschaftlichen Aufsätzen alles Wissenswerte aus dem Gebiete der Luftschiffahrt und Flugtechnik. Sie berichtet über die Versammlungen der Aëro-Klubs und der flugtechnischen Vereine, über Vortrage, über Erfindungen und Experimente, über interessante Luftfahrten, über neue Bücher und Projekte, kurz, sie hält die Fachwelt vollständig auf dem laufenden.

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This interesting publication contains a complete report of the meetings of

the society, notices of balloons, aerial voyages, aviation, &.c.

Address: M. VICTOR LOUET, 14 rue des Qoncourt, Paris.

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Redaction : 4, Rue St. Gervais, Monplaisir, Lyon. Administration : Aéro-Club du Rhône, 4, Quai Pêcherie, Lyon.

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BERLIN LONDON PARIS VIENNA

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FROM THAT EXCESSIVELY-RARE LITTLE WORK,

"Narrative of the Life and astonishing Adventures of John Daniel, a smith, at Royston, in Hertfordshire, by the Rev. Ralph Morris,' '—London, 1751.

"It was not long after this, that Jacob desired me to go with him to the mountain, to see him fly his Eagle, as he called it; and I, with great expectations embraced his proposal; telling my wife, what I was going about, and planting her properly to be a spectator of it.

"We loaded the cart, and conducted it up the hill; when discharging it of its burden, we turned the cow to graze, and began our operation. He first of all struck four poles into the earth at proper distances, measuring them with four bars, in the ends of the two longest of which, on the flat sides, were four holes, into which the four points of the upright poles were to enter, at about three feet high from the ground; then letting the ends of the shorter pieces, (of which there were several) all tennanted at the ends, into mortices or grooves on the inward edges of the two long pieces; he pinned them in very tight, leaving about a foot space unfilled up near one end, where he had contrived a trap door to lift up and shutdown at pleasure; so that when the whole wood-work was framed, it looked like a stage or floor, upon which he could mount, by getting under it, and opening the flap door. In the middle of this floor was a hole about four inches diameter, to let in a pipe like a pump, to the upper part of which was an handle on each side, and a pendant iron between them, which ran through the pipe beneath the floor; and the pipe itself was held firm in the floor, by four long irons fastened to its body, and screwed down to the floor in a square figure: This was the whole form of the upper surface of the floor.

"Near the extremities of this floor every way, at proper distances, on the under edge, were driven in several flat and broad-headed staples, into each of which were thrust and screwed in a thin iron rib, about three inches broad next the floor, and from thence tapering to a point, at the length of about three yards, so wrought and tempered, as to be exceeding tough and elastick, with each a female screw at about three foot distance from the edge of the floor; these were all cloathed with callicoe dipt in wax, each running into a sort of scabbard or sheath, made proper in the cloth to receive it. and being all screwed to their staples and the floor, made an horizontal superficies of callicoe, (including the floor) of about eight yards diameter, but was somewhat longer than broad.

"On the under side of the floor was a circle of round iron, above five feet diameter, with several upright legs, about a foot long, equal in number to the above described ribs, and standing in the middle space between them; each of

which legs entering upwards through a recipient hole in the floor, was screwed tight by a nut on the upper side of the floor. Between these legs, on the interspaces of the round iron ring, just under each rib, hung ballances, exactly poised upon the ring, with all their ends nearly meeting in the center, under the pipe hole, each of which, by an iron chain fixed to it, was linked to the sucker iron of the pipe or pump, and the other end was, with a like chain, linked to an iron loop, screwed into the female screw of the rib, just placed over it; and then all the cloathing wras hooked upon little pegs all round the outward edge of the floor, so close as to keep the air from passing in any quantity.

"Thus the whole apparatus being fixed, my son opened his trap door, and ascending through it, mounted his floor, fixed the handle, and began to play his wings, to see that all was right; (but very gently, for fear of rising off his poles, till he was quite prepared.) I then observed, that when the pump handle was pressed downwards, as in pumping, that raising the sucker, the pendant iron raised the end of the ballances next to it, when the other extremities of the ballances, hooked to the several ribs, necessarily descending, drew their corresponding ribs downward; and that the uplifting of the handle consequently gave the ribs liberty, (through their springiness) to return to their horizontal position again; so that they were raised and deprest, proportiouably to the motion, and force of the handle, and exactly answered the use, and play of wings in birds.

"Having found that every part answered to his wish, and having fastened his trap door down, the whole machine standing at such a height that I could both look under, and over it, it appeared to be of a vast dimension.

"It was of almost an oval form, and each wing extended at least three yards at the sides from the floor, but at the two ends it was somewhat more: and there being a handle on each side the pipe or pump, he could make it go which way he would, by altering his own standing, as he told me, either on the one side or the other of the pump; for the side he stood on being the heaviest, and the other consequently mounting rather the highest; it would always move that way, which end was the highest.

"I told him, I looked upon it as an ingenious sort of whim to try an experiment with, and that as I had seen it play, I was now satisfied it would fly, but advised him to come down for fear of any accident.

"Jacob growing impatient of dela)7; come, father, now I am mounted on my Eagle, says he, you shall see me fly. I would fain have dissuaded him; but he began with his pump handle, and rising gently from the posts, away he went, almost two miles; then working his contrary handle, as he told me, he returned again, and passed by me to the other end of the mountain; then soaring a little as he came near me again; Father, says he, I can keep her up. if you can guide her to the posts. I did so, and he seemed so rejoiced at his flight, and so alert upon it, that perceiving with what ease it was managed, and how readily it went and returned, and he entreating me to take a turn with him, I at last consented. Jacob having brought me to his wish, opened his trap door in great joy and let me up; then making all fast; father, says he, lie you, or sit close to the pump on that side, whilst I work it on this; and seeing me somewhat fearful, don't be afraid, says he, hold by the pump irons, you are as safe here as on the solid earth; then plying his handle, we rose, and away we went." —(! ! !)

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6 j.? /j as

American magazine

OF

Aev o n a uftfa

CONTENTS FOR JANUARY

The Government Dirigible and Dynamic Flyer..........................................Page 5

EDITORIAL.

The Air Fight over Trieste..................................................................... " 8

WILLIAM BEVIER ASHLEY. Illustrations by Roe Fulkerson.

The Wright Brothers Flying Machine...................................................... " 13

CAPTAIN HILDEBRANDT.

Aeronautics in the U. S. Signal Corps...................................................... 44 16

GEN. JAMES ALLEN, Chief Signal Officer of the U. S. Army.

The Advantages of Aerial Craft in Military Warfare................................ " 17

MAJOR GEO. O. SQUIER.

Our Army and Aerial Warfare............................................................... " 18

LIEUT. COL. WILLIAM A. GLASSFORD.

Some Model Aeroplane Experiences and Details of Man-Carrying Aeroplane

(Illustrated) ................................................................................. " 21

A. V. ROE, Member Aero Club of United Kingdom.

Notes on Mr. Roe's Paper....................................................................... " 24

OCTAVE CHANUTE.

U. S. Army Aeronautics for December...................................................... " 24

My Flights........................................................................................... " 27

HENRY FARMAN.

The Flight of the Bell Kite................................................................... " 28

LIEUT. T. SELFRIDGE, Sec. Aerial Experiment Association.

Dirigible Balloons with Screw in Front (Illustrated) .................................. " 29

CARL E. MYERS.

The Acceleration of Wind over Mountains ............................................... " 31

S. P. FERGUSSON.

The California Arrow (Illustrations) ....................................................... " 37

CARL DIENSTBACH.

Aero Club of America—Aero Club of New England—New Aero Clubs in America—Aéronautique Club of Chicago—Aero Club of the United Kingdom—Aéronautique Club de France—The Lost "La Patrie"—New Aero Prizes—Points in Buying a Balloon—December Balloon Ascensions—Gordon Bennett, 1908—Chronology of Principal Events—December Incorporations—Speed of American Dirigibles at St. Louis—New Aeronautic Books—Communications—Notes _

VOL. 2. JANUARY, 1908. No. 1.

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0617

The True Principle

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published monthly by

AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERONAUTICS CO.

Ernest LaRue Jones, Editor and Owner 142 West Sixty-Fifth Street, New York, U. S. A.

Copyrighted, 1908. *

Vol. II January, 1908 No. 1

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ERRATA.

We wish to correct one or two misstatements which crept in the last number. Under the heading "The Need for a Club Park" we stated that there were two manufacturers of balloons in the A. C. A. There are three: Messrs. Baldwin, Stevens and Myers. Among the ''Notes"' we stated that Captain Baldwin "'made nine successful ascents during 1907." For "1!)0T" read "November." \Yl ascents were made during the year.

THE GOVERNMENT DIRIGIBLE AND DYNAMIC FLYER.

Referring to the specifications issued for a dirigible balloon and a dynamic flying machine for the use of the Signal Corps, one finds considerable difference in the requirements of the two vehicles. Placed in comparison, the reasonableness of the requirements for the one make the unreasonableness of the requirements for the other the more apparent. We must consider these specifications in the light of the present time, and in that light the above statement is made. Were these specifications issued some time in the future, perhaps years later, we might reverse the charge of unreasonableness, for then the requirements now demanded of the dirigible balloon would be far below the standard at that time, while now the demands for a dynamic machine are of such a nature that the likelihood of the absence of practical bidders is great.

In the case of the dirigible balloon, the only objection we might make is the fact that the bidder is not allowed to furnish the cloth. No doubt the bidder could secure the same grade of silk at as low a price as the Government will secure it, and might make a profit on it. No builder will undertake the construction of such an uncertainty as a dirigible balloon—one larger than has ever been seen in this country—unless there is a chance for profit, of course. And constructors would be more likelv to bid were they allowed to furnish the dirigible complete from start to finish,

in which case, of course, the Government could easily protect itself by passing on the silk before it goes into the making. In all other respects the demands seem to be moderate and well able to be carried out in the United States.

In regard to the dynamic machine, much might be said. In the first place, the Government seems to take it for granted that the whole matter is very simple and is only a question of drawing up a set of plans within a month and starting to work. We do not think the state of the art has progressed quite as far as this. We very much doubt if there is anyone in America who could build a machine of any type and fly five miles with it on first trial—we except the Brothers Wright in these considerations for we doubt if they will care to bid—and to demand a continuous flight of one hour without a stop, why, that is more than we ever heard of the Wrights, or anyone else, doing, in Europe or this country. The Government is not buying a perfected piece of mechanism like an automobile. There is not a known flying machine in the world which could fulfill these specifications at the present moment.

Paragraph "1" is perfectly proper.

Paragraph "2" demands more than we think will be accomplished for many years—a folding pocket edition of a flying machine ! One might ask that it be non-sinkable as well.

Paragraph "4" calls for at least 36 miles an hour. The Wright Brothers made a little more than 38 miles average an hour in their flight of 24 1-5 miles.

Paragraph "5" states that the time will be measured over a course of five miles with and against the wind.

Paragraph "13" is certainly incongruous, as no living being can anticipate what kind of brains will be furnished by the Government to be instilled with the propei' instruction to manage the proposed flying machine, and even if two men of reasonable cranial development were presented by the Army as its best specimens of aeronauts, how is it possible to figure on how much it would cost to successfully infuse into their domes of knowledge a satisfactory working understanding of the new flying machine. Perhaps the introduction of the victims to the bidders would have a bearing on the amount of the bid, as to the expense of the instruction.

There may be several inventors of dynamic apparatus in whose promises great confidence might be placed. We assume that the promises being equal, the contract would go to the lowest bidder: and if he failed, a contract would be let to the second lowest bidder, and so on. If each failed to fulfill requirements it might be several years before the plans of each had been given a trial and the Government would then be no nearer having a machine than now. Much valuable time would be lost, with only experience gained by the inventors.

Had an inventor such a machine as required would he not be in a position to ask almost any reasonable sum from dhe Government for its use. Would not the Government instead of the inventor be a bidder? We quote from the New York Globe:

"One might be inclined to assume from the following announcement, 'the United States Army is asking bids for a military airship,' that the era of practical human flight had arrived, or at least that the government had seriously taken up the problem of developing this means of travel. A very brief examination of the conditions imposed and the reward offered for successful bidders suffices, however, to prove this assumption a delusion.

"A machine such as is described in the Signal Corps' specifications would record the solution of all the. difficulties in the way of the heavier-than-air airship, and, in fact, finally give mankind almost as complete control of the air as it now has of the land and the water. It would be worth to the world almost any number of millions of dollars, would certainly revolutionize warfare and possibly the transportation of passengers; would open to easy access regions hitherto inaccessible except to the most daring pioneers, and would, in short, be probably the most epoch-making invention in the history of civilization.

"Nothing in any way approaching such a machine has ever been constructed (the Wright brothers' claims still await public confirmation), and the man who has achieved such a success would have, or at least should have, no need of competing in a contest where the successful bidder might be given his trial because his offer was a few hundred or thousand dollars lower than that of some one else. If there is any possibility that such an airship is within measurable distance of perfection any government could well afford to provide its inventor with unlimited resources and promise him a prize, in case of success, running into the millions."

We doubt very much if the Government receives any bids at all possible to be accepted.

As an alternative to this plan, the Government might offer a cash sum as a prize to the inventor who produces a machine coming up to what may reasonably be expected during the year, with the privilege of purchasing at or about the cost of construction, a duplicate. The machine would not be perfect but the inventor would be recompensed for his time and labor and be given encouragement to expend further effort; and the Government would have a machine with which the Signal Corps could practice, providing in the meantime a recruiting station to fill in the ranks decimated by the infernal flyer. Each year, if the prize were won, the conditions could be made more difficult. The Government would thus spread over several years the amount now probably to be demanded by tha constructor and greater opportunity for improvement be given. Every year, perhaps, the Government would obtain for a reasonable sum a machine of more or less value with which to experiment themselves and with which to train their aviators.

The only two conclusions to be reached from this invitation of the Government are either: that the powers inviting bids are totally ignorant of the difficulties involved in the problem of gasless flying machines and are groping in the dark to get information, or at any rate see what comes of a request by Uncle Sam to bis inventors, which have in the past served him in such good stead by producing hi time of need the seemingly impossible; or else, fully realizing the present state of the art, which gives no indication that the requirements can be fulfilled, the purpose is merely to spur on inventors to make progress and reach the desired goal at their own expense without assistance from the Government, which actually appears to impose a penalty for the effort since a deposit must be lodged with the bid and bonds furnished for the faithful carrying out of the specifications. The possibility of an over-confident inventor having his bid accepted, and then through unforeseen circumstances fail to fulfill expectations and become caught in the meshes of legal difficulties added to official red tape, is horrible to contemplate, and is more likely to crush a promising inventor than develop his genius.

Perhaps the Signal Corps has been too much influenced by the "hot air'' of theorizers, in which aeronautics unfortunately abounds, who have fathomed the entire problem without ever accomplishing anything; talk is their stock in trade and models or machines are beneath them because beyond their impractical nature.

Why is not the experience with Professor Langley a good guide? Some $100.000 was expended and while his machine was never given a fair trial, a fac-simile of his machine, the Bleriot, recently flew in Paris and Professor Langley's labors brought this country to the front rank many years ahead of all other nations, and now after 14 years his efforts and results are still the highest and most reliable reference in the art.

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THE AIR FIGHT OVER TRIESTE. William Bevier Ashley.

ILLUSTRATED BY ROE FUL.KERSON.

J witnessed that first battle in the air, that aero engagement in the Turkish embro°Eo about which so much has been inaccurately written, and believe the first and foremost aeronautic magazine in the United States to be the proper medium for giving the facts to the public. Further, a close personal acquaintance with Lieutenant .Benson enables me to add some interesting information as to what preceded the light.

The Franco-Busso-Italia forces had effected a remarkably clever strategem ; they had pinned the aliied English and .7apáñese* armies and their fleet inside Corfu and its harbor. The one defect was, that while the fleet could not leave the harbor to attack the blockaders lest the land forces, held in check by the fleet's bii»* suns trained on the hills, should annihilate the numerically inferior allies; yet, neither could the enemy's ships enter ihe harbor and give battle, because they would certainly have suffered swift destruction. The blockaders once disposed of, the fleet's guns would have been landed and planted where they could sweep the three-fold armies off the landscape—but if that feat had been attempted before destroying the blockading fleet, the latter would have closed in at once, sunk the disarmed vessels, and reduced Corfu to a graveyard.

Understanding this situation, it will be clear that the whole absurd conflict depended now upon getting re-inforcements by sea; whichever side could first bring up more ships would hold the trump card. The Franco-Eusso-Italia combination had no doubts on that score! They had already summoned1 the Italian fleet from Ostia, having first cut off all communication between Corfu and the world outside.—they thought; but they reckoned without Benson, naturally. At noon of the fourteenth, then, the Italian ships of war would arrive outside Corfu; by that same hour the delayed artillery would be in place commanding the town; and in twenty-four hours after all that the war would be over! Such at any rate, was the confident expectation which Benson discovered and reported to the Conclave of English, American and Japanese Commanders in the besieged city. It certainly was not a cheerful one for them to contemplate.

Our fleet of five first-class battle ships and a half dozen small craft, with four transports carrying more passengers than the law allowed, and the squadron of sixteen aeros. had been lying at Trieste for five days waiting for the word that would unite us for action with the two other parties to the "Sandwich Alliance," as it Avas called. Outside communication had ceased suddenly two days before, so we knew something was doing someAvhere, but where? And for tAvo days we had been on the quee vee, as Buller put it, cursing our idleness.

Only the United States had detailed an air squadron, for messenger service, and Lieutenant Benson with the Bald Eagle, the pet of the squadron, Avas attached to the Conclave. So he had been caught in Corfu like a bird in a pit, for yon can't get up in the air Avhcn gunners lie in a circle watching for you. It was Ben son's confounded impatience that led him to A'olunteer the spy act, and it Avas his inevitable good luck that got him safely back with bis tremendous news. It made the Conclave sit up stiff. There was just one thing to do,—get the word to us. five hundred miles away, by ten o'clock the next morning; later than that there Avotild he no chance to beat the Italians to Corfu ; and there was just one way to get that word to us.

All this developed about nine P. M., September twelfth. The Bald Eagle cut away as soon as the night got thick, banging Ioav and stealing south hoping to escape the search lights constantly playing betAveen the enemy's fleet and camp; and then to make a sharp turn and head straight for Trieste on the biggest effort

of her life. Those courier aeros had heen hurried together with little regard for perfection of detail, hut the working parts were all there; and though they were not intended for fighting purposes the squadron had had some drill for united work in an emergency. They carried crews of five, and were manipulated with remarkable ease.

When the Bald Eagle had gotten beyond the zone of the search light. Benson veered her sharp to the north, and started to light his pipe.

"It's all over now, Schwartz," he told his engineer, with a gay laugh; "let her rip!" Then, he says, he thought his match must have exploded the atmosphere. They were in a blaze of light, and realized in a second that sonic ship lying further up the coast than they had supposed, had picked theni out.

•"hp!" shouled Benson, and the great bird slanted with a jerk thai all but pitched every man off. and climbed into the sky like a reelect. But that search

'A ship up the coast had picked them out.''

light hung on, while another began to wigwag against the hill, and in no time there was a splendid display of candle work back and forth.

Benson shrewdly reasoned that his direction when discovered would make his purpose clear, and he knew there was but one way under heaven to frustrate him and that was to catch him. Setting his course by the compass and the north star, he kept the Bald Eagle moving, and tried to pierce the darkness behind them. Going at a fifty mile clip, he soon escaped the search light, but the waving streaks could he seen for a Ions; time, mersnno- at last in one slowlv fa din*; ulow. Their light had revealed nothing to Bbnson.

For seven boms they fore through the night, not a man willing to sleep a wink. Then, in the first flushes of dawn, the tired fellows saw. about twenty miles to the south, a fleck of cloud that seemed to come along their track as though caught to them by an invisible wire. "When he saw that. Benson says his first impulse was to push the Bald Eagle ahead with his arms; then he felt fierce rage shake him, and wanted to turn hack and fight; next he determined to order three

men overboard so as to lighten the aero! These wild impulses passed through him like so many electric shocks, but left him cool and confident.

"Crowd her past the last notch/' he ordered, "and get your guns ready for business, boys !'' Then lie settled down to stuctying that cloud through his glass.

The entire Russian aero squadron was following him, evidently with the intention of shutting oft' every chance of escape in any direction. The Russian hawks were making faster time than was the Eagle, and when Benson was assured of that disquieting fact he prepared his message to us and placed it in a rubber bag attached to a cork buoy. Then he took his bearings and decided he would reach Trieste in exactly three hours, "splendidly convoyed by twenty Russian aeros of the line/' whistled "Good Bye, Tittle Girl, Good Bye/' to cheer up his men, and gave himself over to the exhilaration of the chase.

It was the sixth day we had kicked our heels in sight of Trieste, and we were feeling frazzled. Just outside the city, on a small hill, our sixteen aeros lay in a circle about the tents of the crews. The men were rattling things and poking about as usual, making everything trim for any sudden call. I took a mild interest in watching them, for we lay well in towards shore, and I wondered what ailed Captain Studley when lie suddenly jumped on a crate and leveled his glass off toward the south. My own keen sight could detect nothing of interest in the sky, and I waited to see the captain give it up. But he seemed to have discovered something, for he grew more and more tense, and his glass did not move a hair breadth. Then I dimly heard him shout to his men, who came running about him and stood as if waiting for his next word. Things were getting interesting. Our men began to stop at the sides of their vessels to watch the proceedings. I heard the Admiral direct an orderly to bring up his glass, saw Studley take an involuntary step forward on the crate, and then we were thrilled by the bugle call: "Make ready to ascend !''

"Make ready to ascend!'' The Admiral dropped his glass, for it had told him enough, and ordered to quarters. Inaction and indifference were gone in an instant, and every man as he made his way to his station looked like a school boy let out for a holiday. And all the while the aero crews were on the jump, Studley still scanning the distance. Then, presently, we too saw the flyers—a locust leading a swarm—and guessed that our turn had come at last.

But why didn't the Bald Eagle signal? What was the row, anyway? Should the squadron mount and learn up there the solution ? The unmistakable advantage of Benson's pursuers drove us wild for action.

Suddenly the squadron's signal man wig-wagged "Yes." A short pause, then "Yes'' again, and across the stillness between us came clearly the sharp bugle call "Let go!1' and they were off. We had not seen Benson's signals for "help"' and "haste,'' but we guessed them, and sent a yell after the ascending eagles.

Already hundreds on land were running back and forth in the wildest excitement seeking vantage grounds from which to witness this unheralded spectacle, for the oncoming aeros could now be seen without effort, the brave eagle nearly surrounded by the eager hawks, the only clear space being beneath her and in front. We realized that up there five men were counting their lives Worthless for the glory of the Flag; the first heroes in the new department of war.

The aeros were at an altitude of about two thousand feet; and within five miles of the harbor the Bald Eagle headed downward. The Russians fired at her— and hit; but they dared not follow, for our own brood was now at their level, waiting for them, and there was nothing to do but slow down and make the fight.

But on came the Bald Eagle like a crazy thing. That dastardly shot had done its work, and she refused to obey the rudder. Four hundred yards from the flagship she plunged into the waters to her planes, and stopped, floating on the waves like a gigantic octopus. And it actually seemed as though the ship's yawl was alongside before the crew struggled up through the frame work; and before we

could get our breath the fleet was under way. KnoAving at last the meaning of the Bald Eagle's desperate race, our interest now centered in what the Russians would do to escape our aeros and get a warning back to Corfu of their failure in the chase.

Both squadrons had swiftly taken position about five hundred yards apart, each covering an enormous area, and giving the appearance from below o.f great erratic clouds. Studley had arranged his force to attack, the formation consisting of two quarter moons, one higher and in advance of the other and containing six aeros, the lower ten describing a more extended curve. His intention was to separate the Russians,, and drive them seaward and down.

The Russians evidently guessed the purpose, and had formed in three similar curves at equal distances apart; one under the other, you understand. Thus the attack would be met squarely, so to speak, resulting in a general mix-up which would sfive the Russians the advantage in close ranee firms:. So without blare of trumpets or sounding of drums, the first battle lines in mid-air were formed.

•'The crews braced themselves for the supreme moment."

What for long had been the experimental pastime of the coolest and most daring sportsmen, in an instant had become the machinery for the ultimate effort between opposing nations.

Studley's shrill whistle sounded, and the sixteen beautiful aeros advanced; steadily and swiftly they closed on those waiting rows, the crews braced themselves for the supreme moment, the Russians signaled and cloud melted into cloud as the squadron swept in together at close quarters.

Then a hurricane struck that cloud! From below the appearance was as though no human element existed in that wild confusion. Two eagles clinched beak and claw with three hawks, and dropped in horrible mixture and ruin. Tangled in the huge falling bulk, the men struggled at each other over and through the mass of twisted rigging, shouting in rage and hatred, knowing death was inevitable and their share in the fight ended.

Then, like the scattering of a cloud by opposing winds, the squadrons drew apart. Fierce volleys had torn through flesh of man and bird, and eagles and

hawks alike pitched a Jung, their decimated crews striving frantically to bring them about. But the ships themseives seemed to answer the signal whistles, and almost between eyeblinks the separated units had gathered in place for the next effort. And it came without delay. We knew by the arrangement of the eagles this time that Studley wasn't going to try out fancy maneuvers, and by the same token we prayed mercy for the Russians, for here was coming a trick prepared as a finishing stroke by long and patient practice.

Obviously the planes aie the needful things in these remarkable craft, but thev overreach the bodies so far it is as disastious to an attacking aero to try to rip through its ojmoncnt's rigging, as it could possibly be to the foe. for, chances to nothing, the two will never get apart again. The Russians were hanging out over the water in extended order, just exactly what Studley needed, and without giving them any chance to close in, he sounded the momentous signal.

There was a vision of giant birds swooping upon their prey—a catching of brealh in the watchers below—and six of the bewildered hawks were each flanked by two eagles who, as they drove alongside, careened heavily, exposing the hawks' planes to an oblique, riddling lire, and swept onward righting as they went.

The unattached Russians remained motionless, staring over at their utteriy demoralized aeros as, collapsing, they floundered downward like the wounded birds thev were, easting upon their crews, pitched headlong, the shadow of a horrible death. Prom watching in stunned silence this fearful catastrophy which had not cost the eagles a feather, the Russians lifted hungry eyes toward Studley. now swinging his reunited fieet into line for the expected onslaught.

For a moment more the hawks tarried. The eager signal to avenge did not sound. Instead, there appeared to be a huddling together as in conference, then an extending of their line as if in some new formation to meet the changed conditions, and then—away, away like the wind in wild flight.

But our yells of triumph died against our teeth as the truth flashed home. What were lumbering battle ships against aeros? That was no flight, and we were outdone. But Studley was awake. Our pets were not. canaries, fake a flash they ■were under way; first a long range voile}' that scattered a few feathers, winged a 'bird or two, sent a few groaning men whirling through the air; and then to the •chase, faster, faster, till our eyes blurred with the straining, and clearing again, saw no sign of the racing combatants.

As we eased our aching necks and thought again of ourselves, we found we woi e traveling rapidly out to sea. with a twenty-hour run ahead. The aeros could make the distance, flying straight, in ten; whereas the Italians, if they had left Ostia promptly, still required nearly six hours more than we to reach the scene of activities. What desperate measures the allied enemy would resort to if advised of the situation bv one of the escaped hawks, we could not surmise; but we realized that everything might yet be lost if Studley did not overhaul and (destroy the Russian aeros.

Overhauling and destroying to-morrow would have seemed easier. Vet. way '•off to the right and low down, suddenly appeared the two squadrons coming our wav. Surely, Studley had never rounded up that covey?

Sometimes you can see a lagged cloud scurrying across the face of the sky as if in flight from a solid band of gray beyond. Such a sight greeted our astonished eves, for so were the out-maneuvered hawks flying before the steady line of eagles close behind. Six remaining aeros were scattered far apart in utter abandonment of each other, straining ahead in futile clfort to twist around the ends of that long curved blade of death, and escape. But the grim eagles swept relentlessly along, holding well within range the dodging prey.

The spectacle, in spite of its meaning, was magnificent. These aeros appear from below to move without effort; and with what speed! Immense, graceful things, like some enormous bird* of a fantastic imagination they now soared toward

u?, as though to be wondered at and admired. They grew larger and took more definite shape, and their speed became more apparent, but still there was the same noiseless, ell'ortless, steady cleaving of the air. Did I sav "despite the meaning'? Perhaps because of the deeper meaning the spectable was superb. For this was the long desired mastery of the air!

One hawk soon made a despairing plunge, then another, and then all as though in panic, and then Studley followed. The death signal was given and a final volley ended the chase.

The rest you have known all along, for the press was full of it; how we ai'iived off Corfu to the bewilderment of the enemy, eight hours ahead of the Italians, and ended that nasty little war in short order. Hut much has been said that could never have been written bv one who had witnessed this enirau'ement over Trieste.

It is true that the entire Russian air squadron was destroyed ; not a man escaped death. And five of our own eagles and their brave crews rock in their last sleep in the ciadle of the Adriatic. The-press has made much of this, and many people believe this engagement proves the unfitness of any kind of air ship for war, claiming that a battle between them means inevitable destruction and awful deaths—and without glory. \ will not argue this here more than to point out that only four of our sixteen aeros were lost, and the special messenger Bald Kagle, whose men were saved. And to say that but for the air squadron's part in the conflict, the bloodiest battle of hisforv would have been fouffht—and over what? The skill, the courage, the glory of this thing cannot be made to shine in type! As to the manner of death involved, before we finally forced our way into Corfu harbor, over the funnels of eleven war ships going down with their imprisoned crews. I saw two headless trunks lying under foot on deck of the flag ship.

THE WRIGHT BROTHERS FLYING MACHINE. By Captain Hildebrandt.

So many insinuations of doubt as regards the actual flights of the Brothers Wright have been expressed by people here, and abroad particularly, that the following statement of an investigation made the latter part of October of this year by a prominent officer of the German Army should go far towards settling the question as to whether the Wrights actually flew.

As to the details of the machine, however, it is unreasonable to expect that anything very definite could be gleaned from the verbal descriptions, made spontaneously without consideration, of local people who saw, from a distance, the machine fly two years ago. Pictures of the Wright glider and drawing's based upon the plans filed in the Patent Office at Washington, which can be procured by anyone interested, have appeared without number: but it is preposterous to assume that any drawings can be made from the enthusiastic information so fre'ely offered by lay persons who cannot distinguish between an "airship" and a dynamic apparatus.—Editor.

| Dayton, Ohio, end of October, f

"Confused by hatred and favor, its portrait swings on the balance of history.v This can also be said of the Wright Brothers liver! Lvery expert knows that the two have built a (lying machine; and it is generally believed that they have made flights with it in the open. But that they have covered long distances at great speed, again returning to the place of ascent, is to this day being contested by most-aeronauts. In order to throw a little more light on this subject 1 have made exhaustive investigations right here on the spot with ten witnesses, by reason of which I have come to the conclusion that all the statements relative to this flying machine are absolutely true.

Wilbur and Orville Wright are scholars of the ingenious aeronaut Otto Lilien-

thai, who was mortally wounded during his experimental flights on August 9, 1896, near Berlin. 0. Chanute was their American master, who enjoys the best reputation in the professional world and who, like the aeronaut Herring, made numerous gliding flights according to LilienthaFs example. Gliding flights mean flights with a flying apparatus from an elevated point gradually downwards, like an inclined plane. After the brothers had practiced such flights sufficiently, along the shores of the Atlantic, with an even strong wind, and bad acquired great skill, they started to build a motor in the year 1903. This was completed according to their own instructions in their bicycle factory. They were now in a position to fly through the air in all directions under their own power; could not alone glide against the wind on an inclined plane, as theretofore, but could also fly upwards.

The data made public on March 12, 1906, by the inventors on the results obtained with the motor airship created great sensation. According thereto, the best flight of 38,956 meters (24.1-5 miles.—Ed.) should have been accomplished on October 5, 1905, in 38 minutes and 3 seconds. If these statements are real facts, the age of balloonless dirigible airships was thus broken.(?) First of all, the experts maintained an expectant attitude, and then a challenging one. Their actions were thoroughly warranted. First, it was said that the American Government had bought the machine for One Million Dollars; then, suddenly, this statement was denied and it was rumored that the Wright Brothers were endeavoring to dispose of their invention in France. However, the negotiations proved unsuccessful because the constructors demanded that their machine be purchased before inspection for ■One Million Dollars; but, of course, they agreed to exhibit the flyer in a 50-kilometer-long flight after the contract had taken effect. Xo one, however, would agree to such arrangements. Then nothing more was heard from the Wrights until the Aero Club of America declared that, by reason of their investigations, they had come to the conclusion that the statements of the Wright Brothers were true. Being interested in the matter I decided to personally make investigations right on the spot and to throw light on the matter. First of all, 1 put myself in touch with the two competitors of the Wrights, Herring in Xew York and Chanute in Chicago. The former explained to me that he cannot doubt the statements made in view of his investigations with witnesses. The matter is so simplq that he hopes by far to beat the performances by aid of a light motor tested by him, weighing only ] pound per horsepower. Chanute, on the other hand, has personally seen a flight of three-quarters of a mile and frankly admitted that the Wrights had excellently solved the flying machine problem. The machine is said to be extremely simple and the flight had taken place in an astonishingly safe manner. Chanute had come to the conclusion that the Wright Brothers are on the right path and, therefore, he abandoned his experiments of years with a heavy heart because he could not compete with them anv more. At mv wish he gave me a list of some of the witnesses of the flight.

Then, together with Carl Dienstbach, who has lived in Xew York the past fifteen years, I went to Dayton and here visited the father of the brothers, the old American Bishop, Milton Wright. The old man of about seventy years of age verified in simple language that he had witnessed the longest flight, lie happened there by chance. Troubled constantly in regard to the fate of his sons who had subjected themselves to such daring flight experiments, he had frequently gone to the trial grounds and thus had been witness of numerous ascensions. He would not go into full particulars in the matter. If 1 had any doubts whatever after my conversation with the two competitors of the Wrights, they would have been dispelled after my visit to the father. 1 believe that there: can be few suspicious people who would doubt the words of this old, honorable priest. But personal feeling should not have any bearing in this important matter. It was, therefore, necessary to look up absolutely neutral people.

We interviewed Mr. C. S. Billman thereafter, secretary of a bank. He ex-

claimed excitedly: "Well, she flies P' Then he pictured how imposing it looked when the flying machine rose from the ground and flew over the fields about the height of a tree in a slightly undulated manner; how readily she answered her rudder and returned to earth. "Like a duck she squatted on the ground." He, likewise, would not go into particulars regarding the construction of the apparatus. He concluded with the words: "The brothers deserve the best pecuniary success, as they are well educated men who have grown up under hard work/'

Far more communicative was a young druggist, Reuben Schindler, who had witnessed the long flight without being invited. On one day when he had expected a flight would be made, he had followed father Wright at a distance and had thus witnessed an excellent flight. A laborer happened to come into the drug store, who had also been an uninvited onlooker to a flight, who confirmed in an exhaustive manner the statements made by j\Ir. Schindler.

From here we turned our steps to an old tinsmith, Henry Webbert, who had frequently seen the airship in his son's workshop. This humble workman treated us with great reserve; but, nevertheless, gave us most interesting information regarding the flight itself and the landing. The airship descended so gently, "like a turkey descending from a tree." In regard to the speed, however, the old man exaggerated to some extent; 50 miles covered within an hour!

A good many details on the construction of the flyer were given to us by a German hardware dealer, Frank Hamburger, who had been a keen observer and endeavored to make his statements more clear to us by aid of some sketches. The druggist, William Foots, also showed a good understanding for technical matters and gave us a few valuable points; whereas, the engineer Laurence Wright, though confirming the fact that the flights had been made, refused to give any description as to the appearance of the machine.

Finally, we succeeded in talking with two more very important people, C. V. Ellis, officer of the law, and Torencc Hoffman, president of the largest bank in the city. The interview with these prominent people was of especial importance to us because they gave us reasons why no more ado was made about the great results of the Wright Brothers. After the first successful flights the brothers had invited a great number of citizens to witness a flight. Upon taking the airship out of the shed it was injured and the trials, therefore, were abandoned. The disappointed public from that time on viewed the matter with great suspicion and the Wrights did not invite anyone since then and have kept further practical trials secret. The president of the bank, furthermore, stated that he could not see the practical value of the machine. The fact that the apparatus made its ascent from a rail appeared to him to be a great handicap.

I have formed the following conception of the construction of the aeroplane, based on what I have heard in regard thereto: the flyer proper is a so-called "double-deck" type, consisting of two broad rectangular surfaces arranged one on top of the other. In the front we find a horizontal plane for regulating the height. In the back a vertical plane for steering right and left. The motor is installed in the middle and actuates two large propellers. The planes and motor are mounted on runners on which the fiver glides when landing. Before starting the flights the machine docs not rest on these runners, but on a platform which is mounted on two wheels, arranged one in front of the other. As soon as the propellers are set in motion the platform with the flyer runs along a track about 250 feet in length until the flyer has attained a certain speed. The machine rises in the air, leaving the platform behind. The trials took place on a rectangular meadow surrounded by trees and sheds having a circumference of about 1 mile. This field was circled about 30 times in the longest flight. The flights were made in calm weather as well as during a strong wind.

I believe that no one can seriously dispute the existence of the first-practically tested flying machine any more. It is impossible that so many distinguished people

of the most varied occupation and ages could have agreed to "lie faster than a horse can trot" for the sake of an inventor, ruder such long cross-questioning, which was made hi accordance with a previously arranged program, they would have contradicted themselves easily. It is furthermore to be understood that by reason of lack of time 1 looked up only ten people, nearly every one of which named further witnesses. But why do the Wright Brothers refuse to exhibit their flyer in flight to eventual buyers before closing an agreement? If they really obtain such good results they would not have to slum daylight! i believe, that 1 have also found a plausible answer to this question. The flyer is, in fact, so simple that they fear the purchaser will not pay such a large sum as One Million Dollars. Furthermore, 1 am inclined to think that it requires great skill to handle the machine. Not every aeronaut would be in a position to fly away with it at once; on the contrary, great skill is required, which the Wright Brothers acquired by reason of their numerous Hiding flights.

I am now of the opinion that after it has been proved that one can also fly with airships not carried by balloons we must seriously turn to the construction of flying apparatus. On the other hand, I am of the Arm belief that a sum as high as Four Million Marks will not be required if we entrust German engineers and aeronauts, for example, Regierungsrat Hoffman, of Berlin, with the solution of this problem. Surely we will not have to be behind the American inventors.

Translated from "Lokal Anzeiger," Berlin.

INTERNATIONAL AERONAUTICAL CONGRESS.

President: Professor Willis L. Moore. Secretary: Dr. Alrert Francis Zaiim. Chairman Gen'l Committee: Wm. J. Hammer. Chairman Executive Com.: Augustus Post. Sec'y Committees: Erxest La Rue Joxes.

Publication Notice.

The addresses, papers and discussions presented to the Congress will be published serially in this magazine and at the earliest date possible bound volumes wall be distributed without charge to those holding membership cards in the Congress. Others may purchase the volume at a consistent price when ready or may take advantage of immediate publication by subscribing to this magazine at the regular rate.

In accordance with the program as published in the November number, the informal addresses of the Gordon Bennett contestants and others are concluded before entering upon the printing of the formal papers and discussions.

The remarks of General James Allen, Chief Signal Officer of the Army and Major George 0. Squier, of the Signal Corps at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, conclude the addresses.

The formal papers and discussions begin in this issue with : ''Our Army and Aerial Warfare," by Lieut.-Col. William A. Glassford, Chief Signal Officer of the Department of Missouri, lT. S. Army; "Some Model Aeroplane Experiences and Details of Man-Carrying 'Aeroplane," " by A. V. Boe, member Aero Club of the United Kingdom ; Discussion of Mr. Roe's paper, by Octave Channte.

Aeronautics in the U. S. Signal Corps, by Gen. James Allen.

When it was learned that General James Allen, Chief Signal Officer, could attend the meetings, he was requested to say a word for the U. S. Signal Corps. He responded extempore as follows:

We are building at Omaha a large aerodrome and it is there we hope to do all the work we do in the Middle West, ft is a large building 200 feet long, 100 feet wide and 80 feet high. Our reason for placing it and doing the work there is be-

cause we have a large host there, about 300 Signal Corps men whom we propose to train in this business. We intend starting with some of the smaller machines which we will send out to Omaha and there train our men. We will later, no doubt, also have one erected on the Atlantic Coast and one on the Pacific.

We are more interested in the dirigible balloon than the aeroplane.

We are going to make the hydrogen gas by the electric process. The first we tried was the liquid air process, freezing the ordinary gas. It was promising but not successful. It looks as though it could be done and at almost no cost. It seems that the by-product ought to pay for the gas. Then we tried the gas hydrolith. We have a ton or two on hand with which we can experiment, when we can all get together in some convenient place, I hope, and inflate a balloon so that everybody can see it. That is as far as we have gone now. We are training our men. Several of you gentlemen have been very kind to the Army. You have been teaching our men for free flights. The army is in thorough accord with you.

We will have to place an experimental plant at wherever is the best place on the Eastern coast. We want it somewhere near Yew York and as soon as we can find a good place we will build a gas plant and everybody can bring their machines down there and try them. That is about the status so far as we have it in the Army today.

The Advantages of Aerial Craft in Military Warfare, by Major Geo. O. Squier.

At the conclusion of Gen. Allen's remarks, Major Squier was called on by the Chairman and replied as follows:

I happen to have been serving during the past two years at Fort Leavenworth, which is the headquarters of three of the service schools of the army. The military authorities at these institutions have shown by the official action of their academic boards their deep interest and belief in the future of military aeronautics. It is believed that aerial navigation as a practical result is coming rapidly. Its radical influence on the methods of warfare will compare with the invention of gunpowder or the tactics of Frederick the Creat. Now that we can rise above the terrain and gain information of armies and consequently plan accurate movements, nothing could be more valuable.

The practical dirigible balloon is here now. The work of the past ¿00 years or so is now coming into fruition rapidly. Faeb month gives us more confidence. The general principles of war are really very simple, and work themselves out in typical forms in combat.

Military tactics are at present very much the same in all armies. Kaeh nation knows about as much as any other. The question then comes of introducing some new principle and bringing it to such perfection as to be able to gain decisive victories before an opponent has opportunities to profit thereby. Xapoleon grasped sueh an opportunity at a critical time in military history, and for several generations thereafter the armies of the world followed the great Corsiean. The last great war was conducted strictly in line with the text books; accompanied at times with unlimited slaughter. The great object of war is to bring about a decisive result with a minimum destruction of human life. If we could utilize scientific principles to bring about this result without killing anyone, this would he the result to be obtained. We have but three military arms; the infantry, the artillery and the cavalry. The cavalry is designed to scout and develop information lor use in the handling and operation of the army with which it serves.

Aerial navigation furnishes us an additional weapon for obtaining information and for furnishing the means for using the information thus obtained. It will enable the maneuvreing of the armies by stragetie marches and surprises to bring about decisive results with a minimum destruction of life. It will enable us to leave a terrain to which to have been tied for a thousand years and into the air

and move about rapidly. Trained observers can leave a frontier, scout about an enemy's country and return in a single night with information of vital importance. It is surprising how difficult it is to obtain information of the whereabouts of an enemy's force. On of the great lessons of the Manchurian war was the value of sectecy as displayed particularly by the -Japanese. With an army involving say, 300,000 men, anything like "team play" requires perfect lines of information and control, to bring about that concerted action which alone can produce decisive results at present. Without such information the combat reduces itself to a number of small detail facts. The principle of the great fight is "team play,'' and aerial navigation will help to bring this about. When Ovama has a battle line of 40 miles in length and lias to operate 300,000 men distributed along that line, you can see how helpless he would be to carry out any concerted action without perfect lines of information and control. If he could use dirigible balloons which are valuable today and could obtain accurate information as to the location of the enemy's forces and issue his orders and have them delivered promptly, you can readily see what that would do, when opposed by an enemy without such service.

The Hague Conference took this matter up. Airships are already regarded by the leaders of military thought as a military weapon. Whether or not it will be permitted to drop high explosives on defenseless people 1 cannot tell. I can see how it is even possible now to tow a lot of high explosives with a dirigible airship and drop the tow, with its destructive load, approximately at such point as is desired. It would be evident to you, then, that the success of aerial navigation means much to the military student in introducing a new and radical principle in warfare, and offering extended possibilities for blunging about decisive results by strategic movements into untenable positions rather than by loss of human life. The subject with which this Congress is engaged is of the greatest importance and is of interest not only to the military and naval service but to every citizen of this country.

Our Army and Aerial Warfare, by Lieut.-Col. W. A. Glassford.

The captive military balloon used by the United States Army in connection with military operations has a record of several conspicuous accomplishments. Artillery fire was, for the first time in history, directed against a concealed enemy from a United States military balloon. The first use of the military telegraph from a balloon is an achievement of Signal Officers of the United States Army. The lurking place of the Spanish fleet was first confirmed by observations from a balloon of the United States Army. The reopening of artillery fire from El Pozo ll'ill, suggested by balloon observations during the siege of Santiago de Cuba, also the discovery of the "trail" from the balloon, contributed to our success at San Juan Hill.

These recent instances of the utility of captive military balloons would ordinarily be enough to establish them in favor. Remarkably enough, instead of these instances stimulating the interest of the country, interest has continually waned, just as it did in France from the eighteenth century until after the Prussian invasion in 1870. Xow that France and other countries have developed the balloon to a demonstrated utility it is incumbent upon our army not to remain unprepared to defend itself with or against this new weapon. The balloon as a useful adjunct to operations in war has yet but a scant appreciation from the present officers of our army. This fact arises from their not having had opportunities for experience with the new weapon.

Observations from balloons were made for the Army of the Potomac during the Civil War by civilian aeronauts. Commanders then little realized the practicability of a safe station high in the air with an enormous radius of observation from winch to observe an enemy whose location and movements were otherwise concealed. The possibility of artillery fire control from the basket of a balloon where the enemy

below could be seen was scantily understood. The pay of the civilian aeronauts appears to have been reduced for the purpose of driving them from the service. These civilians were not replaced from any branch of the military establishment. This is not so surprising as at first it might seem. No important military work conducted by civilians with an army has ever succeeded.

It is a noteworthy fact that the most conspicuous mention of our balloons during the Civil War was made by observers from foreign armies. It is astonishing that we have to look to these foreign military writers for a just tribute of praise to the important part played by the balloon in the early battles in Virginia.

In the middle S0"s the success of the French in navigating a dirigible balloon called the attention of the world to military aeronautics. In the early 90's investigations into the mechanics of flight earnestly conducted by so learned and serious minded a man as Prof. Langley again drew attention to aerial navigation through the development of his dynamic flying machine.

In October, 1890, Congress extended the scope of work under the Signal Corps of the Army to the duty of collecting and transmitting information. This added function of Signal Corps work naturally included aerial navigation because it was an important means of collecting information, the transmission of which only needed the application of devices already in common signal use. From this time on is found frequent official reference by the War Department to the desirability of developing means of aerial navigation. These references beat upon deaf legislative ears; politicians could not see what science was bringing on.

About this time the writer was sent to Europe to investigate aeronautics there, and a large balloon for our army was constructed in France, using the same material as is used in the English Army. This balloon was sent for exhibition to Chicago, from Chicago for use at Fort Piley, Kansas, and later for practice ascensions to Fort Logan, near Denver, Colorado. Here a large balloon shed was erected, a hydrogen generating and compressing plant installed, and hydrogen gas storage tubes provided. x\t this place other balloons were made and a small military detachment was made familiar with their working. Maneuvers with balloons were made in the presence of Infantry and Cavalry and thus a small part of the Army became conversant with the object and utility of the captive military balloon.

At the commencement of the Spanish War the balloon plant that had been assembled in Colorado was shipped to Fort Hamilton. New York. The object of sending a balloon to a post at the approaches to Xew York City was for observation so as to give early notice of the approach of a possible Spanish Fleet. This equipment was later sent to Cuba. . Unfortunately, it was only after five days' urging that the Commanding General released his prohibition to its landing and even then permitted only the reserve part of the equipment to be taken ashore. This using of the reserve gas came from a natural lack of knowledge on the part of General Shafter and of those about him. It limited the operation of the balloon to a single inflation. Nor was this all, it was due only to the insistence of an Engineer Officer that it was used even then and at the battles before Santiago. It was due also to this official, unfamiliar with the place of a balloon in battle, that it was taken to within the zone of the enemy's musketry fire. However. General Shafter. after the Spanish Fleet had been located in the Santiago harbor, artillery fire had been advantageously directed and roads or trails discovered from the balloon, acknowledged its satisfactory performances.

Since the battle of San Juan the army has scarcely seen a balloon and information about balloons is confined to newspaper mention. The officers who would now command our armies in case of war, not having seen airships in operation, must rely upon their intuitive resourcefulness to guide them in their use. This ignorance, amounting as it does almost to negligence, should be corrected, and the use of balloons demonstrated at the great training schools and maneuvers, where officers could verify what is said to be possible of them and permit them and their work to be seen by the army, as is done abroad.

The elements of military aeronautics should be taught at ail service schools and throughout the army, also practical demonstrations of balloons should be sedulously conducted at maneuvers where the army, the National Guard and the people can be brought to see the real use of this new weapon.

The long range modern field gun, with its smokeless powder, finds its usefulness diminished unless the object aimed at is located with certainty. The increasing difficulty of field artillery fire control and directions can be overcome through the military airship. Officers of the field artillery are rapidly recognizing that some means to locate the concealed target, in the use of their modern long range guns, is an essential. The balloon or flying machine is the most apparent means. The General Staff of our Army is not likely long to permit this military essential to go unprovided.

Aeronautics is not fully appreciated in our army nor in our navy at present because our officers are not generally familiar from actual contact with airships as an auxiliary. An army is like a man, unless it is fully fit, it is unfit. The value of any new auxiliary in warfare depends upon the use made of it, and this use depends for its application upon a commander familiar with its utility. This familiarity must be acquired during peace, for in war it is too late to experiment and to become expert. It may be said to be invariable that war initiates nothing, but develops everything that has had trial prior to the war. The efforts of both the Russians and Japanese to introduce innovations failed for the want of trained men and officers competent in the specialty.

There is an evident great increase of activity in airships just at present, consequently our government must also make a beginning of taking up aeronautics, but judging from previous experience it can be only a show unless Congress provides the means. Whether the government will follow the same practice as the people in general in f/his country and wait for final developments abroad before doing anything remains to be seen. This would not be surprising, for it is the system followed in most industrial things. Xearly everything we make use of in this country was perfected abroad before being adopted here, even though originally invented in the United States.

It is, moreover, a common observation that we sometimes adopt those ideas that are just going out of date abroad. The success of the steerable airship has been demonstrated in England, France and Germany, and is admitted as an indispensable military machine. Its greatest objection is its cost. Cost in military essentials is not to be avoided. France has been spending large sums since 1875. It will not now be long before these airships make trips from their capitals to their frontiers faster than railways. We have no airships, nor will there be many unless several times the sum now proposed be given. By the time we get airships it is possible the aeroplane will have succeeded it in other armies. The aeroplane, first successful in the United States, seems likely to be first adopted abroad.

Other nations have already extensive military and) naval aeronautical plants which have been built up from year to year. The great sums they are now spending are upon development. We ;have nothing. A considerable plant will be necessary to commence with. Trained military aeronauts must be made. It will take much time to get ourselves to the position to which other nations have arrived in material and personnel. Then only can development commence. The position we might find ourselves in, in case of sudden attack, is alarming.

The aeroplane, or the airship heavier than air, and not lifted by cumbersome buoyant gas, appears certain to become the airship of the century. This is because of the development of ligfnt and powerful engines, liquid fuel, new and lighter metals, and, above all, because every science is continually contributing something to the solution of the problem. It cannot fail of early and universal use. Our Langley and Chanute have pointed the way to accomplish the successful aeroplane and the world is following their reasoning. By the time we get as far as the great military powers

11)3road have now reached, the practical unbuoyed airship will have been achieved. There is now a feeling tin at the problem of practical flight will soon be solved. The fact that machines heavier than air have left the ground for varying distances has created the confidence that more is to follow in such accomplishments. The future is certainly full of promise. It is no longer considered visionary to anticipate that the development will be rapid. It is only recently that the War Department, and the Board of Ordinance and Fortification, were bitterly attacked in Congress for spending money on Langley's flying machine, characterizing Prof. Langley as "a professor wandering in 'his dreams," and referring to the officials permitting the expenditure as hypnotized. Langley died soon after, too soon to hear that the device of his invention was made to fly by the French. Fortunately, such attacks would now be repelled for there are too many in Congress who have observed the progress of the world in flying machines.

The Wright aeroplane has succeeded. It has accomplished a flight of 24 miles at a speed of 38 miles an inour. The Wright machine is usually said to be a secret. That is only partially true. The machine is not likely to be reproduced till the gifted inventors and the experimenting mechanicians who have solved the problem are suitably rewarded and recognized by our government. There is little doubt but ihat it will only be a short time till the greatest mechanical triumph of modern times will be properly appreciated.

Abroad, many men of unlimited coinage, means and mechanical skill are now working to discover what the Wright brothers ihave solved. That they will do so soon no aeronaut questions.

The success of the great airships recently developed abroad has awakened the world. With no such ships nor trained aeronauts, it is not difficult to imagine the predicament of this country in case of war. Their importance as a military weapon has impressed every thoughtful mind. Most military men clearly see that the mastering of the air means the mastery for nations. The United States has this mastery within her grasp.

Some Model Aeroplane Experiences and Details of Man-Carrying "Avro- '

plane," by A. V. Roe.

Mr. Roe had four large models of aeroplanes at the Aero Club exhibit in London last April, and won the second prize at the "Daily Mail" contest at Alexandra Palace.

1 was hoping to have been able to give an account to the Congress of my motor-driven avroplane and regret to be unable to do so; but as soon as the racing season is over I shall be permitted to erect a shed by the Brooklands Track and carry out my experiments there, for which place it has been specially designed, as the four pneumatic wheels it is mounted on are only 10' [> inches in diameter.

But perhaps a few particulars of my model avroplane experiences may he of interest to the Congress. These have been tine means of showing me many little things which would 11104 probably take years to find out if only experimenting with full-sized machines had been resorted to. For instance, my model experiments showed me the propeller should he on an average level with the aeroeurves; that is. if there are two superimposed aeroeurves 10 feet wide and 12 inches apart, and one of same size in front at the same level as upper aerocurve. then the axis of propeller tihonld be placed 3 inches below the upper aerocurve.

1 was once very much puzzled with the steering of one of my models, as I had repeatedly proved it should go the opposite way to the one il insisted on going; this was owing to the weight not being sufficiently far forward. Jf the weight is not correctly placed it can be counteracted by the horizontal steering plane; I also came to the conclusion that vertical rudders were quite out of place on an aeroplane, as these tend to slow up the machine and make it swing round without heeling over.

whereas twisting of the two tips of the horizontal steering plane, provided it he of sufficient tip-to-tip measurement, answers very readily and efficiently.

Many and various were the types J experimented with, up to as many as ten aerocurves one behind! each oilier; and I finally came to the conclusion the following three types were hard to beat: (1) A Langiey type, but having the forward planes under control as in my forward steering type; .1 found this a very steady and excellent machine—it can be made to fly iu a fairiy straight line owing to the dihedral angle. (2) Forward steering type. The main planes are superposed, having a forward plane nearly as large as one of main planes, fore to aft over planes being about three-quarters of tip-to-tip, this forward steering plane being under complete contiol v itih one steeling gear sonu.what like that of a motor-

THE WINNING ROE MODEL.

car. Turning the steering wheel in the ordinary way raises one side of forward plane whilst the other is lowered. This action readily steers the machine sideways in an efficient manner, but on rocking the steering column, tilts the whole plane up or down for vertical steering, (3) The rear tail steering type. In the ■case of these two latter types, it is very difficult to send them straight if the planes are not setjit an angle, but if horizontal, in the case of a full-sized mactbine, they should be all the more readily steered. The largest models varied from S to lO-1/^ feet tip-to-tip and weighed about one-quarter pound per square foot, giving a speed of about 10 m. p. b. These models were driven by many fine strands of elastic which drove a propeller of 20 inches diameter for smaller type and 22 inches diameter for larger type.

Many flights were obtained varying from 100 feet to 1-fO feet in length, which •gave ample time to gauge the efficiency of the machines, tine action of the steering "mechanism, equilibrium, etc.

In the case of the rear-tail type, when driven mechanically, the tail is divided into two parts with the propeller in between. It was this type which gained the ""Daily Mail'' £75 ($375) prize. Its action is somewhat peculiar, as the rear tail does not help to support the machine but otherwise. The air beats on the upper •side of tail, thus counteracting the forward weight. This gives a kind of automatic balance. Should the machine go too fast and the tail is not lowered accordingly the machine takes an upward course, which reduces the speed. On the speed being reduced, the downward pressure on the tail becomes less until it is less than tine counteracting forward weight. This brings the machine down again and (if not already too near the ground) in so doing increases its speed, thus going up again, •continuing to make these switch-back like flights until the ground is reached. Although this type did best at the model flying machine trials mentioned above, I have ihad more efficient results with my forward steering models and have accordingly built mv full-sized machine on the forward steering svstem.

DETAILS OF FULL SIZED AYROPLANE.

DIMENSIONS—Two main superimposed planes, upper 36 ft., lower 30 ft, both 5' 4" wide, front plane 24' x 5' A", 8' space between front and rear planes. These aeroeurves have hard cutting edges and ribs average ten inches apart, the under surface being perfectly smooth and free from obstructions or any cross members.

AREA AND WEIGHT—Area ISO sq. ft, weight 460 lbs, including myself (148 lbs.), being slightly under one lb. per square foot.

WEIGHT PER HORSEPOWER—Driven by G H.P. J. A. P. engine, air cooled, per horsepower, 75 lbs. Prof. Langley proved that one horsepower could carry 208 lbs. through the air at 40 m. p. h., so believe G H.P. should suffice, •especially in light breezes.

CONSTRUCTION—The central portion, which carries engine, aviator, steering gear, aeroeurves, etc., is of long triangular construction, well braced up and mounted on four pneumatic wheels 10^4 inches diameter. Above each wheel are spiral springs so as to take shocks when landing. This central chassis can be steered when running along the ground. Ail parts are so shaped so as to offer the least possible resistance to the air, framework being made from 3^4 x 5/16" Kauri Pine. It is well braced up by air cutting struts so as to withstand more than twice the strain put upon them win en in the air. All surfaces have been considerably overloaded. The actual weight per square foot to insure rigidity when afloat, the machine having to be inverted for this test.

STEER1XG—Front plane is under complete control with the one steering gear; that is, for vertical steering the steering column is rocked, which moves the front plane up and down. For lateral steering the wheel is turned in tihe usual way, which raises one side of the plane while the other is lowered. This method of steering has proved very effective in my models.

PROPELLER—Made from steel tubing and magnalium (a metal slightly lighter and stronger than aluminum). It has four blades 6' 10" diameter and weighs 12 lbs.: and under 7 lbs. with two blades. These blades can be detached .and only two used if desired, angle or pitch can be altered, but pitua set on them is three feet, which would, without slip, give a speed of 50 m. p. h. at 1.600 r. p. m. This should give a speed well over 30 in. p. h. when in the air and machine should rise at 25 m. p. h. I note the French have been reducing their pitch gradually until they are now tihree feet.

TRANSMISSION—I had a spring drive through two 15" leaf springs and some India rubber, but have given this up and 1 am now driving through a clutch, which is more satisfactory. I use Hoffman's ball and thrust bearings, and have sliding universal joint to reduce loss of power through friction as far as possible.

I hope these notes will be the means of helping others as my wisih is to see the problem progress, and I feel sure as soon as public demonstrations are given, showing now easily an aeroplane can leave the ground, fly round and alight, then interesting and rapid progress should be made.

Seeing that the hydroplane appears to be arousing interest and attracting serious attention, it may be the means of helping the aeroplane movement along; for, after all, the hydroplane is a modified form of aeroplane. However, when the hydroplane is built sufficiently light and speedy, aeroplanes could be attached. By having the forward hydroplane surface under control, as in my avroplane. it could be steered, when sufficient speed had been gained, out of the water into the air.

But, personally. I prefer at the present stage to experiment over smooth ground like the Brooklands Track, at the same time the hydro-aeroplane way would be very Interesting.

Note on Mr. A. V. Roe's Paper, by O. Chanute.

Mr. Eoe is to be earnestly thanked for giving us a description of his full-sized motor aeroplane. He evidently desires comment,

He had been led to underestimate the power required by Langley's broad statement that one horsepower could carry 208 pounds through the air at 40 miles per hour. This refers to the plane alone and does not cover the resistance of the framing, motor, aviator, etc. When Langley flew his large models he only sustained 30 pounds per horsepower, and a motor' of 6 H.P. will prove quite insufficient for Mr. Eoe; particularly if he attempts to rise by running on the ground, as do the French aviators, whose experience also teaches that the wheels and spiral springs generally get broken upon alighting.

Mr. Roe will also find that better results are to be obtained with two blades in the propeller instead of four, as planned.

The strengthening of the wheels and the substitution of a more powerful motor are likely to increase the weight by some 200 pounds, but if all the 480 square feet of area prove effective in lifting, i. e.: if the front plane does a full share, the speed required to leave the ground should be about 30 miles per hour.

ARMY AERONAUTICS FOR DECEMBER.

During the month of December the Aeronautical Division of the Signal Office* has been engaged in preparing and perfecting specifications for a dirigible balloon and also for a heavier-than-air frying machine. The advertisement and specification for dirigible balloons were issued and made public by the Chief Signal Officer on December 16th, and proposals will be opened January 15th. The heavier-than-air specification was made public on December 23d, and proposals will be opened February first. The advertisements invite proposals from all inventors and manufacturers, and the Signal Office is receiving daily a great number of inquiries for copies.

Following are the principal requirements :

Dirigible Balloon.

The general dimensions of the dirigible balloon will be determined by the manufacturer, subject to the following conditions:

1. The gas bag shall be designed for inflation with hydrogen, the material for which will be furnished by the Signal Corps. This material is silk, covered with an aluminum preparation, and requires no varnish. It weighs 5.842 ounces per square yard and has a minimum breaking strength of 62!/^ pounds per inch width. This malerial for the gas bag will be furnished by the government, and samples may be seen in the office of the Chief Signal Officer of the Army, Washington. Bidders must state in their proposal the number of square yards of the. material they will require. The dimensions and shape of the gas bag will be as desired by the manufacturer, except that the length must not exceed 120 feet.

2. Inside the gas bag there will be either one or two ballonets having a total capacity of at least one-sixth the total volume of the gas hag. Leading to the ballonets there will be tubes of proper size connected to a suitable centrifugal blower for maintaining a constant air pressure in the ballonets. The fabric for the ballonets will be supplied by the government. It weighs 2.857 ounces per square yard, and has a minimum tensile strength of 481/0 pounds per inch width. Bidders must state in their proposal the number of square yards of this fabric they will require.

3. In the lower part of the ballonet and gas bag. or on the ballonet air tubes near the gas bag, there will be an adjustable automatic valve designed to release air from the ballonet to the outside atmosphere. On the under side of the gas bag

there will be a second adjustable automatic valve of suitable size, so designed as to release hydrogen from the interior of the gas bag to the outside atmosphere. This valve will also be arranged so that it may be opened at will by the pilot.

4. In the upper portion of the gas bag there will be provided a ripping strip covering an opening live inches wide by six feet long, with a red rip cord attached in the usual manner and brought down within reach of the pilot through a suitable gas-tight rubber plug inserted in a wooden ring socket.

5. The suspension system and frame must be designed to have a factor of safety of at least three, taking into account wind strains as well as the weight suspended.

0. A type of frame which can be quickly and easily assembled and taken apart will be considered an advantage.

7. The balloon must be designed to carry two persons having a combined weight of 350 pounds, also at least 100 pounds of ballast winch may be used to compensate for increased weight of balloon when operating in rain.

8. The dirigible balloon should be designed to have a speed of twenty miles per hour in still air, but bidders must submit quotations in their proposals for cost depending upon the speed attained during the trial flight, according to the following schedule :

20 miles per hour, 1009? ■ 19 85%. 18 " k< " 70'/,. 17 " ** a 55%. 16 " k' " 40 %.

Less than 10 miles per hour rejected.

21 miles per hour, 115%.

22 " " k< 130^.

23 " 145%.

24 " " 1(50%.

9. The speed accomplished during the trial flight will be determined by taking an average of the time over a measured course of between two and five miles, against and with the wind. The time will be taken by a flying start, passing the starting point at full speed at both ends of the course. This test subject to such additional details as the Chief Signal Officer of the Army may prescribe at the time.

10. Provision must be made to carry sufficient fuel for continuous operation of the engine for at least two hours. This will be determined by a trial endurance flight of two hours, during which time the airship will travel continuously at an average speed of at least 70f/( of that which the airship accomplishes during the trial flight for speed, stated in paragraph 9 of this specification. The engine must have suitable cooling arrangements, so that excessive heating will not occur.

11. Three trials will be allowed for" speed as provided for in paragraph 9, and three trials for endurance, as provided for in paragraph 10. and both tests must be completed within a period of thirty days from the date of delivery, the expense of the tests to be borne by the manufacturer.

12. The scheme for ascending and descending and maintaining equilibrium must be regulaled by shifting weights, movable planes, using two ballonets. or other approved method. Balancing bv the aeronaut, changing his position will not be accepted.

13. This dirigible balloon will be provided with a rudder of suitable size, a manometer for indicating the pressure within the gas bag. and all other fittings and appurtenances which will be required for successful and continuous flights, according to this specification.

14. Bidders will be required to furnish with their proposal a certified check amounting to fifteen per cent, of the price stated for the 20-mile speed. Lpon making the award for this airship these certified checks will be returned to bidders,

and the successful bidder will be required to furnish a bond, according to Army Regulations, of the amount equal to the price stated for 20-mile speed.

15. Bidders must submit with their proposals drawings to scale showing the general dimensions and shape of the dirigible balloon which they propose to build under this specification ; a description of the engine which will be used for the motive power; the material of which the frame will be constructed; sizes of valves, etc. Plans received will not be shown to other bidders.

16. Bidders must furnish evidence that the Government of the United States has the lawful right to use all patented devices or appurtenances which may be part of the dirigible balloon, and that the manufacturers of the dirigible balloon are authorized to convey the same to the Government.

17. The price quoted in proposals must be understood to include the instruction of two men in the handling and operation of this airship. Xo extra charge for this service will be allowed.

Dynamic Flying Machine.

The general dimensions of the flying machine wid be determined by the manufacturer, subject to the following conditions:

1. Bidders must submit with their proposals the following:

(a) Drawings to scale showing the general dimensions and shape of the flying machine which they propose to build under this specification.

(b) Statement of the speed for which it is designed.

(c) Statement of the total surface area of the supporting planes.

(d) Statement of the total weight.

(e) Description of the engine which will be used for motive power.

(f) The material of which the frame, planes, and propellers will be constructed. Plans received will not be shown to other bidders.

2. It is desirable that the flying machine should be designed so that it may be quickly and easily assembled and taken apart and packed for transportation in army wagons. It should be capable of being assembled and put in operating condition in about one hour.

3. The flying machine must be designed to carry two persons having a combined weight of about 350 pounds, also sufficient fuel for a flight of 125 miles.

4. The flying machine should be designed to have a speed of at least 40 miles per hour in still air, but bidders must submit, quotations in their proposals for eost depending upon the speed attained during the trial flight, according to the following scale:

40 miles per hour, 100%. 39 " " " 90%. 38 " " " SO?*. 37 " " " 70%. 36 " " " m%

Less than 36 miles per hour, rejected.

41 miles per hour, 110%. -12 " " " 120r/.

43 " " " 130%.

44 " " " 1409?.

5. The speed accomplished during the trial flight will be determined by taking tin average of the time over a measured course of more than five miles, against and with the wind. The time will be taken by a flying staid, passing the starting point at full speed at both ends of the course. This test subject to such additional details as the Chief Signal Officer of the Army may prescribe at the time.

6. Before acceptance a trial endurance flight will be required of at least one hour, during which time the flying machine must remain continnouslv in the air

without landing. Jt shall return to the starting point and land without any damage mat woidd prevent it immediately starting upon another flight. During this trial flight of one hour it mn-t he steered in all directions without difficulty and at ail time- under perfect contiol and equilibrium.

7. Three trials will he allowul for sliced as provided lor in paragraphs 4 and 5. Three trials for enduiance as provided for in paragraph (>, and both tests must be completed within a period of :!() days fiom the date of delivery. The vxpense of the to^ts to be borne by the manufacturer. The place of delivery to the government and tiial flights will be at Foit Mver. Virginia.

<s. It should be so designed as to ascend in any country which may be encountered in field service. The stinting device must be simple and transportable. It should also iancl in a field without lequiring a specially prepared spot and without damaging its structure.

!). It should he provided with nunc device to permit of a safe descent in ea-e of an accident to the propelling machinery.

10. It should be sufficiently simple in construction and operation to permit ■an intelligent man to become pioiicient in it^ use within a reasonable length of time.

11. Bidders must furnish evidence that the Uoveinment of the Tinted States has the lawful right to use ah patented devices or appui tonanee- which may be a part of the flying machine, and that the manufacturers of the flying machine are authoiized to convey the same to the government. This refers to the unrestricted right to use the flying machine sold to the government but does not contemplate the exclusive purchase of patent rights for duplicating the Hying machine.

12. Bidders will be required to furnish with their proposal a certified check -amounting to ten per cent of the price stated for the 10 mile speed, Fpon making the award for this flying machine these} certified checks will be returned to the hi dele is and the successful bidder will be required to furnish a bond, according co Army Regulations, of the amount equal to the price stated for 40 mile speed.

1:5. The price quoted in proposals must be understood to include the instruction of two men in the handling find operation of this flying machine. No extra •charge for this service will he allowed.

1-1. Bidders must state the time which will be required for delivery after receipt of order.

MY FLIGHTS. By Henry Farman.

Trie machine on which my re-cent flights were carried out is of the cubic type. That is to say. it is formed of two linen cubes: a large one at the front 12 meters in length, 2 meters in width and 2 meters in height; the other one smaller, at the rear and attached to the lirst by means of wooden rods. A point-shaped car finishes this machine and holds the motor, the tanks, the driver's seat and the operating apparatus of the motor. The equilibrator is placed at the front of the •car and the rudder at the back.

To leave the ground is not an easy matter, but to fly is still much more difficult. The machine is driven by a two-bladed propeller fitted to a oO II.P. Antoinette motor.

Every day dining two months. I worked hard on my machine, altering, modifying and studying it in all its details so as to have it well in hand. 1 succeeded in leaving the ground and then managed to make a flight of a distance of 2S5 meters, thus beating Mr. Santos Dnniont's record. From that time. I covered larger distances and flew as far as ?70 meters, being .Vi seconds m the air; 1 could have gone further had not the barriers of the military parade obliged me to come <lown again.

I am now training myself to the turning in the air, a difficulty which J believe I will overcome and hope to win the Dentsch-Archdeacon prize by covering a closed kilometer on a flying machine.

My belief is that all the flying machines constructed up to this present day lack in stability. At every experiment they smash in landing which, it should be remarked, mine never did as yet, although 1 have made over 200 flights varying between 100 to 500 meters at a height of (i and 8 meters, once even reaching the height of 15 meters. Besides, my machine is absolntelv horizontal when flying. Of course, one of the most important things is the regulation of the motor, which must be perfect. Then, when flying, I have many parts to survey such as: the rudder at the rear, the eqnilibrator, the advanced ignition, the earburating handle, manometer for petrol pressure, manometer for water pressure and so on, which renders the task much more difficult, but, notwithstanding all this hard starting, 1 am convinced that much will be done before long and my hopes are illimited in this concern.

THE FLIGHT OF THE BELL KITE. By Lieut. T. Selfridge, Secretary Aerial Experiment Association.

On December 6 the Aerial Experiment Association completed all their preliminary work and were ready to make a man-flight with the large tetrahedral kite called "The Cygnet."

It consisted of 3,393 wing cells, each cell carrying 541.25 square centimeters of silk. The kite was merely an upper section of a large tetrahedron of 52 cells on an edge. There were 12 layers of cells in the kite. The center of the kite was so arranged that a man could be carried on a ladder running from fore to aft. It was provided with three silk floats which presented a horizontal area of 8 square meters. The kite was to be launched from a rocking cradle carried on a catamaran raft which was to be towed bv a tim-boat.

On the above date the kite was towed out in the middle of Bras d"Or Lake. Upon reaching the desired point the tug was headed into the wind and the kite put up in a 30-mile breeze (the wind proper was 21 miles, the speed of the tug 9) with the writer on board. The kite went up without any trouble and flew steadily for about seven minutes when, the wind dying down, the kite descended to the water. Due to lack of foresight of the men on the tug, and also to the unexpected dropping of the wind, the flying line was not cut soon enough and the kite was badly smashed on touching the water by the additional resistance brought to bear on the structure on account of the pressure of the water on the floats. The aviator was promptly picked up by a motor boat which was there for that purpose.

The following data was obtained: average speed of the wind during flight, 20 miles; angle of instance the kite with the wind. 20°; the pull on the line. 309 pounds; the angle of the flying line with the horizontal. 10°; the total weight carried up. G00 pounds.

The kite was completely demolished but the loss was not as great as would seem as it had served its purpose by affording this opportunity for obtaining the above information.

The headquarters of the association have been transferred to Hammondsport. X. Y., for the winter, at the shops of the 0. II. Curfiss Motor Co.. where it will continue its work which is, as vet. in the elementarv staire.

DIRIGIBLE BALLOONS WITH SCREW IN FRONT.

By Carl E. Myers.

Question having arisen regarding the early appearance of a propeller placed at the forward end of the airship or dirigible balloon, claimed by some one as a recent invention, I wish to state that I used such an arrangment on my hand-and-foot propelled Gas Kite, or Aerial Velocipede, to draw the gas vessel up an inclined plane, to fall again by gravity, 1879-8081, when I adapted it to my Skycycle airship for both forward and backward 111 o v e m e n t with aeroplane guidance, till

1900, and then applied it to my Electric Aerial Torpedo, at St. Louis, where it made 120 half-hour flights, sometimes pulling, and oftener pushing, the frame or keel of the gas vessel.

Mrs. Myers applied such screw propulsion ^ to the ordinary hydrogen gas balloon car in 1880. About this time, or before, a 4-bladed propeller was used by Ouinlain to draw the airship of Prof. Richell at Hartford, Conn.

Gas Kite, No. Combined hand and foot power.

Chainless gear, iSSi.

Skycycle at Saratoga Springs, N. V.,

fc>t> cjcle winch Hew fiom Brooklyn Navy Yard over New York, 1S95.

Santos-Dumont's airship No. 4 was arranged to pull by screw propeller, 1900. The noted airship "La France", built by Renard and Krebs in 1884, used the front propeller. In 1843 Monck Mason designed and built the small round ended model of an airship with screw at one end of a keel and a rttdder at the other. Some years later Bell made a first ascension from Vauxhall Garden with a similar airship, with no great success.

I am unable to trace any earlier flight. Certainly no one invented this feature so late as 1900. Its use is of doubtful advantage with any motor vessel

in air or water. I made use of it in my gas kite to pull it forward like a kite drawn by its string. The waste air was also flung against the under surfaee of the gas-buoyed kite to aid its buoyancy. This vessel rt was steered solely by tipping it up or down, or to either side through change of the rider's position or weight. The same was true of my later Skycycle, patented 1897, application filed, 1S89. Several of these machines were built and many hundred flights made, ranging over 13

States. I20 half-hour sk} - Sks'cycle which made 120 flights at St. Louis Coliseum, 1900.

cycle flights were also made within the St. Louis coliseum, 1900.

Originally a rudder was used for guidance, but was later abandoned for steering aeroplanes. I have never found the pull of a front screw to equal the push of a rear screw in an airship or boat on water.

4-blade Metal propeller of " Kingfisheii," in front, with steering paddle wheels on sides ; rudder in rear.

Electrical Aerial Torpedo, with screw draft and steering aeroplane. '[

Made 120 flights in 1900.

No. 19. Made flights in 1907.

AERONAUTIC CALENDAR.

Dee. S.—Aeroplane race at Issy les Moulineaux.

1911.—International assembly of dirigibles in Italy, under the auspices of the Società Aeronautica Italiana.

THE ACCELERATION OF THE WIND OVER MOUNTAINS.

By S. P. Fergusson.

Referring to the remark? of Professors Moore and LJoteh upon the paper of M. Gasnier in the November American Magazine of Aeronautics, it may be of interest to some of the renders to know what lias been ascertained regarding the influence of mountains upon the weather in their vicinity.

Proof that the wind is higher on mountains than in the free air at the same height was first published by Mr. II. II. Clayton in the American 31cteorological Journal. July. 1891. Also, at this same time he suggested as an explanation that the air flowing over mountains is accelerated, just as water moving over a dam is more rapid than that of the general current of the river. The above results were derived from observations of the height and velocity of clouds.

Between 1900 and 190-1. meteorological records obtained in the free air by mean.-; of kites or balloons by Mr. Dines in Scotland and by Dr. Assmann in Germany were compared with records made on Ben Nevis and the Brocken. The results obtained were contrary to my own beliefs, and thinking it probable that the difference observed between the mountain and the free air. in part, might be due to the great distances between the kite stations and the mountains (in neither case less than DO kilometers) 1 decided upon a systematic investigation of the problem. Having but my own small means, and the time usually taken for my annual vacations to depend upon, the preparation of an adequate equipment for the work required all my spare time from June. IDOL until August, 1005, this work including the construction of four kites, a suitable reel for flying the kites, and four meteorographs, all designed and constructed especially for the work. All this was accomplished without assistance of any kind. Mount Washington. N. H., was selected for this study partly because of its height and partly because the summit is occupied during two months of the year. Mr. Frank lb Burt, editor of the newspaper Among the Cloud*, published on the summit, kindly made all observations and records on the summit, while the kites were flown bv me in the Amnion oosue. valley 1!) kilometers distant and 1,500 meters lower than the summit of Mount Washington.

The first comparison of Mt. Washington and the free air was obtained on August 21. 1905. by means of automatic recording instruments. The temperature was found to be lower, and the wind velocity much higher on the summit than in the free air. the details of the experiments were published in Among (lie ('loads on September 10. 1905. and in Scienrr, April 21, 1900.

A second expedition to Mount Washington was conducted by me in August and September. 190G. and a third in July. 190?, a part of the cost of the former being paid from a grant allowed me from the Uodgkins Fund held by the Smithsonian Institution. In all, about sixteen kite flights have been made and important data obtained concerning the influence of the mountain on the weather in its vicinity. During August. 1908. a fourth expedition will attempt to ascertain, by means of kites flown from the summit, the extent to which the mountain influences the wind passing over it, also will study other phenomena peculiar to meteorology of mountains.

Mr. Clayton is of the opinion that the increase of speed of the balloon passing over mountains may not be real, but an effect of perspective. I fully agree with this, for it seems improbable that, unless the balloon passed very near the mountain-top, the acceleration of the wind would extend so high as to be perceived from a balloon.

AERO CLUB OF AMERICA.

The second of the series of monthty dinners and smokers was held by the courtesy of The Autuomobile CI id) of America in their main hall on Tuesday evening, January 7.

The annual banquet will be held at the St. Eegis Hotel on Saturday, March 7, 1908.

AERO CLUB OF NEW ENGLAND—NEW TROPHY.

By Alfred R. Shrigley, Secretary.

As showing the wide-spreading interest in ballooning, it is of interest to note that the Aero Club of Xew England has received the following offer: ''The proprietors of the Poland Spring and hotels, through the Aero Club of Xew England, hereby beg to offer! to the pilot of any balloon starting 150 miles from Poland Spring, who lands his balloon within two miles of this place, a silver cup valued at not less than $100, provided we are advised before the ascension is made that an attempt will be made to win the cup." Signed, Edward P. Picker, President.

NEW AERO CLUBS IN AMERICA.

Aero Club of Ohio.

On December 10 the "'Aero Club of Ohio" was formed. Johnson Sherrick was elected president; Marshall C. Barber, vice-president; Isaac Harter. treasurer; Dr. Josiah ITartzell, secretary. The club started with twenty members, among them Frank S. Lahm, father of Lieutenant Lahm; Walter Wellman and Consul-General Robert P. Skinner.

The first ascent under the new club's auspices was made on December 20 by Frank S. Lahm, Joseph M. Blake and Gordon Mather.

The evening before the president entertained a number of the members at a banquet in bono]- of Messrs. Stevens and Lahm.

The club has purchased from A. Leo Stevens the balloon "Psyche,'' formerly owned by J. 0. McCoy.

Aero Club in Louisville, Ky.

It is very likely that Louisville will have an aero club in the near future. The idea is being agitated by J. L. Gribble and P. S. Hudson, who are "old-time'' aeronauts and dirigible pilots. Already twenty-five, it is said, have signified their intention of joining if the club should be started. Both Mr. Gribble and Mr. Hudson were in St. Louis for the Gordon Bennett where they renewed old acquaintanceship with Captain Baldwin.

The plan for the first event, which has been outlined, is to attempt a transcontinental balloon race from Denver east, in an effort to break the world's long distance record. It is believed that if a balloon could get in front of one of the storms which move eastward across the continent, a new record could he established.

AERONAUTIQUE CLUB OF CHICAGO. By C. H. Perrigo, Secretary.

Soon after the great balloon race at St. Louis a meeting, composed of representative business and professional men, was held at the Auditorium Annex in Chicago and the Aeronantique Club of Chicago was organized.

The following officers were elected: President. C. A. Coey; first vice-president, Chas. E. Gregory: second vice-president. Geo. P. Lawrence; treasurer, II. C. Foster;

secretary, 0. H. Perrigo; attorney, Benj. Levering; aeronautical engineer, Capt. Pavmond Anglemire.

The club has ordered a large touring balloon built to be ready early in the spring. Our president. Mr. C. A. Coey, who has a national reputation for daring in auto races, has decided to own a balloon which he thinks wilhbe able to take, the lonsr distance prize in any contest he may enter.

It is the intention of the club to hold balloon races from Chicago annually. A prize cup will be offered, also substantial cash prizes. As soon as it was announced that we were going to hold races one' of the leading men of Chicago offered to present the club with a cup costing $1,000 to be raced for. We shall hold the races some time in July or August. The first day's race will be for long distance balloons; the second and third days will be for airships and aeroplanes. Entries are invited from clubs or individual owners of balloons who may wish to compete. Arrangements are being made for the use of one of the large race tracks near the city, to be fitted up for holding the races and a permanent home where the members nnry make ascensions at any time. The headquarters of the club is at 1424 Michigan Avenue.

AERO CLUB.OF THE UNITED KINGDOM. By Harold E. Perrin, Secretary.

The annual dinner of the Aero Club of the U. K. was held at the Savoy Hotel on Tuesday, the 2(ith of November. The company present included Mr. Patrick Y. Alexander, Mr. Griffith Brewer. Admiral Sir Charles Campbell. Sir Morgan Crofton and Lady Crofton. Sir Hugo de Bathe. Baron Deutsch de la Mem'the. Mr. J. Z. Ferranti, Captain Grubb, P. E., of the War Office: the Hon. Assheton llarbord and the Hon. Mrs. Assheton llarbord, General Hart. Prof. A. K. Huntington. Mr. V. Ker-Seymer, Dr. W. J. S. Loekyer, Lord Montagu of Beaulien. Mr. -L T. C. Moore-Brabazon, Mr. 0. F. Pollock, the Hon. C. S. Polls. Lord Povston. Brig.-Gen. 1?. M. Puck. P. E.. Mr. Winthrop E. Scarritt. Admiral of the Fleet Sir Edward Sevmour, K. C. M. G.. Dr. YV. N. Shaw, the head of the Meteorological office: Mr. F. P/Simms, Col. Templer and Mrs. Templer. Col. F. C. Trollop. Mr. Boger W. Wallace, and Prof. Wavn forth.

The toast of "The Aero Club" was proposed by the Chairman Mr. Poger W. Wallace, K. C. who informed the company present that Mr. Deutsch had promised to come over to England in his airship the "Ville de Paris." a statement which was much applauded. He also announced that Loid Noithclitfe had offered another valuable prize for motor-driven aeroplanes to be competed for in England. Lord Montagu of Beaulien then spoke upon the future of aerial navigation, and Admiral Sir Charles Campbell proposed the toast of "The Guests." The Admiral alluded to the great value that aerial navigation would be as an aid to naval warfare in future.

Admiral Sir Fdward Seymour, K. C. M. G.. Admiral of the British Fleet, also made a most interesting speech.

Mr. Henri Deutsch de la Meurthe. who had come over from Paris specially for the dinner, replied to the toast of "The Guests"' in a speech which was greatly appreciated. He looked forward, ho> said, to paying a visit to England in his airship the "Mile de Paris," a model of which he kindly presented to the Aero Club of the United Kingdom.

The Hon. C. S. Polls proposed 'The Health of the Chairman." He congratulated the club upon having as its chairman Mr. P. W. Wallace, who had done so much pioneer work in connection with automobilism and was now keenly interested in aeronautics. Mr. Polls was very pleased that the club had with them that night Mr. Winthrop Scarritt, a prominent member of the Aero Club of America, who was one of the leaders of modern sports in America, and is governor and past president of the Automobile Club of America. The club, he said, were very

fortunate in having Mr. Deutsch with them that night, who took such a prominent part in furthering the cause of aeronautics. Mr. Rolls added that we in England owed a great deal to the members of the Aero Club de France for the present state of development and perfection to which the modern balloons and the sport of ballooning had been brought.

THE LOST "LA PATRIE."

On Saturday, November 30, after having sailed from Paris to Verdun, "La Patrie" was being employed in reconnoitreing from Verdun when the engine became disabled through the mechanic's clothing catching in the gearing. It was thought the repair could be made quickly and the ship was allowed to drift before the wind. Dusk came on, however, before the work was finished and it was decided to make an immediate descent, which took place at Souhesmes.

Work on the engine was commenced the following morning and continued all da}T, being only completed about quarter of eight at night.

The wind had been increasing in force and by eight o'clock had assumed the proportions of a gale, ft would seem that 180 men would be sufficient to hold an

Goerz Photo

airship, but in an exceedingly heavy gust of wind the ship tore itself loose from the restraining ropes and sailed away to the westward. An officer tried to reach the ripping cord but was unsuccessful in the attempt.

During the night the ship sailed across France towards Saint Lo, across the English Channel and was seen over South Wales at eight o'clock the following morning. After leaving Wales. "Paine" turned northeast, passing above Lloyd's Signal Station at Torr Head, opposite the coast of Argyllshire, at about four o'clock on Sunday evening. Later in the day the ship touched the ground near Ballysallough, County Down, Ireland. "During the course of its erratic wanderings, it seems that the "Patrie" collided with a hill, and after tearing up the ground for some little distance, finally sailed through a farmyard wall, shedding in its passage a propeller and sundry tins of oil."

Lightened by the loss of these articles, the ship "rose again and ascended into Heaven," and was last seen heading for the North Atlantic, there no doubt to travel about like the Wandering Jew until it finds a grave. An official of the English War Department took possession of the parts on behalf of the French Government.

GORDON BENNETT 1908.

Berlin has been definitely settled upon for the start of the 1908 Gordon Bennett, to be held during October. Dr. Broeckelmann is to be one of the three German defendants of the cup.

It is rumored that the Japanese aeronauts desire to enter but this is impossible as there is no club in Japan of which anyone has knowledge, and if so, it certainly is not a member of the Federation.

The Swedish Club is to enter this year. Imagine an international balloon race from Stockholm !

The Real Aero Club de Espana has entered three balloons.

NEW AERO PRIZES.

To the different prizes for aviation, instituted by the Aero Club of France and the Commission de Aviation, prizes which are being exposed to such meritorious assaults, is added a gold medal offered by Mr. Albert C. Triaca, member of the A. C. A., and director of the new aeronautic school in Xew York. This medal Avill be given to the constructor of the motor which shall be mounted in the nvin°: machine winning the Deutsch-Archdeacon aviation prize of $10,000.

Xew Aero Club of Xew England trophy. Xotice elsewhere in this issue.

The aeronautical exposition at Turin in 1908 is to put up two prizes, one of $50,000 for dirigible balloons and one of $20,000 for "aeroplanes"—we take it for granted thh* is meant to include all gasless types. The king will also create a Royal cup.

The first of December. Lord Xorthcliffe. in the name of the Daily Mail, announced the creation of a prize of $500 to the aeroplane which executes a flight of half a mile in a circle.

POINTS IN BUYING A BALLOON OR AIRSHIP.

Translated.

"Owing to several inferior balloons being sold last season bv inexperienced manufacturers, which were faulty in construction and dangerous, we desire to point out a few essentials: Who is the constructor? Can he give references? Is he an experienced man? Where is his factory? Is he reliable? Has he ever made ascensions? Does he know the breaking strain? For whom has he built balloons? Ask the purchasers.""

DECEMBER BALLOON ASCENSIONS.

Dei-. 20. Frank S. Lahm. Joseph M. Blake and Gordon Mather (Aero Club of Ohio) in the balloon "Ohio"' from Canton, ()., at 12:55 p.m.. landing near Pulaski. Pa., at 3:40 p.m. Distance. (18 miles. Duration, 2 hours. 45 minutes. Highest altitude. 3000 feet.

Dec. 27. Albert C. Triaca (Aero Club of America) and Ernest Barbotte in the "Aero Club Xo. 4" from St. Cloud, Paris, at 1 :3() p.in., landing at 2:45 p.m., near La Fertesous-Jouarre, France. The trip was made by Mr. Triaca in qualifying for pilot's license. On landing he neglected to release the gas, and a. puff of wind carried the balloon away. It was afterward recovered.

Dec. 27. C. A. Coey and George R. Lawrence (Aeronautique Club of Chicago) in the "Zenith" at Chicago. Soon after the start a gust of wind blew the balloon against a tree which cut some of the ropes attaching the basket to the bag and dropped the aeronauts out. Luckily they sustained no injury.

Winthrop E. Scarritt- (Aero Club of America) made a trip from London with the Hon. C. S. Bolls but details are not available, ft is reported that Mr. Scarritt jumped from the balloon in landing. Thus lightened, it reaseended with the Honorable Bolls. Query, did the former Automobile Club president get "cold feet?'' If so. it is the first instance recorded in the life of ^\lr. Scarritt.

CHRONOLOGY OF PRINCIPAL EVENTS.

Owing to the bad weather during December and the alterations being made in the Farm an, Bleriot and Santos Dumont machines, few flights have been made.

Santos Dumont has now two propellers in front, driven in opposite directions by a leather belt. In the first trial of the new arrangement, the belt fouled one of the propellers, a wooden frame covered with silk.

Pi schorl: practiced and succeeded in making several flights of 50 to 100 yards.

The Ferber-Levavasseur "Antoinette" has been completed and will be out soon.

Dec. 1. Bleriot made a few trial flights. Only 24 meters was covered in the first flight; in the second 100 meters was made, and in the third. 150 meters at a height of about 10 meters. During iiight the apparatus gave a sudden lurch and one-wing came in touch with the ground and was broken—likewise the propeller. Bler-iot started at once to lepair the damage.

Dec. (i. Bleiiot succeeded in making two or three very good flights; the first of which was a semi-circular course of about KiO yards, the second a straight flight of about ()()() yards, and the third, another straight flight of 500 yards. A height of about -10 meters was attained which evidently disturbed the equanimity of the aviator and the engine wa< suddenly stopped and landing made. The frame was bent by the fall and a propeller blade and a wheel broken.

barman's machine while being brought out toppled over, due, apparently, to the recent alterations which resulted in the lightening of the tail, and some considerable damage was done to the framework.

Dec. 18. Bleriot was able to cover about 150 meters but in a succeeding flight the machine broke in two while in the air and the aviator narrowly escaped serious injury. In this flight the machine started into the air at a considerable angle and soon was quite high. The altitude was lowered, however, and at a distance of 100' meters the forward planes of the machine seemed to snap oh' at the shoulders and turn upward. The machine dropped swiftly to the ground. A correspondent writes: ''All present agreed that the Blei'iot apparatus was about the most dangerous type of aeroplane yet brought out. Its movements in the air are too quick and no man can possibly follow all its rapid cuts and thrusts as they arc executed and compensate for them with the rudder."

Dec. .20. barman made a flight of nearly half a kilometer. During the day many trials had been made but of no great length. At dusk the flight of nearly 500' meters was accomplished and gave the spectators to judging the apparatus in its altered form. The rear cell has been reduced in size and a long flight is necessary to determine the stability. It is said that there was a tendency for the machine to sway, though turning movements were executed more easily than with a larger rear cell. The motor has been fitted with a magneto and carbureter and it will operate a new propeller. A new water cooling-system has been fitted also.

Dec. 21. Firman was able to fly the entire length of the grounds at Tssv. lie found that by warming the gasoline in the jacket of the motor that he could get 1050 revolutions out of the engine, or 50 more than the usual speed. lie anticipates still further accelerating the speed to 1100 r.p.m.

Dec. 30. Farman completed a circle of a kilometer in length but touched the ground for an instant to avoid hitting the bystanders.

DECEMBER INCORPORATIONS.

The Aerial Navigation Company of America, of Guthrie and Clinton, N. Y.; capital stock $1,000,000. Incorporators, Edward D. Cronin and Fred Ivnowlton, of New York City; II. YY. Pentecost of Guthrie.

The Ernst Flying Machine Co. of Dundee Lake, X. has been incorporated with $25,000 capital to manufacture "flying machines and airships."

AM ERIGAX MAGAZIXE OF A EROXAUTIGS

THE CALIFORNIA ARROW Carl Dienstbach

On the 19th of October. 1902. Santos Dumont won the Deutsch prize, the first one ever offered for an airship's performance, by a trip from the outskirts of Paris, around the Eiffel Tower and back. Then started that remarkable series of aerial trips which to the lay mind furnished a last and conclusive proof of the practicability of aerial navigation, and, in fact, fairly revolutionized public opinion.

One year later an American aeronaut, with a farsightedness resulting from long years of experience as an aerial performer, first merely an athlete on the high trapeze, tight-rope, etc.. later an aeronaut with hot air and gas balloons, and in parachute jumps (which he was the first one to introduce to this country), realized tbat to keep up with the times he would needs henceforth have to make a navigable airship, the instrument with which to exhibit his skill. And with the eoiifirlen-e given from 1 erfecting a great

Goerz Photo.

CAl'TAIN THOMAS S. BALDWIN'S CALIFORNIA ARKOW AT THE ST. l.OCIS CONTESTS.

deal of aerial apparatus, started to build one. In his design he was governed only by a sound practical judgment as to the principal requirements of the case, and the result of his labors was the first thoroughly practical motor air vehicle in America, a type in which, so far. nothing essential has been changed but which has been imitated by many ■on account of its excellent qualities.

While several features of his invention were similar to Santos Uumont's, there were also essential and far-reaching differences. The frame and thle gas bag were more nearly made one piece by enclosing the latter into a special sort of netting, which, owing to its fineness, would produce but little friction or "drag" in the air but increase the staunchness and solidity of the bag, at the same time preventing the balloon from ever becoming loose and flabby below the equator by loss of gas. and saving to a great extent the necessity of an inside air-bag (or balloonet) with blower for keeping the envelope tight (as the netting would in such cases merely flatten the sides and thus decrease the capacity of the gas space). The netting also allowed him eventually to put the frame nearer to the gas bag than ever attempted before. Again the propeller was placed in front and its two blades were given a slight slant towards the axis, which "would throw the full force of its draft against the two cylinder, five horse-power motor

to keep it cool. The most obvious change, however, was in the method of operating. The man was not put into a basket from which he shifted a guide rope for vertical, and turned a wheel for horizontal steering. Instead, he rode astride the back of the frame, as on horseback and worked his rudder by tiller ropes, as with a bridle, allowing him to steer from almost any position on the frame. It will be seen how nice and free was that position and how favorable to the development of a high skill, for the longitudinal trim, i.e., the position, horizontal or inclined, of the ship's "keel," is thus controlled by the aeronaut himself stepping back and forth on the frame. The rudder was made especially large to insure a quick effect in all sorts of aerial disturbances, eddies, gusts, ascending or descending currents, etc.

Captain Thomas S. Baldwin, for it is of his invention that we are here speaking, also showed an especially keen intuition in selecting a rather blunt shape for the bag of his first airship. In this he was quite ahead of Santos Dumont. The latter made his first ships comparatively long and thin, without realizing at the time, that the un-

BALDWIN'S AIUSI11P SHOWING TWIN PKOPELLEli.

avoidable pitching would render the theoretical advantages of this shape for speed rather illusionary in practice, not to mention the long heavy frame suspended far below the bag needed under these conditions, and other practical difficulties. Santos Dumont discovered not without a little surprise, that when he had at last adopted a short, egg-shaped bag for his No. fi. his "runabout." he obtained a more hardy; reliable and controllable craft, without a very appreciable falling off in speed. Here, however, he overlooked the advantageous possibility of placing the frame very near to the envelope, which Baldwin, on the contrary, was quick to see. That shortness of the bag has the further advantage of making the shifting of the aeronaut's weight take a more powerful and quick effect on the longitudinal trim, especially with the shape originally adopted by Baldwin—rather symmetrical at both ends. A design and shape resulted, which, within the limits of its fundamental qualities—though, of course, a blunt shape is less favorable to speed than an elongated one—proved so efficient and, especially offered so many chances for the development of the highest skill on the part of the operator, that at the recent races in St. Louis, exclusively contested by ships of this exact type, the German expert, Captain Hildebrandt of the Military Aeronautical Department, became truly enthusiastic about Captain Baldwin's performances, especially after Professor Rotch, the famous director of the Blue Hill Meteorological Observatory, had helped him to ascertain how strongly the wind was really blowing, against which the thick set, sturdy little monster was yet able to hold its own.

But to return to the history of the case. That first fully practical American airship was very prettily and aptly named by its inventor, in whom his friends are ready to recognize something of a pdetical vein, the "California Arroio." After a number of very promising trips under his own guidance at the place of its construction, California, the ship was taken to the St. Louis Exposition, which had just offered large prices for airship competitions and given a wonderful publicity to the whole subject of aerial navigation. No serious competitors for the "Arrow'' had turned up from this side of the ocean, and all seemed to go well until the trials were actually going to commence. Then it was found that with the poor quality of gas furnished by the Exposition authorities, made in an imported apparatus for which no experienced operator could be found; and a strengthened, heavier frame; and the addition of a guide rope, that was found indispensable under the local conditions, Mr. Baldwin's own weight was by thirty pounds too heavy for the machine to lift. It was then that a young, light weight man, Roy Knabenshue stepped into the breach with his offer to run the ship, though not being an aeronaut. Captain Baldwin consented, as he knew that the art of operating could comparatively easily be mastered even by a novice if he were properly shown how, while it

THE FIIiST FLIGHT OF THE TWIN SCREW SHIR AT HAMMOXUSrORT, JUNE 27, 1907.

had been a trying task even for the experienced aeronaut before the novel requirements had been thoroughly learned and understood. Knabenshue proved an apt pupil and the "California Arrow" made such a fine showing, even at that initial stage, that it eventually saved all the Exposition's aeronautical prestige and incidentally reaped the full benefit of the wide publicity given to the announcements of the intended contest. The latter was indeed yet to take place in St. Louis, four years later, and between duplicates of that first "California Arrow."

During the first flights over the Exposition grounds it had already become apparent that a new line of activity had actually been started, and that the airship would find its place "ready made" as the principal attraction at the great public gatherings in the open air. It was only to be regretted that Baldwin was so modest about coining forward with his own person. Instead of making at once such changes as would have made it possible to resume quickly the operation of his ship himself, he seemed long obvious of the fact that the credit would rest, for the great "blind'' mass of the public, with the men who actually were "running" the ship. As a reputation readily attracts prospective managers, Knabenshue left his old master, after less than a year, to start building his own ship. The latter became, of course, a close copy of the 11 Arrow" and the only departure the constructor felt able to afford consisted in changing the form of the gas bag, which thereby lost much of its trim appearance.

The original ship had, in the meantime, been taken over by a stock company, which made a futile attempt at exploiting its capacity commercially on a very prematurely large scale. Captain Baldwin then built another one, and to save expense made it again too small for his own use, finding in Lincoln Beachy another lightweight gifted substitute. His eye for detecting ability had deceived him still less in this case, for the new "Arroiv," at the Exposition in Portland, Oregon, 1905, was soon to make 23 flights and return to the place of starting, out of 25. Beachy got the ship under such fine control, that runs through the streets of Portland, as it were, landing on the roofs of skyscrapers and delivering a letter by airship from the Exposition to the City and carrying back the answer, was easy for him. The time of leaving his teacher, however, came for him right after the closing of that Exposition and now Captain Baldwin fully realized the advantage of being his own operator.

A third '-'Ari'ou'' vas Lvilt and pioved a distinct advance. The framing had now been brought into such close proximity to the envelope that gas bag, netting and frame became all one solid whole, thus allowing the ship to literally "stand on its head/' If one recalls the very serious trouble twice resulting from even a comparatively slight tilting of Santos Dumont's No. 7, the significance and advantage for safety of that fact is readily recognized. An essential improvement could also be noticed in the motor, now with four cylinders in a row and lighter and stronger, owing to increased refinement of design. Being very reliable, it could be fully controlled by the throttle alone, and as an "aerial chauffeur" has, anyway, to watch too many different things at once, that simplicity can be hardly too highly appreciated. Quite as important for truly satisfactory results is, however, the ship's complete '•tuning up." All the ropes must, for instance, have just the right tension, the netting in the finest trim, motor and rudder obey to the slightest touch and so has the hard inflated gas bag to answer at once to any little shifting of the operator's weight on the framing.

Captain Baldwin's latest craft possessed all these qualities to such a marked degree r-s to become the very ship for the amateur's use. Quite recently Mr. Augustus Post, Secretary of the Aero Club of America, made very creditable flights with it, having had no more previous schooling that what he could derive from closely watching the performance and a few concise instructions.

In 190G the Captain had a record of 51 returns to the starting point in 53 flights at different localities. During 1907 Captain Baldwin made 92 flights, returning to the starting point 91 times. In the Fall of 1907 he took part in that splendid airship race, the very first of its kind, which followed the start for the Gordon Bennett long distance cup race for balloons, in Saint Louis. The latter was on Monday, the former scheduled for Wednesday and he improved the occasion on the intervening Tuesday, when a great crowd had assembled to witness promised contests of gasless flying machines, which did not take place for obvious reasons, by giving a little unofficial exhibition of the possibilities of his apparatus.

To watch him dining that performance was certainly a wonderful sight. He had taken off his coat and the folds of his shirt flapping behind him in the strong draught produced by the ship's speedy motion, resembled the fluttering of a flag in a stiff breeze. On that clay the wind was very irregular and the airship was trying to "prance" like a frightened horse, but beautifully restrained by the evidently marvelous skill of the operator. It proved really a fascinating sight to watch this subduing of the wind. A young German, former lieutenant, who saw it for the first time, became, for instance, entirely elated with enthusiasm. To those who have not seen it, it would seem really nearly impossible to give any adequate idea of that suggestion of freedom and strength in the movements of even that bulky looking thing.

Captain Baldwin left the enclosure and sailed over the Aero Club building out into Forest Park. Returning he called out that he would now give a demonstration of the ship's steering capacity and began a series of most convincing turns. The circles he described in the air became closer and closer. No automobile seems equal to such a feat—hardly a bicycle. The blunt shape of the bag is there, of course, of special advantage, just as in warships greater speed is often attained rather by increasing the motive power than by reducing the beam, in order to preserve the good maneavring qualities.

If Captain Baldwin did not win the race the next day, although his negotiating the very stiff breeze (estimated by Captain HilcT'ebrandt and Professor Rotch as near to S meters per second—17.8 miles per hour), looked again extremely creditable, there are two facts which could be named as the reason. His competitors—his own pupils' ships while being copies of his own, were, however, smaller, still using the same engine power, by virtue of the light weight of their operators. The "staying" power of Baldwin's ship was consequently greater, and if the race course had been laid out according to his wishes—as a triangle of great length which had to be gone over several times—it seems most likely that he would have won in the long run.

True to his maxim of showing in public only a perfected, thoroughly reliable

machine, Captain Baldwin had refrained from entering his last creation, still in the experimental stage, though repeatedly and successfully tested in the presence of a number of trusty witnesses in Hammondsport, N. Y. (who signed a joint statement of the facts). It is bigger and has two propellers in front, turning in opposite direction, one close behind the other, by means of a hollow shaft. It was found that their efficiency is thus increased while the strain of the torque on the frame is entirely neutralized. This ship will be remodeled for next season on an ingenious plan. Recent advance? in the construction of the giant airships of Europe are for the first time to be embodied in an American craft that will still possess quite as much originality as the first "Arrow" had. The proportion of length to diameter will at last be changed and a, shape of greater ultimate speed possibilities adopted. To make this, however, a real advantage many new devices had to be introduced, intended to eventually eliminate all possibility of "pitching." They principally consist in an adequate stabilitating surface behind the rear rudder and two sets of superposed aeroplanes or horizontal rudders fore and aft. The ship will be large enough to carry two passengers and the engine strong enough to attain a speed of at least 20 miles an hour. There will also be an improvement on the rudder with the intention of increasing its efficiency to the extent of making this elongated ship turn quite as readily as the sturdy craft of 1903. Twin propellers, mounted as described above, and a specially strong light motor will again be a feature.

It should yet be mentioned, that Captain Baldwin has not only worked out the ships, but all details of their inflating and housing as well—and very efficiently too, with all "his previous aeronautical experience. For the new craft a garage or tent, has already been ordered that will stand up without any rope-bracing and be a perfectly rigid structure.

So we may, with good reason, expect great things next season, of that pioneer and "ice-breaker" of the air, the "California Arrow."

SPEED OF AMERICAN DIRIGIBLES AT ST. LOUIS.

In the November number we gave an account of the dirigible contest at St. Louis on October 23. Since that time the course has been measured and the speed of the airships is herewith given. This may be of interest to show just exactly what we really have in America.

Operator Horsepower Time mile

Mile ter ho

Min. Sees. Min. Sees.

Baldwin........15 9 30 7 13 8.3

Wild.........7,---Did not finish---Dallas........10 8 50 6 42 8.9

Beachey........10 7 15 5 30 10.8

Baldwin, 2d trial.....15,---Did not finish--Dallas, 2d trial.....10 7 23 5 31 10.6

Baldwin, 3d trial.....15 7 05 5 21 11.1

Dallas, 3d trial.....10 6 10 4 40 12.7

Beachey, 2d trial.....10 4 40 3 33 :6.8

It will be remembered that the strong breeze dwindled to practically nothing when the last flight was made. This must be taken into consideration. Captain Baldwin's bag was necessarily larger than any of the others in order to lift the heavier weight of the pilot.

-The length of the course, both ways, was 6900 feet, 1.306 mile.

AERONAUTIQUE CLUB DE FRANCE.

M. Sauniere, the president of the Aéronautique Club de France, has succeeded in making a chart of the overhead electric wires in France, which will be of great service to aeronauts, especially at night, in enabling them to avoid landing in places where their guide ropes are likely to touch live wires with currents of 1G,000, 20,000 up to 27,000 volts.

NEW AERONAUTIC BOOKS.

DAS LUFTSCHIFF in völkerrechtlicher u. strafrechtlicher Beziehung von Dr. Grünwald, Kriegsgerichsrat b. d. 1. Garde-Division. An interesting pamphlet of 61 pages. Contents: Einleitung—Luft and Meer—Völkerrechtliche Grundsätze für das Meer und die Seeschiffe—Umfang der Anwendung der für das Meer und die Seeschiffe geltended Grundsätze auf das Luftgebiet und die Luftschiffe—Seeschiffe und Luftschiffe—Strafbare Handlungen der Luftsehiffer über der hohen See oder staatenlosen Landstrecken—Strafbare Handlungen der Luftschiffer über Staaten, deren Eigen—und Küstengewässern—Einflusz des Interesses des Grundstaates an der Strafverfolgung auf dessen Zuständigkeit—Grundsätze. Published by Helwingsche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Hannover, Germany, ]drice 1 Mk.

COMMUNICATIONS.

We do not bold ourselves responsible for the opinions of our correspondents.

Langley Formula.

To the Editor:

Your correspondent, R. W. S., in the December issue, has trouble with formulas used by Mr. Langley. His experience brings vividly to mind my own along the same lines.

The formulas are all right, as formulas, but they do not apply to the work in hand. All his aeroplanes were surfaces that lie in one direction, and pressure produced by those surfaces must be normal to the surface and such a thing as a component of such pressure is simply nonsense. He assumes weight to be a vertical component, and the tangent derived horizontal force another, at soaring speed. But neither of these forces can make pressure until by resolution they are all made normal to the plane.

Take his 5° diagram as follows, page 37. [Diagram A.]

Pressure is on "a." How can the two oblique forces get on "a" without resolution? If the two oblique forces are components, then "a" is 504.G grammes, in which case

A

40.6

464

B

aos 68

they would be conspiring forces and not components.

Using the sine and cosine decimals of 5° for multipliers, the diagram becomes the following. [Diagram B].

There would be 4G5.G76 grammes of force making pressure, and .0G2 grammes pushing the plane on the upward slant; in other words, .062 granimes would be the soaring force.

T could take no interest in Mr. Langley's "paradox." What he insisted was paradox 1 saw as a plain statement of fact, such as is found in his introductory chapter.

I. Lancaster, Fairhope, Ala.

Verification of Langley Formula.

E O

To the Editor :

Replying to the question of R. W. S. in your December number, on the 36th page, would say: the applied force is along FR and not along the plane ABC. Therefore, FBDE constitutes the parallelogram.of forces, EB and not GB the pressure normal to the plane, and DB or EF the upward component of the air pressure. It therefore follows that Pa2 assumed by R.W.S. is greater than the true Pa.

W. r. klmbah.

NOTES.

There seem to be many arguments in favor of a double propeller on dirigibles. Captain Thomas S. Baldwin introduced the idea and made the first flight using a twin propeller at Hainrnondsport, June 26th, of this year. Following his example, Mr. G. H. Curtiss used the combination when he made his flight on November 27.

"One of the most feted and most Parisian artists, Mlle. Eve Lavallière, has, we are assured, ordered from one balloon builder a dirigible of 2000 cubic meters which she intends to operate herself. It is impossible to be more audacious or more graciously modern.''—La Conquête de l'Air.

On December 15th the floating shed of the Zeppelin III was torn from its anchorage by a severe storm and the rear was driven on shore, causing the pontoons at the front to sink. Part of the balloon covering was torn away but the machinery and framework was left intact.

A. H. Morgan, of Cleveland, and A. Holland Forbes, of New York, have each purchased from A. Leo Stevens a 40,000 cubic feet balloon.

A. Roy Knabenshue has in his shop at Toledo, being varnished, five balloons of various sizes and three airship bags.

It is stated through press channels that a group of German sportsmen have formed an "airship club" and will order a small American dirigible, in addition to several which will be "made in Germany."

The Sclnvabelische Merkur announces that the German government will demand from the Reichstag a budget of 400,000 marks to permit the Graf von Zeppelin to construct as soon as possible a new dirigible, with a number of modifications (No. 4), in order that trials can commence next Spring. If these trials are conclusive the Government, will demand an amount which will add to the budget for 190S, 2,500,000 marks and which is intended for use in purchasing from Graf Zeppelin the proprietorship of his system and to remunerate him for the pecuniary sacrifices he has made during the last ten years.

The misfortune which befell "La Patrie" caused the Queen of Portugal to change her mind about taking a trip in the "Ville de Paris" as arranged.

Referring to the accident to "La Patrie" and the "Nulli Secundus", The Car says: "A curiously similar fate seems to have befallen both the British and French military airships. A few days after making her successful trip to London the British airship was destroyed by a storm, prompt action in cutting the gas envelope open preventing the ship from being carried away. "The 'Patrie,' too, after her record run from Paris to Verdun, was also the victim of a storm, and in this case the wind was too violent and the accident too sudden to permit the envelope being deflated."

On November 29, at the invitation of Baron Henri Deutscb de la Meurthe, the Hon. C. S. Rolls and Mr. Frank H. Butler made a trip in the "Ville de Paris", the occasion being their hundredth ascent, around Sartrouville, Maisons Lafitte and Saint Germain. Automotor Journal says: "Mr. Rolls naturally judged his experience by comparison with ballooning, and was struck more particularly by the slight tremor in the framework, and by the curious sensation produced by rushing through the air, the surrounding atmosphere when in a balloon being always quite still, because the balloon travels with the wind and at the same speed. Mr. Rolls was also very much impressed by the complete control which M. Kapferer had over his vessel, and during the hour and a half during which they were in the air they made all sorts of evolutions, sometimes coming down quite close to the ground, and then immediately ascending several hundred feet into the air, by the mere inclination of the horizontal rudders, and without the use of ballast. Subsequently, the Hon. Mrs. Assheton Harbord and Lieut. Frank P. Lahm, who won the Gordon Bennett balloon race in 190G, also made a short trip."

As the new companion dirigibles to "La Patrie" will not be completed until February the French government has accepted the offer of M. Deutsch to send the "Ville de Paris" to Verdun, thus hastening the actual turning over of the latter ship to the government by M. Deutsch.

It is reported that the Reichstag is not as favorable as it was towards the Zeppelin system, the Parseval system claiming the greater number of supporters, and the Graf von Zeppelin went to Berlin to protect his interests.

The first German woman to obtain a pilot's license is Mme. Emmy la Quiante, the wife of 1st Lt. la Quiante of the Berliner V. f. L. She passed through all the trials with success in the presence of a member of the committee as examining pilot.

M. Pelterie, the inventor of the seven-cylinder R.E.P. motor recently illustrated in our columns, asks us to deny the statement that his machine is heavier than other aeroplane motors. As a matter of fact he states that the R.E.P., which is guaranteed to give 30 h.p. and actually gives 35 h.p., weighs 52 kilogs. complete, whereas a well-known 45 h.p. aeroplane motor weighs 73.5 kilogs. complete. m. Pelterie also affirms that his motor will not overheat, and has Leen run continuously on the bench for over an hour.—The Car.

At 35 h.p., the weight per h.p. is 3.2G lbs.

In the course of a lecture delivered by the German aeronaut, Captain Haertel, in Berlin on Tuesday, entitled "The Modern Airship." some new details concerning German aerial navigation were made known. The lecturer, who is in close touch with German military circles and exceedingly well informed, stated that despite rumors to the contrary, the German Government had decided to establish "airship harbors" at Strasburg and Stuttgart and that Count Zeppelin would proceed in bis latest airship from Lake Constance by way of those town to Berlin in the early part of next year. The-difficulties experienced in landing Count Zeppelin's huge structure of 420 feet in length have been obviated by a special system of buffers, placed beneath the cars.

The new German military airship in the course of construction is to be fitted with stronger propellers and will possess far greater speed. Interesting photographs, taken automatically at a height of S4.G24 feet, were shown during the lecture. This altitude-is the highest ever attained. The registering- apparatus attached to the kites revealed the fact that the temperature of the atmosphere increase after a height of 39,3i!0 feet has been reached.—Berliner Tageblatt.

Phil Hinton. the Virginia league catcher, who is in business for the winter at the Williams bowling alleys, says he and Mike Cassidy and a couple of other professional ball players who are spending the winter here, saw a great sight shortly after midnight last night, December 4. lt was a huge airship speeding in a southeasterly direction at a terrific rate of speed, which they variously estimated at from sixty to seventy miles an hour.

The men had left the bowling alley and were going to the old Allenhouse, when, at Ninth and Broad streets they heard the sound of a muffled explosion high in the air. Glancing up, they were startled to see a bright, white, incandescent glare, and noticed a cluster of ruby lights outlying the shape of a gigantic airship, of the cigar-shape build, which, in a couple of minutes, so rapidly was it going, vanished from sight to the southeastward.—Neivs Leader, W. Va.

Muskogee, Okla.. Dec. 19. (Special.) With lights shining on its sides, an airship which looked to be 100 feet long, passed over North Muskogee last night, according to residents in that section. It was going from east to west and remained in view for five minutes.—Ft. Worth Record.

Associated Press, Dec. 17. "Jamaica, L. I. was all worked up late last night by the appearance of a huge balloon over the town. It is said that the balloon carried a lighted lantern, suspended from a rope dangling twenty feet below the huge gas bag. This caused even more surprise than the appearance of the airship." Will someone please advise us the brand of dope used?

A new aeronautical journal has made its appearance in London under the direction of J. H. Ledeboer, B.A., and is published as a supplement to "Knowledge and Illustrated Scientific News." The supplement contains "The Practice of Aviation" by Charles and Gabriel Voisin; "Investigation of the Upper Air by means of Balloons and Kites," by W. Mariott, P.R. Met. Soc; "The Relation of Gliding to Mechanical Plight." by T. O'B. LL; Notes. The main portion of the magazine also contains a short paper on "Practical Aerodynamics and the Theory of Aeroplanes," by Major B. Baden Powell who is also the editor.

Commandant Le Clement de Saint Marco, a Belgian military engineer, has, it is reported, designed an airship which is shortly to be tried out. No details are available.

The English military authorities are preparing maps of the country indicating the "airship harbors," open places in woods, gravel pits and sheltered spots where an airship may quickly land in case of sudden storm while in the air.

Up to the present time hydrogen gas has been made on the ground or furnished by steel cylinders under a compression of 135 atmospheres or 2,025 pounds to the square inch. Six thousand cubic feet of gas including truck cylinders and apparatus weigh about 7,000 pounds.

A new gas producing compound is used known as Hydrolith (Calcium Hydride CaHa). One hundred pounds of this substance will produce 1,(100 cubic feet of hydrogen gas when brought in contact with water. This will greatly facilitate ballooning inasmuch as Hydrolith can be carried as part of the load as well as be transported on land as an inert substance, while the compressed gas in steel cylinders has been looked upon as a source of danger by the military authorities.—Cement and Eng. News.

"Balloons and the proper manner of treating them. News that an aeronaut has ridden on the top [?] of our old friend the 'Pommern' from Philadelphia to New York, should enthuse our own red sky-pilot. Max Fleischmann. This one extraordinary performance only proves more sharply how tremendously aeronautics are expanding. Instead of being the humble and somewhat fearful tender of a gas bag, subservient to its whims, the aeronaut is about to make it his servant and instrument. He will not be content to drift along inactive beneath its swelling ribs, but will seat himself on top. if he wills, or clamber and romp over its sides. He may dance hornpipes on it or stand on his head and disport in other acrobatic ways upon its soft and yielding surface. Pillowed on its spongy bosom, he may sleep beneath the stars or bask in the sun rays. When one gets thoroughly familiar with a balloon and has worn off the first awestruck impressions, he will not hesitate to take what liberties he pleases with it. Balloons are not sacred things that one may not use them for punching bags or whatever he wills. A thorough acquaintance with your balloon soon leads you to treat it with much less deference than a stranger or an amateur might. A balloon with which you are on thoroughly good terms ought to afford as much pleasure as a good-natured burro or a baby elephant."—Cincinnati Herald.

Looking toward the warfare of the future, German troops have been engaged in target practice, the marks being balloons. Two free balloons released at sea were fired on as they floated landward at Neufahrwasser. West Prussia. One of them was torn by three shrappel shells and came down. The other floated inland uninjured. A captive balloon, towed within range by a tug, was also brought down.

According to the San Antonio (Tex.) Express. "Mr. Ludlow declares that it is perfectly possible to take a number of dirigible airships and tow the ordinary spherical balloons, carrying tons of dynamite, over any desired point and there release these explosives by means of electric wires. 'Absolutely no defence is known to this mode of warfare except by a counter attack by other airships,' he says, and in future wars the •destructive forces may be up in the air, instead of on sea or land. Of what use then will be armies and navies?" This may be all right on the lecture platform in Squan-kum but it will only tend to bear Mr. Ludlow's stock which is now considerably below par.

La Ville de Paris is to make a number of experimental trips in the direction of Rouen, but La République will not be ready for service until May next. M. Lebaudy's Jaune was formerly stationed at Toul, but was later transferred to Chalais Meudon. Recently nothing has been heard of this airship, but now it is stated that it will be ready in a month's time, and after modifications will replace La Patrie at Verdun.

A balloon of the Niederrheinischer V. f. L. escaped in the same way as "Patrie" while being inflated for a race at Muehlberg on December 5.

Count de la Vaulx says he hopes within ten years to undertake to cross the Atlantic in three days in a balloon having a capacity of 6000 cubic feet of gas.—Press dispatch.

He would probably then sell it to the Aero Club of America. The French are a thrifty race.

A letter to the editor of the Scientific American has the following comment to make on the utility of aerial navigation:

"While there is a great deal that we do not know about flying machines, in contemplating the future there are at least two predictions that can be made with a high degree of certainty: first, a flying machine will never be able to carry a given weight of paying load a given distance as cheaply as it can be carried on wheels: second, the speed of a flying machine equipped with the same power will never be equal to that of a vehicle on wheels, either rolling over steel rails or a smooth hard road surface.

"The chief obstacle to high speed is the air resistance. By high speed we mean a velocity exceeding sixty miles an hour. This is true no matter whether it is a locomotive on steel rails or an automobile on the wave-swept course on the Florida beach. Since the weight of the flying machine must be supported by an aeroplane or other device, the area of frontage presented to the air must necessarily be much greater than lhat of a machine on wheels designed so as to offer the minimum air resistance.

"Again, the efficiency of an air propeller can never be made equal to that of the

driving wheels of a locomotive or an automobile; hence the speed of the flying machine will be less on account of the greater resistance and less effective driving power. I am aware that these latter conclusions may he criticised by designers of flying machines, but I would like to know what explanation can be given to show that they are not correct."

Aviator versus aeronaut. Aviators and aeronauts are naturally not in accord with each other and bets are the results of their divergent views. For instance, the most recent is between Mr. P. Y. Alexander and Griffith Brewer. Mr. Alexander claimed that a flying machine can be built for £200 and Mr. Brewer said he would give £500 for one. There is £500 wagered by Mr. Alexander that he will deliver to Mr. Brewer by November, 1908, a machine at a cost of £500.

The "White Book" which is being distributed in the Parliament at Berlin contains an explanation by the Government why it refuses to adhere to the interdiction made by the Conference at Hague in regard to launching projectiles from military balloons or airships. Germany, says this book, is entirely disposed to ratify without delay all the decisions of the Conference with the exception of the declaration relative to balloons. Tt is to be recalled that the French engineer Juillot has alieady explained that in war time a vote like this taken by the Conference at Hague would certainly not be observed by the belligerents.

POSTSCRIPT.

Farman Wins Prize.

January 13th. Cable dispatches state that Farman has this day won the $10,000 Deutsch-Archdeacou prize for Kilometre-circuit flight.

AERONAUTIC BOOKS FOR SALE.

This magazine will publish each month a list of such rare and contemporaneous books relating to aeronautics as it is able to secure. If you desire any of those listed, kindly send check with your order for the amount stated. Should the book ordered be sold previous to the receipt of your order, the money will be promptly returned.

Astra Castra: Experiments and Adventures in the Atmosphere (Hatton Turner).

Illustrated. Royal 4to, cloth, 1865. Extremely rare........................$15.00

History and Practice of Aeronautics (John Wise). Illustrated. Svo., cloth, Phila.,

1850. Very rare.......................................................... 15.00

Travels in The Air (James Glaisher). Illustrated. 8vo., cloth, London, 1871...... 10.00

Flying and No Failure, or Aerial Transit Accomplished More than a Century Ago.

(Rev. Ralph Morris). Very rare reprint on Private Press of London, 1751. . 3.00

My Airships (Santos Dumont). Illustrated. Crown Svo., cloth.................. 1.40

Travels in Space (Valentine and Tomlinson). Introduction by Sir Hiram Maxim.

Gl plates, Svo., cloth, London. 1902........................................ 2.00

Conquest of the Air (John Alexander). 12mo., cloth, London, 1902................ 2.00

The Dominion of the Air (J. M. Bacon). Story of aerial navigation. Illustrated.

Crown, Svo., cloth, London, n. d............................................ 2.50

Resistance of Air and the Question of Flying (Arnold Samuelson). Illustrated.

12mo., 42 pp., paper........................................................85

Flight Velocity (Arnold Samuelson). Illustrated. 45 pp., 12mo., paper.............85

Flying Machines, Past, Present and Future (A. W. Marshall and H. Greenly). Illustrated ..................................................................CO

Paradoxes of Nature and Science (W. Hampson). Illustrated. Two chapters on balloons as airships and bird flight. Svo., cloth, N. Y., 1907................... 1.50

Aerial Navigation (Van Salberda). Translated from the Dutch by Geo. E. Waring,

Jr. Illustrated............................................................60

By Land and Sky (J. M. Bacon). Illustrated. Svo., cloth, London, 1900.......... 2.50

A Balloon Ascension at Midnight (G. E. Hall). Illustrated in color. Limited edition published. Very rare. Svo., paper, San Francisco, 1902................ 2.50

Andree's Balloon Expedition (Lachambre—Machuron). Illustrated. 12mo., cloth,

New York, 1S9S........................................................... 1.00

Parakites (G. Woglom). Illustrated. Svo., cloth, New York, 1S96.................75

The Problem of Flight (Herbert Chatley, B. Sc.) A new textbook of aerial engineering both aerostation and aviation. Illustrated. 8vo., cloth, 1908............ 3.50

Pocket Book of Aeronautics (Maj. H. W. L. Moedebeck). A manual of aviation and

aerostation. Illustrated. Cloth, 496 pages, London, 1907.........3.25

Ballooning as a Sport (Maj. B. Baden Powell). Illustrated. London, 1907......... 1.10

Navigating the Air (Members Aero Club of America). Illustrated. Svo., cloth, New

York, 1907................................................................ 1.65

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THE AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERIAL NAVIGATION

HENRY FAR MAN The Winner of the deutsch-archdeacon $10,000 Prize

OL. 2.

FEBRUARY, 1908

THE INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS

108 west 49th street

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albert o. rftlj^vo^v

PERMANENT TECHNICAL STAFF

COMMISSION ON AEROSTATION lieut. col. georges espitallier

Vice-President of The Permanent International Commission of Aeronautics

georges besancon

Editor of L'Aerophile

maurice mallet

Ing.—Aeronaute

COMMISSION ON AVIATION victor tatin

Member Institute of France

captain ferber

Ex. Prof, of Military School of Fontainebleau

leon levavasseur

Inventor of Antoinette Motor

lucien chauviere

Ing.—Const. Aeroplanes, Hélicoptères

PILOTS OF AERO CLUB OF FRANCE

albert c. triaca ernest barbotte charles levee

AVIATOR leon delagrange

THE COURSE COVERS :

Construction of Free and Captive Aerostats ; Dirigibles ; Aeroplanes ; Hélicoptères ; Orthoptères ; Hydroplanes ; Light Motors ; Screw Propellers ; Practical Guide for Aeronaut and Aviator ; Aeronautic Instruments ; Sounding Balloons ; Kites ; etc.

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THE WARNER

AND ITS PRINCIPLE

At the time of writing the advertisement which appeared in this space last month it was the intention to write something for this month's issue on the Magnetic Principle, as used for the purpose of indicating speed in the Warner Auto-Meter.

But we find this to be unnecessary. In the meantime Mr. Charles B. Hayes, an expert delegated by The Automobile, a prominent motoring journal, has saved us the trouble.

Our only regret is that we have not sufficient space in which to give an actual reproduction of this article as it appeared.

After speaking at length on the subject of "centrifugal force," as used in certain speed indicators, Mr. Hayes goes on to say :

" All of the instruments mentioned are of the mechanical transmission types, and as such, afford great play for the ingenuity of the designer in making them simple or complicated ; but it is only by substituting such forces as magnetism and electricity for mechanical operation that the extreme of simplicity is realized. The WARNER AUTO-METER utilizes the magnetic principle, and the sectional view of its interior illustrates the method of its working. The actuating force consists of a magnet which is shown attached directly to the ball-bearing driving shaft where it enters the case. Supported in sapphire pivot bearings just above the magnet is a field ring, and attached to the latter is the dial which is of aluminum and annular in form. The field ring completes the magnetic circuit, and it will be apparent from this description that THERE IS NO MECHANICAL CONNECTION WHATEVER between the driving shaft and the indicating dial, NOR ANY DELICATE MOVING PARTS IN CONSTANT SERVICE. The principle of the instrument is that of the magnetic drag, the tendency of the magnet when revolving being to pull the dial around with it in the same direction as it is rotating.

This rotation of the dial is naturally proportionate to the speed of the magnet, but it is controlled by a hair-spring which tends to return it to zero at all times. The strength of the spring increases directly in proportion to the angle of displacement caused by the turning of the dial, thus making it possible to mark the latter with uniform spaces for the various speeds. As the field ring and the dial are combined and

the magnet acts -directly on the latter, THERE ARE BUT TWO PARTS TO THE INSTRUMENT, barring the case, so that THE GREAT SIMPLICITY OF THE MAGNETIC PRINCIPLE WILL BE EVIDENT."

We prefer to let Mr. Hayes' words speak for themselves. We have nothing to say.

Interior view Warner Aulo-Meter

C-Mafiwt G—Aluminum Dial

D—Field Rinff J—Sapphire Hole Jewel-

F-Speclal Steel Pivot K—Sapphire Cap Je»el

WARNER INSTRUMENT COMPANY, 114 WHEELER AVENUE, Belolt, Wisconsin.

aeronautics

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY

AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERONAUTICS CO.

Ernest LaRue Jones, Editor and Owner 142 West Sixty-Fifth Street, New York, U. S. A.

Copyrighted, 190S.

Vol. II February, 1908 No. 2

American Magazine of Aeronautics is issued promptly on the tenth of each month. It furnishes the latest and most authoritative information on all matters relating to Aeronautics. Contributions are solicited.

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ANNOUNCEMENT

Owing to the desirability for a short and distinctive name, in the future the American Magazine of Aeronautics will be known simply as "AERONAUTICS."

THE AVIATION PRIZE AGAIN.

Few. apparently, are public spirited enough to contribute towards a money prize to be offered to the first aviator who flies a certain moderate distance in the United States. The distance of a mile in a circle has been suggested and seems to be all right, for the present. There is some likelihood of this being accomplished within the year but we are not likely to have a machine to fly five or ten miles "right off the reel.'*" There is little encouragement now being oil'erod for experiments. No commercial value seems to be attached to a flying machine, its sphere being principally for scouting purposes during war or as a sportsman's enjoyment. With little opportunity for gain even if a machine that flies is built, inventors are not going to spend their own money and that of their friends unless they can see a chance of getting it back, at least.

If some one really interested in the sport would hang up a cash prize, inventors would have something in sight as a basis for investment, and on that basis they would be more likely to obtain funds than on the mere drawings with nothing to be gained in case the object is accomplished. From the considerable number of men

who are members of aero clubs, supposedly organized for the sole purpose of aiding in the progress of the art, it would seem that a prize could be secured. After appealing to about eight hundred aero club members a dozen were willing to contribute $25 each towards a $5,000 prize. I nasked, we have received from several non-members offers to share in the accumulation of such a prize but it has been impossible to raise the full amount. By keeping everlastingly at it we hope in time to complete the amount.

Such a prize would stimulate endeavors to build machines, and while few may be successful in flying, the experience gained will be of value and will eliminate to an extent the promulgation of so many foolish ideas.

Cannot some one be found to contribute the whole amount? There is not a single money prize for aviators in America—in comparison with the $10,000 offered in France by Henri Deutsch de la Meurthe and won by Farman.

AEROSTAT, AERONAT, AERONEF.

The Permanent Aeronautic Commission has adopted the following terms to be used in properly distinguishing between the various types of machines.

Akkonkk—Any machine which is without a gas vessel, divided into three classes as follows:

Helicopter—An aeronef which relies on one or more propellers for its suspension and progress through the air.

Aehopeane—An aeronef in which suspension in the air is more particularly assured by one or more planes.

Okthoi'Tkk—An aeronef which is sustained and propelled by beating wings.

The term aviator is to be employed as defining the operator of an aeronef; aeronaut as applied to the pilot of an aerostat or aeronat.

An aerostat is a balloon, free in the air.

An aeronat is a dirigible balloon.

AERO CLUB OF AMERICA.

There were 41 free balloon ascents made by members in America during 1907, in which 70 members participated, but only 23 different members made these 41. In 10 privately owned balloons 24 trips were made. 9 members own balloons of whom 5 are manufacturers and professionals. 8 members made ascents abroad. 56,000 cubic meters of gas were consumed in the 41 ascents, and a little over 4,600 miles traveled by balloons. One member made 16 flights, three made 9, two made 3, four 2, and thirteen one each. This is a gain of 11 over 1906.

PITTSFIELD AERO CLUB.

The club has leased the grounds known as "Aero Park," adjoining the gas works, and will shortly offer a handsome cup.

AERO CLUB OF FRANCE.

The Club is preparing an aeronautic map of France which will show the various lights, railroads, gas plants where coal gas may be obtained, electric wires, lighthouses, etc., a map which will be of considerable value to the balloonist, especially at night. The map will be published by the well-known French map publisher, Henry Barrere.

During the year 1907, 275,230 cubic meters of gas have been consumed in making 307 flights. S71 passengers have been carried, of whom 111 have been ladies.

AERONAUTIQUE CLUB DE FRANCE.

This organization organizes every year a number of ascensions which cost the members nothing and the ascensions are assigned to members in the order of the receipt of applications. During 1907 thirty of these free ascensions were made, at a cost of $1,800.

NEW AERO CLUBS.

A club has been formed at Lille, France, under the name "Nord-Aviation." A Dutch society for the promotion of aerial navigation has been started at The Hague.

Silesian society for aeronautics at Breslau.

NEW CLUB IN GERMANY.

A new aero club bas been formed under the patronage of the Crown Prince and named the "Deutscher Aero Club E. V." The president is Prince Ernst von SachsenAltenburg. Among the members of the Executive Committee are Major Gross, the commander of the aeronautic battalion, Major von Parseval, General Consul Schwabach. The membership is divided into honorary, life, regular, associate and lady.

GORDON BENNETT, 1908.

The race has been set for October IS at Tegel. near Berlin. This date falls on the last quarter of the moon. Unofficial reports state that America, Germany, France, Italy, Spain and England have entered three balloons each; Switzerland two and Sweden one, twenty-one in all. The contestants must be named not later than July 20. France is receiving applications to act as representatives up to the 30th of April. The Aero Club of America is inviting applicants who must each furnish a new balloon.

NEW AERO PRIZES.

*

The North Adams Herald has offered two cups of the value of $100 each: one to the aeronaut starting from North Adams and landing within five miles of Boston Common; one to the aeronaut who shall first make a flight of 100 miles in a straight line from North Adams, the prize to be retained by the first man to make that distance until someone else exceeds his mileage and the cup is to become the permanent property of the aeronaut making the longest continuous journey from North Adams during the calendar year 1908.

Anderson & Price, proprietors of the hotels Mount Washington and Mount Pleasant at Bretton Woods, N. H.. offer a cup of the value of $100 to the aeronaut starting 150 miles away who makes a landing within 1 mile of either of the two hotels.

M. Armengaud Jeune has offered a prize of $2,000 to the owner of the first aviator who shall remain in the air fifteen minutes.

The Aero Club of Belgium has decided to offer a prize of $100 to the Belgian schoolmaster who shall draw up the best popular textbook on aeronautics. The idea of the competition is to induce the young minds to take an interest in the problem of aerial navigation.

Dr. Ganz, president of the ballooning section of the Bavarian Automobile club, has offered a prize of $2,500 for an aeroplane race, distance not mentioned, to take place during the Munich exposition next summer. Dr. Ganz hopes thus to induce German inventors to turn their attention to the aeroplane.

Albert C. Triaca has offered a prize of $100 for the longest flight in 190S made by a member of the Aero Club of France or the Aero Club of America.

Three of the many prizes now offered have now been won. Santos Dumont won the Archdeacon Cup by a flight of 25 meters and Henry Farman won the Grand Prix dAviation (popularly known as the Deutsch-Archdeacon prize) of $10,000 and at the same time the Daily Mail prize of $500.

The cups now offered in this country are as follows: Lahm Cup, value $1,100, to the 'aeronaut beating Captain Chandler's—the present

holder—record .of 475 miles. Boston Herald Cup, $100 value, to the aeronaut starting 100 miles from Boston and

landing within 5 miles of Boston Common. Poland Spring Cup, $100 value, to the aeronaut starting 150 miles from Poland Spring

who lands his balloon within 2 miles of that place. North Adams Herald Cup. $100 value, to the aeronaut starting from North Adams and

landing within 5 miles of Boston Common. North Adams Herald Cup. value $100. to the aeronaut making a flight of 100 miles

starting from North Adams. Bretton Woods Cup. value $100, to the aeronaut landing within 1 mile of the hotels

Mt. Washington or Mt. Pleasant at Bretton Woods, start to be made 150 miles away. Scientific American Trophy, value $2,500, for dynamic flight of 1 kilometer.

BALLOON RACE AT VERONA.

Under the patronage of the municipality of Verona, M. Bellini-Carnesali, the mayor, has nominated a committee to arrange the event.

The committee has prepared a program for a distance race to be held March 19, the balloons to start from the center of the old amphitheater constructed by the Romans in the 16th century. The rules are similar to those for the Gordon Bennett, except that the limit of size is 1000 cubic meters. The entry fee is $20, with the gas free. The Aeronautic Cup of Verona is offered as the main prize. Four gold medals will be given to the four making the next longest distances, while a silver plaque is offered to the chauffeur of the automobile that shall arrive first at the landing of the winning balloon.

AERONAUTICS IN GREAT BRITAIN. (By Our London Correspondent.)

In this, the slack season of ballooning, little beyond the ordinary balloon ascents, which take place from London almost every day is to be recorded in the matter of aerostation. As far as can be foreseen at the present time, however, the forthcoming season promises to be a memorable one. Several balloon races have been organized for the summer; these will take place from the grounds of Hurlingham Club, where a complete system of gas-conduits is now being laid down. An international balloon race will start from there towards the end of May, on the occasion of the fourth meeting of the International Aeronautical Federation, which will be held in London.

The construction of the new military dirigible is progressing satisfactorily at Al-dershot. No precise details can, of course, be obtained; but it is understood that a new section is to be added to the gold-beater's skin envelope, which will be some 5 yards longer than the former one, and that far-reaching improvements are being made in the car, in the various steering devices, and in the apparatus for maintaining the airship's stability. The motive power will also be greatly increased—a new 100 h.p. Antoinette engine taking the place of the old one.

With regard to the experiments conducted by the military authorities in Scotland last summer, under the superintendence of Mr. Dunn, complete secrecy is maintained. However, this much can be said: although the machine was never actually tried in flight, satisfactory results were obtained. It is believed that the principle of the "rotary plane" (referred to by Professor Koppen in the article on parachutes in the "Pocket Book of Aeronautics") has formed the basis for some experiments.

At the moment of writing, no trials with man-carrying flying machines have been made in this country—at least in public. Two aeroplanes are, however, completed both of which will be tried during the next few weeks on the Brooklands Motor Racing-Track. The first, constructed by Mr. A. V. Roe, one of whose models gained the second prize in the competition last April, is already housed in its shed on the track. This aeroplane has two main super-posed planes, 36 ft. long by 5 ft. in depth; the upper one being situated 5 ft. above the lower. The forward steering plane is 28 ft. by 5 ft. The framework is constructed of bamboo and thin ash uprights, the covering being air-proof canvas. The steering is effected by twisting the planes by means of wires running over the central steering wheel. The motive power consists of a two-cylinder, 8 h.p., J. A. P. motor, actuating a 6 ft. 6-bladed propeller at an estimated speed of 1800 r.p.m. It is difficult to believe that this machine will ever rise from the ground with this inadequate power; little more than ordinary glides can be expected to result.

The second aeroplane, Avhich, as far as can be judged at present, offers far greater prospects of success, has been designed and constructed by Mr. J. T. C. Moore-Brabazon, a well-known member of the Aero Club. This aeroplane is also of the double-deck type. The frame of bamboo and ash, is covered with varnished balloon fabric up-and-down steering is effected by a front plane, horizontal steering by a special apparatus designed by the inventor. In addition a new device for maintaining equilibrium is expected to give good results. The aeroplane is mounted on long ski-like runners, which should to a great extent, preserve it from serious damage in landing.

The whole machine is mounted on a broad launching carriage, (running on four light wheels) from which it is released as soon as it has attained sufficient speed on the ground and the requisite upward lift. The absence of wheels on the actual aeroplane is a distinct advantage in point of weight and practicability, which should be obvious to any one who has closely followed the aeroplane experiments in France, where in the case of nearly every aeroplane, landings have almost invariably resulted in buckled wheels, which have necessitated repair and have thus interrupted experiments in a most vexatious manner.

The motive power consists of a 24 h.p. eight-cylinder Buchet motor, weighing 120 lbs., and driving a large four-bladed aluminum and steel propeller. The blades are spoon-shaped, not unlike those of Santos-Dumont's propeller. The machine will be tried by its inventor at Brooklands within the next month.

Another machine, details of which are not available, is being constructed here by Mr. Howard Wright to the designs of an Italian engineer, and will shortly be tried in this country. In conclusion it may be mentioned that Mr. Wright has just purchased two 5-cylinder Esnault-Pelterie motors.

In addition experiments are being conducted privately by several persons. In one case at least, there should be some prospect of a project materializing before the end of the year. Shortly after his return from America, Mr. Griffith Brewer, at one of the monthly Aero Club dinners, expressed his doubts as to the practicability of the flying machine in its present stage of development. The challenge was promptly taken up by Mr. Patrick Y. Alexander, who wagered £500 that within a year he would construct a machine which would fly a mile. The bet was as promptly accepted by Mr. Brewer; and there should be no doubt that an enthusiast of Mr. Alexander's wide reputation will not forfeit the stake without a serious attempt to accomplish the per-

formalice. Unkind rumor even whispers that since the bet became known Mr. Alexander has been inundated with applications from foreign firms of constructors to build him an efficient machine within the stated time.

PARIS LETTER.

The first of the year saw Farman, Delagrange, Pischoff and Santos Dumont all wait ing for a let-up in the wind and frosty weather to begin practice with their aeroplanes. The "Antoinette" aeroplane designed by Captain Ferber has been completed, and is being equipped with a 100-horsepower Antoinette engine. Santos Dumont has modified the "No. 19," and it now has two propellers driven by belts from a 2-cylinder horizontal engine of S horsepower. On December 31 Bleriot started practicing with his aeroplane, "Libellule," but the machine was not quite ready and the aviator had to content himself with runs on the ground and short distances at a slight height. The Republique, the new French military dirigible under construction at the shop of Lebaudy Brothers at Moisson, will probably be delivered the first part of May. Two others provided for in the 190S budget will also be put in the air later on under the direction of the engineer, Juilliot. It is reported that the plans-for the fourth dirigible have been approved by the Lebaudys. This one will be three times the capacity of those built to date. The bag will contain about 10.000 cubic metres and the motor will be 150-200 horsepower.

Referring to the Berliner Xeueste Xachriehten, the Imperial German Government •vill ask for a trial for the Zeppelin III before they turn over to the "Graf von Zeppelin the subsidy of 2,150,000 marks voted him in the Reichstag. The balloon will have to accomplish a distance of about 700 kilometres and remain in the air uninterruptedly for 24 hours.

On January 2, the generals- assembled at Berlin to pay their respects to the Emperor were given opportunity to make flights in the German military dirigible, at Tegel. With Prince Ruprecht of Bavaria in the car the first flight lasted 39 minutes, permitting the balloon to make several evolutions above the manoeuvring ground. In the second flight with three generals aboard the weight was too great and the balloon did not rise with sufficient speed and hit a wall. One of the generals got out and the ascension took place. A journal states that this ascent attempted in public "without having taken necessary precautions, shows that the German military corps were not used to manoeuvring their balloon."

Farman is taking a rest after his prize flight, but will soon start work on a new aeroplane, "No. 2," of the Langley type.

Dec. 24—The Ville de Paris started for Verdun to take the place of the lost La Patrie. A strong wind was encountered, against which the ship was able to make 17 kilometres an hour. However, finding that it would be impossible to make Verdun that day, the pilot. Kapferer, turned back home. The trip made was of about 130 kilometres.

Dec. 30—Farman flew a kilometre in a circle, but the flight was not perfect enough to win the Deutsch prize.

Jan. 4—Twice in succession at the lssy-les-Moulineaux parade ground Farman succeeded in flying a circular kilometre with his aeroplane, and besides proving his ability to win with comparative ease the coveted Deutsch-Archdeacon prize, he also established a record for the longest flight yet made in Europe, with an apparatus of the gasless type. Had the celebrated aviator convoked the Aero Club officials the $10.000 prize would now be his property, but until a few minutes beforehand Farman had no intention of making a lengthy flight. There had been a treacherous wind blowing all the morning, and it was not until somewhat late in the afternoon that the machine was brought out of its shed and put through several short flights. In spite of the bad surface of the ground, making starting difficult, the motor seemed to be working so well that he decided to make a longer flight, and rising gracefully into the air from one corner of the field a vast curve was described, which terminated within three or four feet of the starting point. A second attempt was made, and practically the same ground was covered with an ease which astonished the none too numerous spectators. The machine answered its helm perfectly, and covered the distance, estimated as one mile, in 1% minutes, taking the curve just as if it were an automobile.

Jan. G—Farman and Pischoff practiced, and Farman made two short flights in the heavy wind. The wind struck the machine and forced it to the ground heavily, but did no damage.

Jan. 12—Farman made two very successful flights at Issy. and convoked the Aviation Committee of the Aero Club de France for the following morning in order to officially compete for the Deutsch-Archdeacon prize.

Jan. 13—Farman flew around the kilometre course and won the Grand Prix de l'Aviation, $10,000, together with the Daily Mail prize of $500 for a circular flight of half a mile, and a gold medal from the Aero Club of France. The Antoinette motor won the

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IO

AERONAUTICS

gold medal offered by Albert C. Triaca of the Aero Club of America to the manufacturer of the motor carried in the machine winning the Grand Prix, and Voisin Brothers, the makers of the machine, received a silver medal from the Aero Club de France.

Jan. 15—The Ville de Paris traveled from Paris to Verdun, the place from which La Patrie blew away, 155.34 miles in S hours IS minutes. Average speed per hour, 18.71 miles. A short stop was made at Valmy to make a few adjustments, the time being deducted in the above figure. The total duration was 91-. hours.

Farm an covered more than two kilometres in a three-minute flight.

In the first trial an endeavor was made to rise in the air with a load of thirty kilos. It was found that the charge was too great. Only a very slight lifting movement could be obtained. With twenty kilos weight the machine rose for the length of a few hundred metres, but it possessed no "life."

With fifteen kilos a very successful flight was made from the shed to the fortifications, where by reason of a sudden, strong gust of wind M. Farm an was obliged to turn almost at right angles. The machine responded wonderfully, though it took an inclination which for a moment was distinctly dangerous. A few seconds later a curve had been accomplished, and then the apparatus, on an even keel, sped to the far corner of the field, never more than a metre or a metre and a half from the ground.

For the final test it was decided to remove-all the added weight and make a long run with the apparatus, just as it was when the Grand Prix was won, three days before. Starting close to'the shooting range, the machine shot into the air fifty yards further along. Passing by the Porte de Sevres, M. Farman skirted the fortifications in a vast circular movement, covering more than two kilometres and remaining in the air nearly three minutes. He descended just before the door of the shed.

M. Farman was almost as much pleased with this flight as with that of Monday. He had stopped longer in the air than in any previous flight, and had covered a longer distance.

Speaking with a Herald correspondent, M. Farman said he was much pleased with the trials, because he has now firmly satisfied himself that he has been running all the time just on the power limit, and that he has nothing to spare. The work of dismantling the apparatus for a thorough overhauling will be commenced at once.

Jan. 17—Delagrange made first trial of his "No. 2."

Jan. IS—Ville de Paris made a sortie lasting an hour with four people aboard, at Verdun.

Jan. 20—Delagrange made over 100 metres at an altitude of 3 meters. Gastambide and Mengin made 10 runs along the field at Bagatelle at the rate of 40 km. an hour. It is estimated a speed of 55 km. is necessary to get the machine in the air.

AERONAUTIC CALENDAR.

February 16-23. Distance and landing races of Aero Club Sud-Ouest, Bordeaux. March. Balloon race organized by the Aero Club of Nice. Distance race at Verona, Italy, on the 19th.

April 15. Balloon race at Paris organized by the Aero Club of France. May. International balloon race in England organized by the Aero Club of the United Kingdom. International Aeronautic Congress at London. Balloon race of the Aero Club of France.

July. Balloon race organized by the Aero Clubs de Brussels, Bordeaux and Tourcoing. Dirigible contests at Bretton AVoods, N. H.

September. Grand Prix of the Aero Club of France at the Tuileries. October IS. Gordon Bennett International Race, Berlin.

1908. Aeroplane contests with and without motor, at Munich Exposition. No date settled.

1911. International assembly of dirigibles in Italy, under the auspices of the Societa Aeronautica Italiana.

Tojiiiv.—"I say, pa, what -"

Fatiikr.—"Ask your mother."

Tommy.—Well, it isn't a silly question 1 want to ask you." Fatiikr (wearily.)—"All right, what is it?"

Tommy.—"Well, if the end of the world was to come, and the earth was destroyed while a man was up in an air ship, where would he land when he came down."

FARMAN WINS THE GRAND PRIX.

On January 13th—note the clay—the third man in the history of the world was able to fly in a dynamic flying machine a distance of over 1 kilometre, Orville and Wilbur Wright being the other two. America is a little over four years ahead of the rest of the world, for the brothers Wright made their first flight for a distance of S52 ft. in a motor machine on December 17, 1903. In 1904 they increased the flights to a mile and more, and on October 5, 1905, made the record flight of over 24 miles in 38 minutes with their second motor aeroplane. Of course, many changes had been made during the two intervening years. The foreign journals state that the flight of Henry Farman was the longest ever made in a gasless machine. We Americans do not want to forget that we are entitled to some credit in the matter, even though we have done little to aid progress in the art here, and the results accomplished have been rather in spite of aero clubs than with their support.

All credit and honor, too, to Henry Farman, who perhaps has done more, through publicity, to brush away the cobwebs of doubt and ridicule than have the Wrights. Surprising it is, but a fact, that even here we doubt that the Wrights ever flew, while we read of the flights of Farman with less astonishment than at the cultivation of a seedless apple or the invention of a headacheless booze.

After a couple of test flights on Sunday, January 12th, Farman felt confident in asking for the committee of the Aero Club of France to attend the following morning; the fifth official contest for the Grand Prix.

There was scarcely any wind, and the sun shone, brightening up the surroundings in honor of the event. At 10 o'clock the flags marking the course were placed in position, and at 10:12 the great machine started for the flag. After a preliminary run of a hundred yards the machine rose gracefully into the air and sailed like an enormous bird down the course. Half way to the 500-metre post the machine was tilted up a little to a height of about 8 metres. The turn was safely made, and after a wide curve the home stretch was negotiated.

Sweeping past the finish line at 4 metres from the ground the prize was won. Europe had seen at least that what the Wrights had claimed to have done might easily be possible, if not probable in their minds.

The time was 1 minute 28 seconds for the round trip. Considerably more than a kilometre was covered, as will be seen from the diagram.

The machine landed easily almost at the feet of the committee. M. Deutsch de la Meurthe, 'with M. Archdeacon, the donors of the prize, stepped forward and embraced the winner. "I congratulate you, my dear friend, on the great success which has crowned your perseverance and your energy. I am happy that with my own eyes I have seen solved the two problems which were closest to my heart: man guiding himself through space by machines both heavier and lighter than air. What will follow is now only a question of development until aerial navigation shall be within the reach of all. From to-day I shall hold you in grateful memory for having secured to me the profound joy of realizing my most cherished dream," were the words addressed by M. Deutsch to Farman. Other men paid their tribute to the man who, by his dauntless energy, carried the aeroplane from being held a myth to a practical means of locomotion.

After the flight Farman stated: "Of course, I am very satisfied with to-day's achievement, but I think it is only the beginning. I am full of confidence in the future. The aeroplane has come to stay. In a few years it will be a practical, reliable means of transportation. For the moment I am going to rest a little. Then, if I find that the conditions controlling the prizes in England and elsewhere are reasonable, I shall probably go and try for them. In any case. I shall have my new machine in a month's time—a lighter, faster and, I hope, more reliable apparatus than this one. Whether new prizes are offered or not, I shall go on with the sport, because I have now got thoroughly inter-

ested in it. With ray new machine, or with others yet to be built, 1 think long trips will be possible. There is only one thing at present which worries me, and that is the insecurity arising from the propeller. It might happen that a propeller broke when the machine was at a great height from the ground. That would, perhaps, mean a serious fall. But we shall get over that difficulty. The new propellers in view are stronger than any we have yet tried. We shall learn more how to control them. When we have

Scientific American Photo

Farman in full flight about to cross the finish line in the Deutsch-Archdeacon-kilometre-circle competition, thus winning the Grand Prix d'Aviation, 510,000. Reading from left to right: Rene Demanest, Andre Founder, t,ouis Bleriot and Charles Voisin, one of the two Voisin brothers who built the machine. In (he automobile is M. Archdeacon, one of the two donors of the prize and Mine Archdeacon.

done this there is no reason why, in reasonable weather, lengthy trips should not be accomplished with ease." "Flying is like walking," Farman explains. "I dash up diagonally into the air with all my present motor force; but at the slightest slowing of the motor, or at an untoward shifting of my body, the down dip begins and I go tobogganing down upon the air. Before 1 get too low I must put my advance spur 011 the motor, raise the lifting rudder and turn the down clip into an upcurving dash."

the farman aeroplane before the alterations.

The machine in its original state had a surface of 559 square feet. The two front planes measured 6.56 feet from front to rear and 39.36 feet from tip to tip, placed 6.56 feet apart vertically.* During December the size of the tail was considerably reduced. The weight of the former was 1,100 pounds, but the new weight is not known. A 50-horsepower Antoinette motor weighing 1 kilo 900 grammes to the horsepower drives the 6.89-foot propeller. Again America must claim credit, for the type of the machine is the

* These figures do not include the tail surface which probably has no lifting effect.

one first designed by Messrs. Herring and Chanute, used by the Wright Brothers, and copied in the Parman, Pischoff, Archdeacon, Ferber, and other machines.

Henry Parman, an Englishman by descent, was born in Paris in 1873, and has lived the greater part of his life in France. He is one of three sons of T. Farman, a newspaper correspondent of some note.

Previous Records.

On October 22 last Farman made a flight of considerably more than 100 meters (about 110 yards). The machine rose from the ground almost instantly, and the propeller was set in motion, although there was no wind.

The way the aeroplane left the ground in this test proved to the aeronaut's satisfaction the correctness of his theory that a great improvement in the effective force of the propellers could be obtained by increasing the diameter and reducing the pitch.

Again, the following day the aeronaut made half a dozen successful flights, further demonstrating that the propeller of enlarged diameter had given the heavier-than-air machine additional lifting power. The great steadiness of Farman's aeroplane was a feature of the demonstration.

All records .for heavier-than-air machine flights were finally broken by the aeronaut on October 2G, when Farman drove his aeroplane 771 meters (about 800 yards) in fifty-three seconds, at the height of about three meters. Earlier in the same day he had covered 303 meters in thirty seconds, breaking the record of 220 meters held by Santos-Dumont.

Continuing to make almost daily trials, Mr. Farman, on November 7, twice beat his own record of 771 meters, made the previous month. His longest measured flight was 800 meters, but his second flight, which was not measured, was 100 meters longer. He remained in the air one minute and ten seconds. He also scored a further advance with his machine by performing on his third trial a huge "S" in the air with perfect stability.

UNDER FIRE IN A WAR BALLOON AT SANTIAGO.

By Ivy Baldwin.

[The captive balloon used in the battle of Santiago was constructed and operated by ivy Baldwin and his experience is related here for the first time.—Ed.]

Embarking at Port Tampa, Florida, on the 14th of June, 1898, with the first expedition of invasion to Cuba 'under command of Major General Shatter, we landed at Baiquiri on June 22nd and went immediately to the front in small detachments, handling all cable and telegraph lines on which was transmitted all information from the seat of campaign.

The troop (Company "B," Signal and Balloon Sections) constructed a field telegraph line to the front and connected the American trenches in front of Santiago through the cable with the United States.

Three ascents with the balloon at a safe distance on June 30th, were made adding to a knowledge of streams, trails and roads in front of our army, and disclosing clearly the mooted presence of Cervera's squadron in Santiago Harbor. On the flattering report and the recommendation of his chief engineer, General Shaffer decided to use the balloon in battle next day, and ordered it to be brought to El Poso.

At daybreak on July 1, Major Maxfield rode in advance to El Poso Hill, the position designated by orders, only to find it vacant and covered by a sharp shrapnel fire, and to have his horse shot from under him. The balloon was then put up about a quarter of a mile in rear of the base of the hill, with Major Maxfield, Colonel Derby and Sergeant Ivy Baldwin in the basket, being within easy artillery range of the enemy. From this point the movements of the troops at El Caney and on the road in front towards San Juan Hill were clearly visible, and were made known at once to General Shatter's chief of the staff. Colonel Derby then ordered the balloon forward to the advance line, although Major Maxfield stated that artillery experiments abroad clearly demonstrated that a balloon could not live in such position. The orders were immediately obeyed, and the balloon was put promptly in the air in front of the troops deploying for the assault on San Juan Hill." Observations thus made were of great value. The commanding general was immediately informed that the intrench-ments on San Juan Hill were strongly held, and the suggestion that Grimes' artillery on El Poso immediately open fire was followed. There was also discovered a trail, hitherto unknown, leading to the left to a ford on the Aguadores. The discovery of this way was communicated to General Kent, who promptly availed himself of the information to relieve the congested condition of the main road by diverting therein part of General Hawkins' command. This action enabled the deployment of our troops over two roads, and by doubling the force may possibly have been the determining factor in the gallant capture of San Juan Hill.

The balloon was directly in front of General Kent's division, and its appearance in the air was the signal for a very heavy and accurate fire of musketry and shrapnel, resulting in such numerous casualties that the men gave the place the name of "Hell's 'Corner'' and "Bloody Ford." The balloon was punctured in thirteen places by shrapnels.

MEMORANDUM ON THE SANTIAGO CAPTIVE BALLOON. By Lieut. Col. Wm. A. Glassford.

Ivy Baldwin, aeronaut, holds about the same place in the Spanish' War that Lowe and La Montain as aeronauts do to the Civil War. Baldwin was, however, a part of the army; Lowe and La Montain were civilians.

The army balloon park established at Fort Logan, Colorado, a short time before the Spanish War, needed just such a practical and resourceful aeronaut as Baldwin to help in the improvisations made necessary, and to give confidence to the men being instructed there. He was invaluable in teaching the details of manipulation, also construction of balloons and their accessories.

The gold-heaters' skin balloon "General Myer" manufactured in Paris at the Lachambre factory in 1892 for exhibition at the Columbian Exposition in Chicago, was later transferred to Fort Logan, Colorado, near Denver, because the atmospheric conditions upon the foothills of the Rocky Mountains were so highly favorable.

An apparatus for generating hydrogen was here constructed, and a compressor for impounding hydrogen gas installed. These were assembled about the Fort Logan pumping station so as to obtain water for decomposition into gas, and power from the pumping engine to force the gas through the compressor into the storage tubes.

There was no house in which to place the balloon when inflated, and so a shelter was improvised out of bales of hay or straw arranged as a wall on three sides of a square, and high enough to protect the inflated balloon from ordinary wind. However, such protection was not always sufficient, and the General Myer while full of gas was ruptured in a wind storm and became a total loss. Under such difficult circumstances and inadequate provisions was the first aeronautical work in the army commenced. An incidental visit of the Secretary of War, accompanied by his secretary (now Major General Davis) who saw these improvisations, was responsible for the erection of a good balloon house, and allowances of the means to go forward with the development of the plant.

In all these difficulties the aid of the Army was ever to be depended upon. General McCook, the department commander, provided a detail of enlisted men selected from various army posts under him, also the widest, of space for balloon maneuvres upon the reservation at Fort Logan. Colonel Merriam, its commander, aided in every possible detail, while the officers and men always evinced an interest and were on the alert to help in any way they could.

With space for work a balloon house, balloons, generator, compressor and accessories', also aid from the authorities, considerable of an aeronautical park was assembled at Fort Logan. The formation of a balloon train was accomplished, using the ordinary army wagons, except the captive balloon wagon which was a specially constructed vehicle.

Several balloons were made; exercises with them held by cable as captives carried on. In all this work Baldwin was invaluable for he knew the practical details of every part of the work from cutting the gores of a balloon envelope, making the netting, inflation, and in all ascensions he was in the basket. His presence gave confidence to the men for they felt assured if any thing should happen to free the balloon they would be safe with so experienced and practical an aeronaut to pilot the balloon in its flight and landing. Baldwin was free from that disposition to keep to himself the knowledge that he had derived from a long experience as an aeronaut. He never failed to answer any question asked him. He deserves much credit, for it is certain that what was accomplished with the balloon at the siege of Santiago de Cuba had its genesis with Ivy Baldwin.

The names of the men in Baldwin's Company are most of them familiar as those of the detail at Fort Logan. The training they secured there prepared them for handling the balloon in battle under the trying circumstances which are apparent when the envelope was punctured in so many places.

THE MILITARY VALUE OF BALLOONS.

By 1st Lieut. George A. Wieczorek, Signal Corps, U. S. A.; Instructor, Army Signal School.

Many conservative military men look upon the balloon as somewhat of an encumbrance to an army in the field. They always think of it as a big ungainly instrument, difficult to manage and therefore requiring a large personnel and many wagons to haul the apparatus that goes with it. Its appearance when ready for ascension would indicate this, but on closer acquaintance it is sure to be found a most valuable-adjunct.

At present, I believe, the balloon is most valuable to us in reconnaissance. As an instrument of offence or defence it is a doubtful factor. We can see, however, that

there is some hope for the evolution of an offensive factor, provided that in its present state it comes into more general military use. Modern firearms were developed to their present high state of perfection by constant military use and frequent improvement. Balloons will undergo a corresponding development.

Briefly, the military uses for the different classes of balloons are:

(a) Captive balloons; reconnaissance of a limited front as the front of a division or army corps previous to an attack on an enemy's position or when it is occupying a defensive position awaiting attack.

(b) Free balloons; entering or leaving besieged places under favorable conditions. The recent contests in this country have shown us that we can depend on free balloons to make flights of from 700 to 800 miles under favorable conditions. If we wished to enter or leave a besieged place with important messages, favorable conditions for bal-

tr. S. INFANTRY AM) C'AYALKY SCHOOL. U. S. SIGNAL SCHOOL AND STAFF COLLEGE.

looning would be of no value to us without a balloon, but at that moment, if we had the balloon, it would be worth many times its weight in gold.

(c) Dirigible balloons; reconnaissance of an extended front like that of an army in position before a battle.

The adoption of high power firearms which kill at extreme ranges has led armies to adopt formations which cause their troops to be extended along fronts sometimes fifty miles long. It is apparent even to a non-military observer that a reconnaissance of such a large piece of territory would consume much time. As this factor enters so vitally into all military calculations, the value of a dirigible balloon for this important work can not be measured in dollars and cents.

Our army has been anxious for some time to take up the subject of military aeronautics and we have now made a very favorable start. The recent international contests in St. Louis have given the science of aeronautics and aerostatics an impetus that is bound to be evident in a short while. Inventors all over the country are putting forth their best efforts and I hope that our government will be able to give some of them the aid that their efforts deserve, in the near future.

In the army we have already established the Army Signal School at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, where officers of the Signal Corps as well as line officers, receive instruc-

tion in all branches of science that pertain to the transmission of information to every part of an army in the field. Militia officers of State Signal Corps organizations are also permitted to attend this school by making application to the Adjutant General of the Army.

A course of theoretical instruction in balloons and air machines forms part of the work in the Department of Signal Engineering at the school. At present the course is necessarily confined to a series of lectures and conferences at which the possibilities of the use of different classes of balloons are discussed.

At Fort Omaha, Nebraska, the army is building a large balloon shed and a hydrogen generating plant. It is hoped that by next spring it will be possible to supplement the present course in aeronautics at the Signal School with ascensions of both free and dirigible balloons. The country in the neighborhood is admirably adapted to making short ascensions as there are few trcrs and many railroads. Among the other subjects taught at the Army Signal School, are the following:

A C'OK.VER IX THE LA150KAT0KY OF THE AHAIY SKiXAl, SCHOOL.

1. Department of Field Signaling ; Use of optical, acoustical and electrical signaling apparatus, buzzer, field wireless telegraph and field telephone.

2. Department of Signal Engineering ; Electricity (practical and theoretical), telephony, operation and installation of steam, gas and oil engines, construction and operation of permanent wireless stations, installation and repair of submarine cables and logistics of Signal Corps troops.

3. Department of Topography ; Rapid sketching, compilation and combination of maps and sketches.

4. Department of Languages ; French, German and Spanish.

THE BETTING RING.

$2,500 by Alan R. Hawley that no aeronaut in America can beat the record made by J. C. McCoy in the Gordon Bennett. Mr. Hawley considers Mr. McCoy the best pilot in this country and will allow six trials to be made to win this bet, all six attempts, however, to be made within six days and Mr. Hawley to be duly notified. Any takers?

Chevalier Florio and M. Alfred Vonwiller have bet 100,000 francs even to fly in an aeroplane around the track at the hippodrome at Palermo before December 31, 1908. The length of the track is 1500 meters. If both competitors make the distance the money will go to the one making the fastest time.

M. Archdeacon suggests that the loser devote the sum to the cause of aviation, to be awarded to the aviator who accomplishes a flight of 25 kilometers in a circular course around stakes 1 kilometer apart. However, this plan did not meet with the approval of Chevalier Florio. He thinks that the money is at Hie disposal of the winner, to do with as he chooses, but states that when there is a reasonable prospect of seeing ten or a dozen aeroplanes likely to accomplish such a flight there will be a prize at hand.

A NEW TOY FOR MEN.

By William Bevier Ashley

Xo wind that da}', nor the next one nor the next. Then iee-boat-race-day came and went without budsinjj the club chimney's column of smoke, so Conill °ot mad clear through and went out after breakfast and built a motor ice-boat, and of all the sports to come 1 predict some of the finest with this new toy.

OF ALL TTIE SPORTS TO COMB. I PREDICT SOME OF THE FINEST WTTII TUTS NEW TOY. Photos by C. D. Moses & Co., Lake Placid, N. Y.

Conill began with the body, building it like the old-fashioned ice-boats that were in use up to the date of the Calm. Only, he tucked her shoes more modestly together. The beam measurement is about three and a half feet, length, fore ami aft, seven feet. He bad to refit her with runners several times before discovering the wide ones that keep her from playing she is an ice-cutting machine. The works were a foregone conclusion; thev would have to consist of a sparker, carburetter, transformer, gasoline tank and so on. Xo one knows where he dug the pails from, but with delightful tact he selected different brands so as t<^ give no manufacturer heartburn. The motor assembled, he next tackled the support for the blades which were to grip the immovable air and rip the boat along. Being three weeks from Xew York by freight, and befriended only by a sparsely ecpiipped general blacksmith shop, Conill dove into his head for ideas. He came out with several pieces of scantling, which he sawed into two uprights and a crossbeam. The shaft to carry the blades ran through the top ends of the uprights and were decorated at one end with a wide sprocket wheel discarded by some bicycle, dangling a chain under the chin of the power shaft below. The wooden blades, about four feet long with a ten-foot swing, were gotten into the right shape and angle after only six rejections. Thus, about nine weeks after breakfast. Conill had spent his rage; and. spring being due. a tearing warm wind came over the hills for four days and left the ice like a

comb and brush. Then on that ridgy and mushy surface, Conill made ten miles an hour, that is to say. he demonstrated that a motor ice-boat is practicable for sport.

Con ill's lumber pile weighs three hundred and fifty pounds, or about one hundred more than it needs to. It is absolutely crude. Think of that gallows to hang the blades on ! Conill himself weighs one hundred and sixty pounds. His motor is 4 H. P. at the start-off, but loses one equine at least playing with the chain. Yet this home-made slap at the weather punched into it at the rate of a mile in six minutes.

Conill is entitled to an introduction to Aeronautic'? readers. Allow me: Senor Pern an 0. Conill from Havana. Mr. Conill had lived twenty-one years, some of them in Europe; but this was his first one in the United States. He was preparing for Harvard under a private tutor. Mr. T. M. Simpson, on the shores of Mirror

OX THAT RIDGY AND MUSHY SURFACE COXll.L MADE TEX MILES AX HOUR. Photos by C. D. Moses & Co., Lake Placid, N. V.

Lake in the Adirondack;. Conill is well-born, well-built, and genial. The exploit of the motor ice-boat sufficiently attests his sporting qualities, if not.—he has tackled that impossibility now rivalling perpetual motion and patented an emergency brake for automobiles that will operate of itself, nearly. If this Cuban friend of the race gives the world a sure-thing emergencv brake, it wili be a benefit second only to this new element in sport.

The regulation ice-boat requires wind and room, not indigenous to every lake and stream. Even the necessary good surface is a whim of the weather.

Given all the conditions, nothing but racing astride lightning can equal ice-yachting; minus any of them, and nothing can equal it.

On the average tributary, stream and lake, an ice-boat gives the same sport as a cat boat on a pond.

But*the possibilities for sport are unlimited with a sixty-mile-an-honr motor ice-boat, or even a forty-miler. Perfected, the boat might carry auxiliary sails; be provided with wheels for transporting it under its own power; fitted to carry a crew of one to six;—what can't be gotten out of it? And. of course, the motor-driven

CON1LL AND HIS LVM1IEK PILK WEIOII OVER 500 POUNDS. Photos by C. D. Moses & Co., I„ake Placid, N. Y.

ice-boat can be worked against the wind or on snow. 1'rovide it with bunker springs, a flexible deck, a cabin and an oil stove, and nothing will be left in Arctic exploration but the fun of it. Seriously. Fernan 0. (Amill has made a great contribution to sport in the United States.

POSTSCRIPT.

Washington, D. C, February 8.—The Secretary of War has approved the recommendation of the Board of Ordnance and Fortification that bids for furnishing heavier-than-air flying-machines to the Fnited States (iovernment be accepted as follows:

Price Time of delivery

-T. F. Scott, Chieago. Illinois...............$ 1.000 ISO days

A. M. Herring, Xew York................ ¿0,000 ISn "'

Wright Brothers. Dayton. Ohio............ ¿0.000 ¿00 -

In all forty-one bids were received. These three were the only ones that complied with the requirements of the specification. It was part of the agreement in issuing the call for bids that none of the particulars of the bids »vere to be given out but retained as confidential.

INTERNATIONAL AERONAUTICAL CONGRESS.

President: Professor Willis L. Moore. Secretary: Dr. Albert Francis Zahm. Chairman Gen'l Committee: Wm. J. Hammer. Chairman Executive Com.: Augustus Post. Sec'y Committees: Ernest La Rue Jones.

Publication Notice.

The addresses, papers and discussions presented to the Congress will be published serially in this magazine and at the earliest date possible bound volumes will be distributed without charge to those holding membership .cards in the Congress. Others may purchase the volume at a consistent price when ready or may take advantage of immediate publication by subscribing to this magazine at the regular rate.

In accordance with the program as published in the November number, the informal addresses of the Gordon Bennett contestants and others were concluded before entering upon the printing of the formal papers and discussions.

The fifth paper is presented in this issue: ''Experiments with Model Flying Machine," by Edward \\r. Smith.

Experiments with Model Flying Machine, Being a Resume of a Thesis Submitted in 1901 to the University of Penna., by

Edw. W. Smith.

The machine, of the aeroplane type, was designed on the same lines as four preceding ones, use being made of the data obtained by Langley with his whirling arm to calculate the probable power, speed, etc., required to support it.

The primary object was to ascertain whether the general form which had proved successful in the smaller machines would also prove stable and otherwise-satisfactory in a machine of size and weight sufficient to deduce the probable performance of a full size man carrying apparatus.

As the. work proceeded, a system of measurements, begun for the purpose of ascertaining the cause of failure of the last previous model, was extended until it became possible to measure with considerable accuracv the speed, efficiency of propellers, and power expended during actual flight; these measurements thus becoming a second objective.

The general design of the machine embodied a system of narrow superposed planes AA curved upward toward the ends, and approximately flat in the narrow or fore and aft direction. 1 nese planes or wings inclined slightly upward are made-to carry virtually all the weight of the machine, while a directing plane B, behind them, and normally about level, serves to maintain the wings at the desired angle with the horizontal. Two propellers CC driven directly by a large bundle or "sennit'' of elastic rubber threads serve to give the necessary thrust forward. The center of gravity of the whole is adjusted to lie a little forward of the middle of the wing, and about midway in a vertical direction. Any change in the inclination of the wings is effected by changing the angle between tail and wings.

The machine is given initial velocity by a launching track, operated by a stretched rubber sennit, and the length of flight is limited by the energy stored in the rubbers to about 120 feet.

The primary object of the test of this machine, the question of stability, is certainly one of the most important in connection with aeroplanes, so few words may be in place as to the theory upon which the machine was built.

The curved wings, with the center of gravity about central with the supporting surface, that is a little higher than half way between the two wings, gives good sideways stability; any puff of wind from either side being met by a rise of the-

wing at that side. As to the fore and aft question, three main conditions were observed. First, the main supporting surfaces should be very narrow, so that any shifting of the center of support ahead of or behind the center of gravity must be slight; any requisite number of superposed wings being employed to give the necessary area. In the case of a lew very wide wings, as frequently employed, a slight percentage displacement of the center of support ahead or behind tlie center

RESTINO OX TlìACK KKADY TO STA l!T.

of gravity causes a considerable moment tending to make the machine dip or rear. Second, the directing plane or tail must be sufficiently behind the wings and sufficiently large to easily take care of any moment which may come from a displacement of the center of support: in the model the tail is behind the wings rather more than one-half their breadth, and is about one-third their surface. Third, the tail must normally lie very nearly horizontal, that is. must make an angle (measured

r

RKNT1NO ON I,ECS UPON A TAIJLE.

above) of less than 180 degrees with the wings, as sbown in the diagram. For. suppose that owing to a falling oil of speed or other cause the upward pressure on the wings decreases. At once the wings drop, and the machine begins to fake a plunge downward: the resistance now decreases or the machine perhaps begins even to coast, and gains in speed, when the downward slip of the wings decreases and gradually the normal position is restored. If. on the other hand, the upward

pressure becomes too great, the wings rise and assume a greater angle with the horizontal, resistance increases and speed is cut down, slip increases and the wings fall till equilibrium is again reached.

Were the tail, on the other hand, inclined more than 180 degrees (measured above) to the wings so soon as the machine started downward, the tail would tend to increase the effect and the machine must end by making a somersault.

Regarding the correctness of these principles, it was found that the model would fly with great regularity until the power gave out, the height of the flight being varied at will by changing the angle of the tail.

Gusts of wind were more than once encountered, but were always met easily by the machine with an inclination one way or the other, an upset or a sudden dive having never occurred. The four long downwardly projecting springs of wood, easiest described as legs, for the purpose of breaking the fall, generally served their

^3

->

The machine described has a breadth of 4 feet, wings S inches wide and S inches apart.—Ed.

purpose of preserving the main structure, though frequently giving out themselves. Sometimes being blown into obstacles or alighting crooked the outer wing structure was damaged, but in a total of over two dozen flights, only three, all owing to carelessness, were failures.

Tt is interesting to notice that, used as a kite, a machine of the kind described is not stable, many attempts to fly it having entirely failed.

We now come to the second objective, the measurement of speed and power expended. For determining the speed, a recording drum was provided, driven at a uniform speed by clockwork, and upon which bore a pencil, caused to move lengthwise by a long screw with axis parallel to that of the drum. Mounted on the long screw was a light wood pulley on which was wound a long piece of thread. The whole recorder was placed behind the starting track, and the free end of the string was made fast to the tail of the machine.

When the machine was then flown, the pencil would move lengthwise over the drum, and a curve would result whose abscissae represented time, ordinates distance and slant speed. Curves 41-44, pages 24~2o, were made in this way and indicate the general performance as regards speed.

The clockwork used to operate the drum was not very good, but a calibration at the time of the experiments virtually eliminated errors from this source.

The next step was to record the revolutions of the propellers, and though some difficulty was experienced at lirst, the apparatus shown herewith proved quite satisfactory.

It consists of a pulley .1 which, by a worm, drives a drum II at a much reduced rate of speed. Two pencils Dl) mounted upon flexible arms EE are made to mark upon the drum H as it revolves.

The whole apparatus is mounted upon the {lying machine, the two arms EE are connected by threads to pins slightly out of center on the propel lors, and a long thread with the free end fast to the ground is wound upon the pulley A. As

the machine is flown then the string unwinding from .1 rapidly revolves it. the drum /> slowly revolves, and the pencils 1)1) trace upon it sinuous linos, the successive peaks of which represent revolutions of the propellers. Cards o, 4. "> and 6. pages 24-25. were made in this way, simultaneously with 41-44 already described.

Comparing now a corresponding pair of diagrams we can get the rate of revolution of both propellers, and if the characteristic of the rubber sennit is known, this will give at once the power.

The apparatus for measuring the torque of the rubber, already developed in connection with the previous machine, is herewith shown in its final form. A represents the rubber sennit, about 40 inches long, \ '■_> lb. weight. It is carried in an open frame B]i supported on two bearings CC and free to turn about its long axis. Attached to one end of the frame is a drum //, with two cords fastened to opposite sides, one being fixed at its end, the other connected to a calibrated spring •/. The rubber sennit is fixed to the frame at one end and at the other to a shaft carrying a flat piece of wood or "dummy propel lor I). Mounted on the propellor shaft is also a small pulley E, which by means of a cord belt EE, and a set of reducing gears communicates to a drum G the revolution of the propellor.

If, now, after being wound up. the dummy propellor be allowed to unwind; 1st, the drum G will be turned around at a proportional rate; 2nd. the pencil A." will

indicate by its position the torque exerted by the rubber upon frame and propellor. Two pairs of diagrams taken in this way are shown below, the upper line in each case giving the torque on winding up, the lower on unwinding; the verticals divide the cards into spaces of ten revolutions each. Having n0w the three sets of cards as

Card 3 Curve 11

jtii 'H/'P'»'»iij»ii.iii.p«li.|miiMii,iJJum^ 3-

^Xm,"'"""",,'"""","",,,,",",'",,,"»,'h''""'l*.i,..lM..i(„.fM..M,nl,........I.....mmI,,,*,..!..,,,, 72

described, we are in a position to make the calculation of power as outlined, and the method of making this calculation follows, for one particular set of diagrams, card 44.

The total height of the speed card is 2.86 inches, which corresponds to 1-12 feet of flight, including about 12 feet on the track.

Total length of revolution card, ò.òA inches, corresponding to 141 feet of flight.

^vvvvvvirvvlvvvvvwvvl^^ ^

Card 6 Curve 44

Inspection of the revolution card shows that about ten revolutions were required bv the propellors to attain their full speed, the machine covering in this time 19 feet. This first 19 feet will therefore not be considered as part of the flight, the part bevond 129 feet being likewise discarded, since the rubbers were

run down by that time, and the machine was only soaring and rapidly descending. The two points, 19 I'eet and 129 feet, are now marked on both cards All. alt, and the horizontal distance on the speed card is measured and found to be 2.33 inches, which indicates that 4.o' seconds were consumed by the machine in covering the 110 intervening feet. From the revolution caid it is found that in this same interval of 110 feet the port propeller made 112 revolutions and the starboard 122. and by now referiiny to a table from cards 51 ami 52, the work done bv each rubber sennit during the interval is obtained.

In this manner it is found that the port propeller received 131 foot-pounds and the starboard 127. total 258. This being expended in 4.<> seconds it follows that

258 x CO

the mean power was---.102 H. I'.

1(5 x 33000

The total weight of the flying machine (including revolution counter) was at

the time of these tests 4.0 lbs. It thus maintained itself in the air with a ratio of 39 lbs. per horse power.

Owing to the fact of the rubber sennits running down toward the end, the-power is quite different during the first and second halves of the flight, and while it may perhaps be questioned whether during the latter half the machine really maintains itself by its own power there is, I think, no reasonable doubt that it so does during the first half. On this account all of these cards (41-44) have been divided approximately into two halves and the power calculated for the whole flight (barring the two extremities) and for the first half. It will also be interesting to calculate the power for the whole length of flight, taking into account the kinetic energy of the machine at start and finish, and also the energy gained by the machine dropping; through S feet owing to the slope of the ground.

In the case of card \<>. 14 we find the speed at point A (about 7 feet after leaving the starting car) to be 19.4 miles per hour; time from .1 to /) 5.29 seconds at T) (point of grounding) speed was 12..'5 miles per hour; total energy delivered to propellors 305 foot-pounds.

The total energy expended therefore was:

Given to propellors 3<)5 foot-pound-.

Kinetic enerirv at start 51

Energy gained by descent of 8 ft. 32

388

Kinetic energy at finish

(lost when machine grounded) 20

3G8 foot-pounds therefore maintained the machine in the air for 5.29 seconds or the mean power over this time was .126 IT. P., at the ratio of 31.8 lbs. supported per horse power.

The following table gives the principal quantities derived from each of these pairs of cards:

A B C

Card.

Distance.

Speed.

Wgt.—II.

P. Dist.

Speed. Wgt

.—H. P.

Dist.

Wgt. H. P.

 

feet.

             

41

91

15.0

38.9

48.5

15.2

30.0

104

27.5

42

96

12.1

46.3

52.0

13.8

32.2

109

36.8

43

111

14.1

45.5

54.0

15.8

32.0

126

35.8

44

110

16.3

39.2

55.0

19.4

27.8

123

31.8

Mean

 

14.4

42,4

 

16.05

30.5

 

33.0

The three columns A, B and C, show the cpiantities derived from each card in the manner above illustrated; all begin at the same point, i. e., 19 feet from position

of rest or about 7 feet after leaving starting truck; in columns A that part of the card is considered between 19 feet (marked A on cards) and virtual end of flight B, the rubber sennits during this period being considered as furnishing all the propelling power. Columns B are derived from first half of the cards (A-C) in the same manner as are A, while columns C are taken from the point A to the very end of the card D, the energy used in this period being considered as the sum of the kinetic energy of the machine at A, the total energy stored in the rubber sennits; and the energy of the machine dropping 8 feet during flight, minus kinetic energy at point D (where this was clearly indicated).

The four sets of cards were all taken the same day, late in the Fall of 1900, and not under the most favorable conditions, as there was considerable breeze at the start, which gradually died out. The flights were timed between puffs, as far as possible, yet on the first. No. 41. the machine was struck pretty hard, being carried about 25 feet off its course, and over a fence into some rough ground where a slight damage was sustained in alighting. The wind being from the forward quarter shortened the length of this flight considerably.

On the second trial the machine was again struck by quite a breeze from ahead this time, and partly owing to this the first part of the flight was very high and the speed accordingly was cut down a good deal, and afterward recovered somewhat during the descent.

Prior to No. 43 the tail was a little flattened, making the course of the machine nearly level, though a little high at first.

For No. 44 it was flattened still further, producing a good average flight, a little upward at the start, with a gradual descent as the power lessened and gave out. As, moreover, there was no perceptible wind at this time this card is the fairest one upon which to build.

Incidentally the revolution cards 3, 4, 5, 6, furnish data for measuring the slip of the propellors, and if the friction of the blades be also measured, as was afterward approximately done on the apparatus shown on page, the efficiency is easily calculated. These calculations were made and showed a slip varying between 23 and 32 degrees and efficiency of 01 per cent, as a mean of the four flights recorded. The method of finding the friction was to mount the propellor and measure the thrust produced by it as the rubber sennit unwound; from this the pitch was then calculated, the torque utilized and the difference between this and the actual torque produced by the sennit was taken as representing the frietional loss. Assumed as varying with the square of the speed of revolution; this was then calculated for the speed shown by the revolution cards and the above mean result obtained.

CONCLUSION.

As to the significance of these tests with regard to a full sized machine, it looks as if the same principles of balancing should obtain independent of size, and the large machine should be stable as well as the small one. As to the questions of weight and power the inference is not so clear perhaps. For, although a gasoline engine can be made giving a horse power for less than 10 lbs., thus leaving about 20 lbs. for wing structure and dead weight, yet the weight of the wings would probably increase faster than the surface, and there might be left very little margin for the dead weight.

On the other hand the stresses can all be calculated and members designed accordingly in a large machine, and all entering edges can be sharpened to reduce friction. The small machine, moreover, was under a good deal of disadvantage in having to be strong enough to stand a strain of about live times its weight when shot from the launching track, while the large machine could simply run on the ground with its own propellors till speed was attained.

These questions of power and weight have been for the most part answered since the experiments described were carried nut, but there seems still to be a little chance left to improve the balancing qualities, and in the parts referring to this phase of the question probably lies any value which may attach to the tests.

EDW. W. SMITH'S PAPER. Discussion by O. Chanute.

The paper of Mr. Edw. W. Smith is a very clever one, and he is entitled to great credit for having demonstrated by precise measurements the power required in horizontal flight by the type of aeroplane which he experimented with; also, for having suggested, as early as 1901, that '"A large machine provided with wheels to run on the ground could of itself attain the necessary initial velocity without a launching track, and could presumably be brought down gradually so as to land easily upon the wheels/' this being the method since independently adopted by Vuia. Santos Dumont, Delagrange, Bleriot, Farman, and other French experimenters.

Mr. Smith arrives at the conclusion that this type of machine can sustain a gross weight of at least 28 lbs., and very probably 33 lbs. per brake U. P., which result is almost identical with those obtained by Langley s model, but quite inferior to those of Wright Brothers, who sustained 925 lbs. with 17 H. P., or at the rate of 54.4 lbs. per H. P. The difference probably arises from the latter's arching fore and aft of the sustaining surfaces, (a la Lilienthal) while Mr. Smith's surfaces were flat; also from the head resistance of his framing and revolution counter. In most full size flying machines the head resistance absorbs from one-half to two-thirds of the power required and hence the French experimenters are providing motors which give out power at the rate of 14 to 22 lbs. sustained per H. P.

The wings of Mr. Smith's aeroplane are curved upward toward the ends, producing the effect of the Langley dihedral angle which has been adopted by almost all the French experimenters. This is probably the best arrangement to secure transverse equilibrium at the low speed obtained of about 15 miles per hour. This resembles the attitude of the soaring hawk; but for high speeds and tumultuous winds it woidd probably be better to curve the wings slightly downward at the ends thus resembling the attitude of the gull. My own experiments with full-sized gliding machines showed that the best stability was obtained with wings depressed downward at the ends, 4 inches on a span of 16 feet.

Mr. Smith's measuring instruments are quite ingenious and it is not probable that the necessity for attaching a thread to his model materially affected the results. Of course, on a full size machine different instruments would be required. The speed could be measured by an anamometre and the revolutions of the propellers by a revolution counter; but it would be necessary to ascertain in advance what output of power corresponded with a given number of revolutions, for it would be somewhat awkward to try to take indicator cards while in full flight in order to measure the power at the motor.

AERONAUTICS IN CINCINNATI. By Louis Horn.

Herewith is shown the 87,000 cu. ft. balloon built by Leslie B. Haddock, proprietor of the American-La France Balloon Co., and owned by The Union Gas & Electric Co., of Cincinnati, O. This balloon, in fact is the second largest in the United States. The Ben Franklin in Philadelphia being 5,000 cu. ft. larger.

The three-cornered white mark at the left of the valve is the rip section, which at the first inflation was ripped by a laborer who thought that every rope in the vicinity had to be held with his whole weight. The particulars of the outfit are as follows:

Diameter of bag, 55 feet; actual capacity, 87,135 cu. ft.; car, 4% ft. long, 3]1> ft. wide, 4 ft. deep, made of India reed over a steel tube frame, upholstered in red leather with ground cork padding; net of Italian hemp; 27-in. butterfly valve; 20-ft. lipping section; the bag is built of a combination of linen and cotton, giving strength with a minimum of weight, three coats of varnish by machine, five coats by hand, is heavily reinforced at the apex and neck, and is triple sewed; walnut load ring, laminated. This outfit has been entirely rebuilt since last Summer.

THE DE MARCAY-KLUYTMANN DIRIGIBLE.

A novel airship has been constructed by the Baron Edmond de Marcay in conjunction with M. Kluytmann, a Dutch engineer, in The Galerie des Machines, Paris. Its pe-

T1IE NEW DE MAKCAY AlKSllIU.

culiarity consists in dividing the gas vessel, which is very long, into two entirely distinct sections at the middle, and in mounting the propeller, which is of enormous diameter, in the gap thus provided. The illustrations show this construction very clearly, the general view showing the extent of the gap between the two sections of the gas vessel, while the other illustration shows in greater detail the manner in which the gap is bridged by an iron cage in which the propeller revolves. One of the propeller blades is visible in the illustration, where it is seen jutting out beyond the surface of the gas vessel. The blades, which are two in number, and appear comparatively small on account of their position, arc mounted on very long arms, which revolve upon a spindle carried by the iron cage. The motor is carried on an under frame below the gas bag, transmission being by means of a long belt. Experiments made in the Galerie des Machines, the balloon being guided along by a rope, were thoroughly satisfactory. As soon as possible outdoor experiments will be undertaken, for as the propellers have been arranged to improve stability it is only by trials in a wind that their real worth can be determined. The construction of the gas vessel itself calls for no special comment, but it should be noted that it is equipped with longitudinal aeroplane surfaces, a horizontal rigid plane at the rear, and a vertical rigid plane terminating in a vertical rudder beneath.

the i)e marcay airship with its XOVE1. propeller.

THE PISCHOF AEROPLANE.

Pischof has made an interesting study of shapes for aeroplane surfaces and was led to decide in favor of surfaces with heavy front edges, as already extolled by several aviators, notably Goupil, and the adoption of a very efficient profile, approaching closely that of wings of birds.

According to the data of his preliminary experiments, Pischof first constructed a trial glider, without motor, of 10 meters spread of wings and 24.6 square meters of surface, in which the front edge of the carrying surface had a thickness decreasing from the middle of the plane to the rear extremities. This experimental apparatus gave very good satisfaction.

The inventor next undertook the construction of another aeroplane based on the same principles, and the preliminary experiments have already begun at Issy-les-Moulineaux.

This machine comprises an upper carrying plane slightly arched from front to rear so as to present an upper concavity. This plane is rigidly secured by a structure of wood, with steel wire cross bars stretching to the lower plane, which is smaller and is divided in two sections to allow room in the center for the motor and operator.

At the rear is a stabilitating tail consisting of a single surface divided in two sections, somewhat analagotis to that in the Bleriot aeroplane. Between the two sections is the rudder consisting of a vertical frame covered with canvas.

The motor is an "Anzani," developing 25 h.p., with three cylinders, which operates a

TUE l'ISCnOF AEROPLANE GETTING READY FOR A TRIAL.

The aeroplane is supported on a chassis with three wheels, two in front and one behind, all rubber tired, and the latter is controlled by the rudder.

At the testing grounds of Issy-les-Moulineaux this aeroplane of Pischof moved on the ground at a gait estimated at approximately 40 kilometers per hour on November 14th, operated by Pischof and covered several times distances ranging from 100 to 250 meters, but did not always follow a true course, making several lurches away from the intended direction. In one of the attempts to turn it happened that only one of the front wheels remained on the ground. The operator was unable to master the machine or stop the motor in time. Invariably the apparatus would strike one of the trees surrounding the testing grounds, being arrested by striking iu front while the rear was at the height of the branches. Pischof disengaged himself without injury from the network of wires' and girders in which he was entangled. Contrary to what has been said, the aeroplane proper was not injured; the propeller only was seriously damaged by the shock. This has been replaced by another propeller of the same design and the trials will be resumed.

M. I'ISClIOK IN THE AVIATORS SEAT READY TO START.

AIRSHIP AND BALLOON TOURNAMENT FOR BRETTON WOODS.

Messrs. Anderson & Price, the managers of the famous White Mountains hotels Mt. Washington and Mt. Pleasant at Bretton Woods, N. H., have announced a tentative program for an airship-balloon-automobile meet about the middle of July. There will be an automobile run from New York via "The Ideal Tour'' route. A little later will follow the dirigible races, starting from the level ground between the two hotels and coursing to the top of Mount Washington and return. It is also hoped to have a balloon ascent or two at the same time. Mount Washington has been used for some time by Mr. S. P. Fergusson, of Blue Hill Observatory, in obtaining upper air data.

ARMY AERONAUTICS FOR JANUARY. Dirigible.

In response to the advertisement for bids for a dirigible, General Allen received the following, which were opened on January 15th, with the result as stated:

"Harry B. Schiller, Philadelphia, Pa., $25,000; Wm. Reifercheid, Streator, 111.. $5,000; Chas. J. Strobel, Toledo, Ohio, $8,000; Carl E. Myers, Frankfort, N. Y., $9,996; E. W. Creecy, Washington, D. C, $12,500. and John M. Karries. Mt. Vernon, N. Y., who bid on a flying machine which, if it attained a speed of 20 miles per hour, was to cost from ten to fifteen thousand dollars, and, if it attained a speed of 40 miles per hour, was to cost between twenty-five and thirty thousand dollars.

"As none of these proposals was satisfactory, all were rejected and new proposals will be opened on February 15th."

On January 21 a new advertisement and specification was issued for a dirigible balloon. There is one principal change, suggested in our January issue: That of allowing the bidder to furnish his own material. This is consented to in the new specification. There is no change in the speed to be required. A few more details are asked regarding the motor, propellers, frame, suspension, etc.

Dynamic Flyer.

The specification for dynamic flying machine remained unchanged, except that notice was issued permitting the bidder to "preserve as confidential any features of his machine which he wishes to keep secret. In describing the flying machine features which are omitted should be referred to with a remark to the above effect." What is the use of submitting plans at all? The greatest value in the plan is the point which the inventor desires to keep secret. Flying machines always fly—on paper.

ON THE DETERMINATION OF THE SPEED OF FLYING MACHINES.

By Otto G. Luyties.

The method of determining the speed of dirigible balloons and dynamic flying machines indicated in the recently published specifications of the United States Government is incorrect in theory and would be unfair in practice.

As the matter may be of some future importance, it merits a detailed discussion. The following quotation constitutes paragraphs 4 and 5 of the specifications for a dynamic flying machine, the proposed method of testing the dirigible balloon being similar.

"4. The flying machine should be designed to have a speed of at least 40 miles per "hour in still air, but bidders must submit quotations in their proposals for cost, defending upon the speed attained during the trial flight, according to the following scale:

"40 miles per hour, 100%. "Less than 36 miles per hour, rejected.

"39 90%. "41 miles per hour, 110%.

"38 S0%. "42 120%.

"37 70%. "43 130%.

"30 60%. "44 140%.

"5. The speed accomplished during the trial flight will be determined by taking an "average of the time over a measured course of more than five miles, against and with "the wind. The time will be taken by a flying start, passing the starting point at full "speed at both ends of the course. This test subject to such additional details as the "Chief Signal Officer of the Army may prescribe at the time."

It should be observed in the first place that the specifications provide a large premium for high speed. A machine flying at the rate of 44 miles per hour during the test is valued by the Government at 133% more than one found to have a speed of 36 miles per hour. As safety is also a desideratum, and depends at present upon the use of large areas which tend to limit the speed, the wisdom of specifying such high velocity in the early stages of this art. is open to question.

The specified method of determining the speed is theoretically incorrect, because it is based upon an erroneous method of obtaining an average. Let us suppose that an estimate has been accepted and that the inventor has completed his machine and can fly five miles in seven and a half minutes or at the rate of forty miles an hour in still air. Let us suppose that the Government trial is held in a twenty-mile wind, which is very common in our latitude. Let us suppose that the machine is sent over a measured course of five miles against the wind and returns with it. The flying machine would require 15 minutes to cover the distance one way and five minutes to return. The average time would be 10 minutes for five miles and give an.apparent speed of 30 miles per hour, the machine being rejected.

According to the specifications the bidder would lose his bond equal in amount to the accepted estimate, and probably also lose the cost of the rejected machine in spite of the

fact that it did actually fly through the air at the rate of 40 miles an hour, and all this on account of an incorrect system of measurement. To show a speed of 40 miles an hour against and with a 20-mile wind when measured as proposed would require a speed of nearly 48 miles an hour through the air.

The absolute incorrectness of the specified method of determining the speed is apparent.

The specified test is also entirely unfair from a business standpoint. The test is to be "subject to such additional details as the Chief Signal Officer of the Army may pre-' scribe at the time." This objectionable clause could be paraphrased to read, "Subject to rejection if preferred by the Chief Signal Officer."

. To reject the machine the officer would merely have to decide to try it in a high wind or during a dying wind or at an upward angle, or over along course, or around sharp turns, or over hilly country, or during a rainstorm, or after a slight accident, etc. To favor the acceptance of the machine on the other hand it might be tried on a comparatively calm day, or during a freshening wind or starting from a point higher than the finish, etc.

if the machine under test is to cost $100,000 for a 40-mile speed and is actually capable of 45 miles per hour under favorable conditions, it is optional with the Signal Officer to have the bidder receive $140,000 for it, or $60,000 or any intermediate sum, or nothing at all, .simply by deciding to test it in some particular intensity of wind or under some special conditions.

I do not for a moment doubt the absolute integrity and good will of our Chief Signal Officer, although I have not the pleasure of knowing him personally, and do not suppose that any of the eventual bidders know him very well. This in itself constitutes the objectionable clause, as an inventor cannot properly estimate in advance on satisfying the requirements of a test to be later determined by an unknown arbiter invested with autocratic authority.

As a better method the time ought to he taken over a measured course against the wind and returning with it. The speed over the ground could readily be computed for each direction, and the speed through the air would be the average of these two figures.

Let us suppose a machine to cover a five-mile course in 15 minutes in one direction and in five minutes in the other. The speed over the ground would then be 20 miles per hour one way and 60 the other, the average or true speed through the air being 40 miles per hour. If we should take the average of the time we should obtain a false result of 30 miles per hour.

As the wind in all flying devices blows squarely from the front, a popular misconception to the contrary notwithstanding, another way to measure the speed would be, by the use of an anemometer, previously calibrated for small errors by testing it on an automobile or train. The inaccuracy due to the flying machine swerving from its course would be very small, being about 1 per cent, for variations of 10 degrees on either side of the course. The small corrections to be deducted for this error could be computed with sufficient correctness by observers on the ground.

A third way would be to make the speed tests on a particularly calm clay, using either of the other two methods of allowing for the slight wind effect, and then hold an entirely separate test for dirigibility on some windy day. This method would have the special advantage of practically eliminating the errors due to variation in the intensity and direction of the wind which would otherwise be considerable. I hope that these suggestions will arouse sufficient interest to lead to the adoption of a rational method of determining the speed of flying devices.

[This article was received too late for proof to be submitted to author.—-Ed.] ■

THE NEW "BAYARD" AIRSHIP.

The "Bayard" airship is a novel form which M. Clement, the well-known automobile constructor of Paris, is now engaged in building according to the designs of the aeronaut Capazza. What is new about the form of the balloon is that the upper and lower halves are each conical, the bases of the two cones forming the horizontal median line of the gas bag. When once in the air, this balloon will travel forward and downward on its lower cone somewhat after the manner of an aeroplane. The design was drawn up some years ago by M. Capazza, but he could not have it carried out from lack of funds. An envelope of rubber-coated tissue is to be used, having the double cone form, with a width of 138 feet and a maximum height of 23 feet. The total volume of the balloon is figured at 178,373 cubic feet. On the framework there are to be two propellers, each driven by a Bayard-Clement motor of the usual automobile type. It is designed to carry five aeronauts on board, together with over a ton of ballast, and to be able to remain for ten or twelve hours in the air. A well-developed system of planes will be added to the balloon. Thè profiles of the balloons are specially designed so as to transform the ascending or descending movements into a sliding movement or lateral displacement, and this gives the system an aeroplane action to some extent.

THE NEW MONOPLANE OF GASTAMBIDE AND MENGIN.

By M. Mengin.

The construction of an aeroplane by M. Robert Gastambide and myself, announced some time ago, has now been completed.

We are partisans with MM. Santos-Dumont and Bleriot in the type of machine, monoplane, and have decided upon that type.

The wings have a total spread of 10 meters and are attached to the body by a system of grooves which makes them easily detachable. They are held, on the other hand, to this same body by a new and original system of girders which are made up of thin sheets of steel which offer, in addition to less resistance to the air, greater solidity than those means heretofore employed. The chassis is fitted with wheels having a certain amount of play longitudinally and transversely, designed especially to minimize the shock of landing. The body of the apparatus, which is 5 meters long, carries in front a 50 h.p. S cyl. Antoinette motor, with one propeller mounted in front

the C4ASTAMRIDE-jiengin monoplane.

directly on the shaft. In the middle of the "cage"' sits the aviator and at the extreme rear there is a tail for stability, serving as the sole means of governing the direction.

After a number of trials with small models we have thought it would be sufficient to give the apparatus an invariable angle of resistance and to rely only on the mobility of the 8 cylinder motor to modify the speed of the machine and, consequently, the form of its trajectory. We have thus abolished totally any governor for raising and lowering.

The total weight of the aeroplane will not exceed 400 kilograms. Trials of the propeller on the motor, made on the block of special construction, we found that we can easily count on 140 kilograms thrust and we think we ought to bring the speed up to 55 kilometers an hour.

After a well deserved rest we will begin trials with the apparatus. The apparatus was put on its feet in less than three weeks.

[The screw has a diameter of 2 meters, 1.3 meters pitch. Total surface is 24 square meters.—Ed.]

MILITARY DIRIGIBLE FOR THE BELGIAN GOVERNMENT.

The Belgian Government is considering the question of the construction of a dirigible, to be constructed by Louis Godard.

Principal dimensions: balloon 60 metres in length; diameter 10.6; circumference, 33.284; surface, 1900; cubic capacity, 3750 metres; ascensional force, 4125 kilograms; speed per hour, in calm air, (2 propellers) 50 to 55 kilometres; with 1 propeller, 35 to 40 kilometres; motor power, at 900 r.p.m., 120 h.p.; diameter of the propellers, 7 metres; r.p.m. 225; speed at the periphery per second, SO metres; length of the keel, 33 meters; length of the car, 1.5 metre; delivery of the fan, 3500 cubic metres; motor "l'actionnant" 6 horsepower

Weights: rubber cloth balloon, 700 kilograms; balloonet of l/6th the total cube, valve rope, "enpennages," "ralingue," vertical stem, suspension, rigging and rudder, 540; car, 350; 2 motors, 480; 2 propellers, 150; flywheels, shafts, radiators, connections and movements, supports, oil, water, gasoline, pipe system, 245; fan and its motor, 40 kil.; counterweights, means of equilibrium, instruments, &c, 245; possible deviations, 135; gasoline for 10 hours, 3G0; water, 30; 5 persons in the car, 400; ballast 45; total 4125 kilograms.

i907 GODDARD.

The engineer, Louis Godard, prefers to employ two motors of GO h.p. each with two propellers turning in opposite directions. In the event, of damage to a propeller or a motor it is expected to be able to return to the start with one motor and one propeller at a speed of 30 to 40 kilometers per hour.

THE YEAGER FLYING MODEL.

S. Yeager, of Pittsburg, has designed a novel aeroplane (or helicopter?), of which a model is illustrated below.

There are to be GO planes, containing 660 square feet of surface, made of No. 20

aluminum alloy, revolving on a vertical shaft. One-half the planes travel from left to right and the other half from right to left. The framework measures 45x14x12 feet, with a 4xlGx7-foot car underneath. There are six of the vertical series of blades, or wheels, each 12.5 in diameter. Two 15 h.p. Curtiss motors will furnish the power; one engine driving the four outer wheels, and the other engine the two inner wheels and the twin propeller, which will be placed forward. The four corner wheels are expected to run at a speed of G00 r. p. m., the two middle wheels being started first in rising. Soon after leaving the ground the propeller will be set in motion. The inventor claims that a square foot of the surface in his machine will lift six pounds, and travel at a rate the hollow framework. The

the yicaoeu model

of SO miles an hour (?). The gasoline is to be carried in total weight is to be 1,000 pounds.

The model shown weighs 31 oz., and of the six wheels were used to project it

is propelled by rubber band power. Only four through the air against a slight breeze.

AERONAUTICS

37

NOTES.

January 16th, Charles J. Glidden sailed for Egypt, taking his motor with him. A. Leo Stevens and A. Holland Forbes saw him off. Mr. Glidden was furnished with four small balloons, two of which were to be released as the boat left and two at sea. As the ship pulled out, Mr. Glidden let the two balloons go. This was a signal for the release of 175 others arranged at the end of the pier by Messrs. Stevens and Forbes. The sight was a pretty one and made a sensation.

"The airship is the coming thing," said Mr. Glidden just before sailing. "I have in mind a trip from Fort Omaha to Boston, a distance of 1,800 miles,'' said Mr. Glidden. "Leo Stevens has my order for the balloon, which will be of medium size, being of but 38,000 cubic feet capacity. Once this journey has been accomplished I shall endeavor to win some of the trophies offered around Boston. We have five to try for. These include a trophy to the aeronaut who starts at least 150 miles from Mount Washington and lands within a mile of Mount Washington hotel, offered by Mr. John A. Anderson, another like trophy for the aeronaut who starts a like distance away and lands within two miles of the Poland Springs hotel at Poland Springs, Maine; a third trophy to the aeronaut landing on Boston commons after starting 100 miles away, offered by the Boston Herald, and two trophies offered by the North Adams Herald, one for balloons starting from North Adams and landing within five miles of Boston common, and the second for the greatest distance covered starting from North Adams. All of these will be handsome trophies, and Bostonians are preparing to compete for them this year."

The Aero Club dinner at the St. Regis is postponed until March 14.

Acting on the complaint of several hundred stockholders, federal officers have started an investigation of the National Airship Company, San Francisco, and the first result of the investigation has been the disappearance of all the officials connected with the concern and with them what is left of stock sales amounting to more than quarter of a million dollars. The company was promoted to secure $1,000,000 with which to build an airship that would be the greatest thing ever imagined. More than 250,000 shares of stock were sold. It claimed that the intention was to construct an airship 1,250 feet long, 64 feet in diameter, of 140,000 cubic yards capacity and 128 tons displacement, with eight independent power plants, and engines developing 3280 horsepower turning 16 propellers. Forty men, as advertised, were to compose the crew, and the airship to carry 500 passengers and 40 tons of mail from New York to London at an expense of $875 in 24 hours, "every day in the year, regardless of weather conditions." Regular trips were advertised between Portland and San Francisco.

Many other claims of future accomplishment taxing the power of credulity to the breaking point were made in the matter, which is said to have gone through the mails. The company advertised, further, that it would issue checks in payment of dividends January 1, 190S, but this is said not to have been done.

The German government is constructing an automobile, armored, of high speed, carrying a rapid fire gun capable of firing at an angle of 70° to the horizontal, to be used as an "airship destroyer."

Here is a comparatively small country like Germany far ahead of the United States in its aeronautical arrangements for defense and yet we apparently are doing little or nothing in this line. Paying millions of young 1907 widows of old 1865 veterans, it might be well to devote a few thousand to aeronautics, offensive and defensive.

The Aero Club of Great Britain is in communication with the most successful aeroplane inventors, both in England and abroad, with a view of bringing them together upon a given day to demonstrate by practical flights their prowess in the air. It is suggested that the Brooklands motor track or the grounds at Hnrlingham shall be the scene of the great event. Already the promised awards for long flights and short flights amount to over $150,000. It is hoped that Mr. Henry Farman, who has achieved so many wonderful flights in Paris, may be persuaded to cross the Channel and demonstrate how near he is to a practical solution of the problem of the air. The "international aspect" of the trials will be provided by the determination of Mr. A. V. Roe. the English inventor, to take part in the contest. He is actively engaged upon the Brooklands motor track, putting finishing touches to the steering apparatus of his large, man-carrying machine, with which he proposes to make an experimental flight.

"La Patrie" and "La Ville de Paris" made 42 and 28 ascensions respectively during 1907.

Mount Weather Observatory has begun the publication of a bulletin, to be issued quarterly. The first number is most creditable. "Our Origin and Purpose" of the Bu-

reau is treated by Willis L. Moore, Chief U. S. Weather Bureau; "The Methods and Apparatus," by Dr. W. R. Blair, and "The Use of Upper Air Data in Forecasting," by Prof. A. J. Henry. Records of all kite flights and captive balloon ascents during the year are given, together with a number of fine illustrations.

A writer states that he examined the envelope of a balloon which burst at the International Exhibition at Milan in 1906. A number of spots were visible on the envelope, and at these places the material could be easily torn, whereas at other parts it showed great resistance to tearing. These spots were found to have been caused by phosphoric and arsenic acids, produced by oxidation from arseniuretted and phos-phoretted hydrogen contained in the hydrogen gas. The presence of these impurities is due to the use of impure materials in the preparation of the hydrogen, and the author recommends that the preparation of the gas for filling balloons should be under strict chemical control.—Engineer.

Attempts to beat the World's distance record and win at the same time, the Lahm cup will be made during 1908 by A. Leo Stevens and Charles J. Glidden, the start to be made at some point west of the Mississippi. Omaha has been considered by Mr. Glidden but coal gas cannot be obtained there. Denver will next be investigated.

Carl E. Myers has sold from his "balloon farm" at Frankfort the little dirigible "No. 23" to people in Seattle for exhibition purposes.

Major Baden-Powell, states that for several months past he has been experimenting with kites and models of aeroplanes. These experiments were purely of a private character and in no way connected with the War Office. Satisfactory results, he said, had already been accomplished, although he had obtained nothing conclusive, owing to the size of the models. The first experiment was carried out with models fitted to a 12-horse-power engine, the whole machine weighing under seventy pounds. Later on, an engine of double the power was secured, and the result was "extremely satisfactory." With an engine of a more perfect design, Major Baden-Powell hopes to be able to build, early in the new year, a model capable of lifting and carrying the weight of a man.

In view of the rapid progress of various forms of ballooning in France, M. Paul Fauchille, the Director of the Revue Generale de Droit International Public," has drawn up a series of thirty-two articles as the basis of an aerial code to be adopted by the various European powers.

The articles provide for the creation of an aerial customs organization, and it is suggested that in time of peace, as well as during hostilities, aeronauts should agree to respect certain portions of the atmosphere. They should for instance, undertake not to approach nearer than 4,500 feet above forbidden territory, such as barracks, forts, and encampments. In this way all "indiscretions" which might result from the use of cameras would be avoided.

M. Fauchille's articles will be discussed at Florence during this year, and, when the time is ripe for the drawing up of an international aerial code, the French Ministers of War, Marine, the Interior and Finance will nominate commissions composed of jurisconsults and technicians to frame the rules which they may consider advisable.

The principle of the liberty of the air must be maintained, says M. Fauchille, but with certain reservations affecting the repression of espionage, customs, sanitary policing and the necessities of national defense.

The coming aeronautical congress at Florence is expected to settle the thorny question of the role which dirigibles will play in the wars of the future, for it is now recognized that the airship is likely to become a redoubtable engine of combat.

Two more balloons have been sold from the Stevens shop: one of 1,600 cubic metres to A. H. Forbes and one of 1,100 metres to Charles J. Glidden.

The price of subscription to the Aerophile. the official organ of the Aero Club de France, has been advanced to IS francs instead of 12, as heretofore. It will now be issued semi-monthly, on the 1st and the 15th.

Count Zeppelin has started the construction of a new airship which he is building for the German government. The dimensions of this new airship are given as follows: Length, 130 meters (426io feet); diameter, 12 meters (39 1-3 feet); horsepower, 240, consisting of two Daimler motors of 120 horsepower each, which will be used instead of the two S5 horsepower motors with which the present airship is equipped. The new airship is being constructed in a shed mounted on floats at Manzell on Lake Constance. It is the fourth airship that Count Zeppelin has built.

A syndicate is being formed in Hong-kong to build an airship designed in 1S94

by a Chinaman, Tse Tsan Tai. It is to be built of aluminum, and will be enclosed in an aluminum shell to protect it from the enemy's projectiles. The envelope is to be cigar-shaped. Tse Tsan Tai's principle is that airships should depend upon their fan-propellers for advancing, receding, ascending and descending. The gas-envelope is to be used only as a buoy. For the vertical movement, therefore, there are to be horizontal propellers on the deck regulated by clockwork. The steering will not be by exposed planes and rudders, but by concealed steel wings, which can be thrown out at the stern on the pressure of an electric button.

It is reported that the aeroplane which has been in course of construction in great secrecy, under the supervision of the English military, was tried out and found wanting. A new aeroplane will be tested at Farnborough. The Automotor Journal states: "The machine is of the double-decked type, and possesses a horizontal deflector in front and a vertical rudder behind. The over-all width of the double-decked plane is about 100 feet, and the height between decks about 10 feet. The extremities of the decks are joined by side curtains so as to convert the structure into a massive oblong box kite."

A horse named "Airship" won first money at 10 to 1 in New Orleans during January.

Captain Chas. De F. Chandler was detailed the first of January to deliver lectures in aeronautics to the balloon corps at Forts Omaha and Leavenworth.

The secretary of the new Aéronautique club of Chicago is an undertaker, and he is accused of joining the organization for mercenary reasons.

There has been organized in Milan the Fabbrica Italiana Aereostati, with a capital -of $25,000, for the construction and operation of dirigible airships. A series of experiments is proposed for the purpose of developing the value of the company's dirigible, which is known as the Frassinetti type.

Ever since the catastrophe at the Crystal Palace, work has been pushed forward on the repair of the Nulli Secundus, which is now once more in a condition to take the air. Profiting by past experience a more powerful motor is to be installed but at the present moment this has not yet arrived from France.

The vice-president of the Aero Club of France has offered a prize of 100 francs for the best device rendering the car of balloons unsinkable.

The "Aeronautical Supply Co." has been started by Messrs. Tappmeyer and Horn at 823 Overton St., Newport, Ky.

J. W. Roshon, whose aeroplane was described in this magazine has entered into business to supply flying machine material and supplies, at Harrisburg, Penna.

A fatherly interest is being taken in German inventors of aeronautical machines by the Berlin Aeronautical Society and the Automobile Technical Association, who have combined forces with a view of encouraging and assisting inventors to perfect their designs. A large open space has been obtained in the suburb of Konigswusterhausen as a testing ground and here trials will be made under the superintendence of Prof. Shring, a well-known meteorologist and balloonist. At first, experiments are to be confined to models of the Lilienthal type of machine.

In speaking of the Government specifications for a dirigible balloon, Mr. Carl E. Myers of the "balloon farm" at Frankfort, N. Y.. stated:

"My purpose in airship work is to retain during a voyage all the gas I start with, in the smallest bag practicable, of suitable form for least resistance both fore and aft, and carrying a boat keel and car light, and compact for transportation, actuated by lightest motor suitable, and controlled in satisfactory equilibrium by the aeronaut within his car without movement outside of it.

"1 believe these features must form the basis of any substantial advance in aerial navigation by gas bags, and that the matter of increased speed is simply a matter of increase in dimensions on this system.

"My bid for Government airships embodies these features and some others not yet disclosed, and of which the aeronautic world has yet no apparent conception. The gasproof fabric which the Government proposed at first to supply is exactly such as 1 have been producing commercially for some time by patent machinery. The only change in the later revised specifications for which bids are invited is that bidders shall supply their own gas-proof fabrics, not requiring further varnishing.

"My 'No. 23' airship, lately sold to Seattle (Wash.) parties, consists of a symmetrical

gas spindle, capacious amidship, with sharp prow and stern, of 7,500 cu. ft. capacity, packing within its car, 23 x 23 x 33 inches, which also contains a 7-horsepower. 2-cylinder, 2-cycle, air-cooled gasolene motor with all appurtenances in place for immediate operation. This car in turn packs within a common trunk for shipment. A boat frame 36 ft. long, 23-inch triangular section of 36 lbs. weight, separates into 4 complete sections,, which telescope within the largest one 9 ft. long for shipment, with all machinery, propeller and steering aeroplanes, for immediate junction with the central car for use in a few minutes. The motor drives a twin blade propeller 4 ft. diameter of 3 lbs. weight, at 2,250 r. p. in., exerting a thrust of 60 lbs., either forward or backward. My facilities have reached such a point as to enable me to build and sell such a craft, complete with patent, portable gas generators for inflation, at $1,300, as a commercial runabout for one person and baggage, for sport, transport or exhibit."

THE VILLE DE PARIS AT VERDUN.

The dirigible Ville de Paris, has succeeded in sailing from Paris to Verdun. The-first trip was attempted three weeks ago, but was stopped by high, adverse winds.

The delay in making the second start was caused by the anxiety of the military authorities to avoid any unnecessary risk. Meteorologists promising a favorable wind that was likely to hold, the start was made from Paris at 9:47 A. M. Commandant Bottieax, Pilot Kapferer and Mechanician Paulhan formed the crew.

At Coulommiers Kapferer sent down a note, weighted with lead, saying that all was well and that the balloon was going eighteen miles an hour. At Montmirail another note was sent down, asking the automobiles that were following to turn on their searchlights, as an aid to piloting.

At 4:30 o'clock it became evident that the balloon's engines were not working and it returned to Valmy and landed. It was found that a pipe was broken, and an hour was required to mend it. Though it was now dark Bottieax decided to continue the journey^ saying he would follow the motors' lights. As a matter of fact, he led the way, and he reached Verdun and the balloon was safely housed by 7:05 o'clock; after a trip of 155 miles. The time was 8 hours and 18 minutes, deducting for the stop and for maneuvers of landing.

La Patrie made the trip in 7 hours 5 minutes. Since the wrecking of La Patrie the Ville de Paris is intended to take its place in the French army experiments.

A MACHINE FOR VARNISHING BALLOON CLOTH.

Machinery is now to take the place of hand work in the varnishing of balloon cloth and to do in two or three days more and better work than usually takes five or six weeks. Leo Stevens has acquired the exclusive privilege for this machine, which will varnish and dry 2,000 yards of cloth an hour. After a repetition of the process seven times the cloth ought to be hydrogen proof. Of course, after the cloth is cut and sewed together the seams will have to be gone over again by hand, but the bulk of the work has been done. The weight of the machine is about 2% tons.

Mr. Stevens also expects to have a machine to make nets. It is expected that the machine will tie three nets a day. whereas it takes 45 or 50 days to make one by hand.

NEW LIGHT MOTOR.

The new light water cooled motor of the Aero & Marine IMotor Co., shown at the last. Aero Show, has been tested out and developed 44 horsepower, brake test. The motor is rated at 40 horsepower. The weight is 130 pounds, and this includes the magneto, oil cups, water, etc., all except gasoline tank. The weight per horsepower thus figures 2.95-pounds.

ITALIAN DIRIGIBLE.

The Italian military airship is expected to be completed in another month or six weeks. The mechanical part is being built from a hydroplane which has made 80 kilometers an hour on trials over Lake de Bracciano, near Rome. The work is being conducted under the supervision of two distinguished technicians, Messrs. A. Crocco and Ricaldoni of the special aeronautical brigade. The bag is expected to be ready within the month.

JUNIOR

The Junior Aero Club of the United States is being organized under the directorship of various members of the Aero Club of America. Messrs. Lee S. Bur-ridge, Thomas S. Baldwin, Wilbur R. Kimball, A. Leo Stevens, and Ernest L. Jones are on the Advisory Board. Its headquarters will be at 131 West 23d St., New York.

The objects as set forth in the constitution are: to promote interest in and encourage the study of serial science among young people and to hold exhibitions and contests of apparatus designed for the purpose of atrial locomotion, voluntary or involuntary, made or owned by its active members. It is not intended to limit the scope of the organization, however, as it is proposed to include the subjects of wireless telegraphy, telephony, etc., as applied to the art of aeronautics.

It is the intention to hold club, national and, perhaps, international contests at such dates as may be possible. The first is expected to be held on May 30, being a national event. A contest for distance is planned between small "pilot" balloons, starting from a convenient location near New York, probably. These will be filled with hydrogen and will carry notes asking the finders to return same to the club. Several prizes will be offered for the balloon making the greatest distance, the one having the most ingenious arrangement for disposal of ballast during flight, etc.

The contest is open to all members of the club, wherever they may be. The fact that they propose to compete, however, must be recorded in advance at the New York headquarters.

At a contest in Paris conducted by the "Auto," during 1907, more than 300 balloons were liberated, the winner travelling from Paris to Runsten, Sweden, about S40 miles,—exceeding the distance from New York to Chicago,—aud breaking prior record of balloon flights made in 1901, of 750 miles, when balloon descended in Prussia. The balloons entered in this contest varied in size from the small balloons such as are sold for a few pennies on the street to those three feet in diameter. The larger ones were made of goldbeater's skin with net such as used on large balloons, to which a tiny car weighing but an ounce or two was attached. The boys "showed great ingenuity in supplying their miniature balloons with ballast. Soine had a box of flour hanging from the balloon, which a small valve allowed to escape as it rose, another had a lump of ice in a box which lightened the balloon by gradually melting, while yet a third had a long tail of inflammable matter to which was attached at intervals little pieces of lead. This was set on fire as the balloon was sent off,

CLUB.

and as it burned, the pieces of lead dropped one by one, thereby lightening the balloon." A card is always fastened to the balloon bearing the name of the owner, with request to return balloon or card to a specified address.

These contests would be of particular value to the Weather Bureau were the balloons fitted with registering instruments. Meteorological stations abroad are continually sending up numbers of these small balloons for the purpose of securing meteorological data. A great deal of this work lias been done by the Blue Hill Meteorological Observatory, of which Professor A. Lawrence Rotch is the head. It is hoped to consummate some arrangement by which the results

A "Junior Aero Club" member, Percy W. Pierce, in his workshop. The young man is constructing a model dirigible. The bag will be 4% feet long by 18 inches in diameter of goldbeaters skin.

obtained may be utilized by the Weather Bureau, aud to work with the Bureau in obtaining data.

Membership in the club is divided into three classes:

(a) Honorary; (b) Active members who construct their own apparatus; (c) Active members who own apparatus not constructed by themselves.

No person shall be eligible for active membership who is more than 2J years of age.

Branches of ten or more members ma}" be formed anywhere in the United States.

If it is found that interest warrants it, talks on scientific subjects may be given by members of various scientific organizations. Debates may be held by mem-

bers of the club and papers prepared by them.

Arrangements are being made for the manufacture of a specially designed balloon to be for sale at prices varying according to the size, fifteen cents to several dollars It is planned lo furnish from headquarters, patterns, material and directions for making balloons, at most moderate cost.

It is believed that there are at the present time many young men and boys interested in scientific subjects who ha\e the true inventive faculty and, in their own way, are doing impoitant work, and that these young students and experimenters should be encour ged and such

assistance afforded them as may be derived from an organization stimulating interchange of ideas. Advice will be given by experienced constructors and serious efforts made to direct the members' efforts along right lines.

America already has a number of boys who have achieved actual results in their experiments in aeronautic science. It is contemplated to hold an exhibition of everything relating to this subject on May 30th, 190S, at the time of the contest.

The club is being organized by Miss K k. Todd, who, it has been stated is the only woman in the world who has designed and made working models of aeroplanes.

AERONAUTICS IN THE CURRENT MAGAZINES.

McClure's for February has a most interesting article on the Wright Brothers, by George Kibbe Turner. Mr. Turner visited the Wrights at Dayton, early in 1907 and secured the story of the development of the Wright flyer at first hand. Though the wording is not exactly that of the Wrights, the story is written as told by them. They tell of the starting of their work, the trouble experienced by the "turbulence of the air," the problem of equilibrium, the first successful flying machine in 1903. the trouble in turning corners, the absence of danger from the stopping of the engine, the uses of the aeroplane, the speed, the discovery of the principles of the screw propeller, the simplicity of learning to fly an aeroplane, etc

We quote: "The eventual speed of the aeroplane will be easily GO miles an hour. It will probably be forced up to 100 miles. Our last machine showed 40 miles, and the one we are building now will go considerably faster. At speeds above GO miles an hour the resistance of the air to the machine will make travel much more expensive of power. Our experiments have shown that a flyer designed to carry an aggregate of 745 pounds at 20 miles an hour would require only S horsepower, and at 30 miles an hour, 12 horsepower. At GO miles, 24 would be needed, and at 120 miles, GO or 75 horsepower. ***** Our 1907 machine will carry gasoline enough to fly 5001 miles at a rate of some 50 miles an hour. We can, and possibly soon will, make a one-man machine carrying gasoline enough to go 1000 miles at 40 miles an hour. Moreover, any machine made to move at speeds up to GO miles an hour can be operated economically at a cost of not much more than one cent a mile for gasoline.*********** Besides inventing a practical flying machine we claim to have discovered for the first time the method of calculating in advance, the exact efficiency of screw-propellers, which will save the great waste involved in the present practice, by which screws must be made and tested before their efficiency can be accurately learned. This method of ours has been tested in the manufacture of our aeroplanes; our screws were made with only a slight margin of power over what was demanded by our flyer, and they have invariably proved successful."

"We say frankly that we hope to obtain an ample financial return from our Invention but we care especially for some recognition as scientists, and, whenever it becomes possible, we propose to bring out the results of our investigations In a scientific work upon the principles of aerial navigation."

Scribbler's for February opens with a most original and romantic story by Frederick Palmer, the war correspondent, entitled "For the Honor of the Balloon Corps." The situation is entirely possible under impending conditions of warfare. The hero of the exploit is a genius and an officer of mettle. It is vividly illustrated by Wyeth.

A recent cable message from Berlin is a singularly apt and timely commentary on Mr. Palmer's fine story, "For the Honor of the Balloon Corps," which appears in this number.

"The artillery branch of the German Army is carrying out a series of interesting experiments at Jüterbog, the fire of field guns being directed upon captive steerable airships. The results of the experiments are being kept secret.

"The navy already has had considerable practice in firing upon captive spherical balloons towed by torpedo-boat destroyers, the targets being moved quickly in every direction, giving the impression of balloons manoeuvring in the air."

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These motors are the result of years experience in designing and construction

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2 H. P. single cylinder air coaled, weight 20 lbs. 30 H. P. 8-cylinder V air coaled, weight 150 lbs.

zy2 H. P. single cylinder air cooled, " 35 " 40 H. P. 8-cylinder air cooled V. " 160 "

7 H. P. 2-cylinder V air cooled, " 50 " 50 H. P. 4-cylinder water cooled, " 200 "

15 H. P. 4-cylinder vertical air cooled, " 100 " 100 H. P. 8-cylinder water cooled, " 300 "

20 H. P. 4-cylinder vertical air cooled, " 110 "

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TAKE THE

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BRETTON WOODS 4

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offer you a great Solid Silver Cup to fill from the crystal waters of the mountain springs and from which to drink your own good health which comes to all who drink the pure waters of Bretton Woods.

-5| ASK AERONAUTICS.

leading balloon builder

-OF THE-

world

_

aeronautical engineer and constructor

AERONAUT LEO STEVENS

instructor to army balloon corps

box 181, Madison square, new York

TO AN EXPECTANT BUT DOUBTING WORLD.

I opine that you will not believe it, but it is a fact nevertheless, that I, Me, Myself, the undersigned, is the creator of an aerial craft that is radically different in principle and construction from anything heretofore conceived by experimentors in both schools of aeronautics. No philosophizing but a practical and demonstrated fact.

I have at different times and on various lines, tried to raise a whirlwind by interesting unsophisticated private parties and have failed of even a zephyr.

I have even gone so far as to communicate with four different governments, including our clear old Uncle Sam, believing in my childlike innocence that the said governments were groping in the dark trying to locate something practical in the aeronautical line but am sorry in having to affirm that they were all "from Missouri," and in persistently believing that the problem will be solved on the lines as followed by the different schools of aeronautics at the present time, not perceiving in their blindness that practical and successful aeronautics are impossible of accomplishment and fundamentally wrong on the lines followed by all experimentors.

Now I am perfectly willing to show all the Missourians that I have the only practical aerial craft in existence. And bear in mind, all ye Missourians, that you are not dealing with an over-night dream but with the cogitations and experiments of years.

So now is the time and opportunity to transfer yourself at small cost, to the Nacelle of this successful and swiftly moving craft and wallow in the glory of being connected with its mast-head.

All that is needed is a few double eagles to construct a demonstrator of aluminum and to acquire the patents in this and other countries.

Now if there are any confiding Missourians running around loose with a little coin that they are willing to sink in such a visionary scheme as a practical aerial craft, just deposit the coin in the bank, Mr. Missouri, subject to the order of the president of the bank, to be used by him solely in paying the bills for material as it is required, and to pay the cost of the patents. And to inspire any would-be nibhler with sufficient confidence to perform this feat of deposit, I will show him my model, which will elucidate, in all of its ramifications, the wonderful simplicity of construction and operation of this wonderfully practical and successful aerial craft.

Practical and successful through actual demonstration with a full sized craft made of cheap material, which had unfortunately to be destroyed by myself, rather than have the principle on which it operates discovered by other parties. Not. however, before having demonstrated beyond the peradventure of a doubt that the principle employed is the only practical solution to successful aerial navigation.

Let this sink deep into your gray matter, Mr. Missouri, that 1 am making this magnificent proposal solely because I appreciate the fact that at my present acceleration in high finance, 1 will probably in the next five years augment the condition of my exchequer to the tune of 30 cents.

Should this effusion by some miracle coincide with your jaded appetite as to wish to consume some more, communicate with me, and I will come again to the further assimilative assistance of your alimentation and to clinch the matter, Mr. Miller from Missouri, you will appoint one expert in aeronautics and the editor of some journal interested in aeronautics will appoint another and I will appoint one. which will make three experts in aeronautics, to act as judges to decide whether the principle elucidated in my model is practical. If two out of the three decide that the principle is practical the money on deposit will stick to the bank, but if by some unfortunate turn of the stars two out of the three experts should denounce the principle employed as the irrational conception of an erratic and bombastical crank, your deposit of ungainly buzzards in overalls, who do not trust in God, will be returned to you, Mr. Missouri.

Aeronautically yours, Box 305, San Jose, California. Jos Hf.xault.

AERONAUTIC BOOKS FOR SALE.

This magazine will publish each month a list of such rare and contemporaneous books relating to aeronautics as it is able to secure. If you desire any of those listed, kindly send check with your order for the amount stated. Should the book ordered be sold previous to the receipt of your order, the money will be promptly returned.

Astra Castra: Experiments and Adventures in the Atmosphere (Hatton Turner).

Illustrated. Royal 4to, cloth, 1865. Extremely rare........................$15.00

History and Practice of Aeronautics (John Wise). Illustrated. Svo., cloth, Phila.,

1S50. Very rare.......................................................... 15.00

Travels in The Air (James Glaisher). Illustrated. 8vo., cloth, London, 1871...... 10.00

Flying and No Failure, or Aerial Transit Accomplished More than a Century Ago.

(Rev. Ralph Morris). Very rare reprint on Private Press of London, 1751.. 3.00

My Airships (Santos Dumont). Illustrated. Crown 8vo., cloth.................. 1.40

Travels in Space (Valentine and Tomlinson). Introduction by Sir Hiram Maxim.

61 plates, 8vo., cloth, London. 1902........................................ 2.00

Conquest of the Air (John Alexander). 12mo., cloth, London, 1902................ 2.00

The Dominion of the Air (J. M. Bacon). Story of aerial navigation. Illustrated.

Crown, Svo., cloth, London, n. d............................................ 2.50

Resistance of Air and the Question of Flying (Arnold Samuelson). Illustrated.

12mo., 42 pp., paper........................................................85

Flight Velocity (Arnold Samuelson). Illustrated. 45 pp.. 12mo., paper.............85

Flying Machines, Past, Present and Future (A. W. Marshall and H. Greenly). Illustrated ..................................................................60

Paradoxes of Nature and Science (W. Hampson). Illustrated. Two chapters on balloons as airships and bird flight. Svo., cloth, N. Y., 1907................... 1.50

Aerial Navigation (Van Salberda). Translated from the Dutch by Geo. E. Waring,

Jr. Illustrated............................................................60

By Land and Sky (J. M. Bacon). Illustrated. Svo., cloth, London, 1900.......... 2.50

A Balloon Ascension at Midnight (G. E. Hall). Illustrated in color. Limited edition published. Very rare. Svo., paper, San Francisco, 1902................ 2.50

Andree's Balloon Expedition (Lachambre—Machuron). Illustrated. 12mo., cloth,

New York, 1S9S........................................................... 1.00

Parakites (G. Woglom). Illustrated. Svo., cloth, New York, 1896.................75

The Problem of Flight (Herbert Chatley, B. Sc.) A new textbook of aerial engineering both aerostation and aviation. Illustrated. 8vo., cloth, 1908............ 3.50

Pocket Book of Aeronautics (Maj. H. W. L. Moedeheck). A manual of aviation and

aerostation. Illustrated. Cloth, 496 pages, London, 1907.........••........ 3.25

Ballooning as a Sport (Maj. B. Baden Powell). Illustrated. London, 1907......... 1.10

Navigating the Air (Members Aero Club of America). Illustrated. Svo., cloth, New

York, 1907................................................................ 1.65

L'Omnibus Aerien (Bourget). A musical piece sung by Mile. Flore. Has a

picture of flying omnibus on front. Is extremely rare. Paris, 1840......... 7.00

Keely and His Discoveries. Aerial Navigation (Mrs. B. Moore). Svo. cloth,

London, 1S93 ............................................................ 3.00

St. Louis Gordon Bennett race views in an album, full set........................ 3.00

Accounts of Three Aerial Voyages (Mr. Sadler). Small Svo., boards, autograph of

"Mr. Sadler," London, 1S10-17. Very rare.................................. 5.00

Narrative of the Ascent and First Voyage of the Aerial Steamer (George Aire,

F. A. S., A. L. C, etc.). Paper, 16 pp., ill.. London, 1S43. Rare............. 2.50

Aeronautical Annual (Edited by James Means). Svo., cloth, ill., 176 pp., Boston,

1897 .................................................................... 1.75

Aeronautical Annual (Edited by .lames Means). Svo., cloth, ill., 158 pp., Boston,

1896 .................................................................... 1.75

History & Practice of Aeronautics (John Wise). Illustrated, 8vo., cloth. 310 pp..

Phila., 1S50 ............................................................. 9.00

Looking Forward; Aerial Navigation (Dr. A. De Bausset). Paper pamphlet, 48

pp., Boston, 1889......................................................... 1.50

Aerial Navigation (Arthur De Bausset, M. D.). Paper pamphlet, 48 pp., Chicago,

1887 .................................................................... 1.50

Sounding the Ocean of Air (A. Lawrence Rotch, S. B., A. M.). 12mo, cloth, ill.,

London, 1900 ............................................................ 1.00

Scientific Experiments in Balloons (James Glaisher, F. R. S.). A lecture before

the Y. M. C. A., 1862-3. Cloth, Svo., London, 1S63......................... 3.00

Proceedings International Conference on Aerial Navigation, Chicago, 1S93, cloth,

8vo., ill., New York, 1894................................................ 4.50

Ballooning (G. May). Small Svo., cloth, ill. Rare.............................. 2.50

Account of the Late Aeronautical Expedition from London to Weilburg (Monck

Mason). Paper pamphlet, 35 pp., N. Y.. 1837.............................. 3.50

FLYING MACHINES.

Aeroplanes built complete or materials furnished. Steel or aluminum tubing, bamboo, etc. Castings for joining corners. Advice on construction given. Also information relating to past machines or experiments.

J. W. ROSHON, Harrisburg, Pa.

ROY KNABENSHUE

Designer and Constructor of

BALLOONS, AIR SHIPS AND FLYING MACHINES

TOLEDO, OHIO

AERO & MARINE MOTOR COMPANY

60 PEMBERTON SQUARE BOSTON, MASS.

44 H. P. (brake test) motor, water cooled, weight 130 lbs., including magneto, oil cups and water. Especially built for aeronautic work.

SEND FOR CATALOG

Gentleman Airship Operator Wanted.

One who has had experience. Pay largest salary in the country. Half a hundred good engagements. Address quick,

CAPT. T. S. BALDWIN, Box 78, Madison Sq., New York.

FOR SALE

2 GRAND BALLOONS 2

The "United States" which won for Lieutenant Lahm the Gordon Bennett Cup and the "America" which covered 848 miles in the International race from St. Louis.

Address, AERONAUT LEO STEVENS, 282 9th Avenue, New York.

AERONAUTICS

142 West 65th Street, New York City.

Enclosed find THREE DOLLARS covering ™? Subscription for One Year for "AERONAUTICS" commencing with the issue

of....................................190S.

Name.......................................................................

Address........................................................'...........

Foreign Subscription $3.50 per year.

HYDROGEN-TIGHT BALLOONS BUOYANT HIRSHIPS

All sizes from smallest models of lightest weight to largest captive or long voyage vessels with or without motors.

Patent machine varnished, hydrogen-proof fabrics, ready for speedy construction.

Best varnish made.

Patent hydrogen gas generator systems, complete, all sizes.

Estimates made. Practical professional advice given. Largest, most reliable manufactory in America. Operated 28 years. 140 gas balloons for TJ. S. Government. Instructions given. All sorts of experiments conducted.

Only American Institute of Aeronautics. Any kind of gas balloon ascents, captive or free, or airship flights made at any time or place.

CJ 4-maii Captive Balloon outfit, complete with power windlass and gas plant, for $1,200 cash.

€^ 7 h. p., 2-cylinder, i-man Airship complete with patent, portable hydrogen generators, $1,300 cash.

^ Second-hand airship frame, shaft and 10 ft. propeller and rudder, with or without gas bag and motor, for sale cheap. Also new, i-man gas balloon complete ; a 4 h. p. i-cyl. stationary, kerosene motor ; 2-cyl., 12 h. p ; and 2-cyl. 10 h. p., cheap. Address with stamp for particulars.

CARL E. MYERS,

BALLOON FARM, FRANKFORT, N. Y.

6617

THE AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERIAL NAVIGATION

SUMMARY

The Government Flyer—Value of the Motorless Glider—Hammondsport Aero Experiment Station—Liquid Hydrogen and Hydrogen Containing Compounds in Long Distance Balloon Flights—Williams Helicopter—Curvature a Relative Term—School of Aeronautics—Dihedral angle in Kites and Aeroplanes—Calendar—Helicopter Bertin—New Clubs— Aero Clubs of America and New England—Ascensions -Army Aeronautics—Paris Flying—1 he Farman "Flying Fish"—Aeronautic Records—Gordon Bennett—High Explosives as Power for Flying Machines—News Review—Notes— Communications.

VOL. 2.

MARCH, 1908

No. 3.

THE OLDSMOBIEE"

hg cars .,

riiK Cah That Dof.s Tjiinck Oki.i

4ines

now

jouts 1S20 KUCU11 ATE.

Cleveland, O. Jan. 16,'08.

0. C: Foster, Esq..,

Mgr. Cleveland Branch,

Warner Instrument Co.,

Dear Sir:-- Last year yon furnished me with an instrument which I used on the "Mudlark" in ray tour from Hew York to Florida, and it gave us such good satisfaction that I would like to have one of your clock and light instruments for a model "K" Olds in which I will make a similar run this coming week from New York to Hew Orleans by way of Syracuse, Buffalo, Cleveland, Louisville and Birmingham.

Trusting that you will give this order your personal attention, and that I may receive the instrument in time, as other speed indicator companies have offered to furnish me free_ of charge an instrument for this occasion. HoweverT I would"" rather buy a ffarner tnan accent theif~~offers as the Auto-Xeter has always given me comnlete satisfaction^

I remain, yours very truly

Warner Instrument Co.

_ _118^_ Wheeler Ave., Beloit, Wis.

vering- advertisements please mention this magazine.

aeronautics

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY

AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERONAUTICS CO.

Ernest LaRue Jones, Editor and Owner 142 West Sixty-Fifth Street, New York, U. S. A.

Vol. II March, 1908 No. 3

Aeronautics is issued on the tenth of each month. It furnishes the latest and most authoritative information on all matters relating to Aeronautics. Contributions are solicited.

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ADVERTISING RATES.

Furnished on application. The value of Aeronautics as an advertising medium is unquestioned.

THE GOVERNMENT DYNAMIC FLYER.

We are either playing fast and loose with false hopes or history is being made too rapidly for recording. When our Government issued specifications for a dynamic flying machine we were astonished. To demand that the machine carry two people with gasoline for a hundred and twenty-five miles, that it maintain an average speed of at least 36 miles an hour for the whole sixty minutes, that it be simple in construction and operation, and return to the starting point at the conclusion of the flight in such shape as to be able to immediately fly again, seemed beyond all reason. We knew that aerial locomotion had been proven practicable, we knew that it had even been most successfully accomplished on man}- occasions, but we believed the art still in its infancy.

When we heard that three had actually contracted, under penalty of forfeiture to the extent of forty-six thousand dollars, to fulfill at present the seemingly impossible conditions we were completely astounded. One fails to realize the proposition. The magnitude of what is too close we are never able to measure. The results of what is really an event we are unable to predict. We had boats and it does not seem so great to have made them self-propelled. We had beast-drawn vehicles and thoy were made to move of themselves. Rut to conceive the wonderfulness of locomotion in air—!

When steam was applied to means already at hand five continents were made into one and the earth shrunk under its rule. The aims of lands and forms of commerce, human occupations and communication, the manner of war and the structure of the social body were changed. The conquest of the earth was achieved by man. Everything was changed, overthrown, enlarged and created anew. What was not altered?

Now we have invented a new means! To consider the future is to become lost 111 a m/aze of possibilities. To predict is futile.

When the specifications were made public, few of those practical men whose achievements have made their opinions weight}', were optimistic enough to imagine that the requirements could be met by any one. The acceptance of the bids proves

three men either foolhardy or the rest of us way behind the times. With all our hearts we hope the latter may, in this instance, be found the case. A failure on the trial-day would be a terrible blow to aeronautical progress in America, and we would say, better had we gone more slowly.

We have to face the fact to-day that, owing to the public exhibitions of flights with motor-aeroplanes in France, the Frenchmen are in a fair way to get years ahead of us in aviation, as they did in the development of the automobile.

However well we may have accomplished tbe task of catching up in automobile design and construction, we should be far from content with having such a task'saddled upon us in the case of the motor-aeroplane.

Tbe only thing we lack here is a widespread interest in the subject. We must wake up and have some enthusiasm, and above all a spirit of emulation.

Some of the more ambitious aviators are inclined to think that motor-aeroplanes are the only machines with which they can win high honors, and I greatly fear that this mistaken idea is to cost many of them their lives.

Lilienthal, the dauntless engineer, gave this instrument to the world fifteen years ago, yet the number of men who have appreciated it to the extent of actively aiding in its development is ridiculously small.

Tbe importance of the motorless glider is twofold.

First, tbe skill which may be acquired by its use prepares men to encounter tbe dangers of motor flight with the least possible risk.

Secondly, its comparatively low cost will enable many experimenters to enter the field who would otherwise be debarred by lack of funds.

In regard to the first subject, may I quote here a paragraph which I wrote twelve years ago:

"One thing is certain; if the problem of flight had been fully solved by someone unknown to us, and if that person were to present us with a perfect flying apparatus, that instrument would be of no more immediate use to us than the latest safety bicycle would be to the King of Dahomey, or a pair of skates to a man who bad never seen ice. Bicycling, skating, walking, swimming and flying are all movements which must be learned by practice, if at all."

Children often use floats in learning tbe motions of swimming. We know not what the future may bring forth, but it now seems to us that men will always begin with motorless gliders in learning to fly. ff this be so, the great thing to be done is to lessen the loss of human life by making the glider as safe as possible. If it cannot be made absolutely automatic in the preservation of its equilibrium, it can certainly be made much more so than it is at present.

Lest I seem to overestimate the value of the motorless glider, let me say here that I do not lose sight of the fact that, when the thrust of a screw is applied to a gliding machine, there is a force to be reckoned with, which to the mere operator of a motorless glider is a new one. What I wish to emphasize is the fact that any machine of the Wright or Farman type is liable at times to become strictly analogous to the motorless glider. I mean when from any cause the motor stops during flight. Then the Wright or Farman type of machine becomes, for the time being, a motorless glider, and is exactly on a par with a gliding machine in which the motor is represented by ballast of suitable shape, position, size, and weight.

THE VALUE OF THE MOTORLESS GLIDER.

By James Means.

THE DUFOUR GLIDER.

To be of practical use for military or any other purposes, a motor-driven aeroplane machine must be under good control when it has no energy but the potential energy of altitude. A machine which is seriousi}' endangered by the stoppage of its motor will never be useful unless its defects can be remedied.

Hence, the subject of investigation and experiment divides itself. There will be two classes of experimenters: those who attempt at large, and oftentimes at wasteful expense, to use motors and do the whole thing; and those who, at moderate expense, attempt only a part, and who make a specialty of perfecting the motorless glider.

Experimenters who undertake the latter will fit themselves to operate motor machines later on.

The Wright Brothers were enabled to achieve motor flight because they fiillyr realized that the mastery of the motorless glider must precede complete success with a motor aeroplane.

Lilienthal, who—probably through over-confidence—came to an untimely cud in 1896, made, as is well known, thousands of successful glides. His glider was later thoroughly tested by Chanute, who found it to be "cranky and uncertain in its action and requiring great practice."

Lilienthal, by long practice, acquired remarkable skill in balancing, and thus was enabled to render a service to the world, which has placed his name upon the roll of the immortals.

Chanute, as is also well known, took up the work and, applying his engineering knowledge witli untiring energy, evolved a tj'pe of glider of such improved stability that lie was able to write: "We found that a week's practice sufficed for a young, active man to become reasonably expert in manoeuvres, and hundreds of glides were made with the several machines experimented with in 1896 under variable conditions of wind, without the slightest personal accident.

Everyone who intends to learn concerning the design, construction tion of motorless gliders should read the writings of Lilienthal, Chanute Wright.

Two of the most instructive articles ever printed are those by the latter which will be found in The Journal of the Western Society of Engineers, published in Chicago. The titles and dates are as follows: "Some Aeronautical Experiments," December 1901; "Experiments and Observations in Soaring Flight," August 1903.

Air. Wright says: "The bird has learned the art of equilibrium, and learned it so thoroughly that its skill is not apparent to our sight. We only learn to appreciate it when wc try to imitate it. Now, there arc two ways of learning how to ride a fractious horse; one is to get on him and learn by actual practice how each motion and trick may be best met; the other is to sit on a fence and watch the beast awhile, and then retire to the house and at leisure figure out the best way of overcoming his kicks and jumps.

"The latter system is the safest, but the former, on the whole, turns out the larger proportion of good riders, ft is very much the same in learning to ride a Hying machine. If you are looking for perfect safety, you will do well to sit on a fence and watch the birds, but if you really wish to learn, you must mount a machine and become acquainted with its tricks hy actual trial."

Could any one give sounder advice than the above?

In 1113' opinion gliding machines should be made so that they will not be injured by being immersed in water for a short time. Gliding should by beginners, be attempted only over water. The ideal method of launching is from a captive balloon anchored over a sheet of water.

The beginner ma}' glide from small heights at first and gradually increase the

GLIDER No. 2 OF L. J. LESH.

and opera-and Wilbur

height of starting point as he gains the knowledge which comes from experience and as he loses the confidence which comes from ignorance.

Note:—Those who are constructing gliding or other aeroplane machines may be interested to know of a labor-saving device invented and patented by Dr. Alexander Graham Bell, Patent No. 856,838, June 11, 1907. "Connection device for the frames of aerial vehicles."

THE HAMMONDSPORT AERO EXPERIMENT STATION.

The amount of apparatus constructed in the course of a year is rather astonishing. Those who are not actually interested in the art have no conc